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Sample records for rabbit parotid acinar

  1. Radioautographic analysis of the secretory process in the parotid acinar cell of the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Castle, J D; Jamieson, J D; Palade, G E

    1972-05-01

    Intracellular transport of secretory proteins has been studied in the parotid to examine this process in an exocrine gland other than the pancreas and to explore a possible source of less degraded membranes than obtainable from the latter gland. Rabbit parotids were chosen on the basis of size (2-2.5 g per animal), ease of surgical removal, and amylase concentration. Sites of synthesis, rates of intracellular transport, and sites of packaging and storage of newly synthesized secretory proteins were determined radioautographically by using an in vitro system of dissected lobules capable of linear amino acid incorporation for 10 hr with satisfactory preservation of cellular fine structure. Adequate fixation of the tissue with minimal binding of unincorporated labeled amino acids was obtained by using 10% formaldehyde-0.175 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.2) as primary fixative. Pulse labeling with leucine-(3)H, followed by a chase incubation, showed that the label is initially located (chase: 1-6 min) over the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and subsequently moves as a wave through the Golgi complex (chase: 16-36 min), condensing vacuoles (chase: 36-56 min), immature granules (chase: 56-116 min), and finally mature storage granules (chase: 116-356 min). Distinguishing features of the parotid transport apparatus are: low frequency of RER-Golgi transitional elements, close association of condensing vacuoles with the exit side of Golgi stacks, and recognizable immature secretory granules. Intracelular processing of secretory proteins is similar to that already found in the pancreas, except that the rate is slower and the storage is more prolonged.

  2. Cl sup minus -HCO sub 3 sup minus exchange is present with Na sup + -K sup + -Cl sup minus cotransport in rabbit parotid acinar basolateral membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.J.; George, J.N. )

    1988-03-01

    The presence of a sodium-independent electroneutral Cl{sup {minus}}-anion exchanger in a basolateral membrane vesicle preparation from the rabbit parotid is demonstrated. This exchanger is shared by HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, Br{sup {minus}}, F{sup {minus}}, and formate, but not by thiocyanate, acetate, methylsulfate, gluconate, or hydroxyl ions. In order of relative potency, the exchanger is inhibited by SITS {ge} phloretin > furosemide > bumetanide {ge} phlorizin. A Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-dependent component of chloride flux, presumably due to the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-Cl{sup {minus}} cotransporter already characterized in this preparation, was also observed. {sup 36}Cl uptake into vesicles loaded with KCl exhibited an overshoot of intravesicular ({sup 36}Cl) due to {sup 36}Cl-Cl exchange. However, when vesicles were loaded with both KCl and NaCl the height of the overshoot was considerably decreased indicating a Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-dependent dissipation of the intravesicular to extravesicular chloride gradient. This experiment provides strong evidence that the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}Cl{sup {minus}} cotransporter and the Cl{sup {minus}} HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} exchange are present in the same membrane vesicles. These results indicate that Cl{sup {minus}}-HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} exchange is present in the basolateral membrane of parotid acinar cells and thus that this transporter may play a significant role in salivary secretion.

  3. Involvement of phosphodiesterase 4 in beta-adrenoceptor agonist-induced amylase release in parotid acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Keitaro; Guo, Ming-Yu; Sairenji, Nakayasu

    2009-06-01

    beta-Adrenoceptor activation increases intracellular cAMP levels and consequently induces exocytotic amylase release in parotid acinar cells. Phosphodiesterase (PDE) catalyses the hydrolysis of cAMP, which terminates the downstream signaling of this second messenger. We investigated the involvement of PDE4, a cAMP-PDE, in beta-adrenoceptor agonist-induced amylase release in mouse, rat and rabbit parotid acinar cells by using the specific PDE4 inhibitor rolipram. cAMP-PDE activity was detected in mouse, rat and rabbit parotid acinar cells. In the presence of rolipram, cAMP-PDE activity was reduced by about 31%, 38% and 33% in mouse, rat and rabbit parotid acinar cells, respectively. The increase in cAMP levels induced by the beta-adrenoceptor agonist isoproterenol was enhanced in the presence of rolipram in mouse, rat and rabbit parotid acinar cells. Isoproterenol-induced amylase release, but not constitutive amylase release, was also enhanced in the presence of rolipram in mouse, rat and rabbit parotid acinar cells. These results suggest that the rolipram-sensitive cAMP-PDE, PDE4, is involved in beta-adrenoceptor agonist-induced amylase release in parotid acinar cells.

  4. Electrophysiological properties of AQP6 in mouse parotid acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Hideki; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki; Sahara, Yoshinori; Tsumura, Maki; Qi, Bing; Satoh, Keitaro; Narita, Takanori; Hashimoto, Sadamitsu; Momose, Yasunori; Tazaki, Masakazu; Shimono, Masaki; Sugiya, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Salivary gland acinar cells secrete large amounts of water and electrolytes, where aquaporins (AQPs) are thought to be involved in the secretion. In the present study, we investigated expression/localization of AQP6, and the anion transporting properties of AQP6 in mouse parotid acinar cells. RT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemical analyses revealed expression of AQP6 in acinar cells, localized in apical membrane. Voltage ramp from -100 mV to +100 mV at a holding potential of -60 mV elicited outwardly-rectifying currents, in the presence of extracellular Cl(-) channel blockers and intracellular solution with 150 mM Cs(+). These outward currents were increased when extracellular Cl(-) was replaced by Br(-), NO(3)(-), I(-), or SCN(-), accompanying a negative shift of reversal potentials. The outward current was enhanced by extracellular Hg(2+). These results were consistent with the biophysical properties of transfected AQP6 oocytes or HEK cells, which indicate that the AQP6 channel is functionally expressed in parotid acinar cells, and suggest that AQP6 contributes to secretion of anions in parotid acinar cells.

  5. Ca2+-activated K channels in parotid acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Romanenko, Victor G; Thompson, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Fluid secretion relies on a close interplay between Ca2+-activated Cl and K channels. Salivary acinar cells contain both large conductance, BK, and intermediate conductance, IK1, K channels. Physiological fluid secretion occurs with only modest (<500 nM) increases in intracellular Ca2+ levels but BK channels in many cell types and in heterologous expression systems require very high concentrations for significant activation. We report here our efforts to understand this apparent contradiction. We determined the Ca2+ dependence of IK1 and BK channels in mouse parotid acinar cells. IK1 channels activated with an apparent Ca2+ affinity of about 350 nM and a hill coefficient near 3. Native parotid BK channels activated at similar Ca2+ levels unlike the BK channels in other cell types. Since the parotid BK channel is encoded by an uncommon splice variant, we examined this clone in a heterologous expression system. In contrast to the native parotid channel, activation of this expressed “parslo” channel required very high levels of Ca2+. In order to understand the functional basis for the special properties of the native channels, we analyzed the parotid BK channel in the context of the horrigan-Aldrich model of BK channel gating. We found that the shifted activation of parotid BK channels resulted from a hyperpolarizing shift of the voltage dependence of voltage sensor activation and channel opening and included a large change in the coupling of these two processes. PMID:20519930

  6. Expression of Ca2+-dependent synaptotagmin isoforms in mouse and rat parotid acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Jo, Hae; Byun, Hae Mi; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Min Seuk; Kim, Seung-Hyeoi; Hong, Jeong Hee; Seo, Jeong Taeg; Lee, Syng-Ill; Shin, Dong Min; Son, Heung-Kyu

    2006-02-28

    Synaptotagmin is a Ca2+ sensing protein, which triggers a fusion of synaptic vesicles in neuronal transmission. Little is known regarding the expression of Ca2+-dependent synaptotagmin isoforms and their contribution to the release of secretory vesicles in mouse and rat parotid acinar cells. We investigated a type of Ca2+-dependent synaptotagmin and Ca2+ signaling in both rat and mouse parotid acinar cells using RT-PCR, microfluorometry, and amylase assay. Mouse parotid acinar cells exhibited much more sensitive amylase release in response to muscarinic stimulation than did rat parotid acinar cells. However, transient [Ca2+]i increases and Ca2+ influx in response to muscarinic stimulation in both cells were identical, suggesting that the expression or activity of the Ca2+ sensing proteins is different. Seven Ca2+-dependent synaptotagmins, from 1 to 7, were expressed in the mouse parotid acinar cells. However, in the rat parotid acinar cells, only synaptotagmins 1, 3, 4 and 7 were expressed. These results indicate that the expression of Ca2+-dependent synaptotagmins may contribute to the release of secretory vesicles in parotid acinar cells.

  7. Expression of Ca2+-dependent Synaptotagmin Isoforms in Mouse and Rat Parotid Acinar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hae; Byun, Hae Mi; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Min Seuk; Kim, Seung-Hyeoi; Hong, Jeong Hee; Seo, Jeong Taeg; Lee, Syng-Ill

    2006-01-01

    Synaptotagmin is a Ca2+ sensing protein, which triggers a fusion of synaptic vesicles in neuronal transmission. Little is known regarding the expression of Ca2+-dependent synaptotagmin isoforms and their contribution to the release of secretory vesicles in mouse and rat parotid acinar cells. We investigated a type of Ca2+-dependent synaptotagmin and Ca2+ signaling in both rat and mouse parotid acinar cells using RT-PCR, microfluorometry, and amylase assay. Mouse parotid acinar cells exhibited much more sensitive amylase release in response to muscarinic stimulation than did rat parotid acinar cells. However, transient [Ca2+]i increases and Ca2+ influx in response to muscarinic stimulation in both cells were identical, suggesting that the expression or activity of the Ca2+ sensing proteins is different. Seven Ca2+-dependent synaptotagmins, from 1 to 7, were expressed in the mouse parotid acinar cells. However, in the rat parotid acinar cells, only synaptotagmins 1, 3, 4 and 7 were expressed. These results indicate that the expression of Ca2+-dependent synaptotagmins may contribute to the release of secretory vesicles in parotid acinar cells. PMID:16502487

  8. The small GTPase Rab33A participates in regulation of amylase release from parotid acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Imai, Akane; Tsujimura, Maiko; Yoshie, Sumio; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2015-06-05

    Amylase is released from exocrine parotid acinar cells via typical exocytosis. Exocytosis of amylase-containing granules occurs through several steps, including formation, maturation, and transport of granules. These steps are thought to be regulated by members of the small GTPase Rab family. We previously demonstrated that Rab27 and its effectors mediate amylase release from parotid acinar cells, but the functional involvement of other Rab proteins in exocrine granule exocytosis remains largely unknown. Here, we studied isoproterenol (IPR)-induced amylase release from parotid acinar cells to investigate the possible involvement of Rab33A, which was recently suggested to regulate exocytosis in hippocampal neurons and PC12 cells. Rab33A was endogenously expressed in parotid acinar cells and present in secretory granules and the Golgi body. Functional ablation of Rab33A with anti-Rab33A antibody or a dominant-negative Rab33A-T50N mutant significantly reduced IPR-induced amylase release. Our results indicated that Rab33A is a novel component of IPR-stimulated amylase secretion from parotid acinar cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Presence and localization of aquaporin-6 in rat parotid acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Matsuki-Fukushima, Miwako; Hashimoto, Sadamitsu; Shimono, Masaki; Satoh, Keitaro; Fujita-Yoshigaki, Junko; Sugiya, Hiroshi

    2008-04-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are integral membrane proteins that function as channels for the transfer of water and small solutes across membranes. In mammalian cells, 13 isoforms (AQP0-12) have been identified, and these exhibit unique patterns of expression in various cell types and tissues. Among these isoforms, AQP6 is considered to function not as water channel, but as an anion channel. We investigated the presence and localization of AQP6 in rat parotid acinar cells. AQP6 mRNA was detected in these cells by using reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting analysis identified a protein band that reacted with an anti-AQP6 antibody in the membrane fraction and secretory granule membrane. In order to localize AQP6, we used the anti-AQP6 antibody for histological immunodetection. Under confocal microscopy, we observed positive immunoreactions near the tight junctions of parotid acinar cells. Immunolabeling of ultrathin cryosections detected AQP6 near tight junctions and around secretory granule membranes. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the presence of AQP6 in the membranes of isolated secretory granules. These results suggest that AQP6 participates in water and anion transport in plasma membranes near tight junctions and secretory granule membranes in rat parotid acinar cells.

  10. Characterization of rat parotid and submandibular acinar cell apoptosis in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Limesand, Kirsten H; Barzen, Katherine A; Sanders, Linda A; Sclafani, Robert A; Raynolds, Mary V; Reyland, Mary E; Anderson, Steven M; Quissell, David O

    2003-01-01

    Apoptosis is a highly organized cellular process that is critical for maintaining glandular homeostasis. We have used primary rat salivary acinar cells from the parotid and submandibular glands to investigate the critical regulatory events involved in apoptosis. Caspase-3 activity, cleavage of caspase substrates, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation were assayed in cells treated with etoposide, a DNA-damaging agent, or brefeldin A (BFA), a Golgi toxin. Dose-response studies showed that the sensitivity of both cell types to etoposide and BFA was similar, with 150 microM etoposide or 1.5 microM BFA inducing maximal caspase activation. However, BFA induced a more robust activation of caspase and DNA fragmentation in both cell types. Similar results were observed when the caspase cleavage of poly(adenosine 5'-diphosphate ribose) polymerase and protein kinase C delta were analyzed by Western blot. Analysis of the kinetics of apoptosis showed that caspase-3 activation was maximal at 8 h of etoposide or BFA treatment in the parotid cells and at 8-18 h in the submandibular cells. A similar time course was observed when DNA fragmentation was assayed, although maximal DNA fragmentation in BFA-treated cells was two- to threefold higher than that observed in etoposide-treated cells. Despite slight kinetic differences, it would appear that the apoptotic cascade is very similar in both primary parotid and submandibular acinar cells. Although limited in their long-term stability in culture, the use of primary, nonimmortalized salivary acinar cultures will also permit the use of specific transgenic animals to further characterize the molecular events involved in the regulation of salivary gland acinar cell apoptosis.

  11. A Systems Biology Approach Identifies a Regulatory Network in Parotid Acinar Cell Terminal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Metzler, Melissa A.; Venkatesh, Srirangapatnam G.; Lakshmanan, Jaganathan; Carenbauer, Anne L.; Perez, Sara M.; Andres, Sarah A.; Appana, Savitri; Brock, Guy N.; Wittliff, James L.; Darling, Douglas S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The transcription factor networks that drive parotid salivary gland progenitor cells to terminally differentiate, remain largely unknown and are vital to understanding the regeneration process. Methodology A systems biology approach was taken to measure mRNA and microRNA expression in vivo across acinar cell terminal differentiation in the rat parotid salivary gland. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to specifically isolate acinar cell RNA at times spanning the month-long period of parotid differentiation. Results Clustering of microarray measurements suggests that expression occurs in four stages. mRNA expression patterns suggest a novel role for Pparg which is transiently increased during mid postnatal differentiation in concert with several target gene mRNAs. 79 microRNAs are significantly differentially expressed across time. Profiles of statistically significant changes of mRNA expression, combined with reciprocal correlations of microRNAs and their target mRNAs, suggest a putative network involving Klf4, a differentiation inhibiting transcription factor, which decreases as several targeting microRNAs increase late in differentiation. The network suggests a molecular switch (involving Prdm1, Sox11, Pax5, miR-200a, and miR-30a) progressively decreases repression of Xbp1 gene transcription, in concert with decreased translational repression by miR-214. The transcription factor Xbp1 mRNA is initially low, increases progressively, and may be maintained by a positive feedback loop with Atf6. Transfection studies show that Xbp1Mist1 promoter. In addition, Xbp1 and Mist1 each activate the parotid secretory protein (Psp) gene, which encodes an abundant salivary protein, and is a marker of terminal differentiation. Conclusion This study identifies novel expression patterns of Pparg, Klf4, and Sox11 during parotid acinar cell differentiation, as well as numerous differentially expressed microRNAs. Network analysis identifies a novel stemness arm, a

  12. Apical Ca2+-activated potassium channels in mouse parotid acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Almassy, Janos; Won, Jong Hak; Begenisich, Ted B; Yule, David I

    2012-02-01

    Ca(2+) activation of Cl and K channels is a key event underlying stimulated fluid secretion from parotid salivary glands. Cl channels are exclusively present on the apical plasma membrane (PM), whereas the localization of K channels has not been established. Mathematical models have suggested that localization of some K channels to the apical PM is optimum for fluid secretion. A combination of whole cell electrophysiology and temporally resolved digital imaging with local manipulation of intracellular [Ca(2+)] was used to investigate if Ca(2+)-activated K channels are present in the apical PM of parotid acinar cells. Initial experiments established Ca(2+)-buffering conditions that produced brief, localized increases in [Ca(2+)] after focal laser photolysis of caged Ca(2+). Conditions were used to isolate K(+) and Cl(-) conductances. Photolysis at the apical PM resulted in a robust increase in K(+) and Cl(-) currents. A localized reduction in [Ca(2+)] at the apical PM after photolysis of Diazo-2, a caged Ca(2+) chelator, resulted in a decrease in both K(+) and Cl(-) currents. The K(+) currents evoked by apical photolysis were partially blocked by both paxilline and TRAM-34, specific blockers of large-conductance "maxi-K" (BK) and intermediate K (IK), respectively, and almost abolished by incubation with both antagonists. Apical TRAM-34-sensitive K(+) currents were also observed in BK-null parotid acini. In contrast, when the [Ca(2+)] was increased at the basal or lateral PM, no increase in either K(+) or Cl(-) currents was evoked. These data provide strong evidence that K and Cl channels are similarly distributed in the apical PM. Furthermore, both IK and BK channels are present in this domain, and the density of these channels appears higher in the apical versus basolateral PM. Collectively, this study provides support for a model in which fluid secretion is optimized after expression of K channels specifically in the apical PM.

  13. Long-term dexamethasone treatment alters the histomorphology of acinar cells in rat parotid and submandibular glands

    PubMed Central

    Bighetti, Bruna B; Assis, Gerson F d; Vieira, Danilo C; Violato, Natalia M; Cestari, Tania M; Taga, Rumio; Bosqueiro, José R; Rafacho, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) induce insulin resistance (IR), a condition known to alter oral homeostasis. This study investigated the effects of long-term dexamethasone administration on morphofunctional aspects of salivary glands. Male Wistar rats received daily injections of dexamethasone [0.1 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), intraperitoneally] for 10 days (DEX), whereas control rats received saline. Subsequently, glycaemia, insulinaemia, insulin secretion and salivary flow were analysed. The parotid and submandibular glands were collected for histomorphometric evaluation and Western blot experiments. The DEX rats were found to be normoglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic, insulin resistant and glucose intolerant (P < 0.05). DEX rat islets secreted more insulin in response to glucose (P < 0.05). DEX rats had significant reductions in the masses of the parotid (29%) and submandibular (16%) glands (P < 0.05) that was associated with reduced salivary flux rate. The hypotrophy in both glands observed in the DEX group was associated with marked reduction in the volume of the acinar cells in these glands of 50% and 26% respectively (P < 0.05). The total number of acinar cells was increased in the submandibular glands of the DEX rats (P < 0.05) but not in the parotid glands. The levels of proteins related to insulin and survival signalling in both glands did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, the long-term administration of dexamethasone caused IR, which was associated with significant reductions in both mass and flux rate of the salivary glands. The parotid and submandibular glands exhibited reduced acinar cell volume; however, the submandibular glands displayed acinar hyperplasia, indicating a gland-specific response to GCs. Our data emphasize that GC-based therapies and insulin-resistant states have a negative impact on salivary gland homeostasis. PMID:25186305

  14. Thiol-oxidation reduces the release of amylase induced by β-adrenergic receptor activation in rat parotid acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming-Yu; Satoh, Keitaro; Qi, Bing; Narita, Takanori; Katsumata-Kato, Osamu; Matsuki-Fukushima, Miwako; Fujita-Yoshigaki, Junko; Sugiya, Hiroshi

    2010-10-01

    In parotid acinar cells, the activation of β-adrenergic receptors induces the accumulation of intracellular cAMP, and consequently provokes the exocytotic release of amylase, a digestive enzyme. The cellular redox status plays a pivotal role in regulating various cellular functions. Cellular redox imbalance caused by the oxidation of cellular antioxidants, as a result of oxidative stress, induces significant biological damage. In this study, we examined the effects of diamide, a thiol-oxidizing reagent, on amylase release by rat parotid acinar cells. In cells treated with diamide, the formation of cAMP and the release of amylase induced by the β-agonist isoproterenol (IPR) were partially reduced. The inhibitory effect of diamide on the IPR-induced release of amylase could be abrogated by reduced glutathione or dithiothreitol. Diamide had no effect on the amylase release induced by forskolin, an adenylate cyclase activator, or by mastoparan, a heterotrimeric GTPbinding protein activator. In cells treated with diamide, the binding affinity for [(3)H]DHA, but not the number of binding sites, was reduced. These results suggest that β-adrenergic receptor function is reduced by thiol-oxidation, which inhibits amylase secretion by parotid acinar cells.

  15. Role of protein kinase C-delta in isoproterenol-induced amylase release in rat parotid acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Sugiya, Hiroshi; Satoh, Keitaro; Matsuki-Fukushima, Miwako; Qi, Bing; Guo, Ming-Yu; Fujita-Yoshigaki, Junko

    2009-01-01

    In parotid acinar cells, beta-adrenergic receptor activation results in accumulation of intracellular cAMP. Subsequently, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is activated and consequently amylase release is provoked. In this paper, we investigated involvement of protein kinase C-delta (PKC delta), a novel isoform of PKC, in amylase release induced by beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Amylase release stimulated with the beta-agonist isoproterenol (IPR) was inhibited by rottlerin, an inhibitor of PKC delta. IPR activated PKC delta and the effect of IPR were inhibited by a PKA inhibitor, H89. Myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS), a major cellular substrate for PKC, was detected in rat parotid acinar cells, and a MARCKS inhibitor, MARCKS-related peptide, inhibited the IPR-induced amylase release. IPR stimulated MARCKS phosphorylation, which was found to be inhibited by H89 and rottlerin. These observations suggest that PKC delta activation is a downstream pathway of PKA activation and is involved in amylase release via MARCKS phosphorylation in rat parotid acinar cells stimulated with beta-adrenergic agonist.

  16. Characterization of synthesis and storage of TGF-alpha in rat parotid acinar and intercalated duct cells.

    PubMed

    Login, G R; Yang, J; Bryan, K P; Digenis, E C; McBride, J; Elovic, A; Quissell, D O; Dvorak, A M; Wong, D T

    1997-03-01

    Although the expression and biological role of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) have been explored in a variety of normal cells in mammalian species, little is known about the storage of TGF-alpha in secretory cells of exocrine organs. Parotid glands from four rats were homogenized for RNA isolation followed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to determine the presence of TGF-alpha message. In situ hybridization using a hamster-specific TGF-alpha riboprobe was done on paraffin sections. Parotid gland and isolated acinar cells were processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and postembedding immunogold labeled for TGF-alpha. Gold particles were counted on approximately 200 granules in 10 acinar cells and in 10 intercalated duct cells. Labeling density was calculated as the number of gold particles per square micrometer +/- SD. Statistical significance was calculated using one-way analysis of variance. Using multiple technologies, we have established that rat parotid acinar and intercalated duct cells synthesize TGF-alpha and store the precursor form of this cytokine in their secretory granules.

  17. Activation of muscarinic receptors in rat parotid acinar cells induces AQP5 trafficking to nuclei and apical plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Cho, Gota; Bragiel, Aneta M; Wang, Di; Pieczonka, Tomasz D; Skowronski, Mariusz T; Shono, Masayuki; Nielsen, Søren; Ishikawa, Yasuko

    2015-04-01

    The subcellular distribution of aquaporin-5 (AQP5) in rat parotid acinar cells in response to muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) activation remains unclear. Immunoconfocal and immunoelectron microscopy were used to visualize the distribution of AQP5 in parotid acinar cells. Western blotting was used to analyze AQP5 levels in membranes. To clarify the characteristics of membrane domains associated with AQP5, detergent solubility and sucrose-density flotation experiments were performed. Under control conditions, AQP5 was diffusely distributed on the apical plasma membrane (APM) and apical plasmalemmal region and throughout the cytoplasm. Upon mAChR activation, AQP5 was predominantly located in the nucleus, APM and lateral plasma membrane (LPM). Subsequently, localization of AQP5 in the nucleus, APM and LPM was decreased. Prolonged atropine treatment inhibited mAChR agonist-induced translocation of AQP5 to the nucleus, APM and LPM. AQP5 levels were enhanced in isolated nuclei and nuclear membranes prepared from parotid tissues incubated with mAChR agonist. mAChR agonist induced AQP5 levels in both soluble and insoluble nuclear fractions solubilized with Triton X-100 or Lubrol WX. Small amounts of AQP5 in nuclei were detected using low-density sucrose gradient. When AQP5 was present in the nuclear membrane, nuclear size decreased. The activation of mAChR induced AQP5 translocation to the nucleus, APM and LPM, and AQP5 may trigger water transport across the nuclear membrane and plasma membrane in rat parotid acinar cells. AQP5 translocates to the nuclear membrane and may trigger the movement of water, inducing shrinkage of the nucleus and the start of nuclear functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Parasympathetic non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic mechanisms in reflex secretion of parotid acinar granules in conscious rats.

    PubMed Central

    Ekström, J; Helander, H F; Tobin, G

    1993-01-01

    1. Female adult rats were subjected to sympathetic denervation of the parotid glands by bilateral removal of the superior cervical ganglion 10-12 days before acute experiments. The sympathectomy was in some of the experimental groups combined with either bilateral adrenal medullectomy, treatment with the sensory neurotoxin capsaicin or parasympathetic denervation of the gland by cutting the auriculotemporal nerve. 2. Food but not water was withheld for 29-32 h before acute experiments. All animals were given an intraperitoneal injection of phentolamine (2 mg kg-1) and propranolol (1 mg kg-1) and, when appropriate, also atropine (1 mg kg-1). Then the experimental animals were fed their ordinary food of hard chow for 60-90 min. Thereafter, these animals and their non-fed controls were killed, and the parotid glands were removed and used for either morphometric assessment or measurement of amylase activity. 3. In the atropinized rats subjected to sympathectomy alone, eating reduced the numerical density of acinar secretory granules by 50% and the total activity of amylase by 55%; the corresponding figures were, when sympathectomy was combined with adrenal medullectomy, 51 and 63%. Also, in atropinized animals subjected to sympathectomy and capsaicin pretreatment, eating reduced the numerical density of acinar granules and the total amylase activity, in this case by 45 and 35%, respectively. 4. In the atropinized rats subjected to sympathectomy and parasympathectomy, eating caused no change in the numerical density of acinar granules but reduced the total amylase activity by 35%. 5. In the non-atropinized rats subjected to sympathectomy alone, eating reduced the numerical density of acinar granules by 22%, while there was no change in the total amylase activity. 6. In conclusion, eating evoked a reflex activation of the sympathectomized parotid gland that engaged non-adrenergic non-cholinergic receptors of the acinar cells. The present results give weight to a

  19. IL-1 beta and IL-6 in mouse parotid acinar cells: characterization of synthesis, storage, and release.

    PubMed

    Tanda, N; Ohyama, H; Yamakawa, M; Ericsson, M; Tsuji, T; McBride, J; Elovic, A; Wong, D T; Login, G R

    1998-01-01

    Synthesis, storage, and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 have not been established in normal exocrine gland secretory cells. Parotid glands and isolated acinar cells prepared from BALB/c mice were homogenized for RNA isolation and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). IL-1 beta and IL-6 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were done on supernatants prepared from mouse parotid acinar cell (MPAC) preparations unstimulated or stimulated between 0 and 10 min with 10(-5) M norepinephrine at 37 degrees C. MPACs were fixed in paraformaldehyde, frozen sectioned for light and electron microscopy, and labeled with antibodies to IL-1 beta and IL-6. Mouse specific riboprobes to IL-1 and IL-6 were used for in situ hybridization. RT-PCR yielded the expected IL-1 (336-bp) and IL-6 (614-bp) mRNA products. By ELISA, stimulated MPACs showed a significant increase in IL-1 beta (P < 0.03) and IL-6 (P < 0.01) release into supernatants by 10 min that paralleled the time course of amylase release. In situ hybridization showed the presence of transcripts for IL-1 and IL-6 in glandular epithelial cells. Gold-labeled IL-1 beta and IL-6 were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in granules than in the nucleus and cytoplasm. This study shows that MPACs synthesize IL-1 beta and IL-6 and release these cytokines from their granules after alpha- and beta-adrenergic stimulation.

  20. Agonist activation of arachidonate-regulated Ca2+-selective (ARC) channels in murine parotid and pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Mignen, Olivier; Thompson, Jill L; Yule, David I; Shuttleworth, Trevor J

    2005-05-01

    ARC channels (arachidonate-regulated Ca(2+)-selective channels) are a novel type of highly Ca(2+)-selective channel that are specifically activated by low concentrations of agonist-induced arachidonic acid. This activation occurs in the absence of any depletion of internal Ca(2+) stores (i.e. they are 'non-capacitative'). Previous studies in HEK293 cells have shown that these channels provide the predominant pathway for the entry of Ca(2+) seen at low agonist concentrations where oscillatory [Ca(2+)](i) signals are typically produced. In contrast, activation of the more widely studied store-operated Ca(2+) channels (e.g. CRAC channels) is only seen at higher agonist concentrations where sustained 'plateau-type'[Ca(2+)](i) responses are observed. We have now demonstrated the presence of ARC channels in both parotid and pancreatic acinar cells and shown that, again, they are specifically activated by the low concentrations of appropriate agonists (carbachol in the parotid, and both carbachol and cholecystokinin in the pancreas) that are associated with oscillatory [Ca(2+)](i) signals in these cells. Uncoupling the receptor-mediated activation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) with isotetrandrine reduces the activation of the ARC channels by carbachol and, correspondingly, markedly inhibits the [Ca(2+)](i) signals induced by low carbachol concentrations, whilst those signals seen at high agonist concentrations are essentially unaffected. Interestingly, in the pancreatic acinar cells, activation by cholecystokinin induces a current through the ARC channels that is only approximately 60% of that seen with carbachol. This is consistent with previous reports indicating that carbachol-induced [Ca(2+)](i) signals in these cells are much more dependent on Ca(2+) entry than are the cholecystokinin-induced responses.

  1. Distinct contributions by ionotropic purinoceptor subtypes to ATP-evoked calcium signals in mouse parotid acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Sumit; Verrill, Douglas S; Carbone, Kristopher M; Brown, Stefanie; Yule, David I; Giovannucci, David R

    2012-01-01

    There is emerging consensus that P2X4 and P2X7 ionotropic purinoceptors (P2X4R and P2X7R) are critical players in regulating [Ca2+]i dynamics and fluid secretion in the salivary gland. In contrast, details regarding their compartmentalization and selective activation, contributions to the spatiotemporal properties of intracellular signals and roles in regulating protein exocytosis and ion channel activity have remained largely undefined. To address these concerns, we profiled mouse parotid acinar cells using live-cell imaging to follow the spatial and temporal features of ATP-evoked Ca2+ dynamics and exocytotic activity. Selective activation of P2X7Rs revealed an apical-to-basal [Ca2+]i signal that initiated at the sub-luminal border and propagated with a wave speed estimated at 17.3 ± 4.3 μm s−1 (n = 6). The evoked Ca2+ spike consisted of Ca2+ influx and Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ channels. In contrast, selective activation of P2X4Rs induced a Ca2+ signal that initiated basally and propagated toward the lumen with a wave speed of 4.3 ± 0.2 μm s−1 (n = 8) that was largely independent of intracellular Ca2+ channel blockade. Consistent with these observations, P2X7R expression was enriched in the sub-luminal regions of acinar cells while P2X4R appeared localized to basal areas. In addition, we showed that P2X4R and P2X7R activation evokes exocytosis in parotid acinar cells. Our studies also demonstrate that the P2X4R-mediated [Ca2+]i rise and subsequent protein exocytosis was enhanced by ivermectin (IVR). Thus, in addition to furthering our understanding of salivary gland physiology, this study identifies P2X4R as a potential target for treatment of salivary hypofunction diseases. PMID:22451435

  2. Low-level (gallium-aluminum-arsenide) laser irradiation of Par-C10 cells and acinar cells of rat parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Onizawa, Katsuhiro; Muramatsu, Takashi; Matsuki, Miwako; Ohta, Kazumasa; Matsuzaka, Kenichi; Oda, Yutaka; Shimono, Masaki

    2009-03-01

    We investigated cell response, including cell proliferation and expression of heat stress protein and bcl-2, to clarify the influence of low-level [gallium-aluminum-arsenide (Ga-Al-As) diode] laser irradiation on Par-C10 cells derived from the acinar cells of rat parotid glands. Furthermore, we also investigated amylase release and cell death from irradiation in acinar cells from rat parotid glands. The number of Par-C10 cells in the laser-irradiated groups was higher than that in the non-irradiated group at days 5 and 7, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Greater expression of heat shock protein (HSP)25 and bcl-2 was seen on days 1 and 3 in the irradiated group. Assay of the released amylase showed no significant difference statistically between the irradiated group and the non-irradiated group. Trypan blue exclusion assay revealed that there was no difference in the ratio of dead to live cells between the irradiated and the non-irradiated groups. These results suggest that low-level laser irradiation promotes cell proliferation and expression of anti-apoptosis proteins in Par-C10 cells, but it does not significantly affect amylase secretion and does not induce rapid cell death in isolated acinar cells from rat parotid glands.

  3. Age-related alterations in IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 concentrations in parotid acinar cells from BALB/c and non-obese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, M; Weinstein, R; Tsuji, T; McBride, J; Wong, D T; Login, G R

    2000-08-01

    IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 have been implicated in the destruction of parotid gland acinar cells (but not duct cells) in autoimmune sialoadenitis. Here we report the temporal alterations of these cytokines in parotid acinar cells that may lead to this specificity in cell death in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model for Sjögren's syndrome. Immunohistochemistry on paraffin sections of parotid gland from 5- and 10-week-old BALB/c and NOD mice confirmed the presence of many peri-acinar lymphoid nodules but few T-cells and macrophages between acinar cells. RT-PCR on enzymatically dispersed mouse parotid acinar cells (MPACs) showed no bands for CD3varepsilon, CD20, or F4/80 regardless of mouse strain or age. By ELISA, MPACs from 10-week-old NODs showed a small but highly significant (p<0.003) increase in IL-1beta and a large significant decrease (p<0.008) in IL-6 compared to 5-week-old NODs. Norepinephrine-stimulated amylase release from MPACs was not different regardless of mouse strain or age. These data show that alterations in acinar cell production of IL-1beta and IL-6 in aging NODs precede periductal lymphoid aggregates and acinar cell secretory dysfunction. (J Histochem Cytochem 48:1033-1041,2000)

  4. CFTR-Mediated Cl− Transport in the Acinar and Duct Cells of Rabbit Lacrimal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Michael; Ding, Chuanqing

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the role that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) may play in Cl− transport in the acinar and ductal epithelial cells of rabbit lacrimal gland (LG). Methods Primary cultured LG acinar cells were processed for whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiological recording of Cl− currents by using perfusion media with high and low [Cl−], 10 μM forskolin and 100 μM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), the non-specific Cl− channel blocker 4,4′-disothiocyanostilbene-2, 2′ sulphonic acid (DIDS; 100 μM) and CFTRinh-172 (10 μM), a specific blocker for CFTR. Ex vivo live cell imaging of [Cl−] changes in duct cells was performed on freshly dissected LG duct with a multiphoton confocal laser scanning microscope using a Cl− sensitive fluorescence dye, N-[ethoxycarbonylmethyl]-6-methoxy-quinolinium bromide. Results Whole-cell patch-clamp studies demonstrated the presence of Cl− current in isolated acinar cells and revealed that this Cl− current was mediated by CFTR channel. Live cell imaging also showed the presence of CFTR-mediated Cl− transport across the plasma membrane of duct cells. Conclusions Our previous data showed the presence of CFTR in all acinar and duct cells within the rabbit LG, with expression most prominent in the apical membranes of duct cells. The present study demonstrates that CFTR is actively involved in Cl− transport in both acinar cells and epithelial cells from duct segments, suggesting that CFTR may play a significant role in LG secretion. PMID:22578307

  5. Effects of biomaterial-derived fibroblast conditioned medium on the α-amylase expression of parotid gland acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ya-Shuan; Young, Tai-Horng; Lou, Pei-Jen

    2015-11-01

    Salivary gland cells are surrounded by a complex stromal environment, in which fibroblasts are the main cells in proximity to the gland cells. In this study, the interaction between parotid gland acinar cells (PGACs), fibroblasts, and biomaterials was investigated. We prepared different biomaterials, including chitosan, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), poly (ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVAL), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), and tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) to culture fibroblasts and then collect their conditioned media to culture PGACs. We observed no difference in AQP3, AQP5, and E-cadherin expression among different fibroblast conditioned medium treatments. Interestingly, α-amylase expression was obviously enhanced in PGACs cultured in the presence of conditioned medium from fibroblasts cultured on PVDF. Higher neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) expression was observed in PVDF-derived fibroblast conditioned medium using a growth factor protein array assay. In addition, directly adding NT-4 into the culture medium significantly promoted α-amylase expression by PGACs. Finally, nestin and βIII-tubulin expression by fibroblasts cultured on PVDF was also enhanced. Together, these results suggest that PVDF could promote α-amylase expression by PGACs via the NT-4 produced by fibroblasts. To date, there is no effective therapy for patients with dry mouth with persistent salivary hypofunction. The study made use of different biomaterials to culture fibroblasts and then collect their conditioned media to culture PGACs. It was found that the effect of fibroblast conditioned medium from PVDF on the α-amylase expression of PGACs was obviously enhanced and higher neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) expression was found in PVDF-derived fibroblast conditioned medium. In addition, directly adding NT-4 into the culture medium significantly promoted the expression of α-amylase by PGACs and the expression of nestin and βIII-tubulin of fibroblasts after being cultured on PVDF was enhanced. Therefore, the

  6. P2Y purinoceptors mediate ATP-induced changes in intracellular calcium and amylase release in acinar cells of mouse parotid glands.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi-Mori, Kasumi; Higashio, Hironori; Isobe, Kanako; Kumagai, Miho; Sasaki, Kana; Satoh, Yoh-ichi; Kuji, Akiyoshi; Saino, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) can act as an extracellular signal that regulates various cellular functions. The present study aimed to determine which purinoceptors play a role in ATP-induced changes in intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) and amylase secretion in mouse parotid glands. ATP induced a steep increase in [Ca(2+)]i in acinar cells. The removal of extracellular Ca(2+) or the use of Ca(2+) channel blockers slightly inhibited this increase. Inhibition of PLCγ by U73122 and of IP3 by xestospongin C did not completely block this increase. The purinoceptor antagonists suramin and reactive blue-2 strongly inhibited the ATP-induced changes in [Ca(2+)]i. 2-MeSATP induced a strong increase in [Ca(2+)]i, while Bz-ATP induced a small [Ca(2+)]i increase, and UTP and α,β-MeATP had no effect. The potency order of ATP analogs (2-MeSATP > ATP > UTP) suggested that P2Y1 and P2Y12 play a significant role in the cellular response to ATP. RT-PCR revealed that P2X2,4,7 and P2Y1,2,10,12,14 were expressed in acinar cells. Ca(2+)-dependent exocytotic secretion of amylase was detected in parotid glands. These findings indicated that ATP activates P2Y receptors more than P2X receptors at low concentrations. Thus, P2Y receptors were found to be the main receptors involved in Ca(2+)-related cell homeostasis and amylase secretion in mouse parotid glands.

  7. Coomassie Brilliant Blue G is a more potent antagonist of P2 purinergic responses than Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA) in rat parotid acinar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Soltoff, S.P.; McMillian, M.K.; Talamo, B.R. )

    1989-12-29

    The ability of Brilliant Blue G (Coomassie Brilliant Blue G) and Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA) to block the effects of extracellular ATP on rat parotid acinar cells was examined by evaluating their effects on ATP-stimulated 45Ca{sup 2+} entry and the elevation of (Ca{sup 2+})i (Fura 2 fluorescence). ATP (300 microM) increased the rate of Ca{sup 2+} entry to more than 25-times the basal rate and elevated (Ca{sup 2+})i to levels more than three times the basal value. Brilliant Blue G and Reactive Blue 2 greatly reduced the entry of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} into parotid cells, but the potency of Brilliant Blue G (IC50 approximately 0.4 microM) was about 100-times that of Reactive Blue 2. Fura 2 studies demonstrated that inhibitory concentrations of these compounds did not block the cholinergic response of these cells, thus demonstrating the selectivity of the dye compounds for purinergic receptors. Unlike Reactive Blue 2, effective concentrations of Brilliant Blue G did not substantially quench Fura 2 fluorescence. The greater potency of Brilliant Blue G suggests that it may be very useful in identifying P2-type purinergic receptors, especially in studies which utilize fluorescent probes.

  8. DNA quantification as prognostic factor in a case of acinar cell carcinoma of the parotid gland, diagnosed by FNA.

    PubMed

    Azúa-Romeo, Javier; Sánchez-Garnica, Juan Carlos; Azúa-Blanco, Javier; Tovar-Lázaro, Mayte

    2005-01-01

    Hereby we present a case of a 43-years-old male who complained of a three years history preauricular painful mass. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed, diagnosing of compatible with acinar cell carcinoma, thus DNA quantification by image cytometry was carried out. Biological parameters studied (ploidy, S-phase, 5-c exceeding rate) showed that it is a low grade of malignancy lesion. Total parotidectomy conservative of facial nerve was recommended, without regional lymphadenectomy. Patient remains, one year later, asymptomatic and free of disease.

  9. Parotid secretion of fluid and amylase in rabbits during feeding.

    PubMed Central

    Gjörstrup, P

    1980-01-01

    Saliva has been collected from conscious rabbits in response to feeding pellets and carrots and amylase concentrations and flow-rates were measured. Saliva was collected from a polythene tube permanently inserted into the main duct, which, in most cases, kept patent for about a fortnight without any obvious decrease in the secretory capacity of the glands. 2. With pellets the flow-rate varied between 50 and 1250 microliter./min, and the corresponding amylase concentration was relatively constant around 250 units/ml. When carrots were fed, the flow-rates were about threefold lower, but the amylase concentration was raised to a mean value around 1000 units/ml. In spite of the differences in flow-rates, the two kinds of food promoted the same maximum output of amylase, and the output for both kinds of food promoted the same maximum output of amylase, and the output for both kinds of food was found to increase with the flow-rate. 3. The amylase concentration in the saliva decreased after pre- or post-ganglionic sympathetic denervation, reducing the output of amylase by about 50%. However, the amylase concentration was further lowered by beta-adrenoceptor block, which decreased the output by an additional 25%, suggesting that circulating catecholamines contributed to the secretion of amylase. 4. The fluid secretion in response to pellets and carrots was mainly dependent on parasympathetic activity, and for both kinds of food the range of flow-rates was unaltered by sympathectomy or beta-adrenoceptor block. However, at flow-rates below 50 microliter./min, where 25% of all samples with carrots were obtained, sympathetic activity may have contributed significantly to the fluid secretion. 5. In experiments on anaesthetized rabbits, frequency-response curves for amylase and fluid secretion in response to parasympathetic and sympathetic activation were obtained. A comparison between these observations and those obtained in the conscious animals during feeding suggests a

  10. PP2C phosphatase activity is coupled to cAMP-mediated pathway in rat parotid acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, N; Kobayashi, T; Tamura, S; Sugiya, H

    1995-07-01

    A 26 kDa particulate protein is phosphorylated during stimulation of amylase secretion by a beta-adrenergic agonist in the rat parotid gland. Previous study has shown that PP2C phosphatase is involved in dephosphorylation of this 26 kDa protein [Yokoyama, N. et al. (1994) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 200, 497-503]. In this study, immunotransblot analysis using anti-PP2C phosphatase antibody showed that PP2C phosphatase was found prominently in the cystolic fractions and less in secretory granule membranes. When cells were stimulated by isoproterenol, cytosolic PP2C phosphatase activity increased to 145% at 5 min and returned to basal level at 30 min. Forskolin increased PP2C phosphatase activity. H89 inhibited increase of PP2C phosphatase activity following beta-adrenergic stimulation. These results suggest that PP2C phosphatase activity is regulated by cAMP-mediated signaling following beta-adrenergic stimulation and participates in dephosphorylation of this 26 kDa protein.

  11. Difference in distribution of membrane proteins between low- and high-density secretory granules in parotid acinar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita-Yoshigaki, Junko . E-mail: yoshigaki.junko@nihon-u.ac.jp; Katsumata, Osamu; Matsuki, Miwako; Yoshigaki, Tomoyoshi; Furuyama, Shunsuke; Sugiya, Hiroshi

    2006-05-26

    Secretory granules (SGs) are considered to be generated as immature granules and to mature by condensation of their contents. In this study, SGs of parotid gland were separated into low-, medium-, and high-density granule fractions by Percoll-density gradient centrifugation, since it was proposed that the density corresponds to the degree of maturation. The observation with electron microscopy showed that granules in the three fractions were very similar. The average diameter of high-density granules was a little but significantly larger than that of low-density granules. Although the three fractions contained amylase, suggesting that they are all SGs, distribution of membrane proteins was markedly different. Syntaxin6 and VAMP4 were localized in the low-density granule fraction, while VAMP2 was concentrated in the high-density granule fraction. Immunoprecipitation with anti-syntaxin6 antibody caused coprecipitation of VAMP2 from the medium-density granule fraction without solubilization, but not from Triton X-100-solubilized fraction, while VAMP4 was coprecipitated from both fractions. Therefore, VAMP2 is present on the same granules, but is separated from syntaxin6 and VAMP4, which are expected to be removed from immature granules. These results suggest that the medium-density granules are intermediates from low- to high-density granules, and that the membrane components of SGs dynamically change by budding and fusion during maturation.

  12. Rapid secretagogue-induced activation of Na+H+ exchange in rat parotid acinar cells. Possible interrelationship between volume regulation and stimulus-secretion coupling.

    PubMed

    Manganel, M; Turner, R J

    1991-06-05

    We demonstrate a rapid activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger in intact rat parotid acini in response to muscarinic (carbachol; K1/2 = 0.4 microM) and alpha-adrenergic (epinephrine; K1/2 = 0.1 microM) stimulation. This rapid activation is apparently distinct from the relatively "slow" activation of the exchanger (t1/2 greater than or equal to 5 min) reported previously (Manganel, M., and Turner, R. J. (1989) J. Membr. Biol. 111, 191-198). This rapid activation is not produced by treatment of acini with active diacylglycerol analogues nor prevented by protein kinase inhibitors, arguing against the involvement of protein kinase C-dependent processes. Stimulation of the exchanger is, however, produced by concentrations of ionomycin which yield intracellular calcium levels in the physiologic (secretagogue-induced) range. In addition, chelation of intracellular calcium with 1,2-bis(O-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid blocks the effect of carbachol, but calmodulin antagonists are without effect. The possibility that the rapid activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger may be associated with cell shrinkage arising from carbachol-induced calcium mobilization is explored. In support of this suggestion we present evidence that: (i) the Na+/H+ exchanger is stimulated by shrinkage of these cells, (ii) the carbachol dose dependence of Na+/H+ exchange activation correlates well with that of shrinkage (but not with that of intracellular calcium levels), and (iii) maneuvers which blunt carbachol- or calcium-induced shrinkage also blunt activation of the exchanger. We suggest that this osmoregulatory response may play an important role in maintaining ionic homeostasis during the acinar fluid secretory process.

  13. Parallel increase in secretory activity between N-glycosylated and nonglycosylated α-amylase without protein synthesis after short-term β-adrenergic receptor activation in isolated rat parotid acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long-hui; Yang, Ze-min; Chen, Wei-wen

    2014-10-01

    To investigate comparisons of the secretory activity between N-glycosylated and nonglycosylated α-amylase, and α-amylase synthetic activity, after β-adrenergic receptor activation in rat parotid acinar cells in vitro. Rat parotid acinar cells were incubated in the presence or absence of (-)-isoproterenol. For β-adrenergic blocking experiments, acinar cells were pretreated with (±)-propranolol prior to adding agonist. After the time indicated, the "released amylase" and "total amylase" were obtained. Western blotting was applied to identify and quantify the N-glycosylated and nonglycosylated α-amylase. Amylase activity was also measured. The potent β-adrenergic agonist (-)-isoproterenol induced a dramatic increase (2-3-fold) of α-amylase secretion for 30 minutes (p < 0.05 vs. control), while the effect was completely abolished when cells were pretreated with (±)-propranolol for 15 minutes. Moreover, the N-glycosylated level of released and total amylase among groups was measured accordingly. Our data showed the N-glycosylated level ratios (released amylase/total amylase) did not differ among groups, which indicated that the N-glycosylated form of α-amylase was not secreted more easily than the nonglycosylated one after stimulation. Interestingly, the total amylase concentration remained unchanged after stimulation within 30 minutes, which might indicate no α-amylase synthesized within the time indicated. Our findings suggest a parallel increase in secretory activity between N-glycosylated and nonglycosylated α-amylase after β-adrenergic receptor activation. There seems to be a dissociation of α-amylase synthesis from secretion within 30 minutes.

  14. Purification and characterization of protein phosphatase 2C in rat parotid acinar cells: two forms of Mg(2+)-activated histone phosphatase and phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, N; Kobayashi, T; Tamura, S; Sugiya, H

    1996-07-01

    Two forms of Mg(2+)-activated histone phosphatase activities were partially purified from rat parotid acinar cells using Mono Q and gel filtration chromatography. Both enzymes activities were dependent on the presence of Mg2+, showing little activity in the presence of EDTA. The activities fractionated on the Mono Q column into two peaks: the first was a minor peak of histone phosphatase activity; the second was a major peak. These two peaks eluted at distinct positions on the gel filtration column. The molecular masses of the two peak fractions corresponded to 46 and 55 kDa, respectively on SDS-gels. The first 46-kDa peak immunoreacted with anti-PP2Calpha phosphatase antibody and like PP2Calpha phosphatase could be phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. The second 55-kDa peak showed neither reactivity with anti-PP2Calpha phosphatase antibody nor phosphorylability by cAMP-dependent protein kinase, but retained a Mg2+ or Mn2+ dependence for its histone phosphatase activity. Ca2+ showed a strong inhibition on this activity. On the basis of these observations, we have identified the first peak enzyme as PP2Calpha phosphatase and the second peak as a novel PP2C-like phosphatase.

  15. Telocytes in parotid glands.

    PubMed

    Nicolescu, Mihnea I; Bucur, Alexandru; Dinca, Octavian; Rusu, Mugurel C; Popescu, Laurentiu M

    2012-03-01

    The parotid histological structure includes acinar, ductal, and myoepithelial cells, surrounded by a connective stromal component. The parotid stroma is mostly regarded as an inert shell, consisting of septa, which divide the parenchyma. Telocytes were recently identified as a new stromal cell type in various organs, including exocrine pancreas. We aimed to evaluate telocytes presence in parotid stroma and whether their topographical features might support an involvement in parotid function modulation. Serial ultrathin sections of human and rat parotid glands were studied and compared by transmission electron microscopy. Two-dimensional concatenation of sequenced micrographs allowed the ultrastructural identification of parotid telocytes, with their specific long, thin, and moniliform prolongations (telopodes). Telocyte location appeared frequently as a strategic one, in close contact or vicinity of both secretory (acini and ducts) and regulatory (nerves and blood vessels) apparatuses. They were also found in the interacinar and the subductal stroma. Two previously reported telocyte markers (c-kit/CD117 and vimentin) were assayed by immunohistochemistry. Actin expression was also evaluated. Telocytes are making a network, especially by branching of their long telopodes. Elements of this telocyte network are interacting with each other (homocellular connections) as well as with other cell types (heterocellular connections). These interactions are achieved either by direct contact (stromal synapse), or mediated via shed microvesicles/exosomes. Since telocyte connections include both neurovascular and exocrine elements (e.g., acini and ducts), it is attractive to think that telocytes might mediate and integrate neural and/or vascular input with parotid function.

  16. [Comparative ultrastructural study of parotid gland, lacrimal gland and pituitary gland between miniature pig and mouse].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xing; Hai, Bo; Sun, Yi-lin; Zhang, Chun-mei; Wang, Song-ling

    2009-02-01

    To study the ultrastructure of parotid glands, lacrimal glands and pituitary glands between miniature pig and mouse. Five adult miniature pigs and 5 mice were studied. Ultrastructure of their parotid glands, lacrimal glands, and pituitary glands was observed. The secretary granules in acinar cell of miniature pig parotid glands showed higher density and more aequalis than those of mice. The cell apparatus in acinar cell of mouse parotid glands were more plentiful than those of miniature pigs. The secretary granules on blood vessel wall were richer in parotid gland of miniature pigs compared with mouse parotid gland. Lacrimal gland had the similar ultrastructure to parotid gland in these two animals. Many blood vessel antrum were found in pituitary glands of these two animals. Compared with mouse parotid glands, there are more secretary granules in acinar cells and vascular endothelial cells in miniature pig parotid glands, which might enter blood stream and have function of endocrine secretion.

  17. Mechanisms Underlying Activation of α1-Adrenergic Receptor-Induced Trafficking of AQP5 in Rat Parotid Acinar Cells under Isotonic or Hypotonic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bragiel, Aneta M.; Wang, Di; Pieczonka, Tomasz D.; Shono, Masayuki; Ishikawa, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    Defective cellular trafficking of aquaporin-5 (AQP5) to the apical plasma membrane (APM) in salivary glands is associated with the loss of salivary fluid secretion. To examine mechanisms of α1-adrenoceptor (AR)-induced trafficking of AQP5, immunoconfocal microscopy and Western blot analysis were used to analyze AQP5 localization in parotid tissues stimulated with phenylephrine under different osmolality. Phenylephrine-induced trafficking of AQP5 to the APM and lateral plasma membrane (LPM) was mediated via the α1A-AR subtype, but not the α1B- and α1D-AR subtypes. Phenylephrine-induced trafficking of AQP5 was inhibited by ODQ and KT5823, inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO)-stimulated guanylcyclase (GC) and protein kinase (PK) G, respectively, indicating the involvement of the NO/ soluble (c) GC/PKG signaling pathway. Under isotonic conditions, phenylephrine-induced trafficking was inhibited by La3+, implying the participation of store-operated Ca2+ channel. Under hypotonic conditions, phenylephrine-induced trafficking of AQP5 to the APM was higher than that under isotonic conditions. Under non-stimulated conditions, hypotonicity-induced trafficking of AQP5 to the APM was inhibited by ruthenium red and La3+, suggesting the involvement of extracellular Ca2+ entry. Thus, α1A-AR activation induced the trafficking of AQP5 to the APM and LPM via the Ca2+/ cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/PKG signaling pathway, which is associated with store-operated Ca2+ entry. PMID:27367668

  18. Morphometric analysis of the parotid gland affected by alcoholic sialosis.

    PubMed

    Bohl, Luciana; Merlo, Carolina; Carda, Carmen; Gómez de Ferraris, María Elsa; Carranza, Miriam

    2008-09-01

    In alcoholic parotid sialosis, the gland is frequently enlarged due to ductal and/or acinar hypertrophy, ductal hyperplasy and stromal fat infiltration. The aim of this study was to determine acinar and ductal dimensions, the number of striated ducts and the proportion of fat tissue in patients with and without alcoholic parotid sialosis. Twelve parotid biopsy samples from patients with hepatic alcoholic cirrhosis and those from seven controls were used. A morphometrical study with a digital image analyser attached to an optical microscope was carried out. Direct and indirect indicators from acinar and ductal dimensions were recorded. The number of striated ducts and the proportion of fat tissue in stroma were determined. Fifteen records for each variable were taken. Mean values were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test (P acinar and ductal dimensions and the number of striated ducts between alcoholic and control patients. The proportion of fat tissue in alcoholic parotides was significantly lower than that in the controls. These results do not corroborate previous qualitative descriptions about acinar and ductal hypertrophy and ductal hyperplasy in alcoholic patients. The main cause of parotid enlargement could not be stromal fat infiltration. The data could be used for differential diagnoses of sialosis.

  19. [Sialoadenosis of the parotid glands: diagnostic considerations].

    PubMed

    Bagán Sebastián, J V; Silvestre Donat, F J

    1990-09-01

    We present 3 cases of Sialoadenosis of the parotid glands, one male and two females, who presented associated systemic pathology (liver cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus), detected following clinically suspect syaloadenosis (the patients were unaware of their systemic disease). In all three cases definitive diagnosis was established by needle aspiration of the gland. Which revealed great acinar dilatation. Finally, differential diagnosis was established between sialoadenosis and those conditions with clinical presentations similar to those described for sialoadenosis.

  20. Function of parotid gland following irradiation and its relation to biological parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Takeda, M.

    1980-09-01

    The function of the parotid gland in the mouse (synthesis and secretion of ..cap alpha..-amylase) following X irradiation was analyzed in relation to the parameters of surviving acinar cell fraction, DNA or protein content, and wet weight of the gland. Both synthesis and secretion of amylase in parotid were essentially unchanged when mice were irradiated with a dose of up to 3000 rad. When mice were irradiated and then given a proliferative stimulus of isoproterenol, latent lethal damage in the acinar cell population was expressed and resulted in cell degeneration in a dose-dependent manner. The mean value of amylase activity per gland in similarly treated parotids was, however, totally unaffected. The relationship between amylase activity per gland and the other biological parameters was analyzed by regression analysis. The results indicate that amylase activity per surviving acinar cell increased proportionately to compensate for the loss of acinar cells.

  1. Ultrastructural studies of the parotid glands in sialadenosis.

    PubMed

    Donath, K; Seifert, G

    1975-01-01

    30 parotid biopsies of patients with sialadenosis--a symmetrical, painless, non-inflammatory, recurrent parotid swelling--were studied by electron microscopy. The patients suffered from different diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, liver diseases, hypertension and other affections. Parotid biopsies from 25 patients with slight parotitis or with oral cancer were used as controls. Morphometric studies reveal that the parotid swelling is caused by an enlargement of acinar cells. In controls the average diameters of the acinar cells are 30 to 40 mu. In sialadenosis the diameters are enlarged to 50 to 70 mu, in some cases to a maximum of 100 mu. Histologically the cytoplasm of the enlarged acinar cells shows either a granular pattern due to a numerical increase in secretory granules or a vacuolar transformation. Ultrastructurally the vacuolar transformed acinar cells also contain an increased number of granules with less electron density than the surrounding cytoplasm. Three types of sialadenosis can be distinguished with regard to the electron density of the acinar granules: a) a dark granular type, b) a pale granular type and c) a mixed granular type. The mixed granular type probably develops from the dark granular form. Alterations leading to the destruction of the myoepithelial cells were observed in all three types of sialadenosis with minimal changes in the dark granular type. Degenerative alterations of the autonomic nervous system are evident in all three groups with most pronounced changes in the pale granular type of sialadenosis. The ultrastructural alterations are interpreted as a disturbance of secretion, probably primarily caused by the degeneration of the autonomic nervous system. The alteration of the autonomic nervous system is suggested to be the common pathogenetic principle in all types of human sialadenosis occurring with different basic diseases. The enlargement of the acinar cells is the result of an intracellular disturbance in the secretory

  2. Effects of Benzodiazepines on Acinar and Myoepithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Tatiana M. F.; Alanis, Luciana R. A.; Sapelli, Silvana da Silva; de Lima, Antonio A. S.; de Noronha, Lucia; Rosa, Edvaldo A. R.; Althobaiti, Yusuf S.; Almalki, Atiah H.; Sari, Youssef; Ignacio, Sergio A.; Johann, Aline C. B. R.; Gregio, Ana M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Benzodiazepines (BZDs), the most commonly prescribed psychotropic drugs with anxiolytic action, may cause hyposalivation. It has been previously shown that BZDs can cause hypertrophy and decrease the acini cell number. In this study, we investigated the effects of BZDs and pilocarpine on rat parotid glands, specifically on acinar, ductal, and myoepithelial cells. Methods: Ninety male Wistar rats were divided into nine groups. Control groups received a saline solution for 30 days (C30) and 60 days (C60), and pilocarpine (PILO) for 60 days. Experimental groups received lorazepam (L30) and midazolam (M30) for 30 days. Another group (LS60 or MS60) received lorazepam or midazolam for 30 days, respectively, and saline for additional 30 days. Finally, other groups (LP60 or MP60) received either lorazepam or midazolam for 30 days, respectively, and pilocarpine for additional 30 days. The expression of calponin in myoepithelial cells and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in acinar and ductal cells were evaluated. Results: Animals treated with lorazepam showed an increase in the number of positive staining cells for calponin as compared to control animals (p < 0.05). Midazolam administered with pilocarpine (MP60) induced an increase in the proliferation of acinar and ductal cells and a decrease in the positive staining cells for calponin as compared to midazolam administered with saline (MS60). Conclusion: We found that myoepithelial cells might be more sensitive to the effects of BZD than acinar and ductal cells in rat parotid glands. PMID:27445812

  3. Transplantable pancreatic acinar carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.R.; Reddy, J.K.

    1981-03-15

    Fragments of the nafenopin-induced pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma of rat have been examined in vitro for patterns of intracellular protein transport and carbamylcholine-induced protein discharge. Continuous incubation of the fragments with (3H)-leucine for 60 minutes resulted in labeling of rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi cisternae, and mature zymogen granules, revealed by electron microscope autoradiography. This result indicates transport of newly synthesized protein from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to mature zymogen granules in approximately 60 minutes. The secretagogue carbamylcholine induced the discharge of radioactive protein by carcinoma fragments pulse-chase labeled with (3H)-leucine. A maximal effective carbamylcholine concentration of 10(-5) M was determined. The acinar carcinoma resembles normal exocrine pancreas in the observed rate of intracellular protein transport and effective secretagogue concentration. However, the acinar carcinoma fragments demonstrated an apparent low rate of carbamylcholine-induced radioactive protein discharge as compared with normal pancreatic lobules or acinar cells. It is suggested that the apparent low rate of radioactive protein discharge reflects functional immaturity of the acinar carcinoma. Possible relationships of functional differentiation to the heterogeneous cytodifferentiation of the pancreatic acinar carcinoma are discussed.

  4. Parotid angiofibroma

    PubMed Central

    Hallur, Neelakamal H; Zainab, Heena; Shah, Ashwin; Siddiqua, Aaisha

    2014-01-01

    Angiofibromas are rare, benign, locally invasive vascular tumors, which represent 0.05-0.5% of all head and neck tumors. Most frequent site of occurrence is the posterior nasopharynx, called as nasopharyngeal angiofibromas (NA), when these arise outside the nasopharyngeal region they are termed as extranasopharyngeal angiofibromas (ENA). Only 65 cases of ENA have been reported, and the most common site has been reported to be maxilla followed by ethmoids. Other unusual sites of occurrence reported so far in literature are nasal cavity, nasal septum, larynx, sphenoid sinus, pterygomaxillary fissure, infratemporal fossa, cheek, oropharynx, retromolar area, middle turbinate, inferior turbinate, and tonsil. ENA arising from the superficial lobe of parotid gland has not been reported in the literature so far and this case is the first to be reported. PMID:25328316

  5. Primary retroperitoneal acinar cell cystadenoma.

    PubMed

    Pesci, Anna; Castelli, Paola; Facci, Enrico; Romano, Luigi; Zamboni, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    In this report, we describe a case of hitherto unreported primary retroperitoneal acinar cell cystadenoma that morphologically and immunophenotypically resembled pancreatic acinar cell cystadenoma. Pancreatic acinar cell cystadenoma is a very uncommon benign lesion characterized by acinar cell differentiation, the evidence of pancreatic exocrine enzyme production, and the absence of cellular atypia. Our case occurred in a 55-year-old woman presenting a 10-cm multilocular cystic lesion in the retroperitoneum thought to be a mucinous cystic neoplasm. At laparotomy, the cystic mass, which showed no connection with any organ, was completely resected with a clinical diagnosis of cystic lymphangioma. The diagnosis of retroperitoneal acinar cell cystadenoma was based on the recognition of morphological acinar differentiation, the immunohistochemical demonstration of the acinar marker trypsin, and the absence of cellular atypia. These peculiar features can be used in the differential diagnosis with all the other cystic lesions of the retroperitoneum.

  6. [Sialadenosis of the parotid gland after chronic nicotine use].

    PubMed

    Maier, H; Mall, G; Born, I A

    1991-04-01

    The effect of chronic nicotine consumption on the morphology of the rat parotid gland was investigated. After nicotine-loading for 90 days with an average serum nicotine concentration of 78 +/- 10 ng/ml a significant increase of acinar cell volume was observed. The acinar cells contained an increased number of enlarged light, immature secretory granules. These findings were confirmed by morphometric analysis. Further an increase of the granular endoplasmatic reticulum, an enlargement of the Golgi complexes and an oedematous swelling of intraglandular autonomous nerves were found. Similar findings have been observed in the parotid gland of animals and also of humans chronically treated with the beta-adrenergic drugs aludrin and isoproterenol, and have been termed "sialadenosis". It seems likely that the observed morphological alterations are caused by a stimulation of glandular beta-adrenoceptors via a nicotine-induced release of catecholamines from the adrenals.

  7. Rare Parotid Gland Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sanan, Akshay; Cognetti, David M

    2016-04-01

    The differential diagnosis for "rare" parotid gland diseases is broad and encompasses infectious, neoplastic, autoimmune, metabolic, and iatrogenic etiologies. The body of knowledge of parotid gland diseases has grown owing to advances in imaging and pathologic analysis and molecular technology. This article reviews rare parotid diseases, discussing the respective disease's clinical presentation, diagnosis, imaging, pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis.

  8. Cell deletion by apoptosis during regression of rat parotid sialadenosis.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, D M; Adi, M M; Ervine, I M; Ogden, G R

    1995-01-01

    Enlargement of the rat parotid salivary glands was induced by repeated administration of isoproterenol. Mean wet weights of the treated glands increased steadily to 240% of control values. Following withdrawal of the drug, quantitative histological techniques were used to investigate the balance between hypertrophy, hyperplasia and apoptosis. The volume occupied by acinar cells relative to the total gland volume together with cytoplasmic magnitude of nuclear area ratios as measures of hypertrophy increased during the early experimental period. Similarly, serous acinar cell mitotic counts increased, indicating that hyperplasia had occurred. Apoptosis was demonstrated at light microscopical level to be the main mechanism for cell deletion as the glands returned to normal size and weight. The results indicate that hypertrophy and hyperplasia of serous acinar cells contribute to isoproterenol-induced sialadenosis. The experimental animal model demonstrates that these proliferative changes are completed by 48 h and thereafter are balanced by apoptosis as the glands recover their normal size and weight.

  9. Histological analysis of parotid and submandibular glands in chronic alcohol abuse: a necropsy study.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, J; Burns, J; Flower, E A

    1988-01-01

    A quantitative histological analysis of the major salivary glands was carried out at necropsy in 28 alcoholics and in a series of age and sex matched controls. The findings were related to the different types of histologically diagnosed liver disease present. Significant quantitative changes of salivary gland structure were noted in cirrhosis but not in other forms of alcoholic liver disease. In cirrhotic subjects the parotid contained proportionally more adipose but less acinar tissues than in controls. The submandibular gland showed a proportional increase in adiposity and reduction in fibrovascular tissues but no noticeable reduction in its acinar proportional volume. Neither grossly detectable parotid enlargement nor acinar hypertrophy, a feature which has previously been noted as characteristic of alcoholic sialadenosis, were evident in this series. These findings provide little structural support for the reportedly increased secretory capacity of salivary glands in chronic alcohol abuse. PMID:3170770

  10. Histological analysis of parotid and submandibular glands in chronic alcohol abuse: a necropsy study.

    PubMed

    Scott, J; Burns, J; Flower, E A

    1988-08-01

    A quantitative histological analysis of the major salivary glands was carried out at necropsy in 28 alcoholics and in a series of age and sex matched controls. The findings were related to the different types of histologically diagnosed liver disease present. Significant quantitative changes of salivary gland structure were noted in cirrhosis but not in other forms of alcoholic liver disease. In cirrhotic subjects the parotid contained proportionally more adipose but less acinar tissues than in controls. The submandibular gland showed a proportional increase in adiposity and reduction in fibrovascular tissues but no noticeable reduction in its acinar proportional volume. Neither grossly detectable parotid enlargement nor acinar hypertrophy, a feature which has previously been noted as characteristic of alcoholic sialadenosis, were evident in this series. These findings provide little structural support for the reportedly increased secretory capacity of salivary glands in chronic alcohol abuse.

  11. Rat parotid cell function in vitro following x irradiation in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Bodner, L.; Kuyatt, B.L.; Hand, A.R.; Baum, B.J.

    1984-02-01

    The effect of X irradiation on rat parotid acinar cell function was evaluated in vitro 1, 3, and 7 days following in vivo exposure to 2000 R. Several cellular functions were followed: protein secretion (amylase release), ion movement (K/sup +/ efflux and reuptake), amino acid transport (..cap alpha..-amino(/sup 14/C)isobutyric acid), and an intermediary metabolic response ((/sup 14/C)glucose oxidation). In addition both the morphologic appearance and in vivo saliva secretory ability of parotid cells were assessed. Our results demonstrate that surviving rat parotid acinar cells, isolated and studied in vitro 1-7 days following 2000 R, remain functionally intact despite in vivo diminution of secretory function.

  12. Parotid Gland Imaging.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ravi S

    2016-04-01

    In this article, various imaging modalities are discussed for evaluation of parotid disease, from congenital to inflammatory to neoplastic etiologies. Key imaging characteristics are outlined using case examples. Introduction to biological imaging is highlighted. Additionally, image-guided biopsy techniques are illustrated for sampling parotid and parapharyngeal space lesions in a minimally invasive manner.

  13. Structural differences between alcoholic and diabetic parotid sialosis.

    PubMed

    Carda, Carmen; Carranza, Miriam; Arriaga, Adriana; Díaz, Anselmo; Peydró, Amando; Gomez de Ferraris, Maria Elsa

    2005-01-01

    Between the sialosis' etiologic agents, we can find the chronic alcoholism and diabetes. Both nosologic entities are described using a similar histopathologic pattern. The purpose of this work has been analyzing and comparing the histopathological differences between the diabetic and alcoholic sialosis. We studied 7 parotid glands samples of diabetic patients and 4 samples of normal glands obtained from surgical material were used as a control. For the comparative study, we used 12 parotid glands from chronic alcoholic patients with clinical diagnosis of cirrhosis and 6 autopsies on individuals who had died from alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis. This material was fixed in formaline, processed for embedding in paraffin, standard coloration techniques and immunotechnique for cytokeratin EA/1 y EA/3. In the cases of diabetics, the parotid gland was characterised by the presence of small acini, a bigger number of lipid intracytoplasmic droplets in the acinar and ductal cells, as well as an abundant adipose infiltration in the stroma when compared to the alcoholics. We observed that the cytokeratins' expression was heterogeneous at the acinar level, and very positive in the hyperplasic ducts, compared to the alcoholic and control groups. These qualitative valorations indicate the differences between the histopathologic pattern of sialosis with different origins.

  14. Immunochemical relationship between alpha-amylases of rat liver, serum, pancreas and parotid gland.

    PubMed Central

    Messer, M; Dean, R T

    1975-01-01

    1. Rabbit antisera to purified rat parotid alpha-amylase were prepared. 2. The relationships between rat parotid-gland, pancreatic, serum and liver amylase were investigated by using the antisera in immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis and immunoinhibition experiments. 3. Serum and liver amylase were identical, and very similar to parotid-gland amylase; pancreatic amylase was, however, quite distinct, and showed only some of the determinants present on parotid-gland amylase. 4. The data strengthen the suggestion that the liver is the main source of serum amylase. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PLATE 3 PMID:55120

  15. Accessory parotid gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Ramachar, Sreevathsa M; Huliyappa, Harsha A

    2012-01-01

    Tumors of accessory parotid gland are considered in the differential diagnosis of a mid cheek mass. Parotidectomy is the procedure of choice. All pathological types of parotid main gland tumors occur in the accessory parotid gland also. Presenting as a mid cheek or infrazygomatic mass, the tumors of this accessory parotid gland are notorious for recurrences, if adequate margins are not achieved. We describe two such cases of such a tumor. 40-year-old male with a slowly progressive mid cheek mass was operated by a mid cheek incision. Histopathology of the tumor was pleomorphic adenoma. Facial nerve paresis recovered complelety in 6 months. A 52-year-old female with progressive mid cheek mass who underwent parotidectomy and neck dissection by a modified Blair's incision was diagnosed with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma with focal transformation to a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Chemotherapy with CHOP regime was initiated. There was no recurrence at 6 months of follow-up. Lymphoma of accessory parotid gland is a very rare tumor. Standard parotidectomy incision is advocated to prevent damage to facial nerve branches.

  16. Accessory parotid gland tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ramachar, Sreevathsa M.; Huliyappa, Harsha A.

