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  1. Expression of human transferrin can be regulated effectively by rabbit transferrin regulatory elements in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jingbin; Gong, Xiuli; Pan, Shubiao; Guo, Xinbing; Ren, Zhaorui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-06-01

    Human transferrin (hTF) belongs to the iron-binding glycoprotein family. It plays an important role in iron transport throughout the body. Transgenic mice are a good model to study how to produce functional hTF on a large-scale. We have improved the expression of hTF and investigated its regulatory mechanism in transgenic mice. Three expression constructs were prepared in which hTF expression was controlled by different regulatory cassettes of rabbit transferrin (rTF). hTF was secreted into serum of transgenic mice when its expression was controlled by the rTF promoter and enhancer, whereas the rTF enhancer in tandem with the rTF promoter repressed hTF secretion into milk. A significant inverse relationship between methylation of the rTF promoter and hTF expression was observed in liver, heart, mammary gland, and muscle of transgenic mice. The highest concentration of hTF was 700 μg/ml in milk.

  2. Species differences in methanol and formic acid pharmacokinetics in mice, rabbits and primates

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeting, J. Nicole; Siu, Michelle; McCallum, Gordon P.; Miller, Lutfiya; Wells, Peter G.

    2010-08-15

    Methanol (MeOH) is metabolized primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase in humans, but by catalase in rodents, with species variations in the pharmacokinetics of its formic acid (FA) metabolite. The teratogenic potential of MeOH in humans is unknown, and its teratogenicity in rodents may not accurately reflect human developmental risk due to differential species metabolism, as for some other teratogens. To determine if human MeOH metabolism might be better reflected in rabbits than rodents, the plasma pharmacokinetics of MeOH and FA were compared in male CD-1 mice, New Zealand white rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys over time (24, 48 and 6 h, respectively) following a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 or 2 g/kg MeOH or its saline vehicle. Following the high dose, MeOH exhibited saturated elimination kinetics in all 3 species, with similar peak concentrations and a 2.5-fold higher clearance in mice than rabbits. FA accumulation within 6 h in primates was 5-fold and 43-fold higher than in rabbits and mice respectively, with accumulation being 10-fold higher in rabbits than mice. Over 48 h, FA accumulation was nearly 5-fold higher in rabbits than mice. Low-dose MeOH in mice and rabbits resulted in similarly saturated MeOH elimination in both species, but with approximately 2-fold higher clearance rates in mice. FA accumulation was 3.8-fold higher in rabbits than mice. Rabbits more closely than mice reflected primates for in vivo MeOH metabolism, and particularly FA accumulation, suggesting that developmental studies in rabbits may be useful for assessing potential human teratological risk.

  3. Human acid alpha-glucosidase from rabbit milk has therapeutic effect in mice with glycogen storage disease type II.

    PubMed

    Bijvoet, A G; Van Hirtum, H; Kroos, M A; Van de Kamp, E H; Schoneveld, O; Visser, P; Brakenhoff, J P; Weggeman, M; van Corven, E J; Van der Ploeg, A T; Reuser, A J

    1999-11-01

    Pompe's disease or glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII) belongs to the family of inherited lysosomal storage diseases. The underlying deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase leads in different degrees of severity to glycogen storage in heart, skeletal and smooth muscle. There is currently no treatment for this fatal disease, but the applicability of enzyme replacement therapy is under investigation. For this purpose, recombinant human acid alpha-glucosidase has been produced on an industrial scale in the milk of transgenic rabbits. In this paper we demonstrate the therapeutic effect of this enzyme in our knockout mouse model of GSDII. Full correction of acid alpha-glucosidase deficiency was obtained in all tissues except brain after a single dose of i.v. enzyme administration. Weekly enzyme infusions over a period of 6 months resulted in degradation of lysosomal glycogen in heart, skeletal and smooth muscle. The tissue morphology improved substantially despite the advanced state of disease at the start of treatment. The results have led to the start of a Phase II clinical trial of enzyme replacement therapy in patients.

  4. PET imaging of apoptosis in tumor-bearing mice and rabbits after paclitaxel treatment with 18F-Labeled recombinant human His10-annexin V

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Haidong; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Xie, Lin; Hou, Yanjie; Hua, Zichun; Hu, Minjin; Wang, Zizheng; Wang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring response to chemo- or radiotherapy is of great importance in clinical practice. Apoptosis imaging serves as a very useful tool for the early evaluation of tumor response. The goal of this study was PET imaging of apoptosis with 18F-labeled recombinant human annexin V linked with 10 histidine tag (18F-rh-His10-annexin V) in nude mice bearing an A549 tumor and rabbits bearing a VX2 lung cancer after paclitaxel therapy. 18F-rh-His10-annexin V was prepared by conjugation of rh-His10-annexin V with N-succinimidyl 4-[18F]fluorobenzoate. Biodistribution was determined in mice by the dissection method and small-animal PET. Single-dose paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) was used to induce apoptosis in A549 and VX2 tumor models. 18F-rh-His10-annexin V was injected into A549 mice and VX rabbits to acquire dynamic and static PET images 72 h after paclitaxel treatment. The uptake of 18F-rh-His10-annexin V in apoptotic cells 4 h after induction was 6.45±0.52 fold higher than that in non-induced cells. High focal uptake of 18F-rh-His10-annexin V was visualized in A549 (SUVmax: 0.35±0.13) and VX2 (0.41±0.23) tumor models after paclitaxel treatment, whereas lower uptake was found in the corresponding tumors before treatment (A549 SUVmax: 0.04±0.02; VX2: 0.009±0.002). The apoptotic index was 75.61±11.56% in the treated VX2 cancer, much higher than that in the untreated VX2 (8.03±2.81%). This study demonstrated the feasibility of 18F-rh-His10-annexin V for the detection of apoptosis after chemotherapy in A549 and VX2 tumor models. PMID:25625024

  5. Transgenic rabbits as therapeutic protein bioreactors and human disease models.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianglin; Watanabe, Teruo

    2003-09-01

    Genetically modified laboratory animals provide a powerful approach for studying gene expression and regulation and allow one to directly examine structure-function and cause-and-effect relationships in pathophysiological processes. Today, transgenic mice are available as a research tool in almost every research institution. On the other hand, the development of a relatively large mammalian transgenic model, transgenic rabbits, has provided unprecedented opportunities for investigators to study the mechanisms of human diseases and has also provided an alternative way to produce therapeutic proteins to treat human diseases. Transgenic rabbits expressing human genes have been used as a model for cardiovascular disease, AIDS, and cancer research. The recombinant proteins can be produced from the milk of transgenic rabbits not only at lower cost but also on a relatively large scale. One of the most promising and attractive recombinant proteins derived from transgenic rabbit milk, human alpha-glucosidase, has been successfully used to treat the patients who are genetically deficient in this enzyme. Although the pronuclear microinjection is still the major and most popular method for the creation of transgenic rabbits, recent progress in gene targeting and animal cloning has opened new avenues that should make it possible to produce transgenic rabbits by somatic cell nuclear transfer in the future. Based on a computer-assisted search of the studies of transgenic rabbits published in the English literature here, we introduce to the reader the achievements made thus far with transgenic rabbits, with emphasis on the application of these rabbits as human disease models and live bioreactors for producing human therapeutic proteins and on the recent progress in cloned rabbits.

  6. Lung-targeting drug delivery system of baicalin-loaded nanoliposomes: development, biodistribution in rabbits, and pharmacodynamics in nude mice bearing orthotopic human lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yumeng; Liang, Jing; Zheng, Xiaoli; Pi, Chao; Liu, Hao; Yang, Hongru; Zou, Yonggen; Ye, Yun; Zhao, Ling

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to develop a kind of novel nanoliposomes for the lung-targeting delivery system of baicalin as a Chinese medicine monomer. Baicalin-loaded nanoliposomes were prepared by the effervescent dispersion and lyophilized techniques. Baicalin-loaded nanoliposomes had an average particle size of 131.7±11.7 nm with 0.19±0.02 polydispersity index, 82.8%±1.24% entrapment efficiency and 90.47%±0.93% of yield and sustaining drug release effect over 24 h and were stable for 12 months at least. In vitro no hemolytic activity was observed for the experimental drug concentration. After intravenous administration of baicalin-loaded nanoliposomes to rabbits, drug concentration in the lungs was the highest among the tested organs at all time points and was significantly higher than that of its solution. For the targeting parameters, the relative intake rate and the ratio of peak concentration of lung were 4.837 and 2.789, respectively. Compared with plasma, liver, spleen, and kidney, the ratios of targeting efficacy (Te)liposomes to (Te)injection of lung were increased by a factor of 14.131, 1.893, 3.357, and 3.470, respectively. Furthermore, the results showed that the baicalin-loaded nanoliposomes did not induce lung injury. Importantly, baicalin-loaded nanoliposomes showed better antitumor therapeutic efficacy in the nude mice bearing orthotopic human lung cancer with the median survival time of blank liposomes (11.40±0.16 days), baicalin solution (17.30±0.47 days), and baicalin-loaded nanoliposomes (25.90±0.53 days). Therefore, the liposome is a promising drug carrier with an excellent lung-targeting property and therapeutic effect for the treatment of lung disease, such as lung cancer. PMID:28096670

  7. Lung-targeting drug delivery system of baicalin-loaded nanoliposomes: development, biodistribution in rabbits, and pharmacodynamics in nude mice bearing orthotopic human lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yumeng; Liang, Jing; Zheng, Xiaoli; Pi, Chao; Liu, Hao; Yang, Hongru; Zou, Yonggen; Ye, Yun; Zhao, Ling

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to develop a kind of novel nanoliposomes for the lung-targeting delivery system of baicalin as a Chinese medicine monomer. Baicalin-loaded nanoliposomes were prepared by the effervescent dispersion and lyophilized techniques. Baicalin-loaded nanoliposomes had an average particle size of 131.7±11.7 nm with 0.19±0.02 polydispersity index, 82.8%±1.24% entrapment efficiency and 90.47%±0.93% of yield and sustaining drug release effect over 24 h and were stable for 12 months at least. In vitro no hemolytic activity was observed for the experimental drug concentration. After intravenous administration of baicalin-loaded nanoliposomes to rabbits, drug concentration in the lungs was the highest among the tested organs at all time points and was significantly higher than that of its solution. For the targeting parameters, the relative intake rate and the ratio of peak concentration of lung were 4.837 and 2.789, respectively. Compared with plasma, liver, spleen, and kidney, the ratios of targeting efficacy (Te)liposomes to (Te)injection of lung were increased by a factor of 14.131, 1.893, 3.357, and 3.470, respectively. Furthermore, the results showed that the baicalin-loaded nanoliposomes did not induce lung injury. Importantly, baicalin-loaded nanoliposomes showed better antitumor therapeutic efficacy in the nude mice bearing orthotopic human lung cancer with the median survival time of blank liposomes (11.40±0.16 days), baicalin solution (17.30±0.47 days), and baicalin-loaded nanoliposomes (25.90±0.53 days). Therefore, the liposome is a promising drug carrier with an excellent lung-targeting property and therapeutic effect for the treatment of lung disease, such as lung cancer.

  8. Rabbit Models for Studying Human Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xuwen; Knouse, John A; Hernon, Krista M

    2015-01-01

    Using an appropriate animal model is crucial for mimicking human disease conditions, and various facets including genetics, anatomy, and pathophysiology should be considered before selecting a model. Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are well known for their wide use in production of antibodies, eye research, atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. However, a systematic description of the rabbit as primary experimental models for the study of various human infectious diseases is unavailable. This review focuses on the human infectious diseases for which rabbits are considered a classic or highly appropriate model, including AIDS (caused by HIV1), adult T-cell leukemia–lymphoma (human T-lymphotropic virus type 1), papilloma or carcinoma (human papillomavirus) , herpetic stromal keratitis (herpes simplex virus type 1), tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), and syphilis (Treponema pallidum). In addition, particular aspects of the husbandry and care of rabbits used in studies of human infectious diseases are described. PMID:26678367

  9. Embryo-Fetal Developmental Toxicity Studies with Pregabalin in Mice and Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Morse, Dennis C

    2016-04-01

    Pregabalin was evaluated for potential developmental toxicity in mice and rabbits. Pregabalin was administered once daily by oral gavage to female albino mice (500, 1250, or 2500 mg/kg) and New Zealand White rabbits (250, 500, or 1250 mg/kg) during organogenesis (gestation day 6 through 15 [mice] or 6 through 20 [rabbits]). Fetuses were evaluated for viability, growth, and morphological development. Pregabalin administration to mice did not induce maternal or developmental toxicity at doses up to 2500 mg/kg, which was associated with a maternal plasma exposure (AUC0-24 ) of 3790 μg•hr/ml, ≥30 times the expected human exposure at the maximum recommended daily dose (MRD; 600 mg/day). In rabbits, treatment-related clinical signs occurred at all doses (AUC0-24 of 1397, 2023, and 4803 μg•hr/ml at 250, 500, and 1250 mg/kg, respectively). Maternal toxicity was evident at all doses and included ataxia, hypoactivity, and cool to touch. In addition, abortion and females euthanized moribund with total resorption occurred at 1250 mg/kg. There were no treatment-related malformations at any dose. At 1250 mg/kg, compared with study and historical controls, the percentage of fetuses with retarded ossification was significantly increased and the mean number of ossification sites was decreased, which correlated with decreased fetal and placental weights, consistent with in utero growth retardation. Therefore, the no-effect dose for developmental toxicity in rabbits was 500 mg/kg, which produced systemic exposure approximately 16-times human exposure at the MRD. These findings indicate that pregabalin, at the highest dose tested, was not teratogenic in mice or rabbits. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Experimental infections with Fasciola in snails, mice and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Abdel-Nasser A; Khalifa, R M A

    2008-05-01

    Experimental infection trails of Lymnaea (cailliaudi) natalensis snails with miracidia of Fasciola hepatica revealed neither cercariae nor larval stages shed. Infection of white mice with metacercariae from field-collected snails proved to be negative for Fasciola eggs and immature juveniles or adults after 84 days post infection. The infection of eight rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) has succeeded; two rabbits were infected, with a very low infection rate. Faeces of rabbits were negative for eggs. The worm burden was one and three worms from 40 fed metacercariae. The obtained fluke measures 23 mm in length by 4 mm in width. The tegument is covered with sharp-ending spines. The uterus contains few eggs. The intrauterine eggs measured 158 microm x 80 microm. According to the morphological characters of these flukes, they belong to F. gigantica.

  11. Novel Endogenous Retrovirus in Rabbits Previously Reported as Human Retrovirus 5

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, David J.; Voisset, Cécile; Venables, Patrick J. W.; Weiss, Robin A.

    2002-01-01

    Human retrovirus 5 (HRV-5) represented a fragment of a novel retrovirus sequence identified in human RNA and DNA preparations. In this study, the genome of HRV-5 was cloned and sequenced and integration sites were analyzed. Using PCR and Southern hybridization, we showed that HRV-5 is not integrated into human DNA. A survey of other species revealed that HRV-5 is present in the genomic DNA of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and belongs to an endogenous retrovirus family found in rabbits. The presence of rabbit sequences flanking HRV-5 proviruses in human DNA extracts suggested that rabbit DNA was present in our human extracts, and this was confirmed by PCR analysis that revealed the presence of rabbit mitochondrial DNA sequences in four of five human DNA preparations tested. The origin of the rabbit DNA and HRV-5 in human DNA preparations remains unclear, but laboratory contamination cannot explain the preferential detection of HRV-5 in inflammatory diseases and lymphomas reported previously. This is the first description of a retrovirus genome in rabbits, and sequence analysis shows that it is related to but distinct from A-type retroelements of mice and other rodents. The species distribution of HRV-5 is restricted to rabbits; other species, including other members of the order Lagomorpha, do not contain this sequence. Analysis of HRV-5 expression by Northern hybridization and reverse transcriptase PCR indicates that the virus is transcribed at a low level in many rabbit tissues. In light of these findings we propose that the sequence previously designated HRV-5 should now be denoted RERV-H (for rabbit endogenous retrovirus H). PMID:12072509

  12. Induction of phospholipid-binding antibodies in mice and rabbits by immunization with human beta 2 glycoprotein 1 or anticardiolipin antibodies alone.

    PubMed Central

    Pierangeli, S S; Harris, E N

    1993-01-01

    Anticardiolipin (aCL) antibodies are autoantibodies present in high concentrations in patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), a disorder of recurrent thrombosis and pregnancy loss. What induces aCL antibodies is uncertain, but a recent report suggested that immunization of mice with beta 2 glycoprotein 1 (beta 2 GP1) in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) resulted in aCL antibody production in the recipient mice. Since this observation might explain how autoantibodies might be induced by poor immunogens, such as phospholipids, we decided to explore the question further. In our first series of experiments, we found that aCL antibodies were induced in mice by beta 2GP1 mixed with adjuvants that did not contain lipids (Adju-Prime or aluminium hydroxide). This excluded the possibility that antibody induction occurred because beta 2GP1 formed complexes with lipids in FCA. We also found that aCL antibodies always appeared before anti-beta 2GP1 antibodies, excluding the possibility that aCL antibodies were directed to beta 2GP1 or were induced by formation of anti-idiotypic antibodies (to anti-beta 2GP1). In experiments, we found that immunization of mice with human IgG antibodies from patients with the APS (IgG-APS), also induced aCL antibodies. Immunization with pure bovine serum albumin (BSA) did not induce aCL antibodies. We propose that aCL antibodies are induced by proteins with high avidity for phospholipids. These proteins may be bound to phospholipids when introduced, or may bind circulating phospholipids, so transforming phospholipid molecules into immunogens. Similar mechanisms might explain autoantibody induction to other poor immunogens. PMID:8348755

  13. Seroprevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Humans and Rabbits in China

    PubMed Central

    PAN, Yaoqian; WANG, Shuai; LIU, Xingyou; LI, Ruizhen; SUN, Yuqian; GADAHI, Javaid Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a microsporidian parasite commonly found in rabbits that can infect humans, causing encephalitozoonosis. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of this parasite in rabbits and humans in China Methods: Overall, 300 serum samples each from clinically healthy rabbit and human were collected from three regions of China (Sichuan Province, Chongqing Municipality and Jilin Province) from January to September 2013 and tested for anti-E. Cuniculi antibodies using an ELISA. Results: An overall seroprevalence of E. cuniculi was recorded as 56/300 (18.76%) and 29/300 (9.76%) in rabbit and human sera, respectively. The seropositivity of rabbit samples collected from Jilin province was 41%, which was significantly higher (P<0.01) than Sichuan Province (9%) and Chongqing Municipality (6%). Three breeds of rabbit were used in the present study and antibody detection in Rex Rabbit was significantly (P<0.01) higher than Japanese White and New Zealand Rabbit. In human, Jilin province was more prevalent (18%) followed by Sichuan Province (6%) and Chongqing Municipality (5%). Conclusions: The E. cuniculi was present and widespread among healthy rabbits and humans in China PMID:26246829

  14. Seroprevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Humans and Rabbits in China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yaoqian; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Xingyou; Li, Ruizhen; Sun, Yuqian; Gadahi, Javaid Ali

    2015-01-01

    Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a microsporidian parasite commonly found in rabbits that can infect humans, causing encephalitozoonosis. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of this parasite in rabbits and humans in China. Overall, 300 serum samples each from clinically healthy rabbit and human were collected from three regions of China (Sichuan Province, Chongqing Municipality and Jilin Province) from January to September 2013 and tested for anti-E. Cuniculi antibodies using an ELISA. An overall seroprevalence of E. cuniculi was recorded as 56/300 (18.76%) and 29/300 (9.76%) in rabbit and human sera, respectively. The seropositivity of rabbit samples collected from Jilin province was 41%, which was significantly higher (P<0.01) than Sichuan Province (9%) and Chongqing Municipality (6%). Three breeds of rabbit were used in the present study and antibody detection in Rex Rabbit was significantly (P<0.01) higher than Japanese White and New Zealand Rabbit. In human, Jilin province was more prevalent (18%) followed by Sichuan Province (6%) and Chongqing Municipality (5%). The E. cuniculi was present and widespread among healthy rabbits and humans in China.

  15. Purification of rabbit and human serum paraoxonase.

    PubMed

    Furlong, C E; Richter, R J; Chapline, C; Crabb, J W

    1991-10-22

    Rabbit serum paraoxonase/arylesterase has been purified to homogeneity by Cibacron Blue-agarose chromatography, gel filtration, DEAE-Trisacryl M chromatography, and preparative SDS gel electrophoresis. Renaturation (Copeland et al., 1982) and activity staining of the enzyme resolved by SDS gel electrophoresis allowed for identification and purification of paraoxonase. Two bands of active enzyme were purified by this procedure (35,000 and 38,000). Enzyme electroeluted from the preparative gels was reanalyzed by analytical SDS gel electrophoresis, and two higher molecular weight bands (43,000 and 48,000) were observed in addition to the original bands. This suggested that repeat electrophoresis resulted in an unfolding or other modification and slower migration of some of the purified protein. The lower mobility bands stained weakly for paraoxonase activity in preparative gels. Bands of each molecular weight species were electroblotted onto PVDF membranes and sequenced. The gas-phase sequence analysis showed that both the active bands and apparent molecular weight bands had identical amino-terminal sequences. Amino acid analysis of the four electrophoretic components from PVDF membranes also indicated compositional similarity. The amino-terminal sequences are typical of the leader sequences of secreted proteins. Human serum paraoxonase was purified by a similar procedure, and ten residues of the amino terminus were sequenced by gas-phase procedures. One amino acid difference between the first ten residues of human and rabbit was observed.

  16. Mice with human livers.

    PubMed

    Grompe, Markus; Strom, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    Animal models are used to study many aspects of human disease and to test therapeutic interventions. However, some very important features of human biology cannot be replicated in animals, even in nonhuman primates or transgenic rodents engineered with human genes. Most human microbial pathogens do not infect animals and the metabolism of many xenobiotics is different between human beings and animals. The advent of transgenic immune-deficient mice has made it possible to generate chimeric animals harboring human tissues and cells, including hepatocytes. The liver plays a central role in many human-specific biological processes and mice with humanized livers can be used to model human metabolism, liver injury, gene regulation, drug toxicity, and hepatotropic infections.

  17. Dermal irritation of petrolatum in rabbits but not in mice, rats or minipigs.

    PubMed

    Chandra, S A; Peterson, R A; Melich, D; Merrill, C M; Bailey, D; Mellon-Kusibab, K; Adler, R

    2014-08-01

    Petrolatum is widely used in cosmetics, topical pharmaceuticals and also as a vehicle in dermal toxicity studies. New Zealand white rabbits treated with white petrolatum (vehicle control) in a 2-week dermal irritation study exhibited moderate to severe erythema starting on Day 7 that subsided towards the end of the study. Histological examination of abraded and non-abraded petrolatum-treated skin obtained at termination (Day 15) revealed mild acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, dermal edema with mixed inflammatory cells in the dermis. Macroscopic and microscopic features noted in rabbits were consistent with dermal irritation to petrolatum. Wistar-Han rats, CD1 mice, C57/Bl/6J mice and Göttingen minipigs treated topically with white petrolatum did not exhibit clinical or histologic evidence of dermal irritation. Therapeutic agents developed for topical application are generally tested in rabbits during some point in development. Interpretation of skin irritation data from a single species can impact risk assessment for humans and on product labeling. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Transgenic rabbit that expresses a functional human lipoprotein (a)

    DOEpatents

    Rouy, Didier; Duverger, Nicolas; Emmanuel, Florence; Denefle, Patrice; Houdebine, Louis-Marie; Viglietta, Celine; Rubin, Edward M.; Hughes, Steven D.

    2003-01-01

    A transgenic rabbit which has in its genomic DNA sequences that encode apolipoprotein (a) and apolipoprotein B polypeptides which are capable of combining to produce lipoprotein (a), a process for creating such a rabbit, and the use of the rabbit to identify compounds which are effective in the treatment of human diseases which are associated with, induced and/or exacerbated by Lp(a) expression.

  19. Human Handling Promotes Compliant Behavior in Adult Laboratory Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Swennes, Alton G; Alworth, Leanne C; Harvey, Stephen B; Jones, Carolyn A; King, Christopher S; Crowell-Davis, Sharon L

    2011-01-01

    Routine laboratory procedures can be stressful for laboratory animals. We wanted to determine whether human handling of adult rabbits could induce a degree of habituation, reducing stress and facilitating research-related manipulation. To this end, adult New Zealand white rabbits were handled either frequently or minimally. After being handled over 3 wk, these rabbits were evaluated by novel personnel and compared with minimally handled controls. Evaluators subjectively scored the rabbits for their relative compliance or resistance to being scruffed and removed from their cages, being transported to a treatment room, and their behavior at all stages of the exercise. Upon evaluation, handled rabbits scored significantly more compliant than nontreated controls. During evaluation, behaviors that the rabbits displayed when they were approached in their cages and while being handled outside their cages were recorded and compared between study groups. Handled rabbits displayed behavior consistent with a reduction in human-directed fear. This study illustrates the potential for handling to improve compliance in laboratory procedures and reduce fear-related behavior in laboratory rabbits. Such handling could be used to improve rabbit welfare through the reduction of stress and exposure to novel stimuli. PMID:21333162

  20. Human handling promotes compliant behavior in adult laboratory rabbits.

    PubMed

    Swennes, Alton G; Alworth, Leanne C; Harvey, Stephen B; Jones, Carolyn A; King, Christopher S; Crowell-Davis, Sharon L

    2011-01-01

    Routine laboratory procedures can be stressful for laboratory animals. We wanted to determine whether human handling of adult rabbits could induce a degree of habituation, reducing stress and facilitating research-related manipulation. To this end, adult New Zealand white rabbits were handled either frequently or minimally. After being handled over 3 wk, these rabbits were evaluated by novel personnel and compared with minimally handled controls. Evaluators subjectively scored the rabbits for their relative compliance or resistance to being scruffed and removed from their cages, being transported to a treatment room, and their behavior at all stages of the exercise. Upon evaluation, handled rabbits scored significantly more compliant than nontreated controls. During evaluation, behaviors that the rabbits displayed when they were approached in their cages and while being handled outside their cages were recorded and compared between study groups. Handled rabbits displayed behavior consistent with a reduction in human-directed fear. This study illustrates the potential for handling to improve compliance in laboratory procedures and reduce fear-related behavior in laboratory rabbits. Such handling could be used to improve rabbit welfare through the reduction of stress and exposure to novel stimuli.

  1. LATENT HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM OF RABBITS AND MICE

    PubMed Central

    Knotts, F. B.; Cook, M. L.; Stevens, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 induces a long-standing latent infection in the central nervous system of mice and rabbits. The infection was extablished in the brain stems of rabbits after corneal inoculation of the virus, and in the spinal cords of mice after rear footpad infection. In these animals, infectious virus could not be recovered by direct isolation from tissues; it was detected only after the tissues were maintained as organ cultures in vitro. PMID:4353820

  2. Characterization of the interactions of rabbit neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) with rabbit and human IgG isotypes.

    PubMed

    Szikora, Bence; Hiripi, László; Bender, Balázs; Kacskovics, Imre; Iliás, Attila

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increasing importance of rabbit as an animal model in pharmacological studies like investigating placental transfer of therapeutic IgGs, little is known about the molecular interaction of the rabbit neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) with rabbit and human IgG molecules. We analyzed the interactions of the rabbit and human FcRn with rabbit and human IgG isotypes using surface plasmon resonance assay. Similar to FcRn of other species, rabbit FcRn functions in pH-dependent manner, as it binds IgGs at pH 6.0, but no binding occurs at pH 7.4. We also showed that rabbit FcRn binds rabbit IgG and human IgG1 with nearly identical affinity, whereas it has stronger interactions with the other human IgG isotypes. The similar affinity of rabbit IgG and human IgG1 for rabbit FcRn was confirmed by in vitro FcRn-mediated recycling assay. These data verify that rabbit is an appropriate animal model for analyzing the pharmacokinetics of human therapeutic monoclonal antibodies.

  3. Preclinical pharmacokinetics of KBF611, a new antituberculosis agent in mice and rabbits, and comparison with thiacetazone.

    PubMed

    Shahab, F M; Kobarfard, F; Shafaghi, B; Dadashzadeh, S

    2010-03-01

    Thiacetazone (TAZ), one of the oldest known antituberculosis drugs, causes severe skin reactions in patients co-infected with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). KBF611 is a new fluorinated thiacetazone analogue that has shown strong antituberculosis effects. In order to provide valuable information for subsequent preclinical development, pharmacokinetics of KBF611 and its analogue (TAZ) were studied and compared in two animal species (mice and rabbits) following intravenous and oral administration, and pharmacokinetic parameters were characterized. According to the calculated parameters, KBF611 showed a more favourable pharmacokinetics profile than TAZ in terms of half-life (0.89 h compared with 0.57 in mice, p < 0.05, and 2.71 compared with 0.98 in rabbits, p < 0.001) and volume of distribution (1.45 l kg(-1) compared with 0.86 l kg(-1) in mice, p < 0.05, and 1.01 l kg(-1) compared with 0.41 l kg(-1) in rabbits, p < 0.001) for tuberculosis therapy. In rabbits, the oral bioavailability of KBF611 was markedly lower than mice (39% compared with 82%), which may be attributed to a higher presystemic metabolism in rabbit liver. The results of in vivo studies on the metabolism of KBF611, supported by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis, showed that the incorporation of a fluorine atom to the TAZ structure made the molecule susceptible to N-deacetylation, a pathway not seen in TAZ metabolism. In summary, KBF611 could be considered a suitable candidate for further preclinical and clinical evaluation.

  4. Side effects of immunization with liver attenuated Trypanosoma cruzi in mice and rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Basombrío, M A; Besuschio, S; Cossio, P M

    1982-01-01

    Immunity against lethal, bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma cruzi was achieved in mice by preinoculation of approximately equal to 10(5) culture epimastigotes of an attenuated T. cruzi strain (TCC). The risks of TCC inoculation in terms of pathogenicity or eventual increase in virulence of TCC progeny were evaluated. No pathogenic parasites could be selected from TCC progeny by either mouse, triatome, or culture passages. Immunizing doses of live TCC did not induce in adult mice alterations resembling chronic Chagas' disease, as judged by patterns of mortality, tissue damage, autoantibodies, or parasite recovery. On the basis of the same criteria, However, a remarkable similarity could be established between the disease caused in mice by inoculation of low numbers (10(2)) of pathogenic trypomastigotes and human chronic Chagas' disease. Although patent parasitemias were never revealed in fresh blood mounts obtained from TCC-inoculated mice, a few hemocultures and xenodiagnoses gave positive results, particularly soon after inoculations at birth. The parasites recovered by either method remained in the attenuated, epimastigote stage. In rabbits, no local lesions, fever, weight loss, or histopathological alterations were detected after subcutaneous inoculation of 10(7) TCC organisms, although one fifth of the animals yielded positive hemocultures of epimastigotes. The contrasting host response to cultured epimastigotes as compared with blood trypomastigotes indicates that, in experimental Chagas' disease, immunoprotection is not necessarily associated with immunopathology. Images PMID:6804389

  5. Experimental transmission of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) from rabbit to wild mice (Mus spretus and Apodemus sylvaticus) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Gregorio; Alda, Fernando; Pagés, Albert; Merchán, Tomás

    2017-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is a highly lethal and contagious viral disease that produces haemorrhagic lesions in liver and lungs of domestic and wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). This study investigates the transmission of RHDV from infected rabbits to mice, based on the detection of viral RNA. Sixteen wild mice (Mus spretus, n=12 and Apodemus sylvaticus, n=4) were put in contact with nine rabbits inoculated with RHDV. No mice died following exposure to RHDV-infected rabbits or developed macroscopic haemorrhagic lesions. On the fourth day of contact, RHDV was detected by RT-PCR in the faeces of three of the four mice killed and in the livers of two of them. Three days after contact period with the inoculated rabbits (7th day of the experiment), RHDV was detected by RT-PCR in 100% (n=4) of the faeces and 50% (n=2) of the livers of euthanized animals. Ten days after contact period (14th day of the experiment), RHDV was not detected in the faeces or liver from any of the mice euthanized. However, 64days after contact period, RHDV was detected in the faeces of one mouse (1 of 4). We demonstrate cross-species transmission of RHDV-RNA from rabbit to rodent and the capability of RHDV-RNA to persist in mice for at least 10days after contact, and potentially up to two months, although viral replication within the rodent and/or infectivity was not evaluated in the present study.

  6. Attaching and effacing activities of rabbit and human enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in pig and rabbit intestines.

    PubMed Central

    Moon, H W; Whipp, S C; Argenzio, R A; Levine, M M; Giannella, R A

    1983-01-01

    Three strains of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), originally isolated from humans and previously shown to cause diarrhea in human volunteers by unknown mechanisms, and one rabbit EPEC strain were shown to attach intimately to and efface microvilli and cytoplasm from intestinal epithelial cells in both the pig and rabbit intestine. The attaching and effacing activities of these EPEC were demonstrable by light microscopic examination of routine histological sections and by transmission electron microscopy. It was suggested that intact colostrum-deprived newborn pigs and ligated intestinal loops in pigs and rabbits may be useful systems to detect EPEC that have attaching and effacing activities and for studying the pathogenesis of such infections. The lesions (attachment and effacement) produced by EPEC in these systems were multifocal, with considerable animal-to-animal variation in response to the same strain of EPEC. The EPEC strains also varied in the frequency and extent of lesion production. For example, three human EPEC strains usually caused extensive lesions in rabbit intestinal loops, whereas two other human EPEC strains usually did not produce lesions in this system. Images PMID:6350186

  7. Natural Pathogens of Laboratory Mice, Rats, and Rabbits and Their Effects on Research

    PubMed Central

    Baker, David G.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory mice, rats, and rabbits may harbor a variety of viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal agents. Frequently, these organisms cause no overt signs of disease. However, many of the natural pathogens of these laboratory animals may alter host physiology, rendering the host unsuitable for many experimental uses. While the number and prevalence of these pathogens have declined considerably, many still turn up in laboratory animals and represent unwanted variables in research. Investigators using mice, rats, and rabbits in biomedical experimentation should be aware of the profound effects that many of these agents can have on research. PMID:9564563

  8. Toward an Animal Model of the Human Tear Film: Biochemical Comparison of the Mouse, Canine, Rabbit, and Human Meibomian Lipidomes

    PubMed Central

    Butovich, Igor A.; Lu, Hua; McMahon, Anne; Eule, J. Corinna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Secretions that are produced by meibomian glands (also known as meibum) are a major source of lipids for the ocular surface of humans and animals alike. Many animal species have been evaluated for their meibomian lipidomes. However, there have been a very small number of studies in which the animals were compared with humans side by side. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare meibum collected from humans and three typical laboratory animals, canines, mice, and rabbits, for their meibomian lipid composition in order to determine which animal species most resembles humans. Methods. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) in combination with mass spectrometry were used to evaluate lipidomes of all tested species. Results. Among three tested animal species, mice were found to be the closest match to humans in terms of their meibomian lipidomes, while canines were the second closest species. The lipids of these three species were close to each other structurally and, for most lipid classes, quantitatively. The rabbit meibomian lipidome, on the other hand, was vastly different from lipidomes of all other tested species. Interestingly, a previously described class of lipids, acylated omega-hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFA), was found to be present in every tested species as the major amphiphilic component of meibum. Conclusions. Our side by side comparison of the rabbit and the human meibum demonstrated their vast differences. Thus, the rabbit seems to be a poor animal model of the human tear film, at least when studying its biochemistry and biophysics. PMID:22918629

  9. Rabbit cardiomyopathy associated with a virus antigenically related to human coronavirus strain 229E.

    PubMed Central

    Small, J. D.; Aurelian, L.; Squire, R. A.; Strandberg, J. D.; Melby, E. C.; Turner, T. B.; Newman, B.

    1979-01-01

    A new disease of rabbits is described. Following an acute febrile course, animals die or recover by the 11th day postinoculation. The characteristic pathologic finding is multifocal myocardial degeneration and necrosis. The disease can be transmitted by various routes with tissue filtrates or with infectious sera diluted to 10(-6) and passed through 0.1 micron filters. Virus particles with morphologic features characteristic of a coronavirus are present in infectious but not in normal rabbit serums. The antigen(s) in the infectious serums cross-reacts with the 229E and the OC43 strains of human coronavirus. Antigen cross-reacting with the 229E virus is detectable by immunofluorescent staining in frozen sections of heart tissue from sick but not from healthy animals. Animals surviving infection seroconvert to coronavirus specificity, as demonstrated by the presence in convalescent serums of antibody capable of reacting with the 339E virus. Susceptibility to infection has not been demonstrated in mice, hamsters, or guinea pigs, and the virus was not adapted for growth in tissue culture. It is uncertain whether the agent is a natural pathogen of rabbits or a coronavirus contaminant from another species, possibly human. The name rabbit infectious cardiomyopathy is suggested for this disease. Images Figure 8 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 7 PMID:222151

  10. The quantitation of C6 in rabbit and human sera

    PubMed Central

    Tedesco, F.; Lachmann, P. J.

    1971-01-01

    C6 quantitation was carried out in rabbit and human sera by the single radial immunodiffusion technique. The C6 content of the rabbit and human sera used as standards was estimated by precipitin analysis, using an anti-C6 antiserum labelled with 125I. The mean C6 level in normal human serum was 11 μg/ml, whereas in normal rabbit serum it was 35 μg/ml. Sera from forty rabbits heterozygous for C6 deficiency were found to have a mean concentration of C6 of 14 μg/ml. The C6 level was estimated in sera from patients with various immunological disorders and found to be significantly higher in the sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and normal in the sera from patients with SLE, glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome and myeloma. C6 haemolytic assays were found to correlate well with the antigenic assays only in fresh sera. In various circumstances this correlation breaks down, presumably because of C6 inactivator. This inactivator, in contrast to C3-inactivator, appears to be bound to antigen–antibody complement complexes. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:4998970

  11. Disposition of human fibrinopeptide A in normal and nephrectomized rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Harenberg, J.; Stehle, G.; Waibel, S.; Hermann, H.J.; Eisenhut, M.; Zimmermann, R.

    1983-10-01

    The distribution, elimination, and metabolism of human fibrinopeptide A (FPA) were studied in normal and nephrectomized rabbits. The activity of /sup 125/I-labeled desamino-tyrosyl human FPA (DAT-FPA) was followed over 4 hours after i.v. administration. Results show that in normal rabbits (n . 10) DAT-FPA is eliminated from plasma in four phases with half-lives of 30 sec, 3.5 min, 15 min, and 90 min. The distribution of /sup 123/I-labeled DAT-FPA in plasma was determined in 15 control rabbits with scintigraphy over 2 hours. DAT-FPA was distributed primarily in the cardiovascular system, liver, and kidneys. In some animals minimal radioactivity was detected over the gall bladder. Radioactivity accumulated rapidly in the urinary bladder, approximately 50% being recorded after 15 min and 90% after 120 min. In the heart area radioactivity decreased with half-lives of 25 sec, 7.5 min, 25 min, and 180 min. Nephrectomized rabbits had similar initial fast distribution of DAT-FPA after administration of /sup 125/I-labeled (n . 10) and /sup 123/I-labeled peptide (n . 10). The estimated half-life of the slow component was in the order of several hours. The results of the scintigraphic and gel chromatographic studies show that FPA is primarily excreted in the urine. Previously reported half-lives of FPA reflect distribution rather than steady state conditions.

  12. Unusual metabolic characteristics in skeletal muscles of transgenic rabbits for human lipoprotein lipase

    PubMed Central

    Gondret, Florence; Jadhao, Sanjay B; Damon, Marie; Herpin, Patrick; Viglietta, Céline; Houdebine, Louis-Marie; Hocquette, Jean-François

    2004-01-01

    Background The lipoprotein lipase (LPL) hydrolyses circulating triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Thereby, LPL acts as a metabolic gate-keeper for fatty acids partitioning between adipose tissue for storage and skeletal muscle primarily for energy use. Transgenic mice that markedly over-express LPL exclusively in muscle, show increases not only in LPL activity, but also in oxidative enzyme activities and in number of mitochondria, together with an impaired glucose tolerance. However, the role of LPL in intracellular nutrient pathways remains uncertain. To examine differences in muscle nutrient uptake and fatty acid oxidative pattern, transgenic rabbits harboring a DNA fragment of the human LPL gene (hLPL) and their wild-type littermates were compared for two muscles of different metabolic type, and for perirenal fat. Results Analyses of skeletal muscles and adipose tissue showed the expression of the hLPL DNA fragment in tissues of the hLPL group only. Unexpectedly, the activity level of LPL in both tissues was similar in the two groups. Nevertheless, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation rate, measured ex vivo using [1-14C]oleate as substrate, was lower in hLPL rabbits than in wild-type rabbits for the two muscles under study. Both insulin-sensitive glucose transporter GLUT4 and muscle fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) contents were higher in hLPL rabbits than in wild-type littermates for the pure oxidative semimembranosus proprius muscle, but differences between groups did not reach significance when considering the fast-twitch glycolytic longissimus muscle. Variations in both glucose uptake potential, intra-cytoplasmic binding of fatty acids, and lipid oxidation rate observed in hLPL rabbits compared with their wild-type littermates, were not followed by any modifications in tissue lipid content, body fat, and plasma levels in energy-yielding metabolites. Conclusions Expression of intracellular binding proteins for both fatty acids and glucose, and their

  13. Renal handling of fleroxacin in rabbits, dogs, and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Shiba, K; Saito, A; Shimada, J; Hori, S; Kaji, M; Miyahara, T; Kusajima, H; Kaneko, S; Saito, S; Ooie, T

    1990-01-01

    The renal handling of fleroxacin was studied by renal clearance and stop-flow techniques in rabbits and dogs and by analyzing the pharmacokinetics with and without probenecid in humans. In rabbits the excretion ratios (fleroxacin intrinsic renal clearance/glomerular filtration rate) were greater than unity (2.01) without probenecid and were decreased to a value below unity (0.680) with probenecid. In dogs, on the other hand, the excretion ratios were less than unity (0.608 and 0.456) both without and with probenecid, and so were not affected by probenecid. This fact suggested that fleroxacin was excreted into urine by both glomerular filtration and renal tubular secretion in rabbits, but only by glomerular filtration in dogs, accompanied by partial renal tubular reabsorption in both species; these mechanisms were also supported by stop-flow experiments. In humans probenecid treatment induced increases in the elimination half-life and area under the serum concentration-time curve and decreases in apparent serum clearance, renal clearance, and urinary recovery of fleroxacin. The excretion ratio without probenecid was 1.13, which was significantly decreased to 0.750 with probenecid. These results indicated that both renal tubular secretion and reabsorption contributed to renal excretion of fleroxacin in humans. The contribution of tubular secretion was species dependent and was extensive in rabbits, minimal in dogs, and moderate in humans. Renal tubular reabsorption was commonly found in every species. The long elimination half-life of fleroxacin in humans might be explained by its small total serum clearance and small renal clearance, which are attributed to less tubular secretion and more tubular reabsorption. PMID:2109576

  14. Rabbit models for the study of human atherosclerosis: from pathophysiological mechanisms to translational medicine

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianglin; Kitajima, Shuji; Watanabe, Teruo; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Jifeng; Liu, Enqi; Chen, Y. Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory animal models play an important role in the study of human diseases. Using appropriate animals is critical not only for basic research but also for the development of therapeutics and diagnostic tools. Rabbits are widely used for the study of human atherosclerosis. Because rabbits have a unique feature of lipoprotein metabolism (like humans but unlike rodents) and are sensitive to a cholesterol diet, rabbit models have not only provided many insights into the pathogenesis and development of human atherosclerosis but also made a great contribution to translational research. In fact, rabbit was the first animal model used for studying human atherosclerosis, more than a century ago. Currently, three types of rabbit model are commonly used for the study of human atherosclerosis and lipid metabolism: (1) cholesterol-fed rabbits, (2) Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits, analogous to human familial hypercholesterolemia due to genetic deficiency of LDL receptors, and (3) genetically modified (transgenic and knock-out) rabbits. Despite their importance, compared with the mouse, the most widely used laboratory animal model nowadays, the use of rabbit models is still limited. In this review, we focus on the features of rabbit lipoprotein metabolism and pathology of atherosclerotic lesions that make it the optimal model for human atherosclerotic disease, especially for the translational medicine. For the sake of clarity, the review is not an attempt to be completely inclusive, but instead attempts to summarize substantial information concisely and provide a guideline for experiments using rabbits. PMID:25277507

  15. Rabbit models for the study of human atherosclerosis: from pathophysiological mechanisms to translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianglin; Kitajima, Shuji; Watanabe, Teruo; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Jifeng; Liu, Enqi; Chen, Y Eugene

    2015-02-01

    Laboratory animal models play an important role in the study of human diseases. Using appropriate animals is critical not only for basic research but also for the development of therapeutics and diagnostic tools. Rabbits are widely used for the study of human atherosclerosis. Because rabbits have a unique feature of lipoprotein metabolism (like humans but unlike rodents) and are sensitive to a cholesterol diet, rabbit models have not only provided many insights into the pathogenesis and development of human atherosclerosis but also made a great contribution to translational research. In fact, rabbit was the first animal model used for studying human atherosclerosis, more than a century ago. Currently, three types of rabbit model are commonly used for the study of human atherosclerosis and lipid metabolism: (1) cholesterol-fed rabbits, (2) Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits, analogous to human familial hypercholesterolemia due to genetic deficiency of LDL receptors, and (3) genetically modified (transgenic and knock-out) rabbits. Despite their importance, compared with the mouse, the most widely used laboratory animal model nowadays, the use of rabbit models is still limited. In this review, we focus on the features of rabbit lipoprotein metabolism and pathology of atherosclerotic lesions that make it the optimal model for human atherosclerotic disease, especially for the translational medicine. For the sake of clarity, the review is not an attempt to be completely inclusive, but instead attempts to summarize substantial information concisely and provide a guideline for experiments using rabbits.

  16. Immunoreactive Proteins of Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCDM 372 Identified by Gnotobiotic Mono-Colonized Mice Sera, Immune Rabbit Sera and Non-immune Human Sera

    PubMed Central

    Górska, Sabina; Dylus, Ewa; Rudawska, Angelika; Brzozowska, Ewa; Srutkova, Dagmar; Schwarzer, Martin; Razim, Agnieszka; Kozakova, Hana; Gamian, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The Bifidobacteria show great diversity in the cell surface architecture which may influence the physicochemical properties of the bacterial cell and strain specific properties. The immunomodulatory role of bifidobacteria has been extensively studied, however studies on the immunoreactivity of their protein molecules are very limited. Here, we compared six different methods of protein isolation and purification and we report identification of immunogenic and immunoreactive protein of two human Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum strains. We evaluated potential immunoreactive properties of proteins employing polyclonal sera obtained from germ free mouse, rabbit and human. The protein yield was isolation method-dependent and the reactivity of proteins detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting was heterogeneous and varied between different serum samples. The proteins with the highest immunoreactivity were isolated, purified and have them sequenced. Among the immunoreactive proteins we identified enolase, aspartokinase, pyruvate kinase, DnaK (B. longum ssp. longum CCM 7952) and sugar ABC transporter ATP-binding protein, phosphoglycerate kinase, peptidoglycan synthethase penicillin-binding protein 3, transaldolase, ribosomal proteins and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (B. longum ssp. longum CCDM 372). PMID:27746766

  17. Humanized mice and tissue transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Laurie L; Shultz, Leonard D.; Greiner, Dale L; Brehm, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of the molecular pathways that control immune responses, particularly immunomodulatory molecules that control the extent and duration of an immune response, have led to new approaches in the field of transplantation immunology to induce allograft survival. These molecular pathways are being defined precisely in murine models, and are now being translated into clinical practice. However, many of the newly available drugs are human-specific reagents and furthermore, there exist many species-specific differences between mouse and human immune systems. Recent advances in the development of humanized mice, i.e., immunodeficient mice engrafted with functional human immune systems, have led to the availability of a small animal model for the study of human immune responses. Humanized mice represent an important pre-clinical model system for evaluation of new drugs as well as identification of the mechanisms underlying human allograft rejection without putting patients at risk. This review highlights recent advances in the development of humanized mice and their use as pre-clinical models for the study of human allograft responses. PMID:26588186

  18. H1 histone subfractions of mammalian testes. 2. Organ specificity in mice and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Seyedin, S M; Kistler, W S

    1979-04-03

    H1 histones were examined in testes and somatic organs from mice and rabbits. They were extracted from washed chromatin by aqueous 5% (w/v) trichloroacetic acid and analyzed by several electrophoretic systems as well as column chromatography employing Bio-Rex 70. In each species the testicular H1 population contains at least two components that are scarce or absent in the somatic organs examined. The unusual testicular species do not appear to be phosphorylated derivatives. The studies in this and the accompanying report [Seyedin, S.M., & Kistler, W.S. (1979) biochemistry 18 (preceding paper in this issue) confirm that marked changes from the isomatic type H1 population are associated with spermatogenesis in mice, rabbits, and rats. However, in terms of electrophoretic and chromatographic behavior, the pattern of change in species specific.

  19. Spontaneous fatal Human herpesvirus 1 encephalitis in two domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    de Matos, Ricardo; Russell, Duncan; Van Alstine, William; Miller, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    Despite the particular susceptibility of the rabbit to experimental infection with Human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1) and the high seroprevalence of HHV-1 in human beings, reports of natural infection in pet rabbits are rare. The current report describes 2 cases of HHV encephalitis in pet rabbits in North America. Antemortem clinical signs included seizures, ptyalism, and muscle tremors. Results of complete blood cell count and plasma biochemistry panel were unremarkable except for a mild leukocytosis in both cases. Both rabbits died after a short period of hospitalization. Rabbit 1 presented mild optic chiasm hemorrhage on gross examination, while rabbit 2 had no gross lesions. Histologic findings for both cases included lymphocytic and/or lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis with necrosis and the presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies in neurons and glial cells. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of affected brain tissue using primers specific for Human herpesvirus 1 and 2 confirmed diagnosis of HHV encephalitis for rabbit 1. Immunohistochemical staining (poly- and monoclonal) and PCR analysis using primers specific to HHV-1 confirmed the diagnosis of HHV-1 encephalitis for rabbit 2. The owner of rabbit 2 was suspected to be the source of infection due to close contact during an episode of herpes labialis. Given the high susceptibility of rabbits to experimental HHV-1, high seroprevalence of HHV-1 in human beings, and severity of clinical disease in this species, clinician awareness and client education is important for disease prevention. Human herpesvirus 1 encephalitis should be considered as a differential diagnosis for rabbits with neurologic disease.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of mitomycin C in rabbit and human.

    PubMed

    van Hazel, G A; Kovach, J S

    1982-01-01

    A sensitive and specific high-pressure liquid chromatographic assay was developed to characterize the plasma elimination and urinary excretion of mitomycin C in humans. Extraction of mitomycin C and an internal standard, porfiromycin, from plasma by chromatography over a non-ionic resin, Porapak Q, yields high recovery of both compounds and facilitates measurement of as little as 5 ng mitomycin C by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The assay was used to characterize the plasma elimination of mitomycin C in rabbits and was shown to be applicable to the characterization of the pharmacokinetics of mitomycin C in humans receiving as little as 8 mg/m2.

  1. ApoE knockout rabbits: A novel model for the study of human hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Manabu; Yang, Dongshan; Kitajima, Shuji; Ning, Bo; Wang, Chuan; Li, Shen; Liu, Enqi; Zhang, Jifeng; Eugene Chen, Y; Fan, Jianglin

    2016-02-01

    Rabbits are one of the best animal models for the study of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Although many transgenic rabbits have been created, the development of gene knockout (KO) rabbits has been impossible due to the lack of rabbit embryonic stem cells. We along with others recently generated KO rabbits using genome editing techniques. In the current study, we characterized the lipoprotein profiles of apoE KO rabbits on both chow and cholesterol diets and investigated their susceptibility to a diet-induced atherosclerosis. We analyzed plasma lipids and lipoproteins of apoE KO rabbits and compared them with those of wild-type rabbits. On a chow diet, homozygous (but not heterozygous) apoE KO rabbits showed mild hyperlipidemia and, when challenged with a cholesterol diet, they showed greater susceptibility to diet-induced hyperlipidemia than did the wild-type rabbits and their plasma total cholesterol levels were remarkably increased (1070 ± 61 mg/dL in apoE KO vs. 169 ± 79 mg/dL in the wild type, p < 0.001). Hyperlipidemia in apoE KO rabbits was caused by elevated remnant lipoproteins. Interestingly, increased remnant lipoproteins in apoE KO rabbits were predominated by apoB-48 and rich in both apoA-I and apoA-IV contents. Furthermore, apoE KO rabbits developed greater aortic atherosclerosis than wild-type rabbits when fed with a cholesterol diet for 10 weeks. To our knowledge, this is the first report of generating KO rabbits for the study of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. ApoE KO rabbits should be a useful model for the study of human hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hepatitis E Virus: First Description in a Pet House Rabbit. A New Transmission Route for Human?

    PubMed

    Caruso, C; Modesto, P; Prato, R; Scaglione, F E; De Marco, L; Bollo, E; Acutis, P L; Masoero, L; Peletto, S

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we identified for the first time hepatitis E virus (HEV) in a pet house rabbit, an adult 7 years old female of domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Importantly, the resulting phylogenetic tree showed that the HEV strain identified in the pet house rabbit was closely related to a human HEV sequence; this finding reawakens concerns regarding the zoonotic risk represented by HEV in animals and expands to house rabbit the spectrum of potential source of infection for humans. Potential for domestic transmission of HEV to humans should be taken into account.

  3. The human, primate and rabbit ultraviolet action spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, D. G.; Gibbons, W. D.

    1972-01-01

    A 5000 watt xenon-mercury high pressure lamp was used to produce a continuous ultraviolet spectrum. Human and animal exposures were made to establish the photokeratitis threshold and abiotic action spectrum. The lower limit of the abiotic action spectrum was 220 nm while the upper limit was 310 nm. The radiant exposure threshold at 270 nm was 0.005 watts/sq cm for the rabbit, 0.004 watts/sq cm for the primate, and 0.004 watts/ sq cm for the human. The rabbit curve was bi-peaked with minimums at 220 nm, 240 nm and 270 nm. The primate curve was tri-peaked with minimums at 220 nm, 240 nm and 270 nm. The human data showed a rather shallow curve with a minimum at 270 nm. Formulas and calculations are given to predict minimum exposure times for ocular damage to man in outer space, to establish valid safety criteria, and to establish protective design criteria.

  4. Rabbit as a reproductive model for human health.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Bernd; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Viebahn, Christoph; Navarrete Santos, Anne; Duranthon, Veronique

    2012-07-01

    The renaissance of the laboratory rabbit as a reproductive model for human health is closely related to the growing evidence of periconceptional metabolic programming and its determining effects on offspring and adult health. Advantages of rabbit reproduction are the exact timing of fertilization and pregnancy stages, high cell numbers and yield in blastocysts, relatively late implantation at a time when gastrulation is already proceeding, detailed morphologic and molecular knowledge on gastrulation stages, and a hemochorial placenta structured similarly to the human placenta. To understand, for example, the mechanisms of periconceptional programming and its effects on metabolic health in adulthood, these advantages help to elucidate even subtle changes in metabolism and development during the pre- and peri-implantation period and during gastrulation in individual embryos. Gastrulation represents a central turning point in ontogenesis in which a limited number of cells program the development of the three germ layers and, hence, the embryo proper. Newly developed transgenic and molecular tools offer promising chances for further scientific progress to be attained with this reproductive model species.

  5. Hepatitis E virus strains in rabbits and evidence of a closely related strain in humans, France.

    PubMed

    Izopet, Jacques; Dubois, Martine; Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Lhomme, Sébastien; Marchandeau, Stéphane; Boucher, Samuel; Kamar, Nassim; Abravanel, Florence; Guérin, Jean-Luc

    2012-08-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains from rabbits indicate that these mammals may be a reservoir for HEVs that cause infection in humans. To determine HEV prevalence in rabbits and the strains' genetic characteristics, we tested bile, liver, and additional samples from farmed and wild rabbits in France. We detected HEV RNA in 7% (14/200) of bile samples from farmed rabbits (in 2009) and in 23% (47/205) of liver samples from wild rabbits (in 2007-2010). Full-length genomic sequences indicated that all rabbit strains belonged to the same clade (nucleotide sequences 72.2%-78.2% identical to HEV genotypes 1-4). Comparison with HEV sequences of human strains and reference sequences identified a human strain closely related to rabbit strain HEV. We found a 93-nt insertion in the X domain of open reading frame 1 of the human strain and all rabbit HEV strains. These findings indicate that the host range of HEV in Europe is expanding and that zoonotic transmission of HEV from rabbits is possible.

  6. Rabbit and human hepatitis E virus strains belong to a single serotype.

    PubMed

    Wang, Song; Cheng, Xianfeng; Dai, Xing; Dong, Chen; Xu, Mingjie; Liang, Jiuhong; Dong, Min; Purdy, Michael A; Meng, Jihong

    2013-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic pathogen and all four established genotypes of HEV belong to a single serotype. The recently identified rabbit HEV is antigenically and genetically related to human HEV. It is unclear whether rabbit HEV belongs to the same serotype as human HEV. The purpose of this study was to determine the serotypic relationship between rabbit and human HEVs. HEV ORF2 recombinant capsid protein p166 (amino acids 452-617) of four known HEV genotypes and rabbit HEV were used to induce immune serum, which were evaluated for their ability to neutralize human HEV genotype 1, 4, and rabbit HEV strains by an in vitro PCR-based HEV neutralization assay. Immune sera of five kinds of p166 proteins were all found to neutralize or cross-neutralize the three different HEV strains, suggesting a common neutralization epitope(s) existing between human and rabbit HEV. Rabbit models of a second-passage rabbit HEV strain, JS204-2, and a genotype 4 human HEV strain, NJ703, were established as evidenced by fecal virus shedding, viremia and anti-HEV IgG seroconversion. Six rabbits, recovered from JS204 infection, were challenged with NJ703, and another six recovered from NJ703 infection were challenged with JS204-2. After challenge, viremia was not detected, shorter fecal virus shedding durations and obvious early stage declines in anti-HEV IgG values were observed. The results from this study indicate that rabbit HEV belongs to the same serotype as human HEV.

  7. Correlation study in skin and eye irritation between rabbits and humans based on published literatures.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Satoko; Ishii, Kaori; Nakadate, Masahiro; Yamasaki, Kanji

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations in skin and eye irritations between rabbits and humans using published international databases. We selected 60 and 56 compounds for skin and eye irritation, respectively. When the reactions were divided into irritation-negative or irritation-positive, including corrosion, similar reactions between rabbits and humans were detected for 53 compounds in skin irritation and 54 compounds in eye irritation, showing rates of agreement in skin and eye as 88% and 96%, respectively. These findings revealed that correlation in skin and eye irritations between rabbits and humans were high. However, corrosion was observed in rabbit skin treated with 14 compounds, 4 of which showed similar changes in humans, and in rabbit eyes treated with 9 compounds, 1 of which revealed similar changes in humans. These findings indicated that the incidence of corrosion was higher in rabbits than in humans. Our results showed that the data on rabbit irritations in the skin and eye were useful for identifying risk of irritation in human. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of metronidazole, ipronidazole, and dibromochloropropane on rabbit and human sperm motility and fertility.

    PubMed

    Foote, Robert H

    2002-01-01

    Treatment of protozoal pathogens in the reproductive system with chemical agents exposes flagellated sperm cells to potential toxicants. A widely used antiprotozoal agent is metronidazole. Its effect on rabbit and human sperm was compared with a more soluble 5-nitroazole compound, ipronidazole, and with a systemic environmental toxicant, dibromochloropropane (DBCP). The percentages of motile rabbit and human sperm incubated with the compounds, the velocity of sperm, migration of sperm in polyacrylamide gel, young born in rabbits, and penetration of hamster oocytes by treated human sperm were measured in seven experiments. Up to 10mg/ml metronidazole and 1mg/ml DBCP had little effect on most sperm characteristics. However, 10mg/ml metronidazole and 5mg/ml of ipronidazole increased attachment of human sperm to hamster oocytes, but oocyte penetration was unaffected. Rabbit sperm exposed to 5mg/ml ipronidazole were infertile. No oocytes were penetrated by DBCP-treated human sperm.

  9. Divalent cations in tears, and their influence on tear film stability in humans and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaojia Eric; Markoulli, Maria; Millar, Thomas J; Willcox, Mark D P; Zhao, Zhenjun

    2012-06-05

    Reduced tear film stability is reported to contribute to dry eye. Rabbits are known to have a more stable tear film than humans. Thus, we sought to examine the tears of rabbits and humans for metal cations, and to test how they influence tear film stability. Tears were collected from 10 healthy humans and 6 rabbits. Tear osmolality was measured by vapor pressure osmometer, and metals analyzed using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry or ICP atomic emission spectroscopy. The influence of divalent cations on tears was analyzed by measuring surface tension using the Langmuir trough in vitro, using different concentrations of cations in the subphase, and grading the tear break-up in rabbits in vivo after instillation of chelating agents. Rabbit tears had a higher osmolality compared to humans. Major metals did not differ between species; however, rabbits had higher levels of Mg(2+) (1.13 vs. 0.39 mM) and Ca(2+) (0.75 vs. 0.36 mM). In rabbit tears in vitro, diminishing divalent cations resulted in a decrease in the maximum surface pressure from 37 to 30 mN/m. In vivo, an increase in the amount of tear film that was broken-up was found. In contrast, when changing divalent cation concentrations in human tears, the maximum surface pressure remained at 26 mN/m. The normal osmolality of rabbit tears is significantly higher than that in humans. While divalent cations had little influence on human tears, they appear to have an important role in maintaining tear film stability in rabbits.

  10. Detection and neutralization of cobra venom using rabbit antiserum in experimental envenomated mice.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, C; Sarathi, M; Balasubramanian, G; Saravanan, A; Vimal, S; Madan, N; Majeed, S Abdul; Raj, N Sundar; Hameed, A S Sahul; Babu, V Sarath

    2014-07-01

    A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect the venom of Indian cobra (Naja naja naja) in various tissues (brain, heart, lungs, liver, spleen, blood, kidneys, and tissue at the site of injection) of mice after cobra venom injected at different time intervals (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 h intervals up to 24 h). Whole venom antiserum or individual venom protein antiserum (14, 29, 65, 72, and 99 kDa) could recognize N. n. naja venom by Western blotting and ELISA, and antibody titer was also assayed by ELISA. Antiserum raised against cobra venom in rabbit significantly neutralized the toxicity of venom-injected mice at different time intervals after treatment. The assay could detect N. n. naja venom levels up to 2.5 ng/ml of tissue homogenate, and the venom was detected up to 24 h after venom injection. Venom was detected in brain, heart, lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys, tissue at the bite area, and blood. As observed in mice, tissue at the site of bite area showed the highest concentration of venom and the brain showed the least. Moderate amounts of venoms were found in liver, spleen, kidneys, heart, and lungs. Development of a simple, rapid, and species-specific diagnostic kit based on this ELISA technique useful to clinicians is discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. [Comparison of photodynamic effect with respect to human and rabbit erythrocytes].

    PubMed

    Galebskaia, L V; Solovtsova, I L; Solov'eva, M A; Zammoeva, D B; Kuz'menkov, A N

    2011-01-01

    Parameters of photoinduced lysis are studied for human and rabbit erythrocytes (photosensibilizer--Radachlorin, the light source--Shuttle HeNe lazer, lambda = 633 nm). The higher sensitivity to irradiation is revealed for rabbit erythrocytes. Treatment of erythrocytes with trypsin showed the surface proteins in human cells to produce a protective effect. Trypsynization of rabbit erythrocytes produced the opposite action--the rate of photohemolysis increased. Results of the study indicate the differences in sensitivity to the photoinduced lysis of erythrocytes of different species and participation of erythrocytes proteins in the effect of photohemolysis.

  12. Hypotensive effects of hemopressin and bradykinin in rabbits, rats and mice. A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Blais, Paul-André; Côté, Jérôme; Morin, Josée; Larouche, Annie; Gendron, Gabrielle; Fortier, Audrey; Regoli, Domenico; Neugebauer, Witold; Gobeil, Fernand

    2005-08-01

    Hemopressin is a novel vasoactive nonapeptide derived from hemoglobin's alpha-chain as recently reported by Rioli et al. [Rioli V, Gozzo FC, Heimann AS, Linardi A, Krieger JE, Shida CS, et al. Novel natural peptide substrates for endopeptidase 24.15, neurolysin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme. J Biol Chem 2003;278(10):8547-55]. In anesthetized male Wistar rats, this peptide exhibited hypotensive actions similar to those of bradykinin (BK) when administered intravenously (i.v.), and was found to be metabolized both in vitro and in vivo by several peptidases, including the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). In this study, these findings were expanded upon by examining: (i) the degradation kinetics following incubation with ACE purified from rabbit lung and (ii) the blood pressure lowering effects of HP and BK injected i.v. or intra-arterially (i.a.) in male rabbits, rats, and mice. Our findings demonstrate that, in vitro, HP and BK are both degraded by ACE, but at different velocity rates. Furthermore, both HP and BK induced transient hypotension in all animals tested, although the responses to HP relative to the administration sites were significantly lower (by 10-100-fold) on an equimolar basis compared to those of BK. In rabbits, the decrease of blood pressure induced by HP (10-100 nmol/kg) did not differ whether it was administered i.v. or i.a., suggesting an absence of pulmonary/cardiac inactivation in contrast to BK (0.1-1 nmol/kg). The in vivo effect of HP was significantly potentiated in rabbits immunostimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but was unaffected by both the B2 receptor antagonist HOE 140 (0.1 micromol/kg) and captopril (100 microg/kg), contrary to BK. Therefore, HP acts as a weak hypotensive mediator, which does not activate kinin B2 receptors, but uses a functional site and/or signaling paths appearing to be up-regulated by LPS.

  13. How Does Domain Replacement Affect Fibril Formation of the Rabbit/Human Prion Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xu; Huang, Jun-Jie; Zhou, Zheng; Chen, Jie; Liang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Background It is known that in vivo human prion protein (PrP) have the tendency to form fibril deposits and are associated with infectious fatal prion diseases, while the rabbit PrP does not readily form fibrils and is unlikely to cause prion diseases. Although we have previously demonstrated that amyloid fibrils formed by the rabbit PrP and the human PrP have different secondary structures and macromolecular crowding has different effects on fibril formation of the rabbit/human PrPs, we do not know which domains of PrPs cause such differences. In this study, we have constructed two PrP chimeras, rabbit chimera and human chimera, and investigated how domain replacement affects fibril formation of the rabbit/human PrPs. Methodology/Principal Findings As revealed by thioflavin T binding assays and Sarkosyl-soluble SDS-PAGE, the presence of a strong crowding agent dramatically promotes fibril formation of both chimeras. As evidenced by circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and proteinase K digestion assays, amyloid fibrils formed by human chimera have secondary structures and proteinase K-resistant features similar to those formed by the human PrP. However, amyloid fibrils formed by rabbit chimera have proteinase K-resistant features and secondary structures in crowded physiological environments different from those formed by the rabbit PrP, and secondary structures in dilute solutions similar to the rabbit PrP. The results from transmission electron microscopy show that macromolecular crowding caused human chimera but not rabbit chimera to form short fibrils and non-fibrillar particles. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate for the first time that the domains beyond PrP-H2H3 (β-strand 1, α-helix 1, and β-strand 2) have a remarkable effect on fibrillization of the rabbit PrP but almost no effect on the human PrP. Our findings can help to explain why amyloid fibrils formed by the rabbit PrP and the human PrP have different secondary

  14. Rabbit medicine.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Dinah G

    2007-01-01

    When filling prescriptions for a rabbit, it is important to know whether the rabbit is a pet or is being raised as a source of food for human consumption. Several drugs widely used for pet rabbits are prohibited from exralabel use in animals raised for food production. The list of banned drugs should always be perused prior to filling a prescription for a rabbit being raised for food production. Since no veterinary-approved products exist for rabbits and most medications must be compounded, pharmacists are likely to encounter prescriptions for rabbits in their practice. A basic understanding of rabbit anatomy, physiolgy and common diseases will assist pharmacists in distinguishing between safe and dangerous drugs for administration to rabbits.

  15. Phospholamban Overexpression in Transgenic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Pattison, J. Scott; Waggoner, Jason R.; James, Jeanne; Martin, Lisa; Gulick, James; Osinska, Hanna; Klevitsky, Raisa; Kranias, Evangelia G.; Robbins, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in pursuing phospholamban as a putative therapeutic target for overcoming depressed calcium handling in human heart failure. Studies predominantly done in mice have shown that phospholamban is a key regulator of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium cycling and cardiac function. However, mice differ significantly from humans in how they regulate calcium, whereas rabbits better recapitulate human cardiac function and calcium handling. To investigate phospholamban’s role in the rabbit heart, transgenic rabbits that overexpressed wild-type phospholamban in the ventricular cardiomyocytes and slow-twitch skeletal muscles were generated. Rabbits expressing high levels of phospholamban were not viable due to severe skeletal muscle wasting, the onset of cardiac pathology and early death. A viable transgenic line exhibited a 30% increase in PLN protein levels in the heart. These animals showed isolated foci of cardiac pathology, but cardiac function as well as the response to β-adrenergic stimulation were normal. SR-calcium uptake measurements showed that the transgenic hearts had the expected reduced affinity for calcium. The data show that phospholamban-overexpressing transgenic rabbits differ markedly in phenotype from analogous transgenic mice in that rabbits are quite sensitive to alterations in phospholamban levels. Exceeding a relatively narrow window of phospholamban expression results in significant morbidity and early death. PMID:17882530

  16. Rabbit Model of Human Gliomas: Implications for Intra-Arterial Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Huamin; Janowski, Miroslaw; Pearl, Monica S.; Malysz-Cymborska, Izabela; Li, Shen; Eberhart, Charles G.

    2017-01-01

    The prognosis for malignant brain tumors remains poor despite a combination of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. This is partly due to the blood-brain barrier, a major obstacle that prevents therapeutic agents from effectively reaching the tumor. We have recently developed a method for precise and predictable opening of the blood-brain barrier via the intra-arterial administration of mannitol, a hyperosmolar agent, in a rabbit model, whose vascular anatomy facilitates the use of standard interventional neuroradiology techniques and devices. To date, however, no protocols are available that enable human glioma modeling in rabbits. In this article, we report on the xenotransplantation of a human glioblastoma (GBM-1) in adult New Zealand rabbits. We induced multi-drug immunosuppression (Mycophenolate Mofetil, Dexamethasone, Tacrolimus) and stereotactically implanted GBM-1 tumor cells into rabbit brains. The rabbits were followed for 42 days, monitored by MRI and body weight measurements, and underwent postmortem histopathological analysis. On MRI, brain tumors were identified on T2-weighted scans. On histopathology, tumors were detected with hematoxylin/eosin and their human origin was confirmed with immunohistochemistry against human-specific antigens. Our method for human glioma modeling in rabbits provides the foundation to test novel treatment strategies, including intra-arterial therapeutic agent delivery. PMID:28103265

  17. Syphilis superinfection activates expression of human immunodeficiency virus I in latently infected rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, C. K.; Hughes, M. A.; Hsu, P. L.; Mahoney, S.; Duvic, M.; Sell, S.

    1991-01-01

    Superinfection of latently human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected rabbits with either Treponema pallidum or Shope fibroma virus (SFV) activates HIV expression. In addition, HIV-infected rabbits demonstrate prolonged cutaneous lesions (chancres) after intracutaneous challenge with T. pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis. Rabbits were infected by intravenous inoculation of 3 x 10(7) human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type III (HTLV-III)/B10 (HIV-1)-infected H9 (human) cells. Five weeks after initial infection, integrated HIV-1-specific DNA sequences were detected in the DNA of the peripheral blood lymphocytes of only one of eight rabbits using polymerase chain reactions (PCR); human DNA could not be detected at this time. Furthermore HIV infection could not be demonstrated by either seroconversion or PCR during the next 6 months. All HIV-infected rabbits remained clinically healthy and had normal white blood cell counts. Six months after HIV infection, four HIV-infected and two noninfected controls were superinfected with 10(6) T. pallidum in eight skin sites in the shaved skin of the back, and four infected and two control animals were challenged with an intradermal injection with SFV. After infection with either syphilis or SFV, the DNA from the white blood cells of all eight HIV-infected rabbits contained HIV sequences, and HIV sequences were demonstrated in dermal mononuclear cells of the syphilitic lesions by in situ hybridization. The SFV-induced tumors were rejected normally in the HIV-infected rabbits, but four of the four rabbits challenged with T. pallidum had delayed development of cutaneous lesions and three of four demonstrated larger and more prolonged lesions. White blood counts, mitogen responses, and interleukin-2 production remained within normal limits, and seroconversion for HIV was not detected. Three of four rabbits in a second group, challenged with T. pallidum 4 months after HIV-inoculation, also had delayed healing of syphilitic

  18. Rabbit muscle creatine phosphokinase. CDNA cloning, primary structure and detection of human homologues.

    PubMed

    Putney, S; Herlihy, W; Royal, N; Pang, H; Aposhian, H V; Pickering, L; Belagaje, R; Biemann, K; Page, D; Kuby, S

    1984-12-10

    A cDNA library was constructed from rabbit muscle poly(A) RNA. Limited amino acid sequence information was obtained on rabbit muscle creatine phosphokinase and this was the basis for design and synthesis of two oligonucleotide probes complementary to a creatine kinase cDNA sequence which encodes a pentapeptide. Colony hybridizations with the probes and subsequent steps led to isolation of two clones, whose cDNA segments partially overlap and which together encode the entire protein. The primary structure was established from the sequence of two cDNA clones and from independently determined sequences of scattered portions of the polypeptide. The reactive cysteine has been located to position 282 within the 380 amino acid polypeptide. The rabbit cDNA hybridizes to digests of human chromosomal DNA. This reveals a restriction fragment length polymorphism associated with the human homologue(s) which hybridizes to the rabbit cDNA.

  19. [Preparation and preliminary application of rabbit anti-human PON2 antibodies(paraoxonase-2)].

    PubMed

    Chen, Miao; Yang, Jin-Ju; Li, Shu-Zhen; Liu, Xiao-Lan; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Lin-Jie; Gao, Jian-En; Sun, Qi-Hong

    2008-07-01

    To preparation and characterize the rabbit polyclonal antibodies against human PON2 (paraoxonase-2). A fragment of human PON2 gene which was of low homology with rabbits but of higher hydrophilicity and immunogenicity was selected for recombinant expression in prokaryotic expression system. The rabbits were immunized with the purified GST fusion protein 3 times. The specificity and sensitivity of the anti-human PON2 polyclonal antibodies were detected by Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence. The GST-PON2 fusion protein was highly expressed in Ecoli with a molecular weight of 46 kDa. Western blot analysis proved the rabbit polyclonal antibodies could specifically recognize 39 kDa native PON2 protein expressed in several cells and tissues, such as HeLa cells, U937 cells, and human liver tissue. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that PON2 protein was located in the cytoplasm of SY5Y cells. The rabbit polyclonal antibodies against human PON2 can specifically recognize natural protein expressed in human cells and tissues, Which can be used for further study and clinical detection of human PON2.

  20. In vitro ocular metabolism and bioactivation of ketoconazole in rat, rabbit and human.

    PubMed

    Cirello, Amanda L; Dumouchel, Jennifer L; Gunduz, Mithat; Dunne, Christine E; Argikar, Upendra A

    2017-04-01

    Oral ketoconazole is clinically administered for treatment of severe cases for fungal keratitis. Pharmacodynamics and efficacy of oral and topical (ocular) ketoconazole have been explored in rabbit. However, metabolism of ketoconazole in the eye in any species is not well explored in any preclinical species or human. An understanding of ocular drug metabolism in the eye is crucial for ocular therapeutics to facilitate the risk assessment and development of potential drug candidates for the clinic. We aimed to investigate the metabolism of ketoconazole in rat, rabbit and human ocular S9 fractions. Metabolism in liver S9 fractions was also studied for a direct comparison. Eleven putative metabolites were identified in the in vitro incubations. Of these metabolites, six were present in rat ocular S9 whereas eight were present in rabbit and human ocular matrices. Metabolic pathways in rabbit and human ocular fractions suggested the formation of reactive intermediates in rabbit and human liver and ocular S9 incubations, which was confirmed with trapping studies. Herein, we report eight human ocular metabolites of ketoconazole for the first time. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of ocular metabolic pathways and ocular bioactivation of ketoconazole in preclinical species and human. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental investigations in hamsters and rabbits with DNA extracted from human uterine tumors.

    PubMed

    Nastac, E; Athanasiu, P; Predescu, E; Stoian, M; Hozoc, M; Perju, A

    1980-01-01

    Experimental inoculation of a DNA preparation extracted from a fragment of non-irradiated human uterine cervix carcinoma was followed by the appearance of neoplasia in four hamsters and of lymphosarcoma in one rabbit. Similar DNA preparations obtained from three cases of irradiated human uterine cervix carcinoma and from a human uterine fibroma proved to have no biological activity.

  2. Different susceptibility and pathogenesis of rabbit genotype 3 hepatitis E virus (HEV-3) and human HEV-3 (JRC-HE3) in SPF rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yulin; Gong, Wanyun; Song, William Tianshi; Fu, Hongwei; Wang, Lin; Li, Manyu; Wang, Ling; Zhuang, Hui

    2017-08-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an increasingly important zoonotic infection in humans with HEV genotypes 3 and 4 being recognized as zoonotic pathogens. The relatively recently isolated genotype 3 rabbit HEV (rHEV-3) and the more well known genotype 3 isolates from humans and swine (hsHEV-3) have all been confirmed experimentally to be capable of infecting both non-human primates and specific-pathogen free (SPF) pigs. In a previous study rHEV-3 was shown to cause acute hepatitis in experimentally infected rabbits. However, whether hsHEV-3 can productively infect rabbits remained unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the experimental infection of rabbits with human HEV-3 (hHEV-3, JRC-HE3), to compare it to that with rHEV-3 (CHN-BJ-rb14) and to further characterise the pathogenesis of the two isolates. All animals inoculated with rHEV-3 (CHN-BJ-rb14) became infected, exhibiting an intermittent viremia, elevated liver enzymes, and persistent fecal virus shedding throughout the 15 week study period. Liver histopathology showed acute inflammation and both positive- and negative-stranded viral RNA was detected in various tissues from necropsied rabbits. By contrast, neither sero-conversion nor alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation was observed in most rabbits inoculated with hHEV-3 (JRC-HE3). In addition, rHEV-3 (CHN-BJ-rb14) but not hHEV-3 (JRC-HE3) recovered from primary infected rabbits was transmissible to naive rabbits. These results showed that SPF rabbits are readily susceptible to infection with rHEV-3 (CHN-BJ-rb14) but not hHEV-3 (JRC-HE3), which might indicate the influence of viral genomic organization on its pathogenicity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Humanization of excretory pathway in chimeric mice with humanized liver.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Hirotoshi; Katoh, Miki; Sawada, Toshiro; Nakajima, Miki; Soeno, Yoshinori; Yabuuchi, Hikaru; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Tateno, Chise; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2007-06-01

    The liver of a chimeric urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)(+/+)/severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse line recently established in Japan could be replaced by more than 80% with human hepatocytes. We previously reported that the chimeric mice with humanized liver could be useful as a human model in studies on drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. In the present study, the humanization of an excretory pathway was investigated in the chimeric mice. Cefmetazole (CMZ) was used as a probe drug. The CMZ excretions in urine and feces were 81.0 and 5.9% of the dose, respectively, in chimeric mice and were 23.7 and 59.4% of the dose, respectively, in control uPA(-/-)/SCID mice. Because CMZ is mainly excreted in urine in humans, the excretory profile of chimeric mice was demonstrated to be similar to that of humans. In the chimeric mice, the hepatic mRNA expression of human drug transporters could be quantified. On the other hand, the hepatic mRNA expression of mouse drug transporters in the chimeric mice was significantly lower than in the control uPA(-/-)/SCID mice. In conclusion, chimeric mice exhibited a humanized profile of drug excretion, suggesting that this chimeric mouse line would be a useful animal model in excretory studies.

  4. Humanized mice with ectopic artificial liver tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Alice A; Thomas, David K; Ong, Luvena L; Schwartz, Robert E; Golub, Todd R; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2011-07-19

    "Humanized" mice offer a window into aspects of human physiology that are otherwise inaccessible. The best available methods for liver humanization rely on cell transplantation into immunodeficient mice with liver injury but these methods have not gained widespread use due to the duration and variability of hepatocyte repopulation. In light of the significant progress that has been achieved in clinical cell transplantation through tissue engineering, we sought to develop a humanized mouse model based on the facile and ectopic implantation of a tissue-engineered human liver. These human ectopic artificial livers (HEALs) stabilize the function of cryopreserved primary human hepatocytes through juxtacrine and paracrine signals in polymeric scaffolds. In contrast to current methods, HEALs can be efficiently established in immunocompetent mice with normal liver function. Mice transplanted with HEALs exhibit humanized liver functions persistent for weeks, including synthesis of human proteins, human drug metabolism, drug-drug interaction, and drug-induced liver injury. Here, mice with HEALs are used to predict the disproportionate metabolism and toxicity of "major" human metabolites using multiple routes of administration and monitoring. These advances may enable manufacturing of reproducible in vivo models for diverse drug development and research applications.

  5. Effects of genetic fusion of factor IX to albumin on in vivo clearance in mice and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, William P; Mamdani, Asif; Hortelano, Gonzalo; Gataiance, Sharon; Eltringham-Smith, Louise; Begbie, Megan E; Leyva, Rina A; Liaw, Peter S; Ofosu, Frederick A

    2004-08-01

    Individuals with haemophilia B require replacement therapy with recombinant or plasma-derived coagulation factor IX (fIX). More benefit per injected dose might be obtained if fIX clearance could be slowed. The contribution of overall size to fIX clearance was explored, using genetic fusion to albumin. Recombinant murine fIX (MIX), and three proteins with C-terminal epitope tags were expressed in HEK 293 cells: tagged MIX (MIXT), tagged mouse serum albumin (MSAT) and MFUST, in which MIX and MSAT were fused in a single polypeptide chain. Proteins MFUST and MIXT were two- to threefold less active in clotting assays than MIX. In mice, the area under the clearance curve (AUC) was reduced for MFUST compared with MSAT or plasma-derived MSA (pd-MSA); the terminal catabolic half-life (t(0.5)) did not differ amongst the three proteins. Two minutes after injection, >40% of the injected MFUST was found in the liver, compared with <10% of either MSAT or pd-MSA. In rabbits, the AUC for MFUST was reduced compared to MIXT, MSAT, or pd-MSA, while the t(0.5) of the fusion protein fell between that of MIXT and MSAT or pd-MSA. Similar results were obtained with non-radioactive fused or non-fused recombinant human fIX in fIX knockout mice. The clearance behaviour of the fusion protein thus more closely resembled that of fIX than that of albumin despite a modest increase in terminal half-life, suggesting that fIX-specific interactions that are important in determining clearance were maintained in spite of the increased size of the fusion protein.

  6. The transgenic rabbit as model for human diseases and as a source of biologically active recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Bosze, Zs; Hiripi, L; Carnwath, J W; Niemann, H

    2003-10-01

    Until recently, transgenic rabbits were produced exclusively by pronuclear microinjection which results in additive random insertional transgenesis; however, progress in somatic cell cloning based on nuclear transfer will soon make it possible to produce rabbits with modifications to specific genes by the combination of homologous recombination and subsequent prescreening of nuclear donor cells. Transgenic rabbits have been found to be excellent animal models for inherited and acquired human diseases including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, perturbed lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis. Transgenic rabbits have also proved to be suitable bioreactors for the production of recombinant protein both on an experimental and a commercial scale. This review summarizes recent research based on the transgenic rabbit model.

  7. Epitope-focused peptide immunogens in human use adjuvants protect rabbits from experimental inhalation anthrax.

    PubMed

    Oscherwitz, Jon; Feldman, Daniel; Yu, Fen; Cease, Kemp B

    2015-01-09

    Anthrax represents a formidable bioterrorism threat for which new, optimized vaccines are required. We previously demonstrated that epitope-focused multiple antigenic peptides or a recombinant protein in Freund's adjuvant can elicit Ab against the loop neutralizing determinant (LND), a cryptic linear neutralizing epitope in the 2ß2-2ß3 loop of protective antigen from Bacillus anthracis, which mediated protection of rabbits from inhalation challenge with B. anthracis Ames strain. However, demonstration of efficacy using human-use adjuvants is required before proceeding with further development of an LND vaccine for testing in non-human primates and humans. To optimize the LND immunogen, we first evaluated the protective efficacy and immune correlates associated with immunization of rabbits with mixtures containing two molecular variants of multiple antigenic peptides in Freunds adjuvant, termed BT-LND(2) and TB-LND(2). TB-LND(2) was then further evaluated for protective efficacy in rabbits employing human-use adjuvants. Immunization of rabbits with TB-LND(2) in human-use adjuvants elicited protection from Ames strain spore challenge which was statistically indistinguishable from that elicited through immunization with protective antigen. All TB-LND(2) rabbits with any detectable serum neutralization prior to challenge were protected from aerosolized spore exposure. Remarkably, rabbits immunized with TB-LND(2) in Alhydrogel/CpG had significant anamnestic increases in post-challenge LND-specific Ab and neutralization titers despite little evidence of spore germination in these rabbits. An LND-specific epitope-focused vaccine may complement PA-based vaccines and may represent a complementary stand-alone vaccine for anthrax. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. OBSERVATIONS ON THE PRODUCTION OF PYROGENIC SUBSTANCES BY RABBIT AND HUMAN LEUCOCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Fessler, J. H.; Cooper, K. E.; Cranston, W. I.; Vollum, R. L.

    1961-01-01

    1. The mechanism of release of a pyrogen from leucocytes has been studied in cells obtained from sterile rabbit peritoneal exudates and from rabbit blood. Attempts were made to induce human leucocytes—from blood—to release a pyrogen. 2. Rabbit leucocytes, kept below 4°C., were not pyrogenic and did not release any pyrogen when disintegrated. Incubating such cells, in various media, at 37°C. led to the formation of a pyrogen which was heat-labile. The maximum yield was attained after 1½ hours' incubation. 3. The formation of rabbit leucocytic pyrogen was prevented by freezing and thawing the leucocytes, by heating them to 56°C. for half an hour before incubation, and by ageing them in the cold. 4. Nitrofurazone (5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone) prevents the formation of leucocytic pyrogen when given by mouth to the cell-donor animals, or when added to leucocytes in intro. 5. Leucocytes from rabbit blood formed leucocytic pyrogen, on incubation in saline, and this formation was also inhibited by nitrofurazone. 6. No leucocytic pyrogen was released from human leucocytes subjected to mechanical, osmotic, or thermal damage, and it was not formed when the cells were incubated in saline. 7. The source of rabbit leucocytic pyrogen, the action of nitrofurazone on leucocytes, and the supposed role of leucocytic pyrogen in fever are discussed. PMID:13699218

  9. Recombination rate variation and speciation: theoretical predictions and empirical results from rabbits and mice.

    PubMed

    Nachman, Michael W; Payseur, Bret A

    2012-02-05

    Recently diverged taxa may continue to exchange genes. A number of models of speciation with gene flow propose that the frequency of gene exchange will be lower in genomic regions of low recombination and that these regions will therefore be more differentiated. However, several population-genetic models that focus on selection at linked sites also predict greater differentiation in regions of low recombination simply as a result of faster sorting of ancestral alleles even in the absence of gene flow. Moreover, identifying the actual amount of gene flow from patterns of genetic variation is tricky, because both ancestral polymorphism and migration lead to shared variation between recently diverged taxa. New analytic methods have been developed to help distinguish ancestral polymorphism from migration. Along with a growing number of datasets of multi-locus DNA sequence variation, these methods have spawned a renewed interest in speciation models with gene flow. Here, we review both speciation and population-genetic models that make explicit predictions about how the rate of recombination influences patterns of genetic variation within and between species. We then compare those predictions with empirical data of DNA sequence variation in rabbits and mice. We find strong support for the prediction that genomic regions experiencing low levels of recombination are more differentiated. In most cases, reduced gene flow appears to contribute to the pattern, although disentangling the relative contribution of reduced gene flow and selection at linked sites remains a challenge. We suggest fruitful areas of research that might help distinguish between different models.

  10. Histopathological Studies on Rabbits Infected by Bacteria Causing Infectious Keratitis in Human through Eye Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Aldebasi, Yousef H.; Mohamed, Hala A.; Aly, Salah M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim This study aimed to investigate the pathogenic effect of bacteria causing infectious keratitis among patients through experimental study conducted on rabbits’ eyes with the aid of histopathology as eye infection is a common disease in developing countries that may complicate to loss of vision. Methodology 100 swab samples were collected from human infected eyes, at Qassim region during 2012, for the isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The isolated pathogenic bacteria were tested to various antibiotics using some selected antibiotics discs through agar-well diffusion method. Then, experimental study conducted on 27 rabbits. The rabbits were divided randomly into three equal groups, each containing 9 rabbits. Rabbits of group (1) served as control group (Negative Control) and their eyes were inoculated with the buffer only. Rabbits of group (2) were inoculated through eyes with the isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Rabbits of group (3) were inoculated through eyes with the isolated Staphylococcus aureus. Results Out of 100 collected swab samples from human infected eyes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated with a total percentage of 25.21% and 15.65%; respectively and used in this study. Both bacterial isolates were sensitive to Gentamicin and Cefuroxime. Clinically, experimentally infected rabbits by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, revealed varying degree corneal abrasions, corneal abscess and dense corneal opacity. Histopathologically, at 3rd day post-infection (PI), the cornea revealed polymorpho-nuclear cells infiltration with loss of the outer epithelial lining. At 7th day PI, neutrophils were seen in the stroma. At 15th day PI, proliferation of fibroblasts and new vascularisation were seen in the stroma. Clinically, rabbits experimentally infected with Staphylococcus aureus, revealed corneal ulcers and focal abscesses. Histopathologically, at 3rd and 7th day PI, the cornea revealed edema and infiltration of

  11. [Mice are not Men and yet… how humanized mice inform us about human infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Cachat, Anne; Villaudy, Julien; Rigal, Dominique; Gazzolo, Louis; Duc Dodon, Madeleine

    2012-01-01

    The study of human pathologies is often limited by the absence of animal models which are robust, cost-effective and reproduce the hallmarks of human infections. While mice have been frequently employed to study human diseases, many of important pathogens display unique human tropism. These last two decades the graft of human progenitor cells or tissues into -immunodeficient mice has allowed the elaboration of so called humanized mice. Humanized mouse technology has made rapid progress, and it is now possible to achieve high levels of human chimerism in various organs and tissues, particularly the immune system and the liver. The review briefly summarizes the different models of humanized mice available for in vivo experiments. With a focus on lymphotropic, monocytotropic and hepatotropic viruses, we here discuss the current status and future prospects of these models for studying the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Furthermore, they provide a powerful tool for the development of innovative therapies.

  12. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of Bacillus anthracis spore deposition in rabbit and human respiratory airways

    SciTech Connect

    Kabilan, S.; Suffield, S. R.; Recknagle, K. P.; Jacob, R. E.; Einstein, D. R.; Kuprat, A. P.; Carson, J. P.; Colby, S. M.; Saunders, J. H.; Hines, S. A.; Teeguarden, J. G.; Straub, T. M.; Moe, M.; Taft, S. C.; Corley, R. A.

    2016-09-01

    Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and Lagrangian particle deposition models were developed to compare the deposition of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores in the respiratory airways of a human with that of the rabbit, a species commonly used in the study of anthrax disease. The respiratory airway geometries for each species were derived respectively from computed tomography (CT) and µCT images. Both models encompassed airways that extended from the external nose to the lung with a total of 272 outlets in the human model and 2878 outlets in the rabbit model. All simulations of spore deposition were conducted under transient, inhalation–exhalation breathing conditions using average species-specific minute volumes. Two different exposure scenarios were modeled in the rabbit based upon experimental inhalation studies. For comparison, human simulations were conducted at the highest exposure concentration used during the rabbit experimental exposures. Results demonstrated that regional spore deposition patterns were sensitive to airway geometry and ventilation profiles. Due to the complex airway geometries in the rabbit nose, higher spore deposition efficiency was predicted in the nasal sinus compared to the human at the same air concentration of anthrax spores. In contrast, higher spore deposition was predicted in the lower conducting airways of the human compared to the rabbit lung due to differences in airway branching pattern. This information can be used to refine published and ongoing biokinetic models of inhalation anthrax spore exposures, which currently estimate deposited spore concentrations based solely upon exposure concentrations and inhaled doses that do not factor in species-specific anatomy and physiology for deposition.

  13. Rabbits are not resistant to prion infection

    PubMed Central

    Chianini, Francesca; Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Vidal, Enric; Gibbard, Louise; Pintado, Belén; de Castro, Jorge; Priola, Suzette A.; Hamilton, Scott; Eaton, Samantha L.; Finlayson, Jeanie; Pang, Yvonne; Steele, Philip; Reid, Hugh W.; Dagleish, Mark P.; Castilla, Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    The ability of prions to infect some species and not others is determined by the transmission barrier. This unexplained phenomenon has led to the belief that certain species were not susceptible to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) and therefore represented negligible risk to human health if consumed. Using the protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technique, we were able to overcome the species barrier in rabbits, which have been classified as TSE resistant for four decades. Rabbit brain homogenate, either unseeded or seeded in vitro with disease-related prions obtained from different species, was subjected to serial rounds of PMCA. De novo rabbit prions produced in vitro from unseeded material were tested for infectivity in rabbits, with one of three intracerebrally challenged animals succumbing to disease at 766 d and displaying all of the characteristics of a TSE, thereby demonstrating that leporids are not resistant to prion infection. Material from the brain of the clinically affected rabbit containing abnormal prion protein resulted in a 100% attack rate after its inoculation in transgenic mice overexpressing rabbit PrP. Transmissibility to rabbits (>470 d) has been confirmed in 2 of 10 rabbits after intracerebral challenge. Despite rabbits no longer being able to be classified as resistant to TSEs, an outbreak of “mad rabbit disease” is unlikely. PMID:22416127

  14. Human lactoferrin transgenic rabbits produced efficiently using dimethylsulfoxide-sperm-mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Li, Lan; Shen, Wei; Min, Lingjiang; Dong, Huansheng; Sun, Yujiang; Pan, Qingjie

    2006-01-01

    Transgenic animal mammary gland bioreactors are used to produce recombinant proteins. However, it is difficult to validate whether these transgenic domestic animals are able to express the recombinant protein efficiently in their mammary glands before the birth of transgenic offspring. In the present study, a simple and efficient method was established to evaluate the functionality of animal mammary gland tissue-expressed cassettes. The gene transfer vector pGBC2LF was constructed, and the expression of human lactoferrin (LF) gene was controlled by the goat beta-casein gene 5' flanking sequence. To obtain the most efficient transfection, the influence of DNA concentration, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) concentration, and the ratio of linear-to-circular DNA required for associating DNA with spermatozoa were evaluated. Transfection of exogenous DNA into rabbit spermatozoa was found to be efficient using 30 microg mL(-1) DNA, DMSO at a final concentration of 3%, and a 3 : 1 ratio of linear-to-circular DNA, with 29 of 85 (34.1%) in vitro-fertilised embryos being transgenic. Using DMSO-sperm-mediated gene transfer (DMSO-SMGT), 89 rabbit offspring were produced, with 46 of these (57.1%) being transgenic. As mammary gland bioreactor models, 17 of 21 (81%) transgenic female rabbits could express human LF protein in their glands. During lactation of the transgenic rabbits, the highest level of human LF protein expressed was 153 +/- 31 microg mL(-1), and the mean expression level in all of the transgenic rabbits was 103 +/- 20 microg mL(-1) in the third week, declining gradually after this time. Our results demonstrate that transgenic rabbits produced by DMSO-SMGT were able to express human LF protein in the correct tissue.

  15. Calcium Transient and Sodium-Calcium Exchange Current in Human versus Rabbit Sinoatrial Node Pacemaker Cells

    PubMed Central

    Verkerk, Arie O.

    2013-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate on the mechanism underlying the pacemaker activity of sinoatrial node (SAN) cells, focusing on the relative importance of the “membrane clock” and the “Ca2+ clock” in the generation of the small net membrane current that depolarizes the cell towards the action potential threshold. Specifically, the debate centers around the question whether the membrane clock-driven hyperpolarization-activated current, I f, which is also known as the “funny current” or “pacemaker current,” or the Ca2+ clock-driven sodium-calcium exchange current, I NaCa, is the main contributor to diastolic depolarization. In our contribution to this journal's “Special Issue on Cardiac Electrophysiology,” we present a numerical reconstruction of I f and I NaCa in isolated rabbit and human SAN pacemaker cells based on experimental data on action potentials, I f, and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) that we have acquired from these cells. The human SAN pacemaker cells have a smaller I f, a weaker [Ca2+]i transient, and a smaller I NaCa than the rabbit cells. However, when compared to the diastolic net membrane current, I NaCa is of similar size in human and rabbit SAN pacemaker cells, whereas I f is smaller in human than in rabbit cells. PMID:23606816

  16. Calcium transient and sodium-calcium exchange current in human versus rabbit sinoatrial node pacemaker cells.

    PubMed

    Verkerk, Arie O; van Borren, Marcel M G J; Wilders, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate on the mechanism underlying the pacemaker activity of sinoatrial node (SAN) cells, focusing on the relative importance of the "membrane clock" and the "Ca(2+) clock" in the generation of the small net membrane current that depolarizes the cell towards the action potential threshold. Specifically, the debate centers around the question whether the membrane clock-driven hyperpolarization-activated current, I f , which is also known as the "funny current" or "pacemaker current," or the Ca(2+) clock-driven sodium-calcium exchange current, I NaCa, is the main contributor to diastolic depolarization. In our contribution to this journal's "Special Issue on Cardiac Electrophysiology," we present a numerical reconstruction of I f and I NaCa in isolated rabbit and human SAN pacemaker cells based on experimental data on action potentials, I f , and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)] i ) that we have acquired from these cells. The human SAN pacemaker cells have a smaller I f , a weaker [Ca(2+)] i transient, and a smaller I NaCa than the rabbit cells. However, when compared to the diastolic net membrane current, I NaCa is of similar size in human and rabbit SAN pacemaker cells, whereas I f is smaller in human than in rabbit cells.

  17. Chemical compositions and properties of Schinus areira L. essential oil on airway inflammation and cardiovascular system of mice and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bigliani, María C; Rossetti, Víctor; Grondona, Ezequiel; Lo Presti, Silvina; Paglini, Patricia M; Rivero, Virginia; Zunino, María P; Ponce, Andrés A

    2012-07-01

    The main purpose was to investigate the effects of essential plant-oil of Schinus areira L. on hemodynamic functions in rabbits, as well as myocardial contractile strength and airways inflammation associated to bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. This study shows the important properties of the essential oil (EO) of S. areira studied and these actions on lung with significant inhibition associated to LPS, all of which was assessed in mice bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and evidenced by stability of the percentage of alveolar macrophages, infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and tumor necrosis factor-α concentration, and without pathway modifications in conjugated dienes activity. Clinical status (morbidity or mortality), macroscopic morphology and lung/body weight index were unaffected by the administration of the EO S. areira. Furthermore, the ex vivo analysis of isolated hearts demonstrated the negative inotropic action of the EO of S. areira in a mice model, and in rabbits changes in the hemodynamic parameters, such as a reduction of systolic blood pressure. We conclude that EO S. areira could be responsible for modifications on the cardiovascular and/or airway parameters.

  18. The Role of IgG Antibodies from Irradiated Cercaria-Immunized Rabbits in the Passive Transfer of Immunity to Schistosoma Mansoni-Infected Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    RABBITS IN TilE PASSIVE TRANSFER Of’ IMMUNITY TO SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI -INFECTI3D MICE BY Beverly L. Mangold and David A. Dean U.S. NAVAL MEDICAL RESEARCH...kilorads of gamma irradiation passively provided partial immunity against Schistosoma mansoni challenge in C57BI/6J mice. These mice exhibited...previously shown that par- compared with control rats. and naive rats re- tial immunity against Schistosoma mansoni in- ceiving serum from KLH-immunized

  19. Autocrine Human Urotensin II Enhances Macrophage-Derived Foam Cell Formation in Transgenic Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sihai; Li, Yafeng; Gao, Shoucui; Wang, Xiaojing; Sun, Lijing; Cheng, Daxing; Bai, Liang; Guan, Hua; Wang, Rong; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

    2015-01-01

    Circulating urotensin II (UII) is involved in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the role of autocrine UII in the development of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that autocrine UII would promote atherosclerosis. Transgenic rabbits were created as a model to study macrophage-specific expressing human UII (hUII) and used to investigate the role of autocrine UII in the development of atherosclerosis. Transgenic rabbits and their nontransgenic littermates were fed a high cholesterol diet to induce atherosclerosis. Comparing the transgenic rabbits with their nontransgenic littermates, it was observed that hUII expression increased the macrophage-positive area in the atherosclerotic lesions by 45% and the positive area ratio by 56% in the transgenic rabbits. Autocrine hUII significantly decreased the smooth muscle cell-positive area ratio in transgenic rabbits (by 54%), without affecting the plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose and adipose tissue contents. These results elucidated for the first time that autocrine UII plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis by increasing the accumulation of macrophage-derived foam cell.

  20. Autocrine Human Urotensin II Enhances Macrophage-Derived Foam Cell Formation in Transgenic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Sihai; Li, Yafeng; Gao, Shoucui; Wang, Xiaojing; Sun, Lijing; Cheng, Daxing; Bai, Liang; Guan, Hua; Wang, Rong; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

    2015-01-01

    Circulating urotensin II (UII) is involved in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the role of autocrine UII in the development of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that autocrine UII would promote atherosclerosis. Transgenic rabbits were created as a model to study macrophage-specific expressing human UII (hUII) and used to investigate the role of autocrine UII in the development of atherosclerosis. Transgenic rabbits and their nontransgenic littermates were fed a high cholesterol diet to induce atherosclerosis. Comparing the transgenic rabbits with their nontransgenic littermates, it was observed that hUII expression increased the macrophage-positive area in the atherosclerotic lesions by 45% and the positive area ratio by 56% in the transgenic rabbits. Autocrine hUII significantly decreased the smooth muscle cell-positive area ratio in transgenic rabbits (by 54%), without affecting the plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose and adipose tissue contents. These results elucidated for the first time that autocrine UII plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis by increasing the accumulation of macrophage-derived foam cell. PMID:26640798

  1. Humanized Mice as Preclinical Models in Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Safinia, N; Becker, P D; Vaikunthanathan, T; Xiao, F; Lechler, R; Lombardi, G

    2016-01-01

    Animal models have been instrumental in our understanding of the mechanisms of rejection and the testing of novel treatment options in the context of transplantation. We have now entered an exciting era with research on humanized mice driving advances in translational studies and in our understanding of the function of human cells in response to pathogens and cancer as well as the recognition of human allogeneic tissues in vivo. In this chapter we provide a historical overview of humanized mouse models of transplantation to date, outlining the distinct strains and share our experiences in the study of human transplantation immunology.

  2. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Bacillus anthracis Spore Deposition in Rabbit and Human Respiratory Airways

    SciTech Connect

    Kabilan, Senthil; Suffield, Sarah R.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Jacob, Rick E.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Carson, James P.; Colby, Sean M.; Saunders, James H.; Hines, Stephanie; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Straub, Tim M.; Moe, M.; Taft, Sarah; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-09-30

    Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and Lagrangian particle deposition models were developed to compare the deposition of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores in the respiratory airways of a human with that of the rabbit, a species commonly used in the study of anthrax disease. The respiratory airway geometries for each species were derived from computed tomography (CT) or µCT images. Both models encompassed airways that extended from the external nose to the lung with a total of 272 outlets in the human model and 2878 outlets in the rabbit model. All simulations of spore deposition were conducted under transient, inhalation-exhalation breathing conditions using average species-specific minute volumes. The highest exposure concentration was modeled in the rabbit based upon prior acute inhalation studies. For comparison, human simulation was also conducted at the same concentration. Results demonstrated that regional spore deposition patterns were sensitive to airway geometry and ventilation profiles. Due to the complex airway geometries in the rabbit nose, higher spore deposition efficiency was predicted in the upper conducting airways compared to the human at the same air concentration of anthrax spores. As a result, higher particle deposition was predicted in the conducting airways and deep lung of the human compared to the rabbit lung due to differences in airway branching pattern. This information can be used to refine published and ongoing biokinetic models of inhalation anthrax spore exposures, which currently estimate deposited spore concentrations based solely upon exposure concentrations and inhaled doses that do not factor in species-specific anatomy and physiology.

  3. Therapeutic efficiency of tissue-engineered human corneal endothelium transplants on rabbit primary corneal endotheliopathy.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ting-jun; Zhao, Jun; Hu, Xiu-zhong; Ma, Xi-ya; Zhang, Wen-bo; Yang, Chao-zhong

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic efficiency of tissue-engineered human corneal endothelia (TE-HCEs) on rabbit primary corneal endotheliopathy (PCEP), TE-HCEs reconstructed with monoclonal human corneal endothelial cells (mcHCECs) and modified denuded amniotic membranes (mdAMs) were transplanted into PCEP models of New Zealand white rabbits using penetrating keratoplasty. The TE-HCEs were examined using diverse techniques including slit-lamp biomicroscopy observation and pachymeter and tonometer measurements in vivo, and fluorescent microscopy, alizarin red staining, paraffin sectioning, scanning and transmission electron microscopy observations in vitro. The corneas of transplanted eyes maintained transparency for as long as 200 d without obvious edema or immune rejection. The corneal thickness of transplanted eyes decreased gradually after transplanting, reaching almost the thickness of normal eyes after 156 d, while the TE-HCE non-transplanted eyes were turbid and showed obvious corneal edema. The polygonal corneal endothelial cells in the transplanted area originated from the TE-HCE transplant. An intact monolayer corneal endothelium had been reconstructed with the morphology, cell density and structure similar to those of normal rabbit corneal endothelium. In conclusion, the transplanted TE-HCE can reconstruct the integrality of corneal endothelium and restore corneal transparency and thickness in PCEP rabbits. The TE-HCE functions normally as an endothelial barrier and pump and promises to be an equivalent of HCE for clinical therapy of human PCEP.