    2012-01-01

    Tumors of accessory parotid gland are considered in the differential diagnosis of a mid cheek mass. Parotidectomy is the procedure of choice. All pathological types of parotid main gland tumors occur in the accessory parotid gland also. Presenting as a mid cheek or infrazygomatic mass, the tumors of this accessory parotid gland are notorious for recurrences, if adequate margins are not achieved. We describe two such cases of such a tumor. 40-year-old male with a slowly progressive mid cheek mass was operated by a mid cheek incision. Histopathology of the tumor was pleomorphic adenoma. Facial nerve paresis recovered complelety in 6 months. A 52-year-old female with progressive mid cheek mass who underwent parotidectomy and neck dissection by a modified Blair's incision was diagnosed with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma with focal transformation to a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Chemotherapy with CHOP regime was initiated. There was no recurrence at 6 months of follow-up. Lymphoma of accessory parotid gland is a very rare tumor. Standard parotidectomy incision is advocated to prevent damage to facial nerve branches. PMID:23483721

  17. The contribution of AKAP5 in amylase secretion from mouse parotid acini

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ching-Yi; DiJulio, Dennis H.; Jacobson, Kerry L.; McKnight, G. Stanley

    2010-01-01

    A-kinase (PKA) anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are essential for targeting type II PKA to specific locales in the cell to control function. In the present study, AKAP5 (formerly AKAP150) and AKAP6 were identified in mouse parotid acini by type II PKA regulatory subunit (RII) overlay assay and Western blot analysis of mouse parotid cellular fractions, and the role of AKAP5 in mouse parotid acinar cell secretion was determined. Mice were euthanized with CO2. Immunofluorescence staining of acinar cells localized AKAP5 to the basolateral membrane, whereas AKAP6 was associated with the perinuclear region. In functional studies, amylase secretion from acinar cells of AKAP5 mutant [knockout (KO)] mice treated with the β-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, was reduced overall by 30–40% compared with wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast, amylase secretion in response to the adenylyl cyclase (AC) activator, forskolin, and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activator, N6-phenyl-cAMP, was not statistically different in acini from WT and AKAP5 KO mice. Treatment of acini with isoproterenol mimicked the effect of the Epac activator, 8-(4-methoxyphenylthio)-2′-O-methyladenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-pMeOPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP), in stimulating Rap1. However, in contrast to isoproterenol, treatment of acini with 8-pMeOPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP resulted in stimulation of amylase secretion from both AKAP5 KO and WT acinar cells. As a scaffolding protein, AKAP5 was found to coimmunoprecipitate with AC6, but not AC8. Data suggest that isoproterenol-stimulated amylase secretion occurs via both an AKAP5/AC6/PKA complex and a PKA-independent, Epac pathway in mouse parotid acini. PMID:20164376

  18. Parotid sialosis: morphometrical analysis of the glandular parenchyme and stroma among diabetic and alcoholic patients.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Carolina; Bohl, Luciana; Carda, Carmen; Gómez de Ferraris, María Elsa; Carranza, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    Among the agents that cause parotid sialosis, diabetes mellitus type 2 and chronic alcoholism are included. In this study, the morphometrical modifications in the diabetic parotid sialosis were determined to compare them with the histopathological characteristics of alcoholic parotid sialosis. Five parotid biopsy samples obtained from patients with diabetic sialosis, 12 samples from patients with alcoholic sialosis and seven from individuals without these pathologies (control group) were analyzed. A morphometrical study of parotid parenchyme and stroma, using a digital image analyzer attached to an optical microscope, was carried out. Dimensions of serous acini and striated ducts, the area occupied by the fatty tissue, and the number of ducts were recorded. Mean values were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test (P parotid sialosis is not directly associated with the ductal and acinar size, amount of fatty tissue and ductal hyperplasy. Nevertheless, these findings show that the ductal dimensions and the proportion of adipose tissue are variables that allow us to establish histopathological differences between diabetic and alcoholic sialosis.

  19. [Sialadenosis of the parotid gland. Ultrastructural, clinical and experimental findings in disturbances of secretion (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Donath, K

    1976-01-01

    Among the secretory disturbances ("Dyschylien") of salivary glands the sialadenosis of the parotid gland is a clinic and a morphologic definited entity. The typical clinical symptom is a bilateral, often recurrent, and painless swelling of the parotid gland. The characteristic pathological findings consist in an acinar cell hypertrophy without any inflammatory signs. According to this definition, sialadenosis has to be separated from those diseases of salivary glands, which are primarily altered by inflammation of the salivary tissue with secondary secretory disturbances. From flinical point of view it is possible to distinguish the following kinds of sialadenosis according to the syntropy with various diseases: Endocrine sialadenosis (in diabetes mellitus, dysfunction of gonads, pituitary gland, thyroid gland etc.); dystrophic-metabolic sialadenosis (malnutrition, avitaminosis, alcohilsm, chronic liver diseases etc.), and neurogenic sialadenosis (dysfunction of the vegetative nervous system, drug damages e.g. antihypertensive agents). The question arises, whether all forms of sialadenosis have a common etiology and a coincidental pathogenic factor. The following studies were carried out with the aim to find further details concerning the etiology and pathogenesis of sialadenosis. The study is based on the following material: a) 126 Biopsies of parotid glands from patients with sialadenosis (Register of salivary gland diseases at the Institute of Pathology, University of Hamburg, supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft). This material was collected from 1965 to 1973. b) 80 Biopsies of parotid glands from patients with other diseases (parotitis [4]; acinic cell carcinoma [4]; other parotid and oral tumors [72]; for comparison. c) Experimental studies on the parotid salivary glands of Wistar-rats. The biopsies of the parotid glands were studied histologically, morphometrically, and ultrastructurally. The investigations centered on the ultrastruct of sialadenosis

  20. Controversies in Parotid Defect Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tamplen, Matthew; Knott, P Daniel; Fritz, Michael A; Seth, Rahul

    2016-08-01

    Reconstruction of the parotid defect is a complex topic that encompasses restoration of both facial form and function. The reconstructive surgeon must consider facial contour, avoidance of Frey syndrome, skin coverage, tumor surveillance, potential adjuvant therapy, and facial reanimation when addressing parotid defects. With each defect there are several options within the reconstructive ladder, creating controversies regarding optimal management. This article describes surgical approaches to reconstruction of parotid defects, highlighting areas of controversy.

  1. Alcoholic parotid sialadenosis.

    PubMed

    Mandel, L; Hamele-Bena, D

    1997-10-01

    Alcoholism is a primary cause of sialadenosis, which is an asymptomatic, bilateral enlargement of the parotid glands. The authors outline the pathogenesis, symptoms and testing involved in diagnosing sialadenosis. Recognizing sialadenosis is important because it may point to the unsuspected presence of underlying systemic disease. Therefore, dental practitioners need to be able to differentiate sialadenosis from an inflammatory or neoplastic process to prevent unnecessary treatment.

  2. Effect of low-level laser therapy on irradiated parotid glands--study in mice.

    PubMed

    Acauan, Monique Dossena; Gomes, Ana Paula Neutziling; Braga-Filho, Aroldo; de Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro; Cherubini, Karen; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on radiotherapy-induced morphological changes and caspase-3 immunodetection in parotids of mice. Forty-one Swiss mice were divided into control, radiotherapy, 2- and 4-J laser groups. The experimental groups were exposed to ionizing radiation in a single session of 10 Gy. In the laser groups, a GaAlAs laser (830 nm, 100 mW, 0.028  cm2, 3.57  W/cm2) was used on the region corresponding to the parotid glands, with 2-J energy (20 s, 71  J/cm2) or 4 J (40 s, 135  J/cm2) per point. LLLT was performed immediately before and 24 h after radiotherapy. One point was applied in each parotid gland. The animals were euthanized 48 h or 7 days after radiotherapy and parotid glands were dissected for morphological analysis and immunodetection of caspase-3. There was no significant difference between groups in the immunodetection of caspase-3, but the laser groups had a lower percentage compared to the radiotherapy group. LLLT promoted the preservation of acinar structure, reduced the occurrence of vacuolation, and stimulated parotid gland vascularization. Of the two LLLT protocols, the one using 4 J of energy showed better results.

  3. Effect of low-level laser therapy on irradiated parotid glands—study in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acauan, Monique Dossena; Gomes, Ana Paula Neutziling; Braga-Filho, Aroldo; de Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro; Cherubini, Karen; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on radiotherapy-induced morphological changes and caspase-3 immunodetection in parotids of mice. Forty-one Swiss mice were divided into control, radiotherapy, 2- and 4-J laser groups. The experimental groups were exposed to ionizing radiation in a single session of 10 Gy. In the laser groups, a GaAlAs laser (830 nm, 100 mW, 0.028 cm2, 3.57 W/cm2) was used on the region corresponding to the parotid glands, with 2-J energy (20 s, 71 J/cm2) or 4 J (40 s, 135 J/cm2) per point. LLLT was performed immediately before and 24 h after radiotherapy. One point was applied in each parotid gland. The animals were euthanized 48 h or 7 days after radiotherapy and parotid glands were dissected for morphological analysis and immunodetection of caspase-3. There was no significant difference between groups in the immunodetection of caspase-3, but the laser groups had a lower percentage compared to the radiotherapy group. LLLT promoted the preservation of acinar structure, reduced the occurrence of vacuolation, and stimulated parotid gland vascularization. Of the two LLLT protocols, the one using 4 J of energy showed better results.

  4. [Epidemic parotiditis, a reportable disease].

    PubMed

    Boverhoff, J C; Baart, J A

    2013-01-01

    Three consecutive patients with an acute swelling of one of the cheeks, were diagnosed with epidemic parotiditis. The first phase of the diagnostic procedure for an acute cheek swelling is to eliminate the possibility of odontogenic causes. When odontogenic problems have been excluded, non-dentition-related causes may be considered. An acute, progressive swelling in the preauricular area can often be attributed to an inflammation of the parotid gland, but epidemic parotiditis should also be considered. Epidemic parotiditis, or mumps, is caused by the mumps virus. Contamination occurs aerogenically. In the Netherlands, mumps vaccine is an ingredient of the governmental combined mump-measles-rubella inoculation programme. However, in recent years several small-scale parotiditis epidemics have broken out, predominantly among young, inoculated adults. Oropharyngeal mucus and blood samples are needed to diagnose the disease. Each case of the disease should be reported to the community healthcare service.

  5. Experimental periodontitis induces a cAMP-dependent increase in amylase activity in parotid glands from male rats.

    PubMed

    Miozza, Valeria; Borda, Enri; Sterin-Borda, Leonor; Busch, Lucila

    2009-12-01

    It is known that subjects with periodontitis show enhanced amylase concentration in saliva. Our purpose was to analyze the release of amylase in parotid glands from rats with experimental periodontitis and controls. We present evidence that periodontitis induces an increase in resting amylase activity and release without changes in isoproterenol-induced amylase secretion. Changes in amylase were reverted by the inhibition of the adenylyl cyclase by SQ 22536, the cyclooxygenase type 1 by FR 122047 and by blocking the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor with VIP 6-28. Parotid glands from rats with periodontitis showed an increase in cAMP levels that was also reverted in the presence of SQ 22536, FR 122047 and VIP 6-28. We concluded that both PGE(2) and VIP are produced in parotid glands from rats with periodontitis and, by activating their own receptors in acinar cells, induce cAMP accumulation leading to an increase in amylase basal secretion.

  6. Further evidence for AQP8 expression in the myoepithelium of rat submandibular and parotid glands.

    PubMed

    Wellner, Robert B; Redman, Robert S; Swaim, William D; Baum, Bruce J

    2006-02-01

    Previously (Wellner et al., Pflugers Arch 441:49-56, 2000) we suggested that the localization of the aquaporins (AQPs) AQP5 and AQP8 in the apical and basolateral membranes of rat submandibular gland (SMG) acinar cells, respectively, provides for transcellular water flow during saliva formation. While the localization of AQP5 in this gland has been verified in several laboratories, there have been differing reports regarding AQP8 localization. Other investigators subsequently reported that AQP8 is not expressed in the acinar or ductal cells of the major salivary glands of the rat, but in the myoepithelium of each gland. Thus, we have carried out additional studies: (1) to reassess the localization of AQP8 in the rat SMG and (2) to assess the localization of AQP8 in the rat parotid gland (PG). Initially, we compared the localizations of AQP8 with recognized basolateral markers in acinar cells [the Na+,K+-ATPase and the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC1)]. Our results indicated that Na+,K+-ATPase localized in both the basal and lateral membranes of rat SMG acinar cells, whereas AQP8 was detected only in the basal regions of the acini. In the rat PG, AQP8 was invested near intercalated ducts and adjacent acini, whereas NKCC1 localized in the basolateral membranes of acinar cells. As these results were suggestive of myoepithelial localization in both glands, we compared AQP8 localization with the localization of smooth muscle actin, a myoepithelial marker. We found that AQP8 and smooth muscle actin colocalized in both the rat SMG and PG, providing additional strong support for a myoepithelial localization of AQP8. Thus, in agreement with an earlier report by other investigators (Elkjaer et al., Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 281:F1047-F1057, 2001), we report that AQP8 is expressed in the myoepithelial cells, but not in the acinar cells, of both the rat SMG and PG.

  7. Ultrastructural phosphatase histochemistry of submandibular and parotid salivary glands of man.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J D; Auger, D W; Badir, M S

    1988-02-01

    Thiamine pyrophosphatase was demonstrated in the Golgi complex and acid phosphatase in the GERL of acinar cells of submandibular and parotid glands and were previously demonstrated in cells of intercalary ducts. Thiamine pyrophosphatase was also demonstrated in the Golgi complex of cells of striated and excretory ducts and myoepithelial cells. Acid phosphatase was also demonstrated in lysosomes. Alkaline phosphatase was rarely demonstrated light microscopically at luminal surfaces of striated and excretory ducts and electron microscopically in luminal vesicles in cells of striated ducts. The demonstration of the phosphatases in Golgi complexes and GERLs indicates that investigations on these structures in experimental animals are relevant to human salivary glands and supports the opinion that ductal cells as well as acinar cells secrete organic material. The presence of alkaline phosphatase at luminal surfaces of striated and excretory ducts suggests that resorption as well as secretion may occur in them.

  8. Functional differences in the acinar cells of the murine major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Y; Nakamoto, T; Jaramillo, Y; Choi, S; Catalan, M A; Melvin, J E

    2015-05-01

    In humans, approximately 90% of saliva is secreted by the 3 major salivary glands: the parotid (PG), the submandibular (SMG), and the sublingual glands (SLG). Even though it is known that all 3 major salivary glands secrete saliva by a Cl(-)-dependent mechanism, salivary secretion rates differ greatly among these glands. The goal of this study was to gain insight into the properties of the ion-transporting pathways in acinar cells that might account for the differences among the major salivary glands. Pilocarpine-induced saliva was simultaneously collected in vivo from the 3 major salivary glands of mice. When normalized by gland weight, the amount of saliva secreted by the PG was more than 2-fold larger than that obtained from the SMG and SLG. At the cellular level, carbachol induced an increase in the intracellular [Ca(2+)] that was more than 2-fold larger in PG and SMG than in SLG acinar cells. Carbachol-stimulated Cl(-) efflux and the protein levels of the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel TMEM16A, the major apical Cl(-) efflux pathway in salivary acinar cells, were significantly greater in PG compared with SMG and SLG. In addition, we evaluated the transporter activity of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporters (NKCC1) and anion exchangers (AE), the 2 primary basolateral Cl(-) uptake mechanisms in acinar cells. The SMG NKCC1 activity was about twice that of the PG and more than 12-fold greater than that of the SLG. AE activity was similar in PG and SLG, and both PG and SLG AE activity was about 2-fold larger than that of SMG. In summary, the salivation kinetics of the 3 major glands are distinct, and these differences can be explained by the unique functional properties of each gland related to Cl(-) movement, including the transporter activities of the Cl(-) uptake and efflux pathways, and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  9. Fine structure of the parotid gland in tree shrew (Tupaia glis).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Mifune, H; Nishida, T; Obara, T; Kamimura, R; Sakamoto, H; Mohammad Abdul, A; Nishinakagawa, H

    1995-10-01

    The parotid glands of Tupaia glis were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The acinar cells were seromucous in nature, and contained many acidophilic granules with strong affinity for periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and weak affinity for alcian blue (AB). These granules consisted of a fine granular matrix of moderate density in which a denser corpuscles or semilunar materials were present. Intercalated duct cells had a few fine vesicles, vacuoles and very few dense granules in the apical region. In occasional epithelial cells, acidophilic, PAS-positive and AB-negative bodies with moderate density were observed in the supranuclear region. The striated ducts consisted of columnar light and dark cells containing round or small ovoid granules of moderate density and did not show the granular duct as seen in the parotid glands of kobe mole and tenrec which are placed in the order insectivora.

  10. The ryanodine receptor is expressed in human pancreatic acinar cells and contributes to acinar cell injury.

    PubMed

    Lewarchik, Christopher M; Orabi, Abrahim I; Jin, Shunqian; Wang, Dong; Muili, Kamaldeen A; Shah, Ahsan U; Eisses, John F; Malik, Adeel; Bottino, Rita; Jayaraman, Thottala; Husain, Sohail Z

    2014-09-01

    Physiological calcium (Ca(2+)) signals within the pancreatic acinar cell regulate enzyme secretion, whereas aberrant Ca(2+) signals are associated with acinar cell injury. We have previously identified the ryanodine receptor (RyR), a Ca(2+) release channel on the endoplasmic reticulum, as a modulator of these pathological signals. In the present study, we establish that the RyR is expressed in human acinar cells and mediates acinar cell injury. We obtained pancreatic tissue from cadaveric donors and identified isoforms of RyR1 and RyR2 by qPCR. Immunofluorescence staining of the pancreas showed that the RyR is localized to the basal region of the acinar cell. Furthermore, the presence of RyR was confirmed from isolated human acinar cells by tritiated ryanodine binding. To determine whether the RyR is functionally active, mouse or human acinar cells were loaded with the high-affinity Ca(2+) dye (Fluo-4 AM) and stimulated with taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate (TLCS) (500 μM) or carbachol (1 mM). Ryanodine (100 μM) pretreatment reduced the magnitude of the Ca(2+) signal and the area under the curve. To determine the effect of RyR blockade on injury, human acinar cells were stimulated with pathological stimuli, the bile acid TLCS (500 μM) or the muscarinic agonist carbachol (1 mM) in the presence or absence of the RyR inhibitor ryanodine. Ryanodine (100 μM) caused an 81% and 47% reduction in acinar cell injury, respectively, as measured by lactate dehydrogenase leakage (P < 0.05). Taken together, these data establish that the RyR is expressed in human acinar cells and that it modulates acinar Ca(2+) signals and cell injury.

  11. Unilateral parotid agenesis associated with pleomorphic adenoma of ipsilateral accessory parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Seith, Ashu Bhalla; Gadodia, Ankur; Sharma, Raju; Parshad, Rajinder

    2013-01-01

    Congenital agenesis of the parotid gland is rare, and its association with accessory parotid tissue is even rarer. We report an unusual case of unilateral agenesis of the left parotid gland associated with pleomorphic adenoma of the left accessory parotid gland. To best of our knowledge, this is only the second such published case in the literature.

  12. RADIAL TRANSPORT ALONG THE HUMAN ACINAR TREE

    PubMed Central

    Henry, F.S.; Tsuda, A.

    2013-01-01

    A numerical model of an expanding asymmetric alveolated duct was developed and used to investigate lateral transport between the central acinar channel and the surrounding alveoli along the acinar tree. Our results indicate that some degree of recirculation occurs in all but the terminal generations. We found that the rate of diffusional transport of axial momentum, from the duct to the alveolus, was by far the largest contributor to the resulting momentum in the alveolar flow but that the magnitude of the axial momentum is critical in determining the nature of the flow in the alveolus. Further, we found that alveolar flow rotation, and by implication chaotic mixing, are strongest in the entrance generations. We also found that the expanding alveolus provides a pathway by which particles with little intrinsic motion can enter the alveoli. Thus, our results offer a possible explanation for why submicron particles deposit preferentially in acinar entrance region. PMID:20887011

  13. Radial transport along the human acinar tree.

    PubMed

    Henry, F S; Tsuda, A

    2010-10-01

    A numerical model of an expanding asymmetric alveolated duct was developed and used to investigate lateral transport between the central acinar channel and the surrounding alveoli along the acinar tree. Our results indicate that some degree of recirculation occurs in all but the terminal generations. We found that the rate of diffusional transport of axial momentum from the duct to the alveolus was by far the largest contributor to the resulting momentum in the alveolar flow but that the magnitude of the axial momentum is critical in determining the nature of the flow in the alveolus. Further, we found that alveolar flow rotation, and by implication chaotic mixing, is strongest in the entrance generations. We also found that the expanding alveolus provides a pathway by which particles with little intrinsic motion can enter the alveoli. Thus, our results offer a possible explanation for why submicron particles deposit preferentially in the acinar-entrance region.

  14. Expression of nuclear receptors (AhR, PXR, CAR) and transcription factor (Nrf2) in human parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Droździk, Agnieszka; Kowalczyk, Robert; Urasińska, Elzbieta; Kurzawski, Mateusz

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear receptors and transcription factors coordinate expression of many genes, and regulation of their expression determines cellular response to various endo- and exogenous factors. There is paucity of data regarding expression of nuclear receptors and factors in salivary glands. In the present study, a focus was placed on human parotid gland expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Parotid salivary tissue was obtained from patients undergoing the gland dissection. Quantitative real-time PCR aimmunohistochemical staining were used for expression studies. The highest mRNA expression was documented for NFE2L2 coding for Nrf2. Lower expression was seen in the case of AHR gene coding for AhR. PXR was constitutively present at very low level and CAR expression was below the limit of quantification. Immunohistochemical evaluation of the parotid gland specimens revealed cytoplasmic Nrf2 expression in striated duct cells as well as within myoepithelial cells. Acinar cells were mostly negative for Nrf2. Expression of AhR was found within the cytoplasm in striated duct cells. Acinar and myoepithelial cells were negative for AhR. Having in mind their role in regulating function of many enzymes and transmembrane transporters, expression of these factors seem play a role in salivary gland physiology, pathology as well as drug transport and metabolism.

  15. Binding sites of Ulex europaeus-lectin I in human parotid gland. A light-microscopic and ultrastructural study using the immunoperoxidase technique and immunocryoultramicrotomy.

    PubMed

    Born, I A; Zimmer, K P; Schwechheimer, K; Maier, H; Möller, P

    1987-05-01

    Twenty non-neoplastic parotid glands (removed during neck dissection for regional tumours) were examined for cellular and subcellular binding sites of Ulex europaeus-lectin I (UEA-I), a lectin reported to be specific for alpha-L-fucose. For light microscopy, an extended peroxidase-antiperoxidase method was applied; for the evaluation of the subcellular localization of bound lectin, three of these glands were examined following immunocryoultramicrotomy and staining by the protein A-gold technique. In addition to the known cytoplasmic affinity of UEA-I for capillary endothelium, acinar cells bound the lectin within the cytoplasmic compartment; the number and distribution of stained acinar cells varied among individuals. Furthermore, cytomembrane-bound labelling that occurred most markedly at the luminar surface was observed in striated-duct epithelium. Using the electron microscope, protein A-gold particles were seen in zymogen granules and in Golgi cisternae of serous acinar cells; primary saliva secreted in the lumina exhibited strong labelling; serous acinar cells had binding sites on their cell membranes, striated-duct epithelium had binding sites on its surface membrane and in the vicinity of apical vesicles. Our results show that UEA-I is a useful tool for the study of the structure and functional states of the parotid gland epithelium and its associated pathological alterations.

  16. K+ transport and membrane potentials in isolated rat parotid acini

    SciTech Connect

    Nauntofte, B.; Dissing, S.

    1988-10-01

    42K+ transport properties of isolated rat parotid acini were characterized concomitant with measurements of membrane potentials (Em) by means of the fluorescent dye diSC3-(5). In unstimulated acini suspended in a 5 mM K+ buffer, Em was governed by the K+ and Cl- gradients and amounted to about -59 mV, a value that remained unaffected on cholinergic stimulation. In unstimulated acini, 42K+ influx was largely mediated by the Na+-K+ pump, and the residual influxes were mediated by a bumetanide-sensitive component (cotransport system) and by K+ channels. Efflux of 42K+ was largely mediated by a bumetanide-sensitive component and by K+ channels. In the unstimulated state, the cotransport system was mediating K+-K+ exchange without contributing to the net uptake of K+. Within 10 s after stimulation, a approximately 10-fold increase in the acinar K+ conductance (gK) occurred, resulting in a rapid net efflux of K+ that amounted to approximately 3.8 mmol.l cells-1.s-1. Measurements of 42K+ fluxes as a function of the external K+ concentration revealed that in the stimulated state gK increases when external K+ is raised from 0.7 to 10 mM, consistent with an activation of acinar gK by the binding of external K+ to the channel. 42K+ flux ratios as well as the effect of the K+ channel inhibitor from scorpion venom (LQV) suggest that approximately 90% of K+ transport in the stimulated state is mediated by ''maxi'' K+ channels.

  17. Microliths in the parotid of ferret investigated by electron microscopy and microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Triantafyllou, Asterios; Harrison, John D; Garrett, John R

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation is an attempt to determine the occurrence, elemental composition and formation of microliths in the parotid of ferret. Parotids from four normal ferrets were examined by electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis. Crystalline microliths were found in phagosomes of acinar cells, which occasionally contained secretory material, and in phagosomes situated between mitochondria of striated ductal cells. Crystalline microliths and microliths that consisted of granular material either without crystals or mixed with a component of crystals were found in lumina, where they were often associated with cellular debris. The crystals contained calcium and phosphorus. Phagy and stagnation related to pockets of inefficient secretory activity have been previously found to be features of the parotid of ferret. Thus, possibly persistent degradation of redundant cellular material, particularly secretory granules, in phagosomes results in accumulation of calcium and leads to calcified microliths, whereas consolidation of stagnant debris extracellularly does not involve such accumulation and leads to non-calcified or mixed microliths. PMID:19659902

  18. Sialadenosis of the salivary glands of the head. Studies on the physiology and pathophysiology of parotid secretion.

    PubMed

    Chilla, R

    1981-01-01

    Sialadenosis is a noninflammatory disease of the salivary glands of the head. It is observed in connection with endocrine disorders, malnutrition and neurologic diseases. The parotid glands are predominantly affected by a parenchymatous swelling. Based on morphologic and biochemical investigations it can be assumed that disorders of the gland's acinar protein secretion are responsible for sialadenosis. Changes in secretory behavior are caused by either excessive stimulation ('stimulatory proteodyschylia') or by inhibition of secretion ('inhibitory proteodyschylia'). The origin of these secretory disorders is very likely to be found in the vegetative nerve system. The pathophysiology of sialadenosis can therefore only be understood after elucidation of the physiologic mechanisms of salivary gland secretion. Research in the field of biophysical and biochemical principles underlying parotid secretion has made considerable progress in recent years. A comprehensive review of this new evidence is necessary for the understanding of experimental studies on the pathogenesis of sialadenosis.

  19. Unique cellular structures in the parotid gland of an Old world fruit bat, Pteropus lylei (Lyle's flying fox).

    PubMed

    Lanlua, Passara; Sricharoenvej, Sirinush; Niyomchan, Apichaya; Chico, Diane E

    2007-01-01

    Pteropus lylei (Lyle's flying fox), an Old World fruit bat, consumes only ripe fruit, which contains low protein and sodium. The carpophagous diet of P. lylei presents an adaptive challenge for salivary glands to conserve sufficient nutrition for living. Therefore, the parotid glands in both sexes were investigated by using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. No structural difference was observed in the parotid glands between sexes. The acinar cell contained dense serous secretory granules, prominent luminal microvilli and intercellular canaliculi. The intercalated duct exhibited simple cuboidal epithelium with no secretory granule. Striated duct consisted of simple columnar epithelium with basal striation, numerous elongated mitochondria, and apical vesicles. In the interlobular duct, simple tall columnar epithelium and apocrine secretion were found. The interlobar and excretory ducts surprisingly contained continuous capillaries that intervened in stratified cuboidal epithelium. In addition, there were several blood vessels around the interlobular, interlobar and excretory ducts. The morphological adaptation of the parotid gland observed in P. lylei enables this species to obtain sufficient nutrients from the preferred consumption of ripe fruit. Serous secretory granule was suitable for digestion of ripe fruit. A well-developed striated duct, continuous capillaries among the epithelial cells of interlobar and excretory ducts, and numerous blood vessels around these ducts enhanced the reabsorption of amino acids and ions. Structural variations in the parotid gland can indicate not only a correlation to diet and survival but also a close relationship of the Old World fruit bat to other kinds of bats.

  20. Practical imaging of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Bag, Asim K; Curé, Joel K; Chapman, Philip R; Pettibon, Keith D; Gaddamanugu, Siddhartha

    2015-01-01

    The parotid gland may be affected by numerous pathologies, and physicians from many different medical and surgical specialties request parotid imaging. Mastering the typical imaging features of various types of parotid pathology is facilitated by understanding how various diseases produce their characteristic imaging findings. In this review article, we present succinct overviews of the normal anatomy and the common pathologies of the parotid gland and recommend a practical approach to differential diagnosis that can be easily implemented in day-to-day radiology practice.

  1. Choroid plexus acinar adenoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rembao-Bojórquez, Daniel; Vega, Rosalba; Bermúdez-Maldonado, Luis; Gutiérrez, Ramón; Salinas, Citlaltepetl; Tena-Suck, Martha

    2007-06-01

    Mucus-secreting adenomas or acinar adenoma of the choroid plexus are very rare. We report the case of a 79-year-old male with a 3-year history of occipital headaches with vomiting, ataxia and cerebellar signs. He was first seen due to difficulty while walking. He was admitted to the hospital with significant tumor expansion and clinical deterioration. CT and MRI revealed obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to a large fourth ventricular cyst mass, which enhanced markedly on contrast administration. Pathological findings were consistent with an acinar choroid plexus adenoma. The tumor was attached to the ependymal lining and was strongly adhered to the walls and floor of the IV ventricle. Post-operative bleeding complicated partial removal of this tumor. The patient died 6 h after surgery.

  2. Bilateral parotid swelling: a radiological review

    PubMed Central

    Gadodia, A; Bhalla, A S; Sharma, R; Thakar, A; Parshad, R

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral parotid swelling is not an uncommon occurrence and may pose a challenge for clinicians and radiologists. Numerous causes of bilateral parotid swellings have been identified. The purpose of this pictorial review is to display this wide array with a focus on multimodality approach. PMID:21960397

  3. Parotid dermoid cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Birsan, Christina; Raza, Anwar; Cobb, Camilla

    2013-04-01

    A dermoid cyst arising in the parotid is rare and usually represents the rare first branchial cleft type II anomaly, which can have morphology similar to a dermoid cyst. This study reports the case of a 20-year-old woman who presented with a parotid mass, which on histologic review was consistent with a dermoid cyst. This appears to be the first case report of a parotid dermoid cyst with focus on the gross and histopathologic findings and to be presented in a histopathology focused journal. The discussion includes the clinical presentation, imaging findings, gross pathology, histologic features, and differential diagnosis of parotid dermoid cysts. Although there was no prior fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the lesion in this case, parotid masses are commonly subject to FNA prior to excision. Therefore, a brief review of the FNA findings in dermoid cysts is also included.

  4. [Parotid pneumocele in Down's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hervás Núñez, María J; Benito Navarro, Juan R; Rodríguez Fernández-Freire, Antonio; Rodríguez Pérez, Miguel A

    2008-01-01

    Pneumoparotiditis is related to the cause of an infrequent increase in the size of the parotid gland due to the entrance of air through the Stenon duct following an increase in the pressure in the oral cavity. It is observed in musicians who play wind instruments, glass blowers, patients undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic techniques, in adolescents that provoke it intentionally, and in mentally handicapped people as found in the clinical case reported here. The symptoms are usually non-specific and the diagnosis is confirmed with an axial tomography. The interest in this clinical case lies in the peculiar form of presentation and its diagnostic confirmation through the use of CT imaging.

  5. Inflammatory role of the acinar cells during acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Dios, Isabel De

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic acinar cells are secretory cells whose main function is to synthesize, store and finally release digestive enzymes into the duodenum. However, in response to noxious stimuli, acinar cells behave like real inflammatory cells because of their ability to activate signalling transduction pathways involved in the expression of inflammatory mediators. Mediated by the kinase cascade, activation of Nuclear factor-κB, Activating factor-1 and Signal transducers and activators of transcription transcription factors has been demonstrated in acinar cells, resulting in overexpression of inflammatory genes. In turn, kinase activity is down-regulated by protein phosphatases and the final balance between kinase and phosphatase activity will determine the capability of the acinar cells to produce inflammatory factors. The kinase/phosphatase pair is a redox-sensitive system in which kinase activation overwhelms phosphatase activity under oxidant conditions. Thus, the oxidative stress developed within acinar cells at early stages of acute pancreatitis triggers the activation of signalling pathways involved in the up-regulation of cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules. In this way, acinar cells trigger the release of the first inflammatory signals which can mediate the activation and recruitment of circulating inflammatory cells into the injured pancreas. Accordingly, the role of acinar cells as promoters of the inflammatory response in acute pancreatitis may be considered. This concept leads to amplifying the focus from leukocyte to acinar cells themselves, to explain the local inflammation in early pancreatitis. PMID:21577290

  6. Inflammatory role of the acinar cells during acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Dios, Isabel De

    2010-02-06

    Pancreatic acinar cells are secretory cells whose main function is to synthesize, store and finally release digestive enzymes into the duodenum. However, in response to noxious stimuli, acinar cells behave like real inflammatory cells because of their ability to activate signalling transduction pathways involved in the expression of inflammatory mediators. Mediated by the kinase cascade, activation of Nuclear factor-κB, Activating factor-1 and Signal transducers and activators of transcription transcription factors has been demonstrated in acinar cells, resulting in overexpression of inflammatory genes. In turn, kinase activity is down-regulated by protein phosphatases and the final balance between kinase and phosphatase activity will determine the capability of the acinar cells to produce inflammatory factors. The kinase/phosphatase pair is a redox-sensitive system in which kinase activation overwhelms phosphatase activity under oxidant conditions. Thus, the oxidative stress developed within acinar cells at early stages of acute pancreatitis triggers the activation of signalling pathways involved in the up-regulation of cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules. In this way, acinar cells trigger the release of the first inflammatory signals which can mediate the activation and recruitment of circulating inflammatory cells into the injured pancreas. Accordingly, the role of acinar cells as promoters of the inflammatory response in acute pancreatitis may be considered. This concept leads to amplifying the focus from leukocyte to acinar cells themselves, to explain the local inflammation in early pancreatitis.

  7. Parotid gland is the main source of human salivary epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Thesleff, I.; Viinikka, L.; Saxen, L.; Lehtonen, E.; Perheentupa, J.

    1988-01-01

    To clarify the production of human epidermal growth factor (EGF) by different salivary glands, the authors measured its concentration by radioimmunoassay separately in whole saliva, in parotid gland (PG) saliva and in mixed submandibular (SMG) and sublingual gland (SLG) saliva. Also, they studied the presence of EGF in PG and SMG by immunohistochemistry. The mean concentrations of EDG in PG saliva was higher than in whole saliva, which in turn was higher than in mixed SMG + SLG saliva. No sex difference existed in any salivary gland EGF. Immunohistochemistry revealed EGF in the acinar cells of both PG and SMG, buy only in PG there were prominent EDG deposits in luminal spaces. Their data suggest that EDG is produced by both PG and SMG, but that more of it is secreted from the PG. This result is new and challenges the general view that human salivary EDG is mainly from SMG.

  8. [Acinar cell carcinoma of submaxillary gland].

    PubMed

    Comeche, C; Calabuig, C; Barona, R

    1997-01-01

    Although acine cell neoplasms have for a long time been regarded as benign tumors, they are presently considered to represent the carcinomas. These rare tumors mainly affect the parotid glands, and only exceptionally involve other salivary glands. Clinically, acic cell carcinoma present as isolated tumors simulating a pleomorphic adenoma. The diagnosis is histopathological, and complete surgical removal of the tumor is the treatment of choice, with cervical lymphatic voiding and/or postoperative radiotherapy in selected cases. A prolonged patient follow-up is required, for the tumor may recur many years after surgery. We report a case of acinic cell carcinoma in submaxillary gland.

  9. Alveolar mechanics using realistic acinar models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Haribalan; Lin, Ching-Long; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    2009-11-01

    Accurate modeling of the mechanics in terminal airspaces of the lung is desirable for study of particle transport and pathology. The flow in the acinar region is traditionally studied by employing prescribed boundary conditions to represent rhythmic breathing and volumetric expansion. Conventional models utilize simplified spherical or polygonal units to represent the alveolar duct and sac. Accurate prediction of flow and transport characteristics may require geometries reconstructed from CT-based images and serve to understand the importance of physiologically realistic representation of the acinus. In this effort, we present a stabilized finite element framework, supplemented with appropriate boundary conditions at the alveolar mouth and septal borders for simulation of the alveolar mechanics and the resulting airflow. Results of material advection based on Lagrangian tracking are presented to complete the study of transport and compare the results with simplified acinar models. The current formulation provides improved understanding and realization of a dynamic framework for parenchymal mechanics with incorporation of alveolar pressure and traction stresses.

  10. Synchronous unilateral parotid neoplasms. A case report.

    PubMed

    Herce-López, Javier; Salazar-Fernández, Clara I; Mayorga-Jiménez, Francisco; Gallana-Alvarez, Silvia; Pérez-Sánchez, Juan M

    2009-02-01

    The parotid gland is the most usual location of benign neoplasms affecting major salivary glands and quite often the recurrence of these tumours is noticed, specially in the case of pleomorphic adenoma. The occurrence of multiple tumours in the parotid glands is rare and the majority of these are multifocal Warthin's tumors (papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum). The simultaneous development of tumours with different histological types is unusual and when it occurs, the most common combination is a pleomorphic adenoma and a Warthin's tumor. There are many articles about Multiple Parotid Tumors (MPT) but only a few of them are focused on unilateral synchronous benings tumors, being pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin's these tumors. The report describes a 55 year old female with a pleomorphic adenoma occurring synchronously with a Warthin's tumor within the superficial lobe of her left parotid gland.

  11. Case report. Acinar cell carcinoma with fatty change arising from the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Chung, W-S; Park, M-S; Kim, D W; Kim, K W

    2011-12-01

    Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare malignant tumour developing from acinar cells, accounting for approximately 1% of pancreatic exocrine tumours. We experienced a case of an acinar cell carcinoma with fatty change. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of an acinar cell carcinoma with fatty change in the clinical literature.

  12. Treatment of complications of parotid gland surgery

    PubMed Central

    Marchese-Ragona, R; De Filippis, C; Marioni, G; Staffieri, A

    2005-01-01

    Summary Although several reports in the literature have documented the surgical technique, and the oncological outcome achieved with parotidectomy, only a few articles have described the complications of parotid gland surgery and their management. Several complications have been reported in parotid surgery. We re-classified the complications of parotidectomy in intra-operative and post-operative (early and late). The commonest complications after parotidectomy are temporary or permanent facial palsy and Frey’s syndrome. PMID:16450773

  13. [Clinical features of accessory parotid gland tumors].

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Wada, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Hidefumi; Yamada, Kei; Matsushita, Naoki; Okamoto, Sachimi; Teranishi, Yuichi; Koda, Yuki; Kosugi, Yuki; Yamane, Hideo

    2013-12-01

    Accessory parotid gland tumors are relatively rare; hence, adequately detailed clinical analyses of these tumors are difficult to perform at a single institution. In this report, we describe the findings for 65 patients [29 men, 36 women; median age, 51 (9-81) years] with accessory parotid gland tumors, consisting of 4 cases documented by us and 61 cases previously reported by other Japanese authors. Approximately 50% of the patients were treated in an otolaryngology department, while the remaining patients were treated in plastic surgery, oral surgery, or dermatology departments. In 4 patients, the results of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology indicated that the tumor was benign; however, the postoperative histopathology results revealed malignant tumors. The frequencies of malignant and benign tumors were 44.6% (n = 29) and 55.4% (n = 36), respectively. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma and pleomorphic adenoma were the most frequent types of malignant and benign accessory parotid gland tumors, respectively. Among the various surgical methods that were used, such as direct cheek and intraoral incisions, a standard parotidectomy incision was the most preferred treatment approach for these tumors. Recently, an endoscopic approach has also been found to yield satisfactory results. An optimal approach should be selected after evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. No definite guidelines are available regarding the choice of elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy for malignant accessory parotid gland tumors. Although tumor resection (plus elective neck dissection) and postoperative radiation therapy have been frequently performed for various kinds of malignant accessory parotid gland tumors to date, additional studies are needed regarding the criteria for selecting elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy. Since the malignancy rate for accessory parotid gland tumors is higher than that for parotid gland

  14. Infantile Hemangioendothelioma of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Chaubal, Rajas; Tavri, Om; Sawant, Atul; Singh, Chitrangada

    2017-01-01

    A 4-month-old infant presented with a painless swelling overlying the left angle of mandible. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large lesion replacing the entire left parotid gland, with multiple enlarged vessels. Homogeneous enhancement of the lesion was seen on the postcontrast MRI scans. Based on the imaging features, a diagnosis of infantile hemangioendothelioma of the parotid gland was offered. This helped in avoiding any further invasive testing. PMID:28217408

  15. Giant Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Parotid Gland.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad; Rehman, Sajid; Misbah, Junaid

    2015-10-01

    Salivary gland tumours are a relatively rare entity. Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common amongst these, comprising 60 - 70% of all parotid tumours. Pleomorphic adenomas are benign and tend to increase in size slowly. Here we are presenting a case of giant pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid, being the largest in size to be excised in Pakistan in recorded literature measuring 24 x 22 x 12 cm and weighing 1.8 kgs. Superficial parotidectomy was done with an excellent cosmetic outcome.

  16. TGF-β1 promotes acinar to ductal metaplasia of human pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Akanuma, Naoki; Liu, Chengyang; Naji, Ali; Halff, Glenn A.; Washburn, William K.; Sun, Luzhe; Wang, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that pancreatitis-induced acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM) is a key event for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) initiation. However, there has not been an adequate system to explore the mechanisms of human ADM induction. We have developed a flow cytometry-based, high resolution lineage tracing method and 3D culture system to analyse ADM in human cells. In this system, well-known mouse ADM inducers did not promote ADM in human cells. In contrast, TGF-β1 efficiently converted human acinar cells to duct-like cells (AD) in a SMAD-dependent manner, highlighting fundamental differences between the species. Functionally, AD cells gained transient proliferative capacity. Furthermore, oncogenic KRAS did not induce acinar cell proliferation, but did sustain the proliferation of AD cells, suggesting that oncogenic KRAS requires ADM-associated-changes to promote PDAC initiation. This ADM model provides a novel platform to explore the mechanisms involved in the development of human pancreatic diseases. PMID:27485764

  17. TGF-β1 promotes acinar to ductal metaplasia of human pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Akanuma, Naoki; Liu, Chengyang; Naji, Ali; Halff, Glenn A; Washburn, William K; Sun, Luzhe; Wang, Pei

    2016-08-03

    Animal studies suggest that pancreatitis-induced acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM) is a key event for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) initiation. However, there has not been an adequate system to explore the mechanisms of human ADM induction. We have developed a flow cytometry-based, high resolution lineage tracing method and 3D culture system to analyse ADM in human cells. In this system, well-known mouse ADM inducers did not promote ADM in human cells. In contrast, TGF-β1 efficiently converted human acinar cells to duct-like cells (AD) in a SMAD-dependent manner, highlighting fundamental differences between the species. Functionally, AD cells gained transient proliferative capacity. Furthermore, oncogenic KRAS did not induce acinar cell proliferation, but did sustain the proliferation of AD cells, suggesting that oncogenic KRAS requires ADM-associated-changes to promote PDAC initiation. This ADM model provides a novel platform to explore the mechanisms involved in the development of human pancreatic diseases.

  18. [Dermoid cyst of the parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Trandafir, Violeta; Trandafir, Daniela; Ferariu, D; Boişteanu, Otilia; Haba, Danisia

    2011-01-01

    Dermoid cyst of the parotid gland is a rare clinical entity. Definitive clinical diagnosis is often difficult to determine preoperatively because of the lack of pathognomonic features. The most frequent location of a parotid dermoid cyst is a triangular area lying above the pinna. Imaging studies do not definitely diagnose a parotid dermoid cyst. Although parotid dermoid cyst is (generally) well-encapsulated, complete removal of the cyst wall is not sufficient to cure it, so it is mandatory to perform careful excision of the cyst by parotidectomy, in terms of preserving facial nerve integrity. Histopathology of the parotid gland tumor removed by parotidectomy makes a diagnosis of certainty, by revealing a cyst wall with keratinization of the squamous epithelium and the presence of skin annexes (hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands). We present a rare case of parotid dermoid cyst in a 21-year-old male patient with symptoms and imaging rather suggestive of arch I branchial cyst and a brief review of data in the medical literature of the last 20 years.

  19. Transcutaneous approach for the removal of parotid gland stones.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hee-Kyun; Park, Hong-Ju; Oh, Je-Seok; Jung, Seunggon; Kook, Min-Suk

    2014-11-01

    Salivary stones in the parotid gland can be treated with a wide range of methods. Stones close to the opening of the duct can be easily removed through the oral cavity, whereas the entire salivary gland may need to be removed if stones are located close to the parotid gland. In such cases, surgical removal of the parotid gland may be lengthy and may produce facial nerve injury. We report a simple extraoral approach used for the removal of parotid gland stones located close to the parotid gland by precisely identifying the location of stones in 2 patients with parotid sialolithiasis.

  20. Immunocytochemical localization of the (/sup 3/H)estradiol-binding protein in rat pancreatic acinar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, A.; Oppenheim, J.; Grondin, G.; St. Jean, P.; Beaudoin, A.R.

    1989-06-01

    Significant amounts of an estradiol-binding protein (EBP) are present in pancreatic acinar cells. This protein differs from the one found in female reproductive tissues and secondary sex organs (which is commonly referred to as estrogen receptor). EBP has now been purified from rat pancreas and was used as an antigen to induce polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. The antiserum obtained was purified initially by ammonium sulfate fractionation and then still further by interaction with a protein fraction from pancreas that was devoid of estradiol-binding activity. The latter procedure was used to precipitate nonspecific immunoglobulin Gs. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the anti-EBP antibody reacted specifically with a doublet of protein bands having mol wt of 64K and 66K. When this purified antibody was used as an immunocytochemical probe in conjunction with protein-A-gold, acinar cells were labeled on the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum, on the plasma membrane, and in mitochondria. This specific labeling pattern was not observed when preimmune serum was used. No labeling was observed over the nucleus, Golgi apparatus, or zymogen granules with purified anti-EBP antibodies. The unexpected distribution of EBP in both the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria is discussed.

  1. The accessory parotid gland and facial process of the parotid gland on computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Dongbin; Yeo, Chang Ki; Han, Soon Yong

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of an anterior extension of the parotid gland, such as an accessory parotid gland (APG) or facial process (FP) and to evaluate its characteristics on computed tomography (CT) scans. We reviewed CT scans of 1,600 parotid glands from 800 patients. An APG on CT was defined as a soft-tissue mass of the same density as the main parotid gland, located at the anterior part of the main parotid gland, and completely separate from the main parotid gland. An FP was defined as a lobe of the parotid gland protruding anteriorly over the anterior edge of the ramus of the mandible on CT and showing continuity with the main gland. The overall incidence rates and characteristics of APGs and FPs were evaluated according to age, sex, and side. The incidence rates of APGs and FPs were 10.2% (163/1,600) and 28.3% (452/1,600), respectively. The mean size of an APG was 15.8 mm × 5.0 mm and the mean distance from the main parotid gland was 10.5 mm. The FP reached anteriorly between the anterior edge of the mandibular ramus and the anterior border of the masseter muscle in 405 (89.6%) cases, while it extended over the anterior border of the masseter muscle in 47 (10.4%) cases. The incidence rates of APGs and FPs decreased and increased, respectively, with increasing age, showing significant linear correlations. However, the incidence of an anterior extension of the parotid gland (either an APG or an FP) was similar across all age groups. The present study showed that CT might be helpful in identifying anterior extensions of the parotid gland including APGs and FPs. The anatomical information gained from this study contributes to a better understanding of APGs and FPs and how their incidence changes with age. PMID:28915265

  2. The accessory parotid gland and facial process of the parotid gland on computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dongbin; Yeo, Chang Ki; Han, Soon Yong; Kim, Jeong Kyu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of an anterior extension of the parotid gland, such as an accessory parotid gland (APG) or facial process (FP) and to evaluate its characteristics on computed tomography (CT) scans. We reviewed CT scans of 1,600 parotid glands from 800 patients. An APG on CT was defined as a soft-tissue mass of the same density as the main parotid gland, located at the anterior part of the main parotid gland, and completely separate from the main parotid gland. An FP was defined as a lobe of the parotid gland protruding anteriorly over the anterior edge of the ramus of the mandible on CT and showing continuity with the main gland. The overall incidence rates and characteristics of APGs and FPs were evaluated according to age, sex, and side. The incidence rates of APGs and FPs were 10.2% (163/1,600) and 28.3% (452/1,600), respectively. The mean size of an APG was 15.8 mm × 5.0 mm and the mean distance from the main parotid gland was 10.5 mm. The FP reached anteriorly between the anterior edge of the mandibular ramus and the anterior border of the masseter muscle in 405 (89.6%) cases, while it extended over the anterior border of the masseter muscle in 47 (10.4%) cases. The incidence rates of APGs and FPs decreased and increased, respectively, with increasing age, showing significant linear correlations. However, the incidence of an anterior extension of the parotid gland (either an APG or an FP) was similar across all age groups. The present study showed that CT might be helpful in identifying anterior extensions of the parotid gland including APGs and FPs. The anatomical information gained from this study contributes to a better understanding of APGs and FPs and how their incidence changes with age.

  3. THE LIPID CONSTITUENTS OF WHOLE AND PAROTID SALIVA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Chloroform: methanol extracts of whole and parotid saliva were subjected to paper chromatography to further characterize their lipid components. The...the sample materials. Whole and parotid saliva had similar nonphosphatides, but differed in their phospholipid composition. (Author)

  4. The role of anisotropic expansion for pulmonary acinar aerosol deposition

    PubMed Central

    Hofemeier, Philipp; Sznitman, Josué

    2016-01-01

    Lung deformations at the local pulmonary acinar scale are intrinsically anisotropic. Despite progress in imaging modalities, the true heterogeneous nature of acinar expansion during breathing remains controversial, where our understanding of inhaled aerosol deposition still widely emanates from studies under self-similar, isotropic wall motions. Building on recent 3D models of multi-generation acinar networks, we explore in numerical simulations how different hypothesized scenarios of anisotropic expansion influence deposition outcomes of inhaled aerosols in the acinar depths. While the broader range of particles acknowledged to reach the acinar region (dp = 0.005–5.0 μm) are largely unaffected by the details of anisotropic expansion under tidal breathing, our results suggest nevertheless that anisotropy modulates the deposition sites and fractions for a narrow band of sub-micron particles (dp ~ 0.5–0.75 μm), where the fate of aerosols is greatly intertwined with local convective flows. Our findings underscore how intrinsic aerosol motion (i.e. diffusion, sedimentation) undermines the role of anisotropic wall expansion that is often attributed in determining aerosol mixing and acinar deposition. PMID:27614613

  5. Right Parotid Fibrolipoma: A Rare Lesion in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Rattan, Kamal Nain; Singh, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    Lipoma rarely involves parotid gland especially in children. An 11-year-old boy presented with right parotid swelling. Preoperative workup including CT scan and FNAC gave suspicion of parotid gland lipoma. The diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology after complete excision of the mass. PMID:27672580

  6. A rare case of parotid gland lipoma arising from the deep lobe of the parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Paparo, Francesco; Massarelli, Mauro; Giuliani, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Lipomas are the most commonly encountered benign mesenchymal tumors, but their occurrence in the head and neck is rare, even more at the level of the parotid region where they can be found nearby the parotid capsule, inside the capsule, or within the gland. In addition, lipomas involving the deep parotid lobe are extremely unusual. That is why lipomas are not often considered for differential diagnosis of parotid lumps. Concerning diagnostic tools, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is nowadays considered as the main imaging examination for parotid lipomas due to a characteristic signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images. Furthermore, even if the cost of MRI is nearly three times that of computed tomography, MRI is accurate, safe, and has few biological costs for the patient. In this reported case, MRI provided all information for either diagnosis or preoperative planning being the best diagnostic tool regarding tumor margin characteristics and surrounding tissues’ involvement. Concerning treatment, surgical excision of parotid masses is always mandatory for definitive diagnosis, but it is challenging because of the facial nerve. For this reason, a well-established surgical technique is mandatory for success. The authors present a rare case of parotid gland lipoma arising from the deep lobe and discuss diagnostic tools and surgical technique. PMID:28299278

  7. Parotid lymphangioma associated with facial nerve paralysis.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Tani, Akiko; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Omori, Koichi

    2014-10-01

    Parotid lymphangioma is a relatively rare disease that is usually detected in infancy or early childhood, and which has typical features. Clinical reports of facial nerve paralysis caused by lymphangioma, however, are very rare. Usually, facial nerve paralysis in a child suggests malignancy. Here we report a very rare case of parotid lymphangioma associated with facial nerve paralysis. A 7-year-old boy was admitted to hospital with a rapidly enlarging mass in the left parotid region. Left peripheral-type facial nerve paralysis was also noted. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging also revealed multiple cystic lesions. Open biopsy was undertaken in order to investigate the cause of the facial nerve paralysis. The histopathological findings of the excised tumor were consistent with lymphangioma. Prednisone (40 mg/day) was given in a tapering dose schedule. Facial nerve paralysis was completely cured 1 month after treatment. There has been no recurrent facial nerve paralysis for eight years.

  8. Changes of Aquaporins in the Lacrimal Glands of a Rabbit Model of Sjögren’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Chuanqing; Nandoskar, Prachi; Lu, Michael; Thomas, Padmaja; Trousdale, Melvin D.; Wang, Yanru

    2013-01-01

    Aims To test the hypothesis that the expression of aquaporins (AQPs) 4 and 5 is altered in the lacrimal glands (LG) of rabbits with induced autoimmune dacryoadenitis (IAD). Materials and Methods LGs were obtained from adult female rabbits with IAD, and age-matched female control rabbits. LGs were processed for laser capture microdissection (LCM), real time RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence for the detection and quantification of protein and mRNAs of AQP4 and AQP5 in whole LGs, and purified acinar cells and duct cells from specific duct segments. Results In rabbits with IAD, abundances of mRNAs for AQP4 and AQP5 from whole LGs were significantly lower than controls. Levels of mRNA for AQP4 were lower in most duct segments from rabbits with IAD. However, the mRNA abundance for AQP5 was significantly lower in acini from rabbits with IAD, while its abundance was higher in each duct segment. Western blot showed that the expression of AQP4 in LGs from rabbits with IAD was 36% more abundant than normal controls, whereas AQP5 was 72% less abundant. Immunofluorescence indicated that AQP4 immunoreactivity (AQP4-IR) was present on the basolateral membranes of acinar and ductal cells in control and diseased LGs, with ductal cells showing stronger AQP4-IR than acinar cells. AQP5-IR was found on apical and basolateral membranes of acinar cells, and showed a “mosaic” pattern, i.e., with some acini and/or acinar cells showing stronger AQP5-IR than others. Minimal AQP5-IR was detected in ductal cells from control animals, while its intensity was significantly increased in rabbits with IAD. Conclusions These data strongly support our hypothesis that expressions of AQPs are altered in rabbits with IAD, and that specific ductal segment play important roles in lacrimal secretion. PMID:21524183

  9. Tissue-engineered tear secretory system: functional lacrimal gland acinar cells cultured on matrix protein-coated substrata.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Shivaram; Thomas, Padmaja B; Trousdale, Melvin D; Stevenson, Douglas; Schechter, Joel E; Mircheff, Austin K; Jacob, Jean T; Smith, Ronald E; Yiu, Samuel C

    2007-01-01

    Dry eye is a general term that refers to a myriad of ophthalmic disorders resulting in the inadequate wetting of the corneal surface by the tear film. Dry eyes are typically treated by the application of artificial tears. However, patients with lacrimal insufficiencies such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, chemical and thermal injuries, or ocular cicatricial pemphigoid have very limited options because of the short duration and action of lubricating agents. As a therapeutic strategy, we are working to develop a bioengineered tear secretory system for such patients. This article describes the growth and physiological properties of purified rabbit lacrimal gland acinar cells (pLGACs) on several matrix protein-coated polymers such as silicone, collagen I, copolymers of poly-D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA; 85:15 and 50:50), poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), and Thermanox plastic cell culture coverslips. Monolayers of acinar cells were established on all of the polymeric substrata. An assay of beta-hexosaminidase activity in the supernatant medium showed significant increases in protein secretion, following stimulation with 100 microM carbachol on matrix protein-coated and uncoated polymers such as silicone, PLGA 85:15, and PLLA. Our study demonstrates that PLLA supported the morphological and physiological properties of purified rabbit lacrimal gland epithelial cells more successfully than the others. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Recurrent inflammation of accessory parotid tissue associated with unilateral parotid gland aplasia: diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Capaccio, Pasquale; Luca, Nicola; Sigismund, Paolo Enrico; Pignataro, Lorenzo

    2012-05-01

    Aplasia of the major salivary glands is a rare condition due to an alteration in the development of the ectodermal tissue of the oral cavity often related to other craniofacial abnormalities or alteration of structures deriving from the first or second archial branch, in particular the lacrimal glands; it can be total or partial and determine clinical states ranging from an asymptomatic condition to a severe xerostomia. The accessory parotid tissue is similar to normal parotid tissue, completely independent from the main gland and susceptible to the same pathological disorders. We describe a very unusual case of an inflammatory disorder of accessory parotid tissue in a 44-year-old male patient with concomitant, and previously unknown, aplasia of the main ipsilateral parotid gland. We also discuss the role of imaging and conservative therapeutic modalities such as botulinum toxin therapy and, in the future, minimally invasive endoscopic-assisted resection in the management of such salivary disorder.

  11. Endoscope-assisted transoral accessory parotid mass excision.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Accessory parotid gland tissue is salivary tissue adjacent to Stensen's duct that is distinctly separate from the main body of the parotid gland. Surgical removal of an accessory parotid mass is usually accomplished through an external neck incision. However, this procedure inevitably results in a neck scar. We report the case of a 55-year-old man with an accessory parotid mass. We applied a modified approach to accessory parotid mass removal through the mouth with an endoscope system. The patient, who was diagnosed with a benign pleomorphic adenoma, underwent endoscope-assisted transoral accessory parotid mass excision. The follow-up time was 6 months. The patient experienced no serious postoperative complications or recurrence. Resection of an accessory parotid mass can be performed via an endoscope-assisted transoral approach. In this study, we describe the procedure of the endoscope-assisted transoral resection. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. [Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma: diagnostic and surgical treatment strategy].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun-chao; Zhan, Han-xiang; Zhang, Tai-ping; Zhao, Yu-pei

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the clinical features, diagnostic and therapeutic strategy of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma. The data of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma patients who underwent surgical operations from January 2002 to January 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Six cases of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma, identified with pathology were collected, including 3 males and 3 females with the average of 47.8 yeas old. Upper abdominal pain was present in 5 cases, weight loss was present in 4 cases with the average of 12.5 kg. Other symptoms included nausea/vomiting, back pain and obstructive jaundice. The serum CA19-9 and CA24-2 level were significantly elevated in 2 cases. CT scan, MRI and DSA were the main imaging methods to diagnose this disease. However, no case was diagnosed as pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma before operation. All cases were confirmed by the pathological examination. Relatively high rates of surgical resection, long operative time, more blood loss and combined multi-organ resection were the characteristics of this disease's operative surgical procedures. The average period of postoperative follow-up process was 60 months, and the mean survival time was (32 ± 8) months. The clinical features and biological behavior of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma are different from those of ductal adenocarcinoma, while the relatively specific clinical manifestations and imaging changes will be helpful for qualitative diagnosis before operation. As it has high rate of resection and better prognosis, more radical surgical strategies should be carried out for patients of this disease.

  13. Therapeutic potential of targeting acinar cell reprogramming in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi-Hin; Li, You-Jia; Chen, Yang-Chao

    2016-08-21

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a common pancreatic cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Treating this life-threatening disease remains challenging due to the lack of effective prognosis, diagnosis and therapy. Apart from pancreatic duct cells, acinar cells may also be the origin of PDAC. During pancreatitis or combined with activating KRas(G12D) mutation, acinar cells lose their cellular identity and undergo a transdifferentiation process called acinar-to-ductal-metaplasia (ADM), forming duct cells which may then transform into pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and eventually PDAC. During ADM, the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, Wnt, Notch and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases/Akt signaling inhibits the transcription of acinar-specific genes, including Mist and amylase, but promotes the expression of ductal genes, such as cytokeratin-19. Inhibition of this transdifferentiation process hinders the development of PanIN and PDAC. In addition, the transdifferentiated cells regain acinar identity, indicating ADM may be a reversible process. This provides a new therapeutic direction in treating PDAC through cancer reprogramming. Many studies have already demonstrated the success of switching PanIN/PDAC back to normal cells through the use of PD325901, the expression of E47, and the knockdown of Dickkopf-3. In this review, we discuss the signaling pathways involved in ADM and the therapeutic potential of targeting reprogramming in order to treat PDAC.

  14. Pathology and genetics of pancreatic neoplasms with acinar differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wood, Laura D; Klimstra, David S

    2014-11-01

    Pancreatic neoplasms with acinar differentiation, including acinar cell carcinoma, pancreatoblastoma, and carcinomas with mixed differentiation, are distinctive pancreatic neoplasms with a poor prognosis. These neoplasms are clinically, pathologically, and genetically unique when compared to other more common pancreatic neoplasms. Most occur in adults, although pancreatoblastomas usually affect children under 10 years old. All of these neoplasms exhibit characteristic histologic features including a solid or acinar growth pattern, dense neoplastic cellularity, uniform nuclei with prominent nucleoli, and granular eosinophilic cytoplasm. Exocrine enzymes are detectable by immunohistochemistry and, for carcinomas with mixed differentiation, neuroendocrine or ductal lineage markers are also expressed. The genetic alterations of this family of neoplasms largely differ from conventional ductal adenocarcinomas, with only rare mutations in TP53, KRAS, and p16, but no single gene or neoplastic pathway is consistently altered in acinar neoplasms. Instead, there is striking genomic instability, and a subset of cases has mutations in the APC/β-catenin pathway, mutations in SMAD4, RAF gene family fusions, or microsatellite instability. Therapeutically targetable mutations are often present. This review summarizes the clinical and pathologic features of acinar neoplasms and reviews the current molecular data on these uncommon tumors.

  15. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Mlika, Mona; Kourda, Nadia; Zidi, YSH; Aloui, Raoudha; Zneidi, Nadia; Rammeh, Soumaya; Zermani, Rachida; Jilani, Sarah Ben

    2012-01-01

    Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is an uncommon tumor, highly aggressive. About 200 cases have been reported in the English literature. Pathomorphologically, these tumors showed great similarities to ductal carcinoma of the female breast, which is why they described this tumor as “salivary duct carcinoma.” The authors describe a new case of salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland. We present the case of a 50-year-old patient with progressive facial paralysis. The MRI examination of the head showed two ill-defined formations. A malignant tumor was strongly suspected, so that a total left parotidectomy with excision of the adjacent facial nerve and left lymph node dissection was performed. Microscopic examination concluded to a salivary duct carcinoma of the left parotid gland negative with Her2/neu antibody with lymph node metastasis. There were no recurrences or metastases within 3 years of follow-up. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is a rare tumor with an aggressive behavior. This is due to its propensity to infiltrate distant organs. The diagnosis is based on microscopic examination. Treatment modalities are non-consensual, but some authors advocate the necessity of aggressive approach, especially in tumors negative with Heur2/neu antibody. This is due to the fact that the overexpression of this antigen was reported to be associated with a poor prognosis. PMID:22434951

  16. Bilateral Parotid Swelling in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yakubov, Yakov; Mandel, Louis

    2016-05-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is recognized by the presence of polycystic ovaries, irregular menstruation, and increased androgen levels. Many patients have insulin resistance or impaired glucose tolerance and an associated development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A patient with PCOS is presented whose cosmetic concerns centered on the prolonged existence of substantial bilateral parotid swelling. The pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy of sialosis are discussed.

  17. Pet rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, E V

    1994-01-01

    Pet rabbits are becoming more common, and rabbit owners are demanding quality veterinary care. This article provides a broad overview of pet rabbit medicine, which is a relatively new field compared to laboratory and farm rabbit medicine. The most common differential diagnoses for presenting complaints are summarized in table form. Disease conditions are reviewed individually in the text. Sources of further information on veterinary care of rabbits are listed throughout the text, in an appendix, and in the references.

  18. A rare case of chronic sialadenitis of accessory parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Nilam Uttam; Thakare, Samir; Wadkar, Gaurav; Gaikwad, Ninad

    2014-01-01

    The accessory parotid gland is salivary tissue adjacent to stenson's duct that is separated from the main parotid gland and lying on masseter muscle. It has secondary duct empting into the stenson's duct. The differential diagnosis of mid-cheek masses include pathology arising from normal anatomic structures or from variations of normal accessory parotid gland tissue. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for the accessory parotid gland tumor. We report a case of accessory parotid gland with chronic sialadenitis in a 26 years old male with the diagnosis and treatment. Accessory parotid gland pathologies should be included in the differential diagnosis of a patient presently with a mid-cheek mass.

  19. Loss of acinar cell IKKα triggers spontaneous pancreatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Wu, Xuefeng; Holzer, Ryan G.; Lee, Jun-Hee; Todoric, Jelena; Park, Eek-Joong; Ogata, Hisanobu; Gukovskaya, Anna S.; Gukovsky, Ilya; Pizzo, Donald P.; VandenBerg, Scott; Tarin, David; Atay, Çiǧdem; Arkan, Melek C.; Deerinck, Thomas J.; Moscat, Jorge; Diaz-Meco, Maria; Dawson, David; Erkan, Mert; Kleeff, Jörg; Karin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease that causes progressive destruction of pancreatic acinar cells and, ultimately, loss of pancreatic function. We investigated the role of IκB kinase α (IKKα) in pancreatic homeostasis. Pancreas-specific ablation of IKKα (IkkαΔpan) caused spontaneous and progressive acinar cell vacuolization and death, interstitial fibrosis, inflammation, and circulatory release of pancreatic enzymes, clinical signs resembling those of human chronic pancreatitis. Loss of pancreatic IKKα causes defective autophagic protein degradation, leading to accumulation of p62-mediated protein aggregates and enhanced oxidative and ER stress in acinar cells, but none of these effects is related to NF-κB. Pancreas-specific p62 ablation prevented ER and oxidative stresses and attenuated pancreatitis in IkkαΔpan mice, suggesting that cellular stress induced by p62 aggregates promotes development of pancreatitis. Importantly, downregulation of IKKα and accumulation of p62 aggregates were also observed in chronic human pancreatitis. Our studies demonstrate that IKKα, which may control autophagic protein degradation through its interaction with ATG16L2, plays a critical role in maintaining pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis, whose dysregulation promotes pancreatitis through p62 aggregate accumulation. PMID:23563314

  20. Wide excision of accessory parotid gland with anterior approach.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hwan Jun; Lee, Young Man; Kim, Jun Hyuk; Tark, Min Seong; Lee, Jang Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Accessory parotid gland tissue has been described as salivary tissue adjacent to the Stensen duct that is distinctly separate from the main body of the parotid gland. Of all parotid gland tumors, 1% to 8% arise from the accessory parotid gland. Little is known about the accessory parotid gland, and it is seldom mentioned in the literature. Between 1999 and 2010, we have treated and followed 8 patients with tumors of the accessory parotid gland. There were 5 males and 3 females with a mean age of 35 years. They all presented with an asymptomatic cheek mass, and 4 of them underwent fine-needle aspiration. Ultrasound or computed tomographic scan was used in all patients. All the patients underwent surgical intervention with standard parotidectomy incision and anterior extension. The mean follow-up time was 44 months (range, 6-120 months). Seven patients had benign disease. Four cases were pleomorphic adenoma, and the remaining 3 benign cases were parotid cyst, basal cell adenoma, and hemangioma. Only 1 patient had a malignant tumor that was a lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma. In 7 cases, wide excision (excision of mass and accessory lobe of the parotid gland) was done because of the intra-accessory parotid gland lesion. One patient had concomitant superficial parotidectomy because the tumor was located very close to and has involved the parotid gland proper. There was no serious postoperative complication and recurrence. Prudent preoperative diagnostic evaluation and meticulous surgical approach are the keys to successful management of midcheek lesions. A wide excision of the accessory lobe of the parotid gland can be a definitive surgery in case of solitary tumor with an intact parotid fascia, and wide excision with anterior approach through a standard parotidectomy incision is preferred to a direct incision over the mass.

  1. Parotid salivary secretory pattern in bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Riad, M; Barton, J R; Wilson, J A; Freeman, C P; Maran, A G

    1991-01-01

    Parotid gland enlargement occurs in about 25% of patients with the binge eating syndrome of bulimia nervosa. The parotid salivary secretory patterns in 28 bulimics were determined in order to investigate the functional abnormality in the glands. Bulimia patients had a reduced resting flow rate. Bulimics who developed sialadenosis (4 patients) had reduced resting and stimulated flow rates. The salivary amylase activity was increased in both the resting and stimulated states in bulimics and the sialadenosis group. The resting total protein levels were greater in the bulimics. The electrolyte and immunoglobulin levels were within normal limits. The possibility of protein and enzymatic secretory disturbances due to autonomic nerve disorders as an explanation for the development of sialadenosis in bulimia nervosa is discussed.

  2. [Acute parotiditis after tracheostomy in Intensive Care].

    PubMed

    Serviá Goixart, L; Badía, M; Campi, D; Trujillano, J; Alcega, R; Vilanova, J

    2006-01-01

    Post-anesthesic parotiditis is a little known entity related with anesthesic procedures but described in any situation that motivates manipulation of the oropharyngeal cavity. Its physiopathological mechanism is not well-defined, although it could have a multifactorial origin. A case of a male who was admitted for post-operative control of brain tumor exeresis and who had preauricular and submaxillary inflammation after a routinely performed tracheostomy is presented. Coincidence with the performing of a tracheostomy required us to propose the differential diagnosis with the complications associated to said surgical act. Post-anesthesic parotiditis, even though it is a rare complication and has no clinical significance, should be kept in mind when there is facial edema after any manipulation of the oropharyngeal cavity.

  3. Intraparotid ductal ectasia: rare cause of parotid swelling.

    PubMed

    Chahed, Houda; Meherzi, Samia; Mediouni, Azza; Ben Amor, Mohamed

    2017-07-27

    A 41-year-old patient was hospitalised for a chronic right parotid mass. A cervical ultrasound revealed a cystic mass of the parotid. Cervical MRI found a ductal ectasia of the parotid and submandibular glands associated with a retention cyst of the right parotid. He had a right total parotidectomy. Histopathological examination of the lesion revealed a multilocular cystic mass with a diffuse glandular ectasia of salivary ducts. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course without any recurrence of symptoms. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Rabbit medicine.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Dinah G

    2007-01-01

    When filling prescriptions for a rabbit, it is important to know whether the rabbit is a pet or is being raised as a source of food for human consumption. Several drugs widely used for pet rabbits are prohibited from exralabel use in animals raised for food production. The list of banned drugs should always be perused prior to filling a prescription for a rabbit being raised for food production. Since no veterinary-approved products exist for rabbits and most medications must be compounded, pharmacists are likely to encounter prescriptions for rabbits in their practice. A basic understanding of rabbit anatomy, physiolgy and common diseases will assist pharmacists in distinguishing between safe and dangerous drugs for administration to rabbits.

  5. Disposable rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  6. Disposal rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.

    1983-10-12

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  7. Valproic acid-associated sialadenosis of the parotid and submandibular glands: diagnostic and therapeutic aspects.

    PubMed

    Mauz, P S; Mörike, K; Kaiserling, E; Brosch, S

    2005-04-01

    Sialadenosis has been defined as a non-inflammatory, parenchymatous salivary gland disease causing recurrent, bilateral swelling of the salivary glands. As an adverse drug reaction of valproic acid, sialadenosis is very rare. To our knowledge, it has been reported only once in the world literature to date. We present herein the case of a patient with valproic acid-associated sialadenosis of both the parotid and submandibular glands. This appears to be the first published case of a patient who received surgical treatment. On light and electron microscopy of all the affected salivary glands, granular sialadenosis with predominantly moderate electron-dense secretory cytoplasmatic granules was observed. No relevant degenerative alterations were seen. There was no histological evidence of peripheral neuropathy of the nerve supply, leading to disordered activity of acinar cells by loss of neurosecretory granules. Lateral parotidectomy, performed under neuromonitoring control for safety reasons, is the treatment of choice for chronic recurrent parotitis that does not respond to conservative therapy, particularly if the cosmetic deformity is unacceptable to the patient. If the submandibular glands are involved, partial removal is recommended.

  8. HIV-associated cystic lesions of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Noriko; Takano, Ken-Ichi; Kobayashi, Hajime; Kikuchi, Keisuke; Matsumiya, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Iwao; Himi, Tetsuo

    2017-02-01

    We present two cases of an HIV-associated parotid gland cyst. One case was a 36-year-old HIV infected woman. She was diagnosed with HIV infection and presented with slowly enlarged parotid gland cysts together with elevation of HIV viral RNA copies/mL in her serum. She was performed parotid gland biopsy under the general anesthesia. The histopathologic analysis revealed negative HIV p24-antigen in her parotid gland tissue. The other case was a 43-year-old man found his parotid gland swelling shortly after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). He was diagnosed with HIV infection 2 years previously. He had started HAART several days before. He showed exceeding elevation of IgE in his serum. We treated him with medication using anti-histamic drugs for his cyst. A computed tomography scan revealed a complete response of his parotid gland cyst 4 weeks after the medication. His serum IgE level was decreased to half of the level before the medication. These findings suggested that the parotid gland swelling associated with HIV was due to various factors including immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In case such a parotid gland swelling, we could avoid invasive treatments.

  9. [The hemodynamics of the parotid glands in children consuming carbohydrates].

    PubMed

    Sigal, Z M; Redinova, T L

    1989-01-01

    The rate of sweets consumption was shown to determine, to a large extent, the salivary glands function. In children rarely consuming sweets the parotid blood flow and salivation increased after intake of a 10% sucrose solution. In children abusing sweets even crystal sugar failed to change the parotid glands blood filling with salivation virtually unaltered.

  10. Horner's syndrome associated with parotid duct obstruction in a sheep.

    PubMed

    Loste, Araceli; Ramos, Juan J; Ferrer, Luis M; Climent, Salvador; Latre, Maria V

    2006-12-01

    A 9-year old, Rasa Aragonesa ewe was presented with a left-sided, facial, soft fluctuant swelling. The postmortem examination showed grass awns filling the entire length of the parotid gland duct. The presence of parotid duct obstruction with Horner's syndrome, previously unreported in sheep, is discussed.

  11. Accessory parotid gland lesions: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Stenner, M; Preuss, S F; Hüttenbrink, K-B; Klussmann, J P

    2008-09-01

    There are numerous causes for chronic cheek swelling, including masseteric hypertrophy, lymphadenopathy, diffuse inflammatory changes and neoplasia. We report an unusual case of a recurrent swelling as the result of sialolithiasis of an accessory parotid gland, which lay isolated from the main parotid gland along the Stensen's duct. The calculi developed in the accessory salivary tissue whereas all major salivary glands presented without sialolithiasis. Clinical findings as well as imaging results are shown and surgical management and histopathology are discussed. Hereby, for the first time we report a case with multiple calculi in an accessory parotid gland removed via a standard parotid incision. Further to this, we give a comprehensive review of literature on accessory parotid gland lesions.

  12. ANF and exocrine pancreas: ultrastructural autoradiographic localization in acinar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chabot, J.G.; Morel, G.; Belles-Isles, M.; Jeandel, L.; Heisler, S.

    1988-03-01

    Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) binding sites have been recently demonstrated to be present in exocrine pancreas by an in vitro autoradiographic approach. An autoradiographic study was carried out to identify the exocrine cells containing ANF binding sites and to monitor the fate of /sup 125/I-labeled ANF in acinar cells after removal of pancreas at specific time intervals (1-30 min) after intravenous administration. At the light microscopic level, silver grains were found over acinar and centroacinar cells. Concomitant injection of an excess of unlabeled ANF inhibited the binding of labeled peptide by approximately 60%. At the electron microscopic level, the time-course study in acinar cells has revealed that of the cell compartments examined, plasma membrane, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, and zymogen granules, the nucleus had distinct labeling patterns. Plasma membrane was maximally labeled 1 and 2 min after injection with /sup 125/I-ANF. Golgi apparatus was significantly labeled from 2 to 30 min after injection, mitochondria from 1 to 30 min after injection, zymogen granules at 1 and 15 min, and the nucleus only at 30 min. The lysosomal compartment was not labeled during the 30-min observation period. These results suggest that after binding to the plasma membrane, ANF is rapidly internalized and distributed to the intracellular organelles as a function of time. Labeling of the zymogen granules suggests that they may bind ANF and that the atrial peptide may be secreted by acinar cells. The significance of association of radioactivity with mitochondria and nuclei remains to be elucidated but may represent intracellular sites of action of ANF complementary to those on plasma membranes.

  13. Postmortem acinar autolysis in rat sublingual gland: a morphometric study

    PubMed Central

    NERY, Leticia Rodrigues; MOREIRA, Carla Ruffeil; CESTARI, Tania Mary; TAGA, Rumio; DAMANTE, José Humberto

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze and to quantify morphological acinar postmortem changes in rat sublingual glands (SLG). Material and Methods Fifty rats were divided into two groups of 25 animals each. Group I was used for morphological and morphometric evaluations and group II for the determination of gland density and processed gland volume. Acinar autolytic changes were studied at 0 (control group), 3, 6, 12 and 24 h postmortem periods. The morphometric analysis of the volume density (Vv) and total volume (VT) of intact (ia) and autolyzed (aa) acini was performed under light microscopy using a Zeiss II integration grid with 100 symmetrically distributed points. Results Morphologically, temporal progressive nuclear alterations and gradual loss of the structural architecture of acinar cells were found. Regarding quantitative results, both the Vvaa and the Vvia showed statistically significant differences among all postmortem periods (p<0.05). Vvaa increased from 0.42% at 0 h to 75.84% at 24 h postmortem and Vvia decreased from 71.16% to 0% over the same period. For VTaa and VTia, no statistically significant differences occurred between 12-24 h and 0-3 h (p>0.05), respectively. Vtaa increased from 0.18 mm3 at 0 h to 38.17 mm3 at 12 h, while Vtia showed a decrease from 33.47 mm3 to 0 mm3 between 3-24 h postmortem. Data concerning VTaa were adjusted by twovariable linear regression, obtaining the equation: y=-3.54 + 3.38x (r2=0.90). The VTaa growth rate calculated by this equation was 3.38 mm3/h between 0-12 h. Conclusion Acinar autolysis on rat SLG demonstrated the most significant signs during the first 6 h postmortem and was widely spread through the gland at 12 h. PMID:21085809

  14. Postmortem acinar autolysis in rat sublingual gland: a morphometric study.

    PubMed

    Nery, Leticia Rodrigues; Moreira, Carla Ruffeil; Cestari, Tania Mary; Taga, Rumio; Damante, José Humberto

    2010-01-01

    To analyze and to quantify morphological acinar postmortem changes in rat sublingual glands (SLG). MATERIAL AND METHODSs: Fifty rats were divided into two groups of 25 animals each. Group I was used for morphological and morphometric evaluations and group II for the determination of gland density and processed gland volume. Acinar autolytic changes were studied at 0 (control group), 3, 6, 12 and 24 h postmortem periods. The morphometric analysis of the volume density (Vv) and total volume (Vt) of intact (ia) and autolyzed (aa) acini was performed under light microscopy using a Zeiss II integration grid with 100 symmetrically distributed points. Morphologically, temporal progressive nuclear alterations and gradual loss of the structural architecture of acinar cells were found. Regarding quantitative results, both the Vvaa and the Vvia showed statistically significant differences among all postmortem periods (p<0.05). Vvaa increased from 0.42% at 0 h to 75.84% at 24 h postmortem and Vvia decreased from 71.16% to 0% over the same period. For Vtaa and Vtia, no statistically significant differences occurred between 12-24 h and 0-3 h (p>0.05), respectively. Vtaa increased from 0.18 mm³ at 0 h to 38.17 mm³ at 12 h, while Vtia showed a decrease from 33.47 mm³ to 0 mm³ between 3-24 h postmortem. Data concerning Vtaa were adjusted by two-variable linear regression, obtaining the equation: y=-3.54+3.38x (r²=0.90). The Vtaa growth rate calculated by this equation was 3.38 mm³/h between 0-12 h. Acinar autolysis on rat SLG demonstrated the most significant signs during the first 6 h postmortem and was widely spread through the gland at 12 h.

  15. DENTAL CARIES AND SYSTEMIC STATUS. PAROTID FLUID FLOW RATE, PAROTID FLUID, AND SERUM CHLORIDE AS RELATED TO DENTAL CARIES EXPERIENCE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Chloride determinations were carried out on blood serum and parotid fluid obtained at a very low flow rate from 527 apparently healthy young adult...males classified as to dental caries experience (DMFS). There was no indication that parotid fluid flow rate or the chloride concentration of either of the fluids could be in any way related to dental caries experience. (Author)

  16. Parotitis and Sialendoscopy of the Parotid Gland.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Stephen; Busso, Carlos; Walvekar, Rohan R

    2016-04-01

    Nonneoplastic disorders of the salivary glands involve inflammatory processes. These disorders have been managed conservatively with antibiotics, warm compresses, massage, sialogogues, and adequate hydration. Up to 40% of patients may have an inadequate response or persistent symptoms. When conservative techniques fail, the next step is operative intervention. Sialendoscopy offers a minimally invasive option for the diagnosis and management of chronic inflammatory disorders of the salivary glands and offers the option of gland and function preservation. In this article, we review some of the more common nonneoplastic disorders of the parotid gland, indications for diagnostic and interventional sialendoscopy, and operative techniques.

  17. Acinar neoplasms of the pancreas-A summary of 25 years of research.

    PubMed

    Klimstra, David S; Adsay, Volkan

    2016-09-01

    Our understanding about the family of acinar neoplasms of the pancreas has grown substantially over the past 25 years. The prototype is acinar cell carcinoma, an uncommon variant of pancreatic carcinoma that demonstrates production of pancreatic exocrine enzymes, verifiable using immunohistochemistry, and exhibits characteristic histologic features. Related neoplasms include mixed acinar carcinomas such as mixed acinar neuroendocrine carcinoma and mixed acinar ductal carcinoma. In the pediatric age group, pancreatoblastoma is also closely related. Cystic and extrapancreatic forms have been described. These neoplasms share molecular alterations that are distinct from the more common ductal and neuroendocrine neoplasms of the pancreas. Although there is a broad range of genetic findings, a number of potential therapeutic targets have emerged. This review explores the clinical and pathologic features of pancreatic acinar neoplasms along with their more common molecular phenotypes. The differential diagnosis with other pancreatic neoplasms is explored as well.

  18. Transport of alpha-amylase across the basolateral membrane of the pancreatic acinar cell.

    PubMed Central

    Isenman, L D; Rothman, S S

    1977-01-01

    The flux of alpha-amylase (1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.1) across the basolateral membrane of the acinar cell was measured in the cell-to-bath direction using the whole rabbit pancreas in organ culture. This in vitro preparation is polarized so that apical and basolateral secretions can be collected separately. The unstimulated amylase flux from cell to bath was substantial at the initial rate (approximately three times the concurrent apical flux). With time, bath amylase approached a steady-state concentration, suggesting an equilbrating process. During the same time interval, ductal amylase secretion remained constant. At the steady state, the amylase concentration in the bath was at least an order of magnitude less than its ductal concentration. Hourly replacement of bathing medium reproduced the initial rate of amylase release into the bath for five consecutive hours. Pancreozymin (cholecystokinin), a peptide hormone, did not alter the steady-state bath amylase content, although it greatly augmented ductal amylase secretion. In contrast, a cholinergic agonist greatly increased both the flux from the cell to bath and the ductal secretion of amylase. Taken together, these results indicate a natural bidirectional permeability of the basolateral membrane to digestive enzyme and support evidence previously obtained suggesting that such a permeability might exist. PMID:302947

  19. Changes of Chloride Channels in the Lacrimal Glands of a Rabbit Model of Sjögren’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nandoskar, Prachi; Wang, Yanru; Wei, Ruihua; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Ping; Lu, Michael; Huang, Jianyan; Thomas, Padmaja; Trousdale, Melvin D.; Ding, Chuanqing

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To test the hypothesis that expression of Na+-K+-2Cl− co-transporter-1 (NKCC1), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and chloride channel 2 γ subunit (ClC2γ) in the lacrimal glands (LG) of rabbits with induced autoimmune dacryoadenitis (IAD) are changed. Methods LGs were obtained from adult female rabbits with IAD, and age-matched female control rabbits. LGs were processed for laser capture microdissection, real time RT-PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence. Results In rabbits with IAD, mRNA abundances and protein expressions for NKCC1 and CFTR from whole LGs were significantly lower than in controls. mRNA abundances of NKCC1, CFTR, and ClC2γ from rabbits with IAD were significantly different from acini and ductal cells from controls. NKCC1 was localized to the basolateral membranes of all acinar and ductal cells, with weaker staining intensity in ductal cells, and the staining pattern from rabbits with IAD appeared similar to that from controls. CFTR was found as punctate aggregates in the apical cytoplasm of all acinar and ductal cells, with the intensity in ductal cells much stronger, and no significant difference between controls and rabbits with IAD. ClC2γ was also localized to the apical cytoplasm as punctate aggregates of all acinar cells, but not in ductal cells, and similar staining pattern was observed in rabbits with IAD to control rabbits. Conclusions Our data demonstrated significant changes of mRNA and protein expressions of NKCC1, CFTR, and ClC2γ in rabbits with IAD, suggesting that these changes may contribute to the altered lacrimal secretion, particularly Cl− transport, in rabbits with IAD. PMID:22157573

  20. Parotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Preserved parotid function after IMRT on quantitative salivary scintigraphy, and comparison with historical data after conventional radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, C.-Y. . E-mail: hsiungcy@hotmail.com; Ting, H.-M.; Huang, H.-Y.; Lee, C.-H.; Huang, E.-Y.; Hsu, H.-C.

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the parotid function after parotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: From March 2003 to May 2004, 16 patients with nonmetastatic NPC underwent parotid-sparing IMRT. Eight of these patients had Stage III or IV NPC based on the 1997 American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system. The post-IMRT parotid function was evaluated by quantitative salivary scintigraphy and represented by the maximal excretion ratio (MER) of the parotid gland after sialogogue stimulation. The parotid function of 16 NPC patients who were previously treated with conventional radiotherapy was reviewed as the historical control. Results: In the parotid-sparing IMRT group, all 16 patients were alive and without cancer at the end of follow-up period (median, 24.2 months). The mean parotid MER was 53.5% before radiotherapy, 10.7% at 1 month post-IMRT, and 23.3% at 9 months post-IMRT. In the conventional radiotherapy group, the mean parotid MER was 0.6% at 6 to 12 months postradiotherapy. The difference was statistically significant (23.3% vs. 0.6%, p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney test). In the IMRT group, the mean parotid doses ranged from 33.2 Gy to 58.8 Gy (average, 43.9 Gy). The correlation between the mean parotid dose and the percentage decrease of parotid MER at 9 months post-IMRT (dMER) was statically significant (p = 0.008, Pearson correlation). Conclusions: Although the mean parotid doses are relatively high, the significant preservation of parotid function is achieved with IMRT for NPC patients. The significant correlation between mean parotid dose and parotid dMER demonstrates the dose-function relationship of the parotid gland.

  1. Experimental acute pancreatitis induced by platelet activating factor in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Emanuelli, G.; Montrucchio, G.; Gaia, E.; Dughera, L.; Corvetti, G.; Gubetta, L.

    1989-01-01

    This study indicates that a single injection of platelet activating factor (PAF, 50-500 ng) into the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery of rabbits induces dose-dependent morphologic alterations of pancreatic tissue and increases serum amylase levels, both consistent with the development of an acute pancreatitis. The main histologic findings observed by light microscopy 24-72 hours after the injection of PAF were edema, polymorphonuclear neutrophil infiltration, cell vacuolization, and acinar cell necrosis. Fat cell necrosis was present in 30% of animals. By electron microscopy an increase of the number of zymogen granules in the apical region of acinar cells was observed 3 hours after PAF challenge. At 24-72 hours, many acinar cells showed vacuoles containing myelinlike figures, zymogen granules, and cellular debris. Pancreatic lesions developed in the area supplied by the artery injected with PAF and they were completely antagonized by the pretreatment of rabbits with CV 3988, a specific antagonist of PAF. In addition, the significant protective effect of atropine suggests a potential role for cholinergic mechanisms in the pancreatic alterations induced by PAF. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2464939

  2. Development of a Zealand white rabbit deposition model to study inhalation anthrax

    SciTech Connect

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-01-28

    Despite using rabbits in several inhalation exposure experiments to study diseases such as anthrax, there is a lack of understanding regarding deposition characteristics and fate of inhaled particles (bio-aerosols and viruses) in the respiratory tracts of rabbits. Such information allows dosimetric extrapolation to humans to inform human outcomes. The lung geometry of the New Zealand white rabbit (referred to simply as rabbits throughout the article) was constructed using recently acquired scanned images of the conducting airways of rabbits and available information on its acinar region. In addition, functional relationships were developed for the lung and breathing parameters of rabbits as a function of body weight. The lung geometry and breathing parameters were used to extend the existing deposition model for humans and several other species to rabbits. Evaluation of the deposition model for rabbits was made by comparing predictions with available measurements in the literature. Deposition predictions in the lungs of rabbits indicated smaller deposition fractions compared to those found in humans across various particle diameter ranges. The application of the deposition model for rabbits was demonstrated by extrapolating deposition predictions in rabbits to find equivalent human exposure concentrations assuming the same dose-response relationship between the two species. Human equivalent exposure concentration levels were found to be much smaller than those for rabbits.

  3. Development of a Zealand white rabbit deposition model to study inhalation anthrax.

    PubMed

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E; Einstein, Daniel R; Kuprat, Andrew P; Corley, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Despite using rabbits in several inhalation exposure experiments to study diseases such as anthrax, there is a lack of understanding regarding deposition characteristics and fate of inhaled particles (bio-aerosols and viruses) in the respiratory tracts of rabbits. Such information allows dosimetric extrapolation to humans to inform human outcomes. The lung geometry of the New Zealand white rabbit (referred to simply as rabbits throughout the article) was constructed using recently acquired scanned images of the conducting airways of rabbits and available information on its acinar region. In addition, functional relationships were developed for the lung and breathing parameters of rabbits as a function of body weight. The lung geometry and breathing parameters were used to extend the existing deposition model for humans and several other species to rabbits. Evaluation of the deposition model for rabbits was made by comparing predictions with available measurements in the literature. Deposition predictions in the lungs of rabbits indicated smaller deposition fractions compared to those found in humans across various particle diameter ranges. The application of the deposition model for rabbits was demonstrated by extrapolating deposition predictions in rabbits to find equivalent human exposure concentrations assuming the same dose-response relationship between the two species. Human equivalent exposure concentration levels were found to be much smaller than those for rabbits.

  4. Poorly differentiated carcinoma arising from adenolymphoma of the parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, Stefano; Cattaneo, Laura; Peri, Andrea; Braidotti, Paola; Cioffi, Ugo; Scaramellini, Gabriele; Ciulla, Michele M; De Simone, Matilde; Arizzi, Carmelo; Pignataro, Lorenzo

    2003-01-01

    Background There is only one previous case report of a poorly differentiated carcinoma arising from an adenolymphoma of the parotid gland (Warthin's tumour). The absence of clinical symptoms, and the aspecificity of the radiological pattern make the diagnosis very difficult. Case presentation We here report the case of a 73-year-old man with Warthin's tumour who was brought to our attention because of a swelling in the parotid region. Conclusions In this case with an atypical clinical presentation, the intra-operative examination of a frozen section of the parotid mass allowed us to diagnose the malignant tumour correctly and consequently undertake its radical excision. PMID:12533195

  5. Prostate specific antigen and acinar density: a new dimension, the "Prostatocrit".

    PubMed

    Robinson, Simon; Laniado, Marc; Montgomery, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen densities have limited success in diagnosing prostate cancer. We emphasise the importance of the peripheral zone when considered with its cellular constituents, the "prostatocrit". Using zonal volumes and asymmetry of glandular acini, we generate a peripheral zone acinar volume and density. With the ratio to the whole gland, we can better predict high grade and all grade cancer. We can model the gland into its acinar and stromal elements. This new "prostatocrit" model could offer more accurate nomograms for biopsy. 674 patients underwent TRUS and biopsy. Whole gland and zonal volumes were recorded. We compared ratio and acinar volumes when added to a "clinic" model using traditional PSA density. Univariate logistic regression was used to find significant predictors for all and high grade cancer. Backwards multiple logistic regression was used to generate ROC curves comparing the new model to conventional density and PSA alone. Prediction of all grades of prostate cancer: significant variables revealed four significant "prostatocrit" parameters: log peripheral zone acinar density; peripheral zone acinar volume/whole gland acinar volume; peripheral zone acinar density/whole gland volume; peripheral zone acinar density. Acinar model (AUC 0.774), clinic model (AUC 0.745) (P=0.0105). Prediction of high grade prostate cancer: peripheral zone acinar density ("prostatocrit") was the only significant density predictor. Acinar model (AUC 0.811), clinic model (AUC 0.769) (P=0.0005). There is renewed use for ratio and "prostatocrit" density of the peripheral zone in predicting cancer. This outperforms all traditional density measurements. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  6. Serotonin promotes acinar dedifferentiation following pancreatitis-induced regeneration in the adult pancreas.

    PubMed

    Saponara, Enrica; Grabliauskaite, Kamile; Bombardo, Marta; Buzzi, Raphael; Silva, Alberto B; Malagola, Ermanno; Tian, Yinghua; Hehl, Adrian B; Schraner, Elisabeth M; Seleznik, Gitta M; Zabel, Anja; Reding, Theresia; Sonda, Sabrina; Graf, Rolf

    2015-12-01

    The exocrine pancreas exhibits a distinctive capacity for tissue regeneration and renewal following injury. This regenerative ability has important implications for a variety of disorders, including pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, diseases associated with high morbidity and mortality. Thus, understanding its underlying mechanisms may help in developing therapeutic interventions. Serotonin has been recognized as a potent mitogen for a variety of cells and tissues. Here we investigated whether serotonin exerts a mitogenic effect in pancreatic acinar cells in three regenerative models, inflammatory tissue injury following pancreatitis, tissue loss following partial pancreatectomy, and thyroid hormone-stimulated acinar proliferation. Genetic and pharmacological techniques were used to modulate serotonin levels in vivo. Acinar dedifferentiation and cell cycle progression during the regenerative phase were investigated over the course of 2 weeks. By comparing acinar proliferation in the different murine models of regeneration, we found that serotonin did not affect the clonal regeneration of mature acinar cells. Serotonin was, however, required for acinar dedifferentiation following inflammation-mediated tissue injury. Specifically, lack of serotonin resulted in delayed up-regulation of progenitor genes and delayed the formation of acinar-to-ductal metaplasia and defective acinar cell proliferation. We identified serotonin-dependent acinar secretion as a key step in progenitor-based regeneration, as it promoted acinar cell dedifferentiation and the recruitment of type 2 macrophages. Finally, we identified a regulatory Hes1-Ptfa axis in the uninjured adult pancreas, activated by zymogen secretion. Our findings indicated that serotonin plays a critical role in the regeneration of the adult pancreas following pancreatitis by promoting the dedifferentiation of acinar cells.

  7. Solitary fibrous tumor of the parotid gland: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Alexandre A.; Souto, Giovanna R.; Sousa, Isabela A.; Mesquita, Ricardo A.; Gomez, Ricardo S.

    2013-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle cell neoplasm that usually develops in the pleura and peritoneum. The head and neck region is involved in only 6% of the cases. Involvement of the parotid gland is a rare phenomenon, with only 24 cases reported in the literature. The aim of this study is to report an additional case of SFT affecting the parotid gland, and to review the literature on previously reported cases. The patient was a 42-year-old male with a 4-cm, fibro-elastic, movable, painless nodule in the inferior lobe of the parotid gland. The lesion was surgically excised and, following histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis, a diagnosis of SFT was rendered. The patient has been followed-up for ten months, with no signs of recurrence. Clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical and treatment aspects of the tumor are discussed. Key words:Solitary fibrous tumor, parotid gland, case report. PMID:24455083

  8. Congenital salivary fistula of accessory parotid gland: imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Gadodia, A; Seith, A; Sharma, R; Thakar, A

    2008-03-01

    We report the imaging findings in a rare case of an accessory parotid gland fistula. An eight-year-old boy was presented with complaints of serous discharge from his left cheek since birth. As part of the radiological investigation, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography sialography with fistulography, and digital sialography with fistulography were performed. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the exact location of an accessory parotid gland but failed to demonstrate the accessory duct. The presence of an accessory gland was well delineated on computed tomography fistulography and computed tomography sialography. Fistulography revealed a small accessory parotid duct and gland. No communication between the ductal systems of both glands was demonstrated. In such cases, pre-operative imaging (with sialography, magnetic resonance sialography and computed tomography sialography with fistulography) is helpful for exact delineation of the ductal anatomy. To the best of our knowledge, only four previous cases of congenital accessory parotid gland fistula have been reported in the English literature.

  9. Solitary fibrous tumor of the parotid gland: Case report.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Alexandre A; Souto, Giovanna R; Sousa, Isabela A; Mesquita, Ricardo A; Gomez, Ricardo S; Jham, Bruno C

    2013-10-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle cell neoplasm that usually develops in the pleura and peritoneum. The head and neck region is involved in only 6% of the cases. Involvement of the parotid gland is a rare phenomenon, with only 24 cases reported in the literature. The aim of this study is to report an additional case of SFT affecting the parotid gland, and to review the literature on previously reported cases. The patient was a 42-year-old male with a 4-cm, fibro-elastic, movable, painless nodule in the inferior lobe of the parotid gland. The lesion was surgically excised and, following histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis, a diagnosis of SFT was rendered. The patient has been followed-up for ten months, with no signs of recurrence. Clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical and treatment aspects of the tumor are discussed. Key words:Solitary fibrous tumor, parotid gland, case report.

  10. Sialendoscopy-assisted transfacial surgical removal of parotid stones.

    PubMed

    Capaccio, Pasquale; Pasquale, Capaccio; Gaffuri, Michelle; Michele, Gaffuri; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Lorenzo, Pignataro

    2014-12-01

    Minimally invasive surgical approaches to parotid stones (such as extra-corporeal shockwave lithotripsy and sialendoscopy) have proved to be effective in a high percentage of cases, although success depends on factors such as the localisation of the stone, its size and its mobility. The failure rate of 10% is largely due to large and impacted stones and, in such cases, a combined external and sialendoscopic approach can be used to avoid morbidity and the risks of more invasive superficial parotidectomy. We treated eight patients with large parotid stones (>7 mm) using a sialendoscopy-assisted transfacial surgical approach that was effective in all but one case, which was successfully solved by combining this procedure with extra-corporeal lithotripsy and operative sialendoscopy. Our results confirm that the combined approach is a valid alternative to parotidectomy for large parotid stones and should be added to other minimally invasive techniques aimed at restoring the function of the affected parotid gland.

  11. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Barrios-Sánchez, Gracia M; Dean-Ferrer, Alicia; Alamillos-Granados, Francisco J; Ruiz-Masera, Juan José; Zafra-Camacho, Francisco M; García de Marcos, José A; Calderón-Bohórquez, José M

    2005-01-01

    Inflammatory pseudotumor is a term that refers to a reactive pseudoneoplastic disorder that can appear in different locations of the human body. The lung is the most frequently affected organ. The etiology is still unknown. It affects individuals of both sexes and of a wide range of ages. The diagnosis is still difficult and it is based on the histological examination of the lesions composed of four cell-types: histiocytes, myofibroblasts, plasma cells and lymphocytes. With regard to the treatment regimes there is no agreement. Treatment ranges from surgical excision to radiotherapy, chemotherapy or steroids. The purpose of this article is to report one case of inflammatory pseudotumor located in the parotid gland and to make a special point of the difficulty in arriving at a correct diagnosis in order to achieve the most adequate treatment.

  12. Recurrent Parotid Carcinosarcoma in an Asymptomatic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Joshua; Mangaonkar, Abhishek; Kota, Vamsi

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present the case of a 52-year-old male with a history of parotid carcinosarcoma with initial diagnosis being 18 months prior. Initial treatment included a combination of gamma knife surgery coupled with high dosage chemotherapy and X-ray radiation therapy. At the time of follow-up, the patient presented with no complaints and had a nearly normal physical exam with the exception of some facial nerve weakness on the same side as the initial surgery. Despite being asymptomatic, the patient had a significant progression of disease that was manifested with intracranial lesions, multiple pathologic fractures, and a dramatic increase in overall tumor burden. Ultimately, the patient decided to pursue comfort measures only and succumbed to the disease peacefully soon thereafter. PMID:27847832

  13. Murine pulmonary acinar mechanics during quasi-static inflation using synchrotron refraction-enhanced computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Sera, Toshihiro; Yokota, Hideo; Tanaka, Gaku; Uesugi, Kentaro; Yagi, Naoto; Schroter, Robert C

    2013-07-15

    We visualized pulmonary acini in the core regions of the mouse lung in situ using synchrotron refraction-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and evaluated their kinematics during quasi-static inflation. This CT system (with a cube voxel of 2.8 μm) allows excellent visualization of not just the conducting airways, but also the alveolar ducts and sacs, and tracking of the acinar shape and its deformation during inflation. The kinematics of individual alveoli and alveolar clusters with a group of terminal alveoli is influenced not only by the connecting alveolar duct and alveoli, but also by the neighboring structures. Acinar volume was not a linear function of lung volume. The alveolar duct diameter changed dramatically during inflation at low pressures and remained relatively constant above an airway pressure of ∼8 cmH2O during inflation. The ratio of acinar surface area to acinar volume indicates that acinar distension during low-pressure inflation differed from that during inflation over a higher pressure range; in particular, acinar deformation was accordion-like during low-pressure inflation. These results indicated that the alveoli and duct expand differently as total acinar volume increases and that the alveolar duct may expand predominantly during low-pressure inflation. Our findings suggest that acinar deformation in the core regions of the lung is complex and heterogeneous.

  14. Helical Tomotherapy for Parotid Gland Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tae Kyu; Rosen, Isaac I.; Gibbons, John P.; Fields, Robert S.; Hogstrom, Kenneth R.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate helical tomotherapy (HT) intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) as a postoperative treatment for parotid gland tumors. Methods and Materials: Helical tomotherapy plans were developed for 4 patients previously treated with segmental multileaf collimator (SMLC) IMRT. A primary planning target volume (PTV64) and two secondary PTVs (PTV60, PTV54) were defined. The clinical goals from the SMLC plans were applied as closely as possible to the HT planning. The SMLC plans included bolus, whereas HT plans did not. Results: In general, the HT plans showed better target coverage and target dose homogeneity. The minimum doses to the desired coverage volume were greater, on average, in the HT plans for all the targets. Minimum PTV doses were larger, on average, in the HT plans by 4.6 Gy (p = 0.03), 4.8 Gy (p = 0.06), and 4.9 Gy (p = 0.06) for PTV64, PTV60, and PTV54, respectively. Maximum PTV doses were smaller, on average, by 2.9 Gy (p = 0.23), 3.2 Gy (p = 0.02), and 3.6 Gy (p = 0.03) for PTV64, PTV60, and PTV54, respectively. Average dose homogeneity index was statistically smaller in the HT plans, and conformity index was larger for PTV64 in 3 patients. Tumor control probabilities were higher for 3 of the 4 patients. Sparing of normal structures was comparable for the two techniques. There were no significant differences between the normal tissue complication probabilities for the HT and SMLC plans. Conclusions: Helical tomotherapy treatment plans were comparable to or slightly better than SMLC plans. Helical tomotherapy is an effective alternative to SMLC IMRT for treatment of parotid tumors.

  15. [Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Guérin, Maxime; Diedhiou, Abdoulaye; Nallet, Emmanuel; Duflo, Suzy; Laé, Marick; Wassef, Michel

    2014-10-01

    Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the parotid gland is a rare and recently described lesion. We report the case of a 46-year-old man with a tumor of the parotid gland which was carried to the diagnosis of MASC. Diagnostic was confirmed by highlighting the ETV6-NTRK3 gene translocation. However, some morphologic and immunohistochemical features are suggestive of this entity. This carcinoma should be distinguished from its main differential diagnoses: acinic cell carcinoma and low grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma.

  16. Sebaceous lymphadenoma of parotid gland in a child.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guowen; Hu, Qingang; Huang, Xiaofeng; Tang, Enyi

    2009-02-01

    Sebaceous lymphadenoma is a rare tumor presenting predominantly in the parotid gland. Most sebaceous lymphadenomas are composed of variably sized sebaceous glands admixed with salivary ducts in a diffuse lymphoid background. The treatment is complete surgical excision, and this tumor is rarely recurrent. Reported here is a case of sebaceous lymphadenoma of the left parotid gland in a 16-year-old boy. A left superficial parotidectomy was performed.

  17. Cavernous hemangioma of the parotid gland in adults

    PubMed Central

    Peral-Cagigal, Beatriz; Madrigal-Rubiales, Beatriz; Verrier-Hernández, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Hemangiomas account for 0.4-0.6% of all tumors of the parotid gland and most of them occur in children, nevertheless in adults hemangiomas are very rare. We report the case of a 62 year old woman with a mass in the parotid right tail associated with fluctuating swelling episodes unrelated to meals and with a slowly progressive growth. The provisional diagnosis was a pleomorphic adenoma, so a right superficial parotidectomy was performed. During surgery, the macroscopic appearance makes suspect a vascular lesion. The histopathological result was a cavernous hemangioma. The classic clinical presentation of a parotid hemangioma is an intraglandular mass associated or not with skin lesions characterized by reddish macules and/or papules, and a vibration or pulsation when palpating the parotid region. In imaging tests, phleboliths could be observed which are very suggestive of a hemangioma or a vascular malformation. In the absence of these signs, the diagnosis could be difficult, particularly in an adult due to its low prevalence, with about 50 cases reported worldwide. However a hemangioma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of parotid tumors in adults. Key words:Cavernous hemangioma, parotid gland, superficial parotidectomy, pleomorphic adenoma. PMID:25674332

  18. An audit of surgery of the parotid gland.

    PubMed Central

    Deans, G. T.; Briggs, K.; Spence, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    The management of patients undergoing 50 surgical procedures to the parotid gland was reviewed. The overall accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology was 87%, false-positive and false-negative rates for malignant disease both being 4%. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of fine needle cytology for malignant parotid tumours was 66%, 95%, and 91%, respectively, that of benign tumours (pleomorphic adenoma or Warthin's tumour) being 88%, 83% and 87%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the remaining (principally inflammatory) parotid diseases was 100%, 95% and 96%, respectively. The predictive value of a positive test for malignant tumours, benign tumours and inflammatory conditions was 66%, 94% and 75%, respectively. The negative predictive value for these conditions was 95%, 71% and 100%, respectively. Facial nerve weakness after parotidectomy occurred in three patients (8.8%), being permanent in two cases (both malignant). Although Frey's syndrome was not recorded in any of the notes, careful follow-up revealed two cases (6%). To date there have been no local recurrences after excision of either benign or primary malignant parotid masses. One patient with squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the parotid gland died, despite block dissection of the neck and radiotherapy. This small series with a limited follow-up suggests that diseases of the parotid gland can be managed by general surgeons with an interest in this field. Although fine needle aspiration and ultrasonic scan may be helpful, the decision to operate should be made on clinical grounds. PMID:7598416

  19. Oxidative stress in alcohol-induced rat parotid sialadenosis.

    PubMed

    Campos, Sara Cristina Gonçalves; Moreira, Denise Aparecida Corrêa; Nunes, Terezinha D'Avila e Silva; Colepicolo, Pio; Brigagão, Maísa Ribeiro Pereira Lima

    2005-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of chronic ethanol consumption on the oxidative status of rat parotid and submandibular glands. To identify the endogenous response to ethanol ingestion, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined. In addition, the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol was supplied to the animals in order to estimate its action in ethanol-associated glandular damage. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and the protein carbonyl (PC) content, both markers of cellular oxidative stress on lipid and protein structures, respectively, were recorded. Animals subjected to alcohol ingestion showed a low body growth rate with concomitant enlargement of absolute and relative parotid wet weight, compared with pair-fed calorie-controlled rats. Parotid glands of ethanol-treated animals showed increased SOD and GPx activity, and alpha-tocopherol was able to reduce their activities to the control levels. TBARS and PC were enhanced after chronic ethanol treatment in rat parotids. Supplemental alpha-tocopherol suppressed the oxidative ethanol-induced damage in lipid without affecting induced protein oxidation. Submandibular glands revealed no alterations in the weight, enzymatic and oxidative parameters tested due to ethanol and/or alpha-tocopherol ingestion. These findings indicate the involvement of oxidative stress in parotid gland sialadenosis due to ethanol consumption and the capability of alpha-tocopherol to halt lipid damage, although this low-molecular antioxidant compound leads to neither increased glandular weight nor protein oxidation in ethanol-induced parotid alterations.

  20. [Acrylamid- and immunelectrophoretic separations of human parotid secretions from individuals with parotid tumors, chronic parotitis and sialadenosis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Eichner, H

    1976-11-01

    After previous examinations in normal parotid glands in this paper secretion of proteins in parotid glands with pleomorphic adenomas, Whartin tumors, parotid carcinomas, chronic parotitis and sialadenosis should be studied. Different discelectrophoretic and immunelectrophoretic runs were done. Thereby we got the following changes in electrophoreses: Pleomorphic adenomas generally show a more palid pattern in band-structure, caused by the diminished proteinconcentration in the secretions. Most remarkable are thereby the c1 and d1-4-bands. Immunelectrophoretic separations are normal. Whartin tumors show a different bandpattern in the anodal near gel region, which is enpowered by immunelectrophoretic runs. Secretions from parotid carcinomas show a characteristic change in bandstructure. There are found added bands which result from serumproteins as immunelectrophoretic examinations proof. The same is found in glands with parotitis in contrary to glands with sialadenosis.

  1. Functional somatostatin receptors on a rat pancreatic acinar cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Viguerie, N.; Tahiri-Jouti, N.; Esteve, J.P.; Clerc, P.; Logsdon, C.; Svoboda, M.; Susini, C.; Vaysse, N.; Ribet, A. Mount Zion Hospital and Medical Center, San Francisco, CA Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels )

    1988-07-01

    Somatostatin receptors from a rat pancreatic acinar cell line, AR4-2J, were characterized biochemically, structurally, and functionally. Binding of {sup 125}I-(Tyr{sup 11})Somatostatin to AR4-2J cells was saturable, exhibiting a single class of high-affinity binding sites with a maximal binding capacity of 258 {plus minus} 20 fmol/10{sup 6} cells. Somatostatin receptor structure was analyzed by covalently cross-linking {sup 125}I-(Tyr{sup 11})somatostatin to its plasma membrane receptors. Gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of cross-linked proteins revealed a peptide containing the somatostatin receptor. Somatostatin inhibited vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-stimulated adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) formation in a dose-dependent manner. The concentration of somatostatin that caused half-maximal inhibition of cAMP formation was close to the receptor affinity for somatostatin. Pertussis toxin pretreatment of AR4-2J cells prevented somatostatin inhibition of VIP-stimulated cAMP formation as well as somatostatin binding. The authors conclude that AR4-2J cells exhibit functional somatostatin receptors that retain both specificity and affinity of the pancreatic acinar cell somatostatin receptors and act via the pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide-binding protein N{sub i} to inhibit adenylate cyclase.

  2. Intermediate endocrine-acinar pancreatic cells in duct ligation conditions.

    PubMed

    Bertelli, E; Bendayan, M

    1997-11-01

    When tissues were subjected to 24 h of duct ligation, intermediate pancreatic cells simultaneously displaying endocrine and exocrine phenotypes appeared. Immunocytochemistry by laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed the appearance of a large number of these cells coexpressing insulin and amylase. These cells were located within the islets of Langerhans as well as in the acinar parenchyma. They were also detected in a culture system of isolated pancreatic cells. With the use of immunoelectron microscopy, two types of secretory granules were identified in these cells. One was insulin immunoreactive, whereas the other, resembling zymogen granules, contained amylase. Occasionally, some small granules displayed a double labeling for both secretory proteins. Numerous crinophagic bodies and autophagosomes containing insulin and/or amylase were also present. In situ hybridization, applied with the specific probes, confirmed the presence of both insulin and amylase mRNAs in these cells. Because duct ligation is known to induce insulin cell proliferation, the present results confirm that endocrine-acinar cells do appear in such condition and may represent intermediate steps in a transdifferentiating process.

  3. The effects of sigma ligands on protein release from lacrimal acinar cells: a potential agonist/antagonist assay.

    PubMed

    Schoenwald, R D; Barfknecht, C F; Shirolkar, S; Xia, E

    1995-03-03

    Sigma receptor antagonists have been proposed as leading clinical candidates for use in various psychotic disorders. Prior to clinical testing, it is imperative that a new agent be correctly identified as an antagonist and not an agonist since the latter may worsen the psychosis. For sigma-ligands many behavioral and pharmacological assays have been developed in an attempt to classify agonist/antagonist activity. These assays evaluate a response or a behavior in an animal model that can be related to clinical efficacy. However, is the action by the presumed antagonist a consequence of sigma-receptor activity? Previously we have identified sigma-receptors in acinar cells of the main lacrimal gland of the New Zealand white rabbit and have measured protein release after the addition of various N,N-disubstituted phenylalkylamine derivatives known to be sigma-ligands by receptor binding studies. Although protein release from acinar cells has been attributed to either muscarinic or alpha-adrenergic stimulation, protein release from sigma-receptor stimulation was also confirmed. In the reported studies here, we isolated and incubated acinar cells with varying concentrations of known sigma-ligands and measured protein concentration. A knowledge of the receptor profile for the disubstituted phenylalkylamines permitted experiments to be designed in which various alpha, muscarinic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic antagonists could be added in equimolar concentrations. Under the conditions of these experiments, statistically significant increases in protein release for sigma-ligands could be attributed to stimulation of sigma-receptors. Haloperidol, an apparent sigma-antagonist, caused a statistically significant decrease in protein release and also inhibited protein release when tested with a known sigma-ligand, AF2975 [N,N-dimethyl-2-phenylethylamine]. In this system, stimulation and inhibition of protein release were defined as agonist and antagonist behavior, respectively

  4. Relationships between levels of lysozyme, lactoferrin, salivary peroxidase, and secretory immunoglobulin A in stimulated parotid saliva.

    PubMed Central

    Rudney, J D; Smith, Q T

    1985-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that salivary lysozyme (Lz), lactoferrin (Lf), peroxidase (Spx), and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) may interact in a common antimicrobial system. A multiple protein approach therefore may be needed to determine the role of this system in oral health and ecology. In the present study we investigate the relationships between levels of Lz, Lf, Spx, and sIgA (adjusted for flow rate and total protein) in stimulated parotid saliva from 44 dental students. Principal components analysis was used to determine major patterns of intercorrelation between variables; cluster analysis was used to identify groups of subjects with similar salivary profiles for Lz, Lf, Spx, and sIgA. Spx tended to vary independently of Lz and Lf, which, in turn, tended to vary together. sIgA showed a weak negative relationship with Spx and a weak positive relationship with Lz and Lf. Six major clusters of subjects with similar antimicrobial protein profiles were found. These were significantly different at P less than 0.0001. Spx was the most important determinant of cluster membership followed (in order of importance) by Lz, Lf, and sIgA. Cluster profiles were Spx-, sIgAmu, Lf-, Lz-; Spx-, sIgA+, Lfmu, Lz+; Spxmu, sIgAmu, Lfmu, Lzmu; Spx+, sIgA-, Lf-, Lz-; Spx+, sIgAmu, Lf+, Lz-; and Spx+, sIgAmu, Lf+, Lz+ (-, mu, and + refer to the position of the cluster mean each variable relative to the overall mean for that variable). Results suggest that clusters may be a product of independent variation in the secretory activity of acinar and intercalated duct cells. PMID:4030086

  5. PNA lectin for purifying mouse acinar cells from the inflamed pancreas.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiangwei; Fischbach, Shane; Fusco, Joseph; Zimmerman, Ray; Song, Zewen; Nebres, Philip; Ricks, David Matthew; Prasadan, Krishna; Shiota, Chiyo; Husain, Sohail Z; Gittes, George K

    2016-02-17

    Better methods for purifying human or mouse acinar cells without the need for genetic modification are needed. Such techniques would be advantageous for the specific study of certain mechanisms, such as acinar-to-beta-cell reprogramming and pancreatitis. Ulex Europaeus Agglutinin I (UEA-I) lectin has been used to label and isolate acinar cells from the pancreas. However, the purity of the UEA-I-positive cell fraction has not been fully evaluated. Here, we screened 20 widely used lectins for their binding specificity for major pancreatic cell types, and found that UEA-I and Peanut agglutinin (PNA) have a specific affinity for acinar cells in the mouse pancreas, with minimal affinity for other major pancreatic cell types including endocrine cells, duct cells and endothelial cells. Moreover, PNA-purified acinar cells were less contaminated with mesenchymal and inflammatory cells, compared to UEA-I purified acinar cells. Thus, UEA-I and PNA appear to be excellent lectins for pancreatic acinar cell purification. PNA may be a better choice in situations where mesenchymal cells or inflammatory cells are significantly increased in the pancreas, such as type 1 diabetes, pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

  6. PNA lectin for purifying mouse acinar cells from the inflamed pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiangwei; Fischbach, Shane; Fusco, Joseph; Zimmerman, Ray; Song, Zewen; Nebres, Philip; Ricks, David Matthew; Prasadan, Krishna; Shiota, Chiyo; Husain, Sohail Z.; Gittes, George K.

    2016-01-01

    Better methods for purifying human or mouse acinar cells without the need for genetic modification are needed. Such techniques would be advantageous for the specific study of certain mechanisms, such as acinar-to-beta-cell reprogramming and pancreatitis. Ulex Europaeus Agglutinin I (UEA-I) lectin has been used to label and isolate acinar cells from the pancreas. However, the purity of the UEA-I-positive cell fraction has not been fully evaluated. Here, we screened 20 widely used lectins for their binding specificity for major pancreatic cell types, and found that UEA-I and Peanut agglutinin (PNA) have a specific affinity for acinar cells in the mouse pancreas, with minimal affinity for other major pancreatic cell types including endocrine cells, duct cells and endothelial cells. Moreover, PNA-purified acinar cells were less contaminated with mesenchymal and inflammatory cells, compared to UEA-I purified acinar cells. Thus, UEA-I and PNA appear to be excellent lectins for pancreatic acinar cell purification. PNA may be a better choice in situations where mesenchymal cells or inflammatory cells are significantly increased in the pancreas, such as type 1 diabetes, pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. PMID:26884345

  7. Acinar cell cystadenoma of the pancreas in a cat.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, H; Matsuda, Y; Kawamoto, Y; Michishita, M; Ohkusu-Tsukada, K; Takahashi, K; Naito, Z; Ishiwata, T

    2013-01-01

    Cystic tumours of the pancreas are heterogeneous lesions with a spectrum of morphology and biological behaviour in people. These are poorly characterized in animals. A multicystic tumour of the pancreas was identified in an 11-year-old, female, mixed breed cat. The tumour was 5.5 cm in diameter and the largest cysts were 1.5 cm in diameter. Microscopically, the cysts were lined by single layered or pseudostratified, flat, cuboidal or columnar epithelial cells that occasionally formed papillary structures with a thin fibrous core. The tumour cells had eosinophilic granules in the apical cytoplasm, similar to zymogen granules, and the nuclei were uniform in size and shape. Mitotic figures were not observed. Immunohistochemically, the tumour cells expressed trypsin, but not cytokeratin 7. A diagnosis of acinar cell cystadenoma of the pancreas was made and this is the first report of this tumour in a cat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acinar cell carcinoma of exocrine pancreas in two horses.

    PubMed

    de Brot, S; Junge, H; Hilbe, M

    2014-05-01

    Two horses were presented with non-specific clinical signs of several weeks' duration and were humanely destroyed due to a poor prognosis. At necropsy examination, both horses had multiple small, white nodules replacing pancreatic tissue and involving the serosal surface of the abdominal cavity, the liver and the lung. Microscopically, neoplastic cells were organized in acini and contained abundant (case 1) or sparse (horse 2) intracytoplasmic zymogen granules. Immunohistochemically, both tumours expressed amylase and pan-cytokeratin, but not insulin or neuron-specific enolase. In case 2, a low percentage of neoplastic cells expressed glucagon and synaptophysin. The presence of zymogen granules was confirmed in both cases by electron microscopy and occasional fibrillary or glucagon granules were observed in cases 1 and 2, respectively. A diagnosis of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma was established in both horses.

  9. Assessing the Secretory Capacity of Pancreatic Acinar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Geron, Erez; Schejter, Eyal D.; Shilo, Ben-Zion

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic acinar cells produce and secrete digestive enzymes. These cells are organized as a cluster which forms and shares a joint lumen. This work demonstrates how the secretory capacity of these cells can be assessed by culture of isolated acini. The setup is advantageous since isolated acini, which retain many characteristics of the intact exocrine pancreas can be manipulated and monitored more readily than in the whole animal. Proper isolation of pancreatic acini is a key requirement so that the ex vivo culture will represent the in vivo nature of the acini. The protocol demonstrates how to isolate intact acini from the mouse pancreas. Subsequently, two complementary methods for evaluating pancreatic secretion are presented. The amylase secretion assay serves as a global measure, while direct imaging of pancreatic secretion allows the characterization of secretion at a sub-cellular resolution. Collectively, the techniques presented here enable a broad spectrum of experiments to study exocrine secretion. PMID:25226212

  10. Parotid or carotid? Misled by site.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Ruchita; Munjal, Manish; Kaur, Pavneet; Kaur, Harpreet; Sood, Neena

    2017-03-06

    We present an interesting scenario where a 64 years old male presented with a long standing painless, infra-auricular swelling, which had progressively increased in size. Based on the site, the clinical impression was of a salivary gland lesion and FNAC was performed. The smears were unusually cellular and had necrotic background. The cytological diagnosis was a cystic neoplasm of salivary gland, possibly mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Warthin's tumor was also kept in differential. However, the radiological investigations, which were made available after the FNAC report were conflicting with cytological diagnosis of a malignancy and were characteristic of a carotid body tumor, generally a benign neoplasm. Surgical excision of the tumor with regional lymph node sampling was done and histopathological examination solved the puzzle by revealing metastasis of paraganglioma to right posterior triangle lymph nodes. This case is unique because of the unusual presentation of a malignant paraganglioma as an infra-auricular swelling, which was clinically considered as a parotid tumor. The clinician as well as the pathologist need to be aware of such diagnostic pitfall. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Interventional sialendoscopy for parotid ductal calculi: our preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Singh, P P; Gupta, Neelima; Goyal, Arun; Tomar, Sanjeev

    2012-09-01

    With this article we present our initial experience with interventional sialendoscopy of the parotid duct for the parotid calculi. We carried out a prospective study of patients of parotid calculi in a tertiary referral centre. Diagnostic and interventional sialendoscopy was performed in five cases of parotid calculi. The outcome was classified on the basis of clearance of the lumen of the duct and resolution of symptoms. Diagnostic sialendoscopy was able to diagnose the calculus in all cases. Interventional sialendoscopy was done under general anesthesia in all cases and calculus was successfully removed. The average size of sialolith was 8.2 mm. No complications occurred in any of the cases. Check sialendoscopy was done in all cases after a minimum follow up of 6 months, which showed the duct lumen to be free of stone with no stricture of the duct. Sialendoscopy is an optimal technique for removal of intraductal parotid calculi and avoids removal of the gland. In our series there was no associated morbidity and complication.

  12. Human Parotid Gland Alpha-Amylase Secretion as a Function of Chronic Hyperbaric Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    parotid ...Pullman, WA 99163 Gilman, S. C, G. J. Fischer, R. J. Biersner, R. D. Thornton, and D. A. Miller. 1979. Human parotid gland alpha-amylase secretion...as a function of chronic hyperbaric exposure. Undersea Biomed. Res. 6(3):303-307.—Secretion of a-amylase by the human parotid gland increased

  13. Sialolipoma of the parotid gland: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Diwakar; Vats, Manu; Akhtar, Azaz; Pathania, Om Prakash

    2015-06-16

    Lipomatous neoplasms of the parotid gland are rare tumours contributing from 0.6% to 4.4% to all parotid neoplasms with most series reporting an incidence of 1%. It is extremely rare in females, being 10 times more common in males, and the most common age of presentation is the five to sixth decade. Numerous histological variants of salivary gland lipoma have been described. Sialolipoma is a rare variant having proliferation of mature adipocytes with secondary entrapment of the normal salivary gland element. We report a rare case of sialolipoma in the right parotid of a 45-year-old woman who was treated with superficial parotidectomy. Postoperative recovery as well as follow-up has been uneventful.

  14. Remarkable Triple Pleomorphic Adenoma Affecting both Parotid and Submandibular Glands

    PubMed Central

    Pingarrón-Martín, Lorena; Arias-Gallo, L. J.; Demaría-Martínez, G.; Chamorro Pons, M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present the first case reported in the literature of metachronous pleomorphic adenoma of bilateral parotid glands and submaxillary gland. The authors report the case of a 27-year-old female with metachronous mixed tumors in her right parotid and submandibular glands. The patient has no history of previous radiotherapy. All three lesions were diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration. The histopathologic evaluation of all three major salivary gland masses demonstrated pleomorphic adenomas, with no occult malignancy observed on serial sections. The presentation of pleomorphic adenomas in the parotids and submandibular glands probably represents three unrelated primary sites of tumor, yet the possibility of metastasis from one gland to the other cannot be excluded. PMID:26000084

  15. Oncocytoma of the Deep Lobe of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Popovski, Vladimir; Benedetti, Alberto; Monevska, Danica Popovik; Grcev, Aleksandar; Serafimovski, Predrag; Pecanovski, Ruse; Stamatoski, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oncocytoma or oxyphilic adenoma is uncommon salivary gland tumour, occurs predominantly in the in patients older than 60 years of age. Clinically oncocytoma resemble other salivary tumours while histology is typically consisting of oncocytes with many hyperplastic mitochondria. It usually occurs in the parotid gland. Because the features of oncocytoma are similar to those of other benign and low-grade malignant salivary tumours, clinical diagnosis is often challenging. CASE PRESENTATION: This report presents the pathologic and imaging findings of an oncocytoma arising in the deep lobe of the right parotid gland in a 74-year-old male. Oncocytoma was diagnosed on the basis of histological, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), scintigraphic findings and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). CONCLUSION: This case was unique because in the literature there are few articles about the rare presentation and deep lobe location of this type of parotid oncocytoma. PMID:27335603

  16. Accessory parotid gland tumors: A series of 4 cases.

    PubMed

    Kakuki, Takuya; Takano, Kenichi; Kurose, Makoto; Kondo, Atsushi; Okuni, Tsuyoshi; Ogasawara, Noriko; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-07-01

    Accessory parotid gland tumors are clinically rare, and their management remains unclear. In this article, we describe our experience with 4 patients-2 males and 2 females, aged 13 to 66 years-who were diagnosed with an accessory parotid gland tumor. All patients presented with an asymptomatic midcheek swelling, and all underwent fine-needle aspiration biopsy, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. A standard parotidectomy was performed on all patients. Postoperatively, 2 patients were found to have a malignant tumor, while the other 2 had a pleomorphic adenoma. No patient experienced any obvious facial nerve injuries postoperatively, and no recurrences were observed. We discuss the preoperative evaluation, treatment, and prognosis of these tumors, and we briefly describe the literature. The first choice of treatment for accessory parotid gland tumors is surgical resection. In our experience, a standard parotidectomy approach is safe and cosmetically appealing.

  17. Congenital acinar dysplasia: report of a case and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Langenstroer, Mary; Carlan, S J; Fanaian, Naim; Attia, Suzanna

    2013-05-01

    Objective Describe a case of congenital acinar dysplasia and review the literature. Study Design Retrospective chart review and literature search. Results Congenital acinar dysplasia is a rare malformation of growth arrest of the lower respiratory tract resulting in critical respiratory insufficiency at birth. It is a form of pulmonary hypoplasia that is characterized by diffuse maldevelopment and derangement of the acinar and alveolar architecture of the lungs, resulting in the complete absence of gas exchanging units. The growth-arrested lung tissue resembles the pseudoglandular phase of 16 weeks' gestation. The etiology is unknown. It is diagnosed by exclusion of all other causes of pulmonary hypoplasia and a summation of clinical, imaging, and histopathologic findings. Conclusion There is no cure and clinical treatment is supportive until death of the infant. We present a case of congenital acinar dysplasia in a male infant who lived 20 days with intensive support.

  18. Congenital Acinar Dysplasia: Report of a Case and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Langenstroer, Mary; Carlan, S.J.; Fanaian, Naim; Attia, Suzanna

    2012-01-01

    Objective Describe a case of congenital acinar dysplasia and review the literature. Study Design Retrospective chart review and literature search. Results Congenital acinar dysplasia is a rare malformation of growth arrest of the lower respiratory tract resulting in critical respiratory insufficiency at birth. It is a form of pulmonary hypoplasia that is characterized by diffuse maldevelopment and derangement of the acinar and alveolar architecture of the lungs, resulting in the complete absence of gas exchanging units. The growth-arrested lung tissue resembles the pseudoglandular phase of 16 weeks' gestation. The etiology is unknown. It is diagnosed by exclusion of all other causes of pulmonary hypoplasia and a summation of clinical, imaging, and histopathologic findings. Conclusion There is no cure and clinical treatment is supportive until death of the infant. We present a case of congenital acinar dysplasia in a male infant who lived 20 days with intensive support. PMID:23943701

  19. Dermoid cyst of the parotid gland: first pediatric case.

    PubMed

    Tas, Abdullah; Yagiz, Recep; Altaner, Semsi; Karasalihoğlu, Ahmet R

    2010-02-01

    A dermoid cyst is the result of inclusion of epithelial cells along the lines of embryonic closure. Dermoid cysts of the head neck are uncommon and account for only 7% of all such cysts. They are most often reported as arising in the floor of the mouth. Dermoid cyst is rarely seen in the parotid gland. To our knowledge, there have been only six previous case reports in the English literature. Dermoid cyst of the parotid gland in pediatric patient has not been previously reported in the literature. This is the first case report concerning a dermoid cyst in a pediatric patient. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A case of sebaceous carcinoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Siriwardena, B S M S; Tilakaratne, W M; Rajapakshe, R M S K

    2003-02-01

    Sebaceous carcinoma of salivary gland origin is an extremely rare malignancy. It occurs mainly in the parotid gland. This is a case report of a sebaceous carcinoma in a 57-year-old woman who had a lump over the right parotid region for 8-9 months. The tumour was composed of small basaloid cells and large foamy cells. Sebaceous differentiation was evident in some tumour islands. This is the first case reported in the Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Peradeniya.

  1. [Lupus erythematosus panniculitis presenting as palpebral edema and parotiditis].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pastor, G; Valcuende, F; Tomás, G; Moreno, M

    2007-10-01

    Lupus erythematosus panniculitis or lupus erythematosus profundus is characterized by inflammation of the deep dermis and subcutaneous tissue. It can occur in isolation or associated with chronic systemic or discoid lupus erythematosus. It usually consists of nodules and hardened subcutaneous plaques on the forehead, cheeks, proximal extremities, and buttocks. Periorbital and parotid involvement are rare and can lead to misdiagnosis. We present the case of a patient with lupus erythematosus panniculitis who presented with palpebral edema and involvement of the periocular fat and parotid gland.

  2. Step-by-step protocol to perfuse and dissect the mouse parotid gland and isolation of high-quality RNA from murine and human parotid tissue.

    PubMed

    Watermann, Christoph; Valerius, Klaus Peter; Wagner, Steffen; Wittekindt, Claus; Klussmann, Jens Peter; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline; Karnati, Srikanth

    2016-04-01

    Macroscopic identification and surgical removal of the mouse parotid gland is demanding because of its anatomic location and size. Moreover, the mouse parotid gland contains high concentrations of RNases, making it difficult to isolate high-quality RNA. So far, appropriate methods for optimal perfusion-fixation and dissection of mouse parotid glands, as well as the isolation of high quality RNA from this tissue, are not available. Here we present a simple, optimized, step-by-step surgical method to perfuse and isolate murine parotid glands. We also compared two common RNA extraction methods (RNeasy Mini Kit versus TRIzol) for their yields of high-quality, intact RNA from human and murine parotid gland tissues that were either snap-frozen or immersed in RNAlater stabilization solution. Mouse parotid tissue that was perfused and immersed in RNAlater and human samples immersed in RNAlater exhibited the best RNA quality, independent of the isolation method.

  3. Pancreatic acinar cells: effects of micro-ionophoretic polypeptide application on membrane potential and resistance.

    PubMed

    Petersen, O H; Philpott, H G

    1979-05-01

    1. Acinar cell membrane potential and resistance were measured from superfused segments of mouse pancreas, in vitro, using intracellular glass micro-electrodes. One or two extracellular micropipettes containing caerulein, bombesin nonapeptide (Bn) or acetylcholine (ACh) were placed near to the surface of the impaled acinus. The secretagogues were ejected rapidly from the micropipettes by ionophoresis.2. Each secretagogue evoked a similar electrical response from the impaled acinar cell: membrane depolarization and a simultaneous reduction in input resistance. The duration of cell activation from caerulein ionophoresis was longer than that observed for ACh and Bn. The cell response to the peptide hormone applications could be repeated in the presence of atropine.3. The minimum interval before the onset of cell depolarization after caerulein ionophoresis was determined. Values ranged between 500 and 1000 msec. The minimum latencies after Bn ionophoresis were 500-1400 msec.4. With two electrodes inserted into electrically coupled acinar cells, direct measurements of the caerulein and Bn null potentials were made. At high negative membrane potentials an enhanced depolarization was evoked by caerulein ionophoresis. At low negative membrane potentials the caerulein stimulation produced a diminished depolarization, and at membrane potentials less than - 10 mV acinar cell hyperpolarizations were observed. A similar series of responses was obtained in experiments where Bn ionophoresis was used. The caerulein and the Bn null potentials were always contained within - 10 to - 15 mV.5. The results describe the almost identical electrical response of acinar cells to stimulation by ACh, caerulein and bombesin. All three secretagogues have similar null potentials and latencies of activation on acinar cells. The bombesin latency responses appear as short as those measured for caerulein and provide electro-physiological evidence that Bn acts directly on acinar cells. The findings

  4. A Computer-Based Automated Algorithm for Assessing Acinar Cell Loss after Experimental Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Eisses, John F.; Davis, Amy W.; Tosun, Akif Burak; Dionise, Zachary R.; Chen, Cheng; Ozolek, John A.; Rohde, Gustavo K.; Husain, Sohail Z.

    2014-01-01

    The change in exocrine mass is an important parameter to follow in experimental models of pancreatic injury and regeneration. However, at present, the quantitative assessment of exocrine content by histology is tedious and operator-dependent, requiring manual assessment of acinar area on serial pancreatic sections. In this study, we utilized a novel computer-generated learning algorithm to construct an accurate and rapid method of quantifying acinar content. The algorithm works by learning differences in pixel characteristics from input examples provided by human experts. HE-stained pancreatic sections were obtained in mice recovering from a 2-day, hourly caerulein hyperstimulation model of experimental pancreatitis. For training data, a pathologist carefully outlined discrete regions of acinar and non-acinar tissue in 21 sections at various stages of pancreatic injury and recovery (termed the “ground truth”). After the expert defined the ground truth, the computer was able to develop a prediction rule that was then applied to a unique set of high-resolution images in order to validate the process. For baseline, non-injured pancreatic sections, the software demonstrated close agreement with the ground truth in identifying baseline acinar tissue area with only a difference of 1%±0.05% (p = 0.21). Within regions of injured tissue, the software reported a difference of 2.5%±0.04% in acinar area compared with the pathologist (p = 0.47). Surprisingly, on detailed morphological examination, the discrepancy was primarily because the software outlined acini and excluded inter-acinar and luminal white space with greater precision. The findings suggest that the software will be of great potential benefit to both clinicians and researchers in quantifying pancreatic acinar cell flux in the injured and recovering pancreas. PMID:25343460

  5. Intra-parotid dermoid cyst: excision through a face lift incision.

    PubMed

    Shakeel, M; Keh, S M; Chapman, A; Hussain, A

    2014-11-01

    Intra-parotid dermoid cysts are extremely rare. Clinically, they present like any other parotid lump and pre-operative diagnosis is rarely possible. A 62 years old Caucasian man presented with a painless lump in his right parotid region. The Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan revealed a 3 x 3 cm mass in the parotid tail. Cytological examination was unhelpful. The patient underwent successful excision of the cyst through a small face lift incision. No drain was inserted and the patient was discharged home the same day. The patient made an uneventful recovery and was highly satisfied with the aesthetic outcome. The definite histopathological diagnosis was an intra-parotid dermoid cyst.

  6. A primary pure pancreatic-type acinar cell carcinoma of the stomach: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Kim, Chan Young; Hong, Seung-Mo; Jang, Kyu Yun

    2017-01-19

    Acinar cell carcinoma represents only 1-2% of exocrine pancreatic neoplasms. On exceptionally rare occasions, primary acinar cell carcinoma can occur in ectopic locations. Herein, we report a case of pure pancreatic-type acinar cell carcinoma arising in the stomach. A 54-year-old male presented with a gastric submucosal mass detected by endoscopic examination. Laparoscopic wedge resection was performed. Macroscopically, the 2.7 cm yellowish mass was located in the submucosa of the stomach. Microscopically, the tumor was well circumscribed and had a homogeneous acinar architecture. The tumor cells were small and had a minimal amount of cytoplasm. The nuclei of the tumor cells were round to oval with finely dispersed chromatin. The tumor cells were strongly positive for α1-antitrypsin, chymotrypsin, and α1-antichymotrypsin immunostaining, consistent with pancreatic exocrine differentiation. There was no clinical or radiologic evidence of primary pancreatic or head and neck tumors. After surgical resection of the tumor, there was no recurrence or metastasis during 33 months follow-up. In this report, we have presented a rare case of primary pure pancreatic-type acinar cell carcinoma arising in the stomach and suggest that it could be helpful if the pathologist were aware that pancreatic-type acinar cell carcinoma could arise in the stomach as a polypoid submucosal tumor in the routine diagnostic field of gastric endoscopy.

  7. Duct Cells Contribute to Regeneration of Endocrine and Acinar Cells Following Pancreatic Damage in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    CRISCIMANNA, ANGELA; SPEICHER, JULIE A.; HOUSHMAND, GOLBAHAR; SHIOTA, CHIYO; PRASADAN, KRISHNA; Ji, BAOAN; LOGSDON, CRAIG D.; GITTES, GEORGE K.; ESNI, FARZAD

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS There have been conflicting results on a cell of origin in pancreatic regeneration. These discrepancies predominantly stem from lack of specific markers for the pancreatic precursors/stem cells, as well as differences in the targeted cells and severity of tissue injury in the experimental models so far proposed. We attempted to create a model that used diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) to ablate specific cell populations, control the extent of injury, and avoid induction of the inflammatory response. METHODS To target specific types of pancreatic cells, we crossed R26DTR or R26dtR/lacZ mice with transgenic mice that express the Cre recombinase in the pancreas, under control of the Pdx1 (global pancreatic) or elastase (acinar-specific) promoters. RESULTS Exposure of PdxCre;R26DTR mice to diphtheria toxin resulted in extensive ablation of acinar and endocrine tissues but not ductal cells. Surviving cells within the ductal compartment contributed to regeneration of endocrine and acinar cells via recapitulation of the embryonic pancreatic developmental program. However, following selective ablation of acinar tissue in ElaCre-ERT2;R26DTR mice, regeneration likely occurred by reprogramming of ductal cells to acinar lineage. CONCLUSIONS In the pancreas of adult mice, epithelial cells within the ductal compartment contribute to regeneration of endocrine and acinar cells. The severity of injury determines the regenerative mechanisms and cell types that contribute to this process. PMID:21763240

  8. Involvement of thrombopoietin in acinar cell necrosis in L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jiaqing; Wan, Rong; Hu, Guoyong; Wang, Feng; Shen, Jie; Wang, Xingpeng

    2012-10-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) plays an important role in injuries of different tissues. However, the role of TPO in acute pancreatitis (AP) is not yet known. The aim of the study was to determine the involvement of TPO in AP. Serum TPO was assayed in necrotizing pancreatitis induced by L-arginine in mice. Recombinant TPO and anti-TPO antibody were given to mice with necrotizing pancreatitis. Amylase, lipase, lactate dehydrogenase, myeloperoxidase activity and pancreatic water content were assayed in serum and tissue samples. Pancreas and lung tissue samples were also collected for histological evaluation. Immunohistochemistry of amylase α and PCNA were applied for the study of acinar regeneration and TUNEL assay for the detection of apoptosis in the pancreas. Increased levels of serum TPO were found in necrotizing pancreatitis. After TPO administration, more severe acinar necrosis was found and blockade of TPO reduced the acinar necrosis in this AP model. Acinar regeneration and apoptosis in the pancreas were affected by TPO and antibody treatment in necrotizing pancreatitis. The severity of pancreatitis-associated lung injury was worsened after TPO treatment, but attenuated after Anti-TPO antibody treatment. In conclusion, serum TPO is up-regulated in the necrotizing pancreatitis induced by L-arginine in mice and may be a risk factor for the pancreatic acinar necrosis in AP. As a pro-necrotic factor, blockade of TPO can attenuate the acinar necrosis in AP and may be a possible therapeutic intervention for AP.

  9. Live pancreatic acinar imaging of exocytosis using syncollin-pHluorin.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Nestor A; Liang, Tao; Gaisano, Herbert Y

    2011-06-01

    In this report, a novel live acinar exocytosis imaging technique is described. An adenovirus was engineered, encoding for an endogenous zymogen granule (ZG) protein (syncollin) fused to pHluorin, a pH-dependent green fluorescent protein (GFP). Short-term culture of mouse acini infected with this virus permits exogenous adenoviral protein expression while retaining acinar secretory competence and cell polarity. The syncollin-pHluorin fusion protein was shown to be correctly localized to ZGs, and the pH-dependent fluorescence of pHluorin was retained. Coupled with the use of a spinning disk confocal microscope, the syncollin-pHluorin fusion protein exploits the ZG luminal pH changes that occur during exocytosis to visualize exocytic events of live acinar cells in real-time with high spatial resolution in three dimensions. Apical and basolateral exocytic events were observed on stimulation of acinar cells with maximal and supramaximal cholecystokinin concentrations, respectively. Sequential exocytic events were also observed. Coupled with the use of transgenic mice and/or adenovirus-mediated protein expression, this syncollin-pHluorin imaging method offers a superior approach to studying pancreatic acinar exocytosis. This assay can also be applied to acinar disease models to elucidate the mechanisms implicated in pancreatitis.

  10. Basal autophagy maintains pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis and protein synthesis and prevents ER stress

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, Laura; Fagman, Johan B.; Kim, Ju Youn; Todoric, Jelena; Gukovsky, Ilya; Mackey, Mason; Ellisman, Mark H.; Karin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic acinar cells possess very high protein synthetic rates as they need to produce and secrete large amounts of digestive enzymes. Acinar cell damage and dysfunction cause malnutrition and pancreatitis, and inflammation of the exocrine pancreas that promotes development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a deadly pancreatic neoplasm. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that maintain acinar cell function and whose dysregulation can lead to tissue damage and chronic pancreatitis are poorly understood. It was suggested that autophagy, the principal cellular degradative pathway, is impaired in pancreatitis, but it is unknown whether impaired autophagy is a cause or a consequence of pancreatitis. To address this question, we generated Atg7Δpan mice that lack the essential autophagy-related protein 7 (ATG7) in pancreatic epithelial cells. Atg7Δpan mice exhibit severe acinar cell degeneration, leading to pancreatic inflammation and extensive fibrosis. Whereas ATG7 loss leads to the expected decrease in autophagic flux, it also results in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria, oxidative stress, activation of AMPK, and a marked decrease in protein synthetic capacity that is accompanied by loss of rough ER. Atg7Δpan mice also exhibit spontaneous activation of regenerative mechanisms that initiate acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM), a process that replaces damaged acinar cells with duct-like structures. PMID:26512112

  11. A comparison of mean parotid gland dose with measures of parotid gland function after radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer: Implications for future trials

    SciTech Connect

    Roesink, Judith M. . E-mail: J.M.Roesink@azu.nl; Schipper, Maria; Busschers, Wim; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.; Terhaard, Chris H.J.

    2005-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the most adequate parameter to measure the consequences of reducing the parotid gland dose. Methods and Materials: One hundred eight patients treated with radiotherapy for various malignancies of the head and neck were prospectively evaluated using three methods. Parotid gland function was objectively determined by measuring stimulated parotid flow using Lashley cups and scintigraphy. To assess xerostomia-related quality of life, the head-and-neck cancer module European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ (Quality of Life Questionnaire) H and N35 was used. Measurements took place before radiotherapy and 6 weeks and 12 months after the completion of radiotherapy. Complication was defined for each method using cutoff values. The correlation between these complications and the mean parotid gland dose was investigated to find the best measure for parotid gland function. Results: For both flow and scintigraphy data, the best definition for objective parotid gland toxicity seemed to be reduction of stimulated parotid flow to {<=}25% of the preradiotherapy flow. Of all the subjective variables, only the single item dry mouth 6 weeks after radiotherapy was found to be significant. The best correlation with the mean parotid gland dose was found for the stimulated flow measurements. The predictive ability was the highest for the time point 1 year after radiotherapy. Subjective findings did not correlate with the mean parotid dose. Conclusions: Stimulated flow measurements using Lashley cups, with a complication defined as flow {<=}25% of the preradiotherapy output, correlated best with the mean parotid gland dose. When reduction of the mean dose to the parotid gland is intended, the stimulated flow measurement is the best method for evaluating parotid gland function.

  12. Parotid salivary duct sialocele associated with glandular duct stenosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Vallefuoco, Rosario; Jardel, Nicolas; El Mrini, Meryem; Stambouli, Fouzia; Cordonnier, Nathalie

    2011-10-01

    Feline parotid salivary duct sialocele is an uncommon disorder that has been previously reported in association with traumatic rupture of the duct in only two cats. Both cases were successfully treated by proximal duct ligation. We describe the successful surgical treatment of a parotid duct sialocele, secondary to spontaneous salivary duct stenosis, in an adult domestic shorthair cat. The cat was referred for assessment of a recurrent fluid-filled swelling on the left side of the face. Cytology of the aspirated fluid was consistent with serous saliva. The anatomical localisation of the lesion and the nature of the fluid were indicative of parotid gland/duct involvement. Retrograde sialography by parotid duct cannulation was unsuccessful because the left parotid duct opening was stenosed and obstructed by scar tissue. Surgical exploration revealed a parotid salivary duct sialocele, which was completely removed along with the parotid gland without complications.