  4. A Rabbit Model of Acanthamoeba Keratitis That Better Reflects the Natural Human Infection.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xianmin; Zheng, Wenyu; Wang, Yuehua; Zhao, Donghai; Jiang, Xiaoming; Lv, Shijie

    2015-08-01

    Acanthamoeba species are ubiquitous, free-living protozoa that can invade the cornea and result in Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), a painful progressive sight-threatening corneal disease. Disease progression in current animal models is too rapid to mimic AK in humans accurately. This study provides a novel method for establishing AK in rabbits and compared it with the conventional method with regard to pathogenesis and immune response in humans. The New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two experimental groups (Groups A and B). Rabbits in the Group A (n = 14) received intrastromal injections of 1 × 10(4) /100 µL Acanthamoeba healyi trophozoites (conventional AK model). The Group B animals (n = 14) received microinjections of 1 × 10(4) /10 µL A. healyi trophozoites between the corneal epithelium and Bowman's layer, anterior to the corneal stroma (novel AK model). In addition, two rabbits were left untreated as normal controls. AK in the treated rabbits was evaluated clinically, histopathologically, and immunologically for 35 days. AK was successfully established in both the conventional and novel model groups. Compared with the Group A, AK in the Group B displayed an efficient immune response with less severe pathology. Moreover, the self-limiting but chronic nature of the infection in the Group B was strikingly similar to that of AK in humans. The novel animal model for AK described here more closely simulates the pathogenesis and immune response of Acanthamoeba corneal infection in humans than the animal models currently in use.

  5. Experimental observation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation into rabbit intervertebral discs

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Hao; Lin, Yazhou; Zhang, Guoqing; Gu, Rui; Chen, Bohua

    2016-01-01

    Allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation has been investigated worldwide. However, few reports have addressed the survival status of human BMSCs in the intervertebral discs (IVDs) in vivo following transplantation. The current study aimed to observe the survival status of human BMSCs in rabbit IVDs. The IVDs of 15 New Zealand white rabbits were divided into three groups: Punctured blank control group (L1-2); punctured physiological saline control group (L2-3); and punctured human BMSCs transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP) group (L3-4, L4-5 and L5-6). One, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after transplantation the IVDs were removed and a fluorescence microscope was used to observe the density of GFP-positive human BMSCs. The results indicated that in the sections of specimens removed at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks post-transplantation, no GFP-positive cells were observed in the control groups, whereas GFP-positive cells were apparent in the nucleus pulposus at all periods in the GFP-labeled human BMSCs group, and the cell density at 6 and 8 weeks was significantly less than that at 1, 2 and 4 weeks post-transplantation (P<0.001). Thus, it was identified that human BMSCs were able to survive in the rabbit IVDs for 8 weeks. PMID:27588177

  6. Using a new plateau hyperbaric chamber to alleviate high altitude hypoxia: Rabbit and human studies.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liang; Ding, Meng-Jiang; Cai, Tian-Cai; Fan, Hao-Jun; Gao, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Jian-Peng

    2017-04-19

    To validate the effects of the new plateau hyperbaric chamber on alleviating high altitude hypoxia on Mount Kun Lun. A prospective, controlled study of rabbits and adult volunteers was conducted at altitudes of 355, 2880 and 4532m. We obtained arterial blood samples from rabbits and volunteers before and after hyperbaric treatment. The respiratory rate, heart rate, and blood pressure (BP) of adult volunteers were monitored during hyperbaric treatment. The mean PaO2 levels of experimental group rabbits and volunteers increased significantly after 60min of hyperbaric treatment at 350, 2880 and 4532m. The mean PaCO2 and pH levels of rabbits were not significant different before and after hyperbaric treatment at each altitude. The mean PaCO2 and pH levels were not significant different at 355m in the human study. However, at 2880 and 4532m, pH fell with increasing PaCO2 levels in humans before and after hyperbaric treatment. The new multiplace plateau hyperbaric chamber may be used to alleviate plateau hypoxia by increasing patient PaO2. However, its value in treating AMS must be confirmed in field conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. A Human-Type Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Model with Advanced Fibrosis in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Tomohiro; Fujii, Hideki; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Kawada, Norifumi

    2010-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) progresses to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, which can lead to life-threatening liver failure and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of the present study was to create a rabbit model of NASH with advanced fibrosis (almost cirrhosis) by feeding the animals a diet supplemented with 0.75% cholesterol and 12% corn oil. After 9 months of feeding with this diet, the rabbits showed high total cholesterol levels in serum and liver tissues in the absence of insulin resistance. The livers became whitish and nodular. In addition, the number of rabbit macrophage antigen-positive cells and the expression of mRNAs for inflammatory cytokines showed a significant increase. Moreover, fibrotic septa composed of collagens and α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells were found between the central and portal veins, indicating alteration of the parenchymal architecture. There was also a marked increase of mRNAs for transforming growth factor-β1 and collagen 1A1. Comprehensive analysis of protein and gene expression revealed an imbalance of the antioxidant system and methionine metabolism. We also found that ezetimibe attenuated steatohepatitis in this model. In conclusion, the present rabbit model of NASH features advanced fibrosis that is close to cirrhosis and may be useful for analyzing the molecular mechanisms of human NASH. Ezetimibe blunted the development of NASH in this model, suggesting its potential clinical usefulness for human steatohepatitis. PMID:20489159

  8. Acute lung injury after instillation of human breast milk or infant formula into rabbits' lungs.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, B; Lerman, J; Endo, J; Cutz, E

    1996-06-01

    Recent interest in shortening the fasting interval after ingestion of milk products demonstrated large volumes of breast milk in the stomach 2 h after breastfeeding. Although aspiration is a rare event, if it were to occur with human breast milk, it is important to understand the extent of the lung injury that might occur. Therefore, the response to instillation of acidified breast milk and infant formula in the lungs of adult rabbits was studied. In 18 anesthetized adult rabbits, 1 of 3 fluids (in a volume of 0.8 ml.kg-1 and pH level of 1.8, acidified with hydrochloric acid); saline, breast milk, or infant formula (SMA, Wyeth, Windsor, Ontario), was instilled into the lungs via a tracheotomy. The lungs were ventilated for 4 h after instillation. Alveolar-to-arterial oxygen gradient and dynamic compliance were measured before and at hourly intervals after instillation. After 4 h, the rabbits were killed and the lungs were excised. Neutrophil infiltration was quantitated by a pathologist blinded to the instilled fluid. A histologic control group of four rabbits was ventilated under study conditions without any intratracheal fluid instillation. Alveolar-to-arterial oxygen gradient increased and dynamic compliance decreased significantly during the 4 h after instillation of both breast milk and infant formula compared with baseline measurements and with saline controls (P < 0.05). The neutrophil counts in the lungs from the saline, breast milk, and formula rabbits were significantly greater than those in the control group. Instillation of acidified breast milk or infant formula (in a volume of 0.8 ml.kg-1 and pH level of 1.8) into rabbits' lungs induces acute lung injury of similar intensity that lasts at least 4 h.

  9. The pharmacokinetics of phenylethyl alcohol (PEA): safety evaluation comparisons in rats, rabbits, and humans.

    PubMed

    Politano, Valerie T; Diener, Robert M; Christian, Mildred S; Hawkins, David R; Ritacco, Gretchen; Api, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    The present studies were conducted to compare the dermal absorption, plasma pharmacokinetics, and excretion of phenylethyl alcohol (PEA) by pregnant and nonpregnant rats, rabbits, and humans. The PEA is a natural fragrance material that is widely used in perfumes, soaps, and lotions and is a major ingredient of natural rose oil. Following dermal (430, 700, or 1400 mg/kg body weight [bw]), gavage (430 mg/kg bw), or dietary (430 mg/kg bw) administration of PEA to rats, plasma concentrations of PEA were found to be low regardless of the route of administration. The plasma concentrations of phenylacetic acid (PAA, the major metabolite of PEA) greatly exceeded the concentrations of PEA and were highest after gavage, followed by dermal then dietary administration. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion were compared following topical application of ¹⁴C-labeled PEA to rats, rabbits, and humans (specific activities of dosing solutions: 58-580, 164, and 50 µCi/mL, respectively). In rabbits, the plasma concentration-time profile for PAA was markedly prolonged compared to rats or humans. In humans, only 7.6% of the applied dose of PEA was absorbed, versus 77% in rats and 50% in rabbits. Based on a human dermal systemic exposure of 0.3 mg/kg per day from the use of multiple consumer personal care products containing PEA, a rat dermal no observed adverse effect level of 70 mg/kg per day, and the percentage of dose absorbed in humans, the margin of safety exceeds 2600 concluding that, under normal fragrance use conditions, PEA is not a developmental toxicity hazard for humans.

  10. Production of human or humanized antibodies in mice.

    PubMed

    Laffleur, Brice; Pascal, Virginie; Sirac, Christophe; Cogné, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Mice are widely available laboratory animals that can easily be used for the production of antibodies against a broad range of antigens, using well-defined immunization protocols. Such an approach allows optimal in vivo affinity maturation of the humoral response. In addition, high-affinity antibodies arising in this context can readily be further characterized and produced as monoclonals after immortalizing and selecting specific antibody-producing cells through hybridoma derivation. Using such conventional strategies combined with mice that are either genetically engineered to carry humanized immunoglobulin (Ig) genes or engrafted with a human immune system, it is thus easy to obtain and immortalize clones that produce either fully human Ig or antibodies associating variable (V) domains with selected antigen specificities to customized human-like constant regions, with defined effector functions. In some instances, where there is a need for in vivo functional assays of a single antibody with a known specificity, it might be of interest to transiently express that gene in mice by in vivo gene transfer. This approach allows a rapid functional assay. More commonly, mice are used to obtain a diversified repertoire of antibody specificities after immunization by producing antibody molecules in the mouse B cell lineage from mouse strains with transgene Ig genes which are of human, humanized, or chimeric origin. After in vivo maturation of the immune response, this will lead to the secretion of antibodies with optimized antigen binding sites, associated to the desired human constant domains. This chapter focuses on two simple methods: (1) to obtain such humanized Ig mice and (2) to transiently express a human Ig gene in mice using hydrodynamics-based transfection.

  11. Rabbit antibodies to the cell wall polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae fail to protect mice from lethal challenge with encapsulated pneumococci.

    PubMed Central

    Szu, S C; Schneerson, R; Robbins, J B

    1986-01-01

    A conjugate, composed of the cell wall polysaccharide (C polysaccharide) of Streptococcus pneumoniae and bovine serum albumin (BSA), was prepared with the bifunctional agent N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio)-propionate. Analysis with monoclonal antibodies provided evidence that the phosphocholine (PC) moiety of the C polysaccharide was retained during the conjugation procedure. The C polysaccharide-BSA conjugate elicited antibodies to C polysaccharide in rabbits; no PC-specific antibodies were detected in globulins prepared from these hyperimmune sera obtained early and late after a second immunization. Rabbit hyperimmune sera were taken after multiple intravenous injections of the pneumococcus strain SRC-2, which has a capsulelike structure composed of the C polysaccharide. Globulin prepared from these antisera had both C polysaccharide- and PC-specific antibodies. Antibodies to C polysaccharide elicited by the C polysaccharide-BSA conjugate failed to protect mice against intraperitoneal challenge with a strain of type 3 or type 6A pneumococci. The anti-SRC-2 globulin conferred protection against both of these pneumococcal strains. Absorption of the SRC-2 globulin with C polysaccharide, however, failed to change its protective activity. These data provide evidence that antibodies to the C polysaccharide do not confer immunity against infection of mice with encapsulated pneumococci inoculated by the intraperitoneal route. Images PMID:3095243

  12. Ocular and systemic safety of a recombinant AAV8 vector for X-linked retinoschisis gene therapy: GLP studies in rabbits and Rs1-KO mice

    PubMed Central

    Marangoni, Dario; Bush, Ronald A; Zeng, Yong; Wei, Lisa L; Ziccardi, Lucia; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Bartoe, Joshua T; Palyada, Kiran; Santos, Maria; Hiriyanna, Suja; Wu, Zhijian; Colosi, Peter; Sieving, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is a retinal disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding the protein retinoschisin (RS1) and is one of the most common causes of macular degeneration in young men. Our therapeutic approach for XLRS is based on the administration of AAV8-scRS/IRBPhRS, an adeno-associated viral vector coding the human RS1 protein, via the intravitreal (IVT) route. Two Good Laboratory Practice studies, a 9-month study in New Zealand White rabbits (n = 124) injected with AAV8-scRS/IRBPhRS at doses of 2E9, 2E10, 2E11, and 1.5E12 vector genomes/eye (vg/eye), and a 6-month study in Rs1-KO mice (n = 162) dosed with 2E9 and 2E10 vg/eye of the same vector were conducted to assess ocular and systemic safety. A self-resolving, dose-dependent vitreal inflammation was the main ocular finding, and except for a single rabbit dosed with 1.5E12 vg/eye, which showed a retinal detachment, no other ocular adverse event was reported. Systemic toxicity was not identified in either species. Biodistribution analysis in Rs1-KO mice detected spread of vector genome in extraocular tissues, but no evidence of organ or tissues damage was found. These studies indicate that IVT administration of AAV8-scRS/IRBPhRS is safe and well tolerated and support its advancement into a phase 1/2a clinical trial for XLRS. PMID:27626041

  13. Co-administration of a CpG adjuvant (VaxImmune, CPG 7909) with CETP vaccines increased immunogenicity in rabbits and mice.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lawrence J; Hammond, Russell A; Forsberg, Eric M; Geoghegan-Barek, Kathleen M; Karalius, Brad H; Marsh, Henry C; Rittershaus, Charles W

    2009-02-01

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a plasma glycoprotein that facilitates the transfer of neutral lipids and phospholipids between lipoproteins and contributes to the regulation of the plasma concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Vaccines have been developed that elicit antibodies that bind to and reduce the lipid transfer function of CETP as a way to increase the plasma concentration of HDL-C and prevent or treat atherosclerosis. This study assessed the immunogenicity of two vaccine peptides. The first, CETi-1, is a dimerized synthetic peptide, including residues 461-476 of human CETP and residues 830-843 of tetanus toxoid, TT(830-843). The second, PADRE-CETP, is a monomeric peptide, in which a PADRE T cell epitope (aK-Cha-VAAWTLKAa) replaces the TT(830-843) T cell epitope of CETi-1. Both peptides were formulated with aluminum-containing adjuvants (Alhydrogel), and tested in mice and rabbits with or without the co-administration of the investigational TLR9 agonist VaxImmune (CPG 7909). In both mice and rabbits, the vaccine peptide utilizing the PADRE T cell epitope elicited stronger anti-CETP antibody responses than the CETi-1 vaccine. Also, co-administration of VaxImmune enhanced the anti-CETP antibody responses to both vaccines. Isotype analysis of the murine anti-CETP antibody response to both vaccines demonstrated a switch from IgG1 to IgG2a upon co-administration of VaxImmune. We conclude that (1) the PADRE T cell epitope is more potent than the TT(830-843) epitope in providing help for the anti-CETP antibody response; and (2) co-administration of VaxImmune with either vaccine increased immunogenicity as measured by antibody response.

  14. Application of Humanized Mice in Immunological Research.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wenwei; Zheng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    During the past decade, the development of humanized mouse models and their general applications in biomedical research greatly accelerated the translation of outcomes obtained from basic research into potential diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in clinic. In this chapter, we firstly present an overview on the history and current progress of diverse humanized mouse models and then focus on those equipped with reconstituted human immune system. The update advancement in the establishment of humanized immune system mice and their applications in the studies of the development of human immune system and the pathogenesis of multiple human immune-related diseases are intensively reviewed here, while the shortcoming and perspective of these potent tools are discussed as well. As a valuable bridge across the gap between bench work and clinical trial, progressive humanized mouse models will undoubtedly continue to play an indispensable role in the wide area of biomedical research.

  15. Definition of the immunogenic forms of modified human LDL recognized by human autoantibodies and by rabbit hyperimmune antibodies.

    PubMed

    Virella, Gabriel; Thorpe, Suzanne R; Alderson, Nathan L; Derrick, M Brooks; Chassereau, Charlyne; Rhett, J Matthew; Lopes-Virella, Maria F

    2004-10-01

    Humans and laboratory animals recognize human modified LDL as immunogenic. Immune complexes (ICs) isolated from human sera contain malondialdehyde-modified LDL (MDA-LDL) and N (epsilon)(carboxymethyl)lysine-modified LDL (CML-LDL) as well as antibodies reacting with MDA-LDL, copper-oxidized LDL (OxLDL), CML-LDL, and advanced glycosylation end product (AGE)-modified LDL. OxLDL and AGE-LDL antibodies isolated from human sera recognize the same LDL modifications and do not react with modified non-LDL proteins. Rabbit antibodies have different reactivity patterns: MDA-LDL antibodies react strongly with MDA-LDL and MDA-BSA but weakly with OxLDL; OxLDL antibodies react strongly with OxLDL and weakly with MDA-LDL; CML-LDL antibodies react with CML-LDL > CML-BSA > AGE-LDL > OxLDL; AGE-LDL antibodies react strongly with AGE-LDL, react weakly with OxLDL, and do not react with CML-LDL. Thus, human and rabbit antibodies seem to recognize different epitopes. Capture assays carried out with all rabbit antibodies showed binding of apolipoprotein B-rich lipoproteins isolated from ICs, suggesting that laboratory-generated epitopes are expressed by in vivo-modified LDL, although they are not necessarily recognized by the human immune system. Thus, the definition of immunogenic forms of modified LDL eliciting human autoimmune responses requires the isolation and characterization of autoantibodies and modified LDL from human samples, whereas rabbit antibodies can be used to detect in vivo-modified human LDL.

  16. Characterization of cDNA clones encoding rabbit and human serum paraoxonase: The mature protein retains its signal sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Hassett, C.; Richter, R.J.; Humbert, R.; Omiecinski, C.J.; Furlong, C.E. ); Chapline, C.; Crabb, J.W. )

    1991-10-22

    Serum paraoxonase hydrolyzes the toxic metabolites of a variety of organophosphorus insecticides. High serum paraoxonase levels appear to protect against the neurotoxic effects of organophosphorus substrates of this enzyme. The amino acid sequence accounting for 42% of rabbit paraoxonase was determined. From these data, two oligonucleotide probes were synthesized and used to screen a rabbit liver cDNA library. Human paraoxonase clones were isolated from a liver cDNA library by using the rabbit cDNA as a hybridization probe. Inserts from three of the longest clones were sequenced, and one full-length clone contained an open reading frame encoding 355 amino acids, four less than the rabbit paraoxonase protein. Amino-terminal sequences derived from purified rabbit and human paraoxonase proteins suggested that the signal sequence is retained, with the exception of the initiator methionine residue. Characterization of the rabbit and human paraoxonase cDNA clones confirms that the signal sequences are not processed, except for the N-terminal methionine residue. The rabbit and human cDNA clones demonstrate striking nucleotide and deduced amino acid similarities (greater than 85%), suggesting an important metabolic role and constraints on the evolution of this protein.

  17. The effects of chemical modification on the antigenicity of human and rabbit immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed Central

    Hunneyball, I M; Stanworth, D R

    1976-01-01

    In order to characterize the precise structure within human and rabbit IgG molecules against which 'general' rheumatoid factors are directed, an immunochemical comparison has been made of the effects of the selective substitution of specific amino acid side-chains on various types of antigenicity exhibited by human and rabbit IgG. The epsilon-amino groups of lysine residues have been substituted by citraconylation and carbamylation; whilst tyrosine residues have been substituted by nitration with tetranitromethane. In this manner, evidence has been obtained which indicates that the autoantigenic determinants of human IgG are structurally distinct from species-specific ones and from certain Fc-located allotypic markers (Gm(a) and Gm(x)). It is also concluded that lysine residues are probably not involved in the site of IgG reactivity with 'general' rheumatoid factors, in contrast to tyrosine residues which appear to be implicated in the activity of human but not rabbit IgG. Images Figure 4 PMID:68918

  18. Human hematopoietic tumors in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Sordillo, P P; Hansen, H; Jhanwar, S C; Beck, J; Lieberman, P; Helson, L

    1981-01-01

    Despite the difficulty in establishing human hematopoietic tumors in nude mice, four human lymphomas were successfully heterotransplanted and passaged serially in our laboratory. Additional immunosuppression with chemotherapy, whole-body radiation or splenectomy was not required for establishment of these tumors. All four of these tumors were of the non-Hodgkin's lymphoma type. In each case the tumors in the nude mice were histologically identical to the biopsy specimens from the patient in whom they were derived. Attempts to transplant tumor from 17 patients with Hodgkin's disease or 4 patients with immunoblastic lymphadenopathy were unsuccessful. Tumors from 2 patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia and 1 with hairy cell leukemia could be grown in nude mice conditioned with whole-body radiation or cytosine arabinoside, but these tumors could not be passaged to other nude mice. Cell surface markers were determined on the four serially passaged lymphomas. These surface markers were similar to the markers on the original tumors, even after long periods of mouse-to-mouse passage. In 1 patient with fevers, night sweats and mediastinal mass in whom a diagnosis had not been made after several biopsies, examination of tumor tissue that had been transplanted from the patient to the nude mouse clearly established the diagnosis of lymphoma.

  19. Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells Engraft into Rabbit Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen; He, Na; Feng, Chenchen; Liu, Victor; Zhang, Luyi; Wang, Fei; He, Jiaping; Zhu, Tengfang; Wang, Shuyang; Qiao, Weiwei; Li, Suke; Zhou, Guangdong; Zhang, Li; Dai, Chengxiang; Cao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to have the potential for articular cartilage regeneration, and are suggested for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Here, we investigated whether intra-articular injection of xenogeneic human adipose-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (haMPCs) promoted articular cartilage repair in rabbit OA model and engrafted into rabbit articular cartilage. The haMPCs were cultured in vitro, and phenotypes and differentiation characteristics of cells were evaluated. OA was induced surgically by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) and medical meniscectomy of knee joints. At six weeks following surgery, hyaluronic acid (HA) or haMPCs was injected into the knee joints, the contralateral knee served as normal control. All animals were sacrificed at the 16th week post-surgery. Assessments were carried out by macroscopic examination, hematoxylin/eosin (HE) and Safranin-O/Fast green stainings and immunohistochemistry. The data showed that haMPC treatment promoted cartilage repair. Signals of human mitochondrial can be directly detected in haMPC treated cartilage. The haMPCs expressed human leukocyte antigen I (HLA-I) but not HLA-II-DR in vivo. These results suggest that intra-articular injection of haMPCs promotes regeneration of articular cartilage in rabbit OA model, and support the notion that MPCs are transplantable between HLA-incompatible individuals. PMID:26023716

  20. Human amniotic membrane as an intestinal patch for neomucosal growth in the rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Barlas, M; Gökçora, H; Erekul, S; Dindar, H; Yücesan, S

    1992-05-01

    This experiment was carried out as a preliminary study, an attempt to grow new intestinal mucosa on human amniotic membrane in the terminal ileum in 37 rabbits. After ketamin sulfate anesthesia at laparatomy, 5-cm ileal defects were patched with human amniotic membrane (5 x 2 cm). These patched intestines were investigated on the first postoperative day and the 2nd, 5th, 10th, and 20th weeks corresponding to 4, 5, 5, 10, and 10 rabbits, respectively. Only three rabbits died in the early postoperative period. There was no evidence of intestinal obstruction or dilatation with barium meal. Microscopically, the neomucosa consisted of a thin layer of columnar epithelial cells at 2 weeks with more maturity of the villi and less irregularity and branching by 20 weeks. All patches were covered with neomucosa commencing at 2 weeks and covering the whole patch area by 20 weeks. This technique's advantages are the large size and the ease of the availability of the human amniotic membrane for neonates at risk without jeopardizing the neonates tissues. It is hoped that this method might be considered when neonatal material is scarce.

  1. Human adipose-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells engraft into rabbit articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; He, Na; Feng, Chenchen; Liu, Victor; Zhang, Luyi; Wang, Fei; He, Jiaping; Zhu, Tengfang; Wang, Shuyang; Qiao, Weiwei; Li, Suke; Zhou, Guangdong; Zhang, Li; Dai, Chengxiang; Cao, Wei

    2015-05-27

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to have the potential for articular cartilage regeneration, and are suggested for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Here, we investigated whether intra-articular injection of xenogeneic human adipose-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (haMPCs) promoted articular cartilage repair in rabbit OA model and engrafted into rabbit articular cartilage. The haMPCs were cultured in vitro, and phenotypes and differentiation characteristics of cells were evaluated. OA was induced surgically by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) and medical meniscectomy of knee joints. At six weeks following surgery, hyaluronic acid (HA) or haMPCs was injected into the knee joints, the contralateral knee served as normal control. All animals were sacrificed at the 16th week post-surgery. Assessments were carried out by macroscopic examination, hematoxylin/eosin (HE) and Safranin-O/Fast green stainings and immunohistochemistry. The data showed that haMPC treatment promoted cartilage repair. Signals of human mitochondrial can be directly detected in haMPC treated cartilage. The haMPCs expressed human leukocyte antigen I (HLA-I) but not HLA-II-DR in vivo. These results suggest that intra-articular injection of haMPCs promotes regeneration of articular cartilage in rabbit OA model, and support the notion that MPCs are transplantable between HLA-incompatible individuals.

  2. Circadian Disruption: comparing humans with mice.

    PubMed

    Radetsky, Leora C; Rea, Mark S; Bierman, Andrew; Figueiro, Mariana G

    2013-10-01

    Disruption of the 24-h light-dark cycle has been implicated as an endocrine disruptor and linked to increased morbidity and mortality in animal studies. Previously reported measurements of circadian disruption in day-shift and rotating-shift nurses were compared with new mouse data where the light-dark patterns simulated shiftwork. Phasor magnitudes, a measure of circadian entrainment, were shown to be similar for humans and for mice when exposed to similar patterns of light and dark. Phasor analyses may be a useful method for quantitatively bridging ecological measurements of circadian disruption in human with parametric studies of health outcomes in a mouse model.

  3. Creation of chimeric human/rabbit APOBEC1 with HIV-1 restriction and DNA mutation activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Terumasa; Ong, Eugene Boon Beng; Watanabe, Nobumoto; Sakaguchi, Nobuo; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Koito, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    APOBEC1 (A1) proteins from lagomorphs and rodents have deaminase-dependent restriction activity against HIV-1, whereas human A1 exerts a negligible effect. To investigate these differences in the restriction of HIV-1 by A1 proteins, a series of chimeric proteins combining rabbit and human A1s was constructed. Homology models of the A1s indicated that their activities derive from functional domains that likely act in tandem through a dimeric interface. The C-terminal region containing the leucine-rich motif and the dimerization domains of rabbit A1 is important for its anti-HIV-1 activity. The A1 chimeras with strong anti-HIV-1 activity were incorporated into virions more efficiently than those without anti-HIV-1 activity, and exhibited potent DNA-mutator activity. Therefore, the C-terminal region of rabbit A1 is involved in both its packaging into the HIV-1 virion and its deamination activity against both viral cDNA and genomic RNA. This study identifies the novel molecular mechanism underlying the target specificity of A1.

  4. Transgenic rabbits as bioreactors for the production of human growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Limonta, J M; Castro, F O; Martínez, R; Puentes, P; Ramos, B; Aguilar, A; Lleonart, R L; de la Fuente, J

    1995-05-15

    Gene farming is one of the most promising areas in modern biotechnology. To assay the potential usefulness of transgenic rabbits as bioreactors, one call embryos were microinjected with a chimeric gene comprising 5' sequences from mouse whey acidic protein gene (mWAP) linked to the human growth hormone (hGH) gene. Transgenic animals were obtained and the presence of the foreign protein was detected in the milk and serum of these animals at levels of up to 50 micrograms ml-1 and 0.6 ng ml-1, respectively. Founder transgenics were able to transmit the microinjected gene to the first filial generation in a Mendelian fashion. These results showed that transgenic rabbits could constitute a suitable system for the rapid production of recombinant proteins in the milk of lactating females.

  5. Sheep, rabbit and chicken antisera against a human VH fragment: reactivity with immunoglobulins and lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Michaelsen, T E; Lea, T

    1982-01-01

    Antisera against a human VH fragment obtained from an IgG3, VH II, kappa protein (KUP) were raised in rabbits, sheep and chicken. The three types of anti-VH antisera reacted equally well with both intact immunoglobulin molecules and isolated heavy chains. The antisera did not detect any free heavy chain specific antigens by sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests although they reacted with some antigens which were more or less hidden on intact immunoglobulin molecules but well expressed on isolated heavy chains. The antisera reacted with more than 90% of IgG, IgA and IgM present in normal pooled serum. Experiments with T cells from normal peripheral blood indicated that the sheep and rabbit anti-VH antisera reacted with a 70,000 mol.wt T-cell surface antigen. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:6802746

  6. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor mRNA and protein in atherosclerotic lesions of rabbits and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, M. E.; Ylä-Herttuala, S.; Lipton, B. A.; Ord, V. A.; Witztum, J. L.; Steinberg, D.

    1992-01-01

    In this study, the authors demonstrate the expression of mRNA and the presence of protein for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF) in atherosclerotic lesions from humans and rabbits. In situ hybridization of serial sections of human fatty streaks demonstrated expression of MCSF mRNA by cells dispersed throughout the lesions. Immunocytochemical staining with a panel of MCSF-specific antibodies showed extensive cell-associated staining of all of the cell types in the lesions. Immunocytochemical studies of atherosclerotic lesions from Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) and cholesterol-fed rabbits demonstrated a similar cell-associated pattern of staining. There was no MCSF-specific staining of aortas from normal rabbits or of cultured aortic smooth muscle cells from either humans or rabbits. Macrophage-derived foam cells (MFC) were isolated from the aortas of ballooned, cholesterol-fed rabbits. A Northern blot demonstrated that RNA isolated from the MFC hybridized with a human cDNA probe for MCSF. RNA from alveolar macrophages isolated simultaneously from the same rabbits did not hybridize with the MCSF probe. Conditioned media from an 18- to 24-hour incubation of the MFC contained colony-stimulating activity as demonstrated in a mouse bone marrow culture assay. Most of this colony-stimulating activity was neutralized by preincubating the conditioned media with an MCSF-specific antibody. Images Figure 2 Figure 1 Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:1739123

  7. Xenobiotic receptor humanized mice and their utility.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Nico; Roland Wolf, C

    2013-02-01

    The nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha have important endogenous functions and are also involved in the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in response to exogenous xenobiotics. Though not belonging to the same protein family, the Per-Sim-ARNT domain receptor aryl hydrocarbon receptor functionally overlaps with the three nuclear receptors in many aspects and is therefore included in this review. Significant species differences in ligand affinity and biological responses as a result of activation of these receptors have been described. Several xenobiotic receptor humanized mice have been created to overcome these species differences and to provide in vivo models that are more predictive for human responses. This review provides an overview of the different xenobiotic receptor humanized mouse models described to date and will summarize how these models can be applied in basic research and improve drug discovery and development. Some of the key applications in the evaluation of drug induction, drug-drug interactions, nongenotoxic carcinogenicity, other toxicity, or efficacy studies are described. We also discuss relevant considerations in the interpretation of such data and potential future directions for the use of xenobiotic receptor humanized mice.

  8. Human malignant melanoma heterotransplanted to nude mice.

    PubMed

    Tropé, C; Johnsson, J E; Alm, P; Landberg, T; Olsson, H; Wennerberg, J

    1981-01-01

    Five different human malignant melanoma were heterotransplanted subcutaneously to nude mice. When small tissue pieces were used 3 out of 5 tumors grew. Subcutaneous injections of suspended tumor cells were also made, but all failed to take. Metastatic or infiltrative growth was never seen in the mice observed for up to 2.5 months. The successful grafts largely retained the original morphologicaL features. The three successfully transplanted tumors could all be serially transferred with 100% tumor take. In one case passage time was reduced from 40 days to 15 days. As measured with 3H-thymidine incorporation the proliferation rate increased during the passages. These changes might be due to a selection of more rapidly growing tumor cells in the nudes.

  9. The three-dimensional microanatomy of the rabbit and human cornea. A chemical and mechanical microdissection-SEM approach

    PubMed Central

    OJEDA, JOSÉ L.; VENTOSA, JUAN A.; PIEDRA, SONSOLES

    2001-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) microanatomy of the cornea is the major determinant of its optical and mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is the most commonly used method to obtain information on the overall 3D microanatomy of organs. However, SEM has not been successful in revealing the 3D microanatomy of the cornea, because the interior of the cornea is too compact to be explored by the electron beam. In this study, the 3D organisation of the cells and extracellular materials of human and rabbit corneas was examined after exposure by HCl and NaOH digestion, and by microdissection by the adhesive tape method. In the cornea of both species, all epithelial cells exhibited microplicae regardless of their location. This raises doubts about the tear film-holding role assigned to the microplicae of the superficial cells. Human and rabbit corneas differed in the collagen fibre patterns of the epithelial basement membranes. The 3D organisation of the stromal lamellae was similar in both species. In humans and rabbits, the keratocytes showed similar 3D features. However, the surface of human keratocytes located near Descemet's membrane exhibited small fenestrations that were not present in the rabbit keratocytes. The pattern of keratocyte innervation by the stromal neural plexus and 3D keratocyte microanatomy confirms that keratocytes form a large intercommunicating network within the corneal stroma. Two morphologically discrete subpopulations of keratocytes located at different stromal levels were identified in both human and rabbit corneas, suggesting that keratocytes are not functionally homogeneous. In addition, the density of the stromal neural plexus appeared to be greater in rabbits than in humans. Clear differences between human and rabbit corneas were observed in the collagen arrangement in Descemet's membrane, which may reflect their different biomechanical requirements. PMID:11760887

  10. Methanol exposure does not produce oxidatively damaged DNA in lung, liver or kidney of adult mice, rabbits or primates

    SciTech Connect

    McCallum, Gordon P.; Siu, Michelle; Sweeting, J. Nicole; Wells, Peter G.

    2011-01-15

    In vitro and in vivo genotoxicity tests indicate methanol (MeOH) is not mutagenic, but carcinogenic potential has been claimed in one controversial long-term rodent cancer bioassay that has not been replicated. To determine whether MeOH could indirectly damage DNA via reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated mechanisms, we treated male CD-1 mice, New Zealand white rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys with MeOH (2.0 g/kg ip) and 6 h later assessed oxidative damage to DNA, measured as 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) by HPLC with electrochemical detection. We found no MeOH-dependent increases in 8-oxodG in lung, liver or kidney of any species. Chronic treatment of CD-1 mice with MeOH (2.0 g/kg ip) daily for 15 days also did not increase 8-oxodG levels in these organs. These results were corroborated in DNA repair-deficient oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (Ogg1) knockout (KO) mice, which accumulated 8-oxodG in lung, kidney and liver with age, but exhibited no increase following MeOH, despite a 2-fold increase in renal 8-oxodG in Ogg1 KO mice following treatment with a ROS-initiating positive control, the renal carcinogen potassium bromate (KBrO{sub 3}; 100 mg/kg ip). These observations suggest that MeOH exposure does not promote the accumulation of oxidatively damaged DNA in lung, kidney or liver, and that environmental exposure to MeOH is unlikely to initiate carcinogenesis in these organs by DNA oxidation.

  11. Methanol exposure does not produce oxidatively damaged DNA in lung, liver or kidney of adult mice, rabbits or primates.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Gordon P; Siu, Michelle; Sweeting, J Nicole; Wells, Peter G

    2011-01-15

    In vitro and in vivo genotoxicity tests indicate methanol (MeOH) is not mutagenic, but carcinogenic potential has been claimed in one controversial long-term rodent cancer bioassay that has not been replicated. To determine whether MeOH could indirectly damage DNA via reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated mechanisms, we treated male CD-1 mice, New Zealand white rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys with MeOH (2.0 g/kg ip) and 6h later assessed oxidative damage to DNA, measured as 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) by HPLC with electrochemical detection. We found no MeOH-dependent increases in 8-oxodG in lung, liver or kidney of any species. Chronic treatment of CD-1 mice with MeOH (2.0 g/kg ip) daily for 15 days also did not increase 8-oxodG levels in these organs. These results were corroborated in DNA repair-deficient oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (Ogg1) knockout (KO) mice, which accumulated 8-oxodG in lung, kidney and liver with age, but exhibited no increase following MeOH, despite a 2-fold increase in renal 8-oxodG in Ogg1 KO mice following treatment with a ROS-initiating positive control, the renal carcinogen potassium bromate (KBrO₃; 100 mg/kg ip). These observations suggest that MeOH exposure does not promote the accumulation of oxidatively damaged DNA in lung, kidney or liver, and that environmental exposure to MeOH is unlikely to initiate carcinogenesis in these organs by DNA oxidation. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Interspecies differences in the metabolism of methotrexate: An insight into the active site differences between human and rabbit aldehyde oxidase.

    PubMed

    Choughule, Kanika V; Joswig-Jones, Carolyn A; Jones, Jeffrey P

    2015-08-01

    Several drug compounds have failed in clinical trials due to extensive biotransformation by aldehyde oxidase (AOX) (EC 1.2.3.1). One of the main reasons is the difficulty in scaling clearance for drugs metabolised by AOX, from preclinical species to human. Using methotrexate as a probe substrate, we evaluated AOX metabolism in liver cytosol from human and commonly used laboratory species namely guinea pig, monkey, rat and rabbit. We found that the metabolism of methotrexate in rabbit liver cytosol was several orders of magnitude higher than any of the other species tested. The results of protein quantitation revealed that the amount of AOX1 in human liver was similar to rabbit liver. To understand if the observed differences in activity were due to structural differences, we modelled rabbit AOX1 using the previously generated human AOX1 homology model. Molecular docking of methotrexate into the active site of the enzyme led to the identification of important residues that could potentially be involved in substrate binding and account for the observed differences. In order to study the impact of these residue changes on enzyme activity, we used site directed mutagenesis to construct mutant AOX1 cDNAs by substituting nucleotides of human AOX1 with relevant ones of rabbit AOX1. AOX1 mutant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli. Differences in the kinetic properties of these mutants have been presented in this study.

  13. The use of rat, rabbit or human bone marrow derived cells for cytocompatibility evaluation of metallic elements.

    PubMed

    Tomás, H; Carvalho, G S; Fernandes, M H; Freire, A P; Abrantes, L M

    1997-04-01

    Rat, rabbit and human bone marrow cells were cultured according to the method previously reported for cells of rat origin [1] and were exposed, or not (control), to corrosion products of a Co-Cr orthopaedic alloy as well as to metal salts containing Co2+, Cr3+ and Cr6+. Cells were cultured for 21 days and analysed for the following biochemical parameters: intracellular MTT reduction (i.e. cell viability/proliferation), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and protein production. Morphological observations included both histochemistry (detection of ALP-positive cells, calcium and phosphate deposits) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Control cultures of rat and rabbit cells showed higher proliferation rates than human cells at the start of culture, but they all reached similar values on day 21. Protein production was parallel to cell proliferation. In contrast, ALP activity of rat cultures was much stronger than rabbit or human cultures. All cell types were able to develop the osteogenic phenotype in vitro.Co-Cr extract caused inhibitory effects on cell viability, on ALP activity and, to a lower extent, on protein production of all rat, rabbit and human cell cultures. Compared to rat and rabbit cultures, human cultures were the most sensitive to metal ions exposure.

  14. Macrophages and smooth muscle cells express lipoprotein lipase in human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Ylä-Herttuala, S; Lipton, B A; Rosenfeld, M E; Goldberg, I J; Steinberg, D; Witztum, J L

    1991-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL; EC 3.1.1.34) may promote atherogenesis by producing remnant lipoproteins on the endothelial surface and by acting on lipoproteins in the artery wall. In vitro, smooth muscle cells and macrophages synthesize LPL, but in human carotid lesions only a few smooth muscle cells were reported to contain LPL protein. Endothelial cells do not synthesize LPL in vitro, but in normal arteries intense immunostaining for LPL is present on the endothelium. We used Northern blot analysis, in situ hybridization, and immunocytochemistry of human and rabbit arteries to determine cellular distribution and the site of the synthesis of LPL in atherosclerotic lesions. Northern blot analysis showed that LPL mRNA was detectable in macrophage-derived foam cells isolated from arterial lesions of "ballooned" cholesterol-fed rabbits. In situ hybridization studies of atherosclerotic lesions with an antisense riboprobe showed a strong hybridization signal for LPL mRNA in some, but not all, lesion macrophages, which were mostly located in the subendothelial and edge areas of the lesions. Also, some smooth muscle cells in lesion areas also expressed LPL mRNA. Immunocytochemistry of frozen sections of rabbit lesions with a monoclonal antibody to human milk LPL showed intense staining for LPL protein in macrophage-rich intimal lesions. The results suggest that lesion macrophages and macrophage-derived foam cells express LPL mRNA and protein. Some smooth muscle cells in the lesion areas also synthesize LPL. These data are consistent with an important role for LPL in atherogenesis. Images PMID:1719546

  15. Comparative analysis of the nuclear basic proteins in rat, human, guinea pig, mouse and rabbit spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Calvin, H I

    1976-06-15

    Cysteine-rich protamines (Arg = 47-61%, Cys = 8-16%) were isolated from the sperm of an individual guinea pig, human and rabbit and from pooled samples of mouse and rat sperm. Appreciable concentrations of histones were not found in the sperm nuclei of these species. In addition to the protamines, a substance of relatively low molecular weight, which reacted with the Lowry reagent, appeared in crude acid-soluble extracts of sperm nucleoprotein. This unidentified contaminent was resolved from the protamines by chromatography on Bio-Rex 70. Heterogeneity of human and mouse protamines was revealed by electrophoresis at pH 2.7, in the presence of 2.5 M urea, and confirmed by amino acid analysis, which also suggested the presence of 2 or more species of protamine in the rabbit. By contrast, the guinea pig and rat preparations displayed nearly stoichiometric ratios of amino acid residues, approaching homogeneity by this criterion. The functional consequences of crosslinks between cysteine residues of these proteins and the possible species-specific significance of their differing percentages of histidine are discussed. Potentially analogous functions are suggested for phosphorylated serine and threonine, and for ionized cysteine and tyrosine, within the protamines of developing spermatids. Their amino acid compositions indicate that the protamines of eutherian mammals are coded by a C.G-rich genome which has been unusually susceptible to genetic drift. An especially high rate of G leads to A transitions seems to have occurred in the human protamine genes.

  16. Animal facility videoendoscopic intubation station: tips and tricks from mice to rabbits.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Alice; Pêgo, José M; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

    2017-04-01

    Endotracheal intubation of laboratory animals is a common procedure shared by several research fields for different purposes, such as mechanical ventilation of anaesthetized animals, instillation of cytotoxic nanoparticles, infectious agents or tumour cells for induction of disease models, and even for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. These different research purposes, achieved in different animal models, require technical expertise and equipment that suits every research need from animal facilities. In this short report we propose a videoendoscopic intubation station that could be shared among the most common laboratory animals, namely the mouse, rat, guinea pig and rabbit, from neonates to adult animals. This report aims to contribute to the reduction of animals excluded from experiments due to false paths during direct and blind intubations and to the refinement of procedures by replacing surgical approaches such as tracheotomy.

  17. A Transgenic Rabbit Model for Human Troponin I-based Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sanbe, Atsushi; James, Jeanne; Tuzcu, Volkan; Nas, Selman; Martin, Lisa; Gulick, James; Osinska, Hanna; Sakthivel, Sadayappan; Klevitsky, Raisa; Ginsburg, Kenneth S.; Bers, Donald M.; Zinman, Bruce; Lakatta, Edward G.; Robbins, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    Background Transgenic (TG) and gene-targeted models have focused on the mouse. Fundamental differences between the mouse and human exist in Ca2+ handling during contraction/relaxation and in alterations in Ca2+ flux during heart failure, with the rabbit more accurately reflecting the human system. Methods and Results Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) mutations can cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. An inhibitory domain mutation, arginine146→glycine (cTnI146Gly) was modeled using TG expression in the rabbit ventricle. cTnI146Gly levels exceeding 40% of total cTnI were perinatal lethal, while replacement levels of 15–25% were well tolerated. cTnI146Gly expression led to a leftward shift in the force-pCa2+ curves with cardiomyocyte disarray, fibrosis and altered connexin43 organization. In isolated cTnI146Gly myocytes, twitch relaxation amplitudes were smaller compared to normal cells but [Ca]i transients and SR Ca2+ load were not different. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of the QTmax intervals was used to evaluate the cardiac repolarization phase and showed a significantly higher scaling exponent in the TG animals. Conclusions Expression of modest amounts of cTnI146Gly led to subtle defects without severely affecting cardiac function. Aberrant connexin organization, subtle morphological deficits as well as an altered fractal pattern of the repolarization phase of TG rabbits, in the absence of entropy or other ECG abnormalities, may indicate an early developing pathology before the onset of more obvious repolarization abnormalities or major alterations in cardiac mechanics. PMID:15867176

  18. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Burt, Sara A; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H M

    2016-09-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates. Dutch rabbits are unlikely to be a zoonotic source.

  19. Pneumonic Tularemia in Rabbits Resembles the Human Disease as Illustrated by Radiographic and Hematological Changes after Infection

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Douglas S.; Smith, Le'Kneitah; Dunsmore, Tammy; Trichel, Anita; Ortiz, Luis A.; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Barry, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Background Pneumonic tularemia is caused by inhalation of the gram negative bacterium, Francisella tularensis. Because of concerns that tularemia could be used as a bioterrorism agent, vaccines and therapeutics are urgently needed. Animal models of pneumonic tularemia with a pathophysiology similar to the human disease are needed to evaluate the efficacy of these potential medical countermeasures. Principal Findings Rabbits exposed to aerosols containing Francisella tularensis strain SCHU S4 developed a rapidly progressive fatal pneumonic disease. Clinical signs became evident on the third day after exposure with development of a fever (>40.5°C) and a sharp decline in both food and water intake. Blood samples collected on day 4 found lymphopenia and a decrease in platelet counts coupled with elevations in erythrocyte sedimentation rate, alanine aminotransferase, cholesterol, granulocytes and monocytes. Radiographs demonstrated the development of pneumonia and abnormalities of intestinal gas consistent with ileus. On average, rabbits were moribund 5.1 days after exposure; no rabbits survived exposure at any dose (190–54,000 cfu). Gross evaluation of tissues taken at necropsy showed evidence of pathology in the lungs, spleen, liver, kidney and intestines. Bacterial counts confirmed bacterial dissemination from the lungs to the liver and spleen. Conclusions/Significance The pathophysiology of pneumonic tularemia in rabbits resembles what has been reported for humans. Rabbits therefore are a relevant model of the human disease caused by type A strains of F. tularensis. PMID:21931798

  20. Effect of chemical enhancers and iontophoresis on thiocolchicoside permeation across rabbit and human skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Artusi, Mariella; Nicoli, Sara; Colombo, Paolo; Bettini, Ruggero; Sacchi, Antonia; Santi, Patrizia

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the permeation of thiocolchicoside across the skin in vitro. The effect of the chemical enhancer lauric acid and the physical technique of iontophoresis was investigated. Permeation experiments were performed in vitro using rabbit ear skin as barrier. The effect of lauric acid at different concentrations (2% and 4%) and of the vehicle (water, ethanol, or ethanol/water) was investigated. The primary effect of lauric acid was on the partitioning parameter, whereas the diffusive parameter did not change significantly. When human epidermis was used, the permeation parameters were generally lower, although not significantly different from rabbit ear skin. The data obtained with full-thickness human skin indicate that, despite the hydrophilic nature of thiocolchicoside, the resistance to drug transport is not limited to the stratum corneum, but that the underlying dermal tissue can also contribute. Iontophoresis enhanced the flux of thiocolchicoside compared with the passive control. The mechanism by which iontophoresis enhanced thiocolchicoside transport across the skin was electroosmosis. The permeation of thiocolchicoside across the skin can be enhanced using chemical or physical penetration enhancers.

  1. Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cells Ameliorate Motor Deficits in Rabbits in a Cerebral Palsy Model.

    PubMed

    Drobyshevsky, Alexander; Cotten, C Michael; Shi, Zhongjie; Luo, Kehuan; Jiang, Rugang; Derrick, Matthew; Tracy, Elizabeth T; Gentry, Tracy; Goldberg, Ronald N; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Tan, Sidhartha

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) has a significant impact on both patients and society, but therapy is limited. Human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBC), containing various stem and progenitor cells, have been used to treat various brain genetic conditions. In small animal experiments, HUCBC have improved outcomes after hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury. Clinical trials using HUCBC are underway, testing feasibility, safety and efficacy for neonatal injury as well as CP. We tested HUCBC therapy in a validated rabbit model of CP after acute changes secondary to HI injury had subsided. Following uterine ischemia at 70% gestation, we infused HUCBC into newborn rabbit kits with either mild or severe neurobehavioral changes. Infusion of high-dose HUCBC (5 × 10(6) cells) dramatically altered the natural history of the injury, alleviating the abnormal phenotype including posture, righting reflex, locomotion, tone, and dystonia. Half the high dose showed lesser but still significant improvement. The swimming test, however, showed that joint function did not restore to naïve control function in either group. Tracing HUCBC with either MRI biomarkers or PCR for human DNA found little penetration of HUCBC in the newborn brain in the immediate newborn period, suggesting that the beneficial effects were not due to cellular integration or direct proliferative effects but rather to paracrine signaling. This is the first study to show that HUCBC improve motor performance in a dose-dependent manner, perhaps by improving compensatory repair processes. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Protection of rabbits against challenge with rabbit papillomaviruses by immunization with the N terminus of human papillomavirus type 16 minor capsid antigen L2.

    PubMed

    Gambhira, Ratish; Jagu, Subhashini; Karanam, Balasubramanyam; Gravitt, Patti E; Culp, Timothy D; Christensen, Neil D; Roden, Richard B S

    2007-11-01

    Current L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines provide type-restricted protection against a small subset of the human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes associated with cervical cancer, necessitating continued cytologic screening of vaccinees. Cervical cancer is most problematic in countries that lack the resources for screening or highly multivalent HPV VLP vaccines, suggesting the need for a low-cost, broadly protective vaccinogen. Here, N-terminal L2 polypeptides comprising residues 1 to 88 or 11 to 200 derived from HPV16, bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1), or cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) were produced in bacteria. Rabbits were immunized with these N-terminal L2 polypeptides and concurrently challenged with CRPV and rabbit oral papillomavirus (ROPV). Vaccination with either N-terminal L2 polypeptides of CRPV effectively protected rabbits from CRPV challenge but not from papillomas induced by cutaneous challenge with CRPV genomic DNA. Furthermore, papillomas induced by CRPV genomic DNA deficient for L2 expression grew at the same rate as those induced by wild-type CRPV genomic DNA, further suggesting that the L2 polypeptide vaccines lack therapeutic activity. Neutralizing serum antibody titers of >15 correlated with protection (P < 0.001), a finding consistent with neutralizing antibody-mediated protection. Surprisingly, a remarkable degree of protection against heterologous papillomavirus types was observed after vaccination with N-terminal L2 polypeptides. Notably, vaccination with HPV16 L2 11-200 protected against cutaneous and mucosal challenge with CRPV and ROPV, respectively, papillomaviruses that are evolutionarily divergent from HPV16. Further, vaccination with HPV16 L2 11-200 generates broadly cross-neutralizing serum antibody, suggesting the potential of L2 as a second-generation preventive HPV vaccine antigen.

  3. Complete genome analysis of a rabbit rotavirus causing gastroenteritis in a human infant.

    PubMed

    Bonica, Melisa Berenice; Zeller, Mark; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Heylen, Elisabeth

    2015-02-17

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are responsible for causing infantile diarrhea both in humans and animals. The molecular characteristics of lapine RVA strains are only studied to a limited extent and so far G3P[14] and G3P[22] were found to be the most common G/P-genotypes. During the 2012-2013 rotavirus season in Belgium, a G3P[14] RVA strain was isolated from stool collected from a two-year-old boy. We investigated whether RVA/Human-wt/BEL/BE5028/2012/G3P[14] is completely of lapine origin or the result of reassortment event(s). Phylogenetic analyses of all gene segments revealed the following genotype constellation: G3-P[14]-I2-R2-C2-M3-A9-N2-T6-E5-H3 and indicated that BE5028 probably represents a rabbit to human interspecies transmission able to cause disease in a human child. Interestingly, BE5028 showed a close evolutionary relationship to RVA/Human-wt/BEL/B4106/2000/G3P[14], another lapine-like strain isolated in a Belgian child in 2000. The phylogenetic analysis of the NSP3 segment suggests the introduction of a bovine(-like) NSP3 into the lapine RVA population in the past 12 years. Sequence analysis of NSP5 revealed a head-to-tail partial duplication, combined with two short insertions and a deletion, indicative of the continuous circulation of this RVA lineage within the rabbit population.

  4. Dodecyl N,N-dimethylamino acetate and azone enhance drug penetration across human, snake, and rabbit skin.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, J; Rytting, J H; Paronen, P; Urtti, A

    1991-07-01

    The effectiveness of the penetration enhancers, dodecyl N,N-dimethylamino acetate (DDAA) and Azone, on pretreated human epidermis for the permeation of model drugs, indomethacin, 5-fluorouracil, and propranolol-HCl, was studied in in vitro diffusion cells. Snakeskin (Elaphe obsoleta) and rabbit pinna skin were compared as possible models for human skin. The drug concentrations were analyzed by HPLC. With all skins and all model drugs, DDAA increased drug permeability at least as well as Azone, and in most cases it was a more effective permeation enhancer. The relative permeation improvements in human skin, snakeskin, and rabbit skin were 10- to 20-, 5- to 50-, and 20- to 120-fold, respectively. Tritiated water served as an indicator of skin condition. Its penetration in the skin samples was independent of the drugs used, and both penetration enhancers significantly increased the flux of tritiated water through all skins. Thus, DDAA and Azone significantly increased the permeation of lipophilic and hydrophilic model compounds. Rabbit pinna skin was a poor model for human skin in vitro, while snakeskin was much closer to human skin in terms of transdermal permeability. In most cases drug permeability decreased in the order rabbit much greater than human greater than or less than snake.