  13. Fistulectomy of the parotid fistula secondary to suppurative parotitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Managutti, Anil; Tiwari, Saba; Prakasam, Michael; Puthanakar, Nagaraj

    2015-01-01

    A parotid fistula is a communication between the skin and a parotid duct or gland through which saliva is discharged. The most common cause of the parotid fistula is trauma. The major causes of parotid trauma in a civilian practice are penetrating injury to the parotid gland from an assault weapon or injury due to shattered glass after a motor vehicle accident. Acute suppurative parotitis can rarely produce a parotid fistula, and it will be difficult to manage successfully. In this article we have described diagnosis by fistulography, meticulous dissection, and complete excision of the fistulous tract with layered closure of the parotid fascia followed by application of a post-operative pressure bandage, use of anticholinergic agents and antibiotics contribute significantly to the successful management of this difficult clinical condition.

  14. [Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in parotid tumours].

    PubMed

    Zerpa Zerpa, Vanessa; Cuesta Gonzáles, Maria Teresa; Agostini Porras, Gabriela; Marcano Acuña, Martin; Estellés Ferriol, Enrique; Dalmau Galofre, José

    2014-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a globally accepted technique in the preoperative evaluations of head and neck tumours; however, the effectiveness in the interpretation of salivary glands neoplastic lesions is still controversial. The objective of this study consisted of assessing the efficacy of FNAC in preoperative diagnosis of parotid tumours. This retrospective study was conducted using 93 patient samples with parotid gland tumoral pathology, treated at the Otorhinolaryngology Department in our institution during the 2007-2011 period. Preoperative FNAC was employed and the patients subsequently submitted to surgical excision with histopathological diagnosis of the specimen. Cytology results were classified as negative for malignancy, positive for malignancy or insufficient sample, and later compared with the definitive histological diagnosis. The mean age of the studied sample was 52.9 years (range: 11 to 88 years); 55.9% were men. The FNAC showed significant sensitivity of 57.1%, with a specificity of 95.1%, for detecting malignancy in parotid gland tumours. The positive and negative predictive values for malignancy were 50 and 96.3%, respectively. FNAC is considered a simple test but of limited use for diagnostic guidance in tumour pathology of the parotid gland in our environment, mainly because of its low sensitivity. However, the high specificity and high negative predictive value of FNAC makes it a more accurate test in benign or negative result cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Canalicular adenoma: a case report of an unusual parotid lesion

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Colin; Kulendra, Kevin N; Menon, Gopind; D’Souza, Alwyn R

    2009-01-01

    The present report describes a case of an 85-year-old woman who underwent an excisional biopsy of a preauricular lesion centred over the zygoma and subsequently developed an immediate iatrogenic facial palsy. Histopathological diagnosis revealed a canalicular adenoma of the parotid gland. PMID:21686469

  16. Parotid gland metastases of distant primary tumours: A diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Franzen, Achim M; Günzel, Thomas; Lieder, Anja

    2016-04-01

    Metastatic disease is common among parotid malignancies. The majority of primary tumours are located in the head and neck, but primary tumours below the clavicle must also be considered, especially in histological types not usually found in primary parotid or skin tumours. We performed 644 consecutive parotidectomies between 1980 and 2012. Benign tumours were found in 555 patients (86%) and malignant tumours in 89 patients (14%). Of 89 malignant tumours, 39 were metastases (44%). In 5 cases, the primary tumour was located below the clavicle (6% of malignant tumours). A carcinoma of the bronchus was subsequently diagnosed in three patients: one patient had breast carcinoma and one renal cell carcinoma. The majority of metastases in the parotid gland arise from primary tumours of the head and neck. In 10-20% of metastases, the primary tumour arises below the clavicle. Parotid metastases can be the first clinical manifestation of a malignant tumour, and can also occur years after curative intent treatment. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry will offer clues to a possible metastatic process and to primary tumour location. Parotidectomy with complete excision of the tumour can be a curative measure or form an essential part of symptom control and should be considered in all but the most moribund patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Cisplatin on Parotid Gland Function in Concomitant Radiochemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hey, Jeremias; Setz, Juergen; Gerlach, Reinhard; Vordermark, Dirk; Gernhardt, Christian R.; Kuhnt, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the influence of concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin on parotid gland tissue complication probability. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with either radiotherapy (n = 61) or concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin (n = 36) for head-and-neck cancer were prospectively evaluated. The dose and volume distributions of the parotid glands were noted in dose-volume histograms. Stimulated salivary flow rates were measured before, during the 2nd and 6th weeks and at 4 weeks and 6 months after the treatment. The data were fit using the normal tissue complication probability model of Lyman. Complication was defined as a reduction of the salivary flow rate to less than 25% of the pretreatment flow rate. Results: The normal tissue complication probability model parameter TD{sub 50} (the dose leading to a complication probability of 50%) was found to be 32.2 Gy at 4 weeks and 32.1 Gy at 6 months for concomitant radiochemotherapy and 41.1 Gy at 4 weeks and 39.6 Gy at 6 months for radiotherapy. The tolerated dose for concomitant radiochemotherapy was at least 7 to 8 Gy lower than for radiotherapy alone at TD{sub 50}. Conclusions: In this study, the concomitant radiochemotherapy tended to cause a higher probability of parotid gland tissue damage. Advanced radiotherapy planning approaches such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy may be partiticularly important for parotid sparing in radiochemotherapy because of cisplatin-related increased radiosensitivity of glands.

  18. [A bilateral epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Tauziède-Espariat, Arnault; Raffoul, Johnny; Sun, Shan Rong; Monnin, Christine; Lassabe, Catherine; Costes, Valérie

    2015-12-01

    We report the case of a 52-year-old man, who was admitted in the department of otorhinolaryngology for a mass of the right parotid gland. The radiological and clinical hypothesis was a squamous cell carcinoma. Histopathological examination revealed a biphasic proliferation composed of epithelial cells arranged in a tubular pattern stained with cytokeratins 5-6 and 7 and EMA surrounded by clear myoepithelial cells stained with smooth muscle actin and p63. Ki-67 labeling index was low. The diagnosis of epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma was proposed. One year after, the patient noticed a centimetric mass of the left parotid gland. The radiological hypothesis was the presence of an intraparotidian lymph node. Histopathological examination showed a second epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma. This is an uncommon neoplasm comprising approximately 1% of all salivary gland tumours, affecting mainly the parotid gland. It is occurring preferably in patients older than 60years old. This is a low-grade malignant tumour with tendency to local recurrence and lymph node metastatic potential. We describe an exceptional bilateral epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland.

  19. Differential Diagnosis of Parotid Lipoma in a Breast Ca Patient

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Lipomas are common benign tumors usually detected on the torso, neck, upper thighs, and upper arms. However, they are rarely found in the parotid gland region. Because of their rarity at this site, they are not often considered in the differential diagnosis of parotid tumors. This report describes a rare case of a lipoma in the superficial lobe of parotid gland. A 71-year-old female patient admitted to our department complaining about swelling and pain in the posterior area of the left mandibular region since one month. Her medical history included mastectomy after breast CA fifteen years ago. Clinical examination revealed a smooth-surfaced, soft, and painful mass, with well-defined margins in the left mandibular region. Differential diagnosis of metastasis, inflammatory neck swellings, and benign salivary gland tumors were considered for the patient. Advanced imaging methods such as ultrasonography and contrast tomography revealed that the lesion was a lipoma of parotid gland. A surgical intervention under general anesthesia was planned for the removal of the mass; however patient refused the surgical treatment. Patient was placed on six-month periodic recall. This article reviews the radiographic appearance and differential diagnoses of lipoma in this rare location. PMID:28255469

  20. Accessory parotid gland tumours: 24 years of clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Lukšić, I; Suton, P; Rogić, M; Dokuzović, S

    2012-12-01

    The accessory parotid gland (APG) is salivary tissue anterior to and anatomically separate from the parotid gland. APG is a common anatomical variation, but APG tumours are extremely rare. The authors report 6 patients with APG tumours emphasizing the diagnosis, clinical features, indications and rationales for different treatment approaches. Patients with primary tumours of the parotid gland or APG tumours who underwent surgical treatment were included. APG tumours comprised 1.23% of overall parotid tumours (6/488) and had a malignancy rate of 33.3% (2/6). There were three male and three female patients with a mean age of 39 years (range 14-70 years). 5 of 6 parotidectomies entailed superficial lobectomy, while one was a total parotidectomy with composite resection of masseter muscle. Concomitant selective lymphadenectomy was carried out in 3 of 6 patients. At 5 years disease-free survival was 83.3%. Mean follow-up was 161 months (range 14-253 months). Although nonsalivary diagnoses frequently occur in the buccal area, APG tumours should be considered in every differential diagnosis in patients presenting with a mid-cheek mass. From oncosurgical, cosmetic and functional standpoints, treatment by facelift parotidectomy or 'S-incision' with concomitant superficial lobectomy is the recommended surgical approach; high-grade malignancies require total parotidectomy with regional lymphadenectomy. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical management of masses arising from the accessory parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Ji, Tong; Wang, Li-Zhen; Yang, Wen-jun; Hu, Yong-jie; Zhong, Lai-ping; Zhang, Chen-ping; Zhang, Zhi-yuan

    2011-09-01

    Accessory parotid lesions are clinically rare and its management remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical management of accessory parotid lesions. From April 1999 to November 2008, a retrospective analysis of 32 patients with accessory parotid lesions was performed. The preoperative examinations, surgical treatment, and prognosis were recorded and analyzed. Among the 32 patients, there were 8 men and 24 women with an overall average age of 45 years. These patients always presented without obvious symptoms, and the masses were moderate to hard in hardness without tenderness, mobile, and with clear boundary. The pathologic diagnoses were 24 benign and 8 malignant lesions. Surgery and surgery plus radiotherapy were performed in the patients with benign and malignant lesions, respectively, with good prognosis. Accessory parotid lesions are rare, and the clinical manifestation is always the same for benign tumors. Surgical resection and surgical resection plus radiotherapy are the primary choices of treatment for benign and malignant lesions, respectively. The prognosis is always good. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinicopathologic factors associated with recurrence in parotid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Lim, Sang Chul

    2017-08-25

    Parotid carcinomas have varying histological types and diverse biologic behaviors. Establishing an adequate treatment plan and predicting recurrence is important. To analyze the risk factors associated with recurrence in our 5 year experience with 30 cases of primary parotid carcinoma undergoing surgery at a single institute. From January 2009 to December 2013, 30 patients with surgical treatment of parotid carcinoma were identified based on their medical records. The 30 patients were comprised of 17 males and 13 females. Among 11 patients with T4 tumors, seven patients had recurrence. Among seven patients with cervical nodal metastasis, all patient except one had recurrence. Clinically late stages (stage III and IV) showed more common recurrence than early stage (stage I and II) lesions. Lymphovascular invasion was seen in 5 patients, and all patients had recurrence. Among 11 patients with extracapsular spread, 7 patients had recurrence. In 17 patients with high grade carcinomas, ten patients had recurrence. In 13 patients with low grade carcinomas, no patients experienced recurrence. T- and N-stage, clinical stage, lymphovascular invasion, extracapsular spread, and histopathologic grade correlate significantly with recurrence in parotid carcinoma. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Cystic Dilatation of the Parotid Duct of a Goat

    PubMed Central

    Slocombe, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Cystic dilatation of the parotid duct of a goat was diagnosed by exploratory surgery and analysis of cyst contents. The cyst and its associated salivary gland were surgically removed. This case is compared with the more common salivary mucocele. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:7397617

  4. [A case of parotid pleomorphic adenoma metastasis to multiple organs].

    PubMed

    Kessoku, Hisashi; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Iino, Takashi; Tanaka, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    In January 2011, a 64-year-old woman who had undergone tumor resection for pleomorphic adenoma of the left parotid gland four times since her first operation in 1996 visited an orthopedist in our hospital complaining of pain in her right lower limb. Computed tomography (CT) of the whole body showed multiple tumors on the left parotid gland, right kidney, the sacrum, and both lungs. Biopsy of the sacral region and right nephrectomy were performed based on a clinical diagnosis of sacral and pulmonary metastases from renal cell carcinoma, and palliative radiation therapy was immediately begun on the sacral region. Given the definitive pathological diagnosis of metastasis of pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland, the recurrent tumor of the left parotid gland and the surrounding lymph nodes were first removed. Postoperative findings demonstrated that the pleomorphic adenoma had metastasized to the lymph nodes. The lung tumors were resected subsequently, and postoperative findings led to the diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma. Metastasis of pleomorphic adenoma is known to be extremely rare, and to our knowledge this case of metastasis to a kidney is the first reported in Japan.

  5. Marked differences in immunocytological localization of ( sup 3 H)estradiol-binding protein in rat pancreatic acinar tumor cells compared to normal acinar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Beaudoin, A.R.; Grondin, G.; St Jean, P.; Pettengill, O.; Longnecker, D.S.; Grossman, A. )

    1991-03-01

    ({sup 3}H)Estradiol can bind to a specific protein in normal rat pancreatic acinar cells. Electron microscopic immunocytochemical analysis has shown this protein to be localized primarily in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Rat exocrine pancreatic tumor cell lines, whether grown in tissue culture (AR42J) or as a tumor mass after sc injection into rats (DSL-2), lacked detectable amounts of this ({sup 3}H)estradiol-binding protein (EBP), as determined by the dextran-coated charcoal assay. Furthermore, primary exocrine pancreatic neoplasms induced with the carcinogen azaserine contained little or no detectable ({sup 3}H)estradiol-binding activity. However, electron immunocytochemical studies of transformed cells indicated the presence of material that cross-reacted with antibodies prepared against the ({sup 3}H)EBP. The immunopositive reaction in transformed cells was localized almost exclusively in lipid granules. Such lipid organelles in normal acinar cells, although present less frequently than in transformed cells, have never been observed to contain EBP-like immunopositive material. Presumably, the aberrant localization of EBP in these acinar tumor cells results in loss of function of this protein, which in normal pancreatic acinar cells appears to exert a modulating influence on zymogen granule formation and the process of secretion.

  6. Radioactive seed migration following parotid gland interstitial brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yi; Huang, Ming-Wei; Zhao, Yi-Jiao; Gao, Hong; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2017-09-15

    To evaluate the incidence and associated factors of pulmonary seed migration after parotid brachytherapy using a novel migrated seed detection technique. Patients diagnosed with parotid cancer who underwent permanent parotid brachytherapy from January 2006 to December 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Head and neck CT scans and chest X-rays were evaluated during routine follow-up. Mimics software and Geomagic Studio software were used for seed reconstruction and migrated seed detection from the original implanted region, respectively. Postimplant dosimetry analysis was performed after seeds migration if the seeds were still in their emitting count. Adverse clinical sequelae from seed embolization to the lung were documented. The radioactive seed implants were identified on chest X-rays in 6 patients. The incidence rate of seed migration in 321 parotid brachytherapy patients was 1.87% (6/321) and that of individual seed migration was 0.04% (6/15218 seeds). All migrated seeds were originally from the retromandibular region. No adverse dosimetric consequences were found in the target region. Pulmonary symptoms were not reported by any patient in this study. In our patient set, migration of radioactive seeds with an initial radioactivity of 0.6-0.7 mCi to the chest following parotid brachytherapy was rare. Late migration of a single seed from the central target region did not affect the dosimetry significantly, and patients did not have severe short-term complications. This study proposed a novel technique to localize the anatomical origin of the migrated seeds during brachytherapy. Our evidence suggested that placement of seeds adjacent to blood vessels was associated with an increased likelihood of seed migration to the lungs. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. US in preoperative evaluation of parotid gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Gerwel, Agata; Kosik, Krzysztof; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms account for only 3% of all tumors of the head and neck area, but as they represent a wide variety of histological types, they are a big diagnostic challenge. The cornerstone of salivary gland neoplasm treatment, both for the benign and malignant lesions, is surgery. The main goal of the therapy is not only to achieve complete surgical tumor resection, but also to preserve adjacent structures (facial nerve, parapharyngeal space structures). Ultrasonography is an examination commonly used in the preoperative diagnosis of the lesions localized within salivary glands. Very often it is the only diagnostic imaging method used in these cases. The aim of the study was to establish diagnostic value of US examination and its parameters for the assessment of parotid gland tumors. A prospective study was performed on a group of 51 patients with parotid gland neoplasms, who over a period of 3 years underwent surgery in Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology Department with Craniomaxillofacial Surgery Department of Central Clinical Hospital of Ministry of Defence in Warsaw. All the included patients underwent US examination in the preoperative period. The parameters selected for the assessment were: ill-defined tumor margins, tumor vascularity and the presence of enlarged regional lymph nodes. The results of imaging examination were compared to the final diagnosis based on pathological examination of the surgical specimen. The parameters of the US examination such as sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for the evaluation of parotid gland tumors were established based on the examination results. An analysis was performed and ill-defined parotid tumor margins turned out to be a US parameter with higher diagnostic value for differentiating benign and malignant lesions than increased tumor vascularity. The presence of enlarged regional lymph nodes with blurred echostructure on the US examination

  8. Thiamin uptake by pancreatic acinar cells: effect of chronic alcohol feeding/exposure

    PubMed Central

    Subramanya, Sandeep B.; Subramanian, Veedamali S.; Sekar, V. Thillai

    2011-01-01

    Thiamin is important for normal function of pancreatic acinar cells, but little is known about its mechanism of uptake and about the effect of chronic alcohol use on the process. We addressed these issues using freshly isolated rat primary and rat-derived cultured AR42J pancreatic acinar cells as models. Results showed thiamin uptake by both primary and cultured AR42J pancreatic acinar cells to be via a specific carrier-mediated mechanism and that both of the thiamin transporters 1 and 2 (THTR-1 and THTR-2) are expressed in these cells. Chronic alcohol feeding of rats was found to lead to a significant inhibition of carrier-mediated thiamin uptake by pancreatic acinar cells and was associated with a significant reduction in level of expression of THTR-1 and THTR-2 at the protein and mRNA levels. Chronic exposure (96 h) of AR42J cells to alcohol also led to a significant decreased carrier-mediated thiamin uptake, an effect that was associated with a significant decrease in the activity of the human SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 promoters expressed in these cells. We also examined the effect of chronic alcohol feeding of rats on level of expression of key thiamin metabolizing enzymes (thiamin phosphokinase and thiamin pyrophosphatase) as well as on level of expression of the mitochondrial thiamin pyrophosphate transporter of pancreatic acinar cells and observed a significant inhibition in all these parameters. These results demonstrate for the first time that thiamin uptake by pancreatic acinar cells is via a carrier-mediated process and that both the THTR-1 as well as THTR-2 are expressed in these cells. Also, chronic alcohol feeding/exposure inhibits thiamin uptake process and the inhibition is, at least in part, being exerted at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, chronic alcohol feeding also negatively impacts intracellular parameters of thiamin metabolism in pancreatic acinar cells. PMID:21868632

  9. Thiamin uptake by pancreatic acinar cells: effect of chronic alcohol feeding/exposure.

    PubMed

    Subramanya, Sandeep B; Subramanian, Veedamali S; Sekar, V Thillai; Said, Hamid M

    2011-11-01

    Thiamin is important for normal function of pancreatic acinar cells, but little is known about its mechanism of uptake and about the effect of chronic alcohol use on the process. We addressed these issues using freshly isolated rat primary and rat-derived cultured AR42J pancreatic acinar cells as models. Results showed thiamin uptake by both primary and cultured AR42J pancreatic acinar cells to be via a specific carrier-mediated mechanism and that both of the thiamin transporters 1 and 2 (THTR-1 and THTR-2) are expressed in these cells. Chronic alcohol feeding of rats was found to lead to a significant inhibition of carrier-mediated thiamin uptake by pancreatic acinar cells and was associated with a significant reduction in level of expression of THTR-1 and THTR-2 at the protein and mRNA levels. Chronic exposure (96 h) of AR42J cells to alcohol also led to a significant decreased carrier-mediated thiamin uptake, an effect that was associated with a significant decrease in the activity of the human SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 promoters expressed in these cells. We also examined the effect of chronic alcohol feeding of rats on level of expression of key thiamin metabolizing enzymes (thiamin phosphokinase and thiamin pyrophosphatase) as well as on level of expression of the mitochondrial thiamin pyrophosphate transporter of pancreatic acinar cells and observed a significant inhibition in all these parameters. These results demonstrate for the first time that thiamin uptake by pancreatic acinar cells is via a carrier-mediated process and that both the THTR-1 as well as THTR-2 are expressed in these cells. Also, chronic alcohol feeding/exposure inhibits thiamin uptake process and the inhibition is, at least in part, being exerted at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, chronic alcohol feeding also negatively impacts intracellular parameters of thiamin metabolism in pancreatic acinar cells.

  10. Mechanism and regulation of folate uptake by pancreatic acinar cells: effect of chronic alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Said, Hamid M; Mee, Lisa; Sekar, V Thillai; Ashokkumar, Balasubramaniem; Pandol, Stephen J

    2010-06-01

    Folate plays an essential role in one-carbon metabolism, and a relationship exists between methyl group metabolism and pancreatic exocrine function. Little, however, is known about the mechanism(s) and regulation of folate uptake by pancreatic acinar cells and the effect of chronic alcohol use on the process. We addressed these issues using the rat-derived pancreatic acinar cell line AR42J and freshly isolated primary rat pancreatic acinar cells as models. We found [(3)H]folic acid uptake to be 1) temperature and pH dependent with a higher uptake at acidic than at neutral/alkaline pH; 2) saturable as a function of substrate concentration at both buffer pH 7.4 and 6.0; 3) inhibited by folate structural analogs and by anion transport inhibitors at both buffer pH 7.4 and 6.0; 4) trans-stimulated by unlabeled folate; 5) adaptively regulated by the prevailing extracellular folate level, and 6) inhibited by modulators of the cAMP/PKA-mediated pathway. Both the reduced folate carrier (RFC) and the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) were found to be expressed in AR42J and in primary pancreatic acinar cells, as well as in native human pancreas with expression of RFC being higher than PCFT. Chronic alcohol feeding of rats (4 wk; 36% of calories from ethanol) led to a significant decrease in folate uptake by freshly isolated primary pancreatic acinar cells compared with cells from pair-fed controls; this effect was associated with a parallel decrease in the level of expression of RFC and PCFT. These studies reveal that folate uptake by pancreatic acinar cells is via a regulated carrier-mediated process which may involve RFC and PCFT. In addition, chronic alcohol feeding leads to a marked inhibition in folate uptake by pancreatic acinar cells, an effect that is associated with reduction in level of expression of RFC and PCFT.

  11. Rabbit hematology.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Kemba L

    2008-09-01

    Using laboratory animal medicine as an established resource, companion animal veterinarians have access to many physiologic and basic science studies that we can now merge with our clinical impressions. By working with reference laboratories, companion animal veterinarians are poised to accelerate our knowledge of the normal rabbit rapidly. The aim of this article is to discuss normal hematopoiesis and infectious and metabolic diseases that specifically target the hemolymphatic system. Additionally, photographic representation of cell types is provided.

  12. A false-negative sentinel lymph node in the parotid gland of a melanoma patient: a new algorithm for SLN biopsy in the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Toshihiko; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Tsutsumida, Arata; Yoshida, Tetsunori

    2010-10-01

    The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is the first node in the lymphatic basin to be affected by metastatic tumor cells from a primary lesion. It provides a way to avoid elective neck dissection in a case in which there is no metastasis to the SLN. However, identification and excision of the SLN may be difficult due to the shine-through phenomenon, as the SLN in the parotid gland is either located close to the primary lesion or, in many cases, the lymph node of the parotid gland is small and covered by fibrous capsula. When we conducted an SLN biopsy on a 68-year-old male patient with malignant melanoma of the cheeks, the metastasis to the node of the parotid gland identified as the SLN was negative; however, 1 year later, the melanoma recurred on the lymph node of the parotid gland, or in other words, we experienced a false-negative SLN. SLN biopsy in the parotid gland is difficult because the lymph node is small and covered by fibrous capsula. We may consider a total or partial resection of the superficial lobe of the parotid gland, particularly when identification of an SLN in the parotid gland is difficult. Therefore, we propose a new algorithm for SLN biopsy in the parotid gland.

  13. The acinar differentiation determinant PTF1A inhibits initiation of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Krah, Nathan M; De La O, Jean-Paul; Swift, Galvin H; Hoang, Chinh Q; Willet, Spencer G; Chen Pan, Fong; Cash, Gabriela M; Bronner, Mary P; Wright, Christopher VE; MacDonald, Raymond J; Murtaugh, L Charles

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the initiation and progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) may provide therapeutic strategies for this deadly disease. Recently, we and others made the surprising finding that PDAC and its preinvasive precursors, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), arise via reprogramming of mature acinar cells. We therefore hypothesized that the master regulator of acinar differentiation, PTF1A, could play a central role in suppressing PDAC initiation. In this study, we demonstrate that PTF1A expression is lost in both mouse and human PanINs, and that this downregulation is functionally imperative in mice for acinar reprogramming by oncogenic KRAS. Loss of Ptf1a alone is sufficient to induce acinar-to-ductal metaplasia, potentiate inflammation, and induce a KRAS-permissive, PDAC-like gene expression profile. As a result, Ptf1a-deficient acinar cells are dramatically sensitized to KRAS transformation, and reduced Ptf1a greatly accelerates development of invasive PDAC. Together, these data indicate that cell differentiation regulators constitute a new tumor suppressive mechanism in the pancreas. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07125.001 PMID:26151762

  14. Differentiation of pancreatic acinar carcinoma cells cultured on rat testicular seminiferous tubular basement membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, T.K.; Hansen, L.J.; Reddy, N.K.; Kanwar, Y.S.; Reddy, J.K.

    1984-11-01

    The use of rat testicular seminiferous tubular basement membrane (STBM) segments as a model substratum for the in vitro maintenance of tumor cells dissociated from a transplantable pancreatic acinar rat carcinoma is described. Ultrastructurally pure, hollow tubular segments of STBM were prepared by mechanical disaggregation, DNase digestion, and deoxycholate treatment. Dissociated pancreatic acinar carcinoma cells adhered readily to STBM segments within 1 to 6 hr, and these STBM-tumor cell aggregates were maintained for up to 7 days in serum-free chemically defined medium supplemented with hydrocortisone, insulin, vitamin C, and soybean trypsin inhibitor. The tumor cells formed acinar-like clusters and displayed intercellular junctions and polarization of secretory granules toward the center of these clusters. By 4 days, virtually all cells of this acinar carcinoma maintained on STBM in supplemented chemically defined medium contained numerous secretory granules. Cell replication, as determined by (/sup 3/H)thymidine autoradiography, ceased within 18 hr of attachment of neoplastic cells to STBM; however, all cells incorporated (/sup 3/H)leucine as evidenced by light and electron microscopic autoradiography. In addition, two-dimensional analysis and fluorography of newly synthesized secretory proteins discharged by these cells in response to carbamylcholine revealed the presence of Mr 24,000 protein and 19 other secretory proteins characteristic of this tumor. The culture system utilizing STBM and supplemented chemically defined medium should allow investigation of the effects of a variety of factors on morphogenesis, cytodifferentiation, and gene expression in pancreatic acinar tumors.

  15. Total pancreatectomy for metachronous mixed acinar-ductal carcinoma in a remnant pancreas.

    PubMed

    Shonaka, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Mitsuhiro; Akabane, Hiromitsu; Yanagida, Naoyuki; Shomura, Hiroki; Yanagawa, Nobuyuki; Oikawa, Kensuke; Nakano, Shiro

    2014-09-07

    In October 2009, a 71-year-old female was diagnosed with a cystic tumor in the tail of the pancreas with an irregular dilatation of the main pancreatic duct in the body and tail of the pancreas. A distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy, and partial resection of the duodenum, jejunum and transverse colon was performed. In March 2011, a follow-up computed tomography scan showed a low density mass at the head of the remnant pancreas. We diagnosed it as a recurrence of the tumor and performed a total pancreatectomy for the remnant pancreas. In the histological evaluation of the resected specimen of the distal pancreas, the neoplastic cells formed an acinar and papillary structure that extended into the main pancreatic duct. Mucin5AC, α1-antitrypsin (α-AT) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were detected in the tumor cells by immunohistochemistry. In the resected head of the pancreas, the tumor was composed of both acinar and ductal elements with a mottled pattern. The proportions of each element were approximately 40% and 60%, respectively. Strongly positive α-AT cells were detected in the acinar element. Some tumor cells were also CEA positive. However, the staining for synaptophysin and chromogranin A was negative in the tumor cells. Ultimately, we diagnosed the tumor as a recurrence of mixed acinar-ductal carcinoma in the remnant pancreas. In conclusion, we report here a rare case of repeated pancreatic resection for multicentric lesions of mixed acinar-ductal carcinoma of the pancreas.

  16. Expression of claudin-5 in canine pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma - An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Jakab, Csaba; Rusvai, Miklós; Gálfi, Péter; Halász, Judit; Kulka, Janina

    2011-03-01

    Claudin-5 is an endothelium-specific tight junction protein. The aim of the present study was to detect the expression pattern of this molecule in intact pancreatic tissues and in well-differentiated and poorly differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas from dogs by the use of cross-reactive humanised anticlaudin-5 antibody. The necropsy samples taken from dogs included 10 nonneoplastic pancreatic tissues, 10 well-differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas, 10 poorly differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas, 5 intrahepatic metastases of well-differentiated and 5 intrahepatic metastases of poorly differentiated acinar cell carcinomas. A strong lateral membrane claudin-5 positivity was detected in exocrine cells in all intact pancreas samples. The endocrine cells of the islets of Langerhans and the epithelial cells of the ducts were negative for claudin-5. The endothelial cells of vessels and lymphatic channels in the stroma of the intact pancreas showed strong membrane positivity for this claudin. All well-differentiated exocrine pancreas carcinomas and all poorly-differentiated pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma samples showed a diffuse loss of claudin-5 expression. The claudin-5-positive peritumoural vessels and lymphatic channels facilitated the detection of vascular invasion of the claudin-5-negative cancer cells. In liver metastasis samples, the pancreatic carcinomas were negative for claudin-5. It seems that the loss of expression of claudin-5 may lead to carcinogenesis in canine exocrine pancreatic cells.

  17. Characterization of single potassium channels in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, A; Schulz, I

    1995-01-01

    1. Single K(+)-selective channels with a conductance of about 48 pS (pipette, 145 mM KCl; bath, 140 mM NaCl + 4.7 mM KCl) were recorded in the patch-clamp whole-cell configuration in isolated mouse pancreatic acinar cells. 2. Neither application of the secretagogues acetylcholine (second messenger, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate) or secretin (second messenger, cAMP), nor addition of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A to the pipette solution changed the activity of the 48 pS K+ channel. 3. Intracellular acidification with sodium propionate (20 mM) diminished activity of the 48 pS channel, whereas channel open probability was increased by cytosolic alkalization with 20 mM NH4Cl. 4. BaCl2 (5 mM), TEA (10 mM) or apamin (1 microM) added to the bath solution had no obvious effect on the kinetics of the 48 pS channel. Similarly, glibenclamide and diazoxide failed to influence the channel activity. 5. When extracellular NaCl was replaced by KCl, whole-cell recordings revealed an inwardly rectifying K+ current carried by a 17 pS K+ channel. 6. The inwardly rectifying K+ current was not pH dependent and could largely be blocked by Ba2+ but not by TEA. 7. Since the 48 pS K+ channel is neither Ca2+ nor cAMP regulated, we suggest that this channel could play a role in the maintenance of the negative cell resting potential. PMID:7623283

  18. Hyperglycemia simultaneously induces initial caries development and enhances spontaneous occlusal surface wear in molar teeth related to parotid gland disorder in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Nishimoto, Taiki; Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Taniguchi, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes and salivary gland dysfunction are major factors that induce dental caries in experimental animals, but there are no reports analyzing the association of dental caries and salivary glands in an animal model of diabetes mellitus (DM). To clarify the initial development of dental caries and preceding salivary gland disorder, we performed a histopathological analysis on teeth and salivary glands in diabetic Wistar rats 7 weeks after alloxan treatment (DM group) in comparison with nondiabetic rats (Non-DM group) and functional analysis on saliva secretion during the experimental period. Pilocarpine-induced salivary fluid secretion in diabetic rats gradually decreased with continuous hyperglycemia from immediately after alloxan treatment to the time of autopsy. Histopathologically, Oil Red O-positive lipid droplets accumulated in the acinar cells of the parotid gland. No tooth was stereoscopically defined as having dental caries in any of the rats in either group; however, the external appearance remarkably changed owing to occlusal wear in almost all molars in the DM group. The initial lesions of dental caries, appearing as micro-defects in dentin with bacterial colonization on the molar surface, were identified using histopathological analysis, and the incidence in the DM group was more than twice that in the Non-DM group. In conclusion, hyperglycemia simultaneously induces initial caries development and enhances spontaneous occlusal wear in molar teeth of Wistar rats 7 weeks after alloxan treatment. The parotid gland dysfunction caused by hyperglycemia may be mostly involved in the pathogenesis of occlusal wear as well as in dental caries in this diabetic model. PMID:28190924

  19. Long-term parotid gland function after radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Braam, Petra M. . E-mail: P.M.Braam@azu.nl; Roesink, Judith M.; Moerland, Marinus A.; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.; Schipper, Maria; Terhaard, Chris H.J.

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: Irradiation of the parotid glands causes salivary dysfunction, resulting in reduced salivary flow. Recovery can be seen with time; however, long-term prospective data are lacking. The objective of this study was to analyze the long-term parotid gland function after irradiation for head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 52 patients with head-and-neck cancer and treated with radiotherapy (RT) were prospectively evaluated. Stimulated bilateral parotid salivary flow rates were measured before RT and 6 weeks, 6 months, 12 months, and at least 3.5 years after RT completion. A complication was defined as a stimulated parotid flow rate of <25% of the pre-RT flow rate. The normal tissue complication probability model proposed by Lyman was fit to the data. Multilevel techniques were used to model the patterns of flow rates with time. Results: The mean stimulated flow rate of the parotid glands before RT was 0.31 mL/min (standard deviation [SD], 0.21). This was reduced to 0.14 mL/min (SD, 0.15) at 6 weeks after RT and recovered to 0.20 mL/min (SD, 0.22) at 6 months and 0.19 mL/min (SD, 0.21) at 12 months after RT. The mean stimulated flow rate was 0.25 mL/min (SD, 0.28) 5 years after RT. The mean dose to the parotid gland resulting in a 50% complication probability increased from 34 Gy at 6 weeks to 40 Gy at 6 months, 42 Gy at 12 months, and 46 Gy at 5 years after RT. Multilevel modeling indicated that both dose and time were significantly associated with the flow ratio. Conclusion: Salivary output can still recover many years after RT. At 5 years after RT, we found an increase in the salivary flow rate of approximately 32% compared with at 12 months after RT.

  20. Simple tool for prediction of parotid gland sparing in intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Gensheimer, Michael F.; Hummel-Kramer, Sharon M.; Cain, David; Quang, Tony S.

    2015-10-01

    Sparing one or both parotid glands is a key goal when planning head and neck cancer radiation treatment. If the planning target volume (PTV) overlaps one or both parotid glands substantially, it may not be possible to achieve adequate gland sparing. This finding results in physicians revising their PTV contours after an intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan has been run and reduces workflow efficiency. We devised a simple formula for predicting mean parotid gland dose from the overlap of the parotid gland and isotropically expanded PTV contours. We tested the tool using 44 patients from 2 institutions and found agreement between predicted and actual parotid gland doses (mean absolute error = 5.3 Gy). This simple method could increase treatment planning efficiency by improving the chance that the first plan presented to the physician will have optimal parotid gland sparing.

  1. The course and nature of acinar cell death following pancreatic ligation in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Zeligs, J D; Janoff, A; Dumont, A E

    1975-08-01

    The course and nature of acinar cell death (ACD) following pancreatic ligation in the guinea pig was studied as a possible model for human disease. Ultrastructural studies after various periods of ligation suggested a biphasic pattern of ACD. Early phase ACD involved only a small portion of acinar cells and occurred within a few hours of ligation. It was preceded by swelling and vesiculation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Morphometric measurements disclosed celular swelling at this time, and NaCl equilibration studies demonstrated a change in cellular osmoregulation. Late phase ACD, characterized by cellular wasting and autophagic vacuole formation, became prominent several days after ligation. Marked increases in lysosomal enzyme activities were found in tissue homogenates at this time, and acid phosphatase electron histochemistry localized the majority of this increased activity to lysosomes and autophagic vacuoles within the acinar cells. The etiology and nature of both phases of ACD are discussed.

  2. Protein kinase D1 drives pancreatic acinar cell reprogramming and progression to intraepithelial neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Geou-Yarh; Döppler, Heike; Braun, Ursula B.; Panayiotou, Richard; Scotti Buzhardt, Michele; Radisky, Derek C.; Crawford, Howard C.; Fields, Alan P.; Murray, Nicole R.; Wang, Q. Jane; Leitges, Michael; Storz, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The transdifferentiation of pancreatic acinar cells to a ductal phenotype (acinar-to-ductal metaplasia, ADM) occurs after injury or inflammation of the pancreas and is a reversible process. However, in the presence of activating Kras mutations or persistent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) signalling, cells that underwent ADM can progress to pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and eventually pancreatic cancer. In transgenic animal models, ADM and PanINs are initiated by high-affinity ligands for EGF-R or activating Kras mutations, but the underlying signalling mechanisms are not well understood. Here, using a conditional knockout approach, we show that protein kinase D1 (PKD1) is sufficient to drive the reprogramming process to a ductal phenotype and progression to PanINs. Moreover, using 3D explant culture of primary pancreatic acinar cells, we show that PKD1 acts downstream of TGFα and Kras, to mediate formation of ductal structures through activation of the Notch pathway.

  3. Combination of Hot-Hypertonic Saline and Pressure Dressing in the Management of Parotid Fistula.

    PubMed

    Aisha; Fatima, Saira; Memon, Aijaz Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    Parotid fistula is a rare complication of surgical or non-surgical trauma on or in the vicinity of parotid gland. Many pharmacological agents and surgical methods are used to treat it with their own merits, demerits and patient preferences. Injection of hypertonic hot saline along with compression dressing is an economical, patient-preferred and almost complication-free method to deal parotid fistula with promising results.

  4. Simultaneous Bilateral Hypertrophies of the Parotid Gland and Masseter Muscle: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Rohan; Mandel, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Increased salivary demand can lead to enlarged parotid salivary glands, and increased activity of the masseter muscles can cause masseter hypertrophy. This report describes a most unusual case of simultaneous bilateral hypertrophies of the parotid gland and masseter muscle originating from the very extensive habit of chewing gum. An extensive literature review uncovered many cases of the independent existence of masseteric or parotid hypertrophy, but no example of the simultaneous occurrence of these 2 conditions.

  5. Unusual Foreign Body of Parotid Gland Presenting as Sialolithiasis: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sreetharan, Sivapatha Sundaram; Philip, Rajan

    2012-01-01

    This case report highlights an unusual case where a foreign body in the parotid gland was initially thought to be sialolithiasis based on CT scans. The foreign body was safely retrieved from the parotid gland without formal superficial parotidectomy using methylene blue and an image intensifier to localize the lesion. Diagnosis and management of foreign bodies in the parotid gland are reviewed, and surgical options in removal of such lesions are discussed. PMID:23320231

  6. SERUM AND PAROTID FLUIS UREA-LEVELS IN UNREALOADED HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Forty-four healthy young adult male subjects were given oral doses of urea, and parotid fluid and serum urea levels were studied for 1 to 3 hours. A...highly significant correlation between urea in serum and in parotid fluid (r equals 0.982) was found. The indication was that, with flow rate...carefully controlled, parotid fluid could be used interchangeably with serum in urea determination, regardless of the magnitude of the blood concentration. (Author)

  7. Effect of taurine on acinar cell apoptosis and pancreatic fibrosis in dibutyltin dichloride-induced chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Koki; Mizushima, Takaaki; Shirahige, Akinori; Tanioka, Hiroaki; Sawa, Kiminari; Ochi, Koji; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Koide, Norio

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between pancreatic fibrosis and apoptosis of pancreatic acinar cells has not been fully elucidated. We reported that taurine had an anti-fibrotic effect in a dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC)-chronic pancreatitis model. However, the effect of taurine on apoptosis of pancreatic acinar cells is still unclear. Therefore, we examined apoptosis in DBTC-chronic pancreatitis and in the AR42J pancreatic acinar cell line with/without taurine. Pancreatic fibrosis was induced by a single administration of DBTC. Rats were fed a taurine-containing diet or a normal diet and were sacrificed at day 5. The AR42J pancreatic acinar cell line was incubated with/without DBTC with taurine chloramines. Apoptosis was determined by using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The expression of Bad and Bcl-2 proteins in the AR42J cells lysates was detected by Western blot analysis. The apoptotic index of pancreatic acinar cells in DBTC-administered rats was significantly increased. Taurine treatment inhibited pancreatic fibrosis and apoptosis of acinar cells induced by DBTC. The number of TUNEL-positive cells in the AR42J pancreatic acinar cell lines was significantly increased by the addition of DBTC. Incubation with taurine chloramines ameliorated these changes. In conclusion, taurine inhibits apoptosis of pancreatic acinar cells and pancreatitis in experimental chronic pancreatitis.

  8. Pancreatic acinar cells-derived cyclophilin A promotes pancreatic damage by activating NF-κB pathway in experimental pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Ge; Wan, Rong; Hu, Yanling; Ni, Jianbo; Yin, Guojian; Xing, Miao; Shen, Jie; Tang, Maochun; Chen, Congying; Fan, Yuting; Xiao, Wenqin; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Xingpeng; and others

    2014-01-31

    Highlights: • CypA is upregulated in experimental pancreatitis. • CCK induces expression and release of CypA in acinar cell in vitro. • rCypA aggravates CCK-induced acinar cell death and inflammatory cytokine production. • rCypA activates the NF-κB pathway in acinar cells in vitro. - Abstract: Inflammation triggered by necrotic acinar cells contributes to the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis (AP), but its precise mechanism remains unclear. Recent studies have shown that Cyclophilin A (CypA) released from necrotic cells is involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases. We therefore investigated the role of CypA in experimental AP induced by administration of sodium taurocholate (STC). CypA was markedly upregulated and widely expressed in disrupted acinar cells, infiltrated inflammatory cells, and tubular complexes. In vitro, it was released from damaged acinar cells by cholecystokinin (CCK) induction. rCypA (recombinant CypA) aggravated CCK-induced acinar cell necrosis, promoted nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 activation, and increased cytokine production. In conclusion, CypA promotes pancreatic damage by upregulating expression of inflammatory cytokines of acinar cells via the NF-κB pathway.

  9. Papillary Cystadenocarcinoma of the Parotid Gland: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Telugu, Ramesh Babu; Job, Anjana Juanita; Manipadam, Marie Therese

    2016-06-01

    Papillary cystadenocarcinoma is a rare malignant neoplasm of the salivary gland, characterized by noticeable cystic and solid areas with papillary endophytic projections. These tumours lack features that characterize cystic variants of several more common salivary gland carcinomas. It was first described in 1991 by World Health Organization as a separate entity and cystadenocarcinoma with or without papillary component in the AFIP classification. Most of these tumours occurred in the major salivary glands followed by minor salivary glands. Cystadenocarcinoma is the malignant counterpart of cystadenoma. We report a case of papillary cystadenocarcinoma of parotid. A 40-year-old lady presented with gradually progressive swelling below the right ear associated with occasional pain. Clinical and radiological features suggested benign neoplasm. Right lobe superficial parotidectomy was performed. The histopathologic diagnosis showed papillary cystadenocarinoma of the parotid gland. Histologic confirmation of stromal invasion is required to differentiate it from the benign lesion. Conservative wide local surgical excision is the treatment of choice.

  10. Papillary Cystadenocarcinoma of the Parotid Gland: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Job, Anjana Juanita; Manipadam, Marie Therese

    2016-01-01

    Papillary cystadenocarcinoma is a rare malignant neoplasm of the salivary gland, characterized by noticeable cystic and solid areas with papillary endophytic projections. These tumours lack features that characterize cystic variants of several more common salivary gland carcinomas. It was first described in 1991 by World Health Organization as a separate entity and cystadenocarcinoma with or without papillary component in the AFIP classification. Most of these tumours occurred in the major salivary glands followed by minor salivary glands. Cystadenocarcinoma is the malignant counterpart of cystadenoma. We report a case of papillary cystadenocarcinoma of parotid. A 40-year-old lady presented with gradually progressive swelling below the right ear associated with occasional pain. Clinical and radiological features suggested benign neoplasm. Right lobe superficial parotidectomy was performed. The histopathologic diagnosis showed papillary cystadenocarinoma of the parotid gland. Histologic confirmation of stromal invasion is required to differentiate it from the benign lesion. Conservative wide local surgical excision is the treatment of choice. PMID:27504297

  11. Metachronous bilateral pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Silva, Sindeval José da; Costa Junior, Gabriel Tadeu; Brant Filho, Adalberto Caldeira; Faria, Paulo Rogério; Loyola, Adriano Mota

    2006-03-01

    Bilateral salivary gland tumors are very rare, accounting for 3% of all parotid gland tumors. Although the most common tumor with bilateral development is the Warthin tumor, pleomorphic adenomas (PA) have been diagnosed simultaneously as well, but in a smaller incidence. Because of this, the prevalence, etiology, pathogenesis, and behavior of the PA in this context are poorly understood. We present a case of bilateral metachronous PA affecting the parotid gland in a 63-year-old woman. Clinically, the lesions presented with similar aspects as seen in cases of solitary PA with slow-growing asymptomatic nodule. Both lesions were diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy at an interval of 2 years between them. A total and superficial parotidectomy for left and right tumors, respectively, was performed. Only on the left side some facial nerve branches were removed that induced partial paralysis in the patient. A review of the pertinent literature is included.

  12. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Accessory Parotid Gland: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Das, Somdipto; Nayak, Umanath K; Buggavetti, Rahul; Sekhar, Shobana

    2016-05-01

    The accessory parotid gland is salivary gland tissue separated from the main gland at a variable distance. This gland is histologically similar to the main gland, but has a higher incidence of malignant neoplasms than the main gland. Regarding the various malignant neoplasms, studies have shown higher incidences of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, with less than 2% being adenoid cystic carcinoma. We present a case of swelling in the midcheek region that, after clinical examination, was diagnosed as a case of neoplasm of the accessory parotid gland. On the basis of auxiliary investigations including intraoperative frozen section, it was concluded that it was adenoid cystic carcinoma, grade I, and after wide surgical resection, the tumor was removed without undergoing superficial parotidectomy. The patient received postoperative radiotherapy (RT) and was followed for 14 months without any recurrence or substantial facial asymmetry. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Parotid tail pleomorphic adenoma extending to the parapharyngeal space.

    PubMed

    Polat, Kerem; Doğan, Mansur; Yüce, Salim; Uysal, Ismail Önder; Müderris, Suphi

    2013-03-01

    Parapharyngeal space tumors are rare, accounting for 0.5% of head and neck neoplasms. Most of them are benign and originate in the salivary glands, especially the pleomorphic adenoma. We presented a 47-year-old man with parotid tail pleomorphic adenoma extending to the parapharyngeal space. The patient applied to our clinic with the complaints of a painless mass on his neck and in his mouth for 3 months. After fine needle aspiration biopsy, the mass was diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma. The patient was hospitalized and operated in our clinic. As we see in literature review, parapharyngeal space tumors are rare, and most of them are pleomorphic adenomas arising from the deep lobe of the parotid gland and extend into the PPS.

  14. Role of parotid amylase in starch digestion in the gastro-intestinal tracts of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, M; Inomata, K

    1989-09-01

    In order for the role of parotid amylase in starch digestion in the gastro-intestinal tracts of diabetic rats to be clarified, this study investigated the effect of parotid-duct ligation on both amylase secretion from the parotid glands and pancreas into the gastro-intestinal tract and on starch digestion in the gastro-intestinal contents during feedings. In both diabetic rats and control rats, parotid-duct ligation reduced amylase activity in both the parotid glands during fasting and in the gastric contents after feeding. The amylase activity in the intestinal contents after feeding was reduced by parotid-duct ligation in the diabetic rats. Starch digestion in the gastro-intestinal tract after feeding was reduced by parotid-duct ligation in the diabetic rats. The results suggest that most of the amylase activity in the gastric contents and a large part of the amylase activity in the intestinal contents are derived from the parotid glands, and that parotid amylase plays an important role in starch digestion in the gastro-intestinal tracts of diabetic rats.

  15. Study of Preoperative Predictive Signs in Management of Facial Nerve in Parotid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    CHIRILA, Magdalena; MURESAN, Mihaela; BOLBOACA, Sorana D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To find preoperative predictive signs for better surgical planning of the facial nerve in parotid tumors. Methods: Prospective study in patients with primary parotid malignancies. Patients with primary parotid malignant tumor were investigated for preoperative clinical signs in correlation with histological findings and surgical management of the facial nerve. Outcomes: The study included 47 patients. Several clinical findings as facial pain, paresthesia, and rapid growth of tumor might suggest the risk of malignancy. Paresis/palsy of the facial nerve was correlates with direct neural involvement. Conclusion: There are several predictive clinical signs that might suggest malignancy of a parotid tumor. PMID:25553124

  16. [Flow rate, amylase and protein content of parotid saliva in sialadenosis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Chilla, R; Opaitz, M; Arglebe, C

    1978-03-01

    Flow rate, protein concentration and amylase activity of parotid saliva were investigated in 17 patients with sialadenosis. The results were compared with the data obtained from 90 healthy controls. Total protein and amylase concentrations of saliva did not change although, under the influence of sialadenosis, the parotid gland clearly shows ultrastructural signs of disturbed protein secretion. Also the flow rates of parotid saliva were the same in sialadenosis patients and the control group. This can be explained by the patho-physiology of parotid secretion from the sialadenotic gland.

  17. [2 cases of adenolymphoma of the parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Andreini, A; Avogadro, M; Trassini, R

    1979-01-01

    Starting from two cases of adenolymphoma of the parotid gland they had under observation, the Authors underline their doubts regarding the histogenesis, discuss the clinical approach and show their attitude towards the therapy. It consists of an enucleation or nucleoresection of the tumour in case only the superficial part of the gland is affected; a total parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation and without any radiotherapy, in case of a radical operation; with complementary radiotherapy if the operation has not been radical for certain.

  18. Acute neonatal parotid abscess: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Kolekar, Shreesh; Chincholi, Tejas S.; Kshirsagar, Ashok; Porwal, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Acute suppurative parotitis is uncommon in children and is very rare in neonates. Most common organism isolated is Staphylococcus aureus. We present a 15-day-old full-term breast-fed female neonate with left-sided acute parotid abscess. The baby presented with a left preauricular swelling, pain and redness. Pus was exuded from left Stensen's duct on compression of the gland externally. Early diagnosis and proper intravenous antibiotics are the keys to the treatment. PMID:28051052

  19. RABBIT POX

    PubMed Central

    Rosahn, Paul D.; Hu, Ch'uan-K'uei

    1935-01-01

    Observations on an epidemic of rabbit pox occurring in an isolated animal room during the winter of 1933–34 are reported. The clinical manifestations, consisting of a generalized papular eruption involving the skin and mucous membranes, together with blepharitis, ophthalmia, nasal discharge and lymphadenopathy were essentially similar to those noted in a pox epidemic of the previous year. This was true in general also of the pathological findings except that vacuolization, local necrosis and vesicle formation were seen in the epidermis, while in the previous year the microscopic pathology in the skin was confined to the corium. Evidence was presented indicating that the infection can be transmitted through the medium of a personal carrier, and that transmission in this manner can occur during the incubation period or before a definite diagnosis is possible. The findings also demonstrated that the etiological agents responsible for the disease reported here and that of the previous year were immunologically related, and that the immunity in recovered animals effectively persisted during the entire period for which data are available, 9 to 12 months. It appeared also that young animals suckling an immune doe were more refractory to the development of the lesions of rabbit pox than were the young of susceptible does. PMID:19870418

  20. The aflatoxin-detoxifizyme specific expression in mouse parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Guan, Li-zeng; Sun, Yu-ping; Cai, Jin-shun; Wu, Han-dong; Yu, Long-zheng; Zhang, Yong-liang; Xi, Qian-yun

    2015-06-01

    The aflatoxin-detoxifizyme (ADTZ) gene derived from Armillariella tabescens was cloned into parotid gland-specific expression vector (pPSPBGPneo) to construct the parotid gland-specific vector expressing ADTZ (pPSPBGPneo-ADTZ). Transgenic mice were generated by microinjection and identified by using PCR and Southern blotting analysis. PCR and Southern blotting analysis showed that total six transgenic mice carried the ADTZ gene were generated. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the expression of ADTZ mRNA could be detected only in parotid glands of the transgenic mice. The ADTZ activity in the saliva was found to be 3.72 ± 1.64 U/mL. After feeding a diet containing aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) for 14 days, the effect of ADTZ on serum biochemical indexes and AFB1 residues in serum and liver of mice were evaluated. The results showed that total protein and globulin contents in the test treatment (transgenic mice) produced ADTZ were significantly higher than that of the positive control, while alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity in serum of the test treatment (transgenic mice) were remarkably lower compared to that of the positive control (P < 0.05). Moreover, AFB1 residues in serum and liver of the test treatment (transgenic mice) were significantly lower compared with that of the positive control (P < 0.05). These results in the study confirmed that ADTZ produced in transgenic mice could reduce, even eliminate the negative effects of AFB1 on mice.

  1. In vivo biocompatibility of the PLGA microparticles in parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Cantín, Mario; Miranda, Patricio; Suazo Galdames, Iván; Zavando, Daniela; Arenas, Patricia; Velásquez, Luis; Vilos, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles are used in various disorders for the controlled or sustained release of drugs, with the management of salivary gland pathologies possible using this technology. There is no record of the response to such microparticles in the glandular parenchyma. The purpose of this study was to assess the morphological changes in the parotid gland when injected with a single dose of PLGA microparticles. We used 12 adult female Sprague Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) that were injected into their right parotid gland with sterile vehicle solution (G1, n=4), 0.5 mg PLGA microparticles (G2, n=4), and 0.75 mg PLGA microparticles (G3, n=4); the microparticles were dissolved in a sterile vehicle solution. The intercalar and striated ducts lumen, the thickness of the acini and the histology aspect in terms of the parenchyma organization, cell morphology of acini and duct system, the presence of polymeric residues, and inflammatory response were determined at 14 days post-injection. The administration of the compound in a single dose modified some of the morphometric parameters of parenchyma (intercalar duct lumen and thickness of the glandular acini) but did not induce tissue inflammatory response, despite the visible presence of polymer waste. This suggests that PLGA microparticles are biocompatible with the parotid tissue, making it possible to use intraglandular controlled drug administration. PMID:24228103

  2. Outcomes of temporal bone resection for locally advanced parotid cancer.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Saral; Morris, Luc G; Shah, Jatin; Bilsky, Mark; Selesnick, Samuel; Kraus, Dennis H

    2011-11-01

    This study was conducted to report outcomes and identify factors predictive of survival and recurrence in patients undergoing lateral temporal bone resection (LTBR) as part of an extended radical parotidectomy for parotid cancer. This is a retrospective cohort study which includes all patients undergoing LTBR for parotid cancer between 1994 and 2010 at two affiliated academic centers. Survival and recurrence rates were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox multivariate regression. A total of 12 patients with median follow-up duration of 30.6 months were included: 6 de novo cases and 6 patients referred after local recurrence. Actuarial locoregional control at 2 years was 73%. Most patients (11; 92%) developed disease recurrence with distant metastases the most common site of first failure (83%). Overall and disease-specific survival rates were 80% at 2 years and 22.5% at 5 years. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 67% at 2 years and 8.3% at 5 years. On multivariate analysis, surgical margin status was an independent predictor of RFS (hazard ratio = 3.85, p = 0.045). In advanced parotid cancer, LTBR with a goal of gross total resection offers good locoregional control with an acceptable complication rate. The benefits of this surgery must be balanced with the morbidity and low likelihood of long-term survival, with most patients ultimately experiencing disease recurrence and death.

  3. Outcomes of Temporal Bone Resection for Locally Advanced Parotid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Saral; Morris, Luc G.; Shah, Jatin; Bilsky, Mark; Selesnick, Samuel; Kraus, Dennis H.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to report outcomes and identify factors predictive of survival and recurrence in patients undergoing lateral temporal bone resection (LTBR) as part of an extended radical parotidectomy for parotid cancer. This is a retrospective cohort study which includes all patients undergoing LTBR for parotid cancer between 1994 and 2010 at two affiliated academic centers. Survival and recurrence rates were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox multivariate regression. A total of 12 patients with median follow-up duration of 30.6 months were included: 6 de novo cases and 6 patients referred after local recurrence. Actuarial locoregional control at 2 years was 73%. Most patients (11; 92%) developed disease recurrence with distant metastases the most common site of first failure (83%). Overall and disease-specific survival rates were 80% at 2 years and 22.5% at 5 years. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 67% at 2 years and 8.3% at 5 years. On multivariate analysis, surgical margin status was an independent predictor of RFS (hazard ratio = 3.85, p = 0.045). In advanced parotid cancer, LTBR with a goal of gross total resection offers good locoregional control with an acceptable complication rate. The benefits of this surgery must be balanced with the morbidity and low likelihood of long-term survival, with most patients ultimately experiencing disease recurrence and death. PMID:22547966

  4. SMAS fold flap and ADM repair of the parotid bed following removal of parotid haemangiomas via pre- and retroauricular incisions to improve cosmetic outcome and prevent Frey's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiliang; Li, Jingsong; Yang, Zhaohui; Yongjie, Wang; Zhiquan, Wang; Wang, Youyuan

    2008-08-01

    The growth of parotid haemangiomas during the proliferative phase may be rapid and unpredictable. Involution often takes many years, with attendant psychological sequelae to the child. Although conservative management is usually proposed for parotid haemangiomas occurring in infancy, this may not be particularly helpful and the haemangioma difficult to conceal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliable and aesthetic benefit of using a superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) fold flap and allograft dermal matrix (ADM) repair of the parotid bed following parotid haemangiomas via pre- and retroauricular incision. Forty-three paediatric patients (33 boys and 10 girls) with haemangiomas involving the parotid gland underwent total parotidectomy using a pre- and retroauricular approach with intraoperative placement of ADM within the parotid bed. They further underwent repair of the parotid bed with SMAS fold flaps. A panel of three plastic surgeons assessed the cosmetic outcomes. All of the patients were evaluated using a short questionnaire; postoperative gustatory sweating was assessed using a modification of Minor's starch-iodine test.

  5. [Distant metastases to the parotid gland--review of the literature and report of own two cases].

    PubMed

    Markowski, Jarosław; Gierek, Tatiana; Zielińska-Pajak, Ewa; Witkowska, Małgorzata; Wodołazski, Anatol; Pajak, Jacek; Paluch, Jarosław

    2005-01-01

    Metastatic tumors to the parotid gland are very uncommon and it accounts for 8% of all cancers of parotid gland. The parotid gland and its lymph nodes are possible sites of metastases from head and neck cancers. However, metastasis from distant primary neoplasm below clavicle is possible, too. The authors presented the two cases of distant metastases to the parotid gland. The women with breast cancer and metastases to the parotid gland 11 years after surgery, radio- and chemotherapy of breast cancer. She died 7 months after parotid surgery of systemically advanced disease. The man with metastasis of malignant melanoma of unknown primary site. He underwent total parotid surgery with the tumor and lymph nodes. He died 7 months after surgery. In spite of intensive exam the primary location of the melanoma was unknown. The authors described pathophysiology of distant metastases to the parotid gland with special attention to possibilities of treatment and survival.

  6. Direct Imaging of RAB27B-Enriched Secretory Vesicle Biogenesis in Lacrimal Acinar Cells Reveals Origins on a Nascent Vesicle Budding Site

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Lilian; Karvar, Serhan; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses YFP-tagged Rab27b expression in rabbit lacrimal gland acinar cells, which are polarized secretory epithelial cells, to characterize early stages of secretory vesicle trafficking. Here we demonstrate the utility of YFP-Rab27b to delineate new perspectives on the mechanisms of early vesicle biogenesis in lacrimal gland acinar cells, where information is significantly limited. Protocols were developed to deplete the mature YFP-Rab27b-enriched secretory vesicle pool in the subapical region of the cell, and confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to track vesicle replenishment. This analysis revealed a basally-localized organelle, which we termed the “nascent vesicle site,” from which nascent vesicles appeared to emerge. Subapical vesicular YFP-Rab27b was co-localized with p150Glued, a component of the dynactin cofactor of cytoplasmic dynein. Treatment with the microtubule-targeted agent, nocodazole, did not affect release of mature secretory vesicles, although during vesicle repletion it significantly altered nascent YFP-Rab27b-enriched secretory vesicle localization. Instead of moving to the subapical region, these vesicles were trapped at the nascent vesicle site which was adjacent to, if not a sub-compartment of, the trans-Golgi network. Finally, YFP-Rab27b-enriched secretory vesicles which reached the subapical cytoplasm appeared to acquire the actin-based motor protein, Myosin 5C. Our findings show that Rab27b enrichment occurs early in secretory vesicle formation, that secretory vesicles bud from a visually discernable nascent vesicle site, and that transport from the nascent vesicle site to the subapical region requires intact microtubules. PMID:22363735

  7. Aspirin Protects against Acinar Cells Necrosis in Severe Acute Pancreatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guotao; Tong, Zhihui; Ding, Yanbing; Liu, Jinjiao; Pan, Yiyuan; Gao, Lin; Tu, Jianfeng; Liu, George

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin has a clear anti-inflammatory effect and is used as an anti-inflammatory agent for both acute and long-term inflammation. Previous study has indicated that aspirin alleviated acute pancreatitis induced by caerulein in rat. However, the role of aspirin on severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and the necrosis of pancreatic acinar cell are not yet clear. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of aspirin treatment on a SAP model induced by caerulein combined with Lipopolysaccharide. We found that aspirin reduced serum amylase and lipase levels, decreased the MPO activity, and alleviated the histopathological manifestations of pancreas and pancreatitis-associated lung injury. Proinflammatory cytokines were decreased and the expression of NF-κB p65 in acinar cell nuclei was suppressed after aspirin treatment. Furthermore, aspirin induced the apoptosis of acinar cells by TUNEL assay, and the expression of Bax and caspase 3 was increased and the expression of Bcl-2 was decreased. Intriguingly, the downregulation of critical necrosis associated proteins RIP1, RIP3, and p-MLKL was observed; what is more, we additionally found that aspirin reduced the COX level of pancreatic tissue. In conclusion, our data showed that aspirin could protect pancreatic acinar cell against necrosis and reduce the severity of SAP. Clinically, aspirin may potentially be a therapeutic intervention for SAP. PMID:28119929

  8. Acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation in human sublingual glands: a microscopic postmortem study

    PubMed Central

    AZEVEDO-ALANIS, Luciana Reis; TOLENTINO, Elen de Souza; de ASSIS, Gerson Francisco; CESTARI, Tânia Mary; LARA, Vanessa Soares; DAMANTE, José Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Although some morphological investigations on aged human sublingual glands (HSG) found eventual phenomena identified as autolysis and mucous extravasation, the exact meaning of these findings has not been elucidated. Objective The aim of this work is to investigate whether acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation are related to the aging process in human sublingual glands. We also speculate if autolytic changes may assist forensic pathologists in determining time of death. Material and Methods 186 cadavers’ glands were allocated to age groups: I (0–30 years); II (31–60), and III (61–90). Time and mode of death were also recorded. Acinar autolysis and mucous extravasation were classified as present or absent. Ultrastructural analysis was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Data were compared using Mann-Whitney U, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn tests (p<0.05). Results There was correlation between age and acinar autolysis (r=0.38; p=0.0001). However, there was no correlation between autolysis and time of death. No differences were observed between genders. TEM showed mucous and serous cells presenting nuclear and membrane alterations and mucous cells were more susceptible to autolysis. Conclusion Acinar autolysis occurred in all age groups and increased with age while mucous extravasation was rarely found. Both findings are independent. Autolysis degrees in HSG could not be used to determine time of death. PMID:26537715

  9. Snail1 is required for the maintenance of the pancreatic acinar phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Loubat-Casanovas, Jordina; Peña, Raúl; Gonzàlez, Núria; Alba-Castellón, Lorena; Rosell, Santi; Francí, Clara; Navarro, Pilar; de Herreros, Antonio García

    2016-01-01

    The Snail1 transcriptional factor is required for correct embryonic development, yet its expression in adult animals is very limited and its functional roles are not evident. We have now conditionally inactivated Snail1 in adult mice and analyzed the phenotype of these animals. Snail1 ablation rapidly altered pancreas structure: one month after Snail1 depletion, acinar cells were markedly depleted, and pancreas accumulated adipose tissue. Snail1 expression was not detected in the epithelium but was in pancreatic mesenchymal cells (PMCs). Snail1 ablation in cultured PMCs downregulated the expression of several β-catenin/Tcf-4 target genes, modified the secretome of these cells and decreased their ability to maintain acinar markers in cultured pancreas cells. Finally, Snail1 deficiency modified the phenotype of pancreatic tumors generated in transgenic mice expressing c-myc under the control of the elastase promoter. Specifically, Snail1 depletion did not significantly alter the size of the tumors but accelerated acinar-ductal metaplasia. These results demonstrate that Snail1 is expressed in PMCs and plays a pivotal role in maintaining acinar cells within the pancreas in normal and pathological conditions. PMID:26735179

  10. Ethanol suppresses carbamylcholine-induced intracellular calcium oscillation in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Mi Na; Kim, Min Jae; Koong, Hwa Soo; Kim, Dong Kwan; Kim, Se Hoon; Park, Hyung Seo

    2017-09-01

    Oscillation of intracellular calcium levels is closely linked to initiating secretion of digestive enzymes from pancreatic acinar cells. Excessive alcohol consumption is known to relate to a variety of disorders in the digestive system, including the exocrine pancreas. In this study, we have investigated the role and mechanism of ethanol on carbamylcholine (CCh)-induced intracellular calcium oscillation in murine pancreatic acinar cells. Ethanol at concentrations of 30 and 100 mM reversibly suppressed CCh-induced Ca(2+) oscillation in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of ethanol has no effect on the store-operated calcium entry induced by 10 μM of CCh. Ethanol significantly reduced the initial calcium peak induced by low concentrations of CCh and therefore, the CCh-induced dose-response curve of the initial calcium peak was shifted to the right by ethanol pretreatment. Furthermore, ethanol significantly dose-dependently reduced inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced calcium release from the internal stores in permeabilized acinar cells. These results provide evidence that excessive alcohol intake could impair cytosolic calcium oscillation through inhibiting calcium release from intracellular stores in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pancreatic (acinar) metaplasia of the gastric mucosa. Histology, ultrastructure, immunocytochemistry, and clinicopathologic correlations of 101 cases.

    PubMed

    Doglioni, C; Laurino, L; Dei Tos, A P; De Boni, M; Franzin, G; Braidotti, P; Viale, G

    1993-11-01

    The occasional finding within the gastric mucosa of unidentified epithelial cells with morphological features closely resembling those of pancreatic acinar cells has prompted us to investigate a retrospective series of 8,430 consecutive gastric biopsies and of 126 surgical specimens of gastric resection and total gastrectomy. The aims of the study were to morphologically and immunocytochemically characterize these cells, to define their actual prevalence in a large series of unselected cases, and to assess the clinicopathologic correlates of their occurrence. Pancreatic acinar-like cells characterized by abundant cytoplasm, which was acidophilic and finely granular in the apical and middle portions and basophilic in the basal compartment, have been identified in 101 cases (84 gastric biopsies and 17 gastrectomies). These cells, arranged in nests or in variably sized lobules among the gastric glands, were morphologically indistinguishable from pancreatic acinar cells, both by light and by electron microscopy. Furthermore, they were consistently immunoreactive for pancreatic lipase and trypsinogen and, in 75% of the cases, for pancreatic alpha-amylase. The appearance of these cells within the gastric mucosa was correlated significantly with chronic gastritis (p = 0.032) and with the simultaneous occurrence of intestinal and pyloric types of gastric metaplasia (p = 0.021). The findings indicate that this is a previously unrecognized pancreatic (acinar) metaplasia of the gastric mucosa, clinically and morphologically distinct from pancreatic heterotopia.

  12. Neurogenin 3-directed cre deletion of Tsc1 gene causes pancreatic acinar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ding, Li; Han, Lingling; Li, Yin; Zhao, Jing; He, Ping; Zhang, Weizhen

    2014-11-01

    The role of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) in the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancers remains largely unknown. The present study shows that neurogenin 3 directed Cre deletion of Tsc1 gene induces the development of pancreatic acinar carcinoma. By cross-breeding the Neurog3-cre mice with Tsc1 (loxp/loxp) mice, we generated the Neurog3-Tsc1-/- transgenic mice in which Tsc1 gene is deleted and mTOR signaling activated in the pancreatic progenitor cells. All Neurog3-Tsc1-/- mice developed notable adenocarcinoma-like lesions in pancreas starting from the age of 100 days old. The tumor lesions are composed of cells with morphological and molecular resemblance to acinar cells. Metastasis of neoplasm to liver and lung was detected in 5% of animals. Inhibition of mTOR signaling by rapamycin significantly attenuated the growth of the neoplasm. Relapse of the neoplasm occurred within 14 days upon cessation of rapamycin treatment. Our studies indicate that activation of mTOR signaling in the pancreatic progenitor cells may trigger the development of acinar carcinoma. Thus, mTOR may serve as a potential target for treatment of pancreatic acinar carcinoma.

  13. Imaging findings in a case of mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Chung, Won Jung; Byun, Jae Ho; Lee, Seung Soo; Lee, Moon-Gyu

    2010-01-01

    Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma (MAEC) of the pancreas is extremely uncommon. We report here a rare case of MAEC of the pancreas presenting as watery diarrhea. This is the first report in the English-language literature that describes the imaging findings of MAEC of the pancreas, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and MR cholangiopancreatography features.

  14. Alcohols enhance caerulein-induced zymogen activation in pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    LU, ZHAO; KARNE, SURESH; KOLODECIK, THOMAS; GORELICK, FRED S.

    2010-01-01

    Activation of zymogens within the pancreatic acinar cell is an early feature of acute pancreatitis. Supraphysiological concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK) cause zymogen activation and pancreatitis. The effects of the CCK analog, caerulein, and alcohol on trypsin and chymotrypsin activation in isolated pancreatic acini were examined. Caerulein increased markers of zymogen activation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Notably, trypsin activity reached a peak value within 30 min, then diminished with time, whereas chymotrypsin activity increased with time. Ethanol (35 mM) sensitized the acinar cells to the effects of caerulein (10−10 to 10−7 M) on zymogen activation but had no effect alone. The effects of ethanol were concentration dependent. Alcohols with a chain length of ≥2 also sensitized the acinar cell to caerulein; the most potent was butanol. Branched alcohols (2-propanol and 2-butanol) were less potent than aliphatic alcohols (1-propanol and 1-butanol). The structure of an alcohol is related to its ability to sensitize acinar cells to the effects of caerulein on zymogen activation. PMID:11842000

  15. Characterization of a novel model of pancreatic fibrosis and acinar atrophy.

    PubMed

    Murayama, K M; Barent, B L; Gruber, M; Brooks, A; Eliason, S; Brunt, E M; Smith, G S

    1999-01-01

    Significant fibrosis and acinar atrophy are characteristics of chronic pancreatitis; however, because of the lack of a reproducible model, early phases of these changes are poorly understood. We have developed a model of severe hyperstimulation and obstruction pancreatitis (SHOP) to better define the mechanisms of early pancreatic fibrogenesis. Sprague-Dawley rats were used and SHOP was induced by complete pancreatic duct obstruction and daily cerulein hyperstimulation (50 microg/kg intraperitoneally). Animals were killed at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours. Control animals underwent sham operation and received no cerulein. Pancreata were prepared for hematoxylin and eosin and sirius red (collagen-specific) staining and for hydroxyproline assay (measure of total collagen content). We found moderate amounts of edema and inflammation but minimal parenchymal necrosis. Significant loss of acinar cell mass was noted by 48 hours, and normal acinar cells were essentially absent by 96 hours. Tissue collagen content increased with time and large amounts of interstitial collagen were detected by 72 hours. In conclusion, SHOP is a novel model of early pancreatic fibrosis associated with minimal necrosis and a significant decrease in acinar cell mass, making it an ideal model to study the early cellular mechanisms of pancreatic fibrogenesis.

  16. Bilateral parotid enlargement as a presenting feature of bulimia nervosa in a post-adolescent male.

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, J. A.; Fortune, F.

    1994-01-01

    An unusual case of bulimia nervosa in a post-adolescent male is reported. The clinical presentation was one of painless parotid swelling of 3 years duration with marked weight loss and underlying metabolic alkalosis. The diagnostic significance of parotid salivary gland swellings is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8140014

  17. The ultrasound examination in assessment of parotid gland tumours: the novel graphic diagram.

    PubMed

    Luczewski, L; Golusinski, P; Pazdrowski, J; Pienkowski, P; Kordylewska, M; Guntinas-Lichius, O; Golusinski, W

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasound is one of the main diagnostic techniques for parotid gland tumours. It is inexpensive, non-invasive and widely available. However, interpretation of the images is highly subjective and constitutes a major limitation. To overcome this problem, we developed a graphic diagram to provide a standardised template that can be used for more precise identification of the tumour localisation within the parenchyma of the parotid gland. This new diagram may be used to provide surgeons with an improved and more objective localisation of the tumour. The study included 237 patients who underwent surgery for parotid tumours. To obtain the precise spatial location of the tumours, three topographic coordinates of tumour location in the coronal, sagittal and transversal plane were marked preoperatively during sonography within the parenchyma of the parotid gland. The localisation identified ultrasonically was then compared to the postsurgical report: 197 (83 %) tumours were found within the superficial lobe of the parotid gland and 40 (17 %) within the deep lobe of the parotid gland. In 157 (66 %) cases, tumours were found within the lower pole of the parotid gland, and in 64 (27 %) at the level of earlobe and its insertion, 16 (7 %) tumours were located at the level of the tragus and above it. Based on the results obtained, a graphic diagram of parotid gland tumour locations was developed.