  5. Pulmonary effects of inhaled zinc oxide in human subjects, guinea pigs, rats, and rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, T.; Chen, L.C.; Fine, J.M.; Schlesinger, R.B.; Su, W.Y.; Kimmel, T.A.; Amdur, M.O. )

    1992-08-01

    Occupational exposure to freshly formed zinc oxide (ZnO) particles (less than 1.0 micron aerodynamic diameter) produces a well-characterized response known as metal fume fever. An 8-hr threshold limit value (TLV) of 5 mg/m3 has been established to prevent adverse health effects because of exposure to ZnO fumes. Because animal toxicity studies have demonstrated pulmonary effects near the current TLV, the present study examined the time course and dose-response of the pulmonary injury produced by inhaled ZnO in guinea pigs, rats, rabbits, and human volunteers. The test animals were exposed to 0, 2.5, or 5.0 mg/m3 ZnO for up to 3 hr and their lungs lavaged. Both the lavage fluid and recovered cells were examined for evidence of inflammation or altered cell function. The lavage fluid from guinea pigs and rats exposed to 5 mg/m3 had significant increases in total cells, lactate dehydrogenase, beta-glucuronidase, and protein content. These changes were greatest 24 hr after exposure. Guinea pig alveolar macrophage function was depressed as evidenced by in vitro phagocytosis of opsonized latex beads. Significant changes in lavage fluid parameters were also observed in guinea pigs and rats exposed to 2.5 mg/m3 ZnO. In contrast, rabbits showed no increase in biochemical or cellular parameters following a 2-hr exposure to 5 mg/m3 ZnO. Differences in total lung burden of ZnO, as determined in additional animals by atomic absorption spectroscopy, appeared to account for the observed differences in species responses. Although the lungs of guinea pigs and rats retained approximately 20% and 12% of the inhaled dose, respectively, rabbits retained only 5%.

  6. Lipoprotein(a) Promotes Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Dedifferentiation in Atherosclerotic Lesions of Human Apo(a) Transgenic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Tomonaga; Unoki, Hiroyuki; Sun, Huijun; Shimoyamada, Hiroaki; Marcovina, Santica; Shikama, Hisataka; Watanabe, Teruo; Fan, Jianglin

    2002-01-01

    Elevated plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels constitute an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism underlying Lp(a) atherogenicity is unclear. Recently, we demonstrated that Lp(a) may potentially be proatherogenic in transgenic rabbits expressing human apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)]. In this study, we further investigated atherosclerotic lesions of transgenic rabbits by morphometry and immunohistochemistry. On a cholesterol diet, human apo(a) transgenic rabbits had more extensive atherosclerotic lesions of the aorta, carotid artery, iliac artery, and coronary artery than did nontransgenic littermate rabbits as defined by increased intimal lesion area. Enhanced lesion development in transgenic rabbits was characterized by increased accumulation of smooth muscle cells, that was often associated with the Lp(a) deposition. To explore the possibility that Lp(a) may be involved in the smooth-muscle cell phenotypic modulation, we stained the lesions using a panel of monoclonal antibodies against smooth-muscle myosin heavy-chain isoforms (SM1, SM2, and SMemb) and basic transcriptional element binding protein-2 (BTEB2). We found that a large number of smooth muscle cells located in the apo(a)-containing areas of transgenic rabbits were positive for SMemb and BTEB2, suggesting that these smooth muscle cells were either immature or in the state of activation. In addition, transgenic rabbits showed delayed fibrinolytic activity accompanied by increased plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. We conclude that Lp(a) may enhance the lesion development by mediating smooth muscle cell proliferation and dedifferentiation possibly because of impaired fibrinolytic activity. PMID:11786416

  7. Biodistribution of a positron-emitting suicide inactivator of monoamine oxidase, carbon-11 pargyline, in mice and a rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Ishiwata, K.; Ido, T.; Yanai, K.; Kawashima, K.; Miura, Y.; Monma, M.; Watanuki, S.; Takahashi, T.; Iwata, R.

    1985-06-01

    Carbon-11 (/sup 11/C) pargyline, which is a suicide inactivator of Type B monoamine oxidase (MAO), was synthesized by the reaction of N-demethylpargyline with /sup 11/CH/sub 3/l. Biodistribution was investigated in mice, and positron tomographic images of the heart and lung in a rabbit were obtained. The distribution of /sup 11/C after administration of (/sup 11/C)pargyline was measured in several organs and blood at various time intervals. After 30 min its concentrations in the organs were constant. Subcellular distribution studies in the brain, lung, liver, and kidney showed that 59-70% of the /sup 11/C became acid-insoluble and 9-33% was present in the crude mitochondrial fraction at 60 min after injection. The uptakes of the /sup 11/C in each organ except for the kidney and spleen seemed to correlate with the in vitro enzymatic activity of Type B MAO. At high loading dose a nonspecific uptake was observed.

  8. A rabbit model for sublingual drug delivery: comparison with human pharmacokinetic studies of propranolol, verapamil and captopril.

    PubMed

    Dali, Manisha M; Moench, Paul A; Mathias, Neil R; Stetsko, Paul I; Heran, Christopher L; Smith, Ronald L

    2006-01-01

    A rabbit model for investigating sublingual drug absorption was established yielding results consistent with clinical data reported in the literature. Using propranolol as a model compound the effect of formulation and dosing variables was explored as a means to characterize the limiting parameters of this model. In addition, verapamil and captopril were selected as reference compounds to compare this model to sublingual absorption in humans. Rabbits were dosed sublingually and systemic absorption was measured over time. Sublingual absorption of propranolol was dependent on dosing solution pH and volume. Intra-oral spray device did not affect the overall exposure compared to instillation using a syringe. Despite species and dosing regimen differences the relative bioavailabilities of propranolol and verapamil were very similar in rabbits and humans. In contrast, captopril absorption from the sublingual cavity of rabbits was low and did not agree with that observed in man. Here we report a sublingual rabbit model of drug delivery and its potential utility in preclinical development of intra-oral dosage forms.

  9. Expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in macrophage-rich areas of human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Ylä-Herttuala, S; Lipton, B A; Rosenfeld, M E; Särkioja, T; Yoshimura, T; Leonard, E J; Witztum, J L; Steinberg, D

    1991-01-01

    The recruitment of monocyte-macrophages into the artery wall is one of the earliest events in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is a potent monocyte chemoattractant secreted by many cells in vitro, including vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. To test whether it is expressed in the artery in vivo, we used Northern blot analysis, in situ hybridization, and immunocytochemistry to study the expression of MCP-1 in normal and atherosclerotic human and rabbit arteries. Northern blot analysis showed that MCP-1 mRNA could be isolated from rabbit atherosclerotic lesions but not from the intima media of normal animals. Furthermore, MCP-1 mRNA was extracted from macrophage-derived foam cells isolated from arterial lesions of ballooned cholesterol-fed rabbits, whereas alveolar macrophages isolated simultaneously from the same rabbits did not express MCP-1 mRNA. MCP-1 mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in macrophage-rich regions of both human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions. No MCP-1 mRNA was found in sublesional medial smooth muscle cells or in normal arteries. By using immunocytochemistry, MCP-1 protein was demonstrated in human lesions, again only in macrophage-rich regions. Immunostaining of the serial sections with an antiserum against malondialdehyde-modified low density lipoprotein indicated the presence of oxidized low density lipoprotein indicated the presence of oxidized low density lipoprotein and/or other oxidation-specific lipid-protein adducts in the same areas that contained macrophages and MCP-1. We conclude that (i) MCP-1 is strongly expressed in a small subset of cells in macrophage-rich regions of human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions and (ii) MCP-1 may, therefore, play an important role in the ongoing recruitment of monocyte-macrophages into developing lesions in vivo. Images PMID:2052604

  10. The disposition of voriconazole in mouse, rat, rabbit, guinea pig, dog, and human.

    PubMed

    Roffey, S J; Cole, S; Comby, P; Gibson, D; Jezequel, S G; Nedderman, A N R; Smith, D A; Walker, D K; Wood, N

    2003-06-01

    Voriconazole is a new triazole antifungal agent with potent, wide-spectrum activity. Its pharmacokinetics and metabolism have been studied in mouse, rat, rabbit, dog, guinea pig, and humans after single and multiple administration by both oral and intravenous routes. Absorption of voriconazole is essentially complete in all species. The elimination of voriconazole is characterized by non-linear pharmacokinetics in all species. Consequently, pharmacokinetic parameters are dependent upon dose, and a superproportional increase in area under the curve is seen with increasing dose in rat and dog toxicology studies. Following multiple administration, there is a decrease in systemic exposure. This is most pronounced in mouse and rat, less so in dog, and not observed in guinea pig or rabbit. Repeat-dose toxicology studies in mouse, rat, and dog have demonstrated that induction of cytochrome P450 by voriconazole (autoinduction of metabolism) is responsible for the decreased exposure in these species. Autoinduction of metabolism is not observed in humans, and plasma steady-state concentrations remain constant with time. Voriconazole is extensively metabolized in all species. The major pathways in humans involve fluoropyrimidine N-oxidation, fluoropyrimidine hydroxylation, and methyl hydroxylation. Also, N-oxidation facilitates cleavage of the molecule, resulting in loss of the fluoropyrimidine moiety and subsequent conjugation with glucuronic acid. Major pathways are represented in animal species. The major circulating metabolite in rat, dog, and human is the N-oxide of voriconazole. It is not thought to contribute to efficacy since it is at least 100-fold less potent than voriconazole against fungal pathogens in vitro.

  11. Inhibition of glycosphingolipid synthesis ameliorates atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness in apolipoprotein E-/- mice and rabbits fed a high-fat and -cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Subroto; Bedja, Djahida; Mishra, Sumita; Amuzie, Christine; Avolio, Alberto; Kass, David A; Berkowitz, Dan; Renehan, Mark

    2014-06-10

    Glycosphingolipids, integral components of the cell membrane, have been shown to serve as messengers, transducing growth factor-initiated phenotypes. Here, we have examined whether inhibition of glycosphingolipid synthesis could ameliorate atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness in transgenic mice and rabbits. Apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice (12 weeks of age; n=6) were fed regular chow or a Western diet (1.25% cholesterol, 2% fat). Mice were fed 5 or 10 mg/kg of an inhibitor of glycosphingolipid synthesis, D-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (D-PDMP), solubilized in vehicle (5% Tween-80 in PBS); the placebo group received vehicle only. At 20 and 36 weeks of age, serial echocardiography was performed to measure aortic intima-media thickening. Aortic pulse-wave velocity measured vascular stiffness. Feeding mice a Western diet markedly increased aortic pulse-wave velocity, intima-media thickening, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, Ca(2+) deposits, and glucosylceramide and lactosylceramide synthase activity. These were dose-dependently decreased by feeding D-PDMP. In liver, D-PDMP decreased cholesterol and triglyceride levels by raising the expression of SREBP2, low-density lipoprotein receptor, HMGCo-A reductase, and the cholesterol efflux genes (eg, ABCG5, ABCG8). D-PDMP affected very-low-density lipoprotein catabolism by increasing the gene expression for lipoprotein lipase and very-low-density lipoprotein receptor. Rabbits fed a Western diet for 90 days had extensive atherosclerosis accompanied by a 17.5-fold increase in total cholesterol levels and a 3-fold increase in lactosylceramide levels. This was completely prevented by feeding D-PDMP. Inhibition of glycosphingolipid synthesis ameliorates atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness in apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice and rabbits. Thus, inhibition of glycosphingolipid synthesis may be a novel approach to ameliorate atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Mice with megabase humanization of their immunoglobulin genes generate antibodies as efficiently as normal mice.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Andrew J; Macdonald, Lynn E; Stevens, Sean; Karow, Margaret; Dore, Anthony T; Pobursky, Kevin; Huang, Tammy T; Poueymirou, William T; Esau, Lakeisha; Meola, Melissa; Mikulka, Warren; Krueger, Pamela; Fairhurst, Jeanette; Valenzuela, David M; Papadopoulos, Nicholas; Yancopoulos, George D

    2014-04-08

    Mice genetically engineered to be humanized for their Ig genes allow for human antibody responses within a mouse background (HumAb mice), providing a valuable platform for the generation of fully human therapeutic antibodies. Unfortunately, existing HumAb mice do not have fully functional immune systems, perhaps because of the manner in which their genetic humanization was carried out. Heretofore, HumAb mice have been generated by disrupting the endogenous mouse Ig genes and simultaneously introducing human Ig transgenes at a different and random location; KO-plus-transgenic humanization. As we describe in the companion paper, we attempted to make mice that more efficiently use human variable region segments in their humoral responses by precisely replacing 6 Mb of mouse Ig heavy and kappa light variable region germ-line gene segments with their human counterparts while leaving the mouse constant regions intact, using a unique in situ humanization approach. We reasoned the introduced human variable region gene segments would function indistinguishably in their new genetic location, whereas the retained mouse constant regions would allow for optimal interactions and selection of the resulting antibodies within the mouse environment. We show that these mice, termed VelocImmune mice because they were generated using VelociGene technology, efficiently produce human:mouse hybrid antibodies (that are rapidly convertible to fully human antibodies) and have fully functional humoral immune systems indistinguishable from those of WT mice. The efficiency of the VelocImmune approach is confirmed by the rapid progression of 10 different fully human antibodies into human clinical trials.

  13. Mice with megabase humanization of their immunoglobulin genes generate antibodies as efficiently as normal mice

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Andrew J.; Macdonald, Lynn E.; Stevens, Sean; Karow, Margaret; Dore, Anthony T.; Pobursky, Kevin; Huang, Tammy T.; Poueymirou, William T.; Esau, Lakeisha; Meola, Melissa; Mikulka, Warren; Krueger, Pamela; Fairhurst, Jeanette; Valenzuela, David M.; Papadopoulos, Nicholas; Yancopoulos, George D.

    2014-01-01

    Mice genetically engineered to be humanized for their Ig genes allow for human antibody responses within a mouse background (HumAb mice), providing a valuable platform for the generation of fully human therapeutic antibodies. Unfortunately, existing HumAb mice do not have fully functional immune systems, perhaps because of the manner in which their genetic humanization was carried out. Heretofore, HumAb mice have been generated by disrupting the endogenous mouse Ig genes and simultaneously introducing human Ig transgenes at a different and random location; KO-plus-transgenic humanization. As we describe in the companion paper, we attempted to make mice that more efficiently use human variable region segments in their humoral responses by precisely replacing 6 Mb of mouse Ig heavy and kappa light variable region germ-line gene segments with their human counterparts while leaving the mouse constant regions intact, using a unique in situ humanization approach. We reasoned the introduced human variable region gene segments would function indistinguishably in their new genetic location, whereas the retained mouse constant regions would allow for optimal interactions and selection of the resulting antibodies within the mouse environment. We show that these mice, termed VelocImmune mice because they were generated using VelociGene technology, efficiently produce human:mouse hybrid antibodies (that are rapidly convertible to fully human antibodies) and have fully functional humoral immune systems indistinguishable from those of WT mice. The efficiency of the VelocImmune approach is confirmed by the rapid progression of 10 different fully human antibodies into human clinical trials. PMID:24706856

  14. The rabbit as a model for reproductive and developmental toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Foote, R H; Carney, E W

    2000-01-01

    The rabbit has many advantages as a nonrodent and second model for assessing the effects of toxic agents on semen quality, fertility, developmental toxicity, and teratology. The male and female reproductive systems of the rabbit are described, and data on growth, sexual development and reproduction are compared with mice, rats, and humans. Techniques for semen collection and evaluation in the male, and artificial insemination, superovulation, embryo culture, and embryo transfer in the female are included as useful procedures in toxicity testing. Examples of the use of rabbits and experimental replication for toxicity testing are given. Special features of the visceral yolk sac and development of the chorioallantoic placenta of the rabbit are compared with rodents. The rabbit extraembryonic membranes more closely resemble the human than do the rodents, in some respects. The use of the rabbit in developmental toxicity and teratology studies is discussed.

  15. Effects of peptides cleaved from human fibrinogen by plasmin on rabbit kidney cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Stachurska, J.; Janik, M.; Kobus, M.; Luczak, M.; Szmigielski, S.; Roszkowski, M.; Gerdin, B.; Saldeen, T.; Kopec, M.

    1983-02-15

    Low molecular weight fibrinogen degradation products (LMW-FDP) containing a mixture of dialysable peptides cleaved from human fibrinogen by plasmin are cytotoxic to an established line of rabbit kidney cells and to primary cultures of rabbit kidney cells. The presence of LMW-FDP in a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml during the cell cultivation caused a considerable release of /sup 51/Cr from prelabelled cells and inhibited /sup 3/H-thymidine and /sup 86/Rb uptake. Among three isolated peptides of established primary structure only one, 6D: Ser-Gln-Leu-Gln-Lys-Val-Pro-Pro-Glu-Trp-Lys, induced a significant effect, i.e. it enhanced /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation. Two others, 6A: Ala-Arg-Pro-Ala-Lys and 6E: Thr-Ser-Glu-Val-Lys, did not influence the examined parameters. Hence other components of LMW-FDP must be assumed to be responsible for the cytotoxic effect on kidney cell cultures.

  16. A comparative study of candidal invasion in rabbit tongue mucosal explants and reconstituted human oral epithelium.

    PubMed

    Jayatilake, J A M S; Samaranayake, Y H; Samaranayake, L P

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the light and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) features of tissue invasion by three Candida species (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. dubliniensis) in two different tissue culture models: rabbit tongue mucosal explants (RTME) and reconstituted human oral epithelium (RHOE). Tongue mucosal biopsies of healthy New Zealand rabbits were maintained in explant culture using a transwell system. RHOE was obtained from Skinethic Laboratory (Nice, France). RTME and RHOE were inoculated with C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. dubliniensis separately and incubated at 37 degrees C, 5% CO(2), and 100% humidity up to 48 h. Light microscopic and SEM examinations of uninfected (controls) and infected tissues were performed at 24 and 48 h. C. albicans produced characteristic hallmarks of pathological tissue invasion in both tissue models over a period of 48 h. Hyphae penetrated through epithelial cells and intercellular gaps latter resembling thigmotropism. SEM showed cavitations on the epithelial cell surfaces particularly pronounced at sites of hyphal invasion. Some hyphae on RTME showed several clusters of blastospores attached in regular arrangements resembling "appareil sporifere". C. tropicalis and C. dubliniensis produced few hyphae mainly on RTME but they did not penetrate either model. Our findings indicate that multiple host-fungal interactions such as cavitations, thigmotropism, and morphogenesis take place during candidal tissue invasion. RTME described here appears to be useful in investigations of such pathogenic processes of Candida active at the epithelial front.

  17. Effects of conditioned media from human amniotic epithelial cells on corneal alkali injuries in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Park, Young-Woo; Ahn, Jae-Sang; Ahn, Jeong-Taek; Kim, Se-Eun; Jeong, Man-Bok; Seo, Min-Su; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of conditioned media (CM) from human amniotic epithelial cells (HAECs) on the corneal wound healing process. Eighteen rabbits (36 eyes) were used and randomly assigned to three groups according treatment: CM from HAECs (group 1), vehicle alone (group 2), and saline (group 3). Corneal alkali injuries were induced with 1 N sodium hydroxide. Each reagent used for treatment evaluation was injected into the dorsal bulbar subconjunctiva and the area of the corneal epithelial defect was measured every other day. Two animals from each group were euthanized at a time on days 3, 7, and 15, and the cornea was removed for histological examination. The sum of the epithelial defect areas measured on day 0 to day 6 as well as day 0 to day 14 in group 1 was significantly smaller than those of other groups. Histological examination revealed that the group 1 corneas had less inflammatory cell infiltration and showed more intact epithelial features compared to the other groups. These results suggest that CM from HAECs promote corneal wound healing in rabbits. PMID:23388445

  18. Ocular penetration of topically applied norfloxacin 0.3% in the rabbits and in humans.

    PubMed

    Bron, A M; Péchinot, A; Garcher, C; Guyonnet, G; Kazmierczak, A

    1992-01-01

    The kinetics of topically applied norfloxacin 0.3 percent were studied in rabbit and man. All measurements were performed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Norfloxacin concentrations were investigated five to 120 minutes in rabbit ocular tissues after instillation of a single drop. In normal eyes, after 30 minutes, mean +/- SEM levels were 14.3 +/- 3.7 micrograms/g in cornea, 3.3 +/- 0.7 micrograms/g in conjunctiva, 0.2 +/- 0.1 microgram/g in aqueous humor. After removal of the corneal epithelium concentrations were as follows: 84.2 +/- 15.8 micrograms/g, 7.3 +/- 2.3 micrograms/g, 8.6 +/- 1.9 micrograms/g respectively. Penetration in posterior ocular tissues were rather poor. In human eyes, the intracorneal concentrations were assessed in patients being operated on corneal grafts. After instillation of 5 drops, the concentration in cornea was 15.5 +/- 2.1 micrograms/g. These data show that therapeutic levels of norfloxacin can be achieved in anterior ocular tissues, which may be of help in superficial infections of the eye.

  19. Xenotransplantation of human cryopreserved parathyroid tissue isolated from parathyroid adenomas to normocalcemic rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Ayşan, Erhan; Düzköylü, Yiğit; Can, İsmail; Büyükpınarbaşılı, Nur

    2017-01-01

    Objective Parathyroid allotransplantation is a new method for the treatment of permanent hypoparathyrodism. Adenoma cells are not used for transplantation because of the potential for functional or histopathologic transformation. In this study, we transplanted human adenomatous parathyroid cells to rabbits. Material and Methods Parathyroid adenoma tissue taken from a male patient was cryopreserved and transplanted into seven New Zealand white rabbits (mean weight, 3700±220 g; mean age, 4.5 months) under immunosuppression. The levels of parathormone, calcium and phosphorus were measured before and after transplantation, and the parathyroid cells were observed histopathologically. Results Mean parathyroid hormone level was 0.5 pg/dL before transplantation and 6.6 pg/dL after transplantation (p<0.05). Preoperative mean calciumlevel was 14.1 mg/dL, and mean phosporus level was 3.5 mg/dL before transplantation while these values were 14.4 mg/dL and 3.3 mg/dL, respectively, after transplantation (p>0.05). Morphologic transformation was not observed in parathyroid cells after transplantation. Conclusion In short-term observation, adenomatous parathyroid cells can function without malignant transformation. In the future, the preliminary methodology in this study may serve as a safe alternative for allotransplantation into patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism. PMID:28740957

  20. [Studies on the absorption, excretion and distribution of aclacinomycin A: absorption, excretion and distribution of aclacinomycin A in mice, rabbits and dogs by photometric assay (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Iguchi, H; Matsushita, Y; Ohmori, K; Hirano, S; Kiyosaki, T; Hori, S; Tone, H; Oki, T

    1980-02-01

    An anthracycline antitumor antibiotic, aclacinomycin A, was given to mice, rabbits or dogs intravenously to study the pharmacokinetics by photometric assay based on the absorption of anthracycline ring. The drug was rapidly eliminated from the blood in these animals. Drug levels were much higher in the blood cells than in the plasma. Tissue levels in dogs were 50 approximately 100 times higher than the blood levels, which showed the drug was rapidly transferred from the blood to tissues after administration. Higher levels were observed in the lungs, spleen and lymph nodes, where the drug was present as aclacinomycin A itself and the glycoside-type metabolites that were biologically active. The active form was also detected in the pancreas, heart, thymus, bone marrow and gastrointestinal tract. In the liver and kidneys, biologically inactive aglycone-type metabolites were observed. About 2 approximately 4% of the drug given to rabbits or dogs was recovered in the urine by 72 hours after administration, in which only 10% of the excreted drug was active form in rabbits but about 65% in dogs. The rest was inactive aglycone-type metabolites that were excreted almost in the conjugated form. Biliary excretion also contributed to the total clearance of the drug. Aclacinomycin A was absorbed even by oral administration in rabbits and dogs. Tissue distribution of the drug orally given to dogs was similar to that in intravenous administration, except that higher levels of active form were detected in the gastrointestinal tract and of inactive form in the liver.

  1. VEGF and IGF Delivered from Alginate Hydrogels Promote Stable Perfusion Recovery in Ischemic Hind Limbs of Aged Mice and Young Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Erin M; Silva, Eduardo A; Hao, Yibai; Martinick, Kathleen D; Vermillion, Sarah A; Stafford, Alexander G; Doherty, Elisabeth G; Wang, Lin; Doherty, Edward J; Grossman, Paul M; Mooney, David J

    2017-09-21

    Biomaterial-based delivery of angiogenic growth factors restores perfusion more effectively than bolus delivery methods in rodent models of peripheral vascular disease, but the same success has not yet been demonstrated in clinically relevant studies of aged or large animals. These studies explore, in clinically relevant models, a therapeutic angiogenesis strategy for the treatment of peripheral vascular disease that overcomes the challenges encountered in previous clinical trials. Alginate hydrogels providing sustained release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF) were injected into ischemic hind limbs in middle-aged and old mice, and also in young rabbits, as a test of the scalability of this local growth factor treatment. Spontaneous perfusion recovery diminished with increasing age, and only the combination of VEGF and IGF delivery from gels significantly rescued perfusion in middle-aged (13 months) and old (20 months) mice. In rabbits, the delivery of VEGF alone or in combination with IGF from alginate hydrogels, at a dose 2 orders of magnitude lower than the typical doses used in past rabbit studies, enhanced perfusion recovery when given immediately after surgery, or as a treatment for chronic ischemia. Capillary density measurements and angiographic analysis demonstrated the benefit of gel delivery. These data together suggest that alginate hydrogels providing local delivery of low doses of VEGF and IGF constitute a safe and effective treatment for hind-limb ischemia in clinically relevant animal models, thereby supporting the potential clinical translation of this concept. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Experimentally infected human body lice (pediculus humanus humanus) as vectors of Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia conorii in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Houhamdi, Linda; Raoult, Didier

    2006-04-01

    The human body louse, the natural vector of Rickettsia prowazekii, is able to experimentally transmit the normally flea-borne rickettsia R. typhi, suggesting that the relationships between the body louse and rickettsiae are not specific. We used our experimental infection model to test the ability of body lice to transmit two prevalent tick-borne rickettsiae. Each of two rabbits was made bacteremic by injecting intravenously 2 x 10(6) plaque-forming units of either R. rickettsii or R. conorii. Four hundred body lice were infected by feeding on the bacteremic rabbit and were compared with 400 uninfected lice. Each louse group was fed once a day on a separate seronegative rabbit. The survival of infected lice was not different from that of uninfected controls. Lice remained infected for their lifespan, excreted R. rickettsii and R. conorii in their feces, but did not transmit the infection to their progeny. The nurse rabbit of uninfected lice remained asymptomatic and seronegative. Those rabbits used to feed infected lice developed bacteremia and seroconverted. Although the body louse is not a known vector of spotted fevers, it was able in our study to acquire, maintain, and transmit both R. rickettsii and R. conorii.

  3. Enzyme therapy for pompe disease with recombinant human alpha-glucosidase from rabbit milk.

    PubMed

    Van den Hout, J M; Reuser, A J; de Klerk, J B; Arts, W F; Smeitink, J A; Van der Ploeg, A T

    2001-04-01

    Pompe disease is a metabolic myopathy caused by deficiency of lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase. In this report we review the first 36 weeks of a clinical study on the safety and efficacy of enzyme therapy aimed at correcting the deficiency. Four patients with infantile Pompe disease were enrolled. They received recombinant human alpha-glucosidase from transgenic rabbit milk. The product is generally well tolerated and reaches the primary target tissues. Normalization of alpha-glucosidase activity in skeletal muscle was obtained and degradation of PAS-positive material was seen in tissue sections. The clinical condition of all patients improved. The effect on heart was most significant, with an impressive reduction of the left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Motor function improved. The positive preliminary results stimulate continuation and extension of efforts towards the realization of enzyme therapy for Pompe disease.

  4. Myxoma virus expressing human interleukin-12 does not induce myxomatosis in European rabbits.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Marianne M; Barrett, John W; Gilbert, Philippe-Alexandre; Bankert, Richard; McFadden, Grant

    2007-11-01

    Myxoma virus (MV) is a candidate for oncolytic virotherapy due to its ability to selectively infect and kill tumor cells, yet MV is a species-specific pathogen that causes disease only in European rabbits. To assess the ability of MV to deliver cytokines to tumors, we created an MV (vMyxIL-12) that expresses human interleukin-12 (IL-12). vMyxIL-12 replicates similarly to wild-type MV, and virus-infected cells secrete bioactive IL-12. Yet, vMyxIL-12 does not cause myxomatosis, despite expressing the complete repertoire of MV proteins. Thus, vMyxIL-12 exhibits promise as an oncolytic candidate and is safe in all known vertebrate hosts, including lagomorphs.

  5. Experimental chronic active hepatits in rabbits following immunization with human liver proteins

    PubMed Central

    Büschenfelde, K. H. Meyer Zum; Kössling, F. K.; Miescher, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Two liver-specific antigens are known: a water soluble protein (LP-2) and a water insoluble macromolecular low density lipoprotein (LP-1). In this paper the relative role of the two antigens in the development of experimental immune hepatitis has been investigated. Immunization of rabbits with a human preparation containing both antigens, led in all animals to lesions characteristic of an immune hepatitis. Immunization of the animals with a purified water soluble liver protein proved less efficient: only two out of six animals developed characteristic lesions which were less severe than those in the first group. It was deduced that although not a prerequisite, the liver-specific lipoprotein plays an important supportive role in the development of immune hepatitis. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 1Fig. 3 PMID:4338952

  6. Memory B Cells of Mice and Humans.

    PubMed

    Weisel, Florian; Shlomchik, Mark

    2017-01-30

    Wecomprehensively review memory B cells (MBCs), covering the definition of MBC and their identities and subsets, how MBCs are generated, where they are localized, how they are maintained, and how they are reactivated. Whereas naive B cells adopt multiple fates upon stimulation, MBCs are more restricted in their responses. Evolving work reveals that the MBC compartment in mice and humans consists of distinct subpopulations with differing effector functions. We discuss the various approaches to define subsets and subset-specific roles. A major theme is the need to both deliver faster effector function upon reexposure and readapt to antigenically variant pathogens while avoiding burnout, which would be the result if all MBCs generated only terminal effector function. We discuss cell-intrinsic differences in gene expression and signaling that underlie differences in function between MBCs and naive B cells and among MBC subsets and how this leads to memory responses. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Immunology Volume 35 is April 26, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  7. Human brain disease recreated in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, J.

    1990-12-14

    In the early 1980s, neurologist Stanley Prusiner suggested that scrapie, an apparently infectious degenerative brain disease of sheep, could be transmitted by prions, infectious particles made just of protein - and containing no nucleic acids. But prion research has come a long way since then. In 1985, the cloning of the gene encoding the prion protein proved that it does in fact exist. And the gene turned out to be widely expressed in the brains of higher organisms, a result suggesting that the prion protein has a normal brain function that can somehow be subverted, leading to brain degeneration. Then studies done during the past 2 years suggested that specific mutations in the prion gene might cause two similar human brain diseases, Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) and Creutzfelt-Jakob disease. Now, Prusiner's group at the University of California, San Francisco, has used genetic engineering techniques to recreate GSS by transplanting the mutated prion gene into mice. Not only will the animal model help neurobiologists answer the many remaining questions about prions and how they work, but it may also shed some light on other neurodegenerative diseases as well.

  8. N-/O-glycosylation analysis of human FVIIa produced in the milk of transgenic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Chevreux, Guillaume; Faid, Valegh; Scohyers, Jean-Marc; Bihoreau, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    Human coagulation factor VIIa is a glycoprotein that promotes haemostasis through activation of the coagulation cascade extrinsic pathway. Most haemophilia A/B patients with inhibitors are treated by injection of plasma-derived or recombinant FVIIa. The use of recombinant products raises questions about the ability of the host cell to produce efficiently post-translationally modified proteins. Glycosylation is especially critical considering that it can modulate protein safety and efficacy. The present paper reports the N-/O-glycosylation pattern of a new recombinant human factor VIIa expressed in the mammary glands of transgenic rabbits. Glycosylation was investigated by chromatography and advanced mass spectrometry techniques for glycan identification and quantitation. Mass spectrometry (MS)/MS analyses were performed to confirm the glycan structures as well as the position and branching of specific monosaccharides or substituents. The two N-glycosylation sites were found to be fully occupied mostly by mono- and bi-sialylated biantennary complex-type structures, the major form being A(2)G(2)S(1). Some oligomannose/hybrid structures were retrieved in lower abundance, the major ones being GlcNAcα1,O-phosphorylated at the C6-position of a Man residue (Man-6-(GlcNAcα1,O-)phosphate motif) as commonly observed on lysosomal proteins. No immunogenic glycotopes such as Galili (Galα1,3Gal) and HD antigens (N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc)) were detected. Concerning O-glycosylation, the product exhibited O-fucose and O-glucose-(xylose)(0, 1, 2) motifs as expected. The N-glycosylation consistency was also investigated by varying production parameters such as the period of lactation, the number of consecutive lactations and rabbit generations. Results show that the transgenesis technology is suitable for the long-term production of rhFVIIa with a reproducible glycosylation pattern.

  9. Isotonic transport by the Na+-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 from humans and rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Zeuthen, T; Meinild, A-K; Loo, D D F; Wright, E M; Klaerke, D A

    2001-01-01

    In order to study its role in steady state water transport, the Na+-glucose cotransporter (SGLT1) was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes; both the human and the rabbit clones were tested. The transport activity was monitored as a clamp current and the flux of water followed optically as the change in oocyte volume. SGLT1 has two modes of water transport. First, it acts as a molecular water pump: for each 2 Na+ and 1 sugar molecule 264 water molecules were cotransported in the human SGLT1 (hSGLT1), 424 for the rabbit SGLT1 (rSGLT1). Second, it acts as a water channel. The cotransport of water was tightly coupled to the sugar-induced clamp current. Instantaneous changes in clamp current induced by changes in clamp voltage were accompanied by instantaneous changes in the rate of water transport. The cotransported solution was predicted to be hypertonic, and an osmotic gradient built up across the oocyte membrane with continued transport; this resulted in an additional osmotic influx of water. After 5-10 min a steady state was achieved in which the total influx was predicted to be isotonic with the intracellular solution. With the given expression levels, the steady state water transport was divided about equally between cotransport, osmosis across the SGLT1 and osmosis across the native oocyte membrane. Coexpression of AQP1 with the SGLT1 increased the water permeability more than 10-fold and steady state isotonic transport was achieved after less than 2 s of sugar activation. One-third of the water was cotransported, and the remainder was osmotically driven through the AQP1. The data suggest that SGLT1 has three roles in isotonic water transport: it cotransports water directly, it supplies a passive pathway for osmotic water transport, and it generates an osmotic driving force that can be employed by other pathways, for example aquaporins. PMID:11251046

  10. Mammary olfactory signalisation in females and odor processing in neonates: ways evolved by rabbits and humans.

    PubMed

    Schaal, Benoist; Coureaud, Gérard; Doucet, Sébastien; Delaunay-El Allam, Maryse; Moncomble, Anne-Sophie; Montigny, Delphine; Patris, Bruno; Holley, André

    2009-06-25

    Mammalian females have long been known to release olfactory attraction in their offspring. Mammary odor cues control infant state, attention and directional responses, delay distress responses, stimulate breathing and positive oral actions, and finally can boost learning. Here, we survey female-offspring odor communication in two mammalian species - European rabbits and humans - taken as representatives of evolutionary extremes in terms of structure and dynamics of mother-infant relations, and level of neonatal autonomy. Despite these early psychobiological differences, females in both species have evolved mammary structures combining multiple sources of endogenous and exogenous odorants, and of greasy fixatives, conferring on them a chemocommunicative function. To process these mammary chemosignals, neonates have co-evolved multiple perceptual mechanisms. Their behaviour appears to be driven by plastic mechanism(s) calibrated by circumstantial odor experience in preceding and current environments (fetal and postnatal induction of sensory processes and learning), and by predisposed mechanisms supported by pathways that may be hard-wired to detect species-specific signals. In rabbit neonates, predisposed and plastic mechanisms are working inclusively. In human neonates, only plastic mechanisms could be demonstrated so far. These mammary signals and cues confer success in offspring's approach and exploration of maternal body surface, and ensuing effective initial feeds and rapid learning of maternal identity. Although the duration of the impact of these mammary signals is variable in newborns of species exposed to contrasting life-history patterns, their functional role in setting on infant-mother interaction in the context of milk transfer can be crucial.

  11. Culicidae (Diptera) selection of humans, chickens and rabbits in three different environments in the province of Chaco, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Marina; Zalazar, Laura; Willener, Juana Alicia; Almeida, Francisco Ludueña; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the selection of humans, chickens and rabbits by Culicidae in three different environments in the province of Chaco, Argentina. Mosquitoes were collected fortnightly using cylindrical metal traps containing animal bait (chickens and rabbits). The mosquitoes were collected between June 2001-May 2002. During the same period and with the same frequency, mosquitoes biting the human operators of the traps were collected during the first 15 min of exposure within different time intervals: from 09:00 am-11:00 am, 01:00 pm-03:00 pm, 05:00 pm-07:00 pm and 09:00 pm-10:00 pm. A total of 19,430 mosquitoes of 49 species belonging to 10 genera were collected. Culex species mainly selected chicken bait and Wyeomyia species selected rabbit bait. Ochlerotatus and Psorophora species were more abundant in rabbit-baited traps. Anopheles triannulatus, Coquillettidia nigricans, Ochlerotatus scapularis, Mansonia titillans and Psorophora albigenu showed a strong attraction for human bait. The Anopheles, Coquillettidia, Culex and Mansonia species were more active between 05:00 pm-09:00 pm, while Ochlerotatus, Psorophora, Haemagogus and Wyeomyia were most active from 09:00 am-07:00 pm. This study provides additional information about the biology and ecology of arbovirus vectors in Chaco. PMID:23903970

  12. THE INACTIVATION OF PENICILLINS F, G, K, AND X BY HUMAN AND RABBIT SERUM

    PubMed Central

    Eagle, Harry

    1947-01-01

    1. Penicillins F, G, K, and X were all inactivated by human and rabbit serum, but two qualitatively distinct mechanisms were apparently involved. 2. One was a slow inactivation of all four penicillins by a relatively thermostable serum component which was not demonstrably affected by heating for 60 minutes at 56°C. (a) In both human and rabbit serum this general inactivation of penicillin behaved like a pseudo first order reaction, with a velocity constant of 0.05–0.07 for penicillin X, and 0.09–0.11 for penicillins F and G. (b) The percentage of penicillins F, G, and X inactivated per hour was independent of their concentration over the range 0.4 to 50 micrograms per cc., averaging 9.5, 10, and 6.5 per cent, respectively, in human serum, and 9,8.5, and 5 per cent in rabbit serum. (c) The rate of inactivation varied linearly with the concentration of the serum factor. (d) Penicillin X was consistently and significantly less susceptible to inactivation than any of the other penicillins. Although minor differences were observed between F and G, these were not consistent, and are of questionable significance. 3. Superimposed on this slow inactivation of penicillins F, G, K, and X by a thermostable serum component was a much faster inactivation observed only with penicillin K. (a) In both rabbit and human serum, the serum factor responsible for this inactivation was highly thermolabile, and was almost completely destroyed within 5 minutes at 56°C., leaving only a thermostable component, not affected by further heating. (b) The inactivation of K by this thermolabile component was not a first order reaction, but varied with the concentration of both serum and penicillin. At high concentrations of K, the rate of inactivation due to the thermolabile factor was negligible, and penicillin K was destroyed no more rapidly than F, G, or X. The rate of inactivation increased as the concentration of penicillin was reduced. At penicillin K concentrations of 50, 10, 2, and 0

  13. Molecular identification and phylogenesis of dermatophytes isolated from rabbit farms and rabbit farm workers.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Weigl, Stefania; Figueredo, Luciana A; Otranto, Domenico

    2012-01-27

    Little information is available on the molecular epidemiology of dermatophytoses in rabbit farms and farm workers. A total of 117 isolates belonging to the Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex and 21 isolates of Microsporum canis were collected from rabbits with or without skin lesions, air samples of farms known to harbour these pathogens, and from farm workers with skin lesions, and molecularly characterized. Sequencing of amplicons from the T. mentagrophytes complex and M. canis isolates revealed the presence of one sequence-type for both partial chitin synthase-1 gene (pchs-1) and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS+), respectively. On the basis of comparative sequence analyses, isolated representing the T. mentagrophytes complex were molecularly identified as Trichophyton interdigitale (zoophilic) Priestley. The M. canis and T. interdigitale pchs-1 sequences herein analysed were 100% homologous to known sequences from different hosts (i.e., cats, dogs, humans and rabbits). Conversely, the ITS+ sequences of T. interdigitale from dogs, pigs and mice were identical, but displayed up to 8.6% difference with those from humans, guinea pigs and rabbits. The results of this study suggest that environmental and clinical isolates of T. interdigitale (zoophilic) and M. canis might share a common origin. Interestingly, the close phylogenetic relationship between T. interdigitale (zoophilic) strains and isolates from dogs, pigs and mice might indicate that these animals represented a reservoir of dermatophyte infection in rabbit farms. These animal species should therefore be considered when setting up control protocols to prevent infections by dermatophytes and their zoonotic transmission.

  14. PSITTACOSIS : III. EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED INFECTIONS IN RABBITS AND GUINEA PIGS.

    PubMed

    Rivers, T M; Berry, G P

    1931-06-30

    1. Rabbits and guinea pigs are susceptible to psittacosis virus introduced intracerebrally. By means of brain to brain passages in these animals the active agent is capable of propagation indefinitely. 2. Serial passages of the virus through rabbits and guinea pigs do not cause the active agent to lose its pathogenicity for parrots and mice. 3. The chief clinical evidences of infection in rabbits and guinea pigs following intracranial inoculation of the virus are fever and loss of weight. The pathological changes are characterized by a mild meningo-encephalitis, and fatty degeneration, focal necrosis, and infarction of the liver. 4. Rabbits upon recovery from an attack of psittacosis are actively immune. 5. Two strains of virus, human and parrot, were found to be immunologically similar. 6. No evidence was obtained to show that human convalescent serum possesses an appreciable amount of neutralizing substances.

  15. Traumatic spinal cord injury in mice with human immune systems.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Randall S; Kigerl, Kristina A; Marbourg, Jessica M; Gaudet, Andrew D; Huey, Devra; Niewiesk, Stefan; Popovich, Phillip G

    2015-09-01

    Mouse models have provided key insight into the cellular and molecular control of human immune system function. However, recent data indicate that extrapolating the functional capabilities of the murine immune system into humans can be misleading. Since immune cells significantly affect neuron survival and axon growth and also are required to defend the body against infection, it is important to determine the pathophysiological significance of spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced changes in human immune system function. Research projects using monkeys or humans would be ideal; however, logistical and ethical barriers preclude detailed mechanistic studies in either species. Humanized mice, i.e., immunocompromised mice reconstituted with human immune cells, can help overcome these barriers and can be applied in various experimental conditions that are of interest to the SCI community. Specifically, newborn NOD-SCID-IL2rg(null) (NSG) mice engrafted with human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells develop normally without neurological impairment. In this report, new data show that when mice with human immune systems receive a clinically-relevant spinal contusion injury, spontaneous functional recovery is indistinguishable from that achieved after SCI using conventional inbred mouse strains. Moreover, using routine immunohistochemical and flow cytometry techniques, one can easily phenotype circulating human immune cells and document the composition and distribution of these cells in the injured spinal cord. Lesion pathology in humanized mice is typical of mouse contusion injuries, producing a centralized lesion epicenter that becomes occupied by phagocytic macrophages and lymphocytes and enclosed by a dense astrocytic scar. Specific human immune cell types, including three distinct subsets of human monocytes, were readily detected in the blood, spleen and liver. Future studies that aim to understand the functional consequences of manipulating the neuro-immune axis after SCI

  16. Demineralized dentin matrix combined with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in rabbit calvarial defects

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the osteogenic effects of demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) combined with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in rabbit calvarial defects with DDM and anorganic bovine bone (ABB) combined with rhBMP-2. Materials and Methods Four round defects with 8-mm diameters were created in each rabbit calvaria. Each defect was treated with one of the following: 1) DDM, 2) ABB/rhBMP-2, or 3) DDM/rhBMP-2. The rhBMP-2 was combined with DDM and ABB according to a stepwise dry and dip lyophilizing protocol. Histological and microcomputed tomography (µCT) analyses were performed to measure the amount of bone formation and bone volume after 2- and 8-week healing intervals. Results Upon histological observation at two weeks, the DDM and ABB/rhBMP-2 groups showed osteoconductive bone formation, while the DDM/rhBMP-2 group showed osteoconductive and osteoinductive bone formation. New bone formation was higher in DDM/rhBMP-2, DDM and ABB decreasing order. The amounts of bone formation were very similar at two weeks; however, at eight weeks, the DDM/rhBMP-2 group showed a two-fold greater amount of bone formation compared to the DDM and ABB/rhBMP-2 groups. The µCT analysis showed markedly increased bone volume in the DDM/rhBMP-2 group at eight weeks compared with that of the DDM group. Notably, there was a slight decrease in bone volume in the ABB/rhBMP-2 group at eight weeks. There were no significant differences among the DDM, ABB/rhBMP-2, and DDM/rhBMP-2 groups at two or eight weeks. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, DDM appears to be a suitable carrier for rhBMP-2 in orthotopic sites. PMID:27162749

  17. Targeting arterial wall sulfated glycosaminoglycans in rabbit atherosclerosis with a mouse/human chimeric antibody.

    PubMed

    Soto, Yosdel; Mesa, Niurka; Alfonso, Yumisley; Pérez, Arlenis; Batlle, Fernando; Griñán, Tania; Pino, Adonis; Viera, Justo; Frómeta, Milagros; Brito, Victor; Olivera, Armando; Zayas, Francisco; Vázquez, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    The progression of atherosclerosis is favored by increasing amounts of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the artery wall. We previously reported the reactivity of chP3R99 monoclonal antibody (mAb) with sulfated glycosaminoglycans and its association with the anti-atherogenic properties displayed. Now, we evaluated the accumulation of this mAb in atherosclerotic lesions and its potential use as a probe for specific in vivo detection of the disease. Atherosclerosis was induced in NZW rabbits (n = 14) by the administration of Lipofundin 20% using PBS-receiving animals as control (n = 8). Accumulation of chP3R99 mAb in atherosclerotic lesions was assessed either by immunofluorescence detection of human IgG in fresh-frozen sections of aorta, or by immunoscintigraphy followed by biodistribution of the radiotracer upon administration of (99m)Tc-chP3R99 mAb. Immunofluorescence studies revealed the presence of chP3R99 mAb in atherosclerotic lesions 24 h after intravenous administration, whereas planar images showed an evident accumulation of (99m)Tc-chP3R99 mAb in atherosclerotic rabbit carotids. Accordingly, (99m)Tc-chP3R99 mAb uptake by lesioned aortic arch and thoracic segment was increased 5.6-fold over controls and it was 3.9-folds higher in carotids, in agreement with immunoscintigrams. Moreover, the deposition of (99m)Tc-chP3R99 mAb in the artery wall was associated both with the presence and size of the lesions in the different portions of evaluated arteries and was greater than in non-targeted organs. In conclusion, chP3R99 mAb preferentially accumulates in arterial atherosclerotic lesions supporting the potential use of this anti-glycosaminoglycans antibody for diagnosis and treatment of atherosclerosis.

  18. Inhibition of sphincter of Oddi function by the nitric oxide carrier S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine in rabbits and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Slivka, A; Chuttani, R; Carr-Locke, D L; Kobzik, L; Bredt, D S; Loscalzo, J; Stamler, J S

    1994-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an inhibitor of gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Model systems of the gut predict the NO will complex with biological thiol (SH) groups, yielding S-nitrosothiols (RS-NO), which may limit the propensity to form mutagenic nitrosamines. The inhibitory effects of NO and its biologically relevant adducts on sphincter of Oddi (SO) motility have been inferred from animal studies; however, their importance in regulating human SO is not known. The objectives of this study were to (a) provide histologic confirmation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in human SO; (b) characterize the pharmacology of S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (SNAC), an exemplary S-nitrosothiol, on SO motility in a rabbit model; and (c) study the effects of topical SNAC on SO motility in humans. Immunocytochemical and histochemical identification of NOS was performed in human SO. The pharmacologic response of SNAC was defined in isolated rabbit SO using a standard bioassay. Topical SNAC was then applied to the duodenal papilla in patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and biliary manometry. NOS was localized to nerve fibers and bundles of the SO in rabbits and humans. SNAC inhibited spontaneous motility (frequency and amplitude) as well as acetylcholine-induced elevations in SO basal pressure in the rabbit model. In patients undergoing ERCP and biliary manometry, topical SNAC inhibited SO contraction freqency, basal pressure, and duodenal motility. NOS is localized to neural elements in human SO, implicating a role for NO in regulating SO function. Supporting this concept, SNAC is an inhibitor of SO and duodenal motility when applied topically to humans during ERCP. Our data suggest a novel clinical approach using local NO donors to control gastrointestinal motility and regulate sphincteric function. Images PMID:7525649

  19. A plant-derived human monoclonal antibody induces an anti-carbohydrate immune response in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chunsheng; Altmann, Friedrich; Strasser, Richard; Mach, Lukas; Schähs, Matthias; Kunert, Renate; Rademacher, Thomas; Glössl, Josef; Steinkellner, Herta

    2008-03-01

    A common argument against using plants as a production system for therapeutic proteins is their inability to perform authentic N-glycosylation. A major concern is the presence of beta 1,2-xylose and core alpha 1,3-fucose residues on complex N-glycans as these nonmammalian N-glycan residues may provoke unwanted side effects in humans. In this study we have investigated the potential antigenicity of plant-type N-glycans attached to a human monoclonal antibody (2G12). Using glyco-engineered plant lines as expression hosts, four 2G12 glycoforms differing in the presence/absence of beta 1,2-xylose and core alpha 1,3-fucose were generated. Systemic immunization of rabbits with a xylose and fucose carrying 2G12 glycoform resulted in a humoral immune response to both N-glycan epitopes. Furthermore, IgE immunoblotting with sera derived from allergic patients revealed binding to plant-produced 2G12 carrying core alpha 1,3 fucosylated N-glycan structures. Our results provide evidence for the adverse potential of nonmammalian N-glycan modifications present on monoclonal antibodies produced in plants. This emphasizes the need for the use of glyco-engineered plants lacking any potentially antigenic N-glycan structures for the production of plant-derived recombinant proteins intended for parenteral human application.

  20. A Comparative Study of Carpal Tunnel Compliance in the Human, Dog, Rabbit and Rat

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Wen-Lin; Zhao, Chunfeng; Yoshii, Yuichi; Su, Fong-Chin; An, Kin-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the compliance of the carpal tunnel in candidate animal models of carpal tunnel syndrome, by measuring the resistance when passing a tapered metal rod through the carpal tunnel. Forepaws from ten dogs, ten rabbits and ten rats with intact carpal tunnels and ten fresh frozen human wrist cadavers were used. The slopes of the linear part of the force-displacement curve (a measure of stiffness), normal force and increasing area ratio (InAR) were significantly different among the four species (p<0.05). Post hoc analysis indicated that the mean slopes for the human carpal tunnel were the largest indicating the least compliance, while those of the rat were the least (p<0.05). The features of the compliance for the dog carpal tunnel were closest to the human. The development of animal models of CTS should consider the compliance of the carpal tunnel, as it will be more difficult to increase pressure in a more compliant tunnel. PMID:19918895

  1. Translational Regulation of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E7 mRNA by the Peptide SEQIKA, Shared by Rabbit α1-Globin and Human Cytokeratin 7

    PubMed Central

    Kanduc, Darja

    2002-01-01

    The possible biochemical factors able to affect the in vitro expression of the high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E7 oncoprotein have been analyzed. Evidence is provided that E7 mRNA stability is increased and, conversely, transcript translation is inhibited by binding to a 32-kDa protein from rabbit reticulocyte lysate; sequence analysis identified the 32-kDa binding protein as rabbit α1-globin protein; and interaction between rabbit α1-globin and E7 mRNA occurs through the 6-mer peptide SEQIKA present in human cytokeratin 7 protein. The in vitro data were confirmed by the occurrence of HPV16 E7 mRNA-cytokeratin 7 binding in squamous cervical cancer SiHa cells. PMID:12072504

  2. Bacteria-induced or bacterial product-induced preterm parturition in mice and rabbits is preceded by a significant fall in serum progesterone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Fidel, P I; Romero, R; Maymon, E; Hertelendy, F

    1998-01-01

    Bacterial products are thought to induce labor by stimulating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins in gestational tissues, leading to the onset of preterm parturition. Progesterone withdrawal is a prerequisite of parturition in many species. Yet a role for progesterone in the mechanisms responsible for preterm parturition, in the setting of infection, is unclear. The current studies were conducted to determine if a fall in serum progesterone concentrations occurs before the onset of bacterial product-induced preterm parturition in animals. Accordingly, pregnant mice at day 15 (70% gestation) were injected i.p. with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 50 microg/mouse) and timed-pregnant rabbits were inoculated transcervically with a suspension of E. coli to cause an ascending intrauterine infection. Control animals in both groups received equal volumes of sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution. Blood specimens were collected at regular intervals and serum progesterone levels were determined by RIA. Within 14 h of LPS administration, mice delivered their pups. The median concentrations of serum progesterone were significantly lower at 1 h, 4 h, 10 h, and at the onset of preterm parturition (11-12 h) after LPS injection, compared to that in animals given PBS. Similarly, E. coli-inoculated rabbits delivered 1-2 days posttranscervical inoculation and demonstrated 60% decrease in serum progesterone within 12-24 h of inoculation compared to those given PBS. Parturition in both control groups occurred at term, following typical progesterone withdrawal. It is concluded that LPS administration to pregnant mice and ascending intrauterine infection in pregnant rabbits is associated with a dramatic fall in serum progesterone concentrations prior to the onset of parturition.

  3. Intestinal Microbiota Modulates Gluten-Induced Immunopathology in Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Galipeau, Heather J.; McCarville, Justin L.; Huebener, Sina; Litwin, Owen; Meisel, Marlies; Jabri, Bana; Sanz, Yolanda; Murray, Joseph A.; Jordana, Manel; Alaedini, Armin; Chirdo, Fernando G.; Verdu, Elena F.

    2016-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. The recent increase in CD incidence suggests that additional environmental factors, such as intestinal microbiota alterations, are involved in its pathogenesis. However, there is no direct evidence of modulation of gluten-induced immunopathology by the microbiota. We investigated whether specific microbiota compositions influence immune responses to gluten in mice expressing the human DQ8 gene, which confers moderate CD genetic susceptibility. Germ-free mice, clean specific-pathogen-free (SPF) mice colonized with a microbiota devoid of opportunistic pathogens and Proteobacteria, and conventional SPF mice that harbor a complex microbiota that includes opportunistic pathogens were used. Clean SPF mice had attenuated responses to gluten compared to germ-free and conventional SPF mice. Germ-free mice developed increased intraepithelial lymphocytes, markers of intraepithelial lymphocyte cytotoxicity, gliadin-specific antibodies, and a proinflammatory gliadin-specific T-cell response. Antibiotic treatment, leading to Proteobacteria expansion, further enhanced gluten-induced immunopathology in conventional SPF mice. Protection against gluten-induced immunopathology in clean SPF mice was reversed after supplementation with a member of the Proteobacteria phylum, an enteroadherent Escherichia coli isolated from a CD patient. The intestinal microbiota can both positively and negatively modulate gluten-induced immunopathology in mice. In subjects with moderate genetic susceptibility, intestinal microbiota changes may be a factor that increases CD risk. PMID:26456581

  4. Intestinal microbiota modulates gluten-induced immunopathology in humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Galipeau, Heather J; McCarville, Justin L; Huebener, Sina; Litwin, Owen; Meisel, Marlies; Jabri, Bana; Sanz, Yolanda; Murray, Joseph A; Jordana, Manel; Alaedini, Armin; Chirdo, Fernando G; Verdu, Elena F

    2015-11-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. The recent increase in CD incidence suggests that additional environmental factors, such as intestinal microbiota alterations, are involved in its pathogenesis. However, there is no direct evidence of modulation of gluten-induced immunopathology by the microbiota. We investigated whether specific microbiota compositions influence immune responses to gluten in mice expressing the human DQ8 gene, which confers moderate CD genetic susceptibility. Germ-free mice, clean specific-pathogen-free (SPF) mice colonized with a microbiota devoid of opportunistic pathogens and Proteobacteria, and conventional SPF mice that harbor a complex microbiota that includes opportunistic pathogens were used. Clean SPF mice had attenuated responses to gluten compared to germ-free and conventional SPF mice. Germ-free mice developed increased intraepithelial lymphocytes, markers of intraepithelial lymphocyte cytotoxicity, gliadin-specific antibodies, and a proinflammatory gliadin-specific T-cell response. Antibiotic treatment, leading to Proteobacteria expansion, further enhanced gluten-induced immunopathology in conventional SPF mice. Protection against gluten-induced immunopathology in clean SPF mice was reversed after supplementation with a member of the Proteobacteria phylum, an enteroadherent Escherichia coli isolated from a CD patient. The intestinal microbiota can both positively and negatively modulate gluten-induced immunopathology in mice. In subjects with moderate genetic susceptibility, intestinal microbiota changes may be a factor that increases CD risk.

  5. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for methyl iodide in rats, rabbits, and humans.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Kirman, Christopher R; Gannon, Shawn A; Thrall, Karla D; Gargas, Michael L; Kinzell, John H

    2009-05-01

    Methyl iodide (MeI) has been proposed as an alternative to methyl bromide as a pre-plant soil fumigant that does not deplete stratospheric ozone. In inhalation toxicity studies performed in animals as part of the registration process, three effects have been identified that warrant consideration in developing toxicity reference values for human risk assessment: nasal lesions (rat), acute neurotoxicity (rat), and fetal loss (rabbit). Uncertainties in the risk assessment can be reduced by using an internal measure of target tissue dose that is linked to the likely mode of action (MOA) for the toxicity of MeI, rather than the external exposure concentration. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have been developed for MeI and used to reduce uncertainties in the risk assessment extrapolations (e.g. interspecies, high to low dose, exposure scenario). PBPK model-derived human equivalent concentrations comparable to the animal study NOAELs (no observed adverse effect levels) for the endpoints of interest were developed for a 1-day, 24-hr exposure of bystanders or 8 hr/day exposure of workers. Variability analyses of the PBPK models support application of uncertainty factors (UF) of approximately 2 for intrahuman pharmacokinetic variability for the nasal effects and acute neurotoxicity.

  6. Cryptic Leishmaniosis by Leishmania infantum, a feature of canines only? A study of natural infection in wild rabbits, humans and dogs in southeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Chitimia, L; Muñoz-García, C I; Sánchez-Velasco, D; Lizana, V; Del Río, L; Murcia, L; Fisa, R; Riera, C; Giménez-Font, P; Jiménez-Montalbán, P; Martínez-Ramírez, A; Meseguer-Meseguer, J M; García-Bacete, I; Sánchez-Isarria, M A; Sanchis-Monsonís, G; García-Martínez, J D; Vicente, V; Segovia, M; Berriatua, E

    2011-09-08

    An epidemiological study was carried out to investigate asymptomatic Leishmania infantum infection by PCR and ELISA in wild rabbits, humans and domestic dogs in southeastern Spain. Seroprevalence was 0% (0/36) in rabbits, 2% (13/657) in humans and 7% (14/208) in dogs. The prevalence of PCR-positives was 0.6% (1/162) in rabbits tested in a wide range of tissue samples, 2% (8/392) in humans analysed in blood samples and 10% (20/193) and 67% (29/43) in dogs analysed in blood and lymphoid tissue samples, respectively. Results suggest that wild rabbits have a very low risk of becoming chronically infected with L. infantum, and provide further evidence that cryptic L. infantum infection is widespread in the domestic dog population and is also present in a comparatively smaller proportion of healthy humans. The epidemiological and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Development of the Lacrimal Apparatus in the Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Its Potential Role as an Animal Model for Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rehorek, S. J.; Holland, J. R.; Johnson, J. L.; Caprez, J. M.; Cray, J.; Mooney, M. P.; Hillenius, W. J.; Smith, T. D.

    2011-01-01

    Rabbits have been proposed as a model organism for the human lacrimal apparatus (LA), including the nasolacrimal duct (NLD), based principally on comparative studies of adult morphology; however, little is known about its development. The NLD first appears as an incomplete primordium in the subcutaneous region of the primordial eyelid and subsequently elongates to reach the naris. One posterior and three anterior orbital glands are present fetally although one of the anterior glands is soon lost. The NLD follows a tortuous path and passes through a bony canal consisting of lacrimal, maxilla, and maxilloturbinal bones at different regions. Although early developmental similarities exist to haplorhine primates, the narial opening of the NLD resembles strepsirrhines. This distinction, along with the ductal and glandular differences at the orbital end of the NLD, indicates that rabbits may be a poor model for LA drainage in primates, specifically humans. PMID:22567296

  8. Blood-group-related carbohydrate antigens are expressed on human milk galactosyltransferase and are immunogenic in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Childs, R A; Berger, E G; Thorpe, S J; Aegerter, E; Feizi, T

    1986-01-01

    Immunochemical evidence is presented for the presence of blood-group-related carbohydrate structures on human milk galactosyltransferase and for the occurrence of the corresponding specificities among rabbit antibodies to this enzyme. Although these carbohydrate specificities constitute minor populations among antisera and affinity-purified antibodies to galactosyltransferase, their presence is important in the immunohistochemical approach to enzyme localization, since they give rise to strong reactivities with epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. PMID:2432884

  9. The inhibitory effects of cannabinoids, the active constituents of Cannabis sativa L. on human and rabbit platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Formukong, E A; Evans, A T; Evans, F J

    1989-10-01

    Olivetol, cannabigerol (CBG), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN) and tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 1-THC) were assessed for their ability to inhibit agonist-induced platelet aggregation and [14C]5-HT release. With the exception of olivetol, (40% maximal effectiveness), none of the compounds inhibited tetradecanoylphorbolacetate (TPA)-induced aggregation of human or rabbit platelets. All of these cannabinoids partially inhibited primary aggregation and totally inhibited secondary aggregation of human platelets when adrenaline was used as the agonist. Inhibition was dose-dependent over the range 10(-3)-10(-5) M. Both rabbit and human platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner and the order of potency was CBG greater than CBD greater than olivetol greater than THC greater than CBN, the IC50 of CBG being 2.7 x 10(-4) M. PAF-induced aggregation of rabbit platelets was also inhibited by these compounds in a dose-dependent manner over the concentration range 10(-3) to 10(-4) M, however [14C]5-HT release was only partially prevented by the cannabinoids in a manner which did not correlate with inhibition of aggregation.

  10. Heterotransplantation of human craniopharyngiomas in athymic "nude" mice.

    PubMed

    Bullard, D E; Bigner, D D

    1979-04-01

    Surgical biopsies from 2 human craniopharyngiomas were transplanted subcutaneously into 6 athymic "nude" mice. Morphologically characteristic craniopharyngiomas grew in 5 of these animals. In 4 animals growth was sufficient to allow transplantation into a second generation of animals. In all, 11 craniopharyngiomas were present at autopsy in the 14 animals into which the tumors had been transplanted. The tumors that grew in the animals had the same adamantinomatous architecture, epithelial nests, and keratinized nodules that were present in the original surgical sample and that are characteristic of human craniopharyngiomas. It may be possible to study growth characteristics and therapeutic sensitivities of human craniopharygniomas growing in "nude" mice.

  11. Mice Expressing RHAG and RHD Human Blood Group Genes

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Dominique; da Silva, Nelly; Metral, Sylvain; Cortes, Ulrich; Callebaut, Isabelle; Picot, Julien; Mouro-Chanteloup, Isabelle; Cartron, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Anti-RhD prophylaxis of haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is highly effective, but as the suppressive mechanism remains uncertain, a mouse model would be of interest. Here we have generated transgenic mice expressing human RhAG and RhD erythrocyte membrane proteins in the presence and, for human RhAG, in the absence, of mouse Rhag. Human RhAG associates with mouse Rh but not mouse Rhag on red blood cells. In Rhag knockout mice transgenic for human RHAG, the mouse Rh protein is “rescued” (re-expressed), and co-immunoprecipitates with human RhAG, indicating the presence of hetero-complexes which associate mouse and human proteins. RhD antigen was expressed from a human RHD gene on a BAC or from RHD cDNA under control of β-globin regulatory elements. RhD was never observed alone, strongly indicative that its expression absolutely depends on the presence of transgenic human RhAG. This first expression of RhD in mice is an important step in the creation of a mouse model of RhD allo-immunisation and HDFN, in conjunction with the Rh-Rhag knockout mice we have developed previously. PMID:24260394

  12. Acute lung injury after tracheal instillation of acidified soya-based or Enfalac formula or human breast milk in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Chin, C; Lerman, J; Endo, J

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the severity of the acute lung injury after tracheal instillation of acidified soya-based or Enfalac infant formula, or human breast milk (HBM) in anesthetized rabbits. Alveolar-arterial oxygen tension gradient (A-aDO2) and dynamic compliance were measured before (baseline) and hourly for four hours after tracheal instillation of 0.8 ml x kg(-1) soya-based or Enfalac infant formula or HBM (all acidified to pH 1.8 with hydrochloric acid) or no fluid (control) in 24 anesthetized and tracheotomized adult rabbits. The A-aDO2, the difference between alveolar and arterial oxygen tensions, was corrected for barometric pressure and carbon dioxide tension. Dynamic compliance was the ratio of the expired tidal volume to the peak inspiratory airway pressure, normalized to body weight. Baseline A-aDO2 and dynamic compliance were similar among the four groups. In the control rabbits, A-aDO2 remained unchanged throughout the four hours, whereas mean A-aDO2 increased 180 mm Hg in the soya-based group (P < 0.0025) and 350 and 275 mm Hg in the Enfalac and HBM groups respectively (P < 0.0002). The order of the A-aDO2 post-instillation was Enfalac approximately/= HBM > soya > control (P < 0.0002). Dynamic compliance decreased 10-12% in the control rabbits during the four post-instillation measurements compared with baseline (P < 0.033), decreased 20% in the soya-based group (P < 0.0002) and 40-50% in the Enfalac and HBM groups (P < 0.0002). The severity of the acute lung injury after intratracheal instillation of infant feeds in a volume of 0.8 ml x kg(-1) and at pH 1.8 in rabbits depends in part, on the type of feed: Enfalac approximately/= HBM > soya > control.

  13. Serological, biological, and molecular characterization of New Zealand white rabbits infected by intraperitoneal inoculation with cell-free human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Reina, S; Markham, P; Gard, E; Rayed, F; Reitz, M; Gallo, R C; Varnier, O E

    1993-01-01

    The availability of a small laboratory animal model suitable for the evaluation of methods for prevention and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection would be a valuable resource for AIDS research. Here we describe the infection of a strain of domestic rabbits by intraperitoneal inoculation with cell-free human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Evidence of infection includes the presence of an immune response that has persisted for almost 3 years and the detection of an reisolation of infectious virus from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and other tissues during the first 2 years. Typical viral proteins, DNA and RNA patterns, were observed in rabbit PBMCs and in cells infected by cocultivation with rabbit PBMCs. While a number of possible pathological changes were evaluated in infected rabbits, the presence of changes in lymph node structure similar to those reported in infected humans merits further investigation. Images PMID:7688823

  14. Verapamil as an antiarrhythmic agent in congestive heart failure: hopping from rabbit to human?

    PubMed Central

    Stams, Thom RG; Bourgonje, Vincent JA; Vos, Marc A; van der Heyden, Marcel AG

    2012-01-01

    Repolarization-dependent cardiac arrhythmias only arise in hearts facing multiple ‘challenges’ affecting its so-called repolarization reserve. Congestive heart failure (CHF) is one such challenge frequently observed in humans and is accompanied by altered calcium handling within the contractile heart cell. This raises the question as to whether or not the well-known calcium channel antagonist verapamil acts as an antiarrhythmic drug in this setting, as seen in arrhythmia models without CHF. According to the study of Milberg et al. in this issue of BJP, the answer is yes. The results of this study, using a rabbit CHF model, raise important questions. First, given that the model combines CHF with a number of other interventions that predispose towards arrhythmia, will similar conclusions be reached in a setting where CHF is a more prominent proarrhythmic challenge; second, what is the extent to which other effects of calcium channel block would limit the clinical viability of this pharmacological approach in CHF? In vivo studies in large animal CHF models are now required to further explore this interesting, but complex, approach to the treatment of arrhythmia. LINKED ARTICLE This article is a commentary on Milberg et al., pp. 557–568 of this issue. To view this paper visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01721.x PMID:22188337

  15. Stretchable, multiplexed pH sensors with demonstrations on rabbit and human hearts undergoing ischemia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyun-Joong; Sulkin, Matthew S; Kim, Jong-Seon; Goudeseune, Camille; Chao, Hsin-Yun; Song, Joseph W; Yang, Sang Yoon; Hsu, Yung-Yu; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Efimov, Igor R; Rogers, John A

    2014-01-01

    Stable pH is an established biomarker of health, relevant to all tissues of the body, including the heart. Clinical monitoring of pH in a practical manner, with high spatiotemporal resolution, is particularly difficult in organs such as the heart due to its soft mechanics, curvilinear geometry, heterogeneous surfaces, and continuous, complex rhythmic motion. The results presented here illustrate that advanced strategies in materials assembly and electrochemical growth can yield interconnected arrays of miniaturized IrOx pH sensors encapsulated in thin, low-modulus elastomers to yield conformal monitoring systems capable of noninvasive measurements on the surface of the beating heart. A thirty channel custom data acquisition system enables spatiotemporal pH mapping with a single potentiostat. In vitro testing reveals super-Nernstian sensitivity with excellent uniformity (69.9 ± 2.2 mV/pH), linear response to temperature (-1.6 mV °C(-1) ), and minimal influence of extracellular ions (<3.5 mV). Device examples include sensor arrays on balloon catheters and on skin-like stretchable membranes. Real-time measurement of pH on the surfaces of explanted rabbit hearts and a donated human heart during protocols of ischemia-reperfusion illustrate some of the capabilities. Envisioned applications range from devices for biological research, to surgical tools and long-term implants.

  16. Semisolid formulations containing cetirizine: human skin permeation and topical antihistaminic evaluation in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Ciurlizza, Claudia; Fernández, Francisco; Calpena, Ana Cristina; Lázaro, Raquel; Parra, Alexander; Clares, Beatriz

    2014-10-01

    Cetirizine dihydrochloride (CTZ) is a second-generation histamine H1 antagonist, effective for the treatment of a wide range of allergic diseases. It has been utilized for managing the symptoms of chronic urticaria and atopic skin conditions. Thus, two novel semisolid formulations, nanoemulsion (NE) and hydrogel (HG) were developed to study their potential utility as vehicles including cetirizine (CTZ) and evaluate the potential use as topical H1-antihistamines agents. The physicochemical and stability properties of both vehicles were tested. Drug release kinetics and human skin permeation studies were performed using Franz cells. The antihistaminic activity was assayed in New Zealand rabbits and compared with two commercial first generation antihistamines. Both formulations were stable and provided a sustained drug release. Amounts of CTZ remaining in the skin were higher for HG, showing the maximum biological effect at 30 min, similar to topical first generation H1-antihistamines commercially available. These results suggest that CTZ-HG could be a promising system for the treatment of topical allergy bringing rapid antihistaminic relief.

  17. Recombinant expression of human nerve growth factor beta in rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Bo-Sheng; Lou, Ji-Yu

    2010-12-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is required for the differentiation and maintenance of sympathetic and sensory neurons. In the present study, the recombinant expression of human nerve growth factor beta (hNGF-β) gene in rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) was undertaken. Recombinant vector containing hNGF-β was constructed and transferred into rMSCs, the expressions of the exogenous in rMSCs were determined by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), ELISA and Western blot, whereas the biological activity of recombinant hNGF-β was confirmed using PC12 cells and cultures of dorsal root ganglion neurons from chicken embryos. The results showed that the hNGF-β gene expressed successfully in the rMSCs, a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 13.2 kDa was detected. The maximal expression level of recombinant hNGF-β in rMSCs reached 126.8012 pg/10(6) cells, the mean concentration was 96.4473 pg/10(6) cells. The recombinant hNGF-β in the rMSCs showed full biological activity when compared to commercial recombinant hNGF-β.

  18. Volume regulatory potassium transport in rabbit and human sickle erythrocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Rohil, N.S.

    1988-01-01

    One approach to the therapy of sickle cell anemia is to decrease the hemoglobin concentration by inducing a slight swelling of the cell to retard the rate of hemoglobin polymerization. We found that a prolonged incubation of rabbit or human SS red cell in hypotonic medium caused an inactivation of the inactivation of swelling-stimulated potassium transport. The inactivation may have important practical consequences for the therapy of sickle cell anemia. Large cytoskeleton-free vesicles were prepared in order to study the possible role of the spectrin-actin membrane skeleton in the swelling-stimulated and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)-stimulated transport. NEM pretreatment stimulated {sup 86}Rb efflux in vesicles by a factor of 2.4 + 0.55 (mean {plus minus} S.D.). The NEM effect on {sup 86}Rb efflux was specific in that the {sup 22}Na efflux into a Na medium was not stimulated but actually inhibited. The {sup 86}Rb efflux from the vesicles was not stimulated by hypotonic media. This finding is consistent with a role of the membrane skeleton in the detection and/or transduction of the signal by which cell swelling activates the transport.

  19. Characterization of the rabbit homolog of human MUC1 glycoprotein isolated from bladder by affinity chromatography on immobilized jacalin.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, T; Xin, P; Buckley, M S; Erickson, D R; Bhavanandan, V P

    2000-07-01

    The urinary bladder is lined by transitional epithelium, the glycocalyx on the luminal surface has interesting properties and is implicated in protective functions. Glycoconjugates are major components of the glycocalyx, but their biochemical nature is not well understood. Previous studies on rabbit bladder indicated the presence of significant levels of sialoglycoproteins compared to glycosaminoglycans in the epithelium. In this study, rabbit explant cultures were radiolabeled by precursor sugars or amino acids and a major lectin-reactive glycoprotein of rabbit bladder mucosa was isolated by affinity chromatography on jacalin-agarose. The radiolabeled glycoprotein was purified to homogeneity by a second cycle on the lectin column, followed by gel filtration and density gradient centrifugation. The average molecular mass of the glycoprotein was estimated to be 245 kDa and 210 kDa by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE, respectively. Its buoyant density was 1.40 g/ml, suggesting a carbohydrate content of approximately 50%. The percent distribution of glucosamine-derived tritium label in sialic acid, galactosamine, and glucosamine was 30, 52, and 18, respectively. The glycoprotein consisted entirely of small sialylated and neutral oligosaccharides O-glycosidically linked to serine and threonine residues. The same glycoprotein could be immunoprecipitated with an antibody against the carboxy terminal 17 amino acid peptide of human MUC1 mucin glycoprotein. This suggests that this mucin glycoprotein is the rabbit homolog of MUC1 glycoprotein, which has been previously established to be a component of human bladder urothelium and has been purified from human urine and biochemically characterized.

  20. Genetic Analysis of Daily Activity in Humans and Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of the technical developments that have made such genetic dissections a productive force in the mouse , have, when combined with innovations in...and Mice AFOSR grant F49620-97-1-0321 Joseph S. Takahashi Dept. of Neurobiology & Physiology Northwestern University 2153 North Campus Dr. Evanston...Activity in Humans and Mice Unclassified 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Takahashi, Joseph S. ; 5f. WORK

  1. Human Bone Derived Collagen for the Development of an Artificial Corneal Endothelial Graft. In Vivo Results in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Natalia; Chacón, Manuel; Rodríguez-Barrientos, Carlos A.; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Naveiras, Miguel; Baamonde, Begoña; Alfonso, Jose F.; Zambrano-Andazol, Iriana; Riestra, Ana C.; Meana, Álvaro

    2016-01-01

    Corneal keratoplasty (penetrating or lamellar) using cadaveric human tissue, is nowadays the main treatment for corneal endotelial dysfunctions. However, there is a worldwide shortage of donor corneas available for transplantation and about 53% of the world’s population have no access to corneal transplantation. Generating a complete cornea by tissue engineering is still a tough goal, but an endothelial lamellar graft might be an easier task. In this study, we developed a tissue engineered corneal endothelium by culturing human corneal endothelial cells on a human purified type I collagen membrane. Human corneal endothelial cells were cultured from corneal rims after corneal penetrating keratoplasty and type I collagen was isolated from remnant cancellous bone chips. Isolated type I collagen was analyzed by western blot, liquid chromatography -mass spectrometry and quantified using the exponentially modified protein abundance index. Later on, collagen solution was casted at room temperature obtaining an optically transparent and mechanically manageable membrane that supports the growth of human and rabbit corneal endothelial cells which expressed characteristic markers of corneal endothelium: zonula ocluddens-1 and Na+/K+ ATPase. To evaluate the therapeutic efficiency of our artificial endothelial grafts, human purified type I collagen membranes cultured with rabbit corneal endothelial cells were transplanted in New Zealand white rabbits that were kept under a minimal immunosuppression regimen. Transplanted corneas maintained transparency for as long as 6 weeks without obvious edema or immune rejection and maintaining the same endothelial markers that in a healthy cornea. In conclusion, it is possible to develop an artificial human corneal endothelial graft using remnant tissues that are not employed in transplant procedures. This artificial endothelial graft can restore the integrality of corneal endothelium in an experimental model of endothelial dysfunction

  2. Prostaglandin E1 inhibits collagenase gene expression in rabbit synoviocytes and human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Salvatori, R; Guidon, P T; Rapuano, B E; Bockman, R S

    1992-07-01

    Cartilage breakdown, as seen in inflammatory and degenerative joint diseases, can be mediated by proteolytic enzymes, such as the metalloproteinase collagenase, the only enzyme able to digest collagen at neutral pH. In vitro collagenase gene expression can be stimulated by the phorbol ester tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate. We have investigated the effect of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) on 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate-stimulated collagenase mRNA levels in the rabbit synoviocyte cell line HIG-82. PGE1, but not PGE2 or PGF2 alpha, was able to selectively reduce collagenase mRNA levels in a dose-dependent fashion. PGE1 markedly increased intracellular levels of cAMP, while PGE2 and PGF2 alpha had little or no effect on cAMP production in the HIG-82 synoviocytes. Agents known to increase intracellular cAMP levels, such as the adenyl cyclase activator forskolin and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), mimicked the effect of PGE1, on collagenase mRNA levels. PGE1, forskolin, and IBMX also decreased collagenase mRNA levels in human skin fibroblasts, demonstrating that this observation was not unique to the HIG-82 cell line. Transient transfection experiments carried out in HIG-82 cells using a 1.2-kilobase portion of the 5'-flanking region of the human collagenase gene linked to the reporter gene luciferase demonstrated that PGE1, forskolin, and IBMX exert their inhibitory effect on the promoter region of the collagenase gene.

  3. Pet rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, E V

    1994-01-01

    Pet rabbits are becoming more common, and rabbit owners are demanding quality veterinary care. This article provides a broad overview of pet rabbit medicine, which is a relatively new field compared to laboratory and farm rabbit medicine. The most common differential diagnoses for presenting complaints are summarized in table form. Disease conditions are reviewed individually in the text. Sources of further information on veterinary care of rabbits are listed throughout the text, in an appendix, and in the references.

  4. Transfection of the Human Heme Oxygenase Gene Into Rabbit Coronary Microvessel Endothelial Cells: Protective Effect Against Heme and Hemoglobin Toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, N. G.; Lavrovsky, Y.; Schwartzman, M. L.; Stoltz, R. A.; Levere, R. D.; Gerritsen, M. E.

    1995-07-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) is a stress protein and has been suggested to participate in defense mechanisms against agents that may induce oxidative injury such as metals, endotoxin, heme/hemoglobin, and various cytokines. Overexpression of HO in cells might therefore protect against oxidative stress produced by certain of these agents, specifically heme and hemoglobin, by catalyzing their degradation to bilirubin, which itself has antioxidant properties. We report here the successful in vitro transfection of rabbit coronary microvessel endothelial cells with a functioning gene encoding the human HO enzyme. A plasmid containing the cytomegalovirus promoter and the human HO cDNA complexed to cationic liposomes (Lipofectin) was used to transfect rabbit endothelial cells. Cells transfected with human HO exhibited an ≈3.0-fold increase in enzyme activity and expressed a severalfold induction of human HO mRNA as compared with endogenous rabbit HO mRNA. Transfected and nontransfected cells expressed factor VIII antigen and exhibited similar acetylated low-density lipoprotein uptake (two important features that characterize endothelial cells) with >85% of cells staining positive for each marker. Moreover, cells transfected with the human HO gene acquired substantial resistance to toxicity produced by exposure to recombinant hemoglobin and heme as compared with nontransfected cells. The protective effect of HO overexpression against heme/hemoglobin toxicity in endothelial cells shown in these studies provides direct evidence that the inductive response of human HO to such injurious stimuli represents an important tissue adaptive mechanism for moderating the severity of cell damage produced by these blood components.

  5. Acute Radiation Hypotension in the Rabbit: a Model for the Human Radiation Shock Syndrome.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makale, Milan Theodore

    This study has shown that total body irradiation (TBI) of immature (40 to 100 day old) rabbits leads to an acute fall in mean arterial pressure (MAP) 30 to 90 minutes after exposure, which takes no more than about three minutes, and often results in pressures which are less than 50% of the lowest pre-exposure MAP. This is termed acute cardiovascular collapse (ACC). ACC is often accompanied by ECG T-wave elevation, a sharp rise in ear temperature, labored breathing, pupillary constriction, bladder emptying, and loss of abdominal muscle tone. About 73% of 40 to 100 day rabbits exhibit ACC; the others and most older rabbits display gradual pressure reductions (deliberate hypotension) which may be profound, and which may be accompanied by the same changes associated with ACC. ACC and deliberate hypotension occurred in rabbits cannulated in the dorsal aorta, and in non-operated animals. The decline in MAP for all 40 to 100 day cannulated rabbits (deliberate and ACC responders) is 55.4%. The experiments described below only involved 40 to 100 day cannulated TBI rabbits. Heart region irradiation resulted in an average MAP decline of 29.1%, with 1/15 rabbits showing ACC. Heart shielding during TBI reduced the decline in MAP to 19%, with 1/10 rabbits experiencing ACC. These results imply that the heart region, which includes the heart, part of the lungs, neural receptors, roots of the systemic vessels, and the blood, is a sensitive target. Bilateral vagotomy reduced the decline in MAP to 24.9%, and abolished ACC. Atropine (6 mg/kg) reduced the frequency of ACC to 26%, and the decline in MAP to 41.4%. In 11/13 rabbits the voltage generated by left vagal transmission rose after TBI. The vagi appear to participate in radiation hypotension. Heart shielding together with bilateral vagotomy reduced the decline in MAP to only 9.9%, with no ACC responders. The mean right ventricular pressure (MRVP) rose after TBI in 8/10 rabbits. In animals which displayed either ACC or steep

  6. Laying the foundations for a human-predator conflict solution: assessing the impact of Bonelli's eagle on rabbits and partridges.

    PubMed

    Moleón, Marcos; Sánchez-Zapata, José A; Gil-Sánchez, José M; Barea-Azcón, José M; Ballesteros-Duperón, Elena; Virgós, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Predation may potentially lead to negative effects on both prey (directly via predators) and predators (indirectly via human persecution). Predation pressure studies are, therefore, of major interest in the fields of theoretical knowledge and conservation of prey or predator species, with wide ramifications and profound implications in human-wildlife conflicts. However, detailed works on this issue in highly valuable--in conservation terms--Mediterranean ecosystems are virtually absent. This paper explores the predator-hunting conflict by examining a paradigmatic, Mediterranean-wide (endangered) predator-two prey (small game) system. We estimated the predation impact ('kill rate' and 'predation rate', i.e., number of prey and proportion of the prey population eaten, respectively) of Bonelli's eagle Aquila fasciata on rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa populations in two seasons (the eagle's breeding and non-breeding periods, 100 days each) in SE Spain. The mean estimated kill rate by the seven eagle reproductive units in the study area was c. 304 rabbits and c. 262 partridges in the breeding season, and c. 237 rabbits and c. 121 partridges in the non-breeding period. This resulted in very low predation rates (range: 0.3-2.5%) for both prey and seasons. The potential role of Bonelli's eagles as a limiting factor for rabbits and partridges at the population scale was very poor. The conflict between game profitability and conservation interest of either prey or predators is apparently very localised, and eagles, quarry species and game interests seem compatible in most of the study area. Currently, both the persecution and negative perception of Bonelli's eagle (the 'partridge-eating eagle' in Spanish) have a null theoretical basis in most of this area.

  7. Laying the Foundations for a Human-Predator Conflict Solution: Assessing the Impact of Bonelli's Eagle on Rabbits and Partridges

    PubMed Central

    Moleón, Marcos; Sánchez-Zapata, José A.; Gil-Sánchez, José M.; Barea-Azcón, José M.; Ballesteros-Duperón, Elena; Virgós, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Background Predation may potentially lead to negative effects on both prey (directly via predators) and predators (indirectly via human persecution). Predation pressure studies are, therefore, of major interest in the fields of theoretical knowledge and conservation of prey or predator species, with wide ramifications and profound implications in human-wildlife conflicts. However, detailed works on this issue in highly valuable –in conservation terms– Mediterranean ecosystems are virtually absent. This paper explores the predator-hunting conflict by examining a paradigmatic, Mediterranean-wide (endangered) predator-two prey (small game) system. Methodology/Principal Findings We estimated the predation impact (‘kill rate’ and ‘predation rate’, i.e., number of prey and proportion of the prey population eaten, respectively) of Bonelli's eagle Aquila fasciata on rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa populations in two seasons (the eagle's breeding and non-breeding periods, 100 days each) in SE Spain. The mean estimated kill rate by the seven eagle reproductive units in the study area was c. 304 rabbits and c. 262 partridges in the breeding season, and c. 237 rabbits and c. 121 partridges in the non-breeding period. This resulted in very low predation rates (range: 0.3–2.5%) for both prey and seasons. Conclusions/Significance The potential role of Bonelli's eagles as a limiting factor for rabbits and partridges at the population scale was very poor. The conflict between game profitability and conservation interest of either prey or predators is apparently very localised, and eagles, quarry species and game interests seem compatible in most of the study area. Currently, both the persecution and negative perception of Bonelli's eagle (the ‘partridge-eating eagle’ in Spanish) have a null theoretical basis in most of this area. PMID:21818399

  8. The flavonols quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, and galangin inhibit the net oxygen consumption by immune complex-stimulated human and rabbit neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-Rinhel, Andréa S G; Santos, Everton O L; Kabeya, Luciana M; Azzolini, Ana Elisa C S; Simões-Ambrosio, Livia M C; Lucisano-Valim, Yara M

    2014-01-01

    Stimulated human neutrophils exhibit increased net oxygen consumption (NOC) due to the conversion of O2 into the superoxide anion by the NADPH oxidase enzymatic complex during the respiratory burst. In several inflammatory diseases, overproduction of these oxidants causes tissue damage. The present study aims to: (a) optimize the experimental conditions used to measure the NOC in serum-opsonized zymosan (OZ)- and insoluble immune complex (i-IC)-stimulated human and rabbit neutrophils; and (b) compare the effect of four flavonols (quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, and galangin) on this activity. We used a Clark-type oxygen electrode to measure the NOC of stimulated neutrophils. Eliciting the neutrophil respiratory burst with OZ and i-IC yielded similar maximum O2 uptake levels within the same species, but the human neutrophil NOC was almost four times higher than the rabbit neutrophil NOC. The optimal experimental conditions established for both cell types were 4 x 10(6) neutrophils mL(-1), 2 mg mL(-1) OZ, and 240 microg mL(-1) i-IC. Upon stimulation with OZ or i-IC, the tested flavonols reduced the human and rabbit neutrophil NOC in the same order of potency--quercetin and galangin were the most and the least potent, respectively. These compounds were around four times more effective in inhibiting the rabbit as compared to the human neutrophil NOC, respectively. The four flavonols were not toxic to human or rabbit neutrophils. The experimental conditions used are suitable for both the determination of human and rabbit neutrophil NOC and for the assessment of the modulatory effects of natural compounds on these activities. The relationship between the level of NOC and the inhibitory potency of the flavonols suggests that rabbit neutrophils can be useful experimental models to predict the effect of drugs on immune complex-stimulated human neutrophils.

  9. The Immunologic Injury Composite with Balloon Injury Leads to Dyslipidemia: A Robust Rabbit Model of Human Atherosclerosis and Vulnerable Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guangyin; Li, Ming; Li, Liangjun; Xu, Yingzhi; Li, Peng; Yang, Cui; Zhou, Yanan; Zhang, Junping

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a condition in which a lipid deposition, thrombus formation, immune cell infiltration, and a chronic inflammatory response, but its systemic study has been hampered by the lack of suitable animal models, especially in herbalism fields. We have tried to perform a perfect animal model that completely replicates the stages of human atherosclerosis. This is the first combined study about the immunologic injury and balloon injury based on the cholesterol diet. In this study, we developed a modified protocol of the white rabbit model that could represent a novel approach to studying human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque. PMID:22988422

  10. Propagating Humanized BLT Mice for the Study of Human Immunology and Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Drake J; Lin, Levina J; Moon, Heesung; Pham, Alexander T; Wang, Xi; Liu, Siyuan; Ji, Sunjong; Rezek, Valerie; Shimizu, Saki; Ruiz, Marlene; Lam, Jennifer; Janzen, Deanna M; Memarzadeh, Sanaz; Kohn, Donald B; Zack, Jerome A; Kitchen, Scott G; An, Dong Sung; Yang, Lili

    2016-12-15

    The humanized bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) mouse model harbors a nearly complete human immune system, therefore providing a powerful tool to study human immunology and immunotherapy. However, its application is greatly limited by the restricted supply of human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells and fetal thymus tissues that are needed to generate these mice. The restriction is especially significant for the study of human immune systems with special genetic traits, such as certain human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes or monogene deficiencies. To circumvent this critical limitation, we have developed a method to quickly propagate established BLT mice. Through secondary transfer of bone marrow cells and human thymus implants from BLT mice into NSG (NOD/SCID/IL-2Rγ(-/-)) recipient mice, we were able to expand one primary BLT mouse into a colony of 4-5 proBLT (propagated BLT) mice in 6-8 weeks. These proBLT mice reconstituted human immune cells, including T cells, at levels comparable to those of their primary BLT donor mouse. They also faithfully inherited the human immune cell genetic traits from their donor BLT mouse, such as the HLA-A2 haplotype that is of special interest for studying HLA-A2-restricted human T cell immunotherapies. Moreover, an EGFP reporter gene engineered into the human immune system was stably passed from BLT to proBLT mice, making proBLT mice suitable for studying human immune cell gene therapy. This method provides an opportunity to overcome a critical hurdle to utilizing the BLT humanized mouse model and enables its more widespread use as a valuable preclinical research tool.

  11. Lymphatic drainage of the skull base: comparative anatomic and advanced imaging studies in the rabbit and human with implications for spread of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qiuhang, Z; Zhenlin, W; Yan, Q; Jun, H; Yongfeng, S; Bo, H

    2010-09-01

    This preliminary study investigated the lymphatic drainage and distribution of lymphatic structures in the skull base. Characteristics of the rabbit skull base were analyzed and compared correspondingly with those of the human skull. The lymphatic circulation in the rabbit cranial base was detected by digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and lymph drainage in the human skull base was illustrated by interstitial magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL). Lymphatic structures and their distribution in MRL were identified by comparing with contrast-enhanced MRI and clinical data on basilar metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the human skull base. Anatomic similarity was found between the rabbit and human basilar regions. Well-visualized lymphatic pathways were found in the rabbit cranial base, and human lymphatic structures showed high signal intensity in enhanced T1-weighted MRL images. Lymphatic tissues in the human basilar region were found mainly distributed in the areas of the jugular foramen, foramen lacerum, and petrosal section of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Their distribution in the human basilar region was similar to the distribution in the rabbit basilar region and consistent with our clinical findings of the predilection sites of NPC metastasis in the skull base. Our studies show that bilateral symmetrical lymphatic structures were distributed along the ICA, internal jugular vein, and dura of cranial base in the central part of the middle and posterior skull base.

  12. [Generation of transgenic mice expressing human lysozyme in mammary gland].

    PubMed

    Yan, Hua; Li, Guo-cai; Sun, Huai-chang

    2005-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of generating animal mammary gland bioreactors expressing human lysozyme (hLYZ). The recombinant vector p205C3-hLYZ, as a result of connecting the hLYZ cDNA with the mammry gland expression vector p205C3, was used to generate transfer genic mice by microinjection. A total of 136 F0 mice were obtained, of which 7 (2 females and 5 males) and 4 (1 females and 3 males) were found to contain the transfer-gene by PCR and Southern blotting respectively. The results of Western blotting indicated that the expressed protein had the same molecular weight as that of normal hLYZ. From the F1 generation on, the mice mated only with their brothers or sisters and a colony of F7 transgenic mice was obtained. Among the offspring, the female transgenic mice maintained and expressed the transfer-gene stably with an expression level as high as 750 mg/L. The expressed protein had strong tissue specificity, and in addition to the mammary glands, some degree of ectropic expression in the spleens and intestines of the transgenic mice was confirmed by dot blotting assay. These data indicate that the mice mammary gland bioreactors expressing hLYZ have been successfully generated.

  13. Metabolism of intravenous methylnaltrexone in mice, rats, dogs, and humans.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Appavu; Tong, Zeen; Li, Hongshan; Erve, John C L; DeMaio, William; Goljer, Igor; McConnell, Oliver; Rotshteyn, Yakov; Hultin, Theresa; Talaat, Rasmy; Scatina, JoAnn

    2010-04-01

    Methylnaltrexone (MNTX), a selective mu-opioid receptor antagonist, functions as a peripherally acting receptor antagonist in tissues of the gastrointestinal tract. This report describes the metabolic fate of [(3)H]MNTX or [(14)C]MNTX bromide in mice, rats, dogs, and humans after intravenous administration. Separation and identification of plasma and urinary MNTX metabolites was achieved by high-performance liquid chromatography-radioactivity detection and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The structures of the most abundant human metabolites were confirmed by chemical synthesis and NMR spectroscopic analysis. Analysis of radioactivity in plasma and urine showed that MNTX underwent two major pathways of metabolism in humans: sulfation of the phenolic group to MNTX-3-sulfate (M2) and reduction of the carbonyl group to two epimeric alcohols, methyl-6alpha-naltrexol (M4) and methyl-6beta-naltrexol (M5). Neither naltrexone nor its metabolite 6beta-naltrexol were detected in human plasma after administration of MNTX, confirming an earlier observation that N-demethylation was not a metabolic pathway of MNTX in humans. The urinary metabolite profiles in humans were consistent with plasma profiles. In mice, the circulating and urinary metabolites included M5, MNTX-3-glucuronide (M9), 2-hydroxy-3-O-methyl MNTX (M6), and its glucuronide (M10). M2, M5, M6, and M9 were observed in rats. Dogs produced only one metabolite, M9. In conclusion, MNTX was not extensively metabolized in humans. Conversion to methyl-6-naltrexol isomers (M4 and M5) and M2 were the primary pathways of metabolism in humans. MNTX was metabolized to a higher extent in mice than in rats, dogs, and humans. Glucuronidation was a major metabolic pathway in mice, rats, and dogs, but not in humans. Overall, the data suggested species differences in the metabolism of MNTX.

  14. Steroid metabolism in chimeric mice with humanized liver.

    PubMed

    Lootens, Leen; Van Eenoo, Peter; Meuleman, Philip; Pozo, Oscar J; Van Renterghem, Pieter; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Delbeke, Frans T

    2009-11-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids are considered to be doping agents and are prohibited in sports. Their metabolism needs to be elucidated to allow for urinary detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Steroid metabolism was assessed using uPA(+/+) SCID mice with humanized livers (chimeric mice). This study presents the results of 19-norandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione (19-norAD) administration to these in vivo mice. As in humans, 19-norandrosterone and 19-noretiocholanolone are the major detectable metabolites of 19-norAD in the urine of chimeric mice.A summary is given of the metabolic pathways found in chimeric mice after administration of three model steroid compounds (methandienone, androst-4-ene-3,17-dione and 19-norandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione). From these studies we can conclude that all major metabolic pathways for anabolic steroids in humans are present in the chimeric mouse. It is hoped that, in future, this promising chimeric mouse model might assist the discovery of new and possible longer detectable metabolites of (designer) steroids.

  15. Modeling cognition and disease using human glial chimeric mice.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Steven A; Nedergaard, Maiken; Windrem, Martha S

    2015-08-01

    As new methods for producing and isolating human glial progenitor cells (hGPCs) have been developed, the disorders of myelin have become especially compelling targets for cell-based therapy. Yet as animal modeling of glial progenitor cell-based therapies has progressed, it has become clear that transplanted hGPCs not only engraft and expand within murine hosts, but dynamically outcompete the resident progenitors so as to ultimately dominate the host brain. The engrafted human progenitor cells proceed to generate parenchymal astrocytes, and when faced with a hypomyelinated environment, oligodendrocytes as well. As a result, the recipient brains may become inexorably humanized with regards to their resident glial populations, yielding human glial chimeric mouse brains. These brains provide us a fundamentally new tool by which to assess the species-specific attributes of glia in modulating human cognition and information processing. In addition, the cellular humanization of these brains permits their use in studying glial infectious and inflammatory disorders unique to humans, and the effects of those disorders on the glial contributions to cognition. Perhaps most intriguingly, by pairing our ability to construct human glial chimeras with the production of patient-specific hGPCs derived from pluripotential stem cells, we may now establish mice in which a substantial proportion of resident glia are both human and disease-derived. These mice in particular may provide us new opportunities for studying the human-specific contributions of glia to psychopathology, as well as to higher cognition. As such, the assessment of human glial chimeric mice may provide us new insight into the species-specific contributions of glia to human cognitive evolution, as well as to the pathogenesis of human neurological and neuropsychiatric disease.

  16. STUDIES ON THE ANTIBODIES IN RABBIT ANTISERA RESPONSIBLE FOR SENSITIZATION OF HUMAN SKIN

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, John H.; Kabat, Elvin A.

    1953-01-01

    The capacity of rabbit anti-egg albumin sera to sensitize human skin has been studied. It has been shown that passive transfer by these sera is completely unrelated to the egg albumin-anti-egg albumin system, as demonstrated by a failure of passive transfer by some antisera containing ample anti-egg albumin and persistence of passive transfer in other antisera from which all anti-egg albumin had been removed by precipitation with homologous antigen. Three preparations of non-precipitating anti-egg albumin have been shown to have sensitizing capacities which bear no relation to their non-precipitating anti-egg albumin contents. From a portion of one of these the non-precipitating anti-egg albumin was removed without impairing its sensitizing ability, while in another portion obliteration of the sensitizing capacity was accomplished without reducing the anti-egg albumin. Evidence is presented to show that there are at least two possible antibodies in anti-egg albumin sera which are capable of inducing skin sensitivity and that they are antibodies against egg white impurities in crystalline egg albumin other than anti-conalbumin, anti-ovomucoid, and anti-lysozyme. The usefulness of a suitable quantitative precipitin technic for the analysis for antibodies against antigen impurities and for their selective absorption from sera is illustrated. The principle governing the procedure is described. The technic allows for the determination of a given trace antibody by working with such small concentrations of its purified specific antigen that whatever other antigen-antibody compounds are formed simultaneously with that to be determined will be below their solubility levels and consequently will not contribute appreciably to the precipitate. PMID:13069639

  17. Intraocular transplantation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a rabbit model of experimental retinal holes.

    PubMed

    Xuqian, W; Kanghua, L; WeiHong, Y; Xi, Y; Rongping, D; Qin, H; Fangtian, D; Chunhua Zhao, Robert

    2011-10-01

    To investigate whether human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hAD-MSC) transplantation would ameliorate the healing process of a rabbit model of retinal holes. Retinal holes were made in the left eyes of 20 New Zealand white rabbits and randomly filled by hAD-MSCs (transplantation group) or phosphate-buffered saline (control group), respectively. Frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan was performed on days 2, 4, 12, 20 and 32 postoperatively, and immunofluorescence was performed on days 12 and 32 to further identify the cell types of the injured area. Frequency-domain OCT scan showed that the mean center thickness of the reconstructed tissue reached a normal level on day 12 in the transplantation group, while in the control group, the mean center thickness was normal on day 32. Furthermore, compared to the control group where only anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein-labeled glial-like cells were detected, donor-derived opsin-positive photoreceptor-like cells and protein kinase C-positive bipolar-like cells were sporadically found in the transplantation group. Transplanted hAD-MSCs could engraft in the retinal hole of a rabbit model, and clearly accelerated the healing process and ameliorated injury recovery. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Engraftment Potential of Adipose Tissue-Derived Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells After Transplantation in the Fetal Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-González, Itziar; Moreno, Rafael; Petriz, Jordi; Gratacós, Eduard

    2012-01-01

    Due to their favorable intrinsic features, including engraftment, differentiation, and immunomodulatory potential, adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proposed for therapeutic in utero intervention. Further improvement of such attributes for particular diseases might merely be achieved by ex vivo MSC genetic engineering previous to transplantation. Here, we evaluated for the first time the feasibility, biodistribution, long-term engraftment, and transgenic enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression of genetically engineered human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (EGFP+-ASCs) after intra-amniotic xenotransplantation at E17 of gestation into our validated pregnant rabbit model. Overall, the procedure was safe (86.4% survival rate; absence of anatomical defects). Stable, low-level engraftment of EGFP+-ASCs was confirmed by assessing the presence of the pWT-EGFP lentiviral provirus in the young transplanted rabbit tissues. Accordingly, similar frequencies of provirus-positive animals were found at both 8 weeks (60%) and 16 weeks (66.7%) after in utero intervention. The presence of EGFP+-ASCs was more frequent in respiratory epithelia (lung and trachea), according to the route of administration. However, we were unable to detect EGFP expression, neither by real-time polymerase chain reaction nor by immunohistochemistry, in the provirus-positive tissues, suggesting EGFP transgene silencing mediated by epigenetic events. Moreover, we noticed lack of both host cellular immune responses against xenogeneic ASCs and humoral immune responses against transgenic EGFP. Therefore, the fetal microchimerism achieved by the EGFP+-ASCs in the young rabbit hosts indicates induction of donor-specific tolerance after fetal rabbit xenotransplantation, which should boost postnatal transplantation for the early treatment/prevention of many devastating congenital disorders. PMID:22738094

  19. Rabbit whey acidic protein gene upstream region controls high-level expression of bovine growth hormone in the mammary gland of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Thépot, D; Devinoy, E; Fontaine, M L; Stinnakre, M G; Massoud, M; Kann, G; Houdebine, L M

    1995-11-01

    Transgenic mice were produced which secreted high levels of bGH into milk. The 6.3-kb upstream region of the rabbit whey acidic protein (rWAP) gene was linked to the structural part of the bovine growth hormone (bGH) gene, and the chimeric gene was radioimmunoassay into mouse oocytes. bGH was detected by radioimmunoassay in the milk of all resulting transgenic mice. bGH concentrations in milk varied from line to line, from 1.0-16 mg/ml. This expression was not correlated to the number of transgene copies. In all lines studied, the mammary gland was the major organ expressing bGH mRNA during lactation. bGH mRNA concentrations were barely detectable in the mammary gland of cyclic females; they increased during pregnancy. These results show that the upstream region of the rWAP gene harbors powerful regulatory elements which target high levels of bGH transgene expression to the mammary gland of lactating transgenic mice.

  20. Experimental chemotherapy of human tumors heterotransplanted in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Giovanella, B C

    1980-01-01

    Human tumors heterotransplanted in nude mice offer the most realistic model for experimental chemotherapy of human neoplasms. Almost all the known human malignancies have been successfully transplanted in the nudes, although the rate of takes varies considerably between different tumor types. So far, a good correlation has been observed between the results obtained treating with the same drug the same tumor in the patient and in the nude mouse. Our experience in this field is, however, still too limited for the direct extrapolation of chemotherapeutic results obtained in the nudes to human tumors.

  1. Use of human amniotic membrane wrap in reducing perineural adhesions in a rabbit model of ulnar nerve neurorrhaphy.

    PubMed

    Kim, S S; Sohn, S K; Lee, K Y; Lee, M J; Roh, M S; Kim, C H

    2010-03-01

    The object of this experimental study was to assess the effect of wrapping human amniotic membrane around a repaired ulnar nerve in a rabbit model of perineural adhesion. Ulnar nerves from 10 white New Zealand rabbits were exposed bilaterally, dissected and repaired. Human amniotic membrane was then wrapped around the repair site in one limb with no such wrap in the neurorrhaphy of the contralateral limb. Three months later, the same nerves were re-explored and removed using microsurgical external neurolysis. Perineural adhesion around the ulnar nerve was evaluated by blinded surgical dissection and scored using a visual 4-point qualitative scale. Extent and grade of fibrosis around repair sites were measured microscopically (x 200) after Masson trichrome staining using measure of the depth of fibrosis and the grading criteria of adhesion. Quantitative morphometric analysis was also performed under light microscopy (x 200) with the aid of a digital counter and virtual slide imaging software (ScanScope T2, Vista, CA, USA). Human amniotic membrane wrapped nerves showed significantly less perineural adhesion and fibrosis than controls (P < 0.05). No nerve healing problems were encountered. This study suggests that human amniotic membrane application can reduce fibrosis and adhesion around neurorrhaphy sites in this animal model.

  2. Differential depletion of total T cells and regulatory T cells and prolonged allotransplant survival in CD3Ɛ humanized mice treated with polyclonal anti human thymocyte globulin

    PubMed Central

    Buszko, Maja; Cardini, Benno; Oberhuber, Rupert; Oberhuber, Lukas; Jakic, Bojana; Beierfuss, Anja; Wick, Georg; Cappellano, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Thymoglobulin (ATG) is a polyclonal rabbit antibody against human thymocytes used as a T cell-depleting agent to prevent or treat allotransplant rejection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of low dose ATG treatment exclusively on T cells using a humanized BALB/c human CD3Ɛ transgenic mouse model expressing both human and murine T cell receptors (TCR). Mice received a single intravenous (i.v.) injection of ATG. Blood and peripheral lymphoid organs were obtained after different time points. We found a significant T cell depletion in this mouse model. In addition, regulatory T cells (Tregs) proved to be less sensitive to depletion than the rest of T cells and the Treg:non-Treg ratio was therefore increased. Finally, we also investigated the effect of ATG in a heterotopic allogenic murine model of heart transplantation. Survival and transplant function were significantly prolonged in ATG-treated mice. In conclusion, we showed (a) an immunosuppressive effect of ATG in this humanized mouse model which is exclusively mediated by reactivity against human CD3Ɛ; (b) provided evidence for a relative resistance of Tregs against this regimen; and (c) demonstrated the immunomodulatory effect of ATG under these experimental circumstances by prolongation of heart allograft survival. PMID:28257450

  3. Comparison of the Safety and Pharmacokinetics of ST-246® after IV Infusion or Oral Administration in Mice, Rabbits and Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yali; Amantana, Adams; Tyavanagimatt, Shanthakumar R.; Zima, Daniela; Yan, X. Steven; Kasi, Gopi; Weeks, Morgan; Stone, Melialani A.; Weimers, William C.; Samuel, Peter; Tan, Ying; Jones, Kevin F.; Lee, Daniel R.; Kickner, Shirley S.; Saville, Bradley M.; Lauzon, Martin; McIntyre, Alan; Honeychurch, Kady M.; Jordan, Robert; Hruby, Dennis E.; Leeds, Janet M.