  18. Use of semiconducting laser in drug-induced chronic bilateral inflammation of parotid glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzesiak-Janas, Grazyna

    1997-10-01

    A case of chronic bilateral inflammation of parotid glands in a patient as a results of complication induced by the drug Ospolot in the treatment of epilepsy was presented. Apart from conventional methods a semiconducting laser was used. The laser beam had beneficial effect on elimination of pain and increase in the parotid gland secretion activity.

  19. Horner’s syndrome associated with parotid duct obstruction in a sheep

    PubMed Central

    Loste, Araceli; Ramos, Juan J.; Ferrer, Luis M.; Climent, Salvador; Latre, María V.

    2006-01-01

    A 9-year old, Rasa Aragonesa ewe was presented with a left-sided, facial, soft fluctuant swelling. The postmortem examination showed grass awns filling the entire length of the parotid gland duct. The presence of parotid duct obstruction with Horner’s syndrome, previously unreported in sheep, is discussed. PMID:17217091

  20. Tumors of the accessory lobe of the parotid gland: a 10-year experience.

    PubMed

    Lin, Derrick T; Coppit, George L; Burkey, Brian B; Netterville, James L

    2004-09-01

    The differential diagnosis of midcheek masses include pathology arising from normal anatomic structures or from variations of normal accessory parotid gland tissue. Accessory parotid gland tissue has been described as salivary tissue adjacent to Stenson's duct that is separate from the main body of the parotid gland. We report our 10-year experience with the diagnosis and treatment of eight accessory parotid gland neoplasms that have been followed by the senior authors. This is a retrospective review of our experience with eight accessory parotid gland neoplasms. A literature review and retrospective chart review of our experience with accessory parotid gland tumors over the past 10 years. The presentation, evaluation, management, treatment, and outcome were recorded. Eight cases of accessory lobe parotid tumors were identified, which have been followed since the date of initial treatment. All of the patients presented with a slowly growing cheek mass. There was one case of carcinoma expleomorphic adenoma, one case of undifferentiated carcinoma (small cell carcinoma), one case of basal cell adenocarcinoma, one case of benign salivary cyst, two cases of pleomorphic adenoma, and two cases of monomorphic adenoma. A standard facelift approach or modified Blair incision was used to excise these tumors. Neoplasms of the accessory parotid gland are rare. Management of these tumors include a high index of suspicion, good understanding of the anatomy, and meticulous surgical approach.

  1. A successful treatment strategy for clozapine-induced parotid swelling: a clinical case and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Immadisetty, Vyasa; Agrawal, Pradeep

    2012-12-01

    Parotid gland swelling is a less frequently reported side effect of clozapine and has no licensed treatment. A 58-year-old man treated with clozapine for treatment-resistant schizophrenia developed bilateral painful parotid swellings and hypersalivation. Initial trials of dose alteration and antihypersalivatory medication had limited success. A combination of benzatropine and terazosin was successful in treating the parotid hyperplasia. Clozapine was the probable cause of parotid swelling in our case, as established using the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale and World Health Organization causality categories. Literature for treatments of clozapine-induced parotid gland swellings was reviewed. None of the published articles suggested a treatment regimen for clozapine-induced parotid hyperplasia. Most reports only highlighted the occurrence of salivary gland swelling with clozapine. Others mentioned management strategies, which included spontaneous resolution, or resolution on discontinuing clozapine. One report, a trial with benzatropine and ipratropium, had variable success. In this case the re-emergence of parotid swelling when terazosin and benzatropine doses were missed followed by a quick resolution upon recompliance, goes some way in proving that this combination is indeed effective. The combination of terazosin and benzatropine appears to have a role in treating parotid gland swellings induced by clozapine.

  2. An intraoperative diagnosis of parotid gland tumors using Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Bing; Wen, Zhining; Li, Yi; Li, Longjiang; Xue, Lili

    2014-11-01

    The preoperative and intraoperative diagnosis of parotid gland tumors is difficult, but is important for their surgical management. In order to explore an intraoperative diagnostic method, Raman spectroscopy is applied to detect the normal parotid gland and tumors, including pleomorphic adenoma, Warthin’s tumor and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. In the 600-1800 cm-1 region of the Raman shift, there are numerous spectral differences between the parotid gland and tumors. Compared with Raman spectra of the normal parotid gland, the Raman spectra of parotid tumors show an increase of the peaks assigned to nucleic acids and proteins, but a decrease of the peaks related to lipids. Spectral differences also exist between the spectra of parotid tumors. Based on these differences, a remarkable classification and diagnosis of the parotid gland and tumors are carried out by support vector machine (SVM), with high accuracy (96.7~100%), sensitivity (93.3~100%) and specificity (96.7~100%). Raman spectroscopy combined with SVM has a great potential to aid the intraoperative diagnosis of parotid tumors and could provide an accurate and rapid diagnostic approach.

  3. Acinar Cell Apoptosis in Serpini2-Deficient Mice Models Pancreatic Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Loftus, Stacie K; Cannons, Jennifer L; Incao, Arturo; Pak, Evgenia; Chen, Amy; Zerfas, Patricia M; Bryant, Mark A; Biesecker, Leslie G; Schwartzberg, Pamela L; Pavan, William J

    2005-01-01

    Pancreatic insufficiency (PI) when left untreated results in a state of malnutrition due to an inability to absorb nutrients. Frequently, PI is diagnosed as part of a larger clinical presentation in cystic fibrosis or Shwachman–Diamond syndrome. In this study, a mouse model for isolated exocrine PI was identified in a mouse line generated by a transgene insertion. The trait is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, and homozygous animals are growth retarded, have abnormal immunity, and have reduced life span. Mice with the disease locus, named pequeño (pq), exhibit progressive apoptosis of pancreatic acinar cells with severe exocrine acinar cell loss by 8 wk of age, while the islets and ductal tissue persist. The mutation in pq/pq mice results from a random transgene insertion. Molecular characterization of the transgene insertion site by fluorescent in situ hybridization and genomic deletion mapping identified an approximately 210-kb deletion on Chromosome 3, deleting two genes. One of these genes, Serpini2, encodes a protein that is a member of the serpin family of protease inhibitors. Reintroduction of only the Serpini2 gene by bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic complementation corrected the acinar cell defect as well as body weight and immune phenotypes, showing that deletion of Serpini2 causes the pequeño phenotype. Dietary supplementation of pancreatic enzymes also corrected body size, body weight, and immunodeficiency, and increased the life span of Serpini2-deficient mice, despite continued acinar cell loss. To our knowledge, this study describes the first characterized genetic animal model for isolated PI. Genetic complementation of the transgene insertion mutant demonstrates that Serpini2 deficiency directly results in the acinar cell apoptosis, malabsorption, and malnutrition observed in pq/pq mice. The rescue of growth retardation, immunodeficiency, and mortality by either Serpini2 bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic expression

  4. The MET Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Confers Repair of Murine Pancreatic Acinar Cells following Acute and Chronic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gaziova, Ivana; Jackson, Daniel; Boor, Paul J.; Carter, Dwayne; Cruz-Monserrate, Zobeida; Elferink, Cornelis J.; Joshi, Aditya D.; Kaphalia, Bhupendra; Logsdon, Craig D.; Pereira de Castro, Karen; Soong, Lynn; Tao, Xinrong; Qiu, Suimin; Elferink, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Acinar cells represent the primary target in necroinflammatory diseases of the pancreas, including pancreatitis. The signaling pathways guiding acinar cell repair and regeneration following injury remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor/MET signaling as an intrinsic repair mechanism for acinar cells following acute damage and chronic alcohol-associated injury. Here, we generated mice with targeted deletion of MET in adult acinar cells (MET-/-). Acute and repetitive pancreatic injury was induced in MET-/- and control mice with cerulein, and chronic injury by feeding mice Lieber-DeCarli diets containing alcohol with or without enhancement of repetitive pancreatic injury. We examined the exocrine pancreas of these mice histologically for acinar death, edema, inflammation and collagen deposition and changes in the transcriptional program. We show that MET expression is relatively low in normal adult pancreas. However, MET levels were elevated in ductal and acinar cells in human pancreatitis specimens, consistent with a role for MET in an adaptive repair mechanism. We report that genetic deletion of MET in adult murine acinar cells was linked to increased acinar cell death, chronic inflammation and delayed recovery (regeneration) of pancreatic exocrine tissue. Notably, increased pancreatic collagen deposition was detected in MET knockout mice following repetitive injury as well alcohol-associated injury. Finally, we identified specific alterations of the pancreatic transcriptome associated with MET signaling during injury, involved in tissue repair, inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Together, these data demonstrate the importance of MET signaling for acinar repair and regeneration, a novel finding that could attenuate the symptomology of pancreatic injury. PMID:27798657

  5. Extracapsular dissection of benign parotid tumors using a retroauricular hairline incision approach.

    PubMed

    Roh, Jong-Lyel

    2009-05-01

    Extracapsular dissection has emerged as a more conservative approach to parotid surgery. The parotid surgery commonly begins with a modified Blair or facelift incision. Although minor, the incision scar from these incisions is visible on the face and neck. I initially developed a retroauricular hairline incision (RAHI) for the removal of benign lesions in the upper neck with a more esthetic look. The RAHI approach also may be used for selected patients with benign parotid neoplasms. Mobile benign tumors arising in the inferior superficial part of the parotid gland may be removed by the RAHI approach without compromising surgical visualization. This surgery appears to show excellent cosmetic outcomes in addition to the benefits of extracapsular dissection, lower complication rates, and preservation of secretory function. The RAHI without a preauricular incision is a feasible technique in the surgical management of parotid tumors.

  6. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid gland associated with salivary calculi: An unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Vijendra S; Kamath, M Panduranga; Sreedharan, Suja; Suhas, S S

    2015-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) of the head and neck are relatively rare tumors, consisting of approximately 10-15% of all salivary gland neoplasms. ACC, a slow-growing aggressive malignant tumor of salivary gland commonly seen in the submandibular, sublingual, minor salivary glands is seldom found in the parotid. Calculus, the common cause of salivary gland dysfunction is usually identified in submandibular salivary gland because of its duct anatomy and physiochemical characteristic serous secretion. We report an unusual case of co-existent presentation of ACC with salivary calculi in the parotid gland which is never been reported in the literature. Co-existence of ductal calculi and ACC is rare. Presence of parotid calculus could be due to long standing ductal obstruction by the slow-growing ACC of the parotid or other possibility is that the malignancy could have developed because of chronic irritation by parotid calculi. Confirmatory studies are required to understand its mutual pathological association.

  7. Viral infections of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Peter J; Donnelly, Thomas M

    2013-05-01

    Viral diseases of rabbits have been used historically to study oncogenesis (e.g. rabbit fibroma virus, cottontail rabbit papillomavirus) and biologically to control feral rabbit populations (e.g. myxoma virus). However, clinicians seeing pet rabbits in North America infrequently encounter viral diseases although myxomatosis may be seen occasionally. The situation is different in Europe and Australia, where myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease are endemic. Advances in epidemiology and virology have led to detection of other lapine viruses that are now recognized as agents of emerging infectious diseases. Rabbit caliciviruses, related to rabbit hemorrhagic disease, are generally avirulent, but lethal variants are being identified in Europe and North America. Enteric viruses including lapine rotavirus, rabbit enteric coronavirus and rabbit astrovirus are being acknowledged as contributors to the multifactorial enteritis complex of juvenile rabbits. Three avirulent leporid herpesviruses are found in domestic rabbits. A fourth highly pathogenic virus designated leporid herpesvirus 4 has been described in Canada and Alaska. This review considers viruses affecting rabbits by their clinical significance. Viruses of major and minor clinical significance are described, and viruses of laboratory significance are mentioned. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Histological reclassification of parotid gland carcinomas: importance for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Stodulski, Dominik; Majewska, Hanna; Skálová, Alena; Mikaszewski, Bogusław; Biernat, Wojciech; Stankiewicz, Czesław

    2016-11-01

    Reassessment of histological specimens of salivary gland carcinomas is associated with a change of primary diagnosis in a significant number of patients. The authors evaluated the relation between reclassification/verification of histological diagnosis and the clinical course of parotid gland carcinomas. Histological and immunohistochemical examinations of 111 specimens of parotid gland carcinomas operated on during the years 1992-2010 were revised and in some cases supplemented with cytogenetic tests (FISH), to verify the diagnosis and potentially reclassify the tumours. Analysis of the clinical documentation and follow-up data of patients whose diagnosis was changed was then carried out. The prognostic factors taken into account in the evaluation of the clinical course included the T and N stage, the tumour grade and the extent of resection. The primary diagnosis was changed on review in 28 patients (25.2 %). In 16 patients, the change involved a different histological type of cancer. In six cases, what was thought to be a primary salivary gland cancer was reclassified as a secondary tumour. In four other cases, the change was made from a malignant to a benign tumour and in one case to a non-neoplastic lesion (necrotizing sialometaplasia). Additionally, in two patients with carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, the malignant component was found to be of in situ type. A potentially atypical clinical course was observed in 4 out of 28 patients whose diagnosis was changed. In the case of 2 patients, the course of disease was more aggressive (dissemination, death) than predicted and less aggressive in rest of the patients. Histological reclassification/verification of parotid gland carcinomas can explain the cause of an atypical clinical course in some patients and sometimes enables doctors to implement a change in therapy.

  9. Extended and treatment-oriented classification of parotid duct stenosis.

    PubMed

    Koch, Michael; Iro, Heinrich

    2017-02-01

    To provide an extended and treatment-oriented classification of parotid duct stenosis that might be useful in the management of this condition. Retrospective study in a tertiary referral center. A total of 550 symptomatic stenoses of the parotid gland excretory duct in 445 patients were analyzed. Sialendoscopy was performed with semirigid endoscopes. The tissue quality, location, grade of luminal narrowing, and length and number of the stenoses were assessed. Inflammation-dominant stenosis (type 1) was found in 8.9% of the patients, web-associated fibrous stenosis (type 2) in 19.5%, and fibrous (type 3) in 71.6%. Multiple stenoses (≥3) were found in 2.8% of patients, and bilateral stenoses in 11.9%. Type 1 stenoses differed significantly from type 3 stenoses, with lower grades. Type 3 stenoses showed significantly higher grades of luminal narrowing than the other two types (P = .0001). Type 2 stenoses were significantly shorter in comparison with the other two types (P = .0001). Multiple stenoses were observed significantly more often in type 2 than in type 3 stenoses (P = .0001). Due to these differences, the type of stenosis appears to be the most important criterion in the treatment-oriented classification. Significant differences between the different stenoses were observed. Type 1 stenosis may be considered as a precursor of type 3 stenosis, but type 2 stenosis showed significantly different characteristics. The differences prescribed in this classification may be helpful in the management of parotid duct stenoses. 4. Laryngoscope, 2016 127:366-371, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. [Application of helix water jet to parotid surgery].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Kun; Guo, Zhu-Ming; Zhang, Quan; Zeng, Zong-Yuan; Chen, Fu-Jin; Chen, Wen-Kuan; Li, Hao; Wang, Shun-Lan

    2008-01-01

    Dissecting the facial nerves safely is an important guarantee for the accomplishment of parotidectomy and reduction of postoperative complications. This study was to explore the application of helix water jet to parotidectomy. Clinical data of 43 patients with parotid tumors, who received operation with helix water jet from Feb. 2004 to Feb. 2005 at Cancer Center of Sun Yat-Sen University, were analyzed. Meanwhile, traditional techniques in parotidectomy was performed in 36 patients (control group). Duration of operation, postoperative drainage volume, postoperative hospitalization, and occurrence of postoperative complications, such as facial nerve dysfunction and salivary fistula, of the 2 groups were compared. The postoperative drainage volume was significantly lower in water jet group than in control group [(9.89+/-3.74) mL vs. (12.15+/-2.11) mL, P<0.05]. There were no significant differences in duration of operation [(90.28+/-25.30) min vs. (76.32+/-20.74) min, P>0.05], postoperative hospitalization [(6.39+/-1.38) days vs. (6.45+/-1.05) days, P>0.05] between the two groups. Of the 43 patients in water jet group, 6 (14.0%) had grade II facial nerve dysfunction and 1 (2.3%) had grade III facial nerve dysfunction; of the 36 patients in control group, 5 (13.9%) had grade II facial nerve dysfunction, 2 (5.6%) had grade III facial nerve dysfunction, 1 (2.8%) had grade IV facial nerve dysfunction and 1 (2.8%) had salivary fistula. There was no permanent facial nerve dysfunction occurred in both groups. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of complications between the two groups. Nine patients who retained nervus auricularis magnus suffered from slight numbness symptom of auricular lobule. Use of helix water jet in parotid surgery is safe and confers some advantages over conventional methods of parotid dissection.

  11. Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Parotid Cancer: A Single-Institution Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Zeidan, Youssef H.; Shiue, Kevin; Weed, Daniel; Johnstone, Peter A.; Terry, Colin; Freeman, Stephen; Krowiak, Edward; Borrowdale, Robert; Huntley, Tod; Yeh, Alex

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Our practice policy has been to provide intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) at resection to patients with head-and-neck malignancies considered to be at high risk of recurrence. The purpose of the present study was to review our experience with the use of IORT for primary or recurrent cancer of the parotid gland. Methods and Materials: Between 1982 and 2007, 96 patients were treated with gross total resection and IORT for primary or recurrent cancer of the parotid gland. The median age was 62.9 years (range, 14.3-88.1). Of the 96 patients, 33 had previously undergone external beam radiotherapy as a component of definitive therapy. Also, 34 patients had positive margins after surgery, and 40 had perineural invasion. IORT was administered as a single fraction of 15 or 20 Gy with 4-6-MeV electrons. The median follow-up period was 5.6 years. Results: Only 1 patient experienced local recurrence, 19 developed regional recurrence, and 12 distant recurrence. The recurrence-free survival rate at 1, 3, and 5 years was 82.0%, 68.5%, and 65.2%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rate after surgery and IORT was 88.4%, 66.1%, and 56.2%, respectively. No perioperative fatalities occurred. Complications developed in 26 patients and included vascular complications in 7, trismus in 6, fistulas in 4, radiation osteonecrosis in 4, flap necrosis in 2, wound dehiscence in 2, and neuropathy in 1. Of these 26 patients, 12 had recurrent disease, and 8 had undergone external beam radiotherapy before IORT. Conclusions: IORT results in effective local disease control at acceptable levels of toxicity and should be considered for patients with primary or recurrent cancer of the parotid gland.

  12. Do we need a new classification of parotid gland surgery?

    PubMed

    Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Piwowarczyk, Krzysztof; Nogala, Hanna; Błaszczyńska, Marzena; Kosiedrowski, Michał; Mazurek, Cezary

    2016-06-30

    In February 2016 the European Salivary Gland Society (ESGS) presented and recommended classification of parotidectomies based on the anatomical I-V level division of parotid gland. The main goal of this paper is to present the new classification, and to answer the question if it is more precise compared to classic one. 607 patients (315 man, 292 women) operated on for parotid tumours in a tertiary referral centre, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of Poznań (502 benign and 105 malignant tumours). Parotid surgery descriptions provided by retrospective analysis of all operating protocols covering the years 2006-2015 were "translated" into the new classification proposed by the ESGS. Analysis of operating protocols and fitting them into the new classification proposed by the ESGS show some discrepancies, in both benign and malignant tumours. Based on the re-evaluation of 607 cases, in 94 procedures for benign tumors the only information available was that "surgery was performed within the superficial lobe". Thus, the new classification forces the surgeon to be much more precise than previously. In 3 cases the whole superficial lobe was removed, together with the upper part of the deep lobe. Because the classification lacked parotidectomy I-II-IV, it indicated that the new classification was insufficient in the aforementioned three cases. In 6 cases of ECD more than one parotid gland tumour was removed. Among malignant tumours, total parotidectomy was the predominant procedure. In 3/13 cases of expanded parotidectomy the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) was additionally removed and it seems that the acronym TMJ should be included among the additional resected structures. It is also necessary to supplement the description of the treatment with casuistically resected anatomical structures for oncological purposes (RT planning) and follow-up imaging. Currently, since 2015 in Poland there has been the National Cancer Registry of benign

  13. Substrate specificity of fucosyltransferase purified from human parotid saliva.

    PubMed

    Tamagawa, H; Iwakura, K; Amano, A; Shizukuishi, S; Tsunemitsu, A

    1987-03-01

    The purified fucosyltransferase from human parotid saliva was shown to transfer fucose from GDP-fucose onto the oligosaccharide chains containing the Gal beta 1----3GlcNAc or Gal beta 1----4GlcNAc/Glc sequences. Competition studies between asialotransferrin and either lacto-N-fucopentaose 1 or 2'-fucosyllactose provided evidence that both the substrates competed for a common enzyme active site. These results suggest that the fucosyltransferase activities for the three acceptors may be catalyzed by the same enzyme.

  14. Identification of miRNAs Involved in Reprogramming Acinar Cells into Insulin Producing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Teichenne, Joan; Morró, Meritxell; Casellas, Alba; Jimenez, Veronica; Tellez, Noelia; Leger, Adrien; Bosch, Fatima; Ayuso, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Reprogramming acinar cells into insulin producing cells using adenoviral (Ad)-mediated delivery of Pdx1, Ngn3 and MafA (PNM) is an innovative approach for the treatment of diabetes. Here, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in this process and in particular, the role of microRNAs. To this end, we performed a comparative study of acinar-to-β cell reprogramming efficiency in the rat acinar cell line AR42J and its subclone B13 after transduction with Ad-PNM. B13 cells were more efficiently reprogrammed than AR42J cells, which was demonstrated by a strong activation of β cell markers (Ins1, Ins2, IAPP, NeuroD1 and Pax4). miRNome panels were used to analyze differentially expressed miRNAs in acinar cells under four experimental conditions (i) non-transduced AR42J cells, (ii) non-transduced B13 cells, (iii) B13 cells transduced with Ad-GFP vectors and (iv) B13 cells transduced with Ad-PNM vectors. A total of 59 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed between non-transduced AR42J and B13 cells. Specifically, the miR-200 family was completely repressed in B13 cells, suggesting that these cells exist in a less differentiated state than AR42J cells and as a consequence they present a greater plasticity. Adenoviral transduction per se induced dedifferentiation of acinar cells and 11 miRNAs were putatively involved in this process, whereas 8 miRNAs were found to be associated with PNM expression. Of note, Ad-PNM reprogrammed B13 cells presented the same levels of miR-137-3p, miR-135a-5p, miR-204-5p and miR-210-3p of those detected in islets, highlighting their role in the process. In conclusion, this study led to the identification of miRNAs that might be of compelling importance to improve acinar-to-β cell conversion for the future treatment of diabetes. PMID:26690959

  15. Identification of miRNAs Involved in Reprogramming Acinar Cells into Insulin Producing Cells.

    PubMed

    Teichenne, Joan; Morró, Meritxell; Casellas, Alba; Jimenez, Veronica; Tellez, Noelia; Leger, Adrien; Bosch, Fatima; Ayuso, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Reprogramming acinar cells into insulin producing cells using adenoviral (Ad)-mediated delivery of Pdx1, Ngn3 and MafA (PNM) is an innovative approach for the treatment of diabetes. Here, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in this process and in particular, the role of microRNAs. To this end, we performed a comparative study of acinar-to-β cell reprogramming efficiency in the rat acinar cell line AR42J and its subclone B13 after transduction with Ad-PNM. B13 cells were more efficiently reprogrammed than AR42J cells, which was demonstrated by a strong activation of β cell markers (Ins1, Ins2, IAPP, NeuroD1 and Pax4). miRNome panels were used to analyze differentially expressed miRNAs in acinar cells under four experimental conditions (i) non-transduced AR42J cells, (ii) non-transduced B13 cells, (iii) B13 cells transduced with Ad-GFP vectors and (iv) B13 cells transduced with Ad-PNM vectors. A total of 59 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed between non-transduced AR42J and B13 cells. Specifically, the miR-200 family was completely repressed in B13 cells, suggesting that these cells exist in a less differentiated state than AR42J cells and as a consequence they present a greater plasticity. Adenoviral transduction per se induced dedifferentiation of acinar cells and 11 miRNAs were putatively involved in this process, whereas 8 miRNAs were found to be associated with PNM expression. Of note, Ad-PNM reprogrammed B13 cells presented the same levels of miR-137-3p, miR-135a-5p, miR-204-5p and miR-210-3p of those detected in islets, highlighting their role in the process. In conclusion, this study led to the identification of miRNAs that might be of compelling importance to improve acinar-to-β cell conversion for the future treatment of diabetes.

  16. UNUSUAL FORMATIONS OF ERGASTOPLASM IN PAROTID ACINOUS CELLS OF MICE

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Harold F.

    1962-01-01

    The ergastoplasm (granular endoplasmic reticulum) of parotid acinous cells of the mouse is described with special emphasis on unusual forms of this membranous system. In the majority of the acinous cells the ergastoplasm appeared in sections to consist of a large number of separate flattened cisternae. In some acinous cells, however, the ergastoplasm was disposed as a very small number of large membranous formations. Although extensive and complicated in form, these latter formations could be seen, from the examination of a single section, to consist of a single expanse of membrane continuous with the nuclear envelope. Certain acinous cells exhibited ergastoplasmic formations which appeared to represent intermediate stages of a fragmentation or metamorphosis of the larger formations toward the more usual form of ergastoplasm. These observations suggest the possibility that the early elaboration of ergastoplasm consists in the production, in relation to the nuclear envelope, of large, complicated membranous formations that subsequently sever their connection with the nuclear envelope and form a large number of separate, or tenuously connected, cisternae. The majority of the large, complicated ergastoplasmic formations were seen in parotid glands of mice that had been starved for 4 days and subsequently fed for a variable number of hours, but some were found in glands that were not subjected to experimental treatment. The tissues studied were prepared for electron microscopic examination by fixation in osmium tetroxide, dehydration in alcohol, imbedding in butyl methacrylate, sectioning with a glass knife, staining with lead hydroxide, and sandwiching with formvar. PMID:14483961

  17. Parotid gland squamous cell carcinoma invading the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Klasser, Gary D; Epstein, Joel B; Utsman, Robert; Yao, Mike; Nguyen, Pamela H

    2009-08-01

    Tumor invasion of the temporomandibular joint from the parotid gland is rare. Practitioners should be able to differentiate tumor involvement from temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). . The authors present case reports of two patients with parotid gland masses accompanied by pain, dysfunction and other symptoms not consistent with musculoskeletal disorders. In both cases, clinicians initially reached an incorrect diagnosis and treated the masses as if they were TMDs, which delayed a definitive diagnosis and provision of appropriate treatment. Dentists must take a thorough patient history, perform a detailed clinical examination and request proper radiographic imaging, when necessary, to render an accurate diagnosis and avoid mistreatment. Dentists who treat TMDs must recognize the possibility that a head or neck malignancy may manifest with symptoms and signs that mimic TMDs. If dentists are in doubt about a diagnosis, referral to the appropriate specialist should be considered. A thorough history, a comprehensive clinical examination and an understanding of salivary gland disorders should facilitate an accurate initial diagnosis, allowing delivery of the appropriate and necessary medical treatment.

  18. Effects of shock waves on oxidative stress in parotid gland of rat.

    PubMed

    Garca, M Fatih; Kavak, Servet; Gecit, Ilhan; Meral, Ismail; Demir, Halit; Turan, Mahfuz; Çeğin, Bilal; Bektas, Hava; Çankaya, Hakan

    2014-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) exposure to parotid gland produces an oxidative stress in parotid glands of rats. Twelve male Wistar-albino rats, 6 months of age with an average body weight of 250-300 g, were divided randomly into two groups, each consisting of six rats. The animals in the first group did not receive any treatment and served as control. The left parotid glands of animals in group 2 (ESWL treated) received a thousand 18 kV shock waves after anesthetizing the rats with 50 mg/kg of ketamine. The animals in both groups were killed 72 hours after the ESWL treatment, and the parotid glands were harvested for the determination of lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), antioxidant glutathione (GSH) levels and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), GSH-Px and catalase (CAT). It was found that MDA level increased in parotid glands of rats after the ESWL treatment. The SOD, GSH-Px and CAT enzyme activities, and the level of antioxidant GSH decreased in parotid gland of rats after the ESWL treatment. It was concluded that short-term ESWL treatment caused an increase in the free radical production and a decrease in the antioxidant enzyme activity in parotid glands of ESWL-treated rats. © The Author(s) 2012.

  19. Review of accessory parotid gland tumors: pathologic incidence and surgical management.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Travis R; Kaufmann, Christopher R; Miller, Frank R

    2014-01-01

    The current study presents our experience with accessory parotid gland masses and reviews the literature on accessory parotid tumor incidence and surgical management. Based on our results, we advocate a standard parotidectomy approach with routine facial nerve dissection at the time of excision. We performed a retrospective chart review and comprehensive literature review on incidence of accessory parotid gland neoplasms. A retrospective chart review of all patients with mid-cheek masses treated by the senior author was conducted from January 2003 to January 2009. The tumor size at presentation, FNA biopsy, pathologic diagnosis, and surgical treatment were recorded for 13 patients. In the case series, 54% of lesions were benign (n=7) and 46% were malignant (n=6) including benign pathologies of 4 pleomorphic adenomas, 2 lymphadenitis, 1 monomorphic adenoma and malignant pathologies of 2 mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 2 B-cell lymphomas, 1 adenocarcinoma, and 1 myofibrosarcoma. Surgical intervention was performed on all patients with standard parotidectomy incision for accessory parotid mass excision after identification and tracing of facial nerve and its branches. The present study provides support for a standard parotid incision with identification of the facial nerve at the time of surgical incision as this resulted in successful excision of accessory parotid tumors with favorable cosmetic results and without facial paralysis or tumor recurrence. Literature review of 152 cases of accessory parotid gland lesions, revealed a pooled incidence of 70% benign and 30% malignant. © 2013.

  20. Castration decreases amylase release associated with muscarinic acetylcholine receptor downregulation in rat parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Busch, Lucila; Borda, Enri

    2003-05-01

    1 The mechanism and receptor subtypes involved in carbachol-stimulated amylase release and its changes after castration were studied in parotid slices from male rats. 2 Carbachol induced both amylase release and inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation in parotid slices from control and castrated rats, but castration induced a decrease of carbachol maximal effect. The effect of castration was reverted by testosterone replacement. 3 The selective M(1) and M(3) muscarinic receptor antagonists, pirenzepine and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide, respectively, inhibited carbachol-stimulated amylase release and IP accumulation in a dose-dependent manner in parotid slices from control and castrated rats. 4 A diminution of binding sites of muscarinic receptor in parotid membrane from castrated rats was observed. Competition binding assays showed that both, M(1) and M(3) muscarinic receptor subtypes are expressed in membranes of parotid glands from control and castrated rats, M(3) being the greater population. 5 These results suggest that amylase release induced by carbachol in parotid slices is mediated by phosphoinositide accumulation. This mechanism appears to be triggered by the activation of M(1) and M(3) muscarinic receptor subtypes. Castration induced a decrease of the maximal effect of carbachol evoked amylase release and IP accumulation followed by a diminution in the number of parotid gland muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

  1. New models of experimental parotitis and parotid gland distension in rats.

    PubMed

    Okada-Ogawa, Akiko; Shinoda, Masamichi; Honda, Kuniya; Iwata, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    A significant reduction of the escape threshold to mechanical stimulation of the lateral facial skin was observed bilaterally at days 2 and 3 after unilateral complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) administration into parotid gland. A slight reduction of mechanical escape threshold was also observed in rats with saline administration. The parotid gland inflammation was verified and quantified by measuring the tissue Evans' blue dye extravasation. The Evans' blue concentration in the parotid gland tissues was significantly greater in the CFA-injected rats than that of the saline-injected rats at 72 h after treatment. On day 10 after CFA administration into the parotid gland, the Evans' blue concentration was recovered to the control level. The administration of capsaicin into the parotid gland did not alter neuronal activities in the transition zone between the trigeminal spinal subnucleus interpolaris and caudalis (Vi/Vc). In contrast, capsaicin administration induced significant increases in the receptive field size and mechanical and cold responses of neurons located in superficial laminae of the C1/C2. The subgroup of C1/C2 neurons responded to mechanical distension of the parotid gland, whereas no Vi/Vc neurons responded to parotid distension.

  2. Effects of dopamine on adenylyl cyclase activity and amylase secretion in rat parotid tissue.

    PubMed

    Hatta, S; Amemiya, N; Takemura, H; Ohshika, H

    1995-06-01

    Several previous studies have shown that dopamine causes amylase secretion from rat parotid tissue. However, the mechanism of this dopamine action is still unclear. The present study was designed to characterize dopamine action in rat parotid gland tissue by examining the effects of dopamine on cyclic AMP accumulation, adenylyl cyclase activity, and amylase release. Dopamine significantly enhanced accumulation of cyclic AMP in parotid slices and stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in parotid membrane preparations. It also significantly stimulated amylase release from parotid slices. The stimulatory effects of dopamine on cyclic AMP accumulation, adenylyl cyclase activity, and amylase release were effectively blocked with propranolol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist, but not by either SCH 23390, a preferential D1 antagonist, or butaclamol, a preferential D2 antagonist. No substantial specific binding sites for D1 receptors were detectable by [3H]SCH 23390 binding in parotid membranes. These results suggest that the stimulatory effect of dopamine on amylase secretion in rat parotid tissue is not mediated through specific D1 dopamine receptors but rather through beta-adrenergic receptors.

  3. Epiregulin is critical for the acinar cell regeneration of the submandibular gland in a mouse duct ligation model.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Koichi; Arai, Hideo; Okudera, Michisato; Yamamura, Takashi; Oki, Hidero; Komiyama, Kazuo

    2014-05-01

    Acinar cell regeneration from tubular structures has been reported to occur in duct-deligated salivary glands. However, the detailed process of acinar cell regeneration has not been clarified. We have developed a mouse duct ligation model to clarify the mechanisms underlying acinar cell regeneration, and we analyzed the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) ligands using the model. We studied these ligands expressions in the course of acinar cell regeneration using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR methods. In the duct-ligated portion of the submandibular gland (SMG) that underwent atrophy, newly formed acinar cells were observed arising from the tubular structures after the release of the duct obstruction. The constitutive expression of EGFR was observed by immunohistochemistry in both the duct-ligated and duct-deligated animals as well as in normal controls. The EGFR phosphorylation detected on the tubular structures after duct ligation paralleled the acinar cell regeneration. RT-PCR showed an increase in the epiregulin and heparin-binding EGF levels from day 0 to day 3 after the release of the duct obstruction. The EGF level was increased only after day 7. In vitro, cultured cells isolated from ligated SMGs proliferated and produced EGF ligands following the addition of epiregulin to the culture medium. These findings suggest that the tubular structures localized in an atrophic gland are the source of acinar cell regeneration of the salivary gland. The induction of EGF ligands, in particular epiregulin, may play an important role in acinar cell regeneration in this model. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Molecular Ghrelin System in the Pancreatic Acinar Cells: The Role of the Polypeptide, Caerulein and Sensory Nerves.

    PubMed

    Bonior, Joanna; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Gajdosz, Ryszard; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Pierzchalski, Piotr; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Dembiński, Artur; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Kot, Michalina; Leja-Szpak, Anna; Nawrot-Porąbka, Katarzyna; Link-Lenczowski, Paweł; Olszanecki, Rafał; Bartuś, Krzysztof; Jaworek, Jolanta

    2017-05-02

    Ghrelin (GHRL) is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Experimental studies showed that GHRL protects the stomach and pancreas against acute damage, but the effect of GHRL on pancreatic acinar cells was still undetermined. To investigate the effect of GHRL and caerulein on the functional ghrelin system in pancreatic acinar cells taking into account the role of sensory nerves (SN). Experiments were carried out on isolated pancreatic acinar cells and AR42J cells. Before acinar cells isolation, GHRL was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 50 µg/kg to rats with intact SN or with capsaicin deactivation of SN (CDSN). After isolation, pancreatic acinar cells were incubated in caerulein-free or caerulein containing solution. AR42J cells were incubated under basal conditions and stimulated with caerulein, GHRL or a combination of the above. Incubation of isolated acinar cells with caerulein inhibited GHS-R and GHRL expression at the level of mRNA and protein in those cells. Either in rats with intact SN or with CDSN, administration of GHRL before isolation of acinar cells increased expression of GHRL and GHS-R in those cells and reversed the caerulein-induced reduction in expression of those parameters. Similar upregulation of GHS-R and GHRL was observed after administration of GHRL in AR42J cells. GHRL stimulates its own expression and expression of its receptor in isolated pancreatic acinar cells and AR42J cells on the positive feedback pathway. This mechanism seems to participate in the pancreatoprotective effect of GHRL in the course of acute pancreatitis.

  5. Value of apparent diffusion coefficient calculation in the differential diagnosis of parotid gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Yerli, H; Agildere, A M; Aydin, E; Geyik, E; Haberal, N; Kaskati, T; Oguz, D; Ozluoglu, L N

    2007-11-01

    The differential diagnosis of parotid gland tumors is often difficult with conventional magnetic resonance imaging. To determine whether the calculation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is valuable for making the differential diagnosis of parotid tumors. Thirty parotid masses in 28 patients and 24 healthy parotid glands in 12 controls were examined in this prospective study. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with echo-planar spin-echo sequences was used to evaluate each subject. The ADC of each tumor and each healthy parotid gland was calculated. Tumor diagnoses were confirmed by the results of histopathologic analysis. The following types of masses were identified: 11 Warthin tumors, nine pleomorphic adenomas, seven malignant tumors, one basal cell adenoma, and two benign cysts. The mean ADC value for the Warthin tumors was 0.97+/-0.16 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s, for the pleomorphic adenomas was 1.74+/-0.37 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s, for the malignant tumors was 1.04+/-0.35 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s, and for the normal parotid glands was 0.34+/-0.20 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s. The respective ADC value for the single basal cell adenoma was 1.40 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s. Statistically significant differences were identified between the subjects with pleomorphic adenoma and those with another type of parotid tumor, and between subjects with healthy parotid glands and those with a tumor. Calculating the ADC appears to be useful in differentiating pleomorphic adenomas from other types of parotid gland tumors.

  6. Diagnostic value of metabolic heterogeneity as a reliable parameter for differentiating malignant parotid gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum Soo; Kim, Seong-Jang; Pak, Kyoungjune

    2016-06-01

    Exact classifying between malignant and benign tumors in the parotid gland is important because the cancer has relatively poor prognosis. There have been several studies that F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) can differentiate between malignant and benign parotid gland tumors. However, the role of FDG PET is still controversial because many benign parotid gland tumors, such as Warthin's tumor and pleomorphic adenoma, show high FDG uptake. We hypothesized that metabolic heterogeneity would differentiate malignant parotid tumors because tumoral heterogeneity is an important characteristic in the malignancies. From January 2010 to April 2015, we retrospectively reviewed the 46 patients who showed FDG uptake at the parotid gland. To differentiate malignant parotid gland tumors, we obtained maximum SUV and mean SUV. Metabolic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis were measured as metabolic volumetric parameters. We also included heterogeneity parameters of FDG PET such as heterogeneity factor (HF) and the coefficient of variation for all patients. There was significant difference of HF between malignant (-0.30 ± 0.25; range -0.937 to -0.084) and benign parotid gland tumors (-0.06 ± 0.05; range -0.291 to -0.012; p < 0.0001). In receiver operating characteristic analysis, when ≤-0.084 was used as the cut-off value for HF, the sensitivity and specificity were 100 % (95 % CI 81.5-100) and 89.2 % (95 % CI 71.8-97.7), respectively. HF showed the highest area under the curve of 0.947 among the parameters. In logistic regression analysis, the HF was the most powerful factor for differentiation of the parotid gland tumors (p = 0.002). Our results suggest that HF can be utilized as a reliable and non-invasive method for differentiation of malignant and benign parotid gland tumors.

  7. 3D-FIESTA MRI at 3 T demonstrating branches of the intraparotid facial nerve, parotid ducts and relation with benign parotid tumours.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuanting; Li, Yan; Zhang, Dongsheng; Yang, Zhenzhen; Wu, Lebin

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) fast imaging employing steady state precession (FIESTA) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 T in evaluating the intraparotid components of the facial nerve and parotid ducts, and to compare the MRI images with surgical findings. Thirty-one cases of benign parotid tumours were studied with conventional and 3D FIESTA MRI sequences at 3T using a head coil. The most clinically useful 3D FIESTA images were acquired at parameters of 4.9 ms repetition time (TR); 1.5 effective echo time (TEeff); a flip of 55°, a field of view of 18 to 20 cm, a matrix of 512 × 320, an axial plane, no gaps, and a section thickness of 1 mm. Post-processed multiplanar images were obtained with an Advantage Windows (AW sdc 4.3) workstation. Parotid ducts, facial nerves, and tumours were identified on these images. The relationship of the tumours to the facial nerves and parotid ducts was confirmed at surgery. The facial nerves appeared as linear structures of low intensity. The main trunk of the facial nerve was identified bilaterally in 93.5% of the 3D-FIESTA sequence images. Parotid ducts appeared as structures of high intensity on multiplanar 3D-FIESTA images (100%). The relationships of the tumours with the cervicofacial and temporofacial divisions of the facial nerve were correctly diagnosed in 26 of 31 cases (83.9%) using 3D-FIESTA sequence images. 3D-FIESTA MRI at 3 T depicted the main trunk, cervicofacial and temporofacial divisions of the facial nerve, and the main parotid duct. It is useful for preoperative evaluation of parotid gland tumours. Copyright © 2012 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sudden disappearance of the blood flow in a case of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Atsushi; Masamune, Atsushi; Hamada, Shin; Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Kume, Kiyoshi; Hirota, Morihisa; Shima, Kentaro; Okada, Takaho; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Ishida, Kazuyuki; Unno, Michiaki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2014-01-01

    A 55-year-old man was referred to our hospital for a further examination of a pancreatic cystic tumor with a solid component exhibiting vascularity. A few days later, the patient was admitted with a complaint of sudden severe epigastric pain. Enhanced CT showed the loss of vascularity in the tumor. In particular, contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) clearly demonstrated the disappearance of the blood flow, and a histological examination revealed acinar cell carcinoma with central necrosis. To our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature of acinar cell carcinoma associated with the sudden disappearance of vascularity. In this case, contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS was especially useful for assessing the degree of vascularity.

  9. Abnormal Muscularization of Intra Acinar Pulmonary Arteries in 2 Cases Presenting as Sudden Infant Death (SIDS).

    PubMed

    Khairul, Zainun; Kirsten, Hope; Nicholson, Andrew G; Cohen, Marta C

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal muscularization of acinar arteries is the hallmark of persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn (PPHN), an uncommon disease with high rate of morbidity and mortality. PPHN presents with signs of respiratory distress immediately following birth. We herein report 2 cases presenting as a witnessed sudden unexpected death in the late neonatal period, preceded by respiratory deterioration and in whom the presence of abnormal muscularization of the acinar pulmonary arteries was reminiscent of PPHN. The significance of this report is twofold: to increase the awareness among pediatricians and pathologists of this feature that can present in some cases of sudden unexpected death in infancy/Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), and to highlight the importance of performing a thorough autopsy in order to identify the abnormality.

  10. Dysgenetic polycystic disease of the parotid gland: Report of a case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, KR Ashok; Mahadesh, Jyothi; Setty, Suhas

    2013-01-01

    Dysgenetic polycystic disease (DPD) is a rare cystic lesion affecting mainly the parotid salivary glands with only 14 reported cases in English literature. DPD of parotids is more common in females, common in younger age group, mostly bilateral in occurrence and commonly affects the superficial lobe. Surgery is performed for symptomatic relief and cosmosis. We report a case of a unilateral DPD of the parotid gland with distinctive histopathology. Patient was treated by performing total parotidectomy with preservation of the facial nerve. PMID:24250087

  11. Benign lymphoepithelial cysts of parotid and submandibular glands in a HIV-positive patient

    PubMed Central

    Shivhare, Peeyush; Shankarnarayan, Lata; Jambunath, Usha; Basavaraju, Sowbhagya Malligere

    2015-01-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been reported to have parotid swellings of various types such as diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome, parotitis, intraparotid lymphadenopathy, benign lymphoepithelial cyst (BLEC), as well as salivary gland neoplasms such as adenoid cystic carcinoma, Kaposi sarcoma and lymphoma. LECs in the parotid gland are uncommon benign entities with increased incidence associated with HIV infection. We are presenting a case of 28-year-old HIV-positive patient with BLECs in the parotid and submandibular glands. PMID:26097320

  12. A case of congenital fistula from an accessory parotid gland: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Fábio Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The author reports a case of congenital fistula from an accessory parotid gland and describes its diagnosis and treatment. The patient was referred to the author's clinic for evaluation of a continuous serous discharge from a small orifice in the left cheek near the angle of the mouth. A left preauricular appendix was also noted. Fistulography detected an aberrant duct leading to an accessory parotid gland. The main parotid gland and its duct were normal. The anomalous duct was dissected in continuity with a small ellipse of skin and sutured to the buccal mucosa. The patient's recovery was uneventful. The author also discusses the embryologic origin of this rare anomaly.

  13. Use of a porcine dermal collagen graft (Permacol) in parotid surgery.

    PubMed

    Papadogeorgakis, Nikolaos; Petsinis, Vasilis; Christopoulos, Panagiotis; Mavrovouniotis, Nikolaos; Alexandridis, Constantinos

    2009-07-01

    Our aim was to present the results of the use of porcine dermal collagen graft (Permacol) in the prevention of Frey's syndrome and face-contouring aesthetic deformities after operations on the parotid. We treated 19 patients with parotid tumours. After resection, a Permacol sheet was applied to the perimeter of the tissue deficit so that it was fully covered, and was sutured firmly. This technique produced satisfactory aesthetic results with good facial contouring in all patients. It also protected the exposed parotid nerve plexus, and none of the patients developed Frey's syndrome. Permacol produced good results in both postoperative facial contouring and prevention of Frey's syndrome.

  14. Intracellular mediators of Na -K pump activity in guinea pig pancreatic acinar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hootman, S.R.; Ochs, D.L.; Williams, J.A.

    1985-10-01

    The involvement of CaS and cyclic nucleotides in neurohormonal regulation of Na -K -ATPase (Na -K pump) activity in guinea pig pancreatic acinar cells was investigated. Changes in Na+-K+ pump activity elicited by secretagogues were assessed by (3H)ouabain binding and by ouabain-sensitive YWRb uptake. Carbachol (CCh) and cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) each stimulated both ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake and equilibrium binding of (TH)ouabain by approximately 60%. Secretin increased both indicators of Na+-K+ pump activity by approximately 40% as did forskolin, 8-bromo- and dibutyryl cAMP, theophylline, and isobutylmethylxanthine. Incubation of acinar cells in CaS -free HEPES-buffered Ringer (HR) with 0.5 mM EGTA reduced the stimulatory effects of CCh and CCK-8 by up to 90% but caused only a small reduction in the effects of secretin, forskolin, and cAMP analogues. In addition, CCh, CCK-8, secretin, and forskolin each stimulated ouabain-insensitive 86Rb+ uptake by acinar cells. The increase elicited by CCh and CCK-8 was greatly reduced in the absence of extracellular CaS , while that caused by the latter two agents was not substantially altered. The effects of secretagogues on free CaS levels in pancreatic acinar cells also were investigated with quin-2, a fluorescent CaS chelator. Basal intracellular CaS concentration ((CaS )i) was 161 nM in resting cells and increased to 713 and 803 nM within 15 s after addition of 100 microM CCh or 10 nM CCK-8, respectively.

  15. Variant rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in young rabbits, Spain.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Kevin P; Nicieza, Inés; Balseiro, Ana; Muguerza, María A; Rosell, Joan M; Casais, Rosa; Álvarez, Ángel L; Parra, Francisco

    2012-12-01

    Outbreaks of rabbit hemorrhagic disease have occurred recently in young rabbits on farms on the Iberian Peninsula where rabbits were previously vaccinated. Investigation identified a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant genetically related to apathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. Improved antivirus strategies are needed to slow the spread of this pathogen.

  16. Pancreatic-type Acinar Cell Carcinoma of the Stomach Included in Multiple Primary Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yonenaga, Yoshikuni; Kurosawa, Manabu; Mise, Masahiro; Yamagishi, Miki; Higashide, Shunichi

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic-type acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) in the stomach is extraordinarily rare. We pathologically examined two cases with multiple primary carcinomas, including gastric tumors. Gastric cancer specimens were examined by immunostaining and electron microscopy. Both cases had cancer cells with acinar patterns, resembling pancreatic ACC. The cancer cells in the first case were positive for exocrine markers, including chymotrypsin, lipase and alpha-1 antichymotrypsin (ACT), as well as neuroendocrine markers, including chromogranin A and synaptophysin. The cancer cells in the second case were positive for chymotrypsin and alpha-1 ACT, while being slightly positive for chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Ultrastructurally, cancer cells contained zymogen granules in both cases. The final diagnosis was pancreatic mixed acinar-neuroendocrine carcinoma and pure pancreatic ACC, respectively. We confirmed two cases with gastric pancreatic-type ACC included in multiple primary carcinomas. This type of double cancer has not been reported previously. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Early acinar cell changes in caerulein-induced interstitial acute pancreatitis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Grönroos, J M; Aho, H J; Hietaranta, A J; Nevalainen, T J

    1991-01-01

    Early ultrastructural and immunohistochemical changes caused by supramaximal secretory stimulation with caerulein were studied in the rat pancreas. The morphological basis for the earlier reported decrease of pancreatic juice secretion after supramaximal caerulein was the appearance of swollen and irregular zymogen-like material containing structures with short segments of budding bristle-coated membranes in the apical parts of acinar cells. Images of exocytosis of zymogen granules were only few. Later, marked vacuolization and signs of autophagocytosis are seen in the basal cytoplasm. Immunohistochemistry showed that the large zymogen containing structures were intensively labelled for trypsin at the early stages of the experiment (4-30 min). Later (1-2 h), the vacuoles were empty or contained occasional, small-labelled granules only. The pancreozymin-receptor antagonist proglumide as well as cycloleucine that inhibits protein synthesis by inhibiting the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine, effectively prevented the caerulein induced acinar cell changes. The irregular zymogen containing structures with coated pits on their surface indicate disturbed zymogen granule formation leading to the accumulation of large lakes of zymogen material and finally to marked autophagocytosis in acinar cells. The effects of caerulein are receptor-mediated and depend on the process of methylation in the formation of zymogen granules.

  18. Altered Gene Expression in Cerulein-Stimulated Pancreatic Acinar Cells: Pathologic Mechanism of Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ji Hoon; Lim, Joo Weon

    2009-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a multifactorial disease associated with the premature activation of digestive enzymes. The genes expressed in pancreatic acinar cells determine the severity of the disease. The present study determined the differentially expressed genes in pancreatic acinar cells treated with cerulein as an in vitro model of acute pancreatitis. Pancreatic acinar AR42J cells were stimulated with 10-8 M cerulein for 4 h, and genes with altered expression were identified using a cDNA microarray for 4,000 rat genes and validated by real-time PCR. These genes showed a 2.5-fold or higher increase with cerulein: lithostatin, guanylate cyclase, myosin light chain kinase 2, cathepsin C, progestin-induced protein, and pancreatic trypsin 2. Stathin 1 and ribosomal protein S13 showed a 2.5-fold or higher decreases in expression. Real-time PCR analysis showed time-dependent alterations of these genes. Using commercially available antibodies specific for guanylate cyclase, myosin light chain kinase 2, and cathepsin C, a time-dependent increase in these proteins were observed by Western blotting. Thus, disturbances in proliferation, differentiation, cytoskeleton arrangement, enzyme activity, and secretion may be underlying mechanisms of acute pancreatitis. PMID:20054485

  19. Loss of Ifnar1 in Pancreatic Acinar Cells Ameliorates the Disease Course of Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Katharina J.; Raulefs, Susanne; Kong, Bo; Steiger, Katja; Regel, Ivonne; Gewies, Andreas; Kleeff, Jörg; Michalski, Christoph W.

    2015-01-01

    Type I interferon constitutes an essential component of the combinational therapy against viral disease. Acute pancreatitis is one side effect of type I interferon-based therapy, implying that activation of type I interferon signaling affects the homeostasis and integrity of pancreatic acinar cells. Here, we investigated the role of type I interferon signaling in pancreatic acinar cells using a caerulein-induced murine model of acute pancreatitis. Pancreas-specific ablation of interferon (alpha and beta) receptor 1 (Ifnar1) partially protected animals from caerulein-induced pancreatitis, as demonstrated by reduced tissue damage. Profiling of infiltrating immune cells revealed that this dampened tissue damage response correlated with the number of macrophages in the pancreas. Pharmacologic depletion of macrophages reversed the protective effect of Ifnar1 deficiency. Furthermore, expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (Ccl2), a potent factor for macrophage recruitment, was significantly increased in the Ifnar1-deficient pancreas. Thus, type I interferon signaling in pancreatic acinar cells controls pancreatic homeostasis by affecting the macrophage-mediated inflammatory response in the pancreas. PMID:26618925

  20. Steady streaming: A key mixing mechanism in low-Reynolds-number acinar flows

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Haribalan; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2011-01-01

    Study of mixing is important in understanding transport of submicron sized particles in the acinar region of the lung. In this article, we investigate transport in view of advective mixing utilizing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques: tracer advection, stretch rate and dispersion analysis. The phenomenon of steady streaming in an oscillatory flow is found to hold the key to the origin of kinematic mixing in the alveolus, the alveolar mouth and the alveolated duct. This mechanism provides the common route to folding of material lines and surfaces in any region of the acinar flow, and has no bearing on whether the geometry is expanding or if flow separates within the cavity or not. All analyses consistently indicate a significant decrease in mixing with decreasing Reynolds number (Re). For a given Re, dispersion is found to increase with degree of alveolation, indicating that geometry effects are important. These effects of Re and geometry can also be explained by the streaming mechanism. Based on flow conditions and resultant convective mixing measures, we conclude that significant convective mixing in the duct and within an alveolus could originate only in the first few generations of the acinar tree as a result of nonzero inertia, flow asymmetry, and large Keulegan–Carpenter (KC) number. PMID:21580803

  1. Particle dynamics and deposition in true-scale pulmonary acinar models

    PubMed Central

    Fishler, Rami; Hofemeier, Philipp; Etzion, Yael; Dubowski, Yael; Sznitman, Josué

    2015-01-01

    Particle transport phenomena in the deep alveolated airways of the lungs (i.e. pulmonary acinus) govern deposition outcomes following inhalation of hazardous or pharmaceutical aerosols. Yet, there is still a dearth of experimental tools for resolving acinar particle dynamics and validating numerical simulations. Here, we present a true-scale experimental model of acinar structures consisting of bifurcating alveolated ducts that capture breathing-like wall motion and ensuing respiratory acinar flows. We study experimentally captured trajectories of inhaled polydispersed smoke particles (0.2 to 1 μm in diameter), demonstrating how intrinsic particle motion, i.e. gravity and diffusion, is crucial in determining dispersion and deposition of aerosols through a streamline crossing mechanism, a phenomenon paramount during flow reversal and locally within alveolar cavities. A simple conceptual framework is constructed for predicting the fate of inhaled particles near an alveolus by identifying capture and escape zones and considering how streamline crossing may shift particles between them. In addition, we examine the effect of particle size on detailed deposition patterns of monodispersed microspheres between 0.1–2 μm. Our experiments underline local modifications in the deposition patterns due to gravity for particles ≥0.5 μm compared to smaller particles, and show good agreement with corresponding numerical simulations. PMID:26358580

  2. Coupling of guanine nucleotide inhibitory protein to somatostatin receptors on pancreatic acinar membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, C.; Matozaki, T.; Nagao, M.; Baba, S.

    1987-09-01

    Guanine nucleotides and pertussis toxin were used to investigate whether somatostatin receptors interact with the guanine nucleotide inhibitory protein (NI) on pancreatic acinar membranes in the rat. Guanine nucleotides reduced /sup 125/I-(Tyr/sup 1/)somatostatin binding to acinar membranes up to 80%, with rank order of potency being 5'-guanylyl imidodiphosphate (Gpp(NH)p)>GTP>TDP>GMP. Scatchard analysis revealed that the decrease in somatostatin binding caused by Gpp(NH)p was due to the decrease in the maximum binding capacity without a significant change in the binding affinity. The inhibitory effect of Gpp(NH)p was partially abolished in the absence of Mg/sup 2 +/. When pancreatic acini were treated with 1 ..mu..g/ml pertussis toxin for 4 h, subsequent /sup 125/I-(Tyr/sup 1/)somatostatin binding to acinar membranes was reduced. Pertussis toxin treatment also abolished the inhibitory effect of somatostatin on vasoactive intestinal peptide-stimulated increase in cellular content of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) in the acini. The present results suggest that 1) somatostatin probably functions in the pancreas to regulate adenylate cyclase enzyme system via Ni, 2) the extent of modification of Ni is correlated with the ability of somatostatin to inhibit cAMP accumulation in acini, and 3) guanine nucleotides also inhibit somatostatin binding to its receptor.

  3. Patterns of lymph node metastasis of parotid cancer.

    PubMed

    Shinomiya, Hitomi; Otsuki, Naoki; Yamashita, Daisuke; Nibu, Ken-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    To define the incidence and pattern of spread of lymph node metastasis from parotid cancers and to clarify the risk factors and appropriate extent of neck dissection (ND) for individual patient with parotid cancer. A total of 72 patients with parotid gland cancer treated by surgery between 1994 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively by reference to medical records. In line with our protocol, patients with clinically positive lymph nodes and/or cT3/T4 disease were generally selected to undergo ND. Pathological examinations revealed mucoepidermoid carcinoma in 23 patients, carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma in 11, adenoid cystic carcinoma in 9, salivary duct carcinoma in 9, acinic cell carcinoma in 8, squamous cell carcinoma in 5, adenocarcinoma NOS in 4, epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma in 2, and basal cell carcinoma in 1. Thirty-three patients underwent neck dissection: modified radical ND (MRND) in 13, and elective ND (END) in 20. Postoperative RT (PORT) was performed in 33 patients. Among 13 cN+ patients, 10 were pN+ and lymph node metastasis was distributed mainly in levels I, II, III and V. Among 59 cN- patients, clinical T1, T2, T3 and T4 classifications accounted for 10, 24, 10 and 15 patients, respectively. The incidence of occult lymph node metastasis was 22%. Occult lymph node metastasis was mostly seen in the intraparotid, levels I and II of patients with cT4 disease. Among the ND group, 12 necks were pathologically negative for cancer (pN0). Relapse of neck lymph node metastasis occurred only in two patients treated by MRND with pathologically positive lymph nodes (pN+). These patients developed local and distant metastasis within 1 year after neck lymph node recurrence, and subsequently died of the cancer. pN+ was found in 19/30 high grade (63%), 1/10 intermediate grade (10%), and 3/32 low grade (9.4%). Among 33 patients who received PORT, only 1 patient relapsed neck lymph node. For patients with clinically positive lymph nodes, ipsilateral modified

  4. Bath and Shower Effects in the Rat Parotid Gland Explain Increased Relative Risk of Parotid Gland Dysfunction After Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Luijk, Peter van Faber, Hette; Schippers, Jacobus M.; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Meertens, Harm; Coppes, Robert P.

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: To assess in a rat model whether adding a subtolerance dose in a region adjacent to a high-dose irradiated subvolume of the parotid gland influences its response (bath-and-shower effect). Methods and Materials: Irradiation of the whole, cranial 50%, and/or the caudal 50% of the parotid glands of Wistar rats was performed using 150-MeV protons. To determine suitable (i.e., subtolerance) dose levels for a bath-dose, both whole parotid glands were irradiated with 5 to 25 Gy. Subsequently groups of Wistar rats received 30 Gy to the caudal 50% (shower) and 0 to 10 Gy to the cranial 50% (bath) of both parotid glands. Stimulated saliva flow rate (function) was measured before and up to 240 days after irradiation. Results: Irradiation of both glands up to a dose of 10 Gy did not result in late loss of function and is thus regarded subtolerance. Addition of a dose bath of 1 to 10 Gy to a high-dose in the caudal 50% of the glands resulted in enhanced function loss. Conclusion: Similar to the spinal cord, the parotid gland demonstrates a bath and shower effect, which may explain the less-than-expected sparing of function after IMRT.

  5. Surgical management of parotid salivary duct rupture secondary to non-iatrogenic trauma in a dog

    PubMed Central

    YOON, Hun-Young; MIN, Byong-Su; KIM, Sun-Young; LEE, Da-Eun; KIM, Jung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year-old French bulldog presented for evaluation of recurrent swelling and a fistula on the right cheek after a dog fight. A large volume of serous fluids was identified on the wound immediately after atropine drops. A diagnosis of parotid salivary duct rupture secondary to trauma was made. On surgical exploration, the thickened proximal segment of the severed duct was identified and circumferentially double ligated with 3–0 silk. No evidence of swelling and normal appearance of the parotid salivary gland were identified 4 months postoperative recheck. No further problems were noted 10 months postoperatively phone-call. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first reported case of successful proximal parotid duct ligation of parotid salivary duct rupture secondary to non-iatrogenic trauma. PMID:27666341

  6. Myoepithelioma of the Parotid Gland Presenting as a Retroauricular Cutaneous nodule: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Yumi; Omura, Ken; Tanaka, Kae; Sakamoto, Kei; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2013-06-01

    We are reporting a case of recurrent myoepithelioma of the parotid gland, that emerged as a cutaneous mass. She had a retroauricular subcutaneous mass with an underlying diagnosis of a cutaneous myoepithelioma, which was excised at a hospital's Dermatology Department 2 years earlier. The tumour was observed above the platysma and it was considered as a cutaneous myoepithelioma without the parotid gland structures. She had undergone a partial parotidectomy approximately 20 years earlier. At her first visit to our department, there was no evidence of facial nerve palsy or cervical lymphadenopathy. The radiological findings showed a multinodular growing mass of the parotid gland, just beneath the retroauricular skin and a total parotidectomy was performed. It was considered that even if the cutaneous mass emerged, the relationship between the cutaneous mass and the parotid gland should be pre-surgically examined by computed tomography (CT) or Magnetic resonance image (MRI). A long-term continuous follow-up was also needed.

  7. Rat parotid gland amylase: evidence for alterations in an exocrine protein with increased age.

    PubMed

    Baum, B J; Levine, R L; Kuyatt, B L; Sogin, D B

    1982-05-01

    The content of alpha-amylase, the major exocrine secretory protein from rat parotid glands, was studied in young adult and aged rat tissue. alpha-Amylase protein was determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This employed antisera, produced against alpha-amylase purified from young adult rats, but which recognized and precipitated alpha-amylase enzyme activity equally well from both age groups. The parotid gland content of alpha-amylase was reduced about 50% in aged rats. Furthermore, the percentage of total gland protein which was alpha-amylase was decreased about 40% in aged animals. The data suggest that a somewhat specific alteration in alpha-amylase production (synthesis and/or degradation) occurs in parotid glands from aged rats. In addition, alpha-amylase functional activity was followed. The specific enzyme activity (U amylase activity per mg immunoreactive amylase) was about 35% higher in extracts from aged rat parotid glands compared to that of young adult glands.

  8. Hydatid cyst of parotid: Report of unusual cytological findings extending the cytomorphological spectrum.

    PubMed

    Arora, Vinod Kumar; Chopra, Neha; Singh, Poorva; Venugopal, Vasantha Kumar; Narang, Salil

    2016-09-01

    Hydatid disease is a zoonotic infestation caused by larval cestode of genus Echinococcus. Cystic form of this infection mostly involves liver and lung. Hydatid disease of the parotid gland is very rare even in endemic areas and is often clinically mistaken for parotid tumors or cysts. The presence of protoscolices, laminated membranes, and isolated hooklets are characteristic cytological features observed on fine-needle aspirate from hydatid cysts. We report unusual cytological features from a hydatid cyst of parotid in a 13-year-old girl. She presented with a slowly enlarging hard mass in left parotid. Fine-needle aspiration yielded slightly turbid fluid. Smears from the sediment revealed naked parasitic micronuclei, fragments of germinative layer (endocyst), and abortive brood capsules (buds from endocyst) seen as spherical structures with multiple parasitic nuclei. Some of these spherical structures were degenerated with recognizable nuclei and others were completely necrotic. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:770-773. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Acute neonatal suppurative parotiditis: about three clinical cases and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Isfaoun, Zineb; Radouani, Mohammed Amine; Azzaoui, Sihame; Knouni, Houria; Aguenaou, Hassan; Barkat, Amina

    2016-01-01

    The following case study reports three cases of neonatal bacterial parotiditis observed over a period of seven months. Diagnosis is often based on patient's clinical features: they typically include hyperthermia, swelling, erythema, warmth as well as local tenderness and purulent discharge at Stensen duct during the massage of the parotid. The clinical diagnosis is confirmed by ultrasound and by culture of parotid purulent secretion. They are mainly of nosocomial origin and are generally caused by prematurity and dehydration. Early treatment improves patient outcome. Risk factors such as age should lead clinicians to start empiric antibiotic therapy first and then antibiotic therapy based on direct examination of pus extracted from Stensen duct. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus Viridans and anaerobic germs are most commonly isolated. Acute parotiditis are extremely rare in the neonatal period: less than 50 cases have been reported in the literature. We here report three rather peculiar cases. The diagnosis was suspected on the basis of signs of local inflammation.

  10. Myoparasitism mimicking parotid swelling: a rare presentation of cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Sandeep; Singh, Saumya; Jaiswal, Vaibhav; Mishra, Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Muscular infestation with larval stage of Taenia solium is a well-recognised entity but cysticercosis of the head and neck region is a rarity. We present a case of 35-year-old young man with diffuse swelling of 3.5×4 cm in the parotid region on the right side of the face with signs of inflammation. Diagnosis was established on high-resolution ultrasonography which revealed it to be of parasitic origin. The patient was managed with antihelminthic pharmacotherapy and improved within a month. Thus cysticercosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous swellings of the head and neck region, especially in endemic zones and it must be investigated well with appropriate imaging modalities so that inadvertent surgery can be avoided. PMID:24842360

  11. Immunohistochemical study of basal cell adenoma in the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Hamano, H; Abiko, Y; Hashimoto, S; Inoue, T; Shimono, M; Takagi, T; Noma, H

    1990-02-01

    Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland was studied with immunohistochemical methods. We observed cells in the tumor with positive reaction to polyclonal keratin, prekeratin, monoclonal PKK-1, polyclonal S-100 protein, monoclonal S-100 protein (alpha), secretory component, actin and laminin. However, no cells which stained positively with monoclonal KL-1, amylase, carcinoembryonic antigen, or epithelial membrane antigen were recognized. From these immunohistochemical results and our ultrastructural observations reported previously, we conclude that the cells constituting the basal cell adenoma are ductal, myoepithelial, and squamous cells but not secretory ones. It is also suggested that the origins of basal cell ademona as well as those of pleomorphic and clear cell adenoma are undifferentiated cells of intercalated duct.

  12. Myoparasitism mimicking parotid swelling: a rare presentation of cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Sandeep; Singh, Saumya; Jaiswal, Vaibhav; Mishra, Anand Kumar

    2014-05-19

    Muscular infestation with larval stage of Taenia solium is a well-recognised entity but cysticercosis of the head and neck region is a rarity. We present a case of 35-year-old young man with diffuse swelling of 3.5×4 cm in the parotid region on the right side of the face with signs of inflammation. Diagnosis was established on high-resolution ultrasonography which revealed it to be of parasitic origin. The patient was managed with antihelminthic pharmacotherapy and improved within a month. Thus cysticercosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous swellings of the head and neck region, especially in endemic zones and it must be investigated well with appropriate imaging modalities so that inadvertent surgery can be avoided. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. [Radiation therapy for pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid].

    PubMed

    Jardel, P; Fakhry, N; Makeieff, M; Ferrie, J-C; Milin, S; Righini, C; Lacout, A; Costes, V; Malard, O; Marcy, P-Y; Guevara, N; Odin, G; Bensadoun, R-J; Thariat, J

    2014-01-01

    Parotid pleomorphic adenoma is the most frequent tumor of salivary glands. The prognosis depends on the recurrences because they could lead to iatrogenic events (facial paralysis). Moreover the risk of malignant transformation increases with the number of local relapses. This article aims at reviewing histological and radiological criteria and the surgical techniques. To improve local control, adjuvant irradiation (in first intention or after recurrence) may be useful but is still controversial for benign tumors in young patients with a risk of radio-induced cancer. We listed studies in which adjuvant radiotherapy was used so as to define its place in the treatment strategy. Prognostic factors were found by some authors. Other studies have to be done before strong evidence-based recommendations are issued.

  14. Massive transcranial parotid pleomorphic adenoma: recurrence after 30 years.

    PubMed

    Strub, Graham M; Georgolios, Alexandros; Graham, Robert S; Powers, Celeste N; Coelho, Daniel H

    2012-10-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma, also known as benign mixed tumor, is the most common tumor affecting the parotid gland and can reach massive size; however, intracranial invasion is rare. Recurrence of pleomorphic adenoma after excision is a well-known phenomenon and can present decades after resection of the primary tumor. Here we present the case of a 53-year-old man who presented to our clinic with ear fullness, otalgia, and hearing loss 30 years after undergoing total parotidectomy and external beam radiotherapy for pleomorphic adenoma. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a massive transcranial tumor invading the mastoid cavity, the dura of the posterior fossa, the fallopian and semicircular canals, the jugular foramen, the lateral infratemporal fossa skull base, the sigmoid and transverse sinuses, and the superior parapharyngeal region. Gross examination and histopathological studies confirmed that the mass was a recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Here we discuss the features of recurrent pleomorphic adenoma and review the current literature.

  15. Thulium-YAG laser sialendoscopy for parotid and submandibular sialolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Durbec, M; Dinkel, E; Vigier, S; Disant, F; Marchal, F; Faure, F

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of thulium-YAG laser in sialendoscopic fragmentation of salivary lithiasis. Retrospective, interventional case series. Sixty-three patients treated by interventional sialendoscopy with thulium-Yag laser fragmentation between 2003 and 2010 at Edouard Herriot Hospital were included in the study. The laser was used for non-floating or large lithiasis (>4 mm). The sialendoscopic thulium fiber laser was used in a pulsed mode with an average power output of 2-8 W to fragment and facilitate extraction of salivary stones. Several variables were studied: success rate, total number of procedures, total energy per procedure, size and number of salivary stones removed, and complications. Our series of 63 cases includes 40 cases of parotid lithiasis and 23 cases of submandibular lithiasis. In nine cases, two sessions of laser were performed. Stone size was evaluated pre-operatively by ultrasound and varied between 2 and 18 mm. Laser fragmentation was possible in every case. Complete extraction of the lithiasis was possible in 51 cases (73.9%) and partial extraction in eight cases (12.6%). Extraction failed in four cases (6.3%). Mean stone size was 5.4 mm (5.7 mm for parotid glands and 5.0 mm for sub-mandibular glands) and mean energy per procedure was 1,450 J (range: 1,400-1,800 J). Ductal perforations were observed in 12.7% of the cases. 65.1% of patients were free of symptoms with a mean follow-up of 18 months. Thulium-YAG laser appears to be an effective and safe technique in the treatment of salivary lithiasis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Bioactivity of diopside ceramic in human parotid saliva.

    PubMed

    De Aza, Piedad N; Luklinska, Zofia B; Anseau, Michel

    2005-04-01

    Diopside ceramic pellets with a nominal composition of 55.5 wt % SiO(2)-25.9 wt % CaO-18.0 wt % MgO were soaked in human parotid saliva (HPS) over different time intervals, to investigate the behavior of the material in a natural medium of high protein content. The results showed the formation of a hydroxyapatite (HA)-like layer on the surface of the ceramic, and suggested that the mechanism of HA-like layer formation in saliva was similar to that showed in vitro test by other silica-based materials. The HA-like layer formed at the interface was found to be compact, continuous, and composed of many small crystallites with ultrastructure similar to that of natural cortical bone and dentine. The study concluded that the high pH conditions (9.8) existing right at the ceramic/human parotid saliva interface promoted HA-like phase precipitation. At this stage of the study, it is possible to suggest that the diopside ceramic could be of interest in specific periodontal applications for bone restorative purposes. Morphology, structure, and composition of the interfacial reaction product were examined by Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy techniques (SEM and TEM), combined with Energy Dispersive X-say Spectroscopy (EDS). Changes in ionic concentrations were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), while the pH right at the interface of diopside/PHS were determined with an Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor (ISFET-Meter) instruments.

  17. Clinical evaluation of salivary carbohydrate antigen 125 and leptin in controls and parotid tumours.

    PubMed

    Zhang, K-Y; Liu, C-Y; Hua, L; Wang, S-L; Li, J

    2016-10-01

    We determined the correlation between saliva and serum for CA125 and leptin, and evaluated their clinical screening potential for parotid tumours. Serum, acid-stimulated bilateral parotid saliva and chewing-stimulated whole saliva were collected and measured the levels of CA125 and leptin with electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for healthy controls and patients with unilateral parotid tumour. Intra- and intergroup comparisons were made among them. Correlations and receiver operating curve analyses were also conducted. There was no correlation between salivary and serum CA125 (r = -0.157-0.265, P > 0.05), while significant correlation was found for leptin (r = 0.219-0.761, P < 0.05). Leptin levels in tumour parotid saliva and CA125 levels in whole saliva were elevated significantly (P < 0.001) and showed screening potential for parotid tumours. Salivary and serum leptin levels were significantly higher in women than in men (P < 0.001). Salivary CA125 might originate primarily from salivary gland and tumour rather than from blood, while salivary leptin might originate from both blood and salivary gland. Multiple sources might contribute to the significantly elevated CA125 in whole saliva. Whole saliva CA125 and parotid saliva leptin reflected the occurrence of parotid tumours, while serum CA125 and leptin did not. Salivary CA125 and leptin could not distinguish malignant parotid tumours. When detecting leptin level, the influence of subjects' sex must be considered. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Congenital Unilateral Agenesis of the Parotid Gland: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Teymoortash, Afshin

    2016-01-01

    Congenital unilateral agenesis of the parotid gland is a rare condition with only few cases reported in the literature. A review of 21 cases in the available literature is presented in this article. We report on a further case of a 34-year-old woman with agenesis of the left parotid gland and lipoma of the right cheek. Clinicopathological characteristics of described cases in the literature were discussed. PMID:27895943

  19. Neurologic Evaluation of Acute Lacrimomimetic Effect of Cyclosporine in an Experimental Rabbit Dry Eye Model

    PubMed Central

    Toshida, Hiroshi; Nguyen, Doan H.; Beuerman, Roger W.; Murakami, Akira

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate neurologically acute lacrimation caused by cyclosporine (CsA) eyedrops in rabbit. METHODS Normal adult male New Zealand White rabbits and those that underwent parasympathectomy each received a single instillation of 0.1% CsA or vehicle eyedrops. Schirmer tear test (STT) results, flow rate of lacrimal gland (LG) fluid from the excretory lacrimal duct of the main LG, and blink rate (over a 3-minute period) were measured before and after instillation of CsA or vehicle. Light microscopy was performed to examine the main LG in vitro. Protein release from LG fragments was assessed after incubation with CsA for 30 minutes. RESULTS In normal rabbits, the STT value and the flow rate of LG fluid were significantly increased after treatment with CsA compared with vehicle (P < 0.05). In contrast, no changes were found in denervated eyes. The blink rate of CsA-treated eyes was significantly higher than that of vehicle- treated eyes in normal rabbits (P < 0.005), whereas that of denervated eyes decreased significantly after CsA instillation compared with before administration (P < 0.005). Light microscopy showed that the cytoplasm of acinar cells was packed with secretory granules in denervated LG tissue 7 days after parasympathectomy. The same finding was observed 3 hours after CsA instillation. CsA had no stimulatory effect on protein release by acinar cells in LG fragments at all concentrations tested. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that CsA has no direct effect on tear fluid secretion from the LG in an acute model. Instead, CsA increases reflex tear flow. PMID:19218606

  20. Common procedures in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jennifer

    2006-05-01

    Rabbits are popular companion animals that present to veterinary clinics for routine and emergency care. Clinics equipped for treat-ing dogs and cats may be easily adapted to accommodate rabbits. This article reviews common procedures performed by the clinician specific to rabbits. Topics include handling and restraint, triage and patient assessment, sample collection, and supportive care techniques. Miscellaneous procedures, including anesthetic delivery, nasolacrimal duct flushing, and ear cleaning, are also discussed.

  1. Parasympathetic denervation increases responses to VIP in isolated rat parotid acini

    SciTech Connect

    McMillian, M.K.; Talamo, B.R. )

    1989-07-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a putative neurotransmitter found in the salivary glands of many species, including the rat parotid gland. Parasympathetic denervation has been reported to deplete VIP in the rat parotid gland and to lead to supersensitivity to this peptide in vivo. We have compared the effects of VIP on acini isolated from parasympathetically denervated and unoperated parotid glands to examine possible supersensitivity to the peptide in vitro. VIP normally produced responses similar to those obtained with a low concentration of the beta adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (ISO), but strikingly different from the effects obtained with the muscarinic agonist carbachol (CARB). In parotid membrane preparations, VIP stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. Dissociated acini treated with VIP showed increases in cAMP accumulation and amylase release which were potentiated by forskolin and also by inhibition of phosphodiesterase. After parasympathetic denervation, maximal effects of VIP on adenylate cyclase, cAMP accumulation and amylase release in intact cells were increased two- to five-fold over contralateral control (or unoperated) parotid responses. The increase in adenylate cyclase-mediated responses after denervation was specific to VIP; there was no increased response nor increased sensitivity of any of these responses to ISO. Specific (125I)VIP binding to parotid acini increased two-fold per gland and three-fold per mg of protein after denervation; this probably explains the observed increases in the response to VIP.

  2. Extracapsular dissection for Warthin tumor in the tail of parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Lim, Sang Chul

    2017-09-01

    Extracapsular dissection conferred the advantage of reduced operation time and morbidity without any recurrence, and it could be considered as the treatment of choice for Warthin tumors in the tail of the parotid gland. The purpose of this study is to confirm the appropriate surgical procedure for Warthin tumor in the tail of the parotid gland, by comparing the results of extracapsular dissection and superficial parotidectomy. The medical records of 72 patients with Warthin tumor in the tail of the parotid gland who underwent surgery between January 2006 and December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. In the extracapsular dissection group, a total of 44 parotid gland operations were performed in 40 patients. In the superficial parotidectomy group, a total of 34 parotid gland operations were performed in 32 patients. The operation time was significantly shorter in the extracapsular dissection group than in the superficial parotidectomy group (p<.001, Table 1). One patient in the extracapsular dissection group and five patients in the superficial parotidectomy group had postoperative facial nerve palsy. Recurrence of Warthin tumor in the tail portion of the parotid gland was identified in one patient who underwent superficial parotidectomy.

  3. Adaptive parotid gland hypertrophy induced by dietary treatment of GSE in rats.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kaoru; Morikawa, Tomomi; Matsuo, Saori; Tamura, Kei; Takahashi, Miwa; Yoshida, Midori

    2014-08-01

    In a 13-week feeding toxicity study of grape skin extract (GSE) performed previously, 5.0% GSE showed diffuse hypertrophy and basophilia in rat parotid glands. To clarify whether the change in the parotid glands was an adverse effect of GSE, 6-week-old male F344 rats were fed a diet containing 5.0% GSE or were administered a dose corresponding to the dietary concentration via gavage for 4 weeks, and the treatment was stopped for 2 weeks. To ascertain the effect of astringency, other animals were fed a diet containing 5.0% tannic acid (TA) using the same protocol as the GSE feed group. Control groups were fed a basal diet or were administered sterilized distilled water by gavage. In the GSE and TA feed groups, diffuse severe hypertrophy and basophilia in the parotid glandular epithelial cells were observed. Macroscopic, microscopic, and ultrastructural characteristics consistent with cellular hypertrophy was less apparent after the recovery period in both feed groups. In contrast, no changes were observed in the parotid glands of the gavage GSE and control groups at week 4. Based on these findings of parotid hypertrophy without cytotoxicity, the data from this and previous studies suggest that hypertrophy of the parotid glands induced by feeding treatment with GSE is an adaptive non-adverse effect that is reversible upon removal of the sialotrophic agent. © 2013 by The Author(s).

  4. INFECTIOUS PAPILLOMATOSIS OF RABBITS

    PubMed Central

    Shope, Richard E.; Hurst, E. Weston

    1933-01-01

    A papilloma has been observed in wild cottontail rabbits and has been found to be transmissible to both wild and domestic rabbits. The clinical and pathological pictures of the condition have been described. It has been found that the causative agent is readily filtrable through Berkefeld but not regularly through Seitz filters, that it stores well in glycerol, that it is still active after heating to 67°C. for 30 minutes, but not after heating to 70°C., and that it exhibits a marked tropism for cutaneous epithelium. The activities and properties of the papilloma-producing agent warrant its classification as a filtrable virus. Rabbits carrying experimentally produced papillomata are partially or completely immune to reinfection and, furthermore, their sera partially or completely neutralize the causative virus. The disease is transmissible in series through wild rabbits and virus of wild rabbit origin is readily transmissible to domestic rabbits, producing in this species papillomata identical in appearance with those found in wild rabbits. However, the condition is not transmissible in series through domestic rabbits. The possible significance of this observation has been discussed. The virus of infectious papillomatosis is not related immunologically to either the virus of infectious fibroma or to that of infectious myxoma of rabbits. PMID:19870219

  5. Membrane Proteome Analysis of Cerulein-Stimulated Pancreatic Acinar Cells: Implication for Early Event of Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jangwon; Seo, Ji Hye; Lim, Joo Weon

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Cerulein pancreatitis is similar to human edematous pancreatitis with dysregulation of the production and secretion of digestive enzymes, edema formation, cytoplasmic vacuolization and the death of acinar cells. We hypothesized that membrane proteins may be altered as the early event during the induction of acute pancreatitis. Present study aims to determine the differentially expressed proteins in the membranes of cerulein-treated pancreatic acinar cells. Methods Pancreatic acinar AR42J cells were treated with 10-8 M cerulein for 1 hour. Membrane proteins were isolated from the cells and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis using pH gradients of 5-8. Membrane proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis of the peptide digests. The differentially expressed proteins, whose expression levels were more or less than three-fold in cerulein-treated cells, were analyzed. Results Two differentially expressed proteins (mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2, heat shock protein 60) were up-regulated while four proteins (protein disulfide isomerase, γ-actin, isocitrate dehydrogenase 3, seven in absentia homolog 1A) were down-regulated by cerulein treatment in pancreatic acinar cells. These proteins are related to cell signaling, oxidative stress, and cytoskeleton arrangement. Conclusions Oxidative stress may induce cerulein-induced cell injury and disturbances in defense mechanism in pancreatic acinar cells. PMID:20479917

  6. Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas: new clinical and pathological features in a contemporary series.

    PubMed

    Yu, Run; Jih, Lily; Zhai, Jing; Nissen, Nicholas N; Colquhoun, Steven; Wolin, Edward; Dhall, Deepti

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the novel clinical and pathological features of mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. This was a retrospective review of medical records and surgical pathology specimens of patients with a diagnosis of mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center between 2005 and 2011. Additional immunohistochemistry was performed on the specimens of some patients. Five patients were identified. The median age at presentation was 74 years (range, 59-89 years), and all patients were male. The presenting symptoms were all related to tumor mass effects. The median size of the tumor was 10 cm (range, 3.9-16 cm). Preoperative clinical diagnosis aided by fine-needle aspiration biopsy was incorrect in all 5 cases. Most tumors (3/5) exhibited predominantly endocrine differentiation without hormonal production. Only 10% to 30% of cells were truly amphicrine, whereas most were differentiated into either endocrine or acinar phenotype. The clinical behavior ranged from moderate to aggressive with postoperative survival from 2.5 months to more than 3 years. Four patients received neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy with variable responses. Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas appears to be not uncommon in men, may harbor predominantly endocrine component, is often misdiagnosed by cytology, and exhibits variable clinical behavior. Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas should be considered in older patients with sizable pancreatic mass and may warrant aggressive surgical resection and chemotherapy.

  7. The effect of hyposmotic and isosmotic cell swelling on the intracellular [Ca2+] in lactating rat mammary acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Shennan, D B; Grant, A C G; Gow, I F

    2002-04-01

    The effect of hyposmotic and isosmotic cell swelling on the free intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in rat mammary acinar cells has been examined using the fura-2 dye technique. Ahyposmotic shock (40% reduction) increased the [Ca2+]i in rat mammary acinar cells in a fashion which was transient; the [Ca2+]i returned to a value similar to that found under isomotic conditions within 180 sec. The increase in the [Ca2+]i was dependent upon the extent of the osmotic shock. The hyposmotically-activated increase in the [Ca2+]i could not be attributed to a reduction in extracellular Na+ or a change in the ionic strength of the incubation medium. Thapsigargin (1 microM) enhanced the hyposmotically-activated increase in the [Ca2+]i. Isosmotic swelling of rat mammary acinar cells, using urea, had no significant effect on the [Ca2+]i. Similarly, a hyperosmotic shock did not affect the [Ca2+]i in rat mammary acinar cells. It appears that the effect of cell swelling on the [Ca2+]i in rat mammary acinar cells depends on how the cells are swollen (hyposmotic vs. isosmotic). This finding may have important physiological implications given that it is predicted that mammary cell volume will change in vivo under isomotic conditions.

  8. Accessory parotid gland with ectopic fistulous duct - Surgical view: A case report and review of current literature

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, G. D.; Yadav, Anju; Soni, Jatin; Chaudhary, Ghisulal

    2014-01-01

    Accessory parotid glands are a common clinical occurrence and usually drain into the main Stenson's duct by small ductules and thereby, into the buccal cavity. Presence of an accessory parotid gland with an ectopic fistulous duct is a rare occurrence. Clinical findings, imaging studies, biochemical tests, histopathological examination are needed for appropriate surgical management. It is extremely rare case with ectopic fistulous duct in an accessory parotid gland managed surgically by internalization of the duct to open into the buccal mucosa and excision of pre-aural appendages. Further to this, we give a comprehensive review of literature on accessory parotid gland and duct anomalies. PMID:25937745

  9. Nicotine derived genotoxic effects in human primary parotid gland cells as assessed in vitro by comet assay, cytokinesis-block micronucleus test and chromosome aberrations test.

    PubMed

    Ginzkey, Christian; Steussloff, Gudrun; Koehler, Christian; Burghartz, Marc; Scherzed, Agmal; Hackenberg, Stephan; Hagen, Rudolf; Kleinsasser, Norbert H

    2014-08-01

    Genotoxic effects of nicotine were described in different human cells including salivary gland cells. Based on the high nicotine concentration in saliva of smokers or patients using therapeutic nicotine patches, the current study was performed to evaluate the genotoxic potential of nicotine in human salivary gland cells. Therefore, primary salivary gland cells from 10 patients undergoing parotid gland surgery were exposed to nicotine concentrations between 1 μM and 1000 μM for 1 h in the absence of exogenous metabolic activation. The acinar phenotype was proven by immunofluorescent staining of alpha-amylase. Genotoxic effects were evaluated using the Comet assay, the micronucleus test and the chromosome aberration test. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis were determined by trypan blue exclusion test and Caspase-3 assay. Nicotine was able to induce genotoxic effects in all three assays. The chromosome aberration test was the most sensitive and increases in numerical and structural (chromatid-type and chromosome-type) aberrations were seen at ≥1 μM, whereas increases in micronuclei frequency were detected at 10 μM and DNA damage as measured in the Comet assay was noted at >100 μM. No cytotoxic damage or influence of apoptosis could be demonstrated. Nicotine as a possible risk factor for tumor initiation in salivary glands is still discussed controversially. Our results demonstrated the potential of nicotine to induce genotoxic effects in salivary gland cells. These results were observed at saliva nicotine levels similar to those found after oral or transdermal exposure to nicotine and suggest the necessity of careful monitoring of the use of nicotine in humans.

  10. Intraglandular Transplantation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for the Alleviation of Irradiation-Induced Parotid Gland Damage in Miniature Pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhifa; Ju, Zhaoyu; He, Longlong; Li, Zhijin; Liu, Yanpu; Liu, Bin

    2017-08-01

    In a previous study, the authors verified the protective efficacy of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on the prevention of salivary gland (SG) damage induced by irradiation in mice. As a critical step before implementation in clinical practice, the present study investigated the protective effect of ADSCs in a miniature pig SG model, because miniature pigs share many characteristics with humans. Third-passage autologous ADSCs at a concentration of 4 × 10(6) cells/mL were transplanted by intraglandular injection into parotid glands (PGs) immediately after local irradiation at a single dose of 20 Gy. The injection process was repeated twice a week for 6 consecutive weeks. At 12 weeks after irradiation, functional and histologic evaluations were performed by measuring salivary flow rate (SFR) and hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff staining. Immunohistochemical and transmission electron microscopic examinations also were conducted to evaluate amylase (AMY) production, microvessel density (MVD), and microstructural changes. The irradiated PGs showed remarkable decreases in SFR, AMY production, and MVD. However, transplantation of ADSCs alleviated irradiated PG morphology and function by preserving more functional acinar cells and increasing SFR and AMY production. In addition, greater MVD was observed in the ADSC-treated group than in the irradiated group. These results indicated that intraglandular transplantation of autologous ADSCs is an effective method to protect PGs against damage from irradiation in miniature pigs, which might have clinic application in the future. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrogen peroxide attenuates refilling of intracellular calcium store in mouse pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Mi Na; Kim, Dong Kwan; Kim, Se Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) oscillation is an initial event in digestive enzyme secretion of pancreatic acinar cells. Reactive oxygen species are known to be associated with a variety of oxidative stress-induced cellular disorders including pancreatitis. In this study, we investigated the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on intracellular Ca2+ accumulation in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Perfusion of H2O2 at 300 µM resulted in additional elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels and termination of oscillatory Ca2+ signals induced by carbamylcholine (CCh) in the presence of normal extracellular Ca2+. Antioxidants, catalase or DTT, completely prevented H2O2-induced additional Ca2+ increase and termination of Ca2+ oscillation. In Ca2+-free medium, H2O2 still enhanced CCh-induced intracellular Ca2+ levels and thapsigargin (TG) mimicked H2O2-induced cytosolic Ca2+ increase. Furthermore, H2O2-induced elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels was abolished under sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase-inactivated condition by TG pretreatment with CCh. H2O2 at 300 µM failed to affect store-operated Ca2+ entry or Ca2+ extrusion through plasma membrane. Additionally, ruthenium red, a mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter blocker, failed to attenuate H2O2-induced intracellular Ca2+ elevation. These results provide evidence that excessive generation of H2O2 in pathological conditions could accumulate intracellular Ca2+ by attenuating refilling of internal Ca2+ stores rather than by inhibiting Ca2+ extrusion to extracellular fluid or enhancing Ca2+ mobilization from extracellular medium in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. PMID:28280417

  12. Hepcidin knockout mice spontaneously develop chronic pancreatitis owing to cytoplasmic iron overload in acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Lunova, Mariia; Schwarz, Peggy; Nuraldeen, Renwar; Levada, Kateryna; Kuscuoglu, Deniz; Stützle, Michael; Vujić Spasić, Maja; Haybaeck, Johannes; Ruchala, Piotr; Jirsa, Milan; Deschemin, Jean-Christophe; Vaulont, Sophie; Trautwein, Christian; Strnad, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Iron is both an essential and a potentially toxic element, and its systemic homeostasis is controlled by the iron hormone hepcidin. Hepcidin binds to the cellular iron exporter ferroportin, causes its degradation, and thereby diminishes iron uptake from the intestine and the release of iron from macrophages. Given that hepcidin-resistant ferroportin mutant mice show exocrine pancreas dysfunction, we analysed pancreata of aging hepcidin knockout (KO) mice. Hepcidin and Hfe KO mice were compared with wild-type (WT) mice kept on standard or iron-rich diets. Twelve-month-old hepcidin KO mice were subjected to daily minihepcidin PR73 treatment for 1 week. Six-month-old hepcidin KO mice showed cytoplasmic acinar iron overload and mild pancreatitis, together with elevated expression of the iron uptake mediators DMT1 and Zip14. Acinar atrophy, massive macrophage infiltration, fatty changes and pancreas fibrosis were noted in 1-year-old hepcidin KO mice. As an underlying mechanism, 6-month-old hepcidin KO mice showed increased pancreatic oxidative stress, with elevated DNA damage, apoptosis and activated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signalling. Neither iron overload nor pancreatic damage was observed in WT mice fed iron-rich diet or in Hfe KO mice. Minihepcidin application to hepcidin KO mice led to an improvement in general health status and to iron redistribution from acinar cells to macrophages. It also resulted in decreased NF-κB activation and reduced DNA damage. In conclusion, loss of hepcidin signalling in mice leads to iron overload-induced chronic pancreatitis that is not seen in situations with less severe iron accumulation. The observed tissue injury can be reversed by hepcidin supplementation. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Insulin Protects Pancreatic Acinar Cells from Palmitoleic Acid-induced Cellular Injury*

    PubMed Central

    Samad, Aysha; James, Andrew; Wong, James; Mankad, Parini; Whitehouse, John; Patel, Waseema; Alves-Simoes, Marta; Siriwardena, Ajith K.; Bruce, Jason I. E.

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a serious and sometimes fatal inflammatory disease where the pancreas digests itself. The non-oxidative ethanol metabolites palmitoleic acid (POA) and POA-ethylester (POAEE) are reported to induce pancreatitis caused by impaired mitochondrial metabolism, cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) overload and necrosis of pancreatic acinar cells. Metabolism and [Ca2+]i are linked critically by the ATP-driven plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) important for maintaining low resting [Ca2+]i. The aim of the current study was to test the protective effects of insulin on cellular injury induced by the pancreatitis-inducing agents, ethanol, POA, and POAEE. Rat pancreatic acinar cells were isolated by collagenase digestion and [Ca2+]i was measured by fura-2 imaging. An in situ [Ca2+]i clearance assay was used to assess PMCA activity. Magnesium green (MgGreen) and a luciferase-based ATP kit were used to assess cellular ATP depletion. Ethanol (100 mm) and POAEE (100 μm) induced a small but irreversible Ca2+ overload response but had no significant effect on PMCA activity. POA (50–100 μm) induced a robust Ca2+ overload, ATP depletion, inhibited PMCA activity, and consequently induced necrosis. Insulin pretreatment (100 nm for 30 min) prevented the POA-induced Ca2+ overload, ATP depletion, inhibition of the PMCA, and necrosis. Moreover, the insulin-mediated protection of the POA-induced Ca2+ overload was partially prevented by the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002. These data provide the first evidence that insulin directly protects pancreatic acinar cell injury induced by bona fide pancreatitis-inducing agents, such as POA. This may have important therapeutic implications for the treatment of pancreatitis. PMID:24993827

  14. Pancreatic panniculitis as a paraneoplastic phenomenon of a pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Naeyaert, Charlotte; de Clerck, Frederik; De Wilde, Vincent

    2016-12-01

    We present the case of a 59-year-old patient admitted with extreme painful erythematous subcutaneous nodules of the lower extremities in association with arthritis and peripheral eosinophilia. Upon skin biopsy, the diagnosis of pancreatic panniculitis was made. On further investigation, an underlying acinar cell type pancreas carcinoma was revealed. This clinical case does illustrate how a seemingly innocuous skin condition may herald an underlying malignant disease. The presence of pancreatic panniculitis should trigger clinicians to undertake further thorough diagnostic investigation of the pancreas.

  15. Autoantibody Production in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Asherson, G. L.; Rose, M. Elaine

    1963-01-01

    The finding that the serum of apparently healthy rabbits fixed complement with rabbit liver and kidney has been confirmed. Experimental infection of rabbits with Eimeria stiedae, the cause of hepatic coccidiosis, led to a rise in the titre of serum complement-fixing factors. The rise was statistically significant 14, 21 and 28 days after infection. The factors were regarded as antibodies because they behaved as macroglobulins on diethylaminoethyl—cellulose chromatography and sucrose gradient centrifugation, and as autoantibodies because they fixed complement with the kidney of the rabbits in which they occurred. The antibody reacted with widely distributed antigen(s) with high activity in brain and low activity in skeletal muscle. The possibility that coccidial infection may be responsible for the natural autoantibody of rabbits is discussed. PMID:13965167

  16. [Predictors of malignancy in the management of parotid tumors: about 76 cases].

    PubMed

    Bouaity, Brahim; Darouassi, Youssef; Chihani, Mehdi; Touati, Mohamed Mliha; Ammar, Haddou

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland tumor pathology is complex and poses a diagnostic and therapeutic problem. A good analysis of predictive factors for malignancy in parotid tumors seems currently necessary for better therapeutic planning. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive factors for malignancy in parotid tumors through a retrospective study of 76 cases of parotid tumor treated in a service of Otorhinolaryngology and Cervico Facial Surgery of Avicenne military hospital of Marrakech between January 2000 and December 2012. The study involved 40 women and 36 men. The average age was 44 years for benign tumours whereas it was 50 years for malignant tumours. The median of consultation time was 24 months for benign tumors and 16 month for malignant tumours. Swelling in the area of the parotid was always a patient detecting sign. Malignancy is clinically suspected based on pain, facial paralysis, surface structure and deeper structure fixity and on the presence of adenopathy. MRI has become the methodology of choice for evaluating parotid tumors due to its good diagnostic value in the assessment of benignity and malignancy. Fine needle aspiration biopsy has no value unless it is positive. Explorative parotidectomy with extemporaneous anatomopathological examination remains the key to positive diagnosis. Parotid benign tumors represent the most frequent entity (80%) and pleomorphic adenoma remains the predominant histologic type (61%). With regard to malignant tumors, they are rare, mainly dominated by mucoepidermoid carcinomas (6,5%). Surgical treatment is the first choice and it is often associated with lymph node dissection and radiation therapy for malignant tumors. Facial paralysis is the most common complication of parotid surgery.

  17. EFFECT OF IRRADIATION ON MICROVASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS OF PAROTID GLANDS IN THE MINIATURE PIG

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junji; Yan, Xing; Gao, Runtao; Mao, Lisha; Cotrim, Ana P.; Zheng, Changyu; Zhang, Chunmei; Baum, Bruce J.; Wang, Songlin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of irradiation on microvascular endothelial cells in miniature pig parotid glands. Methods and Materials A single 25-Gy dose of irradiation (IR) was delivered to parotid glands of 6 miniature pigs. Three other animals served as non-IR controls. Local blood flow rate in glands was measured pre- and post-IR with an ultrasonic Doppler analyzer. Samples of parotid gland tissue were taken at 4 h, 24 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks after IR for microvascular density (MVD) analysis and sphingomyelinase (SMase) assay. Histopathology and immunohistochemical staining (anti-CD31 and anti-AQP1) were used to assess morphological changes. MVD was determined by calculating the number of CD31- or AQP1-stained cells per field. A terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) apoptosis assay was used to detect apoptotic cells. The activity of acid and neutral Mg2+-dependent SMase (ASMase and NSMase, respectively) was also assayed. Results Local parotid gland blood flow rate decreased rapidly at 4 h post-IR and remained below control levels throughout the 14-day observation period. Parotid MVD also declined from 4 to 24 hours and remained below control levels thereafter. The activity levels of ASMase and NSMase in parotid glands increased rapidly from 4 to 24 h post-IR and then declined gradually. The frequency of detecting apoptotic nuclei in the glands followed similar kinetics. Conclusions Single-dose IR led to a significant reduction of MVD and local blood flow rate, indicating marked damage to microvascular endothelial cells in miniature pig parotid glands. The significant and rapid increases of ASMase and NSMase activity levels may be important in this IR-induced damage. PMID:20832188

  18. Evaluation of Parotid Salivary Glucose Level for Clinical Diagnosis and Monitoring Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Beibei; Du, Juan; Zhu, Zhao; Ma, Zhihong; Wang, Songlin; Shan, Zhaochen

    2017-01-01

    Background. To investigate the relationships among blood glucose, mixed saliva glucose, and parotid glucose in type 2 diabetes patients and to evaluate the diagnostic and monitoring value of salivary gland glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes (type 2DM). Material and Methods. Thirty patients with type 2DM and 30 healthy age- and sex-matched individuals were included in this study. Glucose levels in unstimulated mixed saliva and in unstimulated parotid saliva were measured by the glucose oxidase peroxidase method. Results. The blood glucose and parotid salivary glucose levels in type 2DM patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P < 0.05). The blood glucose, parotid salivary glucose, and mixed salivary glucose were 7.46 ± 1.44 mmol/L, 0.18 ± 0.19 mmol/L, and 3.17 × 10(-2) ± 2.84 × 10(-2) mmol/L, respectively, in the type 2DM group; the corresponding glucose levels in the control group were 5.56 ± 0.71 mmol/L, 7.70 × 10(-2) ± 6.02 × 10(-2) mmol/L, and 3.47 × 10(-2) ± 2.79 × 10(-2) mmol/L. The parotid salivary and blood glucose levels in type 2DM patients were strongly correlated; the linear regression equation for blood glucose and parotid salivary glucose was Y = 6.267X + 6.360, with r = 0.810. However, mixed salivary glucose levels were not significantly different in the type 2 diabetes group compared with the control group. Conclusion. Our results suggest that parotid salivary glucose has potential as a biomarker to monitor type 2DM and as a painless, noninvasive method for the management of type 2DM.

  19. Evaluation of Parotid Salivary Glucose Level for Clinical Diagnosis and Monitoring Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Beibei; Du, Juan; Zhu, Zhao; Ma, Zhihong; Wang, Songlin

    2017-01-01

    Background. To investigate the relationships among blood glucose, mixed saliva glucose, and parotid glucose in type 2 diabetes patients and to evaluate the diagnostic and monitoring value of salivary gland glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes (type 2DM). Material and Methods. Thirty patients with type 2DM and 30 healthy age- and sex-matched individuals were included in this study. Glucose levels in unstimulated mixed saliva and in unstimulated parotid saliva were measured by the glucose oxidase peroxidase method. Results. The blood glucose and parotid salivary glucose levels in type 2DM patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P < 0.05). The blood glucose, parotid salivary glucose, and mixed salivary glucose were 7.46 ± 1.44 mmol/L, 0.18 ± 0.19 mmol/L, and 3.17 × 10−2 ± 2.84 × 10−2 mmol/L, respectively, in the type 2DM group; the corresponding glucose levels in the control group were 5.56 ± 0.71 mmol/L, 7.70 × 10−2 ± 6.02 × 10−2 mmol/L, and 3.47 × 10−2 ± 2.79 × 10−2 mmol/L. The parotid salivary and blood glucose levels in type 2DM patients were strongly correlated; the linear regression equation for blood glucose and parotid salivary glucose was Y = 6.267X + 6.360, with r = 0.810. However, mixed salivary glucose levels were not significantly different in the type 2 diabetes group compared with the control group. Conclusion. Our results suggest that parotid salivary glucose has potential as a biomarker to monitor type 2DM and as a painless, noninvasive method for the management of type 2DM. PMID:28251153

  20. Investigations on parotid gland recovery after IMRT in head and neck tumor patients.

    PubMed

    Stock, Markus; Dörr, Wolfgang; Stromberger, Carmen; Mock, Ulrike; Koizar, Susanne; Pötter, Richard; Georg, Dietmar

    2010-12-01

    in recent years, the role of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck irradiation has increased. The main motivation is sparing the parotid gland and reduction of xerostomia. Generally, relative parotid volumes have been evaluated for treatment outcome and planning constraints, neglecting that absolute parotid volumes can vary significantly. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in parotid gland function and set this in relation to absolute volumes. 46 head and neck patients were treated by sparing at least the contralateral parotid gland. The mean dose to the contralateral gland was limited to 26 Gy. Parotid function was measured with scintigraphy before and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after radiotherapy. Gland recovery was correlated with absolute parotid gland volumes and mean dose. Finally the dose-effect relationship was investigated. the dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for the ipsi- and contralateral glands were significantly different. A correlation between absolute volumes receiving certain doses and the function loss after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months was found. The most significant correlation was found for the absolute volume that received at least 40 Gy (aV40). ED50 values of 23-38 Gy were observed for more than 50% function loss and and 52-68 Gy afor more than 75% function loss. the mean dose, aV40 or aV26, revealed similar correlations with the excretion rate and with recovery. Hence, also absolute volumes can be used for treatment planning. Longer recovery times show higher ED50 values indicating partial regeneration of gland functions.

  1. Effect of Irradiation on Microvascular Endothelial Cells of Parotid Glands in the Miniature Pig

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Junji; Yan Xing; Gao Runtao; Mao Lisha; Cotrim, Ana P.; Zheng Changyu; Zhang Chunmei; Baum, Bruce J.; Wang Songlin

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of irradiation on microvascular endothelial cells in miniature pig parotid glands. Methods and Materials: A single 25-Gy dose of irradiation (IR) was delivered to parotid glands of 6 miniature pigs. Three other animals served as non-IR controls. Local blood flow rate in glands was measured pre- and post-IR with an ultrasonic Doppler analyzer. Samples of parotid gland tissue were taken at 4 h, 24 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks after IR for microvascular density (MVD) analysis and sphingomyelinase (SMase) assay. Histopathology and immunohistochemical staining (anti-CD31 and anti-AQP1) were used to assess morphological changes. MVD was determined by calculating the number of CD31- or AQP1-stained cells per field. A terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) apoptosis assay was used to detect apoptotic cells. The activity of acid and neutral Mg{sup 2+}-dependent SMase (ASMase and NSMase, respectively) was also assayed. Results: Local parotid gland blood flow rate decreased rapidly at 4 h post-IR and remained below control levels throughout the 14-day observation period. Parotid MVD also declined from 4 to 24 hours and remained below control levels thereafter. The activity levels of ASMase and NSMase in parotid glands increased rapidly from 4 to 24 h post-IR and then declined gradually. The frequency of detecting apoptotic nuclei in the glands followed similar kinetics. Conclusions: Single-dose IR led to a significant reduction of MVD and local blood flow rate, indicating marked damage to microvascular endothelial cells in miniature pig parotid glands. The significant and rapid increases of ASMase and NSMase activity levels may be important in this IR-induced damage.

  2. Glycyrrhizin down-regulates CCL2 and CXCL2 expression in cerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Panahi, Yaser; Fakhari, Shohreh; Mohammadi, Mehdi; Rahmani, Mohammad Reza; Hakhamaneshi, Mohammad Saeid; Jalili, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Many inflammatory chemokines release from leukocytes and pancreatic acinar cells which play important roles in pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis (AP). Of interests, CXCL2 and CCL2 have been shown elevated in the plasma of patients with AP. We have recently found that Glycyrrhizin (GZ) attenuates AP in mice model. In this study, we aimed to investigate the direct effect of GZ on expression levels of CCL2 and CXCl2 in isolated pancreatic acinar cells. Isolated acinar cells were isolated from the pancreas of healthy C57BL/6 mice, stimulated with cerulein (10-7 M) and then treated with either PBS or different doses of GZ. The levels of CCL2 and CXCL2 expression at mRNA were assessed by qRT-PCR. Conditioned media from supernatants of each cells culture condition were collected for detection of CCL2 and CXCL2 levels by ELISA. First, we observed that cerulein significantly upregulates both cytokines expression in acinar cells. Moreover, we treated the acinar cells with GZ and found that GZ significantly downregulates CCL2 and CXCL2 expression at mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. Consistently, the conditioned media of GZ-treated cells contained a significant lower levels of CCL2 and CXCL2 (p<0.05). In conclusion, our data demonstrate for the first time that GZ directly downregulates CCL2 and CXCL2 levels in cerulein-stimulated acinar cells which may explain the mechanism of therapeutic effects of GZ in cerulein-induced AP in mice. PMID:26155433

  3. Signal transduction of MCP-1 expression induced by pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid in pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramudo, Laura; Yubero, Sara; Manso, Manuel A; Vicente, Secundino; De Dios, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid (PAAF) is known to contribute to the progression of acute pancreatitis (AP). We have investigated the capability of PAAF to activate the expression of MCP-1 in pancreatic acinar cells and the involvement of MAPK, NF-κB and STAT3 as downstream signalling transduction pathways. The actions of dexamethasone (Dx) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the PAAF’s acinar effects have also been evaluated. Acinar cells were incubated for 1 hr with PAAF collected from rats with severe AP induced by sodium taurocholate in the absence or presence of Dx (10−7 M) or NAC (30 mM). MCP-1 mRNA expression, phospho-p38-MAPK, IκBα, nuclear p65 levels and nuclear translocation of STAT3 were analysed. In response to PAAF, overexpression of MCP-1, phosphorylation of p38-MAPK, degradation of IκBα and increases in p65 nuclear levels and STAT3 activity were found in acinar cells. PAAF-mediated MCP-1 up-regulation was completely suppressed by Dx and NAC. MAPK activation was only inhibited by NAC, NF-κB activation was repressed by Dx and NAC, and STAT3 pathway was strongly blocked by Dx and significantly reduced by NAC. In conclusion, acinar cells were activated by PAAF to produce MCP-1, mainly via NF-κB and STAT3 pathways. Both downstream pathways were targeted by Dx and NAC to repress the PAAF-mediated acinar MCP-1 up-regulation. PMID:19604316

  4. Signal transduction of MCP-1 expression induced by pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid in pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Ramudo, Laura; Yubero, Sara; Manso, Manuel A; Vicente, Secundino; De Dios, Isabel

    2009-07-01

    Pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid (PAAF) is known to contribute to the progression of acute pancreatitis (AP). We have investigated the capability of PAAF to activate the expression of MCP-1 in pancreatic acinar cells and the involvement of MAPK, NF-kappaB and STAT3 as downstream signalling transduction pathways. The actions of dexamethasone (Dx) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the PAAF's acinar effects have also been evaluated. Acinar cells were incubated for 1 hr with PAAF collected from rats with severe AP induced by sodium taurocholate in the absence or presence of Dx (10(-7) M) or NAC (30 mM). MCP-1 mRNA expression, phospho-p38-MAPK, IkappaB alpha, nuclear p65 levels and nuclear translocation of STAT3 were analysed. In response to PAAF, overexpression of MCP-1, phosphorylation of p38-MAPK, degradation of IkappaB alpha and increases in p65 nuclear levels and STAT3 activity were found in acinar cells. PAAF-mediated MCP-1 up-regulation was completely suppressed by Dx and NAC. MAPK activation was only inhibited by NAC, NF-kappaB activation was repressed by Dx and NAC, and STAT3 pathway was strongly blocked by Dx and significantly reduced by NAC. In conclusion, acinar cells were activated by PAAF to produce MCP-1, mainly via NF-kappaB and STAT3 pathways. Both downstream pathways were targeted by Dx and NAC to repress the PAAF-mediated acinar MCP-1 up-regulation.

  5. Dicer Is Required for Maintenance of Adult Pancreatic Acinar Cell Identity and Plays a Role in Kras-Driven Pancreatic Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue J.; McAllister, Florencia; Bailey, Jennifer M.; Scott, Sherri-Gae; Hendley, Audrey M.; Leach, Steven D.; Ghosh, Bidyut

    2014-01-01

    The role of miRNA processing in the maintenance of adult pancreatic acinar cell identity and during the initiation and progression of pancreatic neoplasia has not been studied in detail. In this work, we deleted Dicer specifically in adult pancreatic acinar cells, with or without simultaneous activation of oncogenic Kras. We found that Dicer is essential for the maintenance of acinar cell identity. Acinar cells lacking Dicer showed increased plasticity, as evidenced by loss of polarity, initiation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM). In the context of oncogenic Kras activation, the initiation of ADM and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) were both highly sensitive to Dicer gene dosage. Homozygous Dicer deletion accelerated the formation of ADM but not PanIN. In contrast, heterozygous Dicer deletion accelerated PanIN initiation, revealing complex roles for Dicer in the regulation of both normal and neoplastic pancreatic epithelial identity. PMID:25405615

  6. [Pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland, rules for resection].

    PubMed

    de Ridder, Mischa; Smeele, Ludi E; Balm, Alfons J M

    2012-01-01

    The importance of complete excision of a benign pleomorphic adenoma is illustrated by two patients' histories. A 28-year-old man underwent a local excision of a nodule under the left ear without histological confirmation. Ten years later he returned to our institute with a large multilocular process and subcutaneous nodules. Cytology showed pleomorphic adenoma. Patient was treated with total facial nerve preserving parotidectomy and radiotherapy. An 81-year-old male underwent a surgical removal of a swelling under his left ear eight years before admission for a large diffusely infiltrating tumor in the neck. Repeated cytology showed carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. This tumor was inoperable and he was treated by palliative irradiation. In case of incomplete resection, pleomorphic adenoma cells are spilled with an increasing chance of local recurrence. Also degeneration into carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma is possible after incomplete resection, with impact on survival. These risks of residual disease determine the need of centralization of diagnosis and treatment of this benign parotid tumor.

  7. Reciprocal stimulation of pancreatic acinar and stellate cells in a novel long-term in vitro co-culture model.

    PubMed

    Bläuer, Merja; Laaninen, Matias; Sand, Juhani; Laukkarinen, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are the key fibrogenic cells in the pancreas. Acinar cell injury is known to trigger PSC activation. To facilitate the experimental analysis of the crosstalk between acinar cells and PSCs, an in vitro system for their long-term co-cultivation was developed. PSCs and acinar cells capable of retaining their secretory phenotype in long-term in vitro culture were obtained from mouse pancreata. A dual-chamber co-culture model was built in 24-well format with acinar cells seeded in the wells and PSCs in tissue culture inserts. Acinar cell-3T3 fibroblast co-cultures served as controls. After 4-day maintenance, the acinar compartment was analyzed for cell morphology, secretory capability, necrosis (HMGB1), apoptosis (TUNEL) and inflammation (NFκB). PSCs were analyzed for migratory activity and extracellular matrix (ECM) protein expression. The results were compared to parallel monocultures. Acinar cells in monoculture and in co-culture with fibroblasts exhibited a healthy monolayer arrangement and an ability to respond to 0.1 nM caerulein stimulus by increased amylase release. Co-culture with PSCs caused marked changes in acinar cell morphology and rendered them insensitive to secretagogue stimulus. Activation of NFκB and necrotic changes, but not apoptosis, were identified in co-cultured acinar cells. Co-culture increased the migratory activity and ECM protein expression of PSCs. Humoral interactions between acinar and PSCs in co-culture were shown to reciprocally affect their cellular functions. With its two separable cell compartments the co-culture system provides a versatile culture setting that allows independent manipulation and analysis of both cell types. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Valproic Acid Limits Pancreatic Recovery after Pancreatitis by Inhibiting Histone Deacetylases and Preventing Acinar Redifferentiation Programs

    PubMed Central

    Eisses, John F.; Criscimanna, Angela; Dionise, Zachary R.; Orabi, Abrahim I.; Javed, Tanveer A.; Sarwar, Sheharyar; Jin, Shunqian; Zhou, Lili; Singh, Sucha; Poddar, Minakshi; Davis, Amy W.; Tosun, Akif Burak; Ozolek, John A.; Lowe, Mark E.; Monga, Satdarshan P.; Rohde, Gustavo K.; Esni, Farzad; Husain, Sohail Z.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which drugs induce pancreatitis are unknown. A definite cause of pancreatitis is due to the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA). On the basis of three crucial observations—that VPA inhibits histone deacetylases (HDACs), HDACs mediate pancreas development, and aspects of pancreas development are recapitulated during recovery of the pancreas after injury—we hypothesized that VPA does not cause injury on its own, but it predisposes patients to pancreatitis by inhibiting HDACs and provoking an imbalance in pancreatic recovery. In an experimental model of pancreatic injury, we found that VPA delayed recovery of the pancreas and reduced acinar cell proliferation. In addition, pancreatic expression of class I HDACs (which are the primary VPA targets) increased in the midphase of pancreatic recovery. VPA administration inhibited pancreatic HDAC activity and led to the persistence of acinar-to-ductal metaplastic complexes, with prolonged Sox9 expression and sustained β-catenin nuclear activation, findings that characterize a delay in regenerative reprogramming. These effects were not observed with valpromide, an analog of VPA that lacks HDAC inhibition. This is the first report, to our knowledge, that VPA shifts the balance toward pancreatic injury and pancreatitis through HDAC inhibition. The work also identifies a new paradigm for therapies that could exploit epigenetic reprogramming to enhance pancreatic recovery and disorders of pancreatic injury. PMID:26476347

  9. The econobiology of pancreatic acinar cells granule inventory and the stealthy nano-machine behind it.

    PubMed

    Hammel, Ilan; Meilijson, Isaac

    2016-03-01

    The pancreatic gland secretes most of the enzymes and many other macromolecules needed for food digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. These molecules play an important role in digestion, host defense and lubrication. The secretion of pancreatic proteins ensures the availability of the correct mix of proteins when needed. This review describes model systems available for the study of the econobiology of secretory granule content. The secretory pancreatic molecules are stored in large dense-core secretory granules that may undergo either constitutive or evoked secretion, and constitute the granule inventory of the cell. It is proposed that the Golgi complex functions as a distribution center for secretory proteins in pancreatic acinar cells, packing the newly formed secretory molecules into maturing secretory granules, also known functionally as condensing vacuoles. Mathematical modelling brings forward a process underlying granule inventory maintenance at various physiological states of condensation and aggregation by homotypic fusion. These models suggest unique but simple mechanisms accountable for inventory buildup and size, as well as for the distribution of secretory molecules into different secretory pathways in pancreatic acinar cells.

  10. The role of Ca2+ influx in endocytic vacuole formation in pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Voronina, Svetlana; Collier, David; Chvanov, Michael; Middlehurst, Ben; Beckett, Alison J.; Prior, Ian A.; Criddle, David N.; Begg, Malcolm; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Sutton, Robert; Tepikin, Alexei V.

    2014-01-01

    The inducers of acute pancreatitis trigger a prolonged increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c), which is responsible for the damage to and eventual death of pancreatic acinar cells. Vacuolization is an important indicator of pancreatic acinar cell damage. Furthermore, activation of trypsinogen occurs in the endocytic vacuoles; therefore the vacuoles can be considered as ‘initiating’ organelles in the development of the cell injury. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the formation of endocytic vacuoles and Ca2+ influx developed in response to the inducers of acute pancreatitis [bile acid taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate (TLC-S) and supramaximal concentration of cholecystokinin-8 (CCK)]. We found that the inhibitor of STIM (stromal interaction molecule)/Orai channels, GSK-7975A, effectively suppressed both the Ca2+ influx (stimulated by inducers of pancreatitis) and the formation of endocytic vacuoles. Cell death induced by TLC-S or CCK was also inhibited by GSK-7975A. We documented the formation of endocytic vacuoles in response to store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) induced by thapsigargin [TG; inhibitor of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ pumps] and observed strong inhibition of TG-induced vacuole formation by GSK-7975A. Finally, we found that structurally-unrelated inhibitors of calpain suppress formation of endocytic vacuoles, suggesting that this Ca2+-dependent protease is a mediator between Ca2+ elevation and endocytic vacuole formation. PMID:25370603

  11. The reorganization of the Golgi complex in anoxic pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Merisko, E M; Fletcher, M; Palade, G E

    1986-01-01

    An extensive reorganization of the Golgi complex (GC) was found in the acinar cells of pancreatic lobules incubated in vitro under conditions which inhibited ATP synthesis and thereby blocked the intracellular transport of secretory proteins. After 15-min incubation under N2 or in the presence of 1 mM dinitrophenol (DNP), transitional elements of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lost their protrusions, small peripheral Golgi vesicles decreased drastically in number, and fibrillar aggregates approximately 0.2 to 0.5 micron in diameter appeared on the cis side of the stacks of Golgi cisternae. These aggregates often contained vesicle-free, small (approximately 40 nm), globular cages and, occasionally, vesicle-free, clathrin-like cages. Fibrillar aggregates were also observed on the trans side of Golgi stacks. Other changes included the proliferation of GERL-elements ("rigid lamellae") and a striking increase in the population of coated vesicles trans to the Golgi complex and throughout the apical region of the anoxic acinar cells. All changes were found to be reversible provided the cells were incubated for less than 1 h under N2. These observations suggest that the fibrillar elements and the associated cages described in this study may play a role in the vesicular transport of newly synthesized proteins from the ER to the Golgi complex. Further work is needed to explore this possibility.

  12. Restricted diffusion in a model acinar labyrinth by NMR: Theoretical and numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenkov, D. S.; Guillot, G.; Sapoval, B.

    2007-01-01

    A branched geometrical structure of the mammal lungs is known to be crucial for rapid access of oxygen to blood. But an important pulmonary disease like emphysema results in partial destruction of the alveolar tissue and enlargement of the distal airspaces, which may reduce the total oxygen transfer. This effect has been intensively studied during the last decade by MRI of hyperpolarized gases like helium-3. The relation between geometry and signal attenuation remained obscure due to a lack of realistic geometrical model of the acinar morphology. In this paper, we use Monte Carlo simulations of restricted diffusion in a realistic model acinus to compute the signal attenuation in a diffusion-weighted NMR experiment. We demonstrate that this technique should be sensitive to destruction of the branched structure: partial removal of the interalveolar tissue creates loops in the tree-like acinar architecture that enhance diffusive motion and the consequent signal attenuation. The role of the local geometry and related practical applications are discussed.

  13. An implication of novel methodology to study pancreatic acinar mitochondria under in situ conditions.

    PubMed

    Manko, Bohdan O; Klevets, Myron Yu; Manko, Volodymyr V

    2013-03-01

    Mitochondria maintain numerous energy-consuming processes in pancreatic acinar cells, yet characteristics of pancreatic mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in native conditions are poorly studied. Besides, it is not known which type of solution is most adequate to preserve functions of pancreatic mitochondria in situ. Here we propose a novel experimental protocol suitable for in situ analysis of pancreatic mitochondria metabolic states. Isolated rat pancreatic acini were permeabilized with low doses of digitonin. Different metabolic states of mitochondria were examined in KCl- and sucrose-based solutions using Clark oxygen electrode. Respiration of digitonin-treated, unlike of intact, acini was substantially intensified by succinate or mixture of pyruvate plus malate. Substrate-stimulated respiration rate did not depend on solution composition. In sucrose-based solution, oligomycin inhibited State 3 respiration at succinate oxidation by 65.4% and at pyruvate plus malate oxidation by 60.2%, whereas in KCl-based solution, by 32.0% and 36.1%, respectively. Apparent respiratory control indices were considerably higher in sucrose-based solution. Rotenone or thenoyltrifluoroacetone severely inhibited respiration, stimulated by pyruvate plus malate or succinate, respectively. This revealed low levels of non-mitochondrial oxygen consumption of permeabilized acinar cells. These results suggest a stronger coupling between respiration and oxidative phosphorylation in sucrose-based solution.

  14. Bromoenol lactone enhances the permeabilization of rat submandibular acinar cells by P2X7 agonists

    PubMed Central

    Chaïb, N; Kabré, E; Alzola, E; Pochet, S; Dehaye, J P

    2000-01-01

    The permeabilizing effect of P2X7 agonists was tested in rat submandibular acinar cells using the uptake of ethidium bromide as an index. The uptake of ethidium bromide by acini incubated at 37°C in the presence of 1 mM ATP increased with time and reached after 5 min about 10% of maximal uptake measured in the presence of digitonin. The response to ATP was dose-dependent (half-maximal concentration around 40 μM) and it was decreased when the temperature was lowered to 25°C. Benzoyl-ATP reproduced the response to ATP (half-maximal concentration around 10 μM). UTP or 2-methylthioATP had no effect. The permeabilization in response to ATP was blocked by oxidized ATP and by magnesium and inhibited by Coomassie blue. ATP increased the activity of a calcium-insensitive phospholipase A2 (iPLA2). Bromoenol lactone (BEL) inhibited the iPLA2 stimulated by ATP but potentiated the uptake of ethidium bromide in response to the purinergic agonist. From these results it is concluded that the activation of P2X7 receptors permeabilizes rat submandibular acinar cells. The pore-forming activity of the receptor might be negatively regulated by the concomitant activation of the iPLA2 by the receptor. PMID:10683195

  15. [Value of new agonists of the acinar and ductal phases of exocrine secretions].

    PubMed

    Dehaye, J P

    1999-01-01

    Exocrine secretions proceed in two phases which can be studied individually in submandibular glands. We have investigated the response to neuropeptides and purinergic agonists of rat submandibular glands. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Peptide (PACAP), an analog of VIP increased the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP in acinar cells. PACAP also stimulated the activity of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-)-cotransporter. Extracellular ATP increased the [Ca2+]i in ductal cells. Two distinct receptors were involved in this response. A metabotropic purinergic receptor of the P2Y1 type raised the cellular concentration of IP3 after activating a phospholipase C. The second component of the purinergic response involved an ionotropic P2X7 receptor. After binding an agonist, this receptor formed a non-specific cation channel permeant to calcium and manganese, highly sensitive to inhibition by nickel. Two phospholipases A2 were activated following the occupancy of this receptor. The calcium-independent enzyme triggered kallikrein secretion in response to extracellular ATP. In conclusion, neuropeptides and purinergic agonists activate the acinar and ductal phases of the salivary secretion and are therefore promising candidates for the development of new sialagogues for therapeutic use.

  16. Insulin Protects Pancreatic Acinar Cells from Cytosolic Calcium Overload and Inhibition of Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump*

    PubMed Central

    Mankad, Parini; James, Andrew; Siriwardena, Ajith K.; Elliott, Austin C.; Bruce, Jason I. E.

    2012-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a serious and sometimes fatal inflammatory disease of the pancreas without any reliable treatment or imminent cure. In recent years, impaired metabolism and cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) overload in pancreatic acinar cells have been implicated as the cardinal pathological events common to most forms of pancreatitis, regardless of the precise causative factor. Therefore, restoration of metabolism and protection against cytosolic Ca2+ overload likely represent key therapeutic untapped strategies for the treatment of this disease. The plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) provides a final common path for cells to “defend” [Ca2+]i during cellular injury. In this paper, we use fluorescence imaging to show for the first time that insulin treatment, which is protective in animal models and clinical studies of human pancreatitis, directly protects pancreatic acinar cells from oxidant-induced cytosolic Ca2+ overload and inhibition of the PMCA. This protection was independent of oxidative stress or mitochondrial membrane potential but appeared to involve the activation of Akt and an acute metabolic switch from mitochondrial to predominantly glycolytic metabolism. This switch to glycolysis appeared to be sufficient to maintain cellular ATP and thus PMCA activity, thereby preventing Ca2+ overload, even in the face of impaired mitochondrial function. PMID:22128146

  17. Valproic Acid Limits Pancreatic Recovery after Pancreatitis by Inhibiting Histone Deacetylases and Preventing Acinar Redifferentiation Programs.

    PubMed

    Eisses, John F; Criscimanna, Angela; Dionise, Zachary R; Orabi, Abrahim I; Javed, Tanveer A; Sarwar, Sheharyar; Jin, Shunqian; Zhou, Lili; Singh, Sucha; Poddar, Minakshi; Davis, Amy W; Tosun, Akif Burak; Ozolek, John A; Lowe, Mark E; Monga, Satdarshan P; Rohde, Gustavo K; Esni, Farzad; Husain, Sohail Z

    2015-12-01

    The mechanisms by which drugs induce pancreatitis are unknown. A definite cause of pancreatitis is due to the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA). On the basis of three crucial observations-that VPA inhibits histone deacetylases (HDACs), HDACs mediate pancreas development, and aspects of pancreas development are recapitulated during recovery of the pancreas after injury-we hypothesized that VPA does not cause injury on its own, but it predisposes patients to pancreatitis by inhibiting HDACs and provoking an imbalance in pancreatic recovery. In an experimental model of pancreatic injury, we found that VPA delayed recovery of the pancreas and reduced acinar cell proliferation. In addition, pancreatic expression of class I HDACs (which are the primary VPA targets) increased in the midphase of pancreatic recovery. VPA administration inhibited pancreatic HDAC activity and led to the persistence of acinar-to-ductal metaplastic complexes, with prolonged Sox9 expression and sustained β-catenin nuclear activation, findings that characterize a delay in regenerative reprogramming. These effects were not observed with valpromide, an analog of VPA that lacks HDAC inhibition. This is the first report, to our knowledge, that VPA shifts the balance toward pancreatic injury and pancreatitis through HDAC inhibition. The work also identifies a new paradigm for therapies that could exploit epigenetic reprogramming to enhance pancreatic recovery and disorders of pancreatic injury.

  18. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  19. Actual Dose Variation of Parotid Glands and Spinal Cord for Nasopharyngeal Cancer Patients During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Han Chunhui Chen Yijen; Liu An; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: For intensity-modulated radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer, accurate dose delivery is crucial to the success of treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the significance of daily image-guided patient setup corrections and to quantify the parotid gland volume and dose variations for nasopharyngeal cancer patients using helical tomotherapy megavoltage computed tomography (CT). Methods and Materials: Five nasopharyngeal cancer patients who underwent helical tomotherapy were selected retrospectively. Each patient had received 70 Gy in 35 fractions. Daily megavoltage CT scans were registered with the planning CT images to correct the patient setup errors. Contours of the spinal cord and parotid glands were drawn on the megavoltage CT images at fixed treatment intervals. The actual doses delivered to the critical structures were calculated using the helical tomotherapy Planned Adaptive application. Results: The maximal dose to the spinal cord showed a significant increase and greater variation without daily setup corrections. The significant decrease in the parotid gland volume led to a greater median dose in the later phase of treatment. The average parotid gland volume had decreased from 20.5 to 13.2 cm{sup 3} by the end of treatment. On average, the median dose to the parotid glands was 83 cGy and 145 cGy for the first and the last treatment fractions, respectively. Conclusions: Daily image-guided setup corrections can eliminate significant dose variations to critical structures. Constant monitoring of patient anatomic changes and selective replanning should be used during radiotherapy to avoid critical structure complications.

  20. Parotid Duct Repair by Facial Vein Graft versus Gore-Tex, A Sialographic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Gheisari, R; Mohamadinezhad, C; Mehravaran, R; Ziaei, M

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: The most common method for parotid duct anastomosis is suturing. A ductal defect of greater than 1cm may prevent a direct anastomosis. Purpose: The goal of this study was a sialographic evaluation to compare repairing a parotid duct with facial vein graft versus Gore-Tex tub in 19 dogs. Material and Methods: Nineteen dogs were studied in this experimental trial. Extra oral transverse incisions were made in buccal regions bilaterally to expose parotid ducts and a defect (2 cm) was performed in similar areas (right and left). The right resected duct was repaired with facial vein graft and the left anastomosis was performed by using the Gore-Tex tube microscopically. Sialography was used to evaluate the ductal leakage. Statistical analysis was performed, using SPSS software and McNemar’s test. Results: Based on the sialography evaluation; the ductal leakage was seen in five cases (26.31%) on the right side and in seven cases (36.84%) in the left side. Statistical analysis using McNemar’s test suggested no statistically significant difference between ductal leakages in right and left parotid ducts (p> 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the efficacies of Gore-Tex tube and vein graft in parotid duct anastomosis are similar, but the use of Gore-Tex tube had a number of advantages, including reduced morbidity of the graft and short operation time. PMID:24724119

  1. Extracapsular dissection as sole therapy for small low-grade malignant tumors of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Mantsopoulos, Konstantinos; Koch, Michael; Iro, Heinrich

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether extracapsular dissection of a primarily unsuspected lesion in the parotid gland could be oncologically sufficient for carefully selected cases of parotid gland malignomas. Retrospective clinical study. The records of all patients treated for primary malignant tumors of the parotid gland solely by means of extracapsular dissection between 2006 and 2013 were studied retrospectively. Patients with manifestation of malignant tumors in the parotid gland that were not of primary salivary gland origin (squamous cell carcinomas, lymphomas, melanomas) or who had had revision surgery or other malignant tumors in their history, as well as patients with insufficient data, were excluded from our study sample. Nine patients, all with low-grade parotid malignancies, were detected. Our study showed acceptable oncologic and functional outcomes throughout. Our study was able to show very encouraging preliminary results following primary extracapsular dissection as sole surgical therapy for carefully selected low-stage, low-grade, inferiorly located lesions in patients with high compliance. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:1804-1807, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Role of the Accessory Parotid Gland in the Etiology of Parotitis: Statistical Analysis of Sialographic Features.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wangyong; Hu, Fengchun; Liu, Xingguang; Guo, Songcan; Tao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify if the existence of the accessory parotid gland correlated with the etiology of parotitis. This may aid the development of better treatment strategies in the future. Sialographic features of cases with parotitis and healthy subjects were reviewed. The chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of accessory parotid gland between the groups. The Student's t test was used to compare the length of Stensen's duct, the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct, and the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct between the groups. The incidence of accessory parotid gland in patients with parotitis was 71.8% (28/39), which was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P = 0.005). Patients with parotitis had a longer Stensen's duct than healthy subjects (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct or the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct (P = 0.136 and 0.511, respectively) between the groups. The accessory parotid gland might play a role in the pathogenesis of parotitis. The existence of an accessory parotid gland is likely to interfere with salivary flow. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow in the ductal system would be useful in future etiologic studies on parotitis.

  3. Parotid Sebaceous Carcinoma in Patient with Muir Torre Syndrome, Caused by MSH2 Mutation.

    PubMed

    Neelakantan, Iyer Vishwas; Di Palma, Silvana; Smith, C E T; McCoombe, A

    2016-09-01

    Sebaceous carcinoma of parotid gland are extremely rare with only 29 cases reported so far. The development of parotid sebaceous carcinoma in association with mutation in the mismatch repair gene that causes Muir Torre Syndrome (MTS), a subset of Lynch Syndrome, is still unclear. This study describes such a case and reviews the literature to see if an association between parotid sebaceous carcinoma and multiple visceral malignancies seen in Lynch Syndrome has ever been described. MTS represents a small subset of the Hereditary Non Polyposis Colorectal Carcinoma family, thought to be a subtype of Lynch Syndrome, where patients are prone to develop multiple visceral cancers involving gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract along with sebaceous and non-sebaceous tumours of the skin. MTS is a rare hereditary, autosomal dominant cancer syndrome caused by Microsatellite Instability and defect in DNA mismatch repair protein. The germline mutation involves mostly hMSH2 and hMLH1 genes. In MTS the skin of the head and neck area with the periocular region in particular, is affected but sebaceous carcinomas of the parotid associated with visceral malignancies has not yet been reported in literature. Here we report an index case of sebaceous carcinoma of parotid gland in a patient with MTS.

  4. Increase nitric oxide synthase activity in parotid glands from rats with experimental periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Miozza, V; Borda, E; S-Borda, L; Busch, L

    2010-11-01

    In this study we investigated the activity of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in parotid glands from rats with experimental periodontitis and controls. Periodontitis was produced by a ligature placed around the cervix of the two lower first molar. Experiments were carried out 22 days after the ligature. Ligation caused an increase in parotid NOS activity. The selective blocker of the inducible isoform of the enzyme partially inhibited its activity in parotid glands from rat with ligature. In controls, the activity was partially inhibited by the antagonists of the selective neural and endothelial isoforms. NOS activity in rats with ligature was cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent while in controls it was calcium-dependent. Prostaglandin E₂ concentration was increased in parotid gland from rats with ligature. The inhibitor of prostaglandin production, FR 122047, diminished both, prostaglandin production and NOS activity. In rats with ligature unstimulated amylase released is increased. Both, prostaglandin and NOS were involved in the increment of amylase release. It can be concluded that in parotid glands from ligated rats, prostaglandin E₂ production is increased and, through cAMP accumulation, activates the inducible NOS isoform. The increment of nitric oxide production participates in the increase in basal amylase release. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Functional studies of the parotid and pancreas glands in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Charchaflie, R J; Bustos Fernandez, L; Perec, C J; Gonzalez, E; Marzi, A

    1974-07-01

    Functional studies of the pancreas and parotid glands are reported in 17 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The exocrine function of the pancreas was studied by measuring amylase concentration after stimulation with the endogenous secretin-pancreozymine test (ESP). Under these conditions, the pancreatic amylase concentration in ALS patients was found to be markedly decreased by about 45% when compared with those of healthy control subjects. Different conclusions in the literature about a possible impairment of the exocrine pancreas in ALS patients induced us to study the function of the parotid gland, which has close structural, functional, and physiopathological relationship with the pancreas. Flow rate and bicarbonate concentration of parotid saliva were measured after indirect stimulation (intraoral citric acid) and direct stimulation (pilocarpine). After indirect stimulation, both parotid flow rate and bicarbonate concentration from ALS patients were found to be decreased by about 66% and 70% respectively, when compared with controls. On the other hand, direct stimulation with pilocarpine in ALS patients elicited normal responses in both flow rate and bicarbonate concentration of saliva. It is concluded that the pancreatic and parotid deficiencies observed in ALS patients do not indicate primary disease of these exocrine glands. This interpretation is further emphasized by the results obtained by a sweat test, plasma osmolarity, and sialographic studies. The possibility that the gland impairments observed might be due to modifications of the neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating their secretory activity is suggested.

  6. Parotid Duct Repair by Facial Vein Graft versus Gore-Tex, A Sialographic Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gheisari, R; Mohamadinezhad, C; Mehravaran, R; Ziaei, M

    2013-06-01

    The most common method for parotid duct anastomosis is suturing. A ductal defect of greater than 1cm may prevent a direct anastomosis. The goal of this study was a sialographic evaluation to compare repairing a parotid duct with facial vein graft versus Gore-Tex tub in 19 dogs. Nineteen dogs were studied in this experimental trial. Extra oral transverse incisions were made in buccal regions bilaterally to expose parotid ducts and a defect (2 cm) was performed in similar areas (right and left). The right resected duct was repaired with facial vein graft and the left anastomosis was performed by using the Gore-Tex tube microscopically. Sialography was used to evaluate the ductal leakage. Statistical analysis was performed, using SPSS software and McNemar's test. Based on the sialography evaluation; the ductal leakage was seen in five cases (26.31%) on the right side and in seven cases (36.84%) in the left side. Statistical analysis using McNemar's test suggested no statistically significant difference between ductal leakages in right and left parotid ducts (p> 0.05). The results of this study suggest that the efficacies of Gore-Tex tube and vein graft in parotid duct anastomosis are similar, but the use of Gore-Tex tube had a number of advantages, including reduced morbidity of the graft and short operation time.

  7. Minimally-invasive surgery in the management of symptomatic parotid stones.

    PubMed

    Samani, Meera; Hills, Alexander James; Holden, Adam Matthew; Man, Chang-Bon; McGurk, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Traditionally, large, symptomatic, parotid stones that were refractory to conservative treatment were usually managed by parotidectomy, with the attendant risk to the facial nerve. Microendoscopes have transformed the management of such stones. For large stones that are not amenable to retrieval with a basket the endoscope provides a new dimension to operative surgery. It can guide the surgeon on to the duct and stone without the need to remove the parotid gland. In 2005-2014, 111 consecutive patients underwent endoscopically-assisted operations for the removal of 132 parotid stones at Guy's Hospital. Removal was successful in all but three cases. Long-term follow up (mean (SD) 44 (30) months) was obtained by postal or online survey and telephone, and 92 patients (83%) said that they had no symptoms. Further endoscope-assisted surgery was required in four cases, with preservation of the gland in all patients. Sialocoeles developed postoperatively in 15% (n=17). Transient facial nerve weakness occurred in 4 cases (4%), and there was no case of permanent deficit. Endoscopically-assisted retrieval of parotid stones is a technique to preserve the gland that adds to the current minimally-invasive options for management of parotid calculi.

  8. The landmark for removal of sialoliths using sialendoscopy alone in parotid gland sialolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Norio; Yoshihara, Toshio; Yamamura, Yukie; Kusama, Kaoru; Sakitani, Eri; Seo, Yukako; Tachikawa, Mayako; Kujirai, Keiko; Ono, Erika; Maeda, Yasuyo; Nojima, Tomohito; Tamiya, Akiko; Sato, Emiri; Nonaka, Manabu

    2017-06-23

    To assess the general guidelines for removal of sialoliths in parotid gland sialolithiasis using sialendoscopy alone. We analyzed 34 sialoliths treated using sialendoscopy in 26 patients with parotid gland sialolithiasis. We divided the Stensen's duct and parotid gland into for parts using computed tomography findings: (A) front of the masseter, (B) anterior and lateral to the center (anterolateral) of the masseter, (C) posterior and lateral to the center (posterolateral) of the masseter, (D) behind of the masseter. The location and size of each sialolith was assessed. The removal rates of sialoliths in the different locations by sialendoscopy alone were as follows: front of the masseter, 68.8%; anterolateral of the masseter, 60.0%; posterolateral of the masseter, 0%; and behind of the masseter, 33.3%. The removal rate using sialendoscopy alone was significantly higher in the sections anterior to the center of the masseter than in those posterior to the center of the masseter (66.7% [14/21] vs. 20.0% [2/10]; P=0.019). The size of the sialolith was not correlated to the removal rate by sialendoscopy alone. Sialoliths of the parotid gland located in positions anterior to the center of the masseter are significantly easier to remove by sialendoscopy alone. The center of the masseter is a general landmark for removal of sialoliths from the parotid gland using sialendoscopy alone. The size of the sialolith is not correlated with removal, except rare huge sialoliths. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Functional studies of the parotid and pancreas glands in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Charchaflie, R. J.; Fernandez, L. Bustos; Perec, C. J.; Gonzalez, E.; Marzi, A.

    1974-01-01

    Functional studies of the pancreas and parotid glands are reported in 17 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The exocrine function of the pancreas was studied by measuring amylase concentration after stimulation with the endogenous secretin-pancreozymine test (ESP). Under these conditions, the pancreatic amylase concentration in ALS patients was found to be markedly decreased by about 45% when compared with those of healthy control subjects. Different conclusions in the literature about a possible impairment of the exocrine pancreas in ALS patients induced us to study the function of the parotid gland, which has close structural, functional, and physiopathological relationship with the pancreas. Flow rate and bicarbonate concentration of parotid saliva were measured after indirect stimulation (intraoral citric acid) and direct stimulation (pilocarpine). After indirect stimulation, both parotid flow rate and bicarbonate concentration from ALS patients were found to be decreased by about 66% and 70% respectively, when compared with controls. On the other hand, direct stimulation with pilocarpine in ALS patients elicited normal responses in both flow rate and bicarbonate concentration of saliva. It is concluded that the pancreatic and parotid deficiencies observed in ALS patients do not indicate primary disease of these exocrine glands. This interpretation is further emphasized by the results obtained by a sweat test, plasma osmolarity, and sialographic studies. The possibility that the gland impairments observed might be due to modifications of the neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating their secretory activity is suggested. PMID:4852110

  10. Role of the Accessory Parotid Gland in the Etiology of Parotitis: Statistical Analysis of Sialographic Features

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wangyong; Hu, Fengchun; Liu, Xingguang; Guo, Songcan; Tao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify if the existence of the accessory parotid gland correlated with the etiology of parotitis. This may aid the development of better treatment strategies in the future. Sialographic features of cases with parotitis and healthy subjects were reviewed. The chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of accessory parotid gland between the groups. The Student’s t test was used to compare the length of Stensen’s duct, the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct, and the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen’s duct between the groups. The incidence of accessory parotid gland in patients with parotitis was 71.8% (28/39), which was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P = 0.005). Patients with parotitis had a longer Stensen’s duct than healthy subjects (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct or the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen’s duct (P = 0.136 and 0.511, respectively) between the groups. The accessory parotid gland might play a role in the pathogenesis of parotitis. The existence of an accessory parotid gland is likely to interfere with salivary flow. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow in the ductal system would be useful in future etiologic studies on parotitis. PMID:26913509

  11. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of parotid masses. Preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Yologlu, Zeynel; Aydin, Hasan; Alp, Nalan A.; Aribas, Bilgin K.; Kizilgoz, Volkan; Arda, Kemal

    2016-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the diagnostic potentials of MRI, diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping in the detection of parotid masses correlated to the histopathological results. Methods Study design was retrospective. Fifteen patients with parotid gland masses were included as the study group and contralateral normal parotis glands of same patients were taken as the control group. Patients with bilateral parotid gland tumors were excluded, 7 right-sided and 8 left-sided parotid masses were included in the research. The study took place at the Department of Radiology, Ankara, Turkey, between May 2012 and September 2014. Results Apparent diffusion coefficient measurements of 15 parotis tumors in 1000 and 750 sec/mm2 b-values with comparison to the contralateral normal gland parenchyma were demonstrated. Neurofibromas was predicted as the highest, and lipomas as the lowest ADC values. Pleomorphic adenomas, Warthin’s tumor, and normal parotid parenchyma indicate significant statistical differences from each other on the basis of mean ADC values (p<0.05). Conclusion The DWI and ADC mapping of parotis gland could aid in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant masses. PMID:27874161

  12. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Burt, Sara A; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H M

    2016-09-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates. Dutch rabbits are unlikely to be a zoonotic source.

  13. SERUM SICKNESS IN RABBITS

    PubMed Central

    Fleisher, Mover S.; Jones, Lloyd

    1931-01-01

    1. The injection of a single large dose of normal horse serum into rabbits results in the appearance 3 to 8 days later of erythematous and edematous reactions on the ears in 68.9 per cent of the animals. 2. The injections may be given by any of several routes and reactions appear when the site of injection is definitely distant from the ears. 3. Injections of various antisera into rabbits cause the appearance of similar reactions. 4. These reactions can be considered as manifestations of serum sickness in rabbits. PMID:19869943

  14. Rabbit orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Rich, Gregory A

    2002-01-01

    Orthopedic surgery in rabbits poses several unique parameters for the veterinary surgeon. It is imperative for the veterinarian to be knowledgeable about the anatomic features of the surgical repair site and to become familiar with a rabbit's pain and discomfort often associated with orthopedic injuries. Handling the perioperative and postoperative pain and potential GI disturbances are crucial for a successful outcome of the surgical case. This article is designed to help the veterinary surgeon prepare for the orthopedic surgical procedure and the peripheral physiologic needs of the rabbit from presentation through recovery.

  15. Minimally invasive endoscopic-assisted resection of benign tumors in the accessory parotid gland: 5 case studies.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lei; Zhang, Deguang; Lu, M M Xiaoxiao; Gao, B M Li

    2012-08-01

    A modified Blair's incision or standard facelift incision is recommended to remove tumors in the accessory parotid gland. These incisions frequently result in long and visible scars. Therefore, the authors have introduced an endoscopic approach via a small preauricular incision to achieve excision of benign tumors in the accessory parotid gland. The endoscopic surgical technique was performed on 5 patients with benign tumors in the accessory parotid gland. Endoscopic-assisted resection of the benign tumors in the accessory parotid gland was feasible in all 5 patients. This procedure lasted 105 minutes on average. Facial paralysis, salivary fistula, and ear-lobular numbness were not found postoperatively. The follow-up period was 1 year, during which no Frey's syndrome and recurrence were found. All preauricular scars were aesthetically satisfactory. The minimally invasive endoscopic approach via a small preauricular incision is an optional method of the accessory parotid gland benign tumor resection. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [Two cases of anesthesia mumps in the upper parotid gland after general anesthesia in the lateral position].