    2011-01-01

    Background ST-246® is an antiviral, orally bioavailable small molecule in clinical development for treatment of orthopoxvirus infections. An intravenous (IV) formulation may be required for some hospitalized patients who are unable to take oral medication. An IV formulation has been evaluated in three species previously used in evaluation of both efficacy and toxicology of the oral formulation. Methodology/Principal Findings The pharmacokinetics of ST-246 after IV infusions in mice, rabbits and nonhuman primates (NHP) were compared to those obtained after oral administration. Ten minute IV infusions of ST-246 at doses of 3, 10, 30, and 75 mg/kg in mice produced peak plasma concentrations ranging from 16.9 to 238 µg/mL. Elimination appeared predominately first-order and exposure dose-proportional up to 30 mg/kg. Short IV infusions (5 to 15 minutes) in rabbits resulted in rapid distribution followed by slower elimination. Intravenous infusions in NHP were conducted at doses of 1 to 30 mg/kg. The length of single infusions in NHP ranged from 4 to 6 hours. The pharmacokinetics and tolerability for the two highest doses were evaluated when administered as two equivalent 4 hour infusions initiated 12 hours apart. Terminal elimination half-lives in all species for oral and IV infusions were similar. Dose-limiting central nervous system effects were identified in all three species and appeared related to high Cmax plasma concentrations. These effects were eliminated using slower IV infusions. Conclusions/Significance Pharmacokinetic profiles after IV infusion compared to those observed after oral administration demonstrated the necessity of longer IV infusions to (1) mimic the plasma exposure observed after oral administration and (2) avoid Cmax associated toxicity. Shorter infusions at higher doses in NHP resulted in decreased clearance, suggesting saturated distribution or elimination. Elimination half-lives in all species were similar between oral and IV

  4. FDTD analysis of temperature elevation in the lens of human and rabbit models due to near-field and far-field exposures at 2.45 GHz.

    PubMed

    Oizumi, Takuya; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa; Fujiwara, Osamu; Watanabe, Soichi; Taki, Masao; Kojima, Masami; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Kazuyuki

    2013-07-01

    The eye is said to be one of the most sensitive organs to microwave heating. According to previous studies, the possibility of microwave-induced cataract formation has been experimentally investigated in rabbit and monkey eyes, but not for the human eye due to ethical reasons. In the present study, the temperature elevation in the lens, the skin around the eye and the core temperature of numerical human and rabbit models for far-field and near-field exposures at 2.45 GHz are investigated. The temperature elevations in the human and rabbit models were compared with the threshold temperatures for inducing cataracts, thermal pain in the skin and reversible health effects such as heat exhaustion or heat stroke. For plane-wave exposure, the core temperature elevation is shown to be essential both in the human and in the rabbit models as suggested in the international guidelines and standards. For localised exposure of the human eye, the temperature elevation of the skin was essential, and the lens temperature did not reach its threshold for thermal pain. On the other hand, the lens temperature elevation was found to be dominant for the rabbit eye.

  5. In vitro CD4+ lymphocyte transformation and infection in a rabbit model with a molecular clone of human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, N D; Newbound, G C; Ratner, L; Lairmore, M D

    1996-01-01

    We transfected human and rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with the ACH molecular clone of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) to study its in vitro and in vivo properties. PBMC transfected with ACH were shown to transfer infection to naive PBMC. ACH transformed rabbit PBMC, as indicated by interleukin-2-independent proliferation of a transfectant culture. This transformant culture was shown by flow cytometric analysis to be a CD4+ CD25+ T-lymphocyte population containing, as determined by Southern blot analysis, at least three integrated HTLV-1 proviral copies. HTLV-1 infection was produced in rabbits inoculated with ACH-transfected, irradiated PBMC. Inoculated rabbits seroconverted to positivity for antibodies against HTLV-1 and had steady or rising HTLV-1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody titers. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis revealed sustained seroconversion of rabbits to positivity for antibodies against all major viral antigenic determinants. Infection of rabbits was further demonstrated by antigen capture assay of p24 in PBMC and lymph node cultures and PCR amplification of proviral sequences from PBMC. These data suggest that ACH, like wild-type HTLV-1, infects and transforms primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and is infectious in vivo. This clone will facilitate investigations into the role of viral genes on biological properties of HTLV-1 in vitro and in vivo. PMID:8794375

  6. Activation of GPR119 Stimulates Human β-Cell Replication and Neogenesis in Humanized Mice with Functional Human Islets

    PubMed Central

    Ansarullah; Free, Colette; Christopherson, Jenica; Chen, Quanhai; Gao, Jie; Liu, Chengyang; Naji, Ali; Rabinovitch, Alex; Guo, Zhiguang

    2016-01-01

    Using humanized mice with functional human islets, we investigated whether activating GPR119 by PSN632408, a small molecular agonist, can stimulate human β-cell regeneration in vivo. Human islets were transplanted under the left kidney capsule of immunodeficient mice with streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetes. The recipient mice were treated with PSN632408 or vehicle and BrdU daily. Human islet graft function in the mice was evaluated by nonfasting glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance, and removal of the grafts. Immunostaining for insulin, glucagon, and BrdU or Ki67 was performed in islet grafts to evaluate α- and β-cell replication. Insulin and CK19 immunostaining was performed to evaluate β-cell neogenesis. Four weeks after human islet transplantation, 71% of PSN632408-treated mice achieved normoglycaemia compared with 24% of vehicle-treated mice. Also, oral glucose tolerance was significantly improved in the PSN632408-treated mice. PSN632408 treatment significantly increased both human α- and β-cell areas in islet grafts and stimulated α- and β-cell replication. In addition, β-cell neogenesis was induced from pancreatic duct cells in the islet grafts. Our results demonstrated that activation of GPR119 increases β-cell mass by stimulating human β-cell replication and neogenesis. Therefore, GPR119 activators may qualify as therapeutic agents to increase human β-cell mass in patients with diabetes. PMID:27413754

  7. Disposable rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  8. Disposal rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.

    1983-10-12

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  9. Vaccines against human HER2 prevent mammary carcinoma in mice transgenic for human HER2

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The availability of mice transgenic for the human HER2 gene (huHER2) and prone to the development of HER2-driven mammary carcinogenesis (referred to as FVB-huHER2 mice) prompted us to study active immunopreventive strategies targeting the human HER2 molecule in a tolerant host. Methods FVB-huHER2 mice were vaccinated with either IL-12-adjuvanted human HER2-positive cancer cells or DNA vaccine carrying chimeric human-rat HER2 sequences. Onset and number of mammary tumors were recorded to evaluate vaccine potency. Mice sera were collected and passively transferred to xenograft-bearing mice to assess their antitumor efficacy. Results Both cell and DNA vaccines significantly delayed tumor onset, leading to about 65% tumor-free mice at 70 weeks, whereas mock-vaccinated FVB-huHER2 controls developed mammary tumors at a median age of 45 weeks. In the DNA vaccinated group, 65% of mice were still tumor-free at about 90 weeks of age. The number of mammary tumors per mouse was also significantly reduced in vaccinated mice. Vaccines broke the immunological tolerance to the huHER2 transgene, inducing both humoral and cytokine responses. The DNA vaccine mainly induced a high and sustained level of anti-huHER2 antibodies, the cell vaccine also elicited interferon (IFN)-γ production. Sera of DNA-vaccinated mice transferred to xenograft-carrying mice significantly inhibited the growth of human HER2-positive cancer cells. Conclusions Anti-huHER2 antibodies elicited in the tolerant host exert antitumor activity. PMID:24451168

  10. Polycythemia in transgenic mice expressing the human erythropoietin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Semenza, G.L.; Traystman, M.D.; Gearhart, J.D.; Antonarakis, S.E. )

    1989-04-01

    Erythropoietin is a glycoprotein hormone that regulates mammalian erythropoiesis. To study the expression of the human erythropoietin gene, EPO, 4 kilobases of DNA encompassing the gene with 0.4 kilobase of 5{prime} flanking sequence and 0.7 kilobase of 3{prime} flanking sequence was microinjected into fertilized mouse eggs. Transgenic mice were generated that are polycythemic, with increased erythrocytic indices in peripheral blood, increased numbers of erythroid precursors in hematopoietic tissue, and increased serum erythropoietin levels. Transgenic homozygotes show a greater degree of polycythemia than do heterozygotes as well as striking extramedullary erythropoiesis. Human erythropoietin RNA was found not only in fetal liver, adult liver, and kidney but also in all other transgenic tissues analyzed. Anemia induced increased human erythropoietin RNA levels in liver but not kidney. These transgenic mice represent a unique model of polycythemia due to increased erythropoietin levels.

  11. Effects of HIV-1 on Cognition in Humanized NSG Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, Sidra Pervez

    Host species specificity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) creates a challenge to study the pathology, diagnostic tools, and therapeutic agents. The closely related simian immunodeficiency virus and studies of neurocognitive impairments on transgenic animals expressing partial viral genome have significant limitations. The humanized mice model provides a small animal system in which a human immune system can be engrafted and immunopathobiology of HIV-1 infection can be studied. However, features of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) were not evaluated in this model. Open field activity test was selected to characterize behavior of original strain NOD/scid-IL-2Rgammac null (NSG) mice, effects of engraftment of human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and functional human immune system (huNSG), and finally, investigate the behavior changes induced by chronic HIV-1 infection. Long-term infected HuNSG mice showed the loss of working memory and increased anxiety in the open field. Additionally, these animals were utilized for evaluation of central nervous system metabolic and structural changes. Detected behavioral abnormalities are correlated with obtained neuroimaging and histological abnormalities published.

  12. T cell development in B cell deficient mice. III. Restriction specificity of suppressor T cell factor(s) produced in mice treated chronically with rabbit anti-mouse mu chain antibody.

    PubMed

    HayGlass, K T; Naides, S J; Benacerraf, B; Sy, M S

    1985-01-01

    A role for Igh linked genes and the idiotypes they encode has been implicated in the activity of a variety of T cell subpopulations. Idiotype restricted T cell function has been observed for helper and suppressor cell populations. The finding that T cell receptor genes are distinct from B cell receptor (Igh) genes strongly argues against a direct role for immunoglobulin genes in the determination of the T cell repertoire. Nevertheless, idiotypic Ig determinants may play an indirect role in influencing the ultimate composition of the T cell repertoire. One approach to this question involves evaluation of T cell activity upon development in an immunoglobulin deficient environment. The availability of antigens which elicit T cell and antibody responses characterized by the expression of dominant crossreactive idiotypes under the control of Igh genes provides an ideal approach to investigate the basis for the expression of Igh-like structures on T cells and the concomitant functional genetic restrictions they determine. Thus, we have prepared B cell deficient mice by continuous treatment, beginning at birth, with rabbit anti-mouse IgM. The network which comprises the suppressor T cell response to azobenzenearsonate (ABA) was then examined in normal and anti-mu treated mice to assess what role, if any, immunoglobulin encoded determinants play in influencing the composition of the peripheral T cell pool. The results clearly demonstrate that the absence of Ig+ B cells leads to major alterations in the composition of the T cell repertoire. Anti-mu treated, but not normal rabbit Ig treated, mice produce TsF1 which fails to suppress cytotoxic T lymphocyte or helper T cell responses of normal syngeneic mice, yet efficiently suppresses those of syngeneic anti-mu treated recipients. Reciprocally, normal TsF1, though suppressive in normal Igh-1 syngeneic recipients, fails to affect the development of responses in anti-mu treated syngeneic mice. TsF1 obtained from anti-mu treated

  13. Effects of recombinant human interleukin-10 on Treg cells, IL-10 and TGF-β in transplantation of rabbit skin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai Shan; Fan, Xiao Qin; Zhang, Lei; Wen, Qiong Na; Feng, Ji Hong; Chen, Fu Chao; Luo, Jun Min; Sun, Wan Bang

    2014-02-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the rejection and survival time of grafted skin, and the changes of Treg cells, interleukin 10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in peripheral blood following skin transplantation with recombinant human interleukin-10 (rhIL-10) or cyclosporin A (CsA), as well as the role of IL-10 in immunological rejection mechanisms. A total of 36 rabbits were divided into two groups. The skin of a donor rabbit was transplanted onto the back of one receptor rabbit. Receptors were randomly divided into six groups, including rhIL-10 low-dose (5 µg/kg/d), rhIL-10 high-dose (10 µg/kg/d), CsA low-dose (5 mg/kg/d), CsA high-dose (10 mg/kg/d), rhIL-10 (5 µg/kg/d) and CsA (5 mg/kg/d) and negative control normal saline (NS; 1 ml/d). All groups received intramuscular drug injection for ten days, beginning one day prior to skin transplantation surgery. Following transplantation, each rabbit's peripheral blood was collected at different times. The changes of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, IL-10 and TGF-β were determined by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. When compared with the control group, the rejection and survival times of the experimental groups were longer following skin graft. Compared with the two CsA groups and the control group, the proportion of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells of rhIL-10 groups was significantly upregulated on the 4th and 7th days following surgery. However, TGF-β levels were not significantly different. Data suggested that the concentration of IL-10 was positively correlated with the proportion of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. In addition, IL-10 may delay the rejection time of rabbit skin transplantation and prolong the survival time. Thus, the role of IL-10 in inhibited allograft rejection may be associated with CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and IL-10, and may be independent of TGF-β.

  14. Magnetic resonance knee arthrography. Enhanced contrast by gadolinium complex in the rabbit and in humans.

    PubMed

    Engel, A

    1990-01-01

    This study contains the fundamentals and the technique of the intraarticular application of an MRI contrast agent in connection with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI arthrography). It also presents the resulting clinical relevance for knee joint diagnostics. The significance of MRI arthrography is linked above all to the central question of whether or not it is possible to depict the hyaline cartilage, its surface and its thickness with the help of MRI arthrography. MRI arthrography was used for in vitro examinations of rabbit knee joint cartilage and human joint cartilage. The in vivo application was carried out in 73 patients. Apart from the metric evaluation and the assessment of the information content of the MRI image, the corresponding histologic sections were made in 20 knee joints in order to compare the cartilage surface and the thickness of the cartilage with the results in the MRI image. The optimum amount of contrast agent for visualization was determined, the uptake and clearance of the contrast agent from the cartilage were assessed, and trace elements from the cartilage were also analyzed. The examination showed that the molecular structure of the contrast agent (gadolinium-DTPA) does not prevent the uptake of the contrast agent into the matrix of the hyaline cartilage. But this process is reversible. Thus, 14 hours after the intraarticular application of the contrast agent no measurable traces of gadolinium-DTPA could be established. The intraarticular application of the contrast agent also made it possible to achieve a constant and reproducible visualization of all joint structures. This affected mainly the surface of the hyaline cartilage. The best imaging quality was achieved with intraarticular application of 30 to 40 mL of a 2 mmolar solution of gadolinium-DTPA. The technique used for the intraarticular application is the same as for the common procedures of knee joint aspiration. The clinical importance of MRI arthrography lies in the fact that

  15. Bacillus cereus G9241 makes anthrax toxin and capsule like highly virulent B. anthracis Ames but behaves like attenuated toxigenic nonencapsulated B. anthracis Sterne in rabbits and mice.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Melissa K; Vergis, James M; Alem, Farhang; Palmer, John R; Keane-Myers, Andrea M; Brahmbhatt, Trupti N; Ventura, Christy L; O'Brien, Alison D

    2011-08-01

    Bacillus cereus G9241 was isolated from a welder with a pulmonary anthrax-like illness. The organism contains two megaplasmids, pBCXO1 and pBC218. These plasmids are analogous to the Bacillus anthracis Ames plasmids pXO1 and pXO2 that encode anthrax toxins and capsule, respectively. Here we evaluated the virulence of B. cereus G9241 as well as the contributions of pBCXO1 and pBC218 to virulence. B. cereus G9241 was avirulent in New Zealand rabbits after subcutaneous inoculation and attenuated 100-fold compared to the published 50% lethal dose (LD(50)) values for B. anthracis Ames after aerosol inoculation. A/J and C57BL/6J mice were comparably susceptible to B. cereus G9241 by both subcutaneous and intranasal routes of infection. However, the LD(50)s for B. cereus G9241 in both mouse strains were markedly higher than those reported for B. anthracis Ames and more like those of the toxigenic but nonencapsulated B. anthracis Sterne. Furthermore, B. cereus G9241 spores could germinate and disseminate after intranasal inoculation into A/J mice, as indicated by the presence of vegetative cells in the spleen and blood of animals 48 h after infection. Lastly, B. cereus G9241 derivatives cured of one or both megaplasmids were highly attenuated in A/J mice. We conclude that the presence of the toxin- and capsule-encoding plasmids pBCXO1 and pBC218 in B. cereus G9241 alone is insufficient to render the strain as virulent as B. anthracis Ames. However, like B. anthracis, full virulence of B. cereus G9241 for mice requires the presence of both plasmids.

  16. Release of active and depot GDF-5 after adenovirus-mediated overexpression stimulates rabbit and human intervertebral disc cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haili; Kroeber, Markus; Hanke, Michael; Ries, Rainer; Schmid, Carsten; Poller, Wolfgang; Richter, Wiltrud

    2004-02-01

    To develop new therapeutic options for the treatment of disc degeneration we tested the possibility of overexpression of active growth and differentiation factor (GDF) 5 and of transforming growth factor (TGF) beta(1) by adenoviral gene transfer and characterized its effect on cell proliferation and matrix synthesis of cultured rabbit and human intervertebral disc cells. Recombinant adenovirus encoding for GDF-5 or TGF-beta(1) was developed and transgene expression characterized by RT-PCR, western blot and ELISA. Growth and matrix synthesis of transduced cells was measured by [(3)H]thymidine or [(35)S]sulfate incorporation. Disc cells expressed the receptors BMPR1A, BMPR1B, and BMPR2, which are relevant for GDF-5 action. Adenovirus efficiently transferred the GDF-5 gene or the TGF-beta(1) gene to rabbit and human intervertebral disc cells. About 50 ng GDF-5 protein/10(6 )cells per 24 h or 7 ng TGF-beta(1) protein/10(6 )cells per 24 h was produced. According to western blotting, two GDF-5 forms, with molecular weights consistent with the activated GDF-5 dimer and the proform, were secreted over the 3 weeks following gene transfer. Overexpressed GDF-5 and TGF-beta(1) were bioactive and promoted growth of rabbit disc cells in monolayer culture. Our results suggest that ex vivo gene delivery of GDF-5 and TGF-beta(1) is an attractive approach for the release of mature and pre-GDF-5 in surrounding tissue. This leads us to hope that it will prove possible to improve the treatment of degenerative disc disease by means of ex vivo gene transfer of single or multiple growth factors.

  17. Current status of prediction of drug disposition and toxicity in humans using chimeric mice with humanized liver.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Shigeyuki; Sugihara, Kazumi

    2014-01-01

    1. Human-chimeric mice with humanized liver have been constructed by transplantation of human hepatocytes into several types of mice having genetic modifications that injure endogenous liver cells. Here, we focus on liver urokinase-type plasminogen activator-transgenic severe combined immunodeficiency (uPA/SCID) mice, which are the most widely used human-chimeric mice. Studies so far indicate that drug metabolism, drug transport, pharmacological effects and toxicological action in these mice are broadly similar to those in humans. 2. Expression of various drug-metabolizing enzymes is known to be different between humans and rodents. However, the expression pattern of cytochrome P450, aldehyde oxidase and phase II enzymes in the liver of human-chimeric mice resembles that in humans, not that in the host mice. 3. Metabolism of various drugs, including S-warfarin, zaleplon, ibuprofen, naproxen, coumarin, troglitazone and midazolam, in human-chimeric mice is mediated by human drug-metabolizing enzymes, not by host mouse enzymes, and thus resembles that in humans. 4. Pharmacological and toxicological effects of various drugs in human-chimeric mice are also similar to those in humans. 5. The current consensus is that chimeric mice with humanized liver are useful to predict drug metabolism catalyzed by cytochrome P450, aldehyde oxidase and phase II enzymes in humans in vivo and in vitro. Some remaining issues are discussed in this review.

  18. Engrafted human cells generate adaptive immune responses to Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection in humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Currently used mouse models fail to fully reflect human immunity to tuberculosis (TB), which hampers progress in research and vaccine development. Bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) mice, generated by engrafting human fetal liver, thymus, and hematopoietic stem cells in severely immunodeficient NOD/SCID/IL-2Rγ-/- (NSG) mice, have shown potential to model human immunity to infection. We engrafted HLA-A2-positive fetal tissues into NSG mice transgenically expressing human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2.1 (NSG-A2) to generate NSG-A2-BLT mice and characterized their human immune response to Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) infection to assess the utility of this model for investigating human TB. Results NSG-A2-BLT mice were infected intravenously with BCG and the immune response of engrafted human immune cells was characterized. After ex vivo antigenic stimulation of splenocytes, interferon (IFN)-γ-producing cells were detected by ELISPOT from infected, but not uninfected NSG-A2-BLT mice. However, the levels of secreted IFN-γ, determined by ELISA, were not significantly elevated by antigenic stimulation. NSG-A2-BLT mice were susceptible to BCG infection as determined by higher lung bacillary load than the non-engrafted control NSG-A2 mice. BCG-infected NSG-A2-BLT mice developed lung lesions composed mostly of human macrophages and few human CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. The lesions did not resemble granulomas typical of human TB. Conclusions Engrafted human immune cells in NSG-A2-BLT mice showed partial function of innate and adaptive immune systems culminating in antigen-specific T cell responses to mycobacterial infection. The lack of protection was associated with low IFN-γ levels and limited numbers of T cells recruited to the lesions. The NSG-A2-BLT mouse is capable of mounting a human immune response to M. tuberculosis in vivo but a quantitatively and possibly qualitatively enhanced effector response will be needed to improve the utility of this

  19. [Effects of NGF on chromaffin adrenaline-containing cells of adrenal medulla of rabbits transplanted into brains of mice].

    PubMed

    Jousselin-Hosaja, M; Derbin, C

    1993-01-01

    The graft of chromaffin adrenaline-containing (A) cells of rabbit adrenal medulla implanted to mouse brain and treated with NGF contains more survived cells 1 month after grafting than adrenal medulla alone. The cells developed either an intermediate (e.g. chromaffin cell and neuron) or a neuron-like phenotypes accompanied with a decrease in an immunoreactivity for PNMT (phenyletanolamine-N-methyltransferase). A gap junctions and attached plaques were found between grafted cells. The grafts received a synaptic input. The NGF influence on the fate of chromaffin A-containing cells is discussed.

  20. Development of humanized rabbit monoclonal antibodies against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 with potential antitumor effects.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanlan; Lee, Pierre; Ke, Yaohuang; Zhang, Yongke; Chen, Jungang; Dai, Jihong; Li, Mingzhen; Zhu, Weimin; Yu, Guo-Liang

    2013-07-05

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) plays a critical role in physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis through its receptors especially through VEGFR2. The lack of cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with human VEGFR2/mouse Flk-1 is a major obstacle in preclinical developments. In this study, using a unique hybridoma technique, we generated a panel of 30 neutralization anti-VEGFR2 rabbit monoclonal antibodies (RabMAbs) either blocking VEGF/VEGFR2 interaction or inhibiting VEGF-stimulated VEGFR2 tyrosine kinase phosphorylation. Among 18 RabMAbs with human/mouse VEGFR2 cross-reactivity, we humanized one lead candidate RabMAb by Mutational Lineage Guided (MLG) method and further demonstrated its potent inhibition of tumor growth in xenograft mouse model. Our study suggests that RabMAbs are highly relevant for therapeutic applications.

  1. Establishment of mice model with human viral hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Li-Fen; Sun, Wen-Sheng; Ma, Chun-Hong; Liu, Su-Xia; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Li-Ning; Cao, Ying-Lin; Zhu, Fa-Liang; Liu, Yu-Gang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To establish a mice model of hepatitis B by using HBV-transgenic mice, and to transfer HBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) induced from syngeneic BALB/c mice immunized by a eukaryotic expression vector containing HBV complete genome DNA. METHODS: HBV DNA was obtained from digested pBR322-2HBV and ligated with the vector pcDNA3. Recombinant pcDNA3-HBV was identified by restriction endonuclease assay and transfected into human hepatoma cell line HepG2 with lipofectin. ELISA was used to detect the expression of HBsAg in culture supernatant, and RT-PCR to determine the existence of HBV PreS1 mRNA. BALB/c mice were immunized with pcDNA3-HBV or pcDNA3 by intramuscular injection. ELISA was used to detect the expression of HBsAb in serum. MTT assay was used to measure non-specific or specific proliferation ability and specific killing activity of spleen lymphocytes. Lymphocytes from immunized mice were transferred into HBV-transgenic mice (2.5 × 107 per mouse). Forty-eight hours later, the level of serum protein and transaminase was detected with biochemical method, liver and kidney were sectioned and stained by HE to observe the pathological changes. RESULTS: By enzyme digestion with Eco RI, Xho I and Hind III, the recombinant pcDNA3-HBV was verified to contain a single copy of HBV genome, which was inserted in the positive direction. HepG2 cells transfected with the recombinant could stably express PreS1 mRNA and HBsAg. After immunized by pcDNA3-HBV for 4 weeks, HBsAb was detected in the serum of BALB/c mice. The potential of spleen lymphocytes for both non-specific and specific proliferation and the specific killing activity against target cells were enhanced. The transgenic mice in model group had no significant changes in the level of serum protein but had an obvious increase of ALT and AST. The liver had obvious pathological changes, while the kidney had no evident damage. CONCLUSION: A eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3-HBV containing HBV complete

  2. Regulated expression of the human gastrin gene in mice.

    PubMed

    Mensah-Osman, Edith; Labut, Ed; Zavros, Yana; El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Law, David J; Merchant, Juanita L

    2008-11-29

    Gastrin is secreted from neuroendocrine cells residing in the adult antrum called G cells, but constitutively low levels are also expressed in the duodenum and fetal pancreas. Gastrin normally regulates gastric acid secretion by stimulating the proliferation of enterochromaffin-like cells and the release of histamine. Gastrin and progastrin forms are expressed in a number of pathological conditions and malignancies. However, the DNA regulatory elements in the human versus the mouse gastrin promoters differ suggesting differences in their transcriptional control. Thus, we describe here the expression of the human gastrin gene using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) in the antral and duodenal cells of gastrin null mice. All 5 founder lines expressed the 253 kb human gastrin BAC. hGasBAC transgenic mice were bred onto a gastrin null background so that the levels of human gastrin peptide could be analyzed by immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay without detecting endogenous mouse gastrin. We have shown previously that chronically elevated gastrin levels suppress somatostatin. Indeed, infusion of amidated rat gastrin depressed somatostatin levels, stimulated gastric acid secretion and an increase in the numbers of G cells in the antrum and duodenum. In conclusion, human gastrin was expressed in mouse enteroendocrine cells and was regulated by somatostatin. This mouse model provides a unique opportunity to study regulation of the human gastrin promoter in vivo by somatostatin and possibly other extracellular regulators contributing to our understanding of the mechanisms involved in transcriptional control of the human gene.

  3. Molecular phylogeny of the pinworms of mice, rats and rabbits, and its use to develop molecular beacon assays for the detection of pinworms in mice.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Sanford H; Bowman, Susan G

    2007-10-01

    Though pinworm infestation has been prevalent since the early years of laboratory animal medicine, the genomes of these parasites have not yet been sequenced. The authors used high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction to amplify a large portion of the ribosomal gene complex of four pinworm species commonly found in lab rodents and rabbits (Aspiculuris tetraptera, Passalurus ambiguus, Syphacia muris and Syphacia obvelata). They determined DNA sequences for these complexes and carried out phylogenetic analysis. Using this information, the authors developed real-time molecular beacon assays for pinworm detection, comparing the new diagnostic approach with traditional methods such as perianal tape testing, fecal flotation and direct examination of intestinal content.

  4. Auditory Distance Coding in Rabbit Midbrain Neurons and Human Perception: Monaural Amplitude Modulation Depth as a Cue

    PubMed Central

    Zahorik, Pavel; Carney, Laurel H.; Bishop, Brian B.; Kuwada, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying sound source distance localization are not well understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that a novel mechanism can create monaural distance sensitivity: a combination of auditory midbrain neurons' sensitivity to amplitude modulation (AM) depth and distance-dependent loss of AM in reverberation. We used virtual auditory space (VAS) methods for sounds at various distances in anechoic and reverberant environments. Stimulus level was constant across distance. With increasing modulation depth, some rabbit inferior colliculus neurons increased firing rates whereas others decreased. These neurons exhibited monotonic relationships between firing rates and distance for monaurally presented noise when two conditions were met: (1) the sound had AM, and (2) the environment was reverberant. The firing rates as a function of distance remained approximately constant without AM in either environment and, in an anechoic condition, even with AM. We corroborated this finding by reproducing the distance sensitivity using a neural model. We also conducted a human psychophysical study using similar methods. Normal-hearing listeners reported perceived distance in response to monaural 1 octave 4 kHz noise source sounds presented at distances of 35–200 cm. We found parallels between the rabbit neural and human responses. In both, sound distance could be discriminated only if the monaural sound in reverberation had AM. These observations support the hypothesis. When other cues are available (e.g., in binaural hearing), how much the auditory system actually uses the AM as a distance cue remains to be determined. PMID:25834060

  5. Human CD8+ T cells mediate protective immunity induced by a human malaria vaccine in human immune system mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangming; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Min; Funakoshi, Ryota; Sheetij, Dutta; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Crisanti, Andrea; Nussenzweig, Victor; Nussenzweig, Ruth S; Tsuji, Moriya

    2016-08-31

    A number of studies have shown that CD8+ T cells mediate protective anti-malaria immunity in a mouse model. However, whether human CD8+ T cells play a role in protection against malaria remains unknown. We recently established human immune system (HIS) mice harboring functional human CD8+ T cells (HIS-CD8 mice) by transduction with HLA-A∗0201 and certain human cytokines using recombinant adeno-associated virus-based gene transfer technologies. These HIS-CD8 mice mount a potent, antigen-specific HLA-A∗0201-restricted human CD8+ T-cell response upon immunization with a recombinant adenovirus expressing a human malaria antigen, the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP), termed AdPfCSP. In the present study, we challenged AdPfCSP-immunized HIS-CD8 mice with transgenic Plasmodium berghei sporozoites expressing full-length PfCSP and found that AdPfCSP-immunized (but not naïve) mice were protected against subsequent malaria challenge. The level of the HLA-A∗0201-restricted, PfCSP-specific human CD8+ T-cell response was closely correlated with the level of malaria protection. Furthermore, depletion of human CD8+ T cells from AdPfCSP-immunized HIS-CD8 mice almost completely abolished the anti-malaria immune response. Taken together, our data show that human CD8+ T cells mediate protective anti-malaria immunity in vivo.

  6. [Electrophysiological analysis of bruxisma of rabbits as natural model of the first bruxism in human being].

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Iu P; Kromin, A A

    2010-01-01

    In chronic experiences on 5 rabbits subjected to airmentary deprivation, impulse activity of the chewing muscles before and after the food was given to them was studied. It has been established, that flashes of bruxism nonoperiodically arise in rabbits in conditions of hunger and satiation and are shown in electric activity of masseter and mylohyoideus muscles in the form of burst type phase impulse activity of MU. Bruxism in conditions of hunger and satiation reflects in the same type way in structure of the time organization of impulse activity of the chewing muscles in the form of bimodal distributions of interpulse intervals and monomodal distributions of periods of the burst type rhythmic of action potentials. The alimentary motivation exerts inhibitory modulating influence on frequency of phase discharge activity of chewing center motoneurons in medulla oblongata and frequency of generation of the action potentials' bursts by the chewing muscles participating in bruxism. Impulse activity of chewing muscles during bruxism and food intake behaviour has the same-type character. Bruxism arises due to reorganization of the impulse activity of chewing center motoneurons innervating masseter and mylohyoideus muscles. There is no basis to suppose the presence of the special center of bruxism in medulla oblongata.Bruxism in rabbits an be considered as natural model of the first type bruxism in man.

  7. Amphetamine increases activity but not exploration in humans and mice

    PubMed Central

    Minassian, Arpi; Young, Jared W.; Cope, Zackary A.; Henry, Brook L.; Geyer, Mark A.; Perry, William

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Cross-species quantification of physiological behavior enables a better understanding of the biological systems underlying neuropsychiatric diseases such as Bipolar Disorder (BD). Cardinal symptoms of manic BD include increased motor activity and goal-directed behavior, thought to be related to increased catecholamine activity, potentially selective to dopamine homeostatic dysregulation. Objectives The objective of this study was to test whether acute administration of amphetamine, a norepinephrine/dopamine transporter inhibitor and dopamine releaser, would replicate the profile of activity and exploration observed in both humans with manic BD and mouse models of mania. Methods Healthy volunteers with no psychiatric history were randomized to a one-time dose of placebo (n=25), 10 mg d-amphetamine (n=18), or 20 mg amphetamine (n=23). 80 mice were administered one of 4 doses of d-amphetamine or vehicle. Humans and mice were tested in the Behavioral Pattern Monitor (BPM), which quantifies motor activity, exploratory behavior, and spatial patterns of behavior. Results In humans, the 20-mg dose of amphetamine increased motor activity as measured by acceleration without marked effects on exploration or spatial patterns of activity. In mice, amphetamine increased activity, decreased specific exploration, and caused straighter, one-dimensional movements in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions Consistent with mice, amphetamine increased motoric activity in humans without increasing exploration. Given that BD patients exhibit heightened exploration, these data further emphasize the limitation of amphetamine-induced hyperactivity as a suitable model for BD. Further, these studies highlight the utility of cross-species physiological paradigms in validating biological mechanisms of psychiatric diseases. PMID:26449721

  8. From rabbit antibody repertoires to rabbit monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Justus; Peng, Haiyong; Rader, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we explain why and how rabbit monoclonal antibodies have become outstanding reagents for laboratory research and increasingly for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Starting with the unique ontogeny of rabbit B cells that affords highly distinctive antibody repertoires rich in in vivo pruned binders of high diversity, affinity and specificity, we describe the generation of rabbit monoclonal antibodies by hybridoma technology, phage display and alternative methods, along with an account of successful humanization strategies. PMID:28336958

  9. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 suspended in fibrin glue enhances bone formation during distraction osteogenesis in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunfeng; Li, Rui; Hu, Jing; Song, Donghui; Jiang, Xiaowen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) has high potential for bone formation, but its in vivo effects are unpredictable due to the short life time. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of recombinant human (rh) BMP-2 suspended in fibrin on bone formation during distraction osteogenesis (DO) in rabbits. Material and methods The in vitro release kinetics of rhBMP-2 suspended in fibrin was tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Unilateral tibial lengthening for 10 mm was achieved in 48 rabbits. At the completion of osteodistraction, vehicle, fibrin, rhBMP-2 or rhBMP-2 suspended in fibrin (rhBMP-2 + fibrin) was injected into the center of the lengthened gap, with 12 animals in each group. Eight weeks later, the distracted callus was examined by histology, micro-CT and biomechanical testing. Radiographs of the distracted tibiae were taken at both 4 and 8 weeks after drug treatment. Results It was found that fibrin prolonged the life span of rhBMP-2 in vitro with sustained release during 17 days. The rhBMP-2 + fibrin treated animals showed the best results in bone mineral density, bone volume fraction, cortical bone thickness by micro-CT evaluation and mechanical properties by the three-point bending test when compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). In histological images, rhBMP-2 + fibrin treatment showed increased callus formation and better gap bridging compared to the other groups. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that fibrin holds promise to be a good carrier of rhBMP-2, and rhBMP-2 suspended in fibrin showed a stronger promoting effect on bone formation during DO in rabbits. PMID:27279839

  10. Pathology of Human Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Xenografts in NSG Mice

    PubMed Central

    Powers, James F.; Pacak, Karel; Tischler, Arthur S.

    2016-01-01

    A major impediment to the development of effective treatments for metastatic or unresectable pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas has been the absence of valid models for pre-clinical testing. Attempts to establish cell lines or xenografts from human pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas have previously been unsuccessful. NOD-scid gamma (NSG) mice are a recently developed strain lacking functional B-cells, T-cells and NK cells. We report here that xenografts of primary human paragangliomas will take in NSG mice while maintaining their architectural and immunophenotypic characteristics as expressed in the patients. In contrast to grafts of cell lines and of most common types of primary tumors, the growth rate of grafted paragangliomas is very slow, accurately representing the growth rate of most pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas even in metastases in humans. Although the model is therefore technically challenging, primary patient derived xenografts of paragangliomas in NSG mice provide a potentially valuable new tool that could prove especially valuable for testing treatments aimed at eradicating the small tumor deposits that are often numerous in patients with metastatic paraganglioma. PMID:27709415

  11. De Novo Generated Human Red Blood Cells in Humanized Mice Support Plasmodium falciparum Infection.

    PubMed

    Amaladoss, Anburaj; Chen, Qingfeng; Liu, Min; Dummler, Sara K; Dao, Ming; Suresh, Subra; Chen, Jianzhu; Preiser, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    Immunodeficient mouse-human chimeras provide a powerful approach to study host specific pathogens like Plasmodium (P.) falciparum that causes human malaria. Existing mouse models of P. falciparum infection require repeated injections of human red blood cells (RBCs). In addition, clodronate lipsomes and anti-neutrophil antibodies are injected to suppress the clearance of human RBCs by the residual immune system of the immunodeficient mice. Engraftment of NOD-scid Il2rg-/- mice with human hematopoietic stem cells leads to reconstitution of human immune cells. Although human B cell reconstitution is robust and T cell reconstitution is reasonable in the recipient mice, human RBC reconstitution is generally poor or undetectable. The poor reconstitution is mainly the result of a deficiency of appropriate human cytokines that are necessary for the development and maintenance of these cell lineages. Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding human erythropoietin and interleukin-3 into humanized mice by hydrodynamic tail-vein injection resulted in significantly enhanced reconstitution of erythrocytes. With this improved humanized mouse, here we show that P. falciparum infects de novo generated human RBCs, develops into schizonts and causes successive reinvasion. We also show that different parasite strains exhibit variation in their ability to infect these humanized mice. Parasites could be detected by nested PCR in the blood samples of humanized mice infected with P. falciparum K1 and HB3 strains for 3 cycles, whereas in other strains such as 3D7, DD2, 7G8, FCR3 and W2mef parasites could only be detected for 1 cycle. In vivo adaptation of K1 strain further improves the infection efficiency and parasites can be detected by microscopy for 3 cycles. The parasitemia ranges between 0.13 and 0.25% at the first cycle of infection, falls between 0.08 and 0.15% at the second cycle, and drops to barely detectable levels at the third cycle of infection. Compared to existing mouse models, our

  12. Aberrant expression of the embryonic transcription factor brachyury in human tumors detected with a novel rabbit monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Duane H; Fernando, Romaine I; Schlom, Jeffrey; Palena, Claudia

    2015-03-10

    The embryonic transcription factor brachyury is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors, including lung, breast, colon and prostate carcinomas, chordomas and hemangioblastomas. In human carcinoma cells, overexpression of brachyury associates with the occurrence of the phenomenon of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), acquisition of metastatic propensity and resistance to a variety of anti-cancer therapeutics. Brachyury is preferentially expressed in human tumors vs. normal adult tissues, and high levels of this molecule associate with poor prognosis in patients with lung, colon and prostate carcinomas, and in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen. Brachyury is immunogenic in humans and vaccines against this novel oncotarget are currently undergoing clinical investigation. While our group and others have employed various anti-brachyury antibodies to interrogate the above findings, we report here on the development and thorough characterization of a novel rabbit monoclonal antibody (MAb 54-1) that reacts with distinct high affinity and specificity with human brachyury. MAb 54-1 was successfully used in ELISA, western blot, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry assays to evaluate expression of brachyury in various human tumor cell lines and tissues. We propose the use of this antibody to assist in research studies of EMT and in prognostic studies for a range of human tumors.

  13. Vectored immunoprophylaxis protects humanized mice from mucosal HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Balazs, Alejandro B; Ouyang, Yong; Hong, Christin M; Chen, Joyce; Nguyen, Steven M; Rao, Dinesh S; An, Dong Sung; Baltimore, David

    2014-03-01

    The vast majority of new HIV infections result from relatively inefficient transmission of the virus across mucosal surfaces during sexual intercourse. A consequence of this inefficiency is that small numbers of transmitted founder viruses initiate most heterosexual infections. This natural bottleneck to transmission has stimulated efforts to develop interventions that are aimed at blocking this step of the infection process. Despite the promise of this strategy, clinical trials of preexposure prophylaxis have had limited degrees of success in humans, in part because of lack of adherence to the recommended preexposure treatment regimens. In contrast, a number of existing vaccines elicit systemic immunity that protects against mucosal infections, such as the vaccines for influenza and human papilloma virus. We recently demonstrated the ability of vectored immunoprophylaxis (VIP) to prevent intravenous transmission of HIV in humanized mice using broadly neutralizing antibodies. Here we demonstrate that VIP is capable of protecting humanized mice from intravenous as well as vaginal challenge with diverse HIV strains despite repeated exposures. Moreover, animals receiving VIP that expresses a modified VRC07 antibody were completely resistant to repetitive intravaginal challenge by a heterosexually transmitted founder HIV strain, suggesting that VIP may be effective in preventing vaginal transmission of HIV between humans.

  14. Effects of recombinant human interleukin-10 on Treg cells, IL-10 and TGF-β in transplantation of rabbit skin

    PubMed Central

    LIU, KAI SHAN; FAN, XIAO QIN; ZHANG, LEI; WEN, QIONG NA; FENG, JI HONG; CHEN, FU CHAO; LUO, JUN MIN; SUN, WAN BANG

    2014-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the rejection and survival time of grafted skin, and the changes of Treg cells, interleukin 10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in peripheral blood following skin transplantation with recombinant human interleukin-10 (rhIL-10) or cyclosporin A (CsA), as well as the role of IL-10 in immunological rejection mechanisms. A total of 36 rabbits were divided into two groups. The skin of a donor rabbit was transplanted onto the back of one receptor rabbit. Receptors were randomly divided into six groups, including rhIL-10 low-dose (5 μg/kg/d), rhIL-10 high-dose (10 μg/kg/d), CsA low-dose (5 mg/kg/d), CsA high-dose (10 mg/kg/d), rhIL-10 (5 μg/kg/d) and CsA (5 mg/kg/d) and negative control normal saline (NS; 1 ml/d). All groups received intramuscular drug injection for ten days, beginning one day prior to skin transplantation surgery. Following transplantation, each rabbit’s peripheral blood was collected at different times. The changes of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, IL-10 and TGF-β were determined by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. When compared with the control group, the rejection and survival times of the experimental groups were longer following skin graft. Compared with the two CsA groups and the control group, the proportion of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells of rhIL-10 groups was significantly upregulated on the 4th and 7th days following surgery. However, TGF-β levels were not significantly different. Data suggested that the concentration of IL-10 was positively correlated with the proportion of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. In addition, IL-10 may delay the rejection time of rabbit skin transplantation and prolong the survival time. Thus, the role of IL-10 in inhibited allograft rejection may be associated with CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and IL-10, and may be independent of TGF-β. PMID:24270972

  15. Mechanism of vasodilation induced by alpha-human atrial natriuretic polypeptide in rabbit and guinea-pig renal arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, K; Ishimatsu, T; Kuriyama, H

    1986-01-01

    Effects of alpha-human atrial natriuretic polypeptide (alpha-HANP) on electrical and mechanical properties of smooth muscle cells of the guinea-pig and rabbit renal arteries and of the guinea-pig mesenteric artery were investigated. alpha-HANP (up to 10 nM) modified neither the membrane potential nor resistance of smooth muscle cells of the guinea-pig and rabbit renal arteries. In the guinea-pig mesenteric and renal arteries, alpha-HANP (up to 10 nM) had no effect on the amplitude and facilitation (mesenteric artery) or depression (renal artery) of excitatory junction potentials nor on action potentials. In the guinea-pig renal artery, alpha-HANP (up to 10 nM) had no effect on the depolarization induced by noradrenaline (NA) (up to 10 microM) but markedly inhibited NA-induced contraction. alpha-HANP (10 nM) slightly inhibited the K-induced contraction. In the rabbit renal artery, alpha-HANP (10 nM) inhibited the NA-induced contraction and to a lesser extent the K-induced contraction. In the rabbit renal artery, the effects of alpha-HANP on the release of Ca from the cellular storage by two applications of NA, and its re-storage, were investigated in Ca-free solution containing 2 mM-EGTA. When 5 nM-alpha-HANP was applied before and during the first application of 0.5 microM-NA, the contraction was markedly inhibited but the contraction to a second application of 10 microM-NA was potentiated. If the first dose of NA was 10 microM the effect was very small. Under the same experimental procedures, nitroglycerine (10 microM) showed almost the same effects as alpha-HANP on the NA-induced contractions. When both the first (3 mM) and second (10 mM) contractions were evoked by caffeine in Ca-free solution, alpha-HANP (5 nM) and nitroglycerine (10 microM) inhibited both contractions to the same extent. In the rabbit renal artery, applications of alpha-HANP or nitroglycerine increased the amount of guanosine 3',5'-phosphate (cyclic GMP) in a dose-dependent manner. However, a

  16. Mice engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells support a human myeloid cell inflammatory response in vivo.

    PubMed

    Baird, Andrew; Deng, Chenliang; Eliceiri, Matthew H; Haghi, Fatima; Dang, Xitong; Coimbra, Raul; Costantini, Todd W; Torbett, Bruce E; Eliceiri, Brian P

    2016-11-01

    Mice engrafted with human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (CD34(+) -HSPCs) have been used to study human infection, diabetes, sepsis, and burn, suggesting that they could be highly amenable to characterizing the human inflammatory response to injury. To this end, human leukocytes infiltrating subcutaneous implants of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponges were analyzed in immunodeficient NSG mice reconstituted with CD34(+) -HSPCs. It was reported that human CD45(+) (hCD45(+) ) leukocytes were present in PVA sponges 3 and 7 days postimplantation and could be localized within the sponges by immunohistochemistry. The different CD45(+) subtypes were characterized by flow cytometry and the profile of human cytokines they secreted into PVA wound fluid was assessed using a human-specific multiplex bead analyses of human IL-12p70, TNFα, IL-10, IL-6, IL1β, and IL-8. This enabled tracking the functional contributions of HLA-DR(+) , CD33(+) , CD19(+) , CD62L(+) , CD11b(+) , or CX3CR1(+) hCD45(+) infiltrating inflammatory leukocytes. PCR of cDNA prepared from these cells enabled the assessment and differentiation of human, mouse, and uniquely human genes. These findings support the hypothesis that mice engrafted with CD34(+) -HSPCs can be deployed as precision avatars to study the human inflammatory response to injury. © 2016 by the Wound Healing Society.

  17. Human BLyS Facilitates Engraftment of Human PBL Derived B Cells in Immunodeficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Madelyn R.; Appel, Michael C.; Giassi, Lisa J.; Greiner, Dale L.; Shultz, Leonard D.; Woodland, Robert T.

    2008-01-01

    The production of fully immunologically competent humanized mice engrafted with peripheral lymphocyte populations provides a model for in vivo testing of new vaccines, the durability of immunological memory and cancer therapies. This approach is limited, however, by the failure to efficiently engraft human B lymphocytes in immunodeficient mice. We hypothesized that this deficiency was due to the failure of the murine microenvironment to support human B cell survival. We report that while the human B lymphocyte survival factor, B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS/BAFF) enhances the survival of human B cells ex vivo, murine BLyS has no such protective effect. Although human B cells bound both human and murine BLyS, nuclear accumulation of NF-κB p52, an indication of the induction of a protective anti-apoptotic response, following stimulation with human BLyS was more robust than that induced with murine BLyS suggesting a fundamental disparity in BLyS receptor signaling. Efficient engraftment of both human B and T lymphocytes in NOD rag1−/− Prf1−/− immunodeficient mice treated with recombinant human BLyS is observed after adoptive transfer of human PBL relative to PBS treated controls. Human BLyS treated recipients had on average 40-fold higher levels of serum Ig than controls and mounted a de novo antibody response to the thymus-independent antigens in pneumovax vaccine. The data indicate that production of fully immunologically competent humanized mice from PBL can be markedly facilitated by providing human BLyS. PMID:18784835

  18. Application of chimeric mice with humanized liver for study of human-specific drug metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Thomas J; Reddy, Vijay G B; Kakuni, Masakazu; Morikawa, Yoshio; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2014-06-01

    Human-specific or disproportionately abundant human metabolites of drug candidates that are not adequately formed and qualified in preclinical safety assessment species pose an important drug development challenge. Furthermore, the overall metabolic profile of drug candidates in humans is an important determinant of their drug-drug interaction susceptibility. These risks can be effectively assessed and/or mitigated if human metabolic profile of the drug candidate could reliably be determined in early development. However, currently available in vitro human models (e.g., liver microsomes, hepatocytes) are often inadequate in this regard. Furthermore, the conduct of definitive radiolabeled human ADME studies is an expensive and time-consuming endeavor that is more suited for later in development when the risk of failure has been reduced. We evaluated a recently developed chimeric mouse model with humanized liver on uPA/SCID background for its ability to predict human disposition of four model drugs (lamotrigine, diclofenac, MRK-A, and propafenone) that are known to exhibit human-specific metabolism. The results from these studies demonstrate that chimeric mice were able to reproduce the human-specific metabolite profile for lamotrigine, diclofenac, and MRK-A. In the case of propafenone, however, the human-specific metabolism was not detected as a predominant pathway, and the metabolite profiles in native and humanized mice were similar; this was attributed to the presence of residual highly active propafenone-metabolizing mouse enzymes in chimeric mice. Overall, the data indicate that the chimeric mice with humanized liver have the potential to be a useful tool for the prediction of human-specific metabolism of xenobiotics and warrant further investigation.

  19. Rabbit anti-rabies immunoglobulins production and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinjian; Liu, Qiongqiong; Feng, Xiaomin; Tang, Qi; Wang, Zhongcan; Li, Suqing; Feng, Zhenqing; Zhu, Jin; Guan, Xiaohong

    2011-04-01

    Due to the disadvantages of human and equine rabies immunoglobulin, it is necessary to develop a substitute for HRIG and ERIG, especially for those people living in the developing countries. Because of higher affinity and lower immunogenicity of rabbit's immunoglobulins, anti-rabies immunoglobulins specific to rabies virus were produced in rabbits as a bioreactor, and had been characterized by ELISA, affinity assay, immunofluorescence assay (IFA), immunocytochemistry, rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). ELISA, affinity assay and IFA showed that rabbit RIG (RRIG) bound specifically to rabies virions. RFFIT result showed that RRIG has neutralization activity. This result was confirmed in vivo in a Kunming mouse challenge model and the protection rate of the treatment with RRIG was higher (25%) than that offered by HRIG when mice were challenged with a lethal RV dose. Our results demonstrate that RRIG is safe and efficacious as a candidate drug to replace rabies immunoglobulin in post-exposure prophylaxis.

  20. Repair of Osteochondral Defects Using Human Umbilical Cord Wharton's Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yanhui; Yuan, Mei; Guo, Weimin; Huang, Jingxiang; Zhao, Bin; Xu, Wenjing; Lu, Shibi

    2017-01-01

    Umbilical cord Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cell (WJMSC) is a new-found mesenchymal stem cell in recent years with multiple lineage potential. Due to its abundant resources, no damage procurement, and lower immunogenicity than other adult MSCs, WJMSC promises to be a good xenogenous cell candidate for tissue engineering. This in vivo pilot study explored the use of human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJMSCs) containing a tissue engineering construct xenotransplant in rabbits to repair full-thickness cartilage defects in the femoral patellar groove. We observed orderly spatial-temporal remodeling of hWJMSCs into cartilage tissues during repair over 16 months, with characteristic architectural features, including a hyaline-like neocartilage layer with good surface regularity, complete integration with adjacent host cartilage, and regenerated subchondral bone. No immune rejection was detected when xenograft hWJMSCs were implanted into rabbit cartilage defects. The repair results using hWJMSCs were superior to those of chondrogenically induced hWJMSCs after assessing gross appearance and histological grading scores. These preliminary results suggest that using novel undifferentiated hWJMSCs as seed cells might be a better approach than using transforming growth factor-β-induced differentiated hWJMSCs for in vivo tissue engineering treatment of cartilage defects. hWJMSC allografts may be promising for clinical applications. PMID:28261617

  1. Repair of Osteochondral Defects Using Human Umbilical Cord Wharton's Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuyun; Jia, Yanhui; Yuan, Mei; Guo, Weimin; Huang, Jingxiang; Zhao, Bin; Peng, Jiang; Xu, Wenjing; Lu, Shibi; Guo, Quanyi

    2017-01-01

    Umbilical cord Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cell (WJMSC) is a new-found mesenchymal stem cell in recent years with multiple lineage potential. Due to its abundant resources, no damage procurement, and lower immunogenicity than other adult MSCs, WJMSC promises to be a good xenogenous cell candidate for tissue engineering. This in vivo pilot study explored the use of human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJMSCs) containing a tissue engineering construct xenotransplant in rabbits to repair full-thickness cartilage defects in the femoral patellar groove. We observed orderly spatial-temporal remodeling of hWJMSCs into cartilage tissues during repair over 16 months, with characteristic architectural features, including a hyaline-like neocartilage layer with good surface regularity, complete integration with adjacent host cartilage, and regenerated subchondral bone. No immune rejection was detected when xenograft hWJMSCs were implanted into rabbit cartilage defects. The repair results using hWJMSCs were superior to those of chondrogenically induced hWJMSCs after assessing gross appearance and histological grading scores. These preliminary results suggest that using novel undifferentiated hWJMSCs as seed cells might be a better approach than using transforming growth factor-β-induced differentiated hWJMSCs for in vivo tissue engineering treatment of cartilage defects. hWJMSC allografts may be promising for clinical applications.

  2. Optimization of Cultured Human Corneal Endothelial Cell Sheet Transplantation and Post-Operative Sheet Evaluation in a Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Shima, Nobuyuki; Kimoto, Miwa; Ebihara, Nobuyuki; Murakami, Akira; Yamagami, Satoru

    2016-09-01

    To optimize cultured human corneal endothelial cell (cHCEC) sheet transplantation technique for maintenance of cHCEC viability. cHCEC sheets cultured on a collagen scaffold were covered with or without Viscoat® and exposed to humidified air in the incubator. cHCEC sheets with or without Viscoat® were transplanted into cadaveric porcine eyes by the DSAEK technique with full air tamponade and incubated for various time periods. Then cell viability was determined by using the live/dead assay kit. cHCEC sheets with Viscoat® were transplanted into rabbit eyes and the sheets were histologically evaluated before and 14 days after transplantation. A collagen scaffold and Viscoat® were effective for protecting cHCEC from damage due to air exposure in vitro. All cells died after 18 hours of air exposure in porcine eyes in Viscoat® untreated control. In contrast, Viscoat® treatment sustained full cell viability following 2 hours and could maintain approximately 80% viability after 18 hours. In a rabbit model, transplanted cHCEC sheet with Viscoat® maintained cell density at 2803 ± 229 mm(2) (18% cell loss) and expression of N-cadherin, zonula occludens-1, and actin-filament localized to cell boundary as similar as donor HCEC. Viscoat® can contribute to cHCEC protection from damage caused by exposure to air.

  3. Comparison of the safety and pharmacokinetics of ST-246® after i.v. infusion or oral administration in mice, rabbits and monkeys.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yali; Amantana, Adams; Tyavanagimatt, Shanthakumar R; Zima, Daniela; Yan, X Steven; Kasi, Gopi; Weeks, Morgan; Stone, Melialani A; Weimers, William C; Samuel, Peter; Tan, Ying; Jones, Kevin F; Lee, Daniel R; Kickner, Shirley S; Saville, Bradley M; Lauzon, Martin; McIntyre, Alan; Honeychurch, Kady M; Jordan, Robert; Hruby, Dennis E; Leeds, Janet M

    2011-01-01

    ST-246® is an antiviral, orally bioavailable small molecule in clinical development for treatment of orthopoxvirus infections. An intravenous (i.v.) formulation may be required for some hospitalized patients who are unable to take oral medication. An i.v. formulation has been evaluated in three species previously used in evaluation of both efficacy and toxicology of the oral formulation. The pharmacokinetics of ST-246 after i.v. infusions in mice, rabbits and nonhuman primates (NHP) were compared to those obtained after oral administration. Ten minute i.v. infusions of ST-246 at doses of 3, 10, 30, and 75 mg/kg in mice produced peak plasma concentrations ranging from 16.9 to 238 µg/mL. Elimination appeared predominately first-order and exposure dose-proportional up to 30 mg/kg. Short i.v. infusions (5 to 15 minutes) in rabbits resulted in rapid distribution followed by slower elimination. Intravenous infusions in NHP were conducted at doses of 1 to 30 mg/kg. The length of single infusions in NHP ranged from 4 to 6 hours. The pharmacokinetics and tolerability for the two highest doses were evaluated when administered as two equivalent 4 hour infusions initiated 12 hours apart. Terminal elimination half-lives in all species for oral and i.v. infusions were similar. Dose-limiting central nervous system effects were identified in all three species and appeared related to high C(max) plasma concentrations. These effects were eliminated using slower i.v. infusions. Pharmacokinetic profiles after i.v. infusion compared to those observed after oral administration demonstrated the necessity of longer i.v. infusions to (1) mimic the plasma exposure observed after oral administration and (2) avoid C(max) associated toxicity. Shorter infusions at higher doses in NHP resulted in decreased clearance, suggesting saturated distribution or elimination. Elimination half-lives in all species were similar between oral and i.v. administration. The administration of ST-246 was well

  4. Efficacy of five human melanocytic cell lines in experimental rabbit choroidal melanoma.

    PubMed

    López-Velasco, Rosario; Morilla-Grasa, Antonio; Saornil-Alvarez, María A; Ordóñez, José L; Blanco, Gonzalo; Rábano, Guillermo; Fernández, Nieves; Almaraz, Ana

    2005-02-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the ability of five uveal melanocytic cell lines to produce primary and metastatic uveal melanomas in immunosuppressed rabbits and to determine whether animal survival was improved by antibiotic administration. One hundred albino rabbit eyes, five groups of 20, were implanted in the suprachoroidal space with four melanoma cell lines (MKT-BR, OCM-1, 92-1 and SP 6.5) and one melanocytic line (UW-1). Rabbits were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin A (CsA) at a dosage of 15 mg/kg/day, decreased to 10 mg/kg/day after the fourth week. Prophylactic penicillin G, 10 to 2 x 10 IU, was administered intramuscularly at 5-day intervals. Animals were followed for 12 weeks and the ophthalmoscopic findings, weight and general well-being were recorded weekly. Autopsies were performed to study the eyes, liver and lungs under light microscopy. The mean global survival time in the groups was 43+/-4 days. Ophthalmoscopic intraocular tumours developed in 37% of the MKT-BR group, 50% of the OCM-1 group, 100% of the 92-1 group, 23% of the UW-1 group and 75% of the SP 6.5 group; histologically, tumours appeared in 36.8%, 45%, 100%, 58.8% and 100%, respectively. The 92-1 and SP 6.5 cell lines were associated with the most aggressive local behaviour. Lung metastases developed in the OCM-1 group (5%), 92-1 group (61.1%), UW-1 group (7.1%) and SP 6.5 group (42.1%), but were not present in the MKT-BR group. The 92-1 and SP 6.5 cell lines were the most efficient in local and metastatic tumour production. Prophylactic antibiotic administration did not improve animal survival.

  5. Growth suppressive efficacy of human lak cells against human lung-cancer implanted into scid mice.

    PubMed

    Teraoka, S; Kyoizumi, S; Suzuki, T; Yamakido, M; Akiyama, M

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the efficacy of immunotherapy using human lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells against a human-lung squamous-cell carcinoma cell line (RERF-LC-AI) implanted into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. A statistically significant growth suppressive effect on RERF-LC-AI implanted into SCID mice was observed when human LAK cells were administered into the caudal vein of the mice treated with a continuous supply (initiated prior to LAK cells injection) of rIL-2. The human LAK cells stained with PKH 2, a fluorescent dye, for later detection using flow cytometry were administered into the caudal vein of RERF-LC-AI bearing SCID mice; the cells persisted for 7 days in the implanted lung cancer tissue and in the mouse peripheral blood, but for 5 days in the mouse spleen. The number of infiltrated human LAK cells in each tissue increased dose-dependently with the number of injected cells. The results indicate that the antitumor effect most likely occurred during the early implantation period of the human LAK cells. These results demonstrate the applicability of this model to the in vivo study of human lung cancer therapy.

  6. Effects of cultured human adipose-derived stem cells transplantation on rabbit cornea regeneration after alkaline chemical burn.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Lai, Yung-Chang; Tai, Chih-Feng; Tsai, Jin-Lian; Hsu, Huan-Chen; Hsu, Ruey-Fen; Lu, Sheng-Nan; Feng, Nan-Hsiung; Chai, Chee-Yin; Lee, Chung-Hsun

    2013-01-01

    Ocular chemical burn is a severe injury with poor outcomes. Immediate and appropriate management is highly related to prognosis. We studied the effect of cultured human adipose tissue-derived stem cells on the regeneration of the rabbit cornea after alkaline chemical burn, using used human adipose tissue-derived stem cells as the source material. Immediately after the chemical burn, the experimental eye received a single subconjunctival injection of a stem cell suspension (1.3 × 10(5) cells/0.2 mL), with the other eye serving as control. Rabbits were sacrificed and specimens taken 30 days after injection. The experimental group showed faster wound healing than the control group, and the result for the experimental group was clearer cornea medium. Histologically, there were five to six epithelial cell layers on the corneas of the experimental group as compared to two to three cell layers on the corneas of the control group. Wilcoxon signed rank test showed a significant difference in the epithelial cell layers between the two groups. Surface markers for connexin 43 (Cx43), β-catenin, E-cadherin, and P63 were analyzed. Cx43 and β-catenin showed significant change, as determined by the Wilcoxon signed rank test, which indicated good cell renewal during repair of the corneal epithelium damaged by the chemical burn. E-cadherin and P63 showed no significant change during the epithelium healing process. Transplantation of cultured human adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a treatment for a corneal chemical burn promotes cell renewal and assists in damage repair. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Development of a cytotoxic T-cell assay in rabbits to evaluate early immune response to human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Rashade A H; Phipps, Andrew J; Yamamoto, Brenda; Green, Patrick; Lairmore, Michael D

    2009-12-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection causes adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia (ATL) following a prolonged clinical incubation period, despite a robust adaptive immune response against the virus. Early immune responses that allow establishment of the infection are difficult to study without effective animal models. We have developed a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) assay to monitor the early events of HTLV-1 infection in rabbits. Rabbit skin fibroblast cell lines were established by transformation with a plasmid expressing simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen and used as autochthonous targets (derived from same individual animal) to measure CTL activity against HTLV-1 infection in rabbits. Recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) constructs expressing either HTLV-1 envelope surface unit (SU) glycoprotein 46 or Tax proteins were used to infect fibroblast targets in a (51)Cr-release CTL assay. Rabbits inoculated with Jurkat T cells or ACH.2 cells (expressing ACH HTLV-1 molecule clone) were monitored at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 13, 21, and 34 wk post-infection. ACH.2-inoculated rabbits were monitored serologically and for viral infected cells following ex vivo culture. Proviral load analysis indicated that rabbits with higher proviral loads had significant CTL activity against HTLV-1 SU as early as 2 wk post-infection, while both low- and high-proviral-load groups had minimal Tax-specific CTL activity throughout the study. This first development of a stringent assay to measure HTLV-1 SU and Tax-specific CTL assay in the rabbit model will enhance immunopathogenesis studies of HTLV-1 infection. Our data suggest that during the early weeks following infection, HTLV-1-specific CTL responses are primarily targeted against Env-SU.

  8. Exocrine pancreatic disorders in transsgenic mice expressing human keratin 8

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, M. Llanos; Bravo, Ana; Ramírez, Angel; Escobar, Gabriela Morreale de; Were, Felipe; Merlino, Glenn; Vidal, Miguel; Jorcano, José L.

    1999-01-01

    Keratins K8 and K18 are the major components of the intermediate-filament cytoskeleton of simple epithelia. Increased levels of these keratins have been correlated with various tumor cell characteristics, including progression to malignancy, invasive behavior, and drug sensitivity, although a role for K8/K18 in tumorigenesis has not yet been demonstrated. To examine the function of these keratins, we generated mice expressing the human K8 (hk8) gene, which leads to a moderate keratin-content increase in their simple epithelia. These mice displayed progressive exocrine pancreas alterations, including dysplasia and loss of acinar architecture, redifferentiation of acinar to ductal cells, inflammation, fibrosis, and substitution of exocrine by adipose tissue, as well as increased cell proliferation and apoptosis. Histological changes were not observed in other simple epithelia, such as the liver. Electron microscopy showed that transgenic acinar cells have keratins organized in abundant filament bundles dispersed throughout the cytoplasm, in contrast to control acinar cells, which have scarce and apically concentrated filaments. The phenotype found was very similar to that reported for transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative mutant TGF-β type II receptor (TGFβRII mice). We show that these TGFβRII mutant mice also have elevated K8/K18 levels. These results indicate that simple epithelial keratins play a relevant role in the regulation of exocrine pancreas homeostasis and support the idea that disruption of mechanisms that normally regulate keratin expression in vivo could be related to inflammatory and neoplastic pancreatic disorders. PMID:10359568

  9. Human Genetic Disorders and Knockout Mice Deficient in Glycosaminoglycan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are constructed through the stepwise addition of respective monosaccharides by various glycosyltransferases and maturated by epimerases and sulfotransferases. The structural diversity of GAG polysaccharides, including their sulfation patterns and sequential arrangements, is essential for a wide range of biological activities such as cell signaling, cell proliferation, tissue morphogenesis, and interactions with various growth factors. Studies using knockout mice of enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of the GAG side chains of proteoglycans have revealed their physiological functions. Furthermore, mutations in the human genes encoding glycosyltransferases, sulfotransferases, and related enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of GAGs cause a number of genetic disorders including chondrodysplasia, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes. This review focused on the increasing number of glycobiological studies on knockout mice and genetic diseases caused by disturbances in the biosynthetic enzymes for GAGs. PMID:25126564

  10. Prediction of human metabolism of the sedative-hypnotic zaleplon using chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Tanoue, Chiaki; Sugihara, Kazumi; Uramaru, Naoto; Tayama, Yoshitaka; Watanabe, Yoko; Horie, Toru; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2013-11-01

    1. Human chimeric mice (h-PXB mice) having humanized liver, constructed by transplantation of human hepatocytes, were evaluated as an experimental model for predicting human drug metabolism. Metabolism of zaleplon in h-PXB mice was compared with that in rat chimeric mice (r-PXB mice) constructed by transplantation of rat hepatocytes. 2. Zaleplon is metabolized to 5-oxo-zaleplon by aldehyde oxidase and to desethyl-zaleplon by cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4) in rat and human liver preparations. 3. Liver S9 fraction of h-PXB mice metabolized zaleplon to 5-oxo-zaleplon and desethyl-zaleplon in similar amounts. However, liver S9 fractions of r-PXB and control (urokinase-type plasminogen activator-transgenic severe combined immunodeficient) mice predominantly metabolized zaleplon to desethyl-zaleplon. 5-Oxo-zaleplon was detected as a minor metabolite. 4. Oxidase activity of h-PXB mouse liver cytosol toward zaleplon was about 10-fold higher than that of r-PXB or control mice. In contrast, activities for desethyl-zaleplon formation were similar in liver microsomes from these mice, as well as rat and human liver microsomes. 5. In vivo, the level of 5-oxo-zaleplon in plasma of h-PXB mice was about 7-fold higher than that in r-PXB or control mice, in agreement with the in vitro data. Thus, aldehyde oxidase in h-PXB mice functions as human aldehyde oxidase, both in vivo and in vitro. 6. In contrast, the plasma level of desethyl-zaleplon in r-PXB and control mice was higher than that in h-PXB mice. 7. These results suggest h-PXB mice with humanized liver could be a useful experimental model to predict aldehyde oxidase- and CYP3A4-mediated drug metabolism in humans.

  11. Mice carrying a human GLUD2 gene recapitulate aspects of human transcriptome and metabolome development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Guo, Song; Jiang, Xi; Bryk, Jaroslaw; Naumann, Ronald; Enard, Wolfgang; Tomita, Masaru; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Khaitovich, Philipp; Pääbo, Svante

    2016-01-01

    Whereas all mammals have one glutamate dehydrogenase gene (GLUD1), humans and apes carry an additional gene (GLUD2), which encodes an enzyme with distinct biochemical properties. We inserted a bacterial artificial chromosome containing the human GLUD2 gene into mice and analyzed the resulting changes in the transcriptome and metabolome during postnatal brain development. Effects were most pronounced early postnatally, and predominantly genes involved in neuronal development were affected. Remarkably, the effects in the transgenic mice partially parallel the transcriptome and metabolome differences seen between humans and macaques analyzed. Notably, the introduction of GLUD2 did not affect glutamate levels in mice, consistent with observations in the primates. Instead, the metabolic effects of GLUD2 center on the tricarboxylic acid cycle, suggesting that GLUD2 affects carbon flux during early brain development, possibly supporting lipid biosynthesis. PMID:27118840

  12. Genetic Basis of Atherosclerosis: Insights from Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Stylianou, Ioannis M.; Bauer, Robert C.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Rader, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a complex and heritable disease involving multiple cell types and the interactions of many different molecular pathways. The genetic and molecular mechanisms of atherosclerosis have in part been elucidated by mouse models; at least 100 different genes have been shown to influence atherosclerosis in mice. Importantly, unbiased genome-wide association studies have recently identified a number of novel loci robustly associated with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD). Here we review the genetic data elucidated from mouse models of atherosclerosis, as well as significant associations for human CAD. Furthermore, we discuss in greater detail some of these novel human CAD loci. The combination of mouse and human genetics has the potential to identify and validate novel genes that influence atherosclerosis, some of which may be candidates for new therapeutic approaches. PMID:22267839

  13. Of mice and men: aligning mouse and human anatomies.

    PubMed

    Bodenreider, Olivier; Hayamizu, Terry F; Ringwald, Martin; De Coronado, Sherri; Zhang, Songmao

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the alignment between mouse and human anatomies, a critical resource for comparative science as diseases in mice are used as mod-els of human disease. The two ontologies under investigation are the NCI Thesaurus (human anatomy) and the Adult Mouse Anatomical Dictionary, each comprising about 2500 anatomical concepts. This study compares two approaches to aligning ontologies. One is fully automatic, based on a combination of lexical and structural similarity; the other is manual. The resulting mappings were evaluated by an expert. 715 and 781 mappings were identified by each method respectively, of which 639 are common to both and all valid. The applications of the map-ping are discussed from the perspective of biology and from that of ontology.

  14. The mesenchymal stem cells derived from transgenic mice carrying human coagulation factor VIII can correct phenotype in hemophilia A mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Gong, Xiuli; Gong, Zhijuan; Ren, Xiaoyie; Ren, Zhaorui; Huang, Shuzhen; Zeng, Yitao

    2013-12-20

    Hemophilia A (HA) is an inherited X-linked recessive bleeding disorder caused by coagulant factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency. Previous studies showed that introduction of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) modified by FVIII-expressing retrovirus may result in phenotypic correction of HA animals. This study aimed at the investigation of an alternative gene therapy strategy that may lead to sustained FVIII transgene expression in HA mice. B-domain-deleted human FVIII (hFVIIIBD) vector was microinjected into single-cell embryos of wild-type mice to generate a transgenic mouse line, from which hFVIIIBD-MSCs were isolated, followed by transplantation into HA mice. RT-PCR and real-time PCR analysis demonstrated the expression of hFVIIIBD in multi-organs of recipient HA mice. Immunohistochemistry showed the presence of hFVIIIBD positive staining in multi-organs of recipient HA mice. ELISA indicated that plasma hFVIIIBD level in recipient mice reached its peak (77 ng/mL) at the 3rd week after implantation, and achieved sustained expression during the 5-week observation period. Plasma FVIII activities of recipient HA mice increased from 0% to 32% after hFVIIIBD-MSCs transplantation. APTT (activated partial thromboplastin time) value decreased in hFVIIIBD-MSCs transplanted HA mice compared with untreated HA mice (45.5 s vs. 91.3 s). Our study demonstrated an effective phenotypic correction in HA mice using genetically modified MSCs from hFVIIIBD transgenic mice.

  15. Photoaffinity labeling of human platelet and rabbit kidney. cap alpha. -adrenoceptors with (/sup 3/H)SKF 102229

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, J.W.; Raymond, J.R.; Lefkowitz, R.J.; DeMarinis, R.M.

    1986-06-13

    A newly developed ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic photoaffinity ligand, 3-methyl-6-chloro-9-azido-1H-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-benzazepine (SKF 102229), has been radiolabeled with tritium to a specific activity of approx. 80 Ci/mmol. Using membranes prepared from human platelets and from rabbit kidney, ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptors have been covalently labeled following photolysis in the presence of (/sup 3/H)SKF 102229. As determined by SDS-PAGE, the apparent molecular weight of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptors from both of these tissues was 64,000. The yield of covalent insertion of (/sup 3/H)SKF 102229 into the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptor was very good. Thus, following photolysis up to 90% of the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptors could be irreversibly labeled with (/sup 3/H)SKF 102229.

  16. Common-path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography of irradiated human skin and ventilated isolated rabbit lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, A.; Wendel, M.; Knels, L.; Knuschke, P.; Mehner, M.; Koch, T.; Boller, D.; Koch, P.; Koch, E.

    2005-08-01

    A compact common path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system based on a broadband superluminescence diode is used for biomedical imaging. The epidermal thickening of human skin after exposure to ultraviolet radiation is measured to proof the feasibility of FD-OCT for future substitution of invasive biopsies in a long term study on natural UV skin protection. The FD-OCT system is also used for imaging lung parenchyma. FD-OCT images of a formalin fixated lung show the same alveolar structure as scanning electron microscopy images. In the ventilated and blood-free perfused isolated rabbit lung FD-OCT is used for real-time cross-sectional image capture of alveolar mechanics throughout tidal ventilation. The alveolar mechanics changing from alternating recruitment-derecruitment at zero positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to persistent recruitment after applying a PEEP of 5 cm H2O is observed in the OCT images.

  17. Bee venom inhibits growth of human cervical tumors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Myoung; Jung, Yu Yeon; Park, Mi Hee; Oh, Sang Hyun; Yun, Hye Seok; Jun, Hyung Ok; Yoo, Hwan Soo; Han, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ung Soo; Yoon, Joo Hee; Song, Min Jong; Hong, Jin Tae

    2015-01-01

    We studied whether bee venom (BV) inhibits cervical tumor growth through enhancement of death receptor (DR) expressions and inactivation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in mice. In vivo study showed that BV (1 mg/kg) inhibited tumor growth. Similar inhibitory effects of BV on cancer growth in primary human cervical cancer cells were also found. BV (1–5 μg/ml) also inhibited the growth of cancer cells, Ca Ski and C33Aby the induction of apoptotic cell death in a dose dependent manner. Agreed with cancer cell growth inhibition, expression of death receptors; FAS, DR3 and DR6, and DR downstream pro-apoptotic proteins including caspase-3 and Bax was concomitantly increased, but the NF-κB activity and the expression of Bcl-2 were inhibited by treatment with BV in tumor mice, human cancer cell and human tumor samples as well as cultured cancer cells. In addition, deletion of FAS, DR3 and DR6 by small interfering RNA significantly reversed BV-induced cell growth inhibitory effects as well as NF-κB inactivation. These results suggest that BV inhibits cervical tumor growth through enhancement of FAS, DR3 and DR6 expression via inhibition of NF-κB pathway. PMID:25730901

  18. Comparative studies on neutralisation of primary HIV-1 isolates by human sera and rabbit anti-V3 peptide sera.

    PubMed

    Lawoko, A L; Johansson, B; Hjalmarsson, S; Christensson, B; Ljungberg, B; Al-Khalili, L; Sjölund, M; Pipkorn, R; Fenyö, E M; Blomberg, J

    1999-10-01

    IgG binding to V3 peptides and serum neutralising responses were studied in four HIV-1 infected individuals with progressive disease over a period of 31-70 months. The 18-20 mer peptides comprised residues 299-317 (numbering of HIV1 MN) in the N-terminal half of the V3 loop of the envelope glycoprotein gp120 and were derived from the sequences of autologous, as well as heterologous isolates. All four individuals studied lacked anti-V3 IgG binding to at least one autologous V3 sequence. V3 peptides to which autologous sera lacked binding IgG were all immunogenic in rabbits and induced antisera that were broadly cross-reactive by EIA and broadly cross-neutralising to primary HIV-1 isolates. This indicates that the peptides are immunogenic per se and that the respective human hosts have selective defects in recognising the corresponding V3 sequences. Despite the absence of antibody binding to autologous V3 peptides, the human sera had neutralising antibodies to autologous (three out of four cases), as well as heterologous isolates (all cases). Moreover, in vitro exposure of the patients' isolates to autologous neutralising serum or the homologous rabbit antiserum selected for variants with amino acid substitutions close to the crown of the V3 loop or in regions outside the sequence corresponding to peptides used for immunisation. The amino acid exchanges affected V3 positions known to be antigenic and which are also prone to change successively in infected persons. It is likely that neutralising antibodies recognise both linear and conformational epitopes in the V3 loop. Apparently, there are several, but restricted, numbers of ways for this structure to change its conformation and thereby give rise to neutralisation resistant viruses.

  19. Corneal haze induced by excimer laser photoablation in rabbits is reduced by preserved human amniotic membrane graft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ming X.; Gray, Trevor; Prabhasawat, Pinnita; Ma, Xiong; Culbertson, William; Forster, Richard; Hanna, Khalil; Tseng, Scheffer C. G.

    1998-06-01

    We conducted a study to determine if preserved human amniotic membrane can reduce corneal haze induced by excimer laser photoablation. Excimer photoablation was performed bilaterally on 40 New Zealand white rabbits with a 6 mm ablation zone and 120 micrometer depth (PTK) using the VISX Star. One eye was randomly covered with a preserved human amniotic membrane and secured using four interrupted 10 - 0 nylon sutures; the other eye served as control. The amniotic membranes were removed at one week, and the corneal haze was graded with a slit-lamp biomicroscopy by three masked corneal specialists (WC, KH and RF) biweekly for the ensuing 12 weeks. Histology and in situ TUNEL staining (for fragmented DNA as an index for apoptosis) was performed at days 1, 3 and 7 and at 12 weeks. One week after excimer photoablation, the amniotic membrane-covered corneas showed more anterior stromal edema, which resolved at the second week. A consistent grading of organized reticular corneal haze was noted among the three masked observers. Such corneal haze peaked at the seventh week in both groups. The amniotic membrane-covered group showed statistically significant less corneal haze (0.50 plus or minus 0.15) than the control groups (1.25 plus or minus 0.35) (p less than 0.001). The amniotic membrane-covered corneas had less inflammatory response at days 1 and 3, showing nearly nil DNA fragmentation on keratocytes on the ablated anterior stromal and less stromal fibroblast activation. There is less altered epithelial cell morphology and less epithelial hyperplasia at 1 week in these amniotic membrane-treated eyes. We concluded from this study that amniotic membrane matrix is effective in reducing corneal haze induced by excimer photoablation in rabbits and may have clinical applications.

  20. Two Outer Membrane Lipoproteins from Histophilus somni Are Immunogenic in Rabbits and Sheep and Induce Protection against Bacterial Challenge in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Brambila, Carolina; Rojas-Mayorquín, Argelia E.; Flores-Samaniego, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Histophilus somni is an economically important pathogen of cattle and other ruminants and is considered one of the key components of the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex, the leading cause of economic loss in the livestock industry. BRD is a multifactorial syndrome, in which a triad of agents, including bacteria, viruses, and predisposing factors or “stressors,” combines to induce disease. Although vaccines against H. somni have been used for many decades, traditional bacterins have failed to demonstrate effective protection in vaccinated animals. Hence, the BRD complex continues to produce strong adverse effects on the health and well-being of stock and feeder cattle. The generation of recombinant proteins may facilitate the development of more effective vaccines against H. somni, which could confer better protection against BRD. In the present study, primers were designed to amplify, clone, express, and purify two recombinant lipoproteins from H. somni, p31 (Plp4) and p40 (LppB), which are structural proteins of the outer bacterial membrane. The results presented here demonstrate, to our knowledge for the first time, that when formulated, an experimental vaccine enriched with these two recombinant lipoproteins generates high antibody titers in rabbits and sheep and exerts a protective effect in mice against septicemia induced by H. somni bacterial challenge. PMID:22971783

  1. Two outer membrane lipoproteins from Histophilus somni are immunogenic in rabbits and sheep and induce protection against bacterial challenge in mice.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Brambila, Carolina; Rojas-Mayorquín, Argelia E; Flores-Samaniego, Beatriz; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Histophilus somni is an economically important pathogen of cattle and other ruminants and is considered one of the key components of the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex, the leading cause of economic loss in the livestock industry. BRD is a multifactorial syndrome, in which a triad of agents, including bacteria, viruses, and predisposing factors or "stressors," combines to induce disease. Although vaccines against H. somni have been used for many decades, traditional bacterins have failed to demonstrate effective protection in vaccinated animals. Hence, the BRD complex continues to produce strong adverse effects on the health and well-being of stock and feeder cattle. The generation of recombinant proteins may facilitate the development of more effective vaccines against H. somni, which could confer better protection against BRD. In the present study, primers were designed to amplify, clone, express, and purify two recombinant lipoproteins from H. somni, p31 (Plp4) and p40 (LppB), which are structural proteins of the outer bacterial membrane. The results presented here demonstrate, to our knowledge for the first time, that when formulated, an experimental vaccine enriched with these two recombinant lipoproteins generates high antibody titers in rabbits and sheep and exerts a protective effect in mice against septicemia induced by H. somni bacterial challenge.

  2. A peptide derived from the human leptin molecule is a potent inhibitor of the leptin receptor function in rabbit endometrial cells.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Ruben Rene; Leavis, Paul C

    2003-07-01

    In this article we show that rabbit endometrial cells express leptin receptor and that human leptin triggers phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and up-regulates the expression of interleukin- 1 receptor type I as was previously found in human endometrial cells. Interestingly, leptin also upregulates the secretion of leukemia inhibitory factor and expression of its receptor by rabbit endometrial cells. Analysis of a structural model of the leptin-leptin receptor complex suggested that helices I and III of the human leptin structure were likely sites of interaction with the cytokine binding domain of leptin receptor. Accordingly, we synthesized a peptide (LPA-2) comprising helix III (residues 70-95) and investigated its ability to inhibit leptin receptor function. The effects of LPA-2 were assayed in rabbit endometrial cells, and an antileptin receptor antibody and a scrambled version of LPA-2 were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. LPA-2 binds specifically and with high affinity (Ki ~ 0.6 x 10-10 M) to leptin receptor and is a potent inhibitor of its functions in rabbit endometrial cells. Because leukemia inhibitory factor and interleukin- 1 have been implicated in embryo implantation, our results raise the possibility that the LPA-2-induced inhibition of leptin receptor may be exploited to study the actions of leptin in endometrium and in other tissues under conditions characterized by abnormal leptin production.

  3. Androgen Receptor Variants and Prostate Cancer in Humanized AR Mice

    PubMed Central

    Albertelli, Megan A.; O’Mahony, Orla A.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Androgen, acting via the androgen receptor (AR), is central to male development, differentiation and hormone-dependent diseases such as prostate cancer. AR is actively involved in the initiation of prostate cancer, the transition to androgen independence, and many mechanisms of resistance to therapy. To examine genetic variation of AR in cancer, we created mice by germ-line gene targeting in which human AR sequence replaces that of the mouse. Since shorter length of a polymorphic N-terminal glutamine (Q) tract has been linked to prostate cancer risk, we introduced alleles with 12, 21 or 48 Qs to test this association. The three “humanized” AR mouse strains (h/mAR) are normal physiologically, as well as by cellular and molecular criteria, although slight differences are detected in AR target gene expression, correlating inversely with Q tract length. However, distinct allele-dependent differences in tumorigenesis are evident when these mice are crossed to a transgenic prostate cancer model. Remarkably, Q tract variation also differentially impacts disease progression following androgen depletion. This finding emphasizes the importance of AR function in androgen-independent as well as –dependent disease. These mice provide a novel genetic paradigm in which to dissect opposing functions of AR in tumor suppression vs. oncogenesis. PMID:17936615

  4. Human umbilical cord blood cells ameliorate Alzheimer's disease in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Ende, N; Chen, R; Ende-Harris, D

    2001-01-01

    Having had success in extending the life of mice with a transgene for amyotropic lateral sclerosis (SOD1) mice and Huntington's disease (Hdexon1), we administered megadoses of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells to mice with Alzheimer's disease. These mice have an over-expression of human Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP), die early and develop a CNS disorder that includes neophobia. When given 110 x 10(6) human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells, these mice (HuAPP 695.SWE) had considerable extension of life with a p value of 0.001 when compared to control animals.

  5. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Pulmonary Infection in Humanized Mice Induces Human Anti-RSV Immune Responses and Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anurag; Wu, Wenzhu; Sung, Biin; Huang, Jing; Tsao, Tiffany; Li, Xiangming; Gomi, Rika; Tsuji, Moriya

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract disease, which causes high rates of morbidity and mortality in infants and the elderly. Models of human RSV pulmonary disease are needed to better understand RSV pathogenesis and to assess the efficacy of RSV vaccines. We assessed the RSV-specific human innate, humoral, and cellular immune responses in humanized mice (mice with a human immune system [HIS mice]) with functional human CD4+ T and B cells. These mice were generated by introduction of HLA class II genes, various human cytokines, and human B cell activation factor into immunodeficient NOD scid gamma (NSG) mice by the use of an adeno-associated virus vector, followed by engraftment of human hematopoietic stem cells. During the first 3 days of infection, HIS mice lost more weight and cleared RSV faster than NSG mice. Human chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) and human interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression was detected in the RSV-infected HIS mice. The pathological features induced by RSV infection in HIS mice included peribronchiolar inflammation, neutrophil predominance in the bronchioalveolar lavage fluid, and enhanced airway mucus production. Human anti-RSV IgG and RSV-neutralizing antibodies were detected in serum and human anti-RSV mucosal IgA was detected in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid for up to 6 weeks. RSV infection induced an RSV-specific human gamma interferon response in HIS mouse splenocytes. These results indicate that human immune cells can induce features of RSV lung disease, including mucus hyperplasia, in murine lungs and that HIS mice can be used to elicit human anti-RSV humoral and cellular immunity. IMPORTANCE Infections with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are common and can cause severe lung disease in infants and the elderly. The lack of a suitable animal model with disease features similar to those in humans has hampered efforts to predict the efficacy of novel anti-RSV therapies and

  6. Hantavirus-induced pathogenesis in mice with a humanized immune system.

    PubMed

    Kobak, Lidija; Raftery, Martin J; Voigt, Sebastian; Kühl, Anja A; Kilic, Ergin; Kurth, Andreas; Witkowski, Peter; Hofmann, Jörg; Nitsche, Andreas; Schaade, Lars; Krüger, Detlev H; Schönrich, Günther

    2015-06-01

    Hantaviruses are emerging zoonotic pathogens that can cause severe disease in humans. Clinical observations suggest that human immune components contribute to hantavirus-induced pathology. To address this issue we generated mice with a humanized immune system. Hantavirus infection of these animals resulted in systemic infection associated with weight loss, decreased activity, ruffled fur and inflammatory infiltrates of lung tissue. Intriguingly, after infection, humanized mice harbouring human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-restricted human CD8+ T cells started to lose weight earlier (day 10) than HLA class I-negative humanized mice (day 15). Moreover, in these mice the number of human platelets dropped by 77 % whereas the number of murine platelets did not change, illustrating how differences between rodent and human haemato-lymphoid systems may contribute to disease development. To our knowledge this is the first description of a humanized mouse model of hantavirus infection, and our results indicate a role for human immune cells in hantaviral pathogenesis.

  7. High-level expression of a novel recombinant human plasminogen activator (rhPA) in the milk of transgenic rabbits and its thrombolytic bioactivity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Song, Shaozheng; Ge, Xin; Cheng, Yaobin; Lu, Rui; Zhang, Ting; Yu, Baoli; Ji, Xueqiao; Qi, Zhengqiang; Rong, Yao; Yuan, Yuguo; Cheng, Yong

    2016-08-01

    The human tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a key kinase of fibrinolysis that plays an important role in dissolving fibrin clots to promote thrombolysis. The recombinant human plasminogen activator (rhPA) has more thrombolytic advantages than the wild type tPA. To increase the half-life and thrombolytic activity of tPA, a mutant containing only the essential K2 fibrin-binding and P activating plasminogen domains of the wild type tPA was cloned. This fragment was then inserted into goat β-casein regulatory sequences. Then, a mammary gland-specific expression vector, PCL25/rhPA, was constructed, and the transgenic rabbits were generated. In this study, 18 live transgenic founders (12♀, 6♂) were generated using pronuclear microinjection. Six transgenic rabbits were obtained, and the expression levels of rhPA in the milk had a range of 15.2-630 µg/ml. A fibrin agarose plate assay of rhPA showed that it had strong thrombolytic bioactivity in vitro, and the highest specific activity was >360 (360 times more than that of alteplase). The results indicated that the rhPA containing only the K2 and P domains is efficiently expressed with higher thrombolytic bioactivity in the milk of transgenic rabbits. Our study also demonstrated a new method for the large-scale production of clinically relevant recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in the mammary glands of transgenic rabbits.

  8. Transgenic knockout mice with exclusively human sickle hemoglobinand sickle cell disease

    SciTech Connect

    Paszty, C.; Brion, C.; Manci, E.; Witkowska, E.; Stevens, M.; Narla, M.; Rubin, E.

    1997-06-13

    To create mice expressing exclusively human sicklehemoglobin (HbS), transgenic mice expressing human alpha-, gamma-, andbeta[S]-globin were generated and bred with knockout mice that haddeletions of the murine alpha- and beta-globin genes. These sickle cellmice have the major features (irreversibly sickled red cells, anemia,multiorgan pathology) found in humans with sickle cell disease and, assuch, represent a useful in vivo system to accelerate the development ofimproved therapies for this common genetic disease.

  9. Human apolipoprotein A-I exerts a prophylactic effect on high-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis via inflammation inhibition in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiyang; Wang, Weina; Han, Lei; Feng, Meiqing; Lu, Hui; Yang, Li; Hu, Xiangxiang; Shi, Si; Jiang, Shanshan; Wang, Qian; Ye, Li

    2017-02-06

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is the major functional protein fraction of high-density lipoprotein. The prophylactic effect and mechanism of human apoA-I on atherosclerosis (AS) were investigated in a high-fat diet-induced AS rabbit model. The rabbits were injected with apoA-I once a week while fed high-fat diet for 20 weeks. Our results showed that apoA-I could raise the serum level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and reduce those of lipid total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in AS rabbits. Decreased aortic plaque area and aortic injury degree were also observed by Oil Red O staining and HE staining in apoA-I-treated high-fat diet-induced AS rabbits. Further study elucidated that apoA-I could down-regulate the expression of some inflammatory mediators including intercellular adhesion molecule type 1, vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein in serum and aorta of AS rabbits. In addition, real-time quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed that the apoA-I infusions decreased the mRNA levels of two pro-inflammatory molecules, i.e. nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in aorta of AS rabbits, which was associated with a concomitant reduction in endothelial VCAM-1 and IL-6 mRNA transcription. Together, our results support the atheroprotective and prophylactic role of apoA-I in vivo, and this activity may be correlated with its anti-inflammatory effect. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of topically applied recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor-2 in alkali-burned and intact rabbit eye.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jianqiu; Dou, Guifang; Zheng, Long; Yang, Ting; Jia, Xuechao; Tang, Lu; Huang, Yadong; Wu, Wencan; Li, Xiaokun; Wang, Xiaojie

    2015-07-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2), an effective agent in the development of epithelial tissue and regeneration during corneal wound healing, is a potential therapeutic option to treat the corneal diseases with corneal epithelial defects. However the tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics of KGF-2 have not been explored yet in eye upon topical application. Using (125)I-labeled recombinant human KGF-2 ((125)I-rhKGF-2), tissue distribution of rhKGF-2 in alkali-burned and control rabbit eyes was studied. Our results revealed that (125)I-rhKGF-2 was distributed to all eye tissues examined. The highest radioactivity level was found in the cornea, followed by iris, sclera, ciliary body, lens, aqueous humor, vitreous body, and serum in a greatest to least order. The levels of (125)I-rhKGF-2 were higher in corneas of alkali-burned eyes than those in control eyes though without statistical significance. Calculated pharmacokinetic parameters of t1/2, Cmax, and Tmax of rhKGF-2 in the rabbit corneas were 3.4 h, 135.2 ng/ml, and 0.5 h, respectively. In iris, lens, aqueous humor, and tear, t1/2, Cmax, and Tmax values were 6.2, 6.5, 5.2, and 2.5 h; 23.2, 4.5, 24.1, and 29,498.9 ng/ml; and 1.0, 0.5, 0.5, and 1.0 h, respectively. Predominant and rapid accumulation of rhKGF-2 in corneas suggests that therapeutic doses of rhKGF-2 could be delivered by topical application for treatment of corneal diseases.

  11. Human immune system mice immunized with Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein induce protective human humoral immunity against malaria.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Li, Xiangming; Coelho-dos-Reis, Jordana G A; Zhang, Min; Mitchell, Robert; Nogueira, Raquel Tayar; Tsao, Tiffany; Noe, Amy R; Ayala, Ramses; Sahi, Vincent; Gutierrez, Gabriel M; Nussenzweig, Victor; Wilson, James M; Nardin, Elizabeth H; Nussenzweig, Ruth S; Tsuji, Moriya

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we developed human immune system (HIS) mice that possess functional human CD4+ T cells and B cells, named HIS-CD4/B mice. HIS-CD4/B mice were generated by first introducing HLA class II genes, including DR1 and DR4, along with genes encoding various human cytokines and human B cell activation factor (BAFF) to NSG mice by adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) vectors, followed by engrafting human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). HIS-CD4/B mice, in which the reconstitution of human CD4+ T and B cells resembles to that of humans, produced a significant level of human IgG against Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite (PfCS) protein upon immunization. CD4+ T cells in HIS-CD4/B mice, which possess central and effector memory phenotypes like those in humans, are functional, since PfCS protein-specific human CD4+ T cells secreting IFN-γ and IL-2 were detected in immunized HIS-CD4/B mice. Lastly, PfCS protein-immunized HIS-CD4/B mice were protected from in vivo challenge with transgenic P. berghei sporozoites expressing the PfCS protein. The immune sera collected from protected HIS-CD4/B mice reacted against transgenic P. berghei sporozoites expressing the PfCS protein and also inhibited the parasite invasion into hepatocytes in vitro. Taken together, these studies show that our HIS-CD4/B mice could mount protective human anti-malaria immunity, consisting of human IgG and human CD4+ T cell responses both specific for a human malaria antigen.

  12. Identification of a family of intimins common to Escherichia coli causing attaching-effacing lesions in rabbits, humans, and swine.

    PubMed

    Agin, T S; Wolf, M K

    1997-01-01

    Intimin, an outer membrane protein encoded by eaeA that mediates close attachment of enteropathogenic bacteria to apical surfaces of epithelial cells, is required for formation of the attaching-effacing lesions and for full pathogenesis of the bacteria. Analysis of the eaeA sequence indicates that there is a high degree of homology at the N termini but less at the C termini of intimins. Antisera specific for the C-terminal third of RDEC-1 intimin, used to screen outer membrane proteins from 50 rabbit enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), human EPEC, and human enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strains, identified cross-reactive intimins from 24 isolates. Sequence analysis of the eaeA genes from human EPEC O111 and EHEC O26 isolates indicates that their intimins have C termini nearly identical to that of RDEC-1 intimin. Our results suggest that there are at least three families of related intimins and that the presence of intimin similar to that of RDEC-1 is not restricted by serogroup or host specificity.

  13. The presence of liver auto-antibodies induced by Entamoeba histolytica in the sera from both naturally infected humans and immunized rabbits.

    PubMed

    Faubert, G M; Meerovitch, E; McLaughlin, J

    1978-09-01

    Auto-antibodies against normal human liver have been detected in the sera of humans with highly positive indirect hemagglutination (IHA) amebiasis titers and with clinically-proven amebic liver abscess. Sera of amebiasis patients and rabbits immunized with killed Entamoeba histolytica were tested for anti-amebic antibodies by the IHA test and for auto-antibodies by the complement fixation test, using the antigens prepared from extracts of human liver and rabbit liver. A direct correlation was found to exist between high anti-Entamoeba antibody titers and the presence of anti-liver antibody in the serum. It is proposed that, in addition to direct parasite damage to host tissue, immunological damage could result from the attachment of circulating antigen to the cell surfaces of host tissues such as the liver.

  14. Ex Vivo Expanded Human NK Cells Survive and Proliferate in Humanized Mice with Autologous Human Immune Cells.

    PubMed

    Vahedi, Fatemeh; Nham, Tina; Poznanski, Sophie M; Chew, Marianne V; Shenouda, Mira M; Lee, Dean; Ashkar, Ali A

    2017-09-21

    Adoptive immune cell therapy is emerging as a promising immunotherapy for cancer. Particularly, the adoptive transfer of NK cells has garnered attention due to their natural cytotoxicity against tumor cells and safety upon adoptive transfer to patients. Although strategies exist to efficiently generate large quantities of expanded NK cells ex vivo, it remains unknown whether these expanded NK cells can persist and/or proliferate in vivo in the absence of exogenous human cytokines. Here, we have examined the adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded human cord blood-derived NK cells into humanized mice reconstituted with autologous human cord blood immune cells. We report that ex vivo expanded NK cells are able to survive and possibly proliferate in vivo in humanized mice without exogenous cytokine administration, but not in control mice that lack human immune cells. These findings demonstrate that the presence of autologous human immune cells supports the in vivo survival of ex vivo expanded human NK cells. These results support the application of ex vivo expanded NK cells in cancer immunotherapy and provide a translational humanized mouse model to test the lifespan, safety, and functionality of adoptively transferred cells in the presence of autologous human immune cells prior to clinical use.

  15. Podocyte-specific overexpression of human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 attenuates diabetic nephropathy in mice.

    PubMed

    Nadarajah, Renisha; Milagres, Rosangela; Dilauro, Marc; Gutsol, Alex; Xiao, Fengxia; Zimpelmann, Joseph; Kennedy, Chris; Wysocki, Jan; Batlle, Daniel; Burns, Kevin D

    2012-08-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) degrades angiotensin II to angiotensin-(1-7) and is expressed in podocytes. Here we overexpressed ACE2 in podocytes in experimental diabetic nephropathy using transgenic methods where a nephrin promoter drove the expression of human ACE2. Glomeruli from these mice had significantly increased mRNA, protein, and activity of ACE2 compared to wild-type mice. Male mice were treated with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. After 16 weeks, there was no significant difference in plasma glucose levels between wild-type and transgenic diabetic mice. Urinary albumin was significantly increased in wild-type diabetic mice at 4 weeks, whereas albuminuria in transgenic diabetic mice did not differ from wild-type nondiabetic mice. However, this effect was transient and by 16 weeks both transgenic and nontransgenic diabetic mice had similar rates of proteinuria. Compared to wild-type diabetic mice, transgenic diabetic mice had an attenuated increase in mesangial area, decreased glomerular area, and a blunted decrease in nephrin expression. Podocyte numbers decreased in wild-type diabetic mice at 16 weeks, but were unaffected in transgenic diabetic mice. At 8 weeks, kidney cortical expression of transforming growth factor-β1 was significantly inhibited in transgenic diabetic mice as compared to wild-type diabetic mice. Thus, the podocyte-specific overexpression of human ACE2 transiently attenuates the development of diabetic nephropathy.

  16. Reevaluation of sst₁ somatostatin receptor expression in human normal and neoplastic tissues using the novel rabbit monoclonal antibody UMB-7.

    PubMed

    Lupp, Amelie; Nagel, Falko; Schulz, Stefan

    2013-05-10

    The somatostatin receptor 1 (sst1) is widely distributed throughout the body and is also present in neoplastic tissues. However, little is known about its precise tissue distribution, regulation and function, which may in part be due to the lack of specific monoclonal anti-sst1 antibodies. We have characterized the novel rabbit monoclonal anti-human sst1 antibody UMB-7 using sst1-expressing cells and human pituitary samples. The antibody was then used for immunohistochemical staining of a large panel of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human tissues. Western blot analyses of BON-1 cells and human pituitary revealed a broad band migrating at a molecular weight of 45,000-60,000. After enzymatic deglycosylation the size of this band decreased to a molecular weight of 45,000. UMB-7 yielded an efficient immunostaining of distinct cell populations in the human tissue samples with a predominance of plasma membrane staining, which was completely abolished by preadsorption of UMB-7 with its immunizing peptide. The sst1 receptor was detected in anterior pituitary, pancreatic islets, distal tubules, enteric ganglion cells and nerve fibers, chief cells of the gastric mucosa, macrophages and mast cells. In addition, sst1 was observed in pituitary adenomas, gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors and pheochromocytoma as well as in pancreatic adenocarcinomas, gastric carcinomas, urinary bladder carcinomas and sarcomas. UMB-7 may prove of great value in the identification of sst1-expressing tumors during routine histopathological examinations. This may open up new routes for diagnostic and therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. NOD/SCID mice engrafted with human peripheral blood lymphocytes can be a model for investigating B cells responding to blood group A carbohydrate determinant.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wendy; Ohdan, Hideki; Tanaka, Yuka; Hara, Hidetaka; Tokita, Daisuke; Onoe, Takashi; Asahara, Toshimasa

    2003-01-01

    Human antibodies (Abs) against blood group A or B carbohydrate determinant are a major barrier to ABO-incompatible organ transplantation; however, the phenotype and other properties of B cell types responding to A or B carbohydrate epitopes have not been defined. Studies here, which use fluorescein-labeled synthetic A determinant (GalNAcalpha1-3Fucalpha1-2Gal), demonstrate that B cells bearing surface IgM (sIgM) receptors recognizing blood group A carbohydrate determinant are found exclusively in a small B cell subpopulation, i.e. sIgM+ CD11b+ CD5+ B1 cells, in blood group O human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In order to test anti-A Abs producing capacity of the human PBMC, nonobese diabetic (NOD)/severe combined immune-deficient (SCID) mice that have been treated with rabbit anti-asialo GM1 serum to deplete natural killer cells and with 3 Gy of whole body irradiation were engrafted with blood group O or A human PBMC, followed by sensitization of human blood group A red blood cells. Anti-A-specific human Abs were detected in the sera of the mice that received blood group O human PBMC, whereas they were not detected in the sera of the mice that received blood group A human PBMC, indicating profound tolerance of auto-reactive B cells. The human PBMC-NOD/SCID chimera developed by injection of blood group O human PBMC might be a useful in vivo model to test effects of immunosuppressants or other approaches on human B cells that respond to blood group A antigens.

  18. Efficient hydrolysis of the chemical warfare nerve agent tabun by recombinant and purified human and rabbit serum paraoxonase 1.

    PubMed

    Valiyaveettil, Manojkumar; Alamneh, Yonas; Biggemann, Lionel; Soojhawon, Iswarduth; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2010-12-03

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been described as an efficient catalytic bioscavenger due to its ability to hydrolyze organophosphates (OPs) and chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs). It is the future most promising candidate as prophylactic medical countermeasure against highly toxic OPs and CWNAs. Most of the studies conducted so far have been focused on the hydrolyzing potential of PON1 against nerve agents, sarin, soman, and VX. Here, we investigated the hydrolysis of tabun by PON1 with the objective of comparing the hydrolysis potential of human and rabbit serum purified and recombinant human PON1. The hydrolysis potential of PON1 against tabun, sarin, and soman was evaluated by using an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) back-titration Ellman method. Efficient hydrolysis of tabun (100 nM) was observed with ∼25-40 mU of PON1, while higher concentration (80-250 mU) of the enzyme was required for the complete hydrolysis of sarin (11 nM) and soman (3 nM). Our data indicate that tabun hydrolysis with PON1 was ∼30-60 times and ∼200-260 times more efficient than that with sarin and soman, respectively. Moreover, the catalytic activity of PON1 varies from source to source, which also reflects their efficiency of hydrolyzing different types of nerve agents. Thus, efficient hydrolysis of tabun by PON1 suggests its promising potential as a prophylactic treatment against tabun exposure.

  19. An immunohistochemical study of human platelets using a rabbit antibody against H18-K24 of apolipoprotein CIII (HATKTAK).

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Takao; Sakamoto, Haruhiko; Nakagawa, Toshitaka; Tanaka, Sumiko; Matsumoto, Kouichi; Ueno, Masaki

    2013-08-01

    H18-K24 of human apolipopotein CIII (Apo CIII) (HATKTAK) is an activator of the macromolecular activators of phagocytosis from platelets (MAPPs). Using a rabbit antibody against HATKTAK, we performed an immunohistochemical study of human platelets. Indirect ELISA showed that this antibody reacts with Apo CIII-derived peptides with a C-terminal of HATKTAK, but not with Apo CIII. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that reaction of anti-HATKTAK antibody occurred in the pseudopods of activated platelets. In blood coagula produced from the peripheral blood and formalin-fixed after various incubation periods, reaction of this antibody with platelets appeared rapidly with a peak at 3 to 6 h of incubation, and then diminished gradually. Leukocytes in the blood coagula were stained strongly positive. In tissue sections, fresh thrombi and hemorrhages with slight fibrin formation revealed a positive response of platelets to anti-HATKTAK antibody, whereas older ones with leukocytic infiltration, fibrin formation and organization did not. In addition to platelets, endothelial cells and leukocytes were stained positive by anti-HATKTAK antibody. All of the positive reactions by anti-HATKTAK antibody disappeared or diminished by co-incubation with HATKTAK. In conclusion, the anti-HATKTAK antibody reveals platelets during the early phase of activation.