    PubMed

    Adachi, Yushi; Suzuki, Katsumi; Itagaki, Taiga; Obata, Yukako; Doi, Matsuyuki; Sato, Shigehito

    2008-09-01

    We describe two cases of acute transient swelling of the upper side of parotid glands of the patients after general anesthesia in the lateral position. The serum amylase levels in the patients were not increased and the enlargement of the parotid gland was diagnosed as anesthesia mumps. Previous reports suggested that mechanical compression might produce the swelling of the secreting organ, but our patients showed temporal parotid enlargement in the upper free side. Although, pre-medication with atropine might become a cause of parotid gland swelling, we anesthetized these patients without anti-cholinergic drugs. Procedures of oro-tracheal intubation and stimuli of endotracheal tube may induce impairment of the normal flow of saliva and lead to enlargement of the parotid gland.

  17. Primary clear cell carcinoma of parotid gland: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Marta Saldaña; Reija, Maria Fe García; Rodilla, Irene González

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is a rare low-grade carcinoma that represents only 1% to 2% of all salivary glands tumors. The finding of a clear cell tumor in a parotid gland involves the necessity of differential diagnosis between primary clear cell parotid tumors and metastases, mainly from kidney. The biological behavior is not very aggressive and development, which is very slow, is usually asymptomatic and indeed, the tumor often reaches considerable dimensions before being diagnosed. The treatment of choice is the surgical excision. There are rare cases of local recurrence and distant metastases. The aim of this article is to report a primary CCC in the parotid gland that microscopically closely resembled a metastatic CCC of renal origin, making microscopic differentiation difficult. PMID:23798840

  18. Fluorescein sodium-guided surgery of parotid gland tumors as a technical advance.

    PubMed

    Haubner, Frank; Gassner, Holger G; Brawanski, Alexander; Schebesch, Karl-Michael

    2017-01-01

    Complete tumor removal and preservation of the facial nerve are essential in parotid gland surgery. A technical adjunct that potentially enhances the contrast between the facial nerve and the adherent tumor tissue and allows to identify residual tumor tissue could be Fluorescein Sodium. Retrospective chart analysis on 7 patients with benign parotid gland lesions that were operated using Fluorescein Sodium intravenously and the application of the YELLOW 560 nm filter of the operating microscope. Safety and feasibility were evaluated. All tumors showed fluorescence and the rating ´contrast-enhancing´ was assigned in all cases. In 2 patients, satellite nodules were identified and resected meaning that the fluorescence staining of the tumor margins was significantly better than under white light. The use of Fluorescein Sodium in parotidectomy is promising. In two cases residual tumor was detected that would have been left behind under white light. Further research in parotid gland surgery and other head and neck tumor procedures is warranted.

  19. Giant pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: an unusual case presentation and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tarsitano, A; Pizzigallo, A; Giorgini, F; Marchetti, C

    2015-10-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common type of all salivary gland tumours. Although uncommon, cases of giant pleomorphic adenomas have been described in the medical literature, the majority involving the parotid gland. This paper describes an unusual case of a giant adenoma arising in the parotid gland. The patient underwent surgical resection of the giant tumour, which was one of the largest pleomorphic adenoma reported in recent literature. This case has prompted us to evaluate the behaviour of those benign tumours, which suggested that aesthetic and social morbidity is sufficient to justify, when possible, early tumour excision, despite the relatively low risk of malignant transformation. Management of this unusual tumour is discussed, and the literature on giant parotid tumours is reviewed.

  20. Congenital salivary fistula of an accessory parotid gland in Goldenhar syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z; Sun, L; Zhang, Z; Ma, X

    2012-01-01

    We report two cases of congenital salivary fistula of an accessory parotid gland, and we discuss its occurrence in Goldenhar syndrome. Two teenagers complained of a congenital cheek fistula with constant salivary discharge. Computed tomography fistulography and sialography were performed. The diagnosis of Goldenhar syndrome was established based on clinical and imaging findings. Previously reported cases are reviewed and the clinical and radiological features summarised. In these two patients, a salivary fistula of an accessory parotid gland was demonstrated on computed tomography fistulography, and did not communicate with Stensen's duct. Deformity of Stensen's duct and hypoplasia of the ipsilateral mandibular ramus were present. Tragal appendices have frequently been reported in such cases. A congenital cheek salivary fistula of an accessory parotid gland should be considered indicative of Goldenhar syndrome.

  1. The presence of facial nerve weakness on diagnosis of a parotid gland malignant process.

    PubMed

    Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Kopeć, Tomasz; Szyfter, Witold; Kereiakes, Thomas; Bem, Grażyna

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this article are to assess the frequency and significance of facial paralysis and undiagnosed nerve infiltration in patients with parotid malignancies. 103 patients with parotid gland malignancies were treated in a single institution, the tertiary center for ENT at the University Department in Poznan between 1996 and 2006. Facial palsy at the initial presentation was found in 32 patients. The stage of the primary tumor in the examined group of 103 patients is as follows: 20-T1, 31-T2, 20-T3, 32-T4. The correlation between facial nerve function before treatment and patients' characteristics, including the treatment methods, were analyzed. Intact facial nerve function at patient presentation was a very strong prognostic factor determining the treatment and final outcome for malignant neoplasms of parotid gland. Similarly, T stage and a high-grade malignant histology had a direct influence on the duration of patients' survival.

  2. Primary clear cell carcinoma of parotid gland: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Marta Saldaña; Reija, Maria Fe García; Rodilla, Irene González

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is a rare low-grade carcinoma that represents only 1% to 2% of all salivary glands tumors. The finding of a clear cell tumor in a parotid gland involves the necessity of differential diagnosis between primary clear cell parotid tumors and metastases, mainly from kidney. The biological behavior is not very aggressive and development, which is very slow, is usually asymptomatic and indeed, the tumor often reaches considerable dimensions before being diagnosed. The treatment of choice is the surgical excision. There are rare cases of local recurrence and distant metastases. The aim of this article is to report a primary CCC in the parotid gland that microscopically closely resembled a metastatic CCC of renal origin, making microscopic differentiation difficult.

  3. Primary Parotid Lymphoma From A Regional Cancer Center in South India.

    PubMed

    Govind, B K; Lakshmaiah, K C; Lokanatha, D; Suresh, B; Premalata, C S; Rao, C R; Abraham, L J; Lokesh, K N; Rajeev, L K; Arroju, V; Sathyanarayanan, V

    2016-01-01

    Primary parotid lymphoma (PPL) is an unusual entity and there is limited data in Indian population. Hence we undertook this retrospective observational study of primary parotid lymphoma at our Center in Southern India. This study includes 7 consecutive cases diagnosed as PPL by tissue biopsy/superficial/deep parotidectomy confirmed by immunohistochemistry between January 2007 and December 2012. Median age was 54 years (range 29- 78 years), and it was more common in males. According to Ann Arbor stage, Advanced stage (stage III and IV) was seen in 2 (28.57%). According to the International Prognostic Index (IPI), most (6) were low risk (85.7%). Overall survival ranged from 1-45 months with median OS of 18 months. To conclude, PPL presents more often in early stage and low IPI score. Surgery +/- chemoimmunotherapy with radiotherapy to the parotid is the standard treatment at present.

  4. Parotid abscess: a five-year review--clinical presentation, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Tan, V E S; Goh, B S

    2007-09-01

    Parotid abscess is an uncommon complication of suppurative infection of the parotid gland parenchyma, commonly bacterial or viral. Ductal ectasis, primary parenchymal involvement, or infection of the intraparotid or periparotid lymph nodes can result in abscess formation. Parotid abscess may arise from ductal ectasis, primary parenchymal involvement, or infection of the subcapsular lymph nodes. The operative records for all the patients who underwent surgeries in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery of the National University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia between January 2001 and December 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Our case series comprises 15 patients, with 10 males and five females with a median age at presentation of 51 years old. Diabetes mellitus is a significant comorbid factor, with six patients being diabetics. Among the diabetics, two patients presented with facial nerve palsy and one of them also died due to overwhelming septicaemia. Here, we discuss the presenting symptoms, predisposing factors, investigations, microbiology and complications of this condition.

  5. Oil well rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Yerian, H.W.

    1983-10-18

    A well rabbit is described which has a high gas seal capacity as well as resistance to wear and structural failure. The rabbit comprises a one-piece elongated generally cylindrical body having external circumferential gas-sealing grooves spaced along its length and a set of helically oriented slots at its lower end. The circumferential grooves, which work collectively in the manner of a labyrinth seal, are undercut in a way to deflect escaping gas streams and promote turbulence to enhance their gas-sealing capability. The undercut profile and relative spacing of the grooves leaves a large surface area between the grooves for distributing radial forces and thereby decreasing the wear rate of the rabbit. The helically oriented slots convert energy of upward escaping gas into rotational energy in the rabbit. (3 claims.

  6. A modified device for long term sampling of parotid saliva in various experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, A; Nomura, T; Yamanaka, S; Takaesu, Y

    1995-05-01

    A parotid cup has been widely used as an intraoral device for the collection of parotid saliva. However, in long duration sampling, the cup tends to disconnect under circumstances such as mastication, sleep or physical exercise. We have designed a modified device of parotid cup for saliva collection to overcome these unfavorable conditions. The parotid cup was modified by fixing it to the bite-plate appliance which was adjusted individually to the occlusal plane in order to avoid disconnection of the cup under varying conditions. Using this device, we could measure salivary flow rate during mastication, sleep or physical exercise. Additional advantages of this device are that it is easy to make with acrylic resin and is inexpensive. The preliminary study using this device showed that flow rates of unstimulated parotid saliva varied from 0.06 +/- 0.04 ml/min. to 0.16 +/- 0.10 ml/min. (mean +/- s.d) from 7 a.m. to 12 p.m. in 7 subjects. In five subjects, the flow rate of parotid saliva during meal (lunch) was much higher than that of resting on a chair, playing table tennis, or sleeping at night for 6-8 hours. This might be considered due to the stimuli of the meal content. Flow rates of saliva were also examined with various stimuli. The results showed that salty pickled plum > sour lemon juice > 10% ascorbic acid > sweet milky candy > 1% ascorbic acid. These data suggest that our modified device is useful for various experiments in salivary research.

  7. Volume effects and region-dependent radiosensitivity of the parotid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. . E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.rug.nl; Cotteleer, Femmy; Faber, Hette; Luijk, Peter van; Meertens, Harm; Coppes, Rob P.

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: To detect volume effects and possible regional differences in radiosensitivity of the rat parotid gland. Methods and Materials: Parotid glands of male albino Wistar rats were locally X-irradiated, with collimators with conformal radiation portals used to supply 100% volume and 50% cranial/caudal partial volumes. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging was used to provide the outlines of the parotid glands. Single doses of up to 40 Gy were applied, and the effects on saliva secretion, measured with the aid of miniaturized Lashley cups, were followed up to 365 days after the irradiation. Results: Under conditions of equal mean absorbed doses and small variations in dose distribution, a pertinent volume effect was observed for late but not for early radiation damage. The late effects were different for the cranial part as compared with the caudal part of the parotid gland. The reduction in flow rate was much more severe after irradiation in the cranial part. After a single dose of 30 Gy, the reductions in flow rates were approximately 65% and 25% for the cranial and caudal parts, respectively. At that dose, no saliva flow was observed after irradiation of 100% of the gland. Conclusion: From the rat model studies presented, it is concluded that late radiation damage after partial irradiation of parotid glands shows region-dependent volume effects. This finding is expected to be relevant to the radiosensitivity of human salivary glands, and it implies that the predictive power of the mean dose concept in radiotherapeutic practice is limited. The finding of region-dependent late radiation damage also challenges the basic assumptions of most current normal tissue complication probability models for parotid gland function.

  8. Sonoelastography – A Useful Adjunct for Parotid Gland Ultrasound Assessment in Patients Suffering from Chronic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Kałużny, Jarosław; Ruchała, Marek; Stajgis, Marek; Kopeć, Tomasz; Szyfter, Witold

    2014-01-01

    Background Shear wave elastography (SWE) is widely used in breast, liver, prostate and thyroid evaluations. Elastography provides additional information if used to assess parotid gland pathology. We assessed parotid glands by means of SWE to compare the parenchyma properties in different types of inflammation. Material/Methods Prospective analysis included 78 consecutive patients with parotid gland pathology: sialolithiasis (33), Stensen’s duct stenosis (15), chronic inflammation (10), and primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) (20) treated at the Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery of PUMS. The primary predictor variable was type of parotid pathology, and secondary predictor variables were patient age and the duration and intensity of complaints. Ultrasound pictures were compared with elastography values of parotid parenchyma. Results Mean elasticity values for pSS (111 Kilopascals (kPa), Stensen’s duct stenosis (63 kPa), sialolithiasis (82 kPa), and chronic inflammation (77 kPa) were significantly higher than the mean value for healthy patients (24 kPa). Elasticity increased proportionally to the intensity of complaints: mild (51 kPa), moderate (78 kPa), and strong (90 kPa). Increased elasticity did not correspond with ultrasonographic pictures. In pSS the parenchyma was almost twice as stiff as in chronic inflammation (p=0.02), although subjective complaints were mostly mild or moderate, and the ultrasonographic picture did not present features of fibrosis. Conclusions Sonoelastography, by improving routine ultrasonographic assessment, might be a useful tool for parotid evaluations during the course of chronic inflammation. An extraordinarily high degree of stiffness was revealed in pSS despite lack of fibrosis by ultrasonography and moderate subjective complaints, suggesting that sonoelastography could be a valuable diagnostic tool. PMID:25398237

  9. Diagnostic Accuracy of Fine-Needle Aspiration for Parotid and Submandibular Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Aaron J; Alonso, Jose; Yang, Sung-Eun; St John, Maie

    2016-09-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of the parotid and submandibular glands. Case series with chart review. Tertiary referral academic center. Retrospective analysis was performed for all parotid and submandibular gland FNAs from a single center from 2001 to 2014. There were 1283 FNAs performed for 1076 patients. Of these, 343 cases had surgical follow-up (parotid gland, n = 272; submandibular gland, n = 71). Cases were included where the patient had a preoperative FNA, followed by surgical excision. Correlation of preoperative FNA results to final surgical pathology was performed, with measures of diagnostic accuracy computed. Malignancy was identified in 29.0% of parotid tumors and 42.3% of submandibular tumors, based on final pathology. FNA was nondiagnostic due to insufficient cellularity for evaluation in 22 of 343 cases (6.4%) and indeterminate in 39 of 343 cases (11.4%). Diagnostic accuracy in the parotid and submandibular glands for distinguishing benign from malignant pathology was determined as follows, respectively: sensitivity, 75.0% and 91.3%; specificity, 95.1% and 94.1%; positive predictive value, 84.9% and 91.3%; and negative predictive value, 91.2% and 94.4%. FNA has high accuracy in identifying malignancy in parotid and submandibular gland lesions when performed at a high-volume center. Preoperative FNA results provide otolaryngologists with valuable diagnostic information that may influence the surgical management of salivary gland tumors. FNA, in conjunction with cross-sectional imaging, is useful in counseling patients for a complete informed consent. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  10. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is present in pancreatic acinar cells and regulates amylase secretion through cAMP.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yanan; Ernst, Stephen A; Heidenreich, Kaeli; Williams, John A

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a glucoincretin hormone that can act through its receptor (GLP-1R) on pancreatic β-cells and increase insulin secretion and production. GLP-1R agonists are used clinically to treat type 2 diabetes. GLP-1 may also regulate the exocrine pancreas at multiple levels, including inhibition through the central nervous system, stimulation indirectly through insulin, and stimulation directly on acinar cells. However, it has been unclear whether GLP-1R is present in pancreatic acini and what physiological functions these receptors regulate. In the current study we utilized GLP-1R knockout (KO) mice to study the role of GLP-1R in acinar cells. RNA expression of GLP-1R was detected in acutely isolated pancreatic acini. Acinar cell morphology and expression of digestive enzymes were not affected by loss of GLP-1R. GLP-1 induced amylase secretion in wild-type (WT) acini. In GLP-1R KO mice, this effect was abolished, whereas vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced amylase release in KO acini showed a pattern similar to that in WT acini. GLP-1 stimulated cAMP production and increased protein kinase A-mediated protein phosphorylation in WT acini, and these effects were absent in KO acini. These data show that GLP-1R is present in pancreatic acinar cells and that GLP-1 can regulate secretion through its receptor and cAMP signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Epiplakin deficiency aggravates murine caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis and favors the formation of acinar keratin granules.

    PubMed

    Wögenstein, Karl L; Szabo, Sandra; Lunova, Mariia; Wiche, Gerhard; Haybaeck, Johannes; Strnad, Pavel; Boor, Peter; Wagner, Martin; Fuchs, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Epiplakin, a member of the plakin protein family, is exclusively expressed in epithelial tissues and was shown to bind to keratins. Epiplakin-deficient (EPPK-/-) mice showed no obvious spontaneous phenotype, however, EPPK-/- keratinocytes displayed faster keratin network breakdown in response to stress. The role of epiplakin in pancreas, a tissue with abundant keratin expression, was not yet known. We analyzed epiplakin's expression in healthy and inflamed pancreatic tissue and compared wild-type and EPPK-/- mice during caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. We found that epiplakin was expressed primarily in ductal cells of the pancreas and colocalized with apicolateral keratin bundles in murine pancreatic acinar cells. Epiplakin's diffuse subcellular localization in keratin filament-free acini of K8-deficient mice indicated that its filament-associated localization in acinar cells completely depends on its binding partner keratin. During acute pancreatitis, epiplakin was upregulated in acinar cells and its redistribution closely paralleled keratin reorganization. EPPK-/- mice suffered from aggravated pancreatitis but showed no obvious regeneration phenotype. At the most severe stage of the disease, EPPK-/- acinar cells displayed more keratin aggregates than those of wild-type mice. Our data propose epiplakin to be a protective protein during acute pancreatitis, and that its loss causes impaired disease-associated keratin reorganization.

  12. The relation between apoptosis of acinar cells and nitric oxide during acute rejection of pancreas transplantation in rats.

    PubMed

    Xiaoguang, Ni; Zhong, Liu; Hailong, Chen; Ping, Zhao; Xiaofeng, Bai; Fenglin, Guan

    2003-01-01

    Apoptosis is an important mechanism of immune-mediated graft damage. Nitric oxide (NO) generated by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis. This study investigated whether apoptosis occurs during pancreas allograft rejection and examined the relationship of apoptosis of acinar cells and NO. The rats were divided into three groups: untreated isograft group, untreated allograft group and aminoguanidine (AG)-treated group. The pancreatic grafts were harvested on the post-transplantation day 3, 5 and 7 and were used to detect the histopathological rejection grade, the expression of iNOS and the apoptotic index (AI) of the graft. iNOS presented faint positive in the acinar cells of untreated isografts and did not change greatly after transplantation (P>0.05), the level of iNOS in the untreated allografts increased progressively (P<0.01) and at the same time point was significantly higher than that of untreated isograft group and AG-treated group (P<0.01). The transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling showed that the apoptotic cells were mainly acinar cells. A significant correlation between AI and iNOS was noted (P<0.01, r=0.611). Therefore, NO-mediated apoptosis of acinar cells plays an important role in acute rejection of pancreas transplantation, AG can mitigate the damage of pancreas allografts.

  13. Variations in the expression and distribution pattern of AQP5 in acinar cells of patients with sialadenosis.

    PubMed

    Teymoortash, Afshin; Wiegand, Susanne; Borkeloh, Martin; Bette, Michael; Ramaswamy, Annette; Steinbach-Hundt, Silke; Neff, Andreas; Werner, Jochen A; Mandic, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we pointed out on a possible role of aquaporin 5 (AQP5) in the development of sialadenosis. The goal of the present study was to further assess the association of AQP5 in the development of this salivary gland disease. The acinar diameter and mean surface area appeared elevated in sialadenosis tissues, which is a typical observation in this disease. AQP5 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using tissue samples derived from salivary glands of patients with confirmed sialadenosis either as a primary diagnosis or as a secondary diagnosis within the framework of other salivary gland diseases. Normal salivary gland tissue served as a control. In sialadenosis tissues, the AQP5 signal at the apical plasma membrane of acinar cells frequently appeared stronger compared with that in normal salivary glands. In addition, the distribution of AQP5 at the apical region seemed to differ between normal and sialadenosis tissues, where AQP5 frequently was diffusely distributed near or at the apical plasma membrane of the acinar cells in contrast to normal controls where the AQP5 signal was strictly confined to the apical plasma membrane. These observations suggest that sialadenosis is associated with a different AQP5 expression and distribution pattern in salivary acinar cells.

  14. Epiplakin Deficiency Aggravates Murine Caerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis and Favors the Formation of Acinar Keratin Granules

    PubMed Central

    Wögenstein, Karl L.; Szabo, Sandra; Lunova, Mariia; Wiche, Gerhard; Haybaeck, Johannes; Strnad, Pavel; Boor, Peter; Wagner, Martin; Fuchs, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Epiplakin, a member of the plakin protein family, is exclusively expressed in epithelial tissues and was shown to bind to keratins. Epiplakin-deficient (EPPK−/−) mice showed no obvious spontaneous phenotype, however, EPPK−/− keratinocytes displayed faster keratin network breakdown in response to stress. The role of epiplakin in pancreas, a tissue with abundant keratin expression, was not yet known. We analyzed epiplakin’s expression in healthy and inflamed pancreatic tissue and compared wild-type and EPPK−/− mice during caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. We found that epiplakin was expressed primarily in ductal cells of the pancreas and colocalized with apicolateral keratin bundles in murine pancreatic acinar cells. Epiplakin’s diffuse subcellular localization in keratin filament-free acini of K8-deficient mice indicated that its filament-associated localization in acinar cells completely depends on its binding partner keratin. During acute pancreatitis, epiplakin was upregulated in acinar cells and its redistribution closely paralleled keratin reorganization. EPPK−/− mice suffered from aggravated pancreatitis but showed no obvious regeneration phenotype. At the most severe stage of the disease, EPPK−/− acinar cells displayed more keratin aggregates than those of wild-type mice. Our data propose epiplakin to be a protective protein during acute pancreatitis, and that its loss causes impaired disease-associated keratin reorganization. PMID:25232867

  15. Sulforaphane Protects Pancreatic Acinar Cell Injury by Modulating Nrf2-Mediated Oxidative Stress and NLRP3 Inflammatory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhaojun; Shang, Haixiao; Chen, Yong Q.; Pan, Li-Long

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is characterized by early activation of intra-acinar proteases followed by acinar cell death and inflammation. Cellular oxidative stress is a key mechanism underlying these pathological events. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural organosulfur antioxidant with undescribed effects on AP. Here we investigated modulatory effects of SFN on cellular oxidation and inflammation in AP. AP was induced by cerulean hyperstimulation in BALB/c mice. Treatment group received a single dose of 5 mg/kg SFN for 3 consecutive days before AP. We found that SFN administration attenuated pancreatic injury as evidenced by serum amylase, pancreatic edema, and myeloperoxidase, as well as by histological examination. SFN administration reverted AP-associated dysregulation of oxidative stress markers including pancreatic malondialdehyde and redox enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). In acinar cells, SFN treatment upregulated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression and Nrf2-regulated redox genes including quinoneoxidoreductase-1, heme oxidase-1, SOD1, and GPx1. In addition, SFN selectively suppressed cerulein-induced activation of the nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, in parallel with reduced nuclear factor- (NF-) κB activation and modulated NF-κB-responsive cytokine expression. Together, our data suggested that SFN modulates Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress and NLRP3/NF-κB inflammatory pathways in acinar cells, thereby protecting against AP. PMID:27847555

  16. Respiratory flow phenomena and gravitational deposition in a three-dimensional space-filling model of the pulmonary acinar tree.

    PubMed

    Sznitman, Josué; Heimsch, Thomas; Wildhaber, Johannes H; Tsuda, Akira; Rösgen, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    The inhalation of micron-sized aerosols into the lung's acinar region may be recognized as a possible health risk or a therapeutic tool. In an effort to develop a deeper understanding of the mechanisms responsible for acinar deposition, we have numerically simulated the transport of nondiffusing fine inhaled particles (1 mum and 3 microm in diameter) in two acinar models of varying complexity: (i) a simple alveolated duct and (ii) a space-filling asymmetrical acinar branching tree following the description of lung structure by Fung (1988, "A Model of the Lung Structure and Its Validation," J. Appl. Physiol., 64, pp. 2132-2141). Detailed particle trajectories and deposition efficiencies, as well as acinar flow structures, were investigated under different orientations of gravity, for tidal breathing motion in an average human adult. Trajectories and deposition efficiencies inside the alveolated duct are strongly related to gravity orientation. While the motion of larger particles (3 microm) is relatively insensitive to convective flows compared with the role of gravitational sedimentation, finer 1 microm aerosols may exhibit, in contrast, complex kinematics influenced by the coupling between (i) flow reversal due to oscillatory breathing, (ii) local alveolar flow structure, and (iii) streamline crossing due to gravity. These combined mechanisms may lead to twisting and undulating trajectories in the alveolus over multiple breathing cycles. The extension of our study to a space-filling acinar tree was well suited to investigate the influence of bulk kinematic interaction on aerosol transport between ductal and alveolar flows. We found the existence of intricate trajectories of fine 1 microm aerosols spanning over the entire acinar airway network, which cannot be captured by simple alveolar models. In contrast, heavier 3 microm aerosols yield trajectories characteristic of gravitational sedimentation, analogous to those observed in the simple alveolated duct. For both

  17. Wegener's granulomatosis: parotid involvement and associated pancreatitis with C.T. findings.

    PubMed

    Stuckey, S L; Smart, P J

    1992-11-01

    Parotid enlargement is an uncommon physical sign and even less commonly the reason for referral for computerised tomography (CT) as the aetiology is usually self-evident. In cases referred for CT examination Wegener's granulomatosis should be considered, particularly if the pathology appears bilateral. This diagnosis may be confirmed by biopsy and/or supported by Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody (ANCA) assay. A case of Wegener's granulomatosis with parotid gland involvement and temporally related pancreatitis with pseudocyst formation is reported. This is the second reported case of possible pancreatic involvement in Wegeners granulomatosis and approximately the tenth reported case of salivary gland involvement.

  18. [Superficial angiomyxoma of the parotid region and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Rosado Rodríguez, Pablo; de Vicente, Juan C; de Villalaín, Lucas; Blanco, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    Superficial angiomyxoma (SA) is a rare benign cutaneous neoplasm first described by Allen et al in 1988. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of superficial angiomyxoma located in the parotid region. We also stress the importance of distinguishing this entity from other lesions that may be involved in this location such as cutaneous neoplasms, parotid tumours or cysts. We emphasise the need to rule out the Carney complex, which has been associated with these tumours. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Parotid Gland Sparing With Helical Tomotherapy in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Voordeckers, Mia; Farrag, Ashraf; Everaert, Hendrik; Tournel, Koen; Storme, Guy; Verellen, Dirk; De Ridder, Mark

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the ability of helical tomotherapy to spare the function of the parotid glands in patients with head-and-neck cancer by analyzing dose-volume histograms, salivary gland scintigraphy, and quality of life assessment. Methods and Materials: Data from 76 consecutive patients treated with helical tomotherapy (Hi-Art Tomotherapy) at University Hospital Brussel were analyzed. During planning, priority was given to planning target volume (PTV) coverage: {>=}95% of the dose must be delivered to {>=}95% of the PTV. Elective nodal regions received 54 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction). A dose of 70.5 Gy (2.35 Gy/fraction) was prescribed to the primary tumor and pathologic lymph nodes (simultaneous integrated boost scheme). Objective scoring of salivary excretion was performed by salivary gland scintigraphy. Subjective scoring of salivary gland function was evaluated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaires Quality of Life Questionnaire-C30 (QLQ-C30) and Quality of Life Questionnaire-Head and Neck 35 (H and N35). Results: Analysis of dose-volume histograms (DVHs) showed excellent coverage of the PTV. The volume of PTV receiving 95% of the prescribed dose (V95%) was 99.4 (range, 96.3-99.9). DVH analysis of parotid gland showed a median value of the mean parotid dose of 32.1 Gy (range, 17.5-70.3 Gy). The median parotid volume receiving a dose <26 Gy was 51.2%. Quality of life evaluation demonstrated an initial deterioration of almost all scales and items in QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H and N35. Most items improved in time, and some reached baseline values 18 months after treatment. Conclusion: DVH analysis, scintigraphic evaluation of parotid function, and quality of life assessment of our patient group showed that helical tomotherapy makes it possible to preserve parotid gland function without compromising disease control. We recommend mean parotid doses of <34 Gy and doses <26 Gy to a maximum 47% of the parotid

  20. A fibrous histiocytoma of intermediate malignancy arisen from the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Khalkhali, Kazem; Azizi, Mohammad-Reza; Atighechi, Saeid

    2007-01-01

    The light microscopic and immunohistochemical characteristics of a case of fibrous histiocytoma of intermediate malignancy arising from the parotid gland are presented. This neoplasm is rare in this site and must be distinguished from other spindle cell tumors of the parotid gland, particularly those of epithelial and myoepithelial origins. Histologic characteristics similar to those displayed by dermatofibroma and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans help to differentiate this tumor from other spindle cell tumors. The absence of cytochemical epithelial markers is useful for establishing the diagnosis. This tumor appears to have arisen from mesenchymal elements within the gland.

  1. Influence of altered CSF solute composition on parotid salivary secretion in goats.

    PubMed

    Olsson, K

    1976-06-01

    Infusions of hypertonic NaCl solution into the CSF of the lateral cerebral ventricle of the goat caused a marked reduction in parotid salivary flow concomitant with a rise in salivary [Na+]. Corresponding infusions of iso- or hypertonic glucose and glycerol solutions affected salivary secretion in the opposite direction. The possibility is discussed that a periventricular sodium-sensitive mechanism, which is of importance in the central control of fluid balance, also may participate in the regulation of parotid secretion in the goat. This interpretation of the results is to some extent obscured by the observation of a high incidence of intermittent rumination during the intraventricular infusions of glucose and glycerol solution.

  2. Effect of glucagon on digestive enzyme synthesis, transport and secretion in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, M

    1980-01-01

    1. Effect of glucagon on amylase secretion and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) release from functionally intact dissociated pancreatic acinar cells and acini was studied. 2. In dissociated rat pancreatic acinar cells, the rate of amylase secretion was increased by 70% with bethanechol (maximally effective concentration, 10(-4) M) and 125% with A23187 (10(-5) M), but the response to cholecystokinin-pancreozymin (CCK-PZ) was inconsistent. In dissociated cells from mouse pancreas, the increases amounted to 78% with bethanechol (10(-4) M), 134% with A23187 (10(-5) M) and 82% with CCK-PZ (maximally effective concentration, 0 . 01 u. ml.-1). Glucagon in concentrations ranging from 10(-7) to 10(-4) M increased amylase secretion by 3, 26, 67 and 80%, whereas secretin (10(-8)--10(-5) M) increased amylase secretion by 8, 39, 88 and 138%. LDH release was increased with A23187 in concentrations greater than 10(-6) M. 3. CCK-PZ, bethanechol and A23187 used in maximal concentrations potentiated the effect of a submaximal dose of glucagon whereas secretin did not have an additive or a potentiating effect. 4. Pancreatic acini were approximately 3 times more responsive to secretagogues than cells. The dose--response curves to bethanechol, glucagon and CCK-PZ for increase in amylase secretion were similar. LDH release was not increased by these agents. Cytochalasin B (5 microgram ml.-1) which is known to disrupt the integrity of luminal membrane inhibited the amylase secretion stimulated by glucagon, bethanechol and CCK-PZ. 5. Glucagon inhibited incorporation of a mixture of fifteen 14C-labelled amino acids (algal profile, Schwarz Mann) into perchloric acid precipitable proteins in dissociated mouse pancreatic acini within 30 min. 6. In 'pulse-chase' experiments, glucagon decreased the specific activity of zymogen granules isolated by differential centrifugation, from pancreatic lobules (120 min) and increased the specific activity of radiolabelled proteins in the medium (60 and 120 min

  3. Cannabinoid receptor subtype 2 (CB2R) agonist, GW405833 reduces agonist-induced Ca2+ oscillations in mouse pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zebing; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Jingke; Zhao, Mengqin; Sun, Nana; Sun, Fangfang; Shen, Jianxin; Zhang, Haiying; Xia, Kunkun; Chen, Dejie; Gao, Ming; Hammer, Ronald P.; Liu, Qingrong; Xi, Zhengxiong; Fan, Xuegong; Wu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates that the blockade of intracellular Ca2+ signals may protect pancreatic acinar cells against Ca2+ overload, intracellular protease activation, and necrosis. The activation of cannabinoid receptor subtype 2 (CB2R) prevents acinar cell pathogenesis in animal models of acute pancreatitis. However, whether CB2Rs modulate intracellular Ca2+ signals in pancreatic acinar cells is largely unknown. We evaluated the roles of CB2R agonist, GW405833 (GW) in agonist-induced Ca2+ oscillations in pancreatic acinar cells using multiple experimental approaches with acute dissociated pancreatic acinar cells prepared from wild type, CB1R-knockout (KO), and CB2R-KO mice. Immunohistochemical labeling revealed that CB2R protein was expressed in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Electrophysiological experiments showed that activation of CB2Rs by GW reduced acetylcholine (ACh)-, but not cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced Ca2+ oscillations in a concentration-dependent manner; this inhibition was prevented by a selective CB2R antagonist, AM630, or was absent in CB2R-KO but not CB1R-KO mice. In addition, GW eliminated L-arginine-induced enhancement of Ca2+ oscillations, pancreatic amylase, and pulmonary myeloperoxidase. Collectively, we provide novel evidence that activation of CB2Rs eliminates ACh-induced Ca2+ oscillations and L-arginine-induced enhancement of Ca2+ signaling in mouse pancreatic acinar cells, which suggests a potential cellular mechanism of CB2R-mediated protection in acute pancreatitis. PMID:27432473

  4. Encapsulation of primary salivary gland cells in enzymatically degradable poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels promotes acinar cell characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shubin, Andrew D; Felong, Timothy J; Schutrum, Brittany E; Joe, Debria S L; Ovitt, Catherine E; Benoit, Danielle S W

    2017-03-01

    Radiation therapy for head and neck cancers leads to permanent xerostomia due to the loss of secretory acinar cells in the salivary glands. Regenerative treatments utilizing primary submandibular gland (SMG) cells show modest improvements in salivary secretory function, but there is limited evidence of salivary gland regeneration. We have recently shown that poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels can support the survival and proliferation of SMG cells as multicellular spheres in vitro. To further develop this approach for cell-based salivary gland regeneration, we have investigated how different modes of PEG hydrogel degradation affect the proliferation, cell-specific gene expression, and epithelial morphology within encapsulated salivary gland spheres. Comparison of non-degradable, hydrolytically-degradable, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-degradable, and mixed mode-degradable hydrogels showed that hydrogel degradation by any mechanism is required for significant proliferation of encapsulated cells. The expression of acinar phenotypic markers Aqp5 and Nkcc1 was increased in hydrogels that are MMP-degradable compared with other hydrogel compositions. However, expression of secretory acinar proteins Mist1 and Pip was not maintained to the same extent as phenotypic markers, suggesting changes in cell function upon encapsulation. Nevertheless, MMP- and mixed mode-degradability promoted organization of polarized cell types forming tight junctions and expression of the basement membrane proteins laminin and collagen IV within encapsulated SMG spheres. This work demonstrates that cellularly remodeled hydrogels can promote proliferation and gland-like organization by encapsulated salivary gland cells as well as maintenance of acinar cell characteristics required for regenerative approaches. Investigation is required to identify approaches to further enhance acinar secretory properties.

  5. The nuclear hormone receptor family member NR5A2 controls aspects of multipotent progenitor cell formation and acinar differentiation during pancreatic organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Michael A.; Swift, Galvin H.; Hoang, Chinh Q.; Deering, Tye G.; Masui, Toshi; Lee, Youn-Kyoung; Xue, Jumin; MacDonald, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor NR5A2 is necessary for the stem-like properties of the epiblast of the pre-gastrulation embryo and for cellular and physiological homeostasis of endoderm-derived organs postnatally. Using conditional gene inactivation, we show that Nr5a2 also plays crucial regulatory roles during organogenesis. During the formation of the pancreas, Nr5a2 is necessary for the expansion of the nascent pancreatic epithelium, for the subsequent formation of the multipotent progenitor cell (MPC) population that gives rise to pre-acinar cells and bipotent cells with ductal and islet endocrine potential, and for the formation and differentiation of acinar cells. At birth, the NR5A2-deficient pancreas has defects in all three epithelial tissues: a partial loss of endocrine cells, a disrupted ductal tree and a >90% deficit of acini. The acinar defects are due to a combination of fewer MPCs, deficient allocation of those MPCs to pre-acinar fate, disruption of acinar morphogenesis and incomplete acinar cell differentiation. NR5A2 controls these developmental processes directly as well as through regulatory interactions with other pancreatic transcriptional regulators, including PTF1A, MYC, GATA4, FOXA2, RBPJL and MIST1 (BHLHA15). In particular, Nr5a2 and Ptf1a establish mutually reinforcing regulatory interactions and collaborate to control developmentally regulated pancreatic genes by binding to shared transcriptional regulatory regions. At the final stage of acinar cell development, the absence of NR5A2 affects the expression of Ptf1a and its acinar specific partner Rbpjl, so that the few acinar cells that form do not complete differentiation. Nr5a2 controls several temporally distinct stages of pancreatic development that involve regulatory mechanisms relevant to pancreatic oncogenesis and the maintenance of the exocrine phenotype. PMID:25063451

  6. Viral diseases of the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Krogstad, Aric P; Simpson, Janet E; Korte, Scott W

    2005-01-01

    Viral disease in the rabbit is encountered infrequently by the clinical practitioner; however, several viral diseases were reported to occur in this species. Viral diseases that are described in the rabbit primarily may affect the integument, gastrointestinal tract or, central nervous system or maybe multi-systemic in nature. Rabbit viral diseases range from oral papillomatosis, with benign clinical signs, to rabbit hemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis, which may result in significant clinical disease and mortality. The wild rabbit may serve as a reservoir for disease transmission for many of these viral agents. In general, treatment of viral disease in the rabbit is supportive in nature.

  7. Determination of parotid urea secretion in sheep by means of ultrasonic flow probes and a multifactorial regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Cirio, A; Méot, F; Delignette-Muller, M L; Boivin, R

    2000-02-01

    For determination of the dynamics of parotid urea secretion in conscious sheep, a previously standardized transit time ultrasonic flow metering system was used to measure bilateral parotid flow. Six ewes fed for ad libitum consumption were prepared under halothane anesthesia with ultrasonic probes around both parotid ducts; these ducts were also cannulated orally. After probe encapsulation (8 d), parotid flows were recorded during 24 h, and samples of saliva and blood for urea determination were obtained hourly. Jaw movements were recorded by means of a submandibular balloon to monitor feeding behavior. Urea concentration in parotid saliva was 60 to 74% of that in plasma (a positive linear correlation existed) and was poorly influenced by the parotid flow. The amount of urea secreted with parotid saliva was directly related to the salivation rate. To calculate the urea secretion in parotid saliva, a multiple linear regression model was developed from computer-calculated parotid flows over 1-min periods and plasma urea concentration. The model was accurate because the plot of calculated vs measured values was not significantly different from the line of identity. The daily parotid urea N varied from .35 to 1.02 g among ewes. The higher urea secretion rate found during rumination and eating (1.32+/-.42 and .98 +/-.33 mg/min, respectively) vs. during rest (.60+/-.39 mg/ min, P<.05) was due to higher salivation rates (5.17 +/-1.46, 3.56+/-.90, and 2.04+/-.52 mL/min, respectively, P<.05) rather than to changes in saliva urea concentrations (saliva:plasma urea ratio = .65+/-.04, .67+/-.04, and .68+/-.03, respectively). Of the daily parotid urea output, 40.8% was secreted during rest. The contribution of parotid urea N to the ruminal N pool was relatively small (1.2 to 3.7% of the N intake, which was 23.0 to 33.6 g/d). These techniques allowed direct and precise measurements of parotid urea secretion without disturbing the animal or altering the physiological regulation

  8. Polyethylenimine-mediated expression of transgenes in the acinar cells of rats salivary glands in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sramkova, Monika; Parente, Laura; Wigand, Timothy; Aye, Myo-Pale'; Shitara, Akiko; Weigert, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Non viral-mediated transfection of plasmid DNA provides a fast and reliable way to express various transgenes in selected cell populations in live animals. Here, we show an improvement of a previously published method that is based on injecting plasmid DNA into the ductal system of the salivary glands in live rats. Specifically, using complexes between plasmid DNA and polyethyleneimine (PEI) we show that the expression of the transgenes is directed selectively to the salivary acinar cells. PEI does not affect the ability of cells to undergo regulated exocytosis, which was one of the main drawbacks of the previous methods. Moreover PEI does not affect the proper localization and targeting of transfected proteins, as shown for the apical plasma membrane water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5). Overall, this approach, coupled with the use of intravital microscopy, permits to conduct localization and functional studies under physiological conditions, in a rapid, reliable, and affordable fashion. PMID:25621283

  9. Phenolic compounds isolated from Dioscorea zingiberensis protect against pancreatic acinar cells necrosis induced by sodium taurocholate.

    PubMed

    Du, Dan; Jin, Tao; Zhang, Rui; Hu, Liqiang; Xing, Zhihua; Shi, Na; Shen, Yan; Gong, Meng

    2017-03-15

    One new bibenzyl (1) and one new phenanthrene (2), together with two known bibenzyls (3-4) and four known diarylheptanoids (5-8) were isolated from the rhizomes of Dioscorea zingiberensis. The structures of 1-2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR. Phenols 1-8 were evaluated for their anti-pancreatitic activities on sodium taurocholate (NaT)-induced pancreatic acinars necrosis. Notably, 0.5mM of compound 6 exhibited comparable inhibitory effect with 5mM of caffeine. Furthermore, compound 6 prevented the ATP depletion and excessive ROS production which could be also involved in mitochondria-mediated injuries in acute pancreatitis. As a result, compound 6 has been demonstrated to be a potential candidate for mediating mitochondrial dysfunction to prevent pancreatic necrosis. This study is also the first report on the isolation of bibenzyls and diarylheptanoids from this plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Acinar Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas: Overview of Clinicopathologic Features and Insights into the Molecular Pathology.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Stefano; Sessa, Fausto; Capella, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) of the pancreas are rare pancreatic neoplasms accounting for about 1-2% of pancreatic tumors in adults and about 15% in pediatric subjects. They show different clinical symptoms at presentation, different morphological features, different outcomes, and different molecular alterations. This heterogeneous clinicopathological spectrum may give rise to difficulties in the clinical and pathological diagnosis with consequential therapeutic and prognostic implications. The molecular mechanisms involved in the onset and progression of ACCs are still not completely understood, although in recent years, several attempts have been made to clarify the molecular mechanisms involved in ACC biology. In this paper, we will review the main clinicopathological and molecular features of pancreatic ACCs of both adult and pediatric subjects to give the reader a comprehensive overview of this rare tumor type.

  11. Acinar Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas: Overview of Clinicopathologic Features and Insights into the Molecular Pathology

    PubMed Central

    La Rosa, Stefano; Sessa, Fausto; Capella, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) of the pancreas are rare pancreatic neoplasms accounting for about 1–2% of pancreatic tumors in adults and about 15% in pediatric subjects. They show different clinical symptoms at presentation, different morphological features, different outcomes, and different molecular alterations. This heterogeneous clinicopathological spectrum may give rise to difficulties in the clinical and pathological diagnosis with consequential therapeutic and prognostic implications. The molecular mechanisms involved in the onset and progression of ACCs are still not completely understood, although in recent years, several attempts have been made to clarify the molecular mechanisms involved in ACC biology. In this paper, we will review the main clinicopathological and molecular features of pancreatic ACCs of both adult and pediatric subjects to give the reader a comprehensive overview of this rare tumor type. PMID:26137463

  12. Effects of cardiac oscillations and lung volume on acinar gas mixing during apnea

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenzie, C.F.; Skacel, M.; Barnas, G.M.; Brampton, W.J.; Alana, C.A. )

    1990-05-01

    We evaluated the importance of cardiogenic gas mixing in the acini of 13 dogs during 2 min of apnea. 133Xe (1-2 mCi in 4 ml of saline) was injected into an alveolar region through an occluded pulmonary artery branch, and washout was measured by gamma scintillation scanning during continued occlusion or with blood flow reinstated. The monoexponential rate constant for Xe washout (XeW) was -0.4 +/- 0.08 (SE) min-1 at functional residual capacity (FRC) with no blood flow in the injected region. It decreased by more than half at lung volumes 500 ml above and 392 ml below FRC. With intact pulmonary blood flow, XeW was -1.0 +/- 0.08 (SE) min-1 at FRC, and it increased with decreasing lung volume. However, if calculated Xe uptake by the blood was subtracted from the XeW measured with blood flow intact, resulting values at FRC and at FRC + 500 ml were not different from XeW with no blood flow. Reasonable calculation of Xe blood uptake at 392 ml below FRC was not possible because airway closure, increased shunt, and other factors affect XeW. After death, no significant XeW could be measured, which suggests that XeW caused by molecular diffusion was small. We conclude that (1) the effect of heart motion on the lung parenchyma increases acinar gas mixing during apnea, (2) this effect diminishes above or below FRC, and (3) there is probably no direct effect of pulmonary vascular pulsatility on acinar gas mixing.

  13. Interaction of bombesin and litorin with specific membrane receptors on pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, R. T.; Moody, T.; Pert, C.; Rivier, J. E.; Gardner, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    We have prepared 125I-labeled [Tyr4]bombesin and have examined the kinetics, stoichiometry, and chemical specificity with which the labeled peptide binds to dispersed acini from guinea pig pancreas. Binding of 125I-labeled [Tyr4]-bombesin was saturable, temperature-dependent, and reversible and reflected interaction of the labeled peptide with a single class of binding sites on the plasma membrane of pancreatic acinar cells. Each acinar cell possessed approximately 5000 binding sites, and binding of the tracer to these sites could be inhibited by [Tyr4]bombesin [concentration for half-maximal effect (Kd), 2 nM], bombesin (Kd, 4 nM), or litorin (Kd, 40 nM) but not by eledoisin, physalemin, somatostatin, carbachol, atropine, secretin, vasocative intestinal peptide, neurotensin, or bovine pancreatic polypeptide. At high concentrations (>0.1 μM), cholecystokinin and caerulein each caused a small (15-20%) reduction in binding of lableled [Tyr4]bombesin. With bombesin, litorin, and [Tyr4]bombesin, there was a close correlation between the relative potency for inhibition of binding of labeled [Tyr4]bombesin and that for stimulation of amylase secretion. For a given peptide, however, a 10-fold higher concentration was required for half-maximal inhibition of binding than for half-maximal stimulation of amylase secretion, calcium outflux, or cyclic GMP accumulation. These results indicate that dispersed acini from guinea pig pancreas possess a single class of receptors that interact with [Tyr4]bombesin, bombesin, and litorin and that occupation of 25% of these receptors will cause a maximal biological response. PMID:216015

  14. The Acinar Cage: Basement Membranes Determine Molecule Exchange and Mechanical Stability of Human Breast Cell Acini.

    PubMed

    Gaiko-Shcherbak, Aljona; Fabris, Gloria; Dreissen, Georg; Merkel, Rudolf; Hoffmann, Bernd; Noetzel, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The biophysical properties of the basement membrane that surrounds human breast glands are poorly understood, but are thought to be decisive for normal organ function and malignancy. Here, we characterize the breast gland basement membrane with a focus on molecule permeation and mechanical stability, both crucial for organ function. We used well-established and nature-mimicking MCF10A acini as 3D cell model for human breast glands, with ether low- or highly-developed basement membrane scaffolds. Semi-quantitative dextran tracer (3 to 40 kDa) experiments allowed us to investigate the basement membrane scaffold as a molecule diffusion barrier in human breast acini in vitro. We demonstrated that molecule permeation correlated positively with macromolecule size and intriguingly also with basement membrane development state, revealing a pore size of at least 9 nm. Notably, an intact collagen IV mesh proved to be essential for this permeation function. Furthermore, we performed ultra-sensitive atomic force microscopy to quantify the response of native breast acini and of decellularized basement membrane shells against mechanical indentation. We found a clear correlation between increasing acinar force resistance and basement membrane formation stage. Most important native acini with highly-developed basement membranes as well as cell-free basement membrane shells could both withstand physiologically relevant loads (≤ 20 nN) without loss of structural integrity. In contrast, low-developed basement membranes were significantly softer and more fragile. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the key role of the basement membrane as conductor of acinar molecule influx and mechanical stability of human breast glands, which are fundamental for normal organ function.

  15. Rhein Induces a Necrosis-Apoptosis Switch in Pancreatic Acinar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xianlin; Li, Juan; Zhu, Shifeng; Liu, Yiling; Zhao, Jianlei; Wan, Meihua; Tang, Wenfu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The Chinese herbal medicine Da-Cheng-Qi decoction can regulate a necrosis-apoptosis switch in injured pancreatic acinar cells. This study investigated the effects of rhein, a component of this medicine, on a necrosis-apoptosis switch in pancreatic rat AR42J cells. Methods. Cerulein-treated AR42J cells were used. After pretreatment with 479, 119.8, or 29.9 μg/L rhein, cells were cocultured with rhein and cerulein (10−8 M) for 4, 8, or 16 h. Apoptosis and necrosis were examined using annexin V and propidium iodide costaining. Mitochondria-dependent apoptosis-associated proteins were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and western blotting. Results. Few cells died in untreated samples. The number was significantly higher in 16-h-cerulein-treated samples and treatment with 479 μg/L rhein most effectively increased the apoptotic-to-necrotic cell ratio (P < 0.05). In cerulein-treated cells, rhein increased the concentrations of p53, cytochrome C, and caspase-3, and increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with the maximum effect in cells treated with 479 μg/L rhein for 16 h (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Rhein induces the necrosis-apoptosis switch in injured pancreatic acinar cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Mitochondria-dependent apoptosis signaling pathways might play an important role in this effect. PMID:24959186

  16. FK506 induces biphasic Ca2+ release from microsomal vesicles of rat pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Terutaka

    2006-07-01

    The effect of the immunosuppressant drug FK506 on microsomal Ca2+ release was investigated in rat pancreatic acinar cells. When FK506 (0.1-200 microM) was added to the microsomal vesicles at a steady state of ATP-dependent 45Ca2+ uptake, FK506 caused a dose-dependent and a biphasic release of 45Ca2+. Almost 10% of total 45Ca2+ uptake was released at FK506 concentrations up to 10 microM (Km=0.47 microM), and 60% of total 45Ca2+ uptake was released at FK506 concentrations over 10 microM (Km=55 microM). Preincubation of the vesicles with cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR, 0.5 microM) increased the FK506 (< or =10 microM)-induced 45Ca2+ release (Ozawa T, Biochim Biophys Acta 1693: 159-166, 2004). Preincubation with heparin (200 microg/ml) resulted in significant inhibition of the FK506 (30 microM)-induced 45Ca2+ release. Subsequent addition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3, 5 microM) after FK506 (100 microM)-induced 45Ca2+ release did not cause any release of 45Ca2+. These results indicate that two types of FK506-induced Ca2+ release mechanism operate in the endoplasmic reticulum of rat pancreatic acinar cells: a high-affinity mechanism of Ca2+ release, which involves activation of the ryanodine receptor, and a low-affinity mechanism of Ca2+ release, which involves activation of the IP3 receptor.

  17. Ethanol exerts dual effects on calcium homeostasis in CCK-8-stimulated mouse pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Sánchez, Marcela; del Castillo-Vaquero, Angel; Salido, Ginés M; González, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Background A significant percentage of patients with pancreatitis often presents a history of excessive alcohol consumption. Nevertheless, the patho-physiological effect of ethanol on pancreatitis remains poorly understood. In the present study, we have investigated the early effects of acute ethanol exposure on CCK-8-evoked Ca2+ signals in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Changes in [Ca2+]i and ROS production were analyzed employing fluorescence techniques after loading cells with fura-2 or CM-H2DCFDA, respectively. Results Ethanol, in the concentration range from 1 to 50 mM, evoked an oscillatory pattern in [Ca2+]i. In addition, ethanol evoked reactive oxygen species generation (ROS) production. Stimulation of cells with 1 nM or 20 pM CCK-8, respectively led to a transient change and oscillations in [Ca2+]i. In the presence of ethanol a transformation of 20 pM CCK-8-evoked physiological oscillations into a single transient increase in [Ca2+]i in the majority of cells was observed. Whereas, in response to 1 nM CCK-8, the total Ca2+ mobilization was significantly increased by ethanol pre-treatment. Preincubation of cells with 1 mM 4-MP, an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, or 10 μM of the antioxidant cinnamtannin B-1, reverted the effect of ethanol on total Ca2+ mobilization evoked by 1 nM CCK-8. Cinnamtannin B-1 blocked ethanol-evoked ROS production. Conclusion ethanol may lead, either directly or through ROS generation, to an over stimulation of pancreatic acinar cells in response to CCK-8, resulting in a higher Ca2+ mobilization compared to normal conditions. The actions of ethanol on CCK-8-stimulation of cells create a situation potentially leading to Ca2+ overload, which is a common pathological precursor that mediates pancreatitis. PMID:19878551

  18. Altered coupling of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in pancreatic acinar carcinoma of rat

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, J.L.; Warren, J.R.

    1986-03-05

    The structure and function of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in acinar carcinoma cells have been compared to mAChR in normal pancreatic acinar cells. Similar 80 kD proteins identified by SDS-PAGE of tumor and normal mAChR affinity-labeled with the muscarinic antagonist /sup 3/H-propylbenzilyl-choline mustards, and identical binding of the antagonist N-methylscopolamine to tumor and normal cells (K/sub D/approx.4x10/sup -10/ M), indicate conservation of mAChR proteins in carcinoma cells. Carcinoma mAChR display homogeneous binding of the agonists carbamylcholine (CCh), K/sub D/approx.3x10/sup -5/ M, and oxotremorine (Oxo), K/sub D/approx.x10/sup -6/ M, whereas normal cells display heterogeneous binding, with a minor component of high affinity interactions for CCh, K/sub D/approx.3x10/sup -6/ M, and Oxo, K/sub D/approx.2x/sup -17/ M, and a major component of low affinity interactions for CCh, K/sub D/approx.1x10/sup -4/ M, and Oxo, K/sub D/approx.2x10/sup -5/ M. Both carcinoma and normal cells exhibit concentration-dependent CCh-stimulated increase in cytosolic free Ca/sup 2 +/, as measured by intracellular Quin 2 fluorescence and /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux. However, carcinoma cells demonstrate 50% maximal stimulation of intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ release at a CCh concentration (EC/sub 50/approx.6x10/sup -7/ M) one log below that observed for normal cells. The authors propose an altered coupling of mAChR to intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ homeostasis in carcinoma cells, which is manifest as a single activated receptor state for agonist binding, and increased sensitivity to muscarinic receptor stimulation of Ca/sup 2 +/ release.

  19. Chronic alcohol exposure inhibits biotin uptake by pancreatic acinar cells: possible involvement of epigenetic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Padmanabhan; Kapadia, Rubina; Biswas, Arundhati

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to alcohol affects different physiological aspects of pancreatic acinar cells (PAC), but its effect on the uptake process of biotin is not known. We addressed this issue using mouse-derived pancreatic acinar 266-6 cells chronically exposed to alcohol and wild-type and transgenic mice (carrying the human SLC5A6 5′-promoter) fed alcohol chronically. First we established that biotin uptake by PAC is Na+ dependent and carrier mediated and involves sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT). Chronic exposure of 266-6 cells to alcohol led to a significant inhibition in biotin uptake, expression of SMVT protein, and mRNA as well as in the activity of the SLC5A6 promoter. Similarly, chronic alcohol feeding of wild-type and transgenic mice carrying the SLC5A6 promoter led to a significant inhibition in biotin uptake by PAC, as well as in the expression of SMVT protein and mRNA and the activity of the SLC5A6 promoters expressed in the transgenic mice. We also found that chronic alcohol feeding of mice is associated with a significant increase in the methylation status of CpG islands predicted to be in the mouse Slc5a6 promoters and a decrease in the level of expression of transcription factor KLF-4, which plays an important role in regulating SLC5A6 promoter activity. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that chronic alcohol exposure negatively impacts biotin uptake in PAC and that this effect is exerted (at least in part) at the level of transcription of the SLC5A6 gene and may involve epigenetic/molecular mechanisms. PMID:25214397

  20. The Acinar Cage: Basement Membranes Determine Molecule Exchange and Mechanical Stability of Human Breast Cell Acini

    PubMed Central

    Gaiko-Shcherbak, Aljona; Fabris, Gloria; Dreissen, Georg; Merkel, Rudolf; Hoffmann, Bernd; Noetzel, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The biophysical properties of the basement membrane that surrounds human breast glands are poorly understood, but are thought to be decisive for normal organ function and malignancy. Here, we characterize the breast gland basement membrane with a focus on molecule permeation and mechanical stability, both crucial for organ function. We used well-established and nature-mimicking MCF10A acini as 3D cell model for human breast glands, with ether low- or highly-developed basement membrane scaffolds. Semi-quantitative dextran tracer (3 to 40 kDa) experiments allowed us to investigate the basement membrane scaffold as a molecule diffusion barrier in human breast acini in vitro. We demonstrated that molecule permeation correlated positively with macromolecule size and intriguingly also with basement membrane development state, revealing a pore size of at least 9 nm. Notably, an intact collagen IV mesh proved to be essential for this permeation function. Furthermore, we performed ultra-sensitive atomic force microscopy to quantify the response of native breast acini and of decellularized basement membrane shells against mechanical indentation. We found a clear correlation between increasing acinar force resistance and basement membrane formation stage. Most important native acini with highly-developed basement membranes as well as cell-free basement membrane shells could both withstand physiologically relevant loads (≤ 20 nN) without loss of structural integrity. In contrast, low-developed basement membranes were significantly softer and more fragile. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the key role of the basement membrane as conductor of acinar molecule influx and mechanical stability of human breast glands, which are fundamental for normal organ function. PMID:26674091

  1. Chronic alcohol exposure inhibits biotin uptake by pancreatic acinar cells: possible involvement of epigenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Padmanabhan; Kapadia, Rubina; Biswas, Arundhati; Said, Hamid M

    2014-11-01

    Chronic exposure to alcohol affects different physiological aspects of pancreatic acinar cells (PAC), but its effect on the uptake process of biotin is not known. We addressed this issue using mouse-derived pancreatic acinar 266-6 cells chronically exposed to alcohol and wild-type and transgenic mice (carrying the human SLC5A6 5'-promoter) fed alcohol chronically. First we established that biotin uptake by PAC is Na(+) dependent and carrier mediated and involves sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT). Chronic exposure of 266-6 cells to alcohol led to a significant inhibition in biotin uptake, expression of SMVT protein, and mRNA as well as in the activity of the SLC5A6 promoter. Similarly, chronic alcohol feeding of wild-type and transgenic mice carrying the SLC5A6 promoter led to a significant inhibition in biotin uptake by PAC, as well as in the expression of SMVT protein and mRNA and the activity of the SLC5A6 promoters expressed in the transgenic mice. We also found that chronic alcohol feeding of mice is associated with a significant increase in the methylation status of CpG islands predicted to be in the mouse Slc5a6 promoters and a decrease in the level of expression of transcription factor KLF-4, which plays an important role in regulating SLC5A6 promoter activity. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that chronic alcohol exposure negatively impacts biotin uptake in PAC and that this effect is exerted (at least in part) at the level of transcription of the SLC5A6 gene and may involve epigenetic/molecular mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Parotid Gland Function After Radiotherapy: The Combined Michigan and Utrecht Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Dijkema, Tim; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Roesink, Judith M.; Braam, Petra M.; Houweling, Anette C.; Moerland, Marinus A.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Terhaard, Chris H.J.

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: To analyze the combined and updated results from the University of Michigan and University Medical Center Utrecht on normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) of the parotid gland 1 year after radiotherapy (RT) for head-and-neck (HN) cancer. Patients and Methods: A total of 222 prospectively analyzed patients with various HN malignancies were treated with conventional and intensity-modulated RT. Stimulated individual parotid gland flow rates were measured before RT and 1 year after RT using Lashley cups at both centers. A flow ratio <25% of pretreatment was defined as a complication. The data were fitted to the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model. Results: A total of 384 parotid glands (Michigan: 157; Utrecht: 227 glands) was available for analysis 1 year after RT. Combined NTCP analysis based on mean dose resulted in a TD{sub 50} (uniform dose leading to 50% complication probability) of 39.9 Gy and m (steepness of the curve) of 0.40. The resulting NTCP curve had good qualitative agreement with the combined clinical data. Mean doses of 25-30 Gy were associated with 17-26% NTCP. Conclusions: A definite NTCP curve for parotid gland function 1 year after RT is presented, based on mean dose. No threshold dose was observed, and TD{sub 50} was equal to 40 Gy.

  3. Skull Base Involvement by Acinic Cell Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Breen, Joseph T.; Carlson, Matthew L.; Link, Michael J.; Moore, Eric J.; Neff, Brian A.; Driscoll, Colin L.W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Describe the clinical course and outcomes of patients with primary acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) of the parotid gland with skull base invasion or metastasis. Design Retrospective case series (1995–2011) at a single institution. Results Ten patients met study criteria. Mean and median time from initial diagnosis of parotid ACC to development of skull base disease were 14.6 and 10.2 years, respectively. Two patients demonstrated skull base disease on initial presentation. Those who pursued further treatment after developing disease at the skull base underwent surgery (4/7), stereotactic radiosurgery (4/7), or external beam radiation (3/7). The 10-year Kaplan-Meier estimated overall survival after initial diagnosis of parotid ACC was 80%. Once skull base invasion occurred, 2-year estimated overall survival was 50%. Conclusion Although primary ACC of the parotid generally caries an excellent prognosis, tumor control with cranial base disease is difficult and the majority of patients present with late aggressive recurrences. Our observations underscore the importance of long-term follow-up in this patient group. PMID:24294553

  4. Possible involvement of parotid beta-adrenergic receptors in the etiology of sialadenosis.

    PubMed

    Chilla, R; Witzemann, V; Opaitz, M; Arglebe, C

    1981-01-01

    The concentration of beta-adrenergic receptors was determined in rat and human parotid glands, in normal tissue as well as after sympathetic denervation of the rat, and in human sialadenosis. Receptor levels were clearly elevated after denervation of the rat and in sialadenosis. The possible implications of these findings for the etiology of human sialadenosis are discussed.

  5. The suitability of common metrics for assessing parotid and larynx autosegmentation accuracy.

    PubMed

    Beasley, William J; McWilliam, Alan; Aitkenhead, Adam; Mackay, Ranald I; Rowbottom, Carl G

    2016-03-01

    Contouring structures in the head and neck is time-consuming, and automatic segmentation is an important part of an adaptive radiotherapy workflow. Geometric accuracy of automatic segmentation algorithms has been widely reported, but there is no consensus as to which metrics provide clinically meaningful results. This study investigated whether geometric accuracy (as quantified by several commonly used metrics) was associated with dosimetric differences for the parotid and larynx, comparing automatically generated contours against manually drawn ground truth contours. This enabled the suitability of different commonly used metrics to be assessed for measuring automatic segmentation accuracy of the parotid and larynx. Parotid and larynx structures for 10 head and neck patients were outlined by five clinicians to create ground truth structures. An automatic segmentation algorithm was used to create automatically generated normal structures, which were then used to create volumetric-modulated arc therapy plans. The mean doses to the automatically generated structures were compared with those of the corresponding ground truth structures, and the relative difference in mean dose was calculated for each structure. It was found that this difference did not correlate with the geometric accuracy provided by several metrics, notably the Dice similarity coefficient, which is a commonly used measure of spatial overlap. Surface-based metrics provided stronger correlation and are, therefore, more suitable for assessing automatic segmentation of the parotid and larynx. PACS number(s): 87.57.nm, 87.55.D, 87.55.Qr. © 2016 The Authors.

  6. Effects of methotrexate on rat parotid and submandibular glands and their secretions

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental animals were injected intraperitoneally with methotrexate for 3 days. Parotid and submandibular main ducts were cannulated and saliva flow was evoked by either intravenous infusion of acetylcholine or an intravenous injection of benthanechol. Methotrexate was found to reduce significantly mean food consumption, body weight, and parotid gland wet weights. Experimental animal salivary total gland DNA levels were not different, but total parotid gland RNA, protein, amylase and water content, and submandibular gland RNA were significantly lower compared to control. Acetylcholine, but not bethanechol, evoked parotid protein and amylase outputs and submandibular protein output from experimental animals were significantly higher than the control groups'. The increased outputs were apparently linked to ..beta..-adrenergic receptor activation, since hexamethonium or propranolol eliminated the significant increases while phenoxybenzamine did not. Plasma catecholamine levels were significantly higher in the methotrexate treated animals and probably played a role in the salivary gland ..beta..-adrenergic activation. Methotrexate treatment significantly increased the submandibular gland ..beta..-adrenergic receptor concentration as determined by (/sup 3/H)-dihydroalprenolol receptor binding assays. Muscarinic receptor concentrations determined with (/sup 3/H)-quinuclidninyl benzilate were not changed.

  7. Radioprotective effects of pyrroloquinoline quinone on parotid glands in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuanqing; Chen, Ning; Miao, Dengshun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether pyrroloquinoline quinine (PQQ) serve a radioprotective role in parotid gland damage induced by total body irradiation (TBI) in C57BL/6J mice. A total of 15 female 8-week-old C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned into three treatment groups: i) Untreated control (no irradiation); ii) 4 gray (Gy) X-ray irradiation; iii) 4 Gy X-ray irradiation with additional dietary PQQ (4 mg PQQ/kg in normal diet). Each group included five mice. After 4 weeks, all animals were collected for evaluating the phenotype, body weight, pathological and biochemical parameters. The results indicated that PQQ had biological effects on total body phenotype. PQQ could partially rescue TBI-induced damage to parotid glands. In addition, PQQ served radioprotective effects on parotid glands via multiple mechanisms, such as promoting proliferation, inhibiting apoptosis and senescence, upregulating antioxidant ability, scavenging reactive oxygen species and reducing DNA damage. The results of the present study demonstrate that PQQ serves a radioprotective role in parotid gland damage induced by TBI, possibly via inhibiting oxidative stress and participating in DNA damage repair. The study provides experimental and theoretical knowledge for the development of radioprotective clinical drugs. PMID:28105098

  8. The feasibility of sugammadex for general anesthesia and facial nerve monitoring in patients undergoing parotid surgery.

    PubMed

    Lu, I-Cheng; Chang, Pi-Ying; Su, Miao-Pei; Chen, Po-Nien; Chen, Hsiu-Ya; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Wu, Che-Wei

    2017-08-01

    The use of neuromuscular blocking agent (NMBA) during anesthesia may interfere with facial nerve monitoring (FNM) during parotid surgery. Sugammadex has been reported to be an effective and safe reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block (NMB) during surgery. This study investigated the feasibility and clinical effectiveness of sugammadex for NMB reversal during FNM in Parotid surgery. Fifty patients undergoing parotid surgery were randomized allocated into conventional anesthesia group (Group C, n = 25) and sugammadex group (Group S, n = 25). Group C did not receive any NMBA. Group S received rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg at anesthesia induction and sugammadex 2 mg/kg at skin incision. The intubating condition and influence on FNM evoked EMG results were compared between groups. The intubation condition showed significantly better in group S patients than C group patients (excellent in 96% v.s. 24%). In group S, rapid reverse of NMB was found and the twitch (%) recovered from 0 to >90% within 10 min. Positive and high EMG signals were obtained in all patients at the time point of initial facial nerve stimulation in both groups. There was no significant difference as comparing the EMG amplitudes detected at the time point of initial and final facial nerve stimulation in both groups. Implementation of sugammadex in anesthesia protocol is feasible and reliable for successful FNM during parotid surgery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  9. Solitary fibrous tumor of the accessory parotid gland: a unique case.

    PubMed

    Apuhan, Tayfun; Iwenofu, Hans; Özer, Enver

    2013-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors are benign spindle-cell neoplasms, mostly originating from the visceral pleura. They are common in individuals aged 20-70 with no sex predilection. To our knowledge, this is the unique case of the solitary fibrous tumor originating from the accessory parotid gland in the literature.

  10. Myoepithelioma of the Parotid Gland Presenting as a Retroauricular Cutaneous nodule: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki, Yumi; Omura, Ken; Tanaka, Kae; Sakamoto, Kei; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2013-01-01

    We are reporting a case of recurrent myoepithelioma of the parotid gland, that emerged as a cutaneous mass. She had a retroauricular subcutaneous mass with an underlying diagnosis of a cutaneous myoepithelioma, which was excised at a hospital’s Dermatology Department 2 years earlier. The tumour was observed above the platysma and it was considered as a cutaneous myoepithelioma without the parotid gland structures. She had undergone a partial parotidectomy approximately 20 years earlier. At her first visit to our department, there was no evidence of facial nerve palsy or cervical lymphadenopathy. The radiological findings showed a multinodular growing mass of the parotid gland, just beneath the retroauricular skin and a total parotidectomy was performed. It was considered that even if the cutaneous mass emerged, the relationship between the cutaneous mass and the parotid gland should be pre-surgically examined by computed tomography (CT) or Magnetic resonance image (MRI). A long-term continuous follow-up was also needed. PMID:23905130

  11. Comparative pharmacokinetics of sulfamethazine in plasma and parotid saliva of sheep.

    PubMed

    Pulido, E; Meot, F; Sumano, H; Boivin, R

    1998-04-01

    Salivary output in sheep is large enough to be considered a physiologic body fluid compartment. The hypothesis for this work was that pharmacokinetics of sulfamethazine in saliva was similar to that in plasma. A reliable technique was developed to measure parotid salivary output. Mean output of saliva was 3.18 +/- 1.04 L from a single parotid gland per day with a mean flow of 2.21 +/- 0.43 mL/min. Using concentrations of sulfamethazine in parotid saliva made it possible to calculate the total passage of sulfamethazine to parotid saliva, which was calculated to be 3.5% of the total dose. Pharmacokinetic variables obtained for sulfamethazine in plasma and in saliva were closely related (AUC 1408 micrograms.h/mL and AUC 1484 micrograms.h/mL; Vdarea 0.434 L/kg and Vdarea 0.374 L/kg; t 1/2 beta 4.30 h and 3.46 h, respectively) and no substantial differences were observed. The convenience of using salivary concentrations of sulfamethazine for drug monitoring is discussed.

  12. A functional and chemical study of radiation effects on rat parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands

    SciTech Connect

    Vissink, A.; S-Gravenmade, E.J.; Ligeon, E.E.; Konings, W.T. )

    1990-12-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor composition and rate of secretion of rat parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva following local single doses of X-rays ranging from 5 to 20 Gy. Pilocarpine-stimulated samples of parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva were simultaneously collected with miniaturized Lashley cups before and 1-30 days after irradiation. The lag phase (period between injection of pilocarpine and start of the secretion) and flow rate were recorded and the concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate, and amylase were measured. With increasing dose and time, the salivary flow rate as well as sodium concentration decreased, while potassium concentrations increased throughout the follow-up period. The lag phase and the concentration of amylase reached their maximum at 3 and 10 days after irradiation, respectively. The changes in lag phase and flow rate were most obvious after doses of 15 or 20 Gy and showed a great similarity for parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva. No dose-response relationship was observed for the changes in concentrations of calcium and phosphate. It is concluded that for radiation doses of 10 Gy and above, irreversible changes (lag phase, flow rate, potassium, sodium) were observed. A saturation of the irradiation effects (lag phase, flow rate) seems to exist at doses larger than 15 Gy. No significant differences were observed between the radiation-induced functional changes in parotid and submandibular/sublingual salivary gland tissue.

  13. Charcoal Suspension Tattoo: A New Technique for Intraoperative Detection of Small Tumors of the Parotid Gland.

    PubMed

    Tirelli, Giancarlo; Cova, Maria Assunta; Boscolo-Rizzo, Paolo; Da Mosto, Maria Cristina; Makuc, Elisa; Gardenal, Nicoletta

    2016-07-01

    The current surgical trend in the treatment of pleomorphic adenomas of the parotid gland is to limit the extent of resection. This raises the need to correctly identify the mass within the normal parenchyma so as to avoid dissecting the entire superficial lobe of the gland. We describe ultrasound-guided tattooing as a technique to facilitate identification and excision of parotid pleomorphic adenomas. We reviewed 23 consecutive patients with pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland. All patients underwent ultrasound-guided tattooing of the lesions with a charcoal suspension. Baseline tumor and patients' characteristics, major and minor complications, and subjective tolerance to the procedure were recorded. We assessed the number of intralesionally marked masses and the percentage of intraoperatively detected marked lesions. The injection was well tolerated. No major complications were recorded. In 2 cases (9%), a transient increase in lesion size was observed. No other minor complications were encountered. Charcoal was found inside the tumor in 19 cases (83%). In 4 cases (17%), it was found in the tissues above the lesion. Twenty-three lesions were intraoperatively detected (100%) and dissected. Charcoal suspension tattooing is safe and well tolerated for the detection of small pleomorphic adenomas during parotid surgery. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Comparison of Complications in Parotid Surgery With Harmonic Scalpel Versus Cold Instruments.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyong; Yu, Yang; Li, Dapeng; Dong, Li

    2017-02-22

    Complications following parotid surgery with harmonic scalpel versus cold instruments were seldom discussed. The authors retrospectively analyzed the medical record of 94 patients who received parotid surgery at Tianjin National Clinical Research Center for Cancer between January 2012 and October 2015, and compared the complications in patients operated with either Harmonic FCS9 (HF) or traditional cold instruments (CI). The mean operative time was 65.1 minutes in HF group versus 88.9 minutes for CI group. Intraoperative blood loss was 35 mL in HF group versus 55 mL in CI group. The mean drainage time was 3.7 days in HF group compared with 4.9 days in CI group. The mean total drainage volume was 62 mL in HF group versus 89 mL in CI group. The occurrence of Frey syndrome showed no difference in these 2 groups. Thus, the use of the HF in the surgical treatment of parotid disease is safe and confers advantages over conventional methods of parotid dissection.

  15. Temporal bone osteoradionecrosis after surgery and radiotherapy for malignant parotid tumors.

    PubMed

    Leonetti, John P; Marzo, Sam J; Zender, Chad A; Porter, Ryan G; Melian, Edward

    2010-06-01

    To assess the incidence of osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the temporal bone after surgery with radiotherapy for malignant parotid tumors. A tertiary care, academic medical center. All patients who underwent surgical resection with postoperative radiotherapy (RT) for a malignant parotid tumor between July 1988 and July 2007. A retrospective chart analysis to determine the extent of surgery, the RT parameters, and the incidence of ORN of the temporal bone. The incidence of ORN in 3 subgroups of patients. The 221 patients with malignant parotid tumors who underwent surgical resection with postoperative RT were divided into groups 1, parotidectomy only; 2, parotidectomy with mastoidectomy; and 3, parotidectomy with subtotal petrosectomy. The overall incidence of temporal bone ORN in group 1 was 2 (2%) of 106; in group 2, 8 (13%) of 64; and in group 3, 0 (0%) of 51. The incidence of temporal bone ORN is higher after mastoidectomy for facial nerve identification or resection in patients undergoing parotidectomy with postoperative radiotherapy. Oversew of the ear canal with mastoid obliteration should be considered in this subgroup of patients to avoid this long-term complication of radiotherapy used in the treatment of malignant parotid tumors.

  16. The suitability of common metrics for assessing parotid and larynx autosegmentation accuracy.

    PubMed

    Beasley, William J; McWilliam, Alan; Aitkenhead, Adam; Mackay, Ranald I; Rowbottom, Carl G

    2016-03-08

    Contouring structures in the head and neck is time-consuming, and automatic seg-mentation is an important part of an adaptive radiotherapy workflow. Geometric accuracy of automatic segmentation algorithms has been widely reported, but there is no consensus as to which metrics provide clinically meaningful results. This study investigated whether geometric accuracy (as quantified by several commonly used metrics) was associated with dosimetric differences for the parotid and larynx, comparing automatically generated contours against manually drawn ground truth contours. This enabled the suitability of different commonly used metrics to be assessed for measuring automatic segmentation accuracy of the parotid and larynx. Parotid and larynx structures for 10 head and neck patients were outlined by five clinicians to create ground truth structures. An automatic segmentation algorithm was used to create automatically generated normal structures, which were then used to create volumetric-modulated arc therapy plans. The mean doses to the automatically generated structures were compared with those of the corresponding ground truth structures, and the relative difference in mean dose was calculated for each structure. It was found that this difference did not correlate with the geometric accuracy provided by several metrics, notably the Dice similarity coefficient, which is a commonly used measure of spatial overlap. Surface-based metrics provided stronger correlation and are, therefore, more suitable for assessing automatic seg-mentation of the parotid and larynx.

  17. Facial Paralysis Secondary to Extensive Perineural Spread of Adenocarcinoma of the Parotid Gland Identified by PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Achong, Dwight M; Zloty, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Brain MRI in an 82-year-old man with presumed Bell's palsy revealed a clinically unsuspected right parotid gland mass but no other acute findings. Biopsy revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Staging F-FDG PET/CT revealed an FDG-avid parotid mass, abnormal FDG uptake along the course of the facial nerve from mass to skull base, and multiple FDG-avid right level II neck lymph nodes and hepatic metastases. The PET/CT findings and prolonged clinical course suggest that diffuse perineural spread of tumor from a smoldering parotid neoplasm, and not idiopathic Bell's palsy, was responsible for the patient's facial paralysis.

  18. Polymer coated liposomes for dental drug delivery--interactions with parotid saliva and dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, S; Hiorth, M; Rykke, M; Smistad, G

    2013-09-27

    The interactions between pectin coated liposomes and parotid saliva and dental enamel were studied to investigate their potential to mimic the protective biofilm formed naturally on tooth surfaces. Different pectin coated liposomes with respect to pectin type (LM-, HM- and AM-pectin) and concentration (0.05% and 0.2%) were prepared. Interactions between the pectin coated liposomes and parotid saliva were studied by turbidimetry and imaging by atomic force microscopy. The liposomes were adsorbed to hydroxyapatite (HA) and human dental enamel using phosphate buffer and parotid saliva as adsorption media. A continuous flow was imposed on the enamel surfaces for various time intervals to examine their retention on the dental enamel. The results were compared to uncoated, charged liposomes. No aggregation tendencies for the pectin coated liposomes and parotid saliva were revealed. This makes them promising as drug delivery systems to be used in the oral cavity. In phosphate buffer the adsorption to HA of pectin coated liposomes was significantly lower than the negative liposomes. The difference diminished in parotid saliva. Positive liposomes adsorbed better to the dental enamel than the pectin coated liposomes. However, when subjected to flow for 1h, no significant differences in the retention levels on the enamel were found between the formulations. For all formulations, more than 40% of the liposomes still remained on the enamel surfaces. At time point 20 min the retention of HM-pectin coated and positive liposomes were significantly higher. It was concluded that pectin coated liposomes can adsorb to HA as well as to the dental enamel. Their ability to retain on the enamel surfaces promotes the concept of using them as protective structures for the teeth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical analysis of Castleman disease (hyaline vascular type) in parotid and neck region.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Lai-ping; Wang, Li-zhen; Ji, Tong; Hu, Yu-hua; Hu, Yong-jie; Ye, Wei-min; Li, Jun; Sun, Jian; Zhu, Han-guang; Li, Jiang; Zhang, Chen-Ping

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze a single institution's experience in clinical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of Castleman disease (hyaline vascular type) in the parotid and neck region. From 2004 to 2008, a total of 10 consecutive patients with Castleman disease (hyaline vascular type) in the parotid and neck region underwent surgery were included in this retrospective study. The preoperative examinations, clinical diagnosis, surgical treatment, and prognosis were recorded and analyzed. Of the 10 patients, 4 were males and 6 female; their age ranged from 13 to 54 years with a mean of 26.6 years. The lesion occurred in the parotid region in 3 patients, in the neck region in 5 patients, and in both the parotid and neck regions in 2 patients. Their course of disease ranged from 3 months to 48 months with a mean of 12.5 months; 70% of the patients (7 out of 10) had a course of disease of <12 months. The patients always had no obvious complaint, and the laboratory examinations were almost within the normal limits. Magnetic resonance imaging/angiography were valuable on clinical diagnosis and differential diagnosis. All patients underwent surgical removal of the masses completely. During the follow-up period, which ranged from 9 months to 60 months with a mean of 38.9 months, no recurrence of the lesion occurred, and the quality of life of each patient was good. Castleman disease (hyaline vascular type) in the parotid and neck region is rare, with clinical manifestation and physical examination the same as benign lesions. There is no specific indication in the laboratory tests and imaging examinations; however, magnetic resonance imaging/angiography has potential value on clinical diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Surgical resection is the choice of treatment with good prognosis. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pilot study of ultrasound parotid imaging reporting and data system (PIRADS): Inter-observer agreement.

    PubMed

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Ashmalla, Germeen Albair; Gaballa, Gada; Nada, Nadia

    2015-12-01

    To establish proposal ultrasound parotid imaging reporting and data system (PIRADS) for classification and prediction of malignancy of parotid lesions and to assess the inter-observer agreement of this system. Retrospective analysis of ultrasound and power Duplex images of 142 patients with parotid lesions by two reviewers. Parotid focal lesions were classified into nine patterns and then categorized into five groups: PIRADS 1, definitively benign; PIRADS 2, probably benign; PIRADS 3, indeterminate; PIRADS 4, probably malignant; and PIRADS 5, highly suggestive malignant. There was excellent interobserver agreement of both reviewers for patterns and PIRADS (K=0.84, P=0.001) with 92% percent agreement. There was excellent agreement of PIRADS 1 (K=1.00, P=0.001), PIRADS 2 (K=0.97, P=0.001), PIRADS 3 (K=0.86, P=0.001) and PIRADS 5 (K=0.88, P=0.001) and good agreement of PIRADS 4 (K=0.67, P=0.001). The Odds ratio of PIRADS 3, 4 and 5 were 1.36 (95% CI=0.39-4.55), 7.11 (95% CI=3.02-11.15) and 8.27 (95% CI=3.49-10.27) respectively. The accuracy was 92% and 90%, sensitivity was 79% and 65%, specificity was 94% and 96% of PIRADS of both reviewers respectively. The proposed PIRADS is a reliable non-invasive imaging modality that can be used for categorizing parotid lesions and prediction of malignancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Utility of In-Office Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Parotid Lesions.

    PubMed

    Haidar, Yarah M; Moshtaghi, Omid; Mahmoodi, Amin; Helmy, Mohammad; Goddard, Julie A; Armstrong, William B

    2017-03-01

    Objective To determine whether the use of in-office ultrasound (US) by a head and neck surgeon is a useful adjunct to clinical assessment of parotid lesions and decrease the need of additional imaging, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Tertiary care academic center. Subjects Seventy patients presenting with a parotid lesion who obtained an in-office US and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (USGFNA) from a head and neck surgeon from 2006 to 2015. Methods US images were retrospectively reviewed for 70 patients and characterized by a radiologist and a head and neck surgeon. Results Of the 70 patients, 6 had US characteristics that demonstrated a statistically significant association with a benign/malignant diagnosis: depth from surface; irregular borders; presence of calcifications, which included either micro- or macro-calcifications; posterior echogenicity enhancement; irregular shape; and homogeneous/heterogeneous echotexture. Imaging was performed prior to referral in 25 cases (35.7%); of those, 17 (68%) were for superficial, small (<2 cm) tumors where prereferral imaging studies did not provide additional information to that obtained with US. Of the 55 patients without MRI or CT performed prior to referral, MRI or positron emission tomography-CT scan was obtained in only 4 patients (7.3%) in cases involving recurrent parotid lesions, large tumors, or workup of a malignant neoplasm. Conclusions Several US characteristics individually assist in lesion characterization. In-office US and USGFNA are an appropriate first-line modality in the assessment of parotid lesions, can allow for immediate parotid lesion assessment, and can decrease the need for additional imaging.

  2. The role of alpha 6 beta 1 integrin and EGF in normal and malignant acinar morphogenesis of human prostatic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bello-DeOcampo, D; Kleinman, H K; Webber, M M

    2001-09-01

    Complex multiple interactions between cells and extracellular matrix occur during acinar morphogenesis involving integrin receptors and growth factors. Changes in these interactions occur during carcinogenesis as cells progress from a normal to a malignant, invasive phenotype. We have developed human prostatic epithelial cell lines of the same lineage, which represent multiple steps in carcinogenesis, similar to prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and subsequent tumor progression. The non-tumorigenic, RWPE-1 and the tumorigenic WPE1-NB27 and WPE1-NB26 cell lines were used to examine their ability to undergo acinar morphogenesis in a 3-D cell culture model and its relationship to invasion, integrin expression and EGF presence. An inverse relationship between the degree of acinar formation and invasive ability was observed. The non-tumorigenic, non-invasive RWPE-1 and the low tumorigenic, low invasive, WPE1-NB27 cells show high and decreased acinar forming ability, respectively, while the more invasive WPE1-NB26 cells show a loss of acinar formation. While RWPE-1 acini show basal expression of alpha 6 beta 1 integrin, which correlates with their ability to polarize and form acini, WPE1-NB27 cells lack alpha 6 but show basal, but weaker expression of beta 1 integrin. WPE1-NB26 cells show loss alpha 6 and abnormal, diffused beta 1 integrin expression. A dose-dependent decrease in acinar formation was observed in RWPE-1 cells when cell proliferation was induced by EGF. Anti-functional antibody to EGF caused an increase in acinar formation in RWPE-1 cells. These results suggest that malignant cells lose the ability to undergo acinar morphogenesis and that the degree of this loss appears to be related to invasive ability, EGF levels and alterations in laminin-specific integrin expression. This model system mimics different steps in prostate carcinogenesis and has applications in the secondary and tertiary prevention of prostate cancer.

  3. Macrophage-secreted cytokines drive pancreatic acinar-to-ductal metaplasia through NF-κB and MMPs

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Geou-Yarh; Döppler, Heike; Necela, Brian; Krishna, Murli; Crawford, Howard C.; Raimondo, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    In response to inflammation, pancreatic acinar cells can undergo acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM), a reprogramming event that induces transdifferentiation to a ductlike phenotype and, in the context of additional oncogenic stimulation, contributes to development of pancreatic cancer. The signaling mechanisms underlying pancreatitis-inducing ADM are largely undefined. Our results provide evidence that macrophages infiltrating the pancreas drive this transdifferentiation process. We identify the macrophage-secreted inflammatory cytokines RANTES and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) as mediators of such signaling. Both RANTES and TNF induce ADM through activation of nuclear factor κB and its target genes involved in regulating survival, proliferation, and degradation of extracellular matrix. In particular, we identify matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as targets that drive ADM and provide in vivo data suggesting that MMP inhibitors may be efficiently applied to block pancreatitis-induced ADM in therapy. PMID:23918941

  4. The Cutaneous Rabbit Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flach, Rudiger; Haggard, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    In the cutaneous rabbit effect (CRE), a tactile event (so-called attractee tap) is mislocalized toward an adjacent attractor tap. The effect depends on the time interval between the taps. The authors delivered sequences of taps to the forearm and asked participants to report the location of one of the taps. The authors replicated the original CRE…

  5. The Cutaneous Rabbit Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flach, Rudiger; Haggard, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    In the cutaneous rabbit effect (CRE), a tactile event (so-called attractee tap) is mislocalized toward an adjacent attractor tap. The effect depends on the time interval between the taps. The authors delivered sequences of taps to the forearm and asked participants to report the location of one of the taps. The authors replicated the original CRE…

  6. Autoantibody Production in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Asherson, G. L.; Dumonde, D. C.

    1963-01-01

    The sera of rabbits injected with rat liver, kidney, heart, muscle, spleen and brain in Freund's complete adjuvant fixed complement with rabbit tissue. This complement-fixing activity was attributed to autoantibodies which were able to fix complement in vitro with the tissue of the rabbit in which they occurred. Absorption, gel diffusion and antibody and antigen titrations indicated that some of the anti-liver, anti-kidney, anti-heart, anti-muscle and anti-brain sera contained organ-specific autoantibody. The sera also contained autoantibody reacting with widely distributed antigen(s), which was relatively labile at 65°. The anti-kidney and anti-brain sera reacted with distinct antigens which were extracted from rabbit kidney and brain with a mixture of chloroform and methanol. The natural autoantibody of Kidd and Friedewald was usually labile at 65° and behaved like a macroglobulin on sucrose gradient centrifugation. Sera taken 1 week after immunization with rat tissue contained heat-labile macroglobulin antibody. However, sera taken 1 month after immunization also contained small molecular weight antibody which was stable at 65°. PMID:13965166

  7. TNF-α inhibits aquaporin 5 expression in human salivary gland acinar cells via suppression of histone H4 acetylation.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Yoshiko; Motegi, Katsumi; Kani, Kouichi; Takano, Hideyuki; Momota, Yukihiro; Aota, Keiko; Yamanoi, Tomoko; Azuma, Masayuki

    2012-08-01

    Sjögren's syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by reductions in salivary and lacrimal secretions. The mechanisms underlying these reductions remain unclear. We have previously shown that TNF-α plays an important role in the destruction of acinar structures. Here we examined TNF-α's function in the expression of aquaporin (AQP) 5 in human salivary gland acinar cells. Immortalized human salivary gland acinar (NS-SV-AC) cells were treated with TNF-α, and then the expression levels of AQP5 mRNA and protein were analysed. In addition, the mechanisms underlying the reduction of AQP5 expression by TNF-α treatment were investigated. TNF-α-treatment of NS-SV-AC cells significantly suppressed the expression levels of AQP5 mRNA and protein, and reduced the net fluid secretion rate. We examined the expression and activation levels of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) in NS-SV-AC cells treated with TNF-α. However, no significant changes were observed in the expression or activation levels of Dnmt1, Dnmt3a or Dnmt3b. Although we also investigated the role of NF-κB activity in the TNF-α-induced suppression of AQP5 expression in NS-SV-AC cells, we detected similar TNF-α suppression of AQP5 expression in non-transfected cells and in a super-repressor form of IκBα cDNA-transfected cell clones. However, interestingly, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated a remarkable decrease in levels of acetylated histone H4 associated with the AQP5 gene promoter after treatment with TNF-α in NS-SV-AC cells. Therefore, our results may indicate that TNF-α inhibition of AQP5 expression in human salivary gland acinar cells is due to the epigenetic mechanism by suppression of acetylation of histone H4.

  8. Label retaining cells (LRCs) with myoepithelial characteristic from the proximal acinar region define stem cells in the sweat gland.

    PubMed

    Leung, Yvonne; Kandyba, Eve; Chen, Yi-Bu; Ruffins, Seth; Kobielak, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Slow cycling is a common feature shared among several stem cells (SCs) identified in adult tissues including hair follicle and cornea. Recently, existence of unipotent SCs in basal and lumenal layers of sweat gland (SG) has been described and label retaining cells (LRCs) have also been localized in SGs; however, whether these LRCs possess SCs characteristic has not been investigated further. Here, we used a H2BGFP LRCs system for in vivo detection of infrequently dividing cells. This system allowed us to specifically localize and isolate SCs with label-retention and myoepithelial characteristics restricted to the SG proximal acinar region. Using an alternative genetic approach, we demonstrated that SG LRCs expressed keratin 15 (K15) in the acinar region and lineage tracing determined that K15 labeled cells contributed long term to the SG structure but not to epidermal homeostasis. Surprisingly, wound healing experiments did not activate proximal acinar SG cells to participate in epidermal healing. Instead, predominantly non-LRCs in the SG duct actively divided, whereas the majority of SG LRCs remained quiescent. However, when we further challenged the system under more favorable isolated wound healing conditions, we were able to trigger normally quiescent acinar LRCs to trans-differentiate into the epidermis and adopt its long term fate. In addition, dissociated SG cells were able to regenerate SGs and, surprisingly, hair follicles demonstrating their in vivo plasticity. By determining the gene expression profile of isolated SG LRCs and non-LRCs in vivo, we identified several Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) pathway genes to be up-regulated and confirmed a functional requirement for BMP receptor 1A (BMPR1A)-mediated signaling in SG formation. Our data highlight the existence of SG stem cells (SGSCs) and their primary importance in SG homeostasis. It also emphasizes SGSCs as an alternative source of cells in wound healing and their plasticity for regenerating

  9. Label Retaining Cells (LRCs) with Myoepithelial Characteristic from the Proximal Acinar Region Define Stem Cells in the Sweat Gland

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Yvonne; Kandyba, Eve; Chen, Yi-Bu; Ruffins, Seth; Kobielak, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Slow cycling is a common feature shared among several stem cells (SCs) identified in adult tissues including hair follicle and cornea. Recently, existence of unipotent SCs in basal and lumenal layers of sweat gland (SG) has been described and label retaining cells (LRCs) have also been localized in SGs; however, whether these LRCs possess SCs characteristic has not been investigated further. Here, we used a H2BGFP LRCs system for in vivo detection of infrequently dividing cells. This system allowed us to specifically localize and isolate SCs with label-retention and myoepithelial characteristics restricted to the SG proximal acinar region. Using an alternative genetic approach, we demonstrated that SG LRCs expressed keratin 15 (K15) in the acinar region and lineage tracing determined that K15 labeled cells contributed long term to the SG structure but not to epidermal homeostasis. Surprisingly, wound healing experiments did not activate proximal acinar SG cells to participate in epidermal healing. Instead, predominantly non-LRCs in the SG duct actively divided, whereas the majority of SG LRCs remained quiescent. However, when we further challenged the system under more favorable isolated wound healing conditions, we were able to trigger normally quiescent acinar LRCs to trans-differentiate into the epidermis and adopt its long term fate. In addition, dissociated SG cells were able to regenerate SGs and, surprisingly, hair follicles demonstrating their in vivo plasticity. By determining the gene expression profile of isolated SG LRCs and non-LRCs in vivo, we identified several Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) pathway genes to be up-regulated and confirmed a functional requirement for BMP receptor 1A (BMPR1A)-mediated signaling in SG formation. Our data highlight the existence of SG stem cells (SGSCs) and their primary importance in SG homeostasis. It also emphasizes SGSCs as an alternative source of cells in wound healing and their plasticity for regenerating

  10. Characterization of acinar airspace involvement in asthmatic patients by using inert gas washout and hyperpolarized (3)helium magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Gonem, Sherif; Hardy, Steven; Buhl, Niels; Hartley, Ruth; Soares, Marcia; Kay, Richard; Costanza, Rino; Gustafsson, Per; Brightling, Christopher E; Owers-Bradley, John; Siddiqui, Salman

    2016-02-01

    The multiple-breath inert gas washout parameter acinar ventilation heterogeneity (Sacin) is thought to be a marker of acinar airway involvement but has not been validated by using quantitative imaging techniques in asthmatic patients. We aimed to use hyperpolarized (3)He diffusion magnetic resonance at multiple diffusion timescales and quantitative computed tomographic (CT) densitometry to determine the nature of acinar airway involvement in asthmatic patients. Thirty-seven patients with asthma and 17 age-matched healthy control subjects underwent spirometry, body plethysmography, multiple-breath inert gas washout (with the tracer gas sulfur hexafluoride), and hyperpolarized (3)He diffusion magnetic resonance. A subset of asthmatic patients (n = 27) underwent quantitative CT densitometry. Ninety-four percent (16/17) of patients with an increased Sacin had Global Initiative for Asthma treatment step 4 to 5 asthma, and 13 of 17 had refractory disease. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of (3)He at 1 second was significantly higher in patients with Sacin-high asthma compared with that in healthy control subjects (0.024 vs 0.017, P < .05). Sacin correlated strongly with ADCs at 1 second (R = 0.65, P < .001) but weakly with ADCs at 13 ms (R = 0.38, P < .05). ADCs at both 13 ms and 1 second correlated strongly with the mean lung density expiratory/inspiratory ratio, a CT marker of expiratory air trapping (R = 0.77, P < .0001 for ADCs at 13 ms; R = 0.72, P < .001 for ADCs at 1 second). Sacin is associated with alterations in long-range diffusion within the acinar airways and gas trapping. The precise anatomic nature and mechanistic role in patients with severe asthma requires further evaluation. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 disrupts mammary acinar architecture and initiates malignant transformation of mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Jessica L. F.; Shah, Raj; La Cava, Stephanie; Dolfi, Sonia C.; Mehta, Madhura S.; Kongara, Sameera; Price, Sandy; Ganesan, Shridar; Reuhl, Kenneth R.; Hirshfield, Kim M.

    2016-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1/Grm1) is a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily, which was once thought to only participate in synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability, but has more recently been implicated in non-neuronal tissue functions. We previously described the oncogenic properties of Grm1 in cultured melanocytes in vitro and in spontaneous melanoma development with 100 % penetrance in vivo. Aberrant mGluR1 expression was detected in 60–80 % of human melanoma cell lines and biopsy samples. As most human cancers are of epithelial origin, we utilized immortalized mouse mammary epithelial cells (iMMECs) as a model system to study the transformative properties of Grm1. We introduced Grm1 into iMMECs and isolated several stable mGluR1-expressing clones. Phenotypic alterations in mammary acinar architecture were assessed using three-dimensional morphogenesis assays. We found that mGluR1-expressing iMMECs exhibited delayed lumen formation in association with decreased central acinar cell death, disrupted cell polarity, and a dramatic increase in the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Orthotopic implantation of mGluR1-expressing iMMEC clones into mammary fat pads of immunodeficient nude mice resulted in mammary tumor formation in vivo. Persistent mGluR1 expression was required for the maintenance of the tumorigenic phenotypes in vitro and in vivo, as demonstrated by an inducible Grm1-silencing RNA system. Furthermore, mGluR1 was found be expressed in human breast cancer cell lines and breast tumor biopsies. Elevated levels of extracellular glutamate were observed in mGluR1-expressing breast cancer cell lines and concurrent treatment of MCF7 xenografts with glutamate release inhibitor, riluzole, and an AKT inhibitor led to suppression of tumor progression. Our results are likely relevant to human breast cancer, highlighting a putative role of mGluR1 in the pathophysiology of breast cancer and the potential

  12. Swelling-induced Ca2+ release from intracellular calcium stores in rat submandibular gland acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Park, K; Lee, S; Elliott, A C; Kim, J S; Lee, J H

    2002-04-01

    The effects of osmotically-induced cell swelling on cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were studied in acinar cells from rat submandibular gland using microspectrofluorimetry. Video-imaging techniques were also used to measure cell volume. Hypotonic stress (78% control tonicity) caused rapid cell swelling reaching a maximum relative volume of 1.78 +/- 0.05 (n = 5) compared to control. This swelling was followed by regulatory volume decrease, since relative cell volume decreased significantly to 1.61 +/- 0.08 (n = 5) after 10 min exposure to hypotonic medium. Osmotically induced cell swelling evoked by medium of either 78% or 66% tonicity caused a biphasic increase of [Ca2+]i. The rapid phase of this increase in [Ca2+]i was due to release of Ca2 + from intracellular stores, since it was also observed in cells bathed in Ca2+-free solution. The peak increase of [Ca2+]i induced by cell swelling was 3.40 +/- 0.49 (Fura-2 F340/F380 fluorescence ratio, n = 11) and 3.17 +/- 0.43 (n = 17) in the presence and the absence of extracellular Ca2+, respectively, corresponding to an absolute [Ca2+]i of around 1 microm. We found that around two-thirds of cells tested still showed some swelling-induced Ca2+ release (SICR) even after maximal concentrations (10(-5) M - 10(-4) M) of carbachol had been applied to empty agonist-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ stores. This result was confirmed and extended using thapsigargin to deplete intracellular Ca2+ pools. Hypotonic shock still raised [Ca2+]i in cells pretreated with thapsigargin, confirming that at least some SICR occurred from agonist-insensitive stores. Furthermore, SICR was largely inhibited by pretreatment of cells with carbonyl cyanide m-cholorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) or ruthenium red, inhibitors of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Our results suggest that the increase in [Ca2+]i, which underlies regulatory volume decrease in submandibular acinar cells, results from release of Ca2+ from both agonist-sensitive and

  13. Effect of ionizing radiation on acinar morphogenesis of human prostatic epithelial cells under three-dimensional culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; X, S Ma; Kong, D; Yi, H; Wang, X; Liang, B; Xu, H; He, M; Jia, L; Qased, A B; Yang, Y; Liu, X

    2012-01-01

    Homeostasis is maintained by the interplay of multiple factors that directly or indirectly regulate cell proliferation and cell death. Complex multiple interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix occur during acinar morphogenesis and changes in these might indicate carcinogenesis of cells from a normal to a malignant, invasive phenotype. In this study, the human prostatic epithelial cell line RWPE-1 was cultured under three-dimensional (3-D) culture conditions, and the effect of ionizing radiation on acinar morphogenesis and its association with autophagy were discussed. The results illustrated that formation of specific spheroid (acinar) structures was detectable under 3-D culture conditions. Radiation induced the disruption of acini in different cell models using either gene overexpression (Akt) or gene knock-down (Beclin 1 and ATG7). Introduction of Akt not only accelerated the growth of cells (i.e., caused the cells to manifest elongating and microspike-like structures that are obviously different from structures seen in wild-type RWPE-1 cells under two-dimensional conditions), but also changed their morphological characteristics under 3-D culture conditions. Knock-down of autophagy-related genes (Beclin 1 and ATG7) increased the radiosensitivity of cells under 3-D culture conditions, and cells died of non-apoptotic death after radiation. The results suggested that ionizing radiation may change the cell phenotype and the formation of acini. Additionally even the autophagy mechanism may play a role in these processes.

  14. Apoptotic Mechanisms of Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor-γ Activation in Acinar Cells During Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ping; Lou, Xiao-Li; Chen, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the mechanism by which activation of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ promotes apoptosis of acinar cells in pancreatitis. Methods AR42j cells pretreated with the peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ agonist pioglitazone were activated by cerulein as an in vitro model of acute pancreatitis. Inflammatory cytokines and amylase were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell viability was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining. Activity of caspases was determined. Bax and Bcl-2 levels were assayed by Western blot. Results Cytokines, amylase, and cellular proliferation decreased in pioglitazone-pretreated cells. Pioglitazone increased the activity of caspases 3, 8, and 9 in cerulein-activated AR42j cells as well as in the pancreas of rats 3 hours after induction of severe acute pancreatitis. Acinar cell apoptosis was induced by reducing the mitochondrial membrane potential in the pioglitazone group. Pioglitazone increased expression of proapoptotic Bax proteins and decreased antiapoptotic Bcl-2 in cerulein-induced AR42j cells and decreased Bcl-2 levels in pancreatic tissue of severe acute pancreatitis rats 1 and 3 hours after induction. Conclusion Pioglitazone may promote apoptosis of acinar cells through both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in acute pancreatitis. PMID:26495791

  15. Alleles of the major histocompatibility complex play a role in the pathogenesis of pancreatic acinar atrophy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kate L; Starr-Moss, Alison N; Venkataraman, Gopalakrishnan M; Robinson, Christopher; Kennedy, Lorna J; Steiner, Jörg M; Clark, Leigh Anne

    2013-07-01

    Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is a disease wherein pancreatic acinar cells fail to synthesize and secrete sufficient amounts of digestive enzymes for normal digestion of food. EPI affects many dog breeds, with a dramatically higher prevalence in the German shepherd dog (GSD) population. In this breed and perhaps others, EPI most often results from degeneration of the acinar cells of the pancreas, a hereditary disorder termed pancreatic acinar atrophy (PAA). Evidence of lymphocytic infiltration indicates that PAA is an autoimmune disease, but the genetic etiology remains unclear. Data from global gene expression and single nucleotide polymorphism profiles in the GSD suggest the involvement of the major histocompatibility complex [MHC; dog leukocyte antigen (DLA)]. To determine if alleles of the MHC influence development of EPI, genotyping of polymorphic class I (DLA-88) and II loci (DLA-DRB1, DLA-DQA1, and DLA-DQB1) was carried out for 70 affected and 63 control GSDs, and four-locus haplotypes were determined. One haplotype containing a novel allele of DLA-88 is very highly associated with EPI (OR > 17; P = 0.000125), while two haplotypes were found to confer protection from EPI (P = 0.00087 and 0.0115). Described herein is the genotyping of MHC class I and II loci in a GSD cohort, establishment of four-locus haplotypes, and association of alleles/haplotypes with EPI.

  16. Autoantibody production in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Asherson, G. L.; Holborow, E. J.

    1966-01-01

    Rabbits received two injections of dead bacteria in Freund's complete adjuvant. One month later the sera of the rabbits were examined for autoantibodies against gut by indirect immunofluorescence using the rabbit's own stomach, ileum and colon taken at post mortem. Autoantibodies against colon were found in three out of seven rabbits injected with one particular strain of Escherichia coli O64 and in a few animals injected with other E. coli, Salmonella arizona, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus faecalis. The antigen, with which the autoantibodies reacted, behaved like mucus and was detected in the colon and sometimes in the ileum and the stomach. Three patterns of staining were observed: (a) staining of the superficial mucosa of the colon with sparing of the deep glands; (b) staining of scattered groups of glands in the deepest part of the colon with sparing of the superficial glands (this pattern of staining was associated with staining of the superficial mucosa of the body of the stomach); and (c) staining of both the superficial and deep glands of the colon. None of the sera tested reacted with the bronchial or salivary glands. Polysaccharide preparations of the colon, but not the stomach, inhibited the reaction of the autoantibodies with colon in the sera tested. The amount of antigen needed to inhibit the basal staining was much greater than that needed to inhibit the superficial staining. It was concluded that rabbits may produce autoantibodies to colon and in some cases to ileum and stomach following the injection of certain dead bacteria in Freund's complete adjuvant. ImagesFIGS. 1-2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:4956607

  17. Bilateral painful parotid lumps and a lump in the groin: An uncommon presentation of common Kikuchi's disease

    PubMed Central

    Mirgh, Sumeet Prakash; Satiya, Jinendra; Sorabjee, Jehangir Soli

    2016-01-01

    Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) is an under-recognized disease most commonly presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy, fever, and cytopenias in young females. Bilateral parotid enlargement is usually caused by infections (e.g., mumps) and autoimmune conditions (e.g., Sjogren syndrome). Parotid enlargement, inguinal lymphadenopathy, and pyrexia of unknown origin are uncommon presenting features of KFD and should be suspected in the appropriate setting. PMID:27843864

  18. Botulinum toxin A inhibits salivary secretion of rabbit submandibular gland

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Hui; Cai, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Li-Ling; Yu, Guang-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Botulinum toxin A (BTXA) has been used in several clinical trials to treat excessive glandular secretion; however, the precise mechanism of its action on the secretory function of salivary gland has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of BTXA on secretion of submandibular gland in rabbits and to identify its mechanism of action on the secretory function of salivary gland. At 12 weeks after injection with 5 units of BTXA, we found a significant decrease in the saliva flow from submandibular glands, while the salivary amylase concentration increased. Morphological analysis revealed reduction in the size of acinar cells with intracellular accumulation of secretory granules that coalesced to form a large ovoid structure. Expression of M3-muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3 receptor) and aquaporin-5 (AQP5) mRNA decreased after BTXA treatment, and distribution of AQP5 in the apical membrane was reduced at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after BTXA injection. Furthermore, BTXA injection was found to induce apoptosis of acini. These results indicate that BTXA decreases the fluid secretion of submandibular glands and increases the concentration of amylase in saliva. Decreased expression of M3 receptor and AQP5, inhibition of AQP5 translocation, and cell apoptosis might involve in BTXA-reduced fluid secretion of submandibular glands. PMID:24158141

  19. Clinicopathological features and treatment outcomes of the rare, salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Al-Qahtani, Khalid Hussain; Tunio, Mutahir A; Bayoumi, Yasser; Gurusamy, Venkada Manickam; Bahamdain, Fahad Ahmed A; Fatani, Hanadi

    2016-05-16

    Salivary ductal carcinoma (SDC) of parotid gland is a rare and aggressive entity; accounting for 1-3 % of all malignant salivary gland tumors, 0.2 % of epithelial salivary gland neoplasms, 0.5 % of salivary gland carcinomas, and 1.1 % of parotid gland carcinomas. Here in we aimed to evaluate the clinico-pathological features and treatment outcomes of parotid gland SDC in Saudi population. Among 38 patients with parotid malignancies, who were treated in two major tertiary care referral cancer centers between December 2007 and December 2014, seven cases (18.4 %) were found to have SDC, which were investigated for clinicopathological features, locoregional recurrences (LRRs), distant metastasis (DM) and survival rates. Mean age of cohort was 62.3 years (range: 41-83) and female predominant (71.4 %). All patients underwent total parotidectomy and ipsilateral neck dissection. Mean tumor size was 3.4 cm (range: 2.1-5.3); perineural invasion (85.8 %); lymph node involvement (42.9 %); and HER-2 neu overexpression (28.6 %). Postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) was given to six patients (dose: 50-66 Gy). Median follow-up was 20.2 months (range: 11-48). LRRs were seen in five (71.4 %) patients (base of skull, 3 patients; cervical nodes, one patient; parotid bed, one patient). LRRs were salvaged with resection (two patients) and re-irradiation (one patient with base of skull). DM in lungs was seen in three patients (42.8 %); one treated with carboplatin/paclitaxel based chemotherapy. The 4-year disease free and overall survival rates were 16.7 % and 40 % respectively. SDC of parotid gland is a rare and aggressive entity, and most of LRRs were seen in the base of skull, which warrants inclusion of base of skull in clinical target volume in PORT planning. Role of anti HER-2 targeted therapy in SDC with HER-2 neu overexpression needs further investigations.

  20. Relationship between parotid amylase secretion and osmolality in the gastric contents of rats fed a pelleted or liquid diet.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, M; Inomata, K

    1999-12-01

    The relationship between parotid amylase secretion and the osmolality in the gastric contents of rats fed a pelleted or liquid diet was investigated. In sham-operated rats fed a pelleted diet, amylase activity in the parotid glands decreased, amylase activity in the plasma increased, and there was strong amylase activity in the gastric contents. As a result, both reducing sugar concentration and osmolality in the gastric contents increased. In parotid duct-ligated rats, the feeding of a pelleted diet affected neither parotid nor plasma amylase activity and there was little amylase activity in the gastric contents; this resulted in decreased starch digestion. The amylase activity in the gastric contents of rats fed a liquid diet was lower than that of rats fed the pelleted diet. Both the reducing sugar concentration and osmolality in the gastric contents of rats fed the liquid diet were lower than those of rats fed the pelleted diet. However, both the reducing sugar concentration and osmolality in the gastric contents of rats fed the liquid diet were higher than those in the liquid diet itself. A small quantity of parotid amylase seems to effectively digest a large part of the starch in the stomaches of rats fed the liquid diet. These findings suggest that amylase secreted from parotid glands increases osmolality in the gastric contents via the production of reducing sugars from starch in rats when fed either pelleted or liquid diets.

  1. The accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology for diagnosis of parotid gland masses: a clinicopathological study of 114 patients

    PubMed Central

    GUDMUNDSSON, Jens Kristjan; AJAN, Aida; ABTAHI, Jahan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Fine-needle aspiration cytology is a valuable method for preoperative assessment of head and neck tumors. However, its accuracy in detection of salivary gland masses is controversial compared with other methods. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness and accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of parotid gland masses. Material and Methods Over a 10-year period, 126 parotid gland masses were resected. Retrospective chart reviews of 114 patients were performed. The results of FNAC and final histological diagnosis were compared and the accuracy of FNAC was determined. Results Final histological evaluation revealed 11 malignant tumors and 103 benign lesions. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common neoplasm (63%), followed by Warthin’s tumor (17.5%). The sensitivity of FNAC in detecting malignant tumors was 73% and the specificity was 97%. Positive predictive value (PPV) was 73% and negative predictive value (NPV) was 97%. The overall accuracy of FNAC in detecting parotid masses was 95%. False-negative diagnosis was found in mucoepidermoid carcinoma, acinic cell carcinoma, and epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma whereas there was false-positive diagnosis in cases of pleomorphic adenoma and normal parotid gland tissue. Conclusion FNAC is a reliable minimally invasive diagnostic method with a high sensitivity in diagnosis of lesions in parotid glands. The sensitivity of detection of malignant tumors in parotid glands was low due to the biopsy technique used, and depended on tumor location. Postoperative complications decreased after superficial parotidectomy. PMID:28076460

  2. Aerosol bolus dispersion in acinar airways--influence of gravity and airway asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Baoshun; Darquenne, Chantal

    2012-08-01

    The aerosol bolus technique can be used to estimate the degree of convective mixing in the lung; however, contributions of different lung compartments to measured dispersion cannot be differentiated unambiguously. To estimate dispersion in the distal lung, we studied the effect of gravity and airway asymmetry on the dispersion of 1 μm-diameter particle boluses in three-dimensional computational models of the lung periphery, ranging from a single alveolar sac to four-generation (g4) structures of bifurcating airways that deformed homogeneously during breathing. Boluses were introduced at the beginning of a 2-s inhalation, immediately followed by a 3-s exhalation. Dispersion was estimated by the half-width of the exhaled bolus. Dispersion was significantly affected by the spatial orientation of the models in normal gravity and was less in zero gravity than in normal gravity. Dispersion was strongly correlated with model volume in both normal and zero gravity. Predicted pulmonary dispersion based on a symmetric g4 acinar model was 391 ml and 238 ml under normal and zero gravity, respectively. These results accounted for a significant amount of dispersion measured experimentally. In zero gravity, predicted dispersion in a highly asymmetric model accounted for ∼20% of that obtained in a symmetric model with comparable volume and number of alveolated branches, whereas normal gravity dispersions were comparable in both models. These results suggest that gravitational sedimentation and not geometrical asymmetry is the dominant factor in aerosol dispersion in the lung periphery.

  3. Pancreatic panniculitis associated with acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhen Jiang; Gong, Jun; Xiang, Guang Ming; Mai, Gang; Liu, Xu Bao

    2011-05-01

    Pancreatic panniculitis is a rare type of disorder associated with pancreatic diseases. We describe here a case of 54-year-old man who was admitted to the Department of Dermatology with the diagnosis of erythema nodosum. The patient presented with a 9-month history of painful erythematous nodules on the extremities, joint pain and swelling, and weight loss. A highly elevated level of pancreatic lipase was found on the laboratory examinations. The biopsy specimens from the skin lesions showed subcutaneous fat necrosis. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a large mass with central necrosis in the body and tail of the pancreas. Distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy and partial transverse colectomy were successfully performed on day 17 of the hospitalization. The histopathologic findings supported the diagnosis of acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas (ACCP). Postoperatively, the level of serum lipase returned to normal, and the skin lesions and joint manifestations gradually regressed. However, the swelling did not significantly resolve in the left knee. In view of the non-specific clinical presentation of this disease, clinicians should be alert and have a high index of suspicion for pancreatic panniculitis.

  4. Pancreatic ducts as an important route of tumor extension for acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Ban, Daisuke; Shimada, Kazuaki; Sekine, Shigeki; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Kosuge, Tomoo; Kanai, Yae; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi

    2010-07-01

    Acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) of the pancreas is very rare, which usually grows expansively. Recently, a variant of ACC with predominant growth in the pancreatic ducts has been proposed, and is speculated to have potentially less aggressive behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate how the pancreatic duct system is related to the growth and extension of ACC. We reviewed the detailed gross and histologic features of 13 cases of ACC, of which 7 (54%) showed intraductal polypoid growth (IPG) of the tumor in the large pancreatic ducts with a mean IPG length of 24.8 mm. Tumors with IPG were found to spread characteristically along the pancreatic ducts as extending polypoid projections, filling the ducts and destroying the duct walls, although tumors did not tend to extend beyond the pancreatic parenchyma. Comparison of the clinicopathologic characteristics showed that ACC with IPG had less infiltrative features including lymphatic, venous, and neural invasion, formation of tumor thrombus in the portal vein, nodal metastasis, and invasion beyond the pancreas to the surrounding organs; death in only 1 case (14%) of ACC with IPG was the result of ACC itself. In contrast, ACC without IPG frequently showed more infiltrative growth, and was the cause of death in 50% of patients with this type of tumor. Intraductal dissemination of ACC in pancreatic ducts was proven in 1 case of ACC with IPG. These findings suggest that a significant proportion of ACC shows IPG, which is potentially linked to less aggressive clinicopathologic characteristics.

  5. Mixed acinar-neuroendocrine-ductal carcinoma of the pancreas: a tale of three lineages.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mark J; Kwong, Christina A; Atieh, Mohammed; Pappas, Sam G

    2016-06-02

    Most pancreatic cancers arise from a single cell type, although mixed pancreatic carcinomas represent a rare exception. The rarity of these aggressive malignancies and the limitations of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) pose significant barriers to diagnosis and appropriate management. We report a case of a 54-year-old man presenting with abdominal pain, jaundice and a hypodense lesion within the uncinate process on CT. FNA suggested poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, which was subsequently resected via pancreaticoduodenectomy. Pathological analysis yielded diagnosis of invasive mixed acinar-neuroendocrine-ductal pancreatic carcinoma. Given the rare and deadly nature of these tumours, clinicians must be aware of their pathophysiology and do practice with a high degree of clinical suspicion, when appropriate. Surgical resection and thorough pathological analysis with immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopy remain the standards of care for mixed pancreatic tumours without gross evidence of metastasis. Diligent characterisation of the presentation and histological findings associated with these neoplasms should continue in order to promote optimal diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  6. Aerosol bolus dispersion in acinar airways—influence of gravity and airway asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Baoshun

    2012-01-01

    The aerosol bolus technique can be used to estimate the degree of convective mixing in the lung; however, contributions of different lung compartments to measured dispersion cannot be differentiated unambiguously. To estimate dispersion in the distal lung, we studied the effect of gravity and airway asymmetry on the dispersion of 1 μm-diameter particle boluses in three-dimensional computational models of the lung periphery, ranging from a single alveolar sac to four-generation (g4) structures of bifurcating airways that deformed homogeneously during breathing. Boluses were introduced at the beginning of a 2-s inhalation, immediately followed by a 3-s exhalation. Dispersion was estimated by the half-width of the exhaled bolus. Dispersion was significantly affected by the spatial orientation of the models in normal gravity and was less in zero gravity than in normal gravity. Dispersion was strongly correlated with model volume in both normal and zero gravity. Predicted pulmonary dispersion based on a symmetric g4 acinar model was 391 ml and 238 ml under normal and zero gravity, respectively. These results accounted for a significant amount of dispersion measured experimentally. In zero gravity, predicted dispersion in a highly asymmetric model accounted for ∼20% of that obtained in a symmetric model with comparable volume and number of alveolated branches, whereas normal gravity dispersions were comparable in both models. These results suggest that gravitational sedimentation and not geometrical asymmetry is the dominant factor in aerosol dispersion in the lung periphery. PMID:22678957

  7. [Protein malnutrition and response of pancreatic acinar cells to stimulation by cholecystokinin].

    PubMed

    Prost, J; Belleville, J

    1988-01-01

    Pancreatic lobules were isolated from 2 groups of male Wistar rats after 23 days of diet. A control group (C) fed on a 20% protein diet (16% gluten + 4% casein) and an experimental group (E) on a 5% protein diet (4% gluten + 1% casein). After isolation, lobules were preincubated 10 min with 10 muCi [3H]-leucine, washed, then incubate within Krebs Ringer bicarbonate Hepes. Basal secretion, then stimulated secretion (50 pM of cholecystokinin (CCK] of radioactive and non-radioactive protein and amylase outputs were measured. During basal secretion, in (E) group, lobules secreted more proteins than (C) one, the same outputs of amylase and radioactive protein were observed in both groups. The stimulated secretion by CCK increased the outputs of non-radioactive protein and amylase of lobules (T) (2-3 fold), but was without effect on lobule (E) outputs. Therefore, a low-protein diet involved a decrease of CCK sensibility on acinar cells, this fact might be mediated by a decreasing number and/or affinity of their CCK receptors.

  8. A quantitative assessment of volumetric and anatomic changes of the parotid gland during intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer using serial computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Ajani, Abdallah A.; Qureshi, Muhammad M.; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Orlina, Lawrence; Sakai, Osamu; Truong, Minh Tam

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the change in volume and movement of the parotid gland measured by serial contrast-enhanced computed tomography scans in patients with head and neck cancer treated with parotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). A prospective study was performed on 13 patients with head and neck cancer undergoing dose-painted IMRT to 69.96 Gy in 33 fractions. Serial computed tomography scans were performed at baseline, weeks 2, 4, and 6 of radiotherapy (RT), and at 6 weeks post-RT. The parotid volume was contoured at each scan, and the movement of the medial and lateral borders was measured. The patient's body weight was recorded at each corresponding week during RT. Regression analyses were performed to ascertain the rate of change during treatment as a percent change per fraction in parotid volume and distance relative to baseline. The mean parotid volume decreased by 37.3% from baseline to week 6 of RT. The overall rate of change in parotid volume during RT was−1.30% per fraction (−1.67% and−0.91% per fraction in≥31 Gy and<31 Gy mean planned parotid dose groups, respectively, p = 0.0004). The movement of parotid borders was greater in the≥31 Gy mean parotid dose group compared with the<31 Gy group (0.22% per fraction and 0.14% per fraction for the lateral border and 0.19% per fraction and 0.06% per fraction for the medial border, respectively). The median change in body weight was−7.4% (range, 0.75% to−17.5%) during RT. A positive correlation was noted between change in body weight and parotid volume during the course of RT (Spearman correlation coefficient, r = 0.66, p<0.01). Head and neck IMRT results in a volume loss of the parotid gland, which is related to the planned parotid dose, and the patient's weight loss during RT.

  9. [Possible relation between viruses and oromaxillofacial tumors. V. Demonstration of hemagglutination-inhibiting anti-BK virus antibodies in patients with tumors of the parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Stoian, M; Zaharia, O; Suru, M; Constantinescu, E; Goldstein, I; Nastac, E

    1987-01-01

    Anti-BK-virus hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies were revealed in 81.8% of the patients with parotid gland tumors. Results of the investigations conducted on oromaxillofacial tumors including the parotid gland ones are discussed from the point of view of the presence of viral antigens (herpes-, SV40 and BK-viruses) and of specific antibodies. Possible implication of the papova viruses in the etiopathogenesis of the parotid gland tumors in humans are also discussed.

  10. From rabbit antibody repertoires to rabbit monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Justus; Peng, Haiyong; Rader, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we explain why and how rabbit monoclonal antibodies have become outstanding reagents for laboratory research and increasingly for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Starting with the unique ontogeny of rabbit B cells that affords highly distinctive antibody repertoires rich in in vivo pruned binders of high diversity, affinity and specificity, we describe the generation of rabbit monoclonal antibodies by hybridoma technology, phage display and alternative methods, along with an account of successful humanization strategies. PMID:28336958

  11. Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    González-García, Raúl; Nam-Cha, Syong H; Muñoz-Guerra, Mario F; Gamallo-Amat, C

    2006-03-01

    Basal cell adenoma of the salivary glands is an uncommon type of monomorphous adenoma. Its most frequent location is the parotid gland. It usually appears as a firm and mobile slow-growing mass. Histologically, isomorphic cells in nests and interlaced trabecules with a prominent basal membrane are observed. It is also characterized by the presence of a slack and hyaline stroma and the absence of myxoid or condroid stroma. In contrast to pleomorphic adenoma, it tends to be multiple and its recurrence rate after surgical excision is high. Due to prognostic implications, differential diagnosis with basal cell adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is mandatory. We describe a case of basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland. We also review the literature and discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare entity.

  12. Relapsed Acinic Cell Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland With Diffuse Distant Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Khelfa, Yousef; Mansour, Munthir; Abdel-Aziz, Yousef; Raufi, Ali; Denning, Krista; Lebowicz, Yehuda

    2016-01-01

    Acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) is an uncommon salivary gland neoplasm that generally displays an indolent growth pattern. Most cases arise in the major glands, particularly the parotid. However, it can arise from minor salivary glands in the oral cavity and aero-digestive tract. Although ACC is generally a low-grade malignant tumor, poorly differentiated and high-grade transformed variants exhibit a propensity for late recurrence and metastasis. There are no adequate clinical trials that define the optimal approach to patients with metastatic salivary gland tumors due to its rarity. Systemic therapy is reserved for cases where local therapy, such as radiation or metastasectomy, is not appropriate. Nevertheless, there is insufficient data in the literature regarding the chemotherapy of choice for metastatic ACC. In this article, we report a case of metastatic ACC of the right parotid gland that progressed on carboplatin and paclitaxel after partial response followed by doxorubicin and is currently on checkpoint inhibitor treatment. PMID:27847831

  13. Primary unclassified sarcoma of the parotid gland: a case of diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

    PubMed

    Saravakos, Panagiotis; Hartwein, Joerg; Fayyazi, Afshin

    2017-05-01

    Malignant salivary gland sarcomas represent a clinically and histologically diagnostic challenge. Primary unclassified sarcomas of the parotid gland consist a rare salivary gland tumor. We report an unusual case of such a tumor, which occurred in the right parotid gland of a 54-year-old male and presented as an asymptomatic painless mass. The pathologoanatomical examination revealed a rhabdoid large-cell unclassified sarcoma. The patient was treated with superficial parotidectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy. No recurrence was noted in a 10-year follow-up period. Due to the rare occurrence of primary unclassified sarcomas, there is no evidence-based treatment of choice. An optimal approach is best planned in a multidisciplinary setting, taking into consideration the resectability of the tumor, individual patient characteristics, presence of local or distant metastatic activity, local infiltrative behavior and tumor stage. A close follow-up of the patient is strongly recommended.

  14. Castleman disease of the parotid gland in a pediatric patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudesh; Al Abri, Rashid; Kadir, Nasreen Abdul; Lokuhetty, Dilani

    2014-01-01

    Castleman disease, also called angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia, is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by enlarged hyperplastic lymph nodes. Affected patients usually present with mediastinal lymphadenopathy; sometimes other groups of lymph nodes are involved, with or without associated systemic manifestations. We report a case of Castleman disease involving the intraparotid lymph node in a 15-year-old boy who presented with a 3-month history of a painless swelling of the right parotid gland. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the mass revealed only reactive hyperplasia. The diagnosis of Castleman disease was established on histopathologic examination of the resected mass. We discuss the clinical course, histopathologic features, radiologic characteristics, and management of Castleman disease of the parotid gland in a pediatric patient.

  15. Predicting facial nerve invasion by parotid gland carcinoma and outcome of facial reanimation.

    PubMed

    Preis, M; Soudry, E; Bachar, G; Shufel, H; Feinmesser, R; Shpitzer, T

    2010-01-01

    We sought to define risk factors for facial nerve involvement in parotid gland carcinoma and assess the outcome of facial nerve reanimation. Medical records were reviewed of 66 patients who underwent surgery for parotid carcinoma in 2000–2007 at a tertiary hospital. Patient and tumor characteristics were compared between patients with and without facial nerve involvement and were analyzed on their influence on functional outcome following reanimation. Facial nerve involvement was verified intraoperatively in 24 patients, of whom 16 underwent reanimation during ablative surgery. Deep lobe invasion was significantly associated with intraoperative finding of facial nerve involvement. Tumors larger than 4 cm and salivary duct carcinoma had an obvious trend for facial nerve involvement. House-Brackmann score at 12 months was 3-4 in most patients. Deep lobe involvement and large tumor size may identify patients at risk of facial nerve involvement. Reanimation is associated with good functional outcome regardless of patient's age.

  16. Ultrasound GLCM texture analysis of radiation-induced parotid-gland injury in head-and-neck cancer radiotherapy: An in vivo study of late toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Tridandapani, Srini; Beitler, Jonathan J.; Yu, David S.; Yoshida, Emi J.; Curran, Walter J.; Liu, Tian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Xerostomia (dry mouth), secondary to irradiation of the parotid glands, is one of the most common side effects of head-and-neck cancer radiotherapy. Diagnostic tools able to accurately and efficiently measure parotid gland injury have yet to be introduced into the clinic. This study's purpose is to investigate sonographic textural features as potential imaging signatures for quantitative assessment of parotid-gland injury after head-and-neck radiotherapy. Methods: The authors have investigated a series of sonographic features obtained from the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) – a second order statistical method of texture analysis. These GLCM textural features were selected based on empirical observations that the normal parotid gland exhibits homogeneous echotexture, whereas the postradiotherapy parotid gland often exhibits heterogeneous echotexture. We employed eight sonographic features: (1) angular second moment (ASM), (2) inverse differential moment (IDM), (3) contrast, (4) variance, (5) correlation, (6) entropy, (7) cluster shade, and (8) cluster prominence. Altogether, sonographic properties of the parotid glands were quantified by their degrees of homogeneity (ASM and IDM), heterogeneity (contrast and variance), smoothness (correlation), randomness (entropy), and symmetry (cluster shade and prominence). The sonographic features were tested in a pilot study of 12 postradiotherapy patients and 7 healthy volunteers. The mean follow-up time for the postradiotherapy patients was 17.2 months (range: 12.1–23.9 months) and the mean radiation dose to the parotid glands was 32.3 Gy (range: 11.0–63.4 Gy). Each participant underwent one ultrasound study in which longitudinal (vertical) ultrasound scans were performed on the bilateral parotids – a total of 24 postirradiation and 14 normal parotid glands were examined. The 14 normal parotid glands served as the control group. A radiologist contoured the parotid glands on the B-mode images and the

  17. Multi-atlas-based Segmentation of the Parotid Glands of MR Images in Patients Following Head-and-neck Cancer Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Guanghui; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Ning; Xu, Zhijian; Zhao, Hongfu; Wang, Yuefeng; Liu, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Xerostomia (dry mouth), resulting from radiation damage to the parotid glands, is one of the most common and distressing side effects of head-and-neck cancer radiotherapy. Recent MRI studies have demonstrated that the volume reduction of parotid glands is an important indicator for radiation damage and xerostomia. In the clinic, parotid-volume evaluation is exclusively based on physicians’ manual contours. However, manual contouring is time-consuming and prone to inter-observer and intra-observer variability. Here, we report a fully automated multi-atlas-based registration method for parotid-gland delineation in 3D head-and-neck MR images. The multi-atlas segmentation utilizes a hybrid deformable image registration to map the target subject to multiple patients’ images, applies the transformation to the corresponding segmented parotid glands, and subsequently uses the multiple patient-specific pairs (head-and-neck MR image and transformed parotid-gland mask) to train support vector machine (SVM) to reach consensus to segment the parotid gland of the target subject. This segmentation algorithm was tested with head-and-neck MRIs of 5 patients following radiotherapy for the nasopharyngeal cancer. The average parotid-gland volume overlapped 85% between the automatic segmentations and the physicians’ manual contours. In conclusion, we have demonstrated the feasibility of an automatic multi-atlas based segmentation algorithm to segment parotid glands in head-and-neck MR images. PMID:25914491

  18. Rabbits killing birds revisited.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jimin; Fan, Meng; Kuang, Yang

    2006-09-01

    We formulate and study a three-species population model consisting of an endemic prey (bird), an alien prey (rabbit) and an alien predator (cat). Our model overcomes several model construction problems in existing models. Moreover, our model generates richer, more reasonable and realistic dynamics. We explore the possible control strategies to save or restore the bird by controlling or eliminating the rabbit or the cat when the bird is endangered. We confirm the existence of the hyperpredation phenomenon, which is a big potential threat to most endemic prey. Specifically, we show that, in an endemic prey-alien prey-alien predator system, eradication of introduced predators such as the cat alone is not always the best solution to protect endemic insular prey since predator control may fail to protect the indigenous prey when the control of the introduced prey is not carried out simultaneously.

  19. [Intralesional Pingyangmycin therapy for 51 infantile patients with parotid gland hemangiomas].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Li; Gao, Qing-Hong; Liu, Kun; Wang, Xiao-Yi; Wang, Chang-Mei; Wen, Yu-Ming

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the indication and outcome of intralesional Pingyangmycin (PYM) therapy for parotid gland hemangiomas in early childhood. 51 infantile patients with hemangiomas in the parotid gland were studied retrospectively, which had been treated in the clinic of West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University during the 15-year period from May 1990 to May 2005. In this study, 21 were male, 30 were female, and the ratio of male to female was 1:1.43. The age of the children ranged from 6 months to 4 years, with an average age of 10 months. 38 were deep-seated hemangiomas, and 13 were mixed hemangiomas. 27 were in the right parotid gland and 24 in the left, no bilateral case. All the patients underwent intralesional injection of a solution of 8 mg PYM in 8 mL normal saline mixed with 5 mg dexamethasone. The total dose of PYM ranged from 20mg to 35 mg, which was administered 0.5 or 1 mg per injection. SPSS10.0 software package was used to compare the treatment efficacy between the patients with hemangioma <4 cm in diameter and >or=4 cm in diameter. Hemangiomas of 42 cases (82.35%) showed complete resolution with good appearance, 8 cases (15.69%) were partly regressed, and 1 case (1.96%) had no obvious size change. No serious side effects were seen, such as pulmonary fibrosis and growth inhibition. No significant correlation was found between treatment efficacy and tumor size. Intralesional PYM therapy maybe is a selective primary therapy option for parotid gland hemangioma, and ultrasonography should be useful for diagnosis and treatment of this lesion.

  20. [Immunoglobulin and electrolyte levels in sialadenosis of the parotid (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Proescher, H J

    1975-03-01

    A comparison of 15 patients with sialadenosis of the parotid gland and 15 control patients was made of their levels of immunoglobulins A, G and M, sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, albumin, inorganic phosphate, cholesterin, uric acid and creatinin. Those patients with sialadenosis, in comparison with the control group and the findings in other reports, show reduced immunoglobulin A and increased potassium in the parotic secretion. The disturbance of function of the acinic cell is discussed.

  1. [Mucoepidermoid cancer of parotid gland in 14-years-old girl--case report].

    PubMed

    Amernik, Katarzyna; Wasilewska, Małgorzata; Lubiński, Jakub; Walaszek, Ireneusz; Grzelec, Halina; Peregud-Pogorzelski, Jarosław; Jaworowska, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Malignant tumors of salivary glands are rare, especially in children. We present a case report of 14-years-old girl affected by mucoepidermoid cancer of parotid gland. Patient was admitted to our Department in May 2007 due to small, hard, moveable tumor localized in right mandibular angle. The VII nerve function was normal. Fine needle aspiration revealed inflammatory cells without atypical cytologic features. Intraoperative tumor was hard, with irregular surface, surrounded by capsule, connected with the main trunk of facial nerve and cartilaginous part of external auditory meatus. Tumor was excised together with superficial part of parotid gland and surrounding lymph nodes. After operation no signs of facial nerve damage were observed. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed mucoepidermoid cancer, in 2 out of 6 specimens neoplasmatic cells were seen in border of excised tissue. In June 2007 the second operation was performed. Remain part of parotid gland was removed with right facial nerve and conservative lymph node resection. Facial nerve and its branches were reconstructed with sural and great auricular nerve as donor grafts. The symptoms of nerve damage were observed in early postoperative days adequate to 5th degree of House-Brackman scale (HB5). 4 years after operation function of facial nerve is estimated on HB3. The girl is under regular oncological and laryngological control free of neoplasm recurrence. Diagnostics and treatment of malignant parotid tumors in children are difficult and clinical picture must be always taken into consideration as the most important factor. Copyright © 2012 Polish Otolaryngology Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  2. Prognostic Factors and Treatment Outcomes of Parotid Gland Cancer: A 10-Year Single-Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jae Won; Hong, Hyun Jun; Ban, Myung Jin; Shin, Yoo Seob; Kim, Won Shik; Koh, Yoon Woo; Choi, Eun Chang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the treatment outcomes of parotid gland cancer at a single center over a 10-year period and to evaluate the prognostic significance of maximum standardized uptake value. Retrospective case series with chart review. Academic care center. Ninety-eight patients with primary parotid gland cancer who were surgically treated at Yonsei University Head & Neck Cancer Clinic between January 1999 and December 2008 were analyzed. Patient data were collected retrospectively from medical charts. The investigators analyzed the association of clinicopathological factors and maximum standardized uptake value on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan with disease-specific survival. Mean patient age was 49.7 years. Mean follow-up was 48.8 months. Thirty-three, 40, 30, and 23 patients had stage I, II, III, and IVA disease, respectively. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common histologic type (34.7%), followed by acinic cell carcinoma (27.6%). Eighteen patients (18.4%) experienced recurrences (mean recurrence gap, 20.6 months; range, 2-87 months). Five- and 10-year disease-specific survival rates were 93.6% and 81.8%, respectively. In the univariate analysis, pathologic T stage, pathologic lymph node status, resection margin, external parenchymal extension, and maximum standardized uptake value were significantly associated with disease-specific survival. Pathologic lymph node status and maximum standardized uptake value were independent prognostic factors in the multivariate analysis. Our single-center experience with parotid gland cancer treatment is consistent with the literature. Cervical lymph node metastasis and high maximum standardized uptake value are associated with poor survival in parotid gland cancer. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  3. Traumatic diseases of parotid gland and sequalae. Review of literature and case reports.

    PubMed

    Akinbami, B O

    2009-06-01

    Parotid gland injuries are accompanied by a large number of sequelae. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of thorough management of these parotid glandinjuries especially at initial presentation in order to minimize the complications that accompany these injuries. A review of the aetiology and management of the existing cases of parotid gland injuries obtained from published journals and internet search as well as a report of two cases managed in our centre is presented in this paper. A total of about 70 cases in the previous literatures were reviewed of which assault was responsible for almost 90% of the cases. Sialoceles and fistulae were the main sequelae of these injuries. More than half of the cases (54%) were managed by conservative methods. Surgical drainage was done in about 44% cases; where the Stenson's ducts were accessible, primary repair was done. Excision of the gland was done in very few cases. The two cases managed in our centre were due to assault from broken bottles and road traffic accident respectively and both were managed by conservative methods. The first patient was a case of sialocele following the injury, which resolved within 3 weeks after the cyst formation with reduction in food intake, aspirations and external surgical drainage; while the second patient was a case of persistent fistula which healed after about 5 weeks following the trauma. Follow-up of both patients for about 3 months revealed no further leakage or accumulation of saliva. Management of these injuries involves a thorough understanding of the structure and function of the parotid gland and closely related tissues.

  4. Rabbit renotropic system

    SciTech Connect

    Areas, J.; Yun, G.C.; Rahmat, J.; Gersten, D.; Goel, R.; Preuss, H.G.

    1988-04-01

    Elevated levels of a specific renal growth factor, renotropin, have been associated with spontaneous hypertension. To examine this association more closely, we have undertaken the development of a better assay system to characterize and purify renotropin. Sera from rabbits prior to operation (control) and at a specified time after unilateral nephrectomy (uni) were examined for renotropic activity. Comparing the effects of uni to control sera in the same rabbit, significant stimulation of 3H-thymidine incorporation into the DNA of primary rabbit kidney cultures incubated in D-valine medium to eliminate fibroblast growth was noted: at 3 days postoperatively 73% (n = 13), at 7 days 103% (n = 39), at 10 days 130% (n = 31), at 21 days 101% (n = 24), at 42 days 89% (n = 13). All values were at least P less than 0.01. The stimulatory properties were dose-dependent but reached a plateau at high serum concentrations. Comparing CPM/mg protein in uni/control in different concentrations of sera 7 days postoperatively, uni versus control were 67/44 at 5% v/v, 139/72 at 10% v/v, 261/161 at 20% v/v, and 243/136 at 40% v/v. The renotropic effect of uni sera remained after dialysis in incubation medium and after sera were heated in boiling water for 5 minutes. Renal extracts obtained from growing kidneys 7 days postnephrectomy augmented renotropic activity. Atrial natriuretic factor, ouabain, PGF2 alpha, PGE1, and cAMP did not possess renotropic activity. We conclude that the primary rabbit kidney culture assay for renotropin is highly sensitive and will be an important tool to comprehend the role of renotropin in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

  5. Outcome analysis of 215 patients with parotid gland tumors: a retrospective cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Erovic, Boban M; Shah, Manish D; Bruch, Guillem; Johnston, Meredith; Johnston, U; Kim, John; O'Sullivan, Brian; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Weinreb, Ilan; Atenafu, Eshetu G; de Almeida, John R; Gullane, Patrick J; Brown, Dale; Gilbert, Ralph W; Irish, Jonathan C; Goldstein, David P

    2015-10-29

    To identify prognostic factors in patients with parotid gland carcinomas who were treated at the Princess Margaret Hospital. Clinical outcome of two hundred fifteen patients with malignancies of the parotid gland was evaluated over a 16-year period. Two-hundred-fifteen patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 20), adenocarcinoma (n = 19), acinic cell carcinoma (n = 62), basal cell adenocarcinoma (n = 7), carcinoma-ex-pleomorphic adenoma (n = 18), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (n = 70) and salivary duct carcinoma (n = 19) have been included. The 5- and 10-year overall and disease-free survivals were 80.62%/69.48% and 74.37%/62.42%, respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that age greater than 60 years, advanced pN classification, histopathological grade and the presence of lymphovascular invasion significantly worsened overall and disease-free survival. Univariable analysis revealed periparotid lymph node involvement was associated with decreased overall (p < 0.0001) and disease-free survival (p < 0.0001). In addition to age, pN classification, histopathological grade, perineural invasion, and lymphovascular involvement, periparotid lymph node metastasis appears to be an important prognosticator in parotid gland malignancy.

  6. Multiple clear-cell sarcomas of small intestine with parotid gland metastasis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hao; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Ren, Wen-Hao; Wang, Peng; Shi, Lei; Zhou, Hai-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Clear-cell sarcoma is a rare, malignant soft tissue tumor that displays melanocytic differentiation with a distinct molecular profile. It is rarely localized in the gastrointestinal tract. Herein we reported a case of multiple synchronous clear-cell sarcomas of the gastrointestinal tract with parotid gland metastasis. A 51-year-old male patient presented with a growing painless mass under the right ear. A preoperative positron emission tomography/computed tomography showed multiple intestinal masses and a mass in the right parotid with increased glucose uptake, and he underwent operative treatment with resection of three tumors in the jejunum and ileum and then received a right parotidectomy. Postoperative pathological examination showed that cells in the intestinal tumor were consistent with clear-cell sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract, and the malignant cells in the parotid gland were similar to the intestinal tumor. Immunohistochemical studies revealed positive expression of HMB-45, Melan-A, and S-100. EWSR1 gene fusion transcripts were undetectable by fluorescence in situ hybridization. PMID:28405155

  7. Acquired von Willebrand's disease associated with epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid salivary gland

    PubMed Central

    Chilvers, Geoffrey Spencer; Porter, Graham

    2014-01-01

    This is the first case report of a patient with acquired von Willebrand's disease (AvWD) secondary to epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) of the parotid salivary gland. This patient presented to haematology following an abnormal bleeding episode with von Willebrand factor Ristocetin cofactor (VWF:RCo) <5% and VWF:Ag 13%. He was diagnosed with AvWD. At the same time he was found to have a left parotid lump which was excised following a multidisciplinary team meeting. This was histologically reported as an EMC. Following excision, unusually this patient's AvWD did not resolve. Extensive investigation looking for other causes of the AvWD did not reveal any other potential cause; therefore, due to the similar timing of onset of both pathologies it is felt that the AvWD in this case is secondary to the EMC. This case report highlights the presentation, investigation and management of AvWD and parotid lumps as well as discussing proposed pathophysiological mechanisms for AvWD. PMID:25096657

  8. Parotid gland solitary fibrous tumor with mandibular bone destruction and aggressive behavior

    PubMed Central

    González-Otero, Teresa; Castro-Calvo, Alejandro; Ruiz-Bravo, Elena; Burgueño, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Solitary fibrous tumor is associated with serosal surfaces. Location in the salivary glands is extremely unusual. Extrathoracic tumors have an excellent prognosis associated with their benign clinical behavior. We report an aggressive and recurrent case of this tumor. We review the clinical presentation, inmunohistochemical profiles and therapeutic approaches. Case Report: A 73-years-old woman presented a mass in her right parotid gland. She had a past history of right superficial parotidectomy due to a neurilemoma. FNAB and magnetic resonance were non-specific. After a tumor resection, microscopic findings were spindled tumor cells with reactivity to CD34, bcl-2 and CD99 and the tumor was diagnosed as Solitary Fibrous Tumor. The patient suffered two recurrences and the tumor had a histological aggressive behavior and a destruction of the cortical bone of the mandible adjacent to the mass. A marginal mandibulectomy with an alveolar inferior nerve lateralization was performed. Conclusions: Solitary fibrous tumor is a very rare tumor. Usually, they are benign, but occasionally they can be aggressive. Complete resection is the most important prognostic factor and no evidence supports the efficacy of any therapy different to surgery. Due to the unknown prognosis and to the small number of cases reported, a long-term follow-up is guaranteed. Key words:Solitary fibrous tumor, parotid mass, parotid gland, salivary gland, rare tumors. PMID:25136435

  9. Type I receptors in parotid, colon, and pituitary are aldosterone selective in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, K.; Funder, J.W. )

    1987-10-01

    Previous in vivo studies have demonstrated that type I receptors in the rat kidney are aldosterone selective, whereas those in the hippocampus do not appear to discriminate between aldosterone and corticosterone. The authors have injected mature rats with ({sup 3}H)aldosterone or ({sup 3}H)corticosterone plus 100-fold excess of RU 28362, with or without unlabeled aldosterone or corticosterone, and compared type I receptor occupancy in two classic mineralocorticoid target tissues (parotid and colon) and in the pituitary. Mature rats were killed 10-180 min after tracer administration; ({sup 3}H)aldosterone was well taken up and retained in all tissues, whereas ({sup 3}H)corticosterone was significantly retained only in the pituitary 10 min after tracer administration. To assess a possible role for corticosterone-binding globulin (CBG) in conferring aldosterone specificity on type I receptors, 10-day-old rats (with very low levels of CBG) were similarly injected. In the colon and parotid, ({sup 3}H)aldosterone binding was at least an order of magnitude higher than that of corticosterone; in the pituitary aldosterone binding was approximately three times that of corticosterone. They interpret these data as evidence that in the parotid and colon type I receptors are aldosterone selective by a non-CBG-requiring mechanism, whereas in the pituitary there appear to be both aldosterone-selective and nonselective type I sites.

  10. Capsular significance in parotid tumor surgery: reality and myths of lateral lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Donovan, D T; Conley, J J

    1984-03-01

    Historically, parotid gland surgery has evolved from an operation of surgical enucleation to that of lateral lobectomy or total parotidectomy with facial nerve dissection. While the enucleation operation originally resulted in recurrence rates as high as 45% in some series, the technique of lateral lobectomy has resulted in recurrence rates of 2% in benign tumors. However, the currently recommended