  20. Characterization of human antiviral adaptive immune responses during hepatotropic virus infection in HLA-transgenic human immune system mice

    PubMed Central

    Billerbeck, Eva; Horwitz, Joshua A.; Labitt, Rachael N.; Donovan, Bridget M.; Vega, Kevin; Budell, William C.; Koo, Gloria C.; Rice, Charles M.; Ploss, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Humanized mice have emerged as a promising model to study human immunity in vivo. While they are susceptible to many pathogens exhibiting an almost exclusive human tropism, human immune responses to infection remain functionally impaired. It has recently been demonstrated that the expression of HLA molecules improves human immunity to lymphotropic virus infections in humanized mice. However, little is known about the extent of functional human immune responses in non-lymphoid tissues, such as in the liver, and the role of HLA expression in this context. Therefore, we analyzed human antiviral immunity in humanized mice during a hepatotropic adenovirus infection. We compared immune responses of conventional humanized NOD SCID IL2RγNULL(NSG) mice to those of a novel NSG strain transgenic for both HLA-A*0201 and a chimeric HLA-DR*0101 molecule. Using a firefly luciferase expressing adenovirus and in vivo bioluminescence imaging, we demonstrate a human T cell dependent partial clearance of adenovirus-infected cells from the liver of HLA-transgenic humanized mice. This correlated with liver-infiltration and activation of T cells, as well as the detection of antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. When infected with an HCV NS3 expressing adenovirus, HLA-transgenic humanized mice mounted an HLA-A*0201 restricted HCV NS3-specific CD8+ T cell response. In conclusion, our study provides evidence for the generation of partial functional antiviral immune responses against a hepatotropic pathogen in humanized HLA-transgenic mice. The adenovirus reporter system used in our study may serve as simple in vivo method to evaluate future strategies for improving human intrahepatic immune responses in humanized mice. PMID:23833235

  1. Expression of human factor IX in rabbit hepatocytes by retrovirus-mediated gene transfer: Potential for gene therapy of hemophilia B

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, A.R. Puget Sound Blood Center, Seattle, WA ); Darlington, G. ); Armentano, D.; Woo, S.L.C.

    1990-08-01

    Hemophilia B (Christmas disease) is a chromosome X-linked blood clotting disorder which results when factor IX is deficient or functionally defective. The enzyme is synthesized in the liver, and the existence of animal models for this genetic disease will permit the development of somatic gene therapy protocols aimed at transfer of the functional gene into the liver. The authors report the construction of an N2-based recombinant retroviral vector, NCMVFIX, for efficient transfer and expression of human factor IX cDNA in primary rabbit hepatocytes. In this construct the human cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter directs the expression of factor IX. Hepatocytes were isolated from 3-week-old New Zealand White rabbits, infected with the recombinant virus, and analyzed for secretion of active factor IX. The infected rabbit hepatocytes produced human factor IX that is indistinguishable from enzyme derived from normal human plasma. The recombinant protein is sufficiently {gamma}-carboxylated and is functionally active in clotting assays. These results establish the feasibility of using infected hepatocytes for the expression of this protein and are a step toward the goal of correcting hemophilia B by hepatic gene transfer.

  2. Comparison of the role of tyrosine residues in human IgG and rabbit IgG in binding of complement subcomponent C1q.

    PubMed Central

    McCall, M N; Easterbrook-Smith, S B

    1989-01-01

    Treatment of covalently cross-linked or heat-aggregated oligomers of human IgG with 4 mM-tetranitromethane abrogated their C1q-binding activity. In contrast, tetranitromethane modification of rabbit IgG oligomers, under identical conditions, had no effect upon their C1q-binding activity. The tetranitromethane treatment led to nitration of about ten tyrosine residues per IgG molecule in both species, and the modification was specific for tyrosine residues. Reduction of the nitrated protein with Na2S2O4 did not lead to recovery of C1q-binding activity in human IgG oligomers or to loss of activity in rabbit IgG oligomers. Tryptic peptides from the nitrated proteins were isolated and a peptide containing nitrotyrosine-319 was recovered from human IgG, as well as peptides from both species corresponding to the region around nitrotyrosine-278. These data are consistent with the inactivation of C1q-binding activity in human IgG being the result of nitration of tyrosine-319; the rabbit IgG is unaffected by nitration because position 319 is phenylalanine. The evidence supports the C1q-receptor site proposed by Burton, Boyd, Brampton, Easterbrook-Smith, Emanuel, Novotny, Rademacher, van Schravendijk, Sternberg & Dwek [(1980) Nature (London) 288, 338-344]: residues 316-338. PMID:2784672

  3. The Inhibitory Effects of Ketamine on Human Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channels and Action Potential in Rabbit Sinoatrial Node.

    PubMed

    Xing, Junlian; Zhang, Chi; Jiang, Wanzhen; Hao, Jie; Liu, Zhipei; Luo, Antao; Zhang, Peihua; Fan, Xinrong; Ma, Jihua

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of ketamine on human hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (hHCN) 1, 2, 4 channel currents expressed in Xenopus oocytes and spontaneous action potentials (APs) of rabbit sinoatrial node (SAN). The 2-electrode voltage clamp and standard microelectrode techniques were respectively applied to record hHCN channels currents expressed in Xenopus oocytes and APs of SAN separated from rabbit heart. Ketamine (1-625 µmol/L) blocked hHCN1, 2, and 4 currents with IC50 of 67.0, 89.1, and 84.0 µmol/L, respectively, in a concentration-dependent manner. The currents were rapidly blocked by ketamine and partially recovered after washout. The steady-state activation curves of hHCN1, 2, and 4 currents demonstrated a concentration-dependent shift to the left and the rates of activation were significantly decelerated. But ketamine blocked hHCN channels in a voltage-independence and non-use-dependent manner, and did not modify the voltage dependence of activation and reversal potentials. Furthermore, ketamine suppressed phase-4 spontaneous depolarization rate in isolated rabbit SAN and decreased the beat rates in a concentration-dependent manner. Ketamine could inhibit hHCN channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes in a concentration-dependent manner as a close-state blocker and decrease beat rates of isolated rabbit SAN. This study may provide novel insights into other unexplained actions of ketamine. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Feasibility and Efficacy of Autologous Bone Marrow Aspirate Transplantation Combined with Human Parathyroid Hormone 1-34 Administration to Treat Osteonecrosis in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Sugaya, Hisashi; Aoto, Katsuya; Uemura, Kenta; Tanaka, Kenta; Akaogi, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Masashi; Mishima, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    No studies have examined the transplantation of a bone marrow aspirate (BMA) containing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) combined with human parathyroid hormone 1-34 (hPTH1-34) administration. Therefore, we evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of autologous BMA transplantation combined with hPHT1-34 administration in a bone necrosis model. The metatarsal bones of rabbits were necrotized using liquid nitrogen, and the rabbits received a BMA transplantation or saline injection followed by hPTH1-34 (30 μg/kg) or saline administration three times per week (n = 3-4 per group). The rabbits were euthanized at 12 weeks after the initiation of treatment. No systemic adverse effects or local neoplastic lesions were observed. Importantly, the rabbits in the BMA transplantation plus hPTH1-34 group showed the highest bone volumes and histological scores of new bone. These data confirmed the feasibility of BMA transplantation combined with hPTH1-34, at least during the experimental period. The observed efficacy may be explained by a synergistic effect from the stimulation of MSC differentiation to osteoblasts with hPTH1-34-mediated suppression of apoptosis in osteoblasts. These results indicate the promising potential for BMA transplantation combined with hPTH1-34 administration in bone necrosis treatment. Longer term experiments are needed to confirm the safety of this therapeutic strategy. PMID:28386485

  5. Dysfunctional platelet membrane receptors: from humans to mice.

    PubMed

    Ware, Jerry

    2004-09-01

    Insights into hemostasis and thrombosis have historically benefited from the astute diagnosis of human bleeding and thrombotic disorders followed by decades of careful biochemical characterization. This work has set the stage for the development of a number of mouse models of hemostasis and thrombosis generated by gene targeting strategies in the mouse genome. The utility of these models is the in depth analysis that can be performed on the precise molecular interactions that support hemostasis and thrombosis along with efficacy testing of various therapeutic strategies. Already the mouse has proven to be an excellent model of the processes that support hemostasis and thrombosis in the human vasculature. A brief summary of the salient phenotypes from knockout mice missing key platelet receptors is presented, including the glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX-V and GP IIb/IIIa (alphaIIb/beta3) receptors; the collagen receptors, GP VI and alpha2/beta1; the protease activated receptors (PARs); and the purinergic receptors, P2Y(1) and P2Y(12). A few differences exist between mouse and human platelets and where appropriate those will be highlighted in this review. Concluding remarks focus on the importance of understanding the power and limitations of various in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models currently being used and the impact of the mouse strain on the described platelet phenotype.

  6. Dysfunctional platelet membrane receptors: from humans to mice

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    Summary Insights into hemostasis and thrombosis have historically benefited from the astute diagnosis of human bleeding and thrombotic disorders followed by decades of careful biochemical characterization. This work has set the stage for the development of a number of mouse models of hemostasis and thrombosis generated by gene targeting strategies in the mouse genome. The utility of these models is the in depth analysis that can be performed on the precise molecular interactions that support hemostasis and thrombosis along with efficacy testing of various therapeutic strategies. Already the mouse has proven to be an excellent model of the processes that support hemostasis and thrombosis in the human vasculature. A brief summary of the salient phenotypes from knockout mice missing key platelet receptors is presented, including the glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX-V and GP IIb/IIIa (αIIb/β3) receptors; the collagen receptors, GPVI and α2βI; the protease activated receptors (PARs); and the purinergic receptors, P2Y1 and P2Y2. A few differences exist between mouse and human platelets and where appropriate those will be highlighted in this review. Concluding remarks focus on the importance of understanding the power and limitations of various in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models currently being used and the impact of the mouse strain on the described platelet phenotype. PMID:15351843

  7. Comparison of the metabolism of ethylene glycol and glycolic acid in vitro by precision-cut tissue slices from female rat, rabbit and human liver.

    PubMed

    Booth, E D; Dofferhoff, O; Boogaard, P J; Watson, W P

    2004-01-01

    1. The metabolism of [1,2-(14)C]-ethylene glycol and [1,2-(14)C]-glycolic acid was studied in vitro using precision-cut tissue slices prepared from the livers of female Sprague-Dawley rats, New Zealand white rabbits and humans. The time-course for production of metabolites formed from ethylene glycol at concentrations from 3 to 40 mM was determined to compare quantitatively the differences between species in the rates and amounts of formation of glycolic acid, the presumed developmental toxicant of ethylene glycol. The rates of metabolism of glycolic acid to glyoxylic acid at concentrations from 0.05 to 16 mM by liver tissue from the different species were also determined. The apparent V(max)/K(m) for the metabolic conversions of ethylene glycol to glycolic acid and for glycolic acid to glyoxylic acid in liver tissue from the different species were obtained. 2. There were qualitative differences in the metabolic profiles and quantitative differences in the formation of glycolic acid between the mammalian liver systems. There was an average of 10-fold less glycolic acid produced by liver slices from rabbits compared with rats. With the human liver, the formation of glycolic acid was not detectable using tissue from three of four human donors. A low level of glycolic acid was detected in one liver slice incubation from one of the four subjects, but only at one extended time point; glyoxylate was detected with liver slices from all four humans. 3. Liver slices prepared from female Sprague-Dawley rats, female New Zealand White rabbits and three female human subjects all metabolized glycolic acid to glyoxylic acid. Human liver tissue was the most effective at further metabolizing glycolic acid to glyoxylic acid. The ratios of V(max)/K(m), representing the relative clearance of glycolic acid from liver tissue, were approximately 14:9:1 for human, rat and rabbit liver, respectively. 4. Precision-cut liver slices maintained in dynamic organ culture are good predictors of

  8. Human melanoma immunotherapy using tumor antigen-specific T cells generated in humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zheng; Xia, Jinxing; Fan, Wei; Wargo, Jennifer; Yang, Yong-Guang

    2016-01-01

    A major factor hindering the exploration of adoptive immunotherapy in preclinical settings is the limited availability of tumor-reactive human T cells. Here we developed a humanized mouse model that permits large-scale production of human T cells expressing the engineered melanoma antigen MART-1-specific TCR. Humanized mice, made by transplantation of human fetal thymic tissue and CD34+ cells virally-transduced with HLA class I-restricted melanoma antigen (MART-1)-specific TCR gene, showed efficient development of MART-1-TCR+ human T cells with predominantly CD8+ cells. Importantly, MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells developing in these mice were capable of mounting antigen-specific responses in vivo, as evidenced by their proliferation, phenotypic conversion and IFN-γ production following MART-1 peptide immunization. Moreover, these MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells mediated efficient killing of melanoma cells in an HLA/antigen-dependent manner. Adoptive transfer of in vitro expanded MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells induced potent antitumor responses that were further enhanced by IL-15 treatment in melanoma-bearing recipients. Finally, a short incubation of MART-1-specific T cells with rapamycin acted synergistically with IL-15, leading to significantly improved tumor-free survival in recipients with metastatic melanoma. These data demonstrate the practicality of using humanized mice to produce potentially unlimited source of tumor-specific human T cells for experimental and preclinical exploration of cancer immunotherapy. This study also suggests that pretreatment of tumor-reactive T cells with rapamycin in combination with IL-15 administration may be a novel strategy to improve the efficacy of adoptive T cell therapy. PMID:26824989

  9. Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus from Rabbits to Cynomolgus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Bu, Qiu-Ning; Han, Jian; Du, Ren-Jie; Lei, Ya-Xin; Ouyang, Yu-Qing; Li, Jie; Zhu, Yong-Hong; Lu, Feng-Min; Zhuang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    The recent discovery of hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains in rabbits in the People’s Republic of China and the United States revealed that rabbits are another noteworthy reservoir of HEV. However, whether HEV from rabbits can infect humans is unclear. To study the zoonotic potential for and pathogenesis of rabbit HEV, we infected 2 cynomolgus macaques and 2 rabbits with an HEV strain from rabbits in China. Typical hepatitis developed in both monkeys; they exhibited elevated liver enzymes, viremia, virus shedding in fecal specimens, and seroconversion. Comparison of the complete genome sequence of HEV passed in the macaques with that of the inoculum showed 99.8% nucleotide identity. Rabbit HEV RNA (positive- and negative-stranded) was detectable in various tissues from the experimentally infected rabbits, indicating that extrahepatic replication may be common. Thus, HEV is transmissible from rabbits to cynomolgus macaques, which suggests that rabbits may be a new source of human HEV infection. PMID:23628346

  10. Preclinical Model To Test Human Papillomavirus Virus (HPV) Capsid Vaccines In Vivo Using Infectious HPV/Cottontail Rabbit Papillomavirus Chimeric Papillomavirus Particles▿

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Andres F.; Culp, Timothy D.; Cladel, Nancy M.; Balogh, Karla K.; Budgeon, Lynn R.; Buck, Christopher B.; Christensen, Neil D.

    2006-01-01

    A human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine consisting of virus-like particles (VLPs) was recently approved for human use. It is generally assumed that VLP vaccines protect by inducing type-specific neutralizing antibodies. Preclinical animal models cannot be used to test for protection against HPV infections due to species restriction. We developed a model using chimeric HPV capsid/cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) genome particles to permit the direct testing of HPV VLP vaccines in rabbits. Animals vaccinated with CRPV, HPV type 16 (HPV-16), or HPV-11 VLPs were challenged with both homologous (CRPV capsid) and chimeric (HPV-16 capsid) particles. Strong type-specific protection was observed, demonstrating the potential application of this approach. PMID:17005666

  11. Generation of Novel Chimeric Mice with Humanized Livers by Using Hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID Mice.

    PubMed

    Tateno, Chise; Kawase, Yosuke; Tobita, Yoshimi; Hamamura, Satoko; Ohshita, Hiroki; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Sanada, Harumi; Kakuni, Masakazu; Shiota, Akira; Kojima, Yuha; Ishida, Yuji; Shitara, Hiroshi; Wada, Naoko A; Tateishi, Hiromi; Sudoh, Masayuki; Nagatsuka, Shin-Ichiro; Jishage, Kou-Ichi; Kohara, Michinori

    2015-01-01

    We have used homozygous albumin enhancer/promoter-driven urokinase-type plasminogen activator/severe combined immunodeficient (uPA/SCID) mice as hosts for chimeric mice with humanized livers. However, uPA/SCID mice show four disadvantages: the human hepatocytes (h-heps) replacement index in mouse liver is decreased due to deletion of uPA transgene by homologous recombination, kidney disorders are likely to develop, body size is small, and hemizygotes cannot be used as hosts as more frequent homologous recombination than homozygotes. To solve these disadvantages, we have established a novel host strain that has a transgene containing albumin promoter/enhancer and urokinase-type plasminogen activator cDNA and has a SCID background (cDNA-uPA/SCID). We applied the embryonic stem cell technique to simultaneously generate a number of transgenic lines, and found the line with the most appropriate levels of uPA expression-not detrimental but with a sufficiently damaged liver. We transplanted h-heps into homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice via the spleen, and monitored their human albumin (h-alb) levels and body weight. Blood h-alb levels and body weight gradually increased in the hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice and were maintained until they were approximately 30 weeks old. By contrast, blood h-alb levels and body weight in uPA/SCID chimeric mice decreased from 16 weeks of age onwards. A similar decrease in body weight was observed in the homozygous cDNA-uPA/SCID genotype, but h-alb levels were maintained until they were approximately 30 weeks old. Microarray analyses revealed identical h-heps gene expression profiles in homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice were identical to that observed in the uPA/SCID mice. Furthermore, like uPA/SCID chimeric mice, homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID chimeric mice were successfully infected with hepatitis B virus and C virus. These results indicate that hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice may be novel and useful hosts for

  12. A 5-fluorouracil-loaded floating gastroretentive hollow microsphere: development, pharmacokinetic in rabbits, and biodistribution in tumor-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu; Wei, Yumeng; Yang, Hongru; Pi, Chao; Liu, Hao; Ye, Yun; Zhao, Ling

    2016-01-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) was loaded in hollow microspheres to improve its oral bioavailability. 5-FU hollow microspheres were developed by a solvent diffusion–evaporation method. The effect of Span 80 concentration, ether/ethanol volume ratio, and polyvinyl pyrrolidone/ethyl cellulose weight ratio on physicochemical characteristics, floating, and in vitro release behaviors of 5-FU hollow microspheres was investigated and optimized. The formulation and technology composed of Span 80 (1.5%, w/v), ether/ethanol (1.0:10.0, v/v), and polyvinyl pyrrolidone/ethyl cellulose (1.0:10.0, w/w) were employed to develop three batch samples, which showed an excellent reproducibility. The microspheres were spherical with a hollow structure with high drug loading amount (28.4%±0.5%) and production yield (74.2%±0.6%); they exhibited excellent floating and sustained release characteristics in simulated gastric and intestinal fluid. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that 5-FU hollow microspheres significantly enhanced oral bioavailability (area under curve, [AUC](0−t): 12.53±1.65 mg/L*h vs 7.80±0.83 and 5.82±0.83 mg/L*h) with longer elimination half-life (t1/2) (15.43±2.12 hours vs 2.25±0.22 and 1.43±0.18 hours) and mean residence time (7.65±0.97 hours vs 3.61±0.41 and 2.34±0.35 hours), in comparison with its solid microspheres and powder. In vivo distribution results from tumor-bearing nude mice demonstrated that the animals administered with 5-FU hollow microspheres had much higher drug content in tumor, plasma, and stomach at 1 and 8 hours except for 0.5 hours sample collection time point in comparison with those administered with 5-FU solid microspheres and its powder. These results suggested that the hollow microspheres would be a promising controlled drug delivery system for an oral chemotherapy agent like 5-FU. PMID:27042001

  13. A 5-fluorouracil-loaded floating gastroretentive hollow microsphere: development, pharmacokinetic in rabbits, and biodistribution in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Wei, Yumeng; Yang, Hongru; Pi, Chao; Liu, Hao; Ye, Yun; Zhao, Ling

    2016-01-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) was loaded in hollow microspheres to improve its oral bioavailability. 5-FU hollow microspheres were developed by a solvent diffusion-evaporation method. The effect of Span 80 concentration, ether/ethanol volume ratio, and polyvinyl pyrrolidone/ethyl cellulose weight ratio on physicochemical characteristics, floating, and in vitro release behaviors of 5-FU hollow microspheres was investigated and optimized. The formulation and technology composed of Span 80 (1.5%, w/v), ether/ethanol (1.0:10.0, v/v), and polyvinyl pyrrolidone/ethyl cellulose (1.0:10.0, w/w) were employed to develop three batch samples, which showed an excellent reproducibility. The microspheres were spherical with a hollow structure with high drug loading amount (28.4%±0.5%) and production yield (74.2%±0.6%); they exhibited excellent floating and sustained release characteristics in simulated gastric and intestinal fluid. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that 5-FU hollow microspheres significantly enhanced oral bioavailability (area under curve, [AUC](0-t): 12.53±1.65 mg/L(*)h vs 7.80±0.83 and 5.82±0.83 mg/L(*)h) with longer elimination half-life (t1/2) (15.43±2.12 hours vs 2.25±0.22 and 1.43±0.18 hours) and mean residence time (7.65±0.97 hours vs 3.61±0.41 and 2.34±0.35 hours), in comparison with its solid microspheres and powder. In vivo distribution results from tumor-bearing nude mice demonstrated that the animals administered with 5-FU hollow microspheres had much higher drug content in tumor, plasma, and stomach at 1 and 8 hours except for 0.5 hours sample collection time point in comparison with those administered with 5-FU solid microspheres and its powder. These results suggested that the hollow microspheres would be a promising controlled drug delivery system for an oral chemotherapy agent like 5-FU.

  14. Restoration of skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion injury in humanized immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Eric G; Oakes, Sean M; Ahmadi-Yazdi, Cyrus; Afnan, Jalil; Carroll, Michael C; Moore, Francis D

    2009-08-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) of tissue provokes an inflammatory process that is highly dependent on circulating natural immunoglobulin M (IgM) and the complement cascade. In mice, a single IgM specificity produced by peritoneal B cells can initiate reperfusion injury. It is unknown whether humans express natural IgM with a similar specificity. It is also unknown whether pathogenic IgM is produced solely from peritoneal B cells or can also be made by circulating B cells. Immunodeficient mice lacking endogenous immunoglobulin were used. Mice were reconstituted with 0.9% normal saline, human serum, or xenografted human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and then subjected to tourniquet-induced hindlimb I/R. Serum human IgM and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assay. Skeletal muscle was harvested for injury assessment by histology and for immunohistochemistry. Immunodeficient mice were protected from skeletal muscle injury after hindlimb I/R. Transfer of human serum restored skeletal muscle damage. Rag2/gammaR-/- mice that were engrafted with human PBL (huPBL-SCID) had high levels of human IgM. huPBL-SCID mice developed significantly more skeletal muscle injury than control saline-treated mice (P < or = .01) and human serum-reconstituted Rag2/gammaR-/- mice (P < or = 0.01). Sham-treated huPBL-SCID mice had no muscle injury, demonstrating that human lymphocyte engraftment did not cause injury in the absence of ischemia. Deposition of human IgM was observed on injured but not sham-injured muscle. Human serum can initiate murine skeletal muscle I/R injury. Circulating human PBL may be a source of pathogenic IgM. The huPBL-SCID mouse may be a useful model to define the specificity of pathogenic human IgM and to test therapeutics for I/R injury.

  15. Ultrathin, Stretchable, Multiplexing pH Sensor Arrays on Biomedical Devices With Demonstrations on Rabbit and Human Hearts Undergoing Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hyun-Joong; Sulkin, Matthew S.; Kim, Jong-Seon; Goudeseune, Camille; Chao, Hsin-Yun; Song, Joseph W.; Yang, Sang Yoon; Hsu, Yung-Yu; Ghaffari, Roozbeh

    2014-01-01

    Stable pH is an established biomarker of health, relevant to all tissues of the body, including the heart. Clinical monitoring of pH in a practical manner, with high spatiotemporal resolution, is particularly difficult in organs such as the heart due to its soft mechanics, curvilinear geometry, heterogeneous surfaces and continuous, complex rhythmic motion. The results presented here illustrate that advanced strategies in materials assembly and electrochemical growth can yield interconnected arrays of miniaturized IrOx pH sensors encapsulated in thin, low-modulus elastomers to yield conformal monitoring systems capable of non-invasive measurements on the surface of the beating heart. A thirty channel custom data acquisition system enables spatiotemporal pH mapping with a single potentiostat. In-vitro testing reveals super-Nernstian sensitivity with excellent uniformity (69.9 ± 2.2 mV/pH), linear response to temperature (−1.6 mV/°C), and minimal influence of extracellular ions (< 3.5 mV). Device examples include sensor arrays on balloon catheters and on skin-like stretchable membranes. Real-time measurement of pH on the surfaces of explanted rabbit hearts and a donated human heart during protocols of ischemia-reperfusion illustrate some of the capabilities. Envisioned applications range from devices for biological research, to surgical tools and long-term implants. PMID:23868871

  16. Human platelets inhibit liver fibrosis in severe combined immunodeficiency mice

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Murata, Soichiro; Fukunaga, Kiyoshi; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of human platelets in liver fibrosis. METHODS: Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice were administered CCl4 and either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS group) or human platelet transfusions (hPLT group). Concentrations of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), matrix metallopeptidases (MMP)-9, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in the liver tissue were compared between the PBS and the hPLT groups by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. The effects of a human platelet transfusion on liver fibrosis included the fibrotic area, hydroxyproline content, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression, which were evaluated by picrosirius red staining, ELISA, and immunohistochemical staining using an anti-mouse α-SMA antibody, respectively. Phosphorylations of mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (Met) and SMAD3, downstream signals of HGF and TGF-β, were compared between the two groups by Western blotting and were quantified using densitometry. Hepatocyte apoptosis was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. Furthermore, the accumulation of human platelets in the liver 2 h after platelet transfusion was compared between normal and fibrotic livers by immunohistochemical staining using an anti-human CD41 antibody. RESULTS: The fibrotic area and hydroxyproline content in the liver were both significantly lower in the hPLT group when compared to the PBS group (fibrotic area, 1.7% ± 0.6% vs 2.5% ± 0.6%, P = 0.03; hydroxyproline content, 121 ± 26 ng/g liver vs 156 ± 47 ng/g liver, P = 0.04). There was less α-smooth muscle actin staining in the hPLT group than in the PBS group (0.5% ± 0.1% vs 0.8% ± 0.3%, P = 0.02). Hepatic expression levels of mouse HGF and MMP-9 were significantly higher in the hPLT group than in the PBS group (HGF, 109 ± 13 ng/g liver vs 88 ± 22 ng/g liver, P = 0.03; MMP-9, 113% ± 7%/GAPDH vs 92% ± 11%/GAPDH, P = 0.04). In contrast, the

  17. Humanized mice efficiently engrafted with fetal hepatoblasts and syngeneic immune cells develop human monocytes and NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Billerbeck, Eva; Mommersteeg, Michiel C.; Shlomai, Amir; Xiao, Jing W.; Andrus, Linda; Bhatta, Ankit; Vercauteren, Koen; Michailidis, Eleftherios; Dorner, Marcus; Krishnan, Anuradha; Charlton, Michael R.; Chiriboga, Luis; Rice, Charles M.; de Jong, Ype P.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Human liver chimeric mice are useful models of human hepatitis virus infection, including hepatitis B and C virus infections. Independently, immunodeficient mice reconstituted with CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) derived from fetal liver reliably develop human T and B lymphocytes. Combining these systems has long been hampered by inefficient liver reconstitution of human fetal hepatoblasts. Our study aimed to enhance hepatoblast engraftment in order to create a mouse model with syngeneic human liver and immune cells. Methods The effects of human oncostatin-M administration on fetal hepatoblast engraftment into immunodeficient fah−/− mice was tested. Mice were then transplanted with syngeneic human hepatoblasts and HSC after which human leukocyte chimerism and functionality were analyzed by flow cytometry, and mice were challenged with HBV. Results Addition of human oncostatin-M enhanced human hepatoblast engraftment in immunodeficient fah−/− mice by 5–100 fold. In contrast to mice singly engrafted with HSC, which predominantly developed human T and B lymphocytes, mice co-transplanted with syngeneic hepatoblasts also contained physiological levels of human monocytes and natural killer cells. Upon infection with HBV, these mice displayed rapid and sustained viremia. Conclusions Our study provides a new mouse model with improved human fetal hepatoblast engraftment and an expanded human immune cell repertoire. With further improvements, this model may become useful for studying human immunity against viral hepatitis. Lay summary Important human pathogens such as hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus only infect human cells which complicates the development of mouse models for the study of these pathogens. One way to make mice permissive for human pathogens is the transplantation of human cells into immune-compromised mice. For instance, the transplantation of human liver cells will allow the infection of

  18. 70 years of radiation genetics: Fruit flies, mice and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, S.

    1997-03-01

    Radiation protection`s function is to protect society from the potential hazards that might occur through the human use of radiation, whether it be from energy production, medical uses or other sources of exposure. To do so, various scientific bodies are called upon to develop risk estimates which will provide society with adequate protection to the adverse effects of radiation, as best we can understand those adverse affects. Geneticists have the added burden, in that they must attempt to provide protection not only to the offspring of the present generation but also for all subsequent generations. While most of us have difficulty in thinking of effects that might be manifest only one or two generations into the future, some have projected potential risks for 50 to 100 generations. Here the author reviews work on fruit flies and mice, and studies of human exposures, which has provided much of the foundational information upon which geneticists can derive conclusions with regard to radiation protection questions.

  19. Allergenicity and safety of recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor in patients with allergy to rabbit or cow's milk.

    PubMed

    van den Elzen, Mignon T; van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Röckmann-Helmbach, Heike; van Hoffen, Els; Lebens, Ans F M; van Doorn, Helma; Klemans, Rob J B; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A F M; Hack, C Erik; Kaufman, Leonard; Relan, Anurag; Knulst, André C

    2016-08-01

    Recombinant human C1 inhibitor (rhC1INH) for on-demand treatment of hereditary angioedema is purified from milk of transgenic rabbits. It contains low amounts (<0.002%) of host-related impurities, which could trigger hypersensitivity reactions in patients with rabbit allergy (RA) and/or cow's milk allergy (CMA). This study is an assessment of allergenicity and safety of rhC1INH in patients with RA and/or CMA. Patients with CMA and/or RA underwent skin prick test (SPT), intracutaneous test (ICT), and, when results for both were negative, subcutaneous (SC) challenge with up to 2100U (14 mL) rhC1INH. The negative predictive value of the skin test protocol was calculated, defined as the ratio of patients without systemic symptoms of hypersensitivity following SC challenge, over the number of patients having tested negative for both the SPT and the ICT. Adverse events after exposure to rhC1INH were recorded. Twenty-six patients with RA and/or CMA were enrolled. Twenty-four had negative SPT and ICT results for rhC1INH, whereas 2 had negative SPT result but positive ICT result to rhC1INH (only the highest concentration). Twenty-two patients with negative SPT and ICT results underwent SC challenge. None developed allergic symptoms. Local treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 7 patients (32%) after SC challenge. In 5 these were considered drug related. All were mild. None of the patients with negative SPT and ICT results for rhC1INH had allergic symptoms during rhC1INH challenge. The negative predictive value of the combination of SPT and ICT for the outcome of the SC challenge was 100% (95% CI, 84.6%-100%). SC administration of rhC1INH was well tolerated. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Forebrain engraftment by human glial progenitor cells enhances synaptic plasticity and learning in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaoning; Chen, Michael; Wang, Fushun; Windrem, Martha; Wang, Su; Shanz, Steven; Xu, Qiwu; Oberheim, Nancy Ann; Bekar, Lane; Betstadt, Sarah; Silva, Alcino J; Takano, Takahiro; Goldman, Steven A; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2013-03-07

    Human astrocytes are larger and more complex than those of infraprimate mammals, suggesting that their role in neural processing has expanded with evolution. To assess the cell-autonomous and species-selective properties of human glia, we engrafted human glial progenitor cells (GPCs) into neonatal immunodeficient mice. Upon maturation, the recipient brains exhibited large numbers and high proportions of both human glial progenitors and astrocytes. The engrafted human glia were gap-junction-coupled to host astroglia, yet retained the size and pleomorphism of hominid astroglia, and propagated Ca2+ signals 3-fold faster than their hosts. Long-term potentiation (LTP) was sharply enhanced in the human glial chimeric mice, as was their learning, as assessed by Barnes maze navigation, object-location memory, and both contextual and tone fear conditioning. Mice allografted with murine GPCs showed no enhancement of either LTP or learning. These findings indicate that human glia differentially enhance both activity-dependent plasticity and learning in mice.

  1. Human Catestatin Alters Gut Microbiota Composition in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rabbi, Mohammad F.; Munyaka, Peris M.; Eissa, Nour; Metz-Boutigue, Marie-Hélène; Khafipour, Ehsan; Ghia, Jean Eric

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian intestinal tract is heavily colonized with a dense, complex, and diversified microbial populations. In healthy individuals, an array of epithelial antimicrobial agents is secreted in the gut to aid intestinal homeostasis. Enterochromaffin cells (EC) in the intestinal epithelium are a major source of chromogranin A (CgA), which is a pro-hormone and can be cleaved into many bioactive peptides that include catestatin (CST). This study was carried out to evaluate the possible impact of CST on gut microbiota in vivo using a mouse model. The CST (Human CgA352−372) or normal saline was intrarectally administered in C57BL/6 male mice for 6 days and then sacrificed. Feces and colonic mucosa tissue samples were collected, DNA was extracted, the V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified and subjected to MiSeq Illumina sequencing. The α-diversity was calculated using Chao 1 and β-diversity was determined using QIIME. Differences at the genus level were determined using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) was used to predict functional capacity of bacterial community. CST treatment did not modify bacterial richness in fecal and colonic mucosa-associated microbiota; however, treatment significantly modified bacterial community composition between the groups. Also, CST-treated mice had a significantly lower relative abundance of Firmicutes and higher abundance of Bacteroidetes, observed only in fecal samples. However, at lower phylogenetic levels, PLS-DA analysis revealed that some bacterial taxa were significantly associated with the CST-treated mice in both fecal and colonic mucosa samples. In addition, differences in predicted microbial functional pathways in both fecal and colonic mucosa samples were detected. The results support the hypothesis that CST treatment modulates gut microbiota composition under non-pathophysiological conditions

  2. Expression of human apolipoprotein B and assembly of lipoprotein(a) in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Callow, M.J.; Stoltzfus, L.J.; Rubin, E.M.; Lawn, R.M.

    1994-03-15

    The atherogenic macromolecule lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has resisted in vivo analyses partly because it is found in a limited number of experimental animals. Although transgenic mice expressing human apolipoprotein (a) [apo(a)] have previously been described, they failed to assemble Lp(a) particles because of the inability of human apo(a) to associate with mouse apolipoprotein B (apoB). The authors isolated a 90-kilobase P1 phagemid containing the human apoB gene and with this DNA generated 13 lines of transgenic mice of which 11 expressed human apoB. The human apoB transcript was expressed and edited in the liver of the transgenic mice. Plasma concentrations of human apoB, as well as low density lipoprotein (LDL), were related to transgene copy number; the transgenic line with the most copies of human apoB had a >4-fold increase in LDL cholesterol compared with nontransgenics and a lipoprotein profile similar to that of humans. When human apoB and apo(a) transgenic mice were bred together, plasma apo(a) in mice expressing both human proteins was tightly associated with lipoproteins in the LDL density region. These studies demonstrate the successful expression of human apoB and the efficient assembly of Lp(a) in mice.

  3. Generation of Immunodeficient Mice Bearing Human Immune Systems by the Engraftment of Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Hasgur, Suheyla; Aryee, Ken Edwin; Shultz, Leonard D; Greiner, Dale L; Brehm, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Immunodeficient mice are being used as recipients of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) for in vivo analyses of human immune system development and function. The development of several stocks of immunodeficient Prkdc (scid) (scid), or recombination activating 1 or 2 gene (Rag1 or Rag2) knockout mice bearing a targeted mutation in the gene encoding the IL2 receptor gamma chain (IL2rγ), has greatly facilitated the engraftment of human HSC and enhanced the development of functional human immune systems. These "humanized" mice are being used to study human hematopoiesis, human-specific immune therapies, human-specific pathogens, and human immune system homeostasis and function. The establishment of these model systems is technically challenging, and levels of human immune system development reported in the literature are variable between laboratories. The use of standard protocols for optimal engraftment of HSC and for monitoring the development of the human immune systems would enable more direct comparisons between humanized mice generated in different laboratories. Here we describe a standard protocol for the engraftment of human HSC into 21-day-old NOD-scid IL2rγ (NSG) mice using an intravenous injection approach. The multiparameter flow cytometry used to monitor human immune system development and the kinetics of development are described.

  4. Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling Controls Liver Size in Mice With Humanized Livers

    PubMed Central

    Naugler, Willscott E.; Tarlow, Branden D.; Fedorov, Lev M.; Taylor, Matthew; Pelz, Carl; Li, Bin; Darnell, Jennifer; Grompe, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The ratio of liver size to body weight (hepatostat) is tightly controlled, but little is known about how the physiologic functions of the liver help determine its size. Livers of mice repopulated with human hepatocytes (humanized livers) grow to larger than normal; the human hepatocytes do not recognize fibroblast growth factor-15 (FGF15) produced by mouse intestine. This results in upregulation of bile acid synthesis in the human hepatocytes and enlargement of the bile acid pool. We investigated whether abnormal bile acid signaling affects the hepatostat in mice. Methods We crossed Fah−/−, Rag2−/−, Il2r−/− mice with NOD mice to create FRGN mice, whose livers can be fully repopulated with human hepatocytes. We inserted the gene for human FGF19 (ortholog to mouse Fgf15), including regulatory sequences, into the FRGN mice to create FRGN19+ mice. Livers of FRGN19+ mice and their FRGN littermates were fully repopulated with human hepatocytes. Liver tissues were collected and bile acid pool sizes and RNA sequences were analyzed and compared with those of mice without humanized livers (controls). Results Livers were larger in FRGN mice with humanized livers (13% of body weight), compared to control FRGN mice; they also had much larger bile acid pools and aberrant bile acid signaling. Livers from FRGN19+ normalized to 7.8% of body weight, and their bile acid pool and signaling more closely resembled that of control FRGN19+ mice. RNA sequence analysis showed activation of the Hippo pathway, and immunohistochemical and transcription analyses revealed increased hepatocyte proliferation, but not apoptosis, in the enlarged humanized livers of FRGN mice. Cell sorting experiments showed that although healthy human liver does not produce FGF19, non-parenchymal cells from cholestatic livers produce FGF19. Conclusions In mice with humanized livers, expression of an FGF19 transgene corrects bile acid signaling defects, resulting in normalization of bile

  5. Generic anti-drug antibody assay with drug tolerance in serum samples from mice exposed to human antibodies.

    PubMed

    Stubenrauch, Kay; Mackeben, Klaus; Vogel, Rudolf; Heinrich, Julia

    2012-11-15

    Knowledge of the anti-drug antibody (ADA) status is necessary in early research studies. Because specific assay materials are sparse and time is pressing, a generic assay format with drug tolerance for detection of ADAs in serum samples from mice exposed to immunoglobulin G (IgG) or antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) is highly desirable. This article describes a generic immune complex assay in the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format based on (i) transformation of free ADAs to immune complexes by preincubation with excess drug, (ii) the use of a murine anti-human Fab constant domain Fab as capture reagent, (iii) detection of the immune complexes by a peroxidase-labeled rabbit anti-murine Fc antibody, and (iv) ADA-positive control conjugates consisting of human Fab and murine IgG. Results of the experiments suggest that the generic immune complex assay for mouse serum samples was at least equivalent to specific ADA immune assays and even superior regarding drug tolerance. The generic immune complex assay confers versatility as it detects ADAs in complex with full-length IgG as well as with Fabs independent of the target specificity in mouse serum samples. These features help to save the sparse amounts of specific antibodies available in early research and development and speed up drug candidate selection.

  6. Restoration of skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion injury in humanized immunodeficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Eric G.; Oakes, Sean M.; Ahmadi-Yazdi, Cyrus; Afnan, Jalil; Carroll, Michael C.; Moore, Francis D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) of tissue provokes an inflammatory process that is highly dependent on circulating natural immunoglobulin M (IgM) and the complement cascade. In mice, a single IgM specificity produced by peritoneal B cells can initiate reperfusion injury. It is unknown whether humans express natural IgM with a similar specificity. It is also unknown whether pathogenic IgM is produced solely from peritoneal B cells or can also be made by circulating B cells. Methods Immunodeficient mice lacking endogenous immunoglobulin were used. Mice were reconstituted with normal saline, human serum, or xenografted human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and then subjected to tourniquet induced hindlimb ischemia and reperfusion. Serum human IgM and IgG were measured by ELISA. Skeletal muscle was harvested for injury assessment by histology and for immunohistochemistry. Results Immunodeficient mice are protected from skeletal muscle injury following hindlimb I/R. Transfer of human serum restores skeletal muscle damage. Rag2/γR -/- mice engrafted with human PBL (huPBL-SCID) have high levels of human IgM. huPBL-SCID mice develop significantly more skeletal muscle injury than control saline treated (p ≤ 0.01) and human serum reconstituted Rag2/γR -/- mice (p ≤ 0.01). Sham treated huPBL-SCID mice have no muscle injury, demonstrating that human lymphocyte engraftment does not cause injury in the absence of ischemia. Deposition of human IgM is seen on injured but not sham injured muscle. Conclusions Human serum can initiate murine skeletal muscle ischemia reperfusion injury. Circulating human PBL may be a source of pathogenic IgM. The huPBL-SCID mouse may be a useful model to define the specificity of pathogenic human IgM and to test therapeutics for ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:19628094

  7. HIV-specific humoral and cellular immunity in rabbits vaccinated with recombinant human immunodeficiency virus-like gag-env particles

    SciTech Connect

    Haffar, O.K.; Smithgall, M.D.; Moran, P.A.; Travis, B.M.; Zarling, J.M.; Hu, S.L. )

    1991-08-01

    Recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-like gag-env particles produced in mammalian cells were inoculated into two New Zealand white rabbits. In parallel, two control rabbits were inoculated with the homologous HIV-1 virions inactivated by ultraviolet light (uv) and psoralen treatments. The humoral and cellular immune responses to HIV-1 were evaluated for both groups of animals. Recombinant particles elicited humoral immunity that was specific for all the viral structural proteins. The antibodies recognized both denatured and nondenatured proteins. Moreover, the sera neutralized the in vitro infectivity of the homologous virus in CEM cells. Importantly, the recombinant particles also generated a T helper response by priming with the HIV proteins. Similar results were observed with inactivated virus immunization. Therefore, the authors results suggest that the recombinant HIV-like particles elicit functional humoral immunity as well as cellular immunity and represent a novel vaccine candidate for AIDS.

  8. Influence of human myasthenia gravis thymus on the differentiation of human cord blood stem cells in SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian Ru; Liu, Ping Ping; Xuan, Xiao Yan; Guan, Sha Sha; Du, Ying; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Qing Yong

    2014-02-01

    The normal thymus contributes to T lymphocytes differentiation and induction of tolerance to self-antigens. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is characterized by abnormal thymic hyperplasia. To assess the potential influence of MG-thymus on the differentiation of T lymphocytes differentiation, we used the MG-thymus transplanted severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice model to evaluate the human cord blood stem cells differentiation. Thymus fragments from MG patient and human cord blood stem cells were transplanted into SCID mice successively. SCID mice were observed to develop sustained human T lymphocytes and a functional anti-tumor immune. The levels of various T cell subsets in SCID mice with MG-thymus were different from that of control group. Among that, the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells was significant lower in SCID mice with MG-thymus. The deficiency of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells seens to contribute to the pathogenesis of MG.

  9. Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the cultured rabbit intervertebral disc: a novel cell source for disc repair.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D Greg; Markova, Dessislava; An, Howard S; Chee, Ana; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi; Markov, Vladimir; Saitta, Biagio; Shi, Peng; Gupta, Chander; Zhang, Yejia

    2013-05-01

    Back pain associated with symptomatic disc degeneration is a common clinical condition. Intervertebral disc (IVD) cell apoptosis and senescence increase with aging and degeneration. Repopulating the IVD with cells that could produce and maintain extracellular matrix would be an alternative therapy to surgery. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) as a novel cell source for disc repair. In this study, we intended to confirm the potential for hUCB-MSCs to differentiate and display a chondrocyte-like phenotype after culturing in micromass and after injection into the rabbit IVD explant culture. We also wanted to confirm hUCB-MSC survival after transplantation into the IVD explant culture. This study consisted of micromass cultures and in vitro rabbit IVD explant cultures to assess hUCB-MSC survival and differentiation to display chondrocyte-like phenotype. First, hUCB-MSCs were cultured in micromass and stained with Alcian blue dye. Second, to confirm cell survival, hUCB-MSCs were labeled with an infrared dye and a fluorescent dye before injection into whole rabbit IVD explants (host). IVD explants were then cultured for 4 wks. Cell survival was confirmed by two independent techniques: an imaging system detecting the infrared dye at the organ level and fluorescence microscopy detecting fluorescent dye at the cellular level. Cell viability was assessed by staining the explant with CellTracker green, a membrane-permeant tracer specific for live cells. Human type II collagen gene expression (from the graft) was assessed by polymerase chain reaction. We have shown that hUCB-MSCs cultured in micromass are stained blue with Alcian blue dye, which suggests that proteoglycan-rich extracellular matrix is produced. In the cultured rabbit IVD explants, hUCB-MSCs survived for at least 4 wks and expressed the human type II collagen gene, suggesting that the injected hUCB-MSCs are

  10. Effects of 5-HT receptor agonists on depolarization-induced [3H]-noradrenaline release in rabbit hippocampus and human neocortex.

    PubMed Central

    Allgaier, C.; Warnke, P.; Stangl, A. P.; Feuerstein, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    1. The present study attempted to determine whether noradrenaline (NA) release in rabbit hippocampus and human neocortex is modulated by presynaptic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors. 2. Slices of rabbit hippocampus and human neocortex, loaded with [3H]-noradrenaline ([3H]-NA) were superfused and the effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor ligands on electrically evoked [3H]-NA release were investigated. 3. In rabbit hippocampus, 5-HT, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT; 32 microM) and 2-CH3-5-HT (32 microM) increased [3H]-NA release elicited with 360 pulses/3 Hz. Facilitation of transmitter release was not influenced by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, tropisetron but was prevented by the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, rauwolscine. When autoinhibition was avoided by stimulating the tissue with 4 pulses/100 Hz (pseudo-one pulse-(POP) stimulation), 2-CH3-5-HT decreased evoked transmitter release, whereas 5-HT and 5-CT had no effect. Inhibition caused by 2-CH3-5-HT was not affected by tropisetron but counteracted by the alpha 2-adrenoceptor ligands, clonidine and rauwolscine. Inhibition caused by clonidine was diminished in the presence of 5-CT or 2-CH3-5-HT. 4. In human neocortex, [3H]-NA release elicited with 360 pulses/3 Hz was increased by 10 microM 5-HT and 32 microM 5-CT, whereas 2-CH3-5-HT was ineffective. [3H]-NA release evoked with a modified POP stimulation (2 bursts of 4 pulses/100 Hz, 3.5 min apart) was not affected by 2-CH3-5-HT or 5-CT. 5. The present results indicate that 5-HT, 2-CH3-5-HT and 5-CT can act on presynaptic alpha 2-autoreceptors as partial agonists (2-CH3-5-HT; in rabbit hippocampal tissue) or antagonists (5-HT and 5-CT; in tissue of rabbit hippocampus and human neocortex). Furthermore the existence of autoinhibition dictates whether these drugs cause facilitation of release, inhibition or have no effect. PMID:8528558

  11. Normalizing the environment recapitulates adult human immune traits in laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Beura, Lalit K; Hamilton, Sara E; Bi, Kevin; Schenkel, Jason M; Odumade, Oludare A; Casey, Kerry A; Thompson, Emily A; Fraser, Kathryn A; Rosato, Pamela C; Filali-Mouhim, Ali; Sekaly, Rafick P; Jenkins, Marc K; Vezys, Vaiva; Haining, W Nicholas; Jameson, Stephen C; Masopust, David

    2016-04-28

    Our current understanding of immunology was largely defined in laboratory mice, partly because they are inbred and genetically homogeneous, can be genetically manipulated, allow kinetic tissue analyses to be carried out from the onset of disease, and permit the use of tractable disease models. Comparably reductionist experiments are neither technically nor ethically possible in humans. However, there is growing concern that laboratory mice do not reflect relevant aspects of the human immune system, which may account for failures to translate disease treatments from bench to bedside. Laboratory mice live in abnormally hygienic specific pathogen free (SPF) barrier facilities. Here we show that standard laboratory mouse husbandry has profound effects on the immune system and that environmental changes produce mice with immune systems closer to those of adult humans. Laboratory mice--like newborn, but not adult, humans--lack effector-differentiated and mucosally distributed memory T cells. These cell populations were present in free-living barn populations of feral mice and pet store mice with diverse microbial experience, and were induced in laboratory mice after co-housing with pet store mice, suggesting that the environment is involved in the induction of these cells. Altering the living conditions of mice profoundly affected the cellular composition of the innate and adaptive immune systems, resulted in global changes in blood cell gene expression to patterns that more closely reflected the immune signatures of adult humans rather than neonates, altered resistance to infection, and influenced T-cell differentiation in response to a de novo viral infection. These data highlight the effects of environment on the basal immune state and response to infection and suggest that restoring physiological microbial exposure in laboratory mice could provide a relevant tool for modelling immunological events in free-living organisms, including humans.

  12. Induction of farnesoid X receptor signaling in germ-free mice colonized with a human microbiota.

    PubMed

    Wahlström, Annika; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Ståhlman, Marcus; Khan, Muhammad-Tanweer; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich

    2017-02-01

    The gut microbiota influences the development and progression of metabolic diseases partly by metabolism of bile acids (BAs) and modified signaling through the farnesoid X receptor (FXR). In this study, we aimed to determine how the human gut microbiota metabolizes murine BAs and affects FXR signaling in colonized mice. We colonized germ-free mice with cecal content from a mouse donor or feces from a human donor and euthanized the mice after short-term (2 weeks) or long-term (15 weeks) colonization. We analyzed the gut microbiota and BA composition and expression of FXR target genes in ileum and liver. We found that cecal microbiota composition differed between mice colonized with mouse and human microbiota and was stable over time. Human and mouse microbiota reduced total BA levels similarly, but the humanized mice produced less secondary BAs. The human microbiota was able to reduce the levels of tauro-β-muricholic acid and induce expression of FXR target genes Fgf15 and Shp in ileum after long-term colonization. We show that a human microbiota can change BA composition and induce FXR signaling in colonized mice, but the levels of secondary BAs produced are lower than in mice colonized with a mouse microbiota.

  13. Monitoring of Venus transgenic cell migration during pregnancy in non-transgenic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Lipták, N; Hoffmann, O I; Kerekes, A; Iski, G; Ernszt, D; Kvell, K; Hiripi, L; Bősze, Z

    2017-04-01

    Cell transfer between mother and fetus were demonstrated previously in several species which possess haemochorial placenta (e.g. in humans, mice, rats, etc.). Here we report the assessment of fetal and maternal microchimerism in non-transgenic (non-TG) New Zealand white rabbits which were pregnant with transgenic (TG) fetuses and in non-TG newborns of TG does. The TG construct, including the Venus fluorophore cDNA driven by a ubiquitous cytomegalovirus enhancer, chicken ß-actin promoter (CAGGS), was previously integrated into the rabbit genome by Sleeping Beauty transposon system. Three different methods [fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR)] were employed to search for TG cells and gene products in blood and other tissues of non-TG rabbits. Venus positive peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were not detected in the blood of non-TG littermates or non-TG does by flow cytometry. Tissue samples (liver, kidney, skeletal and heart muscle) also proved to be Venus negative examined with fluorescence microscopy, while histology sections and PBMCs of TG rabbits showed robust Venus protein expression. In case of genomic DNA (gDNA) sourced from tissue samples of non-TG rabbits, CAGGS promoter-specific fragments could not be amplified by QPCR. Our data showed the lack of detectable cell transfer between TG and non-TG rabbits during gestation.

  14. Transcriptional repression of Caveolin-1 (CAV1) gene expression by GATA-6 in bladder smooth muscle hypertrophy in mice and human beings.

    PubMed

    Boopathi, Ettickan; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Goldfarb, Robert; John, Mary; Srinivasan, Vittala Gopal; Alanzi, Jaber; Malkowicz, S Bruce; Kathuria, Hasmeena; Zderic, Stephen A; Wein, Alan J; Chacko, Samuel

    2011-05-01

    Hypertrophy occurs in urinary bladder wall smooth muscle (BSM) in men with partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO) caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in animal models of PBOO. Hypertrophied BSM from the rabbit model exhibits down-regulation of caveolin-1, a structural and functional protein of caveolae that function as signaling platforms to mediate interaction between receptor proteins and adaptor and effector molecules to regulate signal generation, amplification, and diversification. Caveolin-1 expression is diminished in PBOO-induced BSM hypertrophy in mice and in men with BPH. The proximal promoter of the human and mouse caveolin-1 (CAV1) gene was characterized, and it was observed that the transcription factor GATA-6 binds this promoter, causing reduced expression of caveolin-1. Furthermore, caveolin-1 expression levels inversely correlate with the abundance of GATA-6 in BSM hypertrophy in mice and human beings. Silencing of GATA6 gene expression up-regulates caveolin-1 expression, whereas overexpression of GATA-6 protein sustains the transcriptional repression of caveolin-1 in bladder smooth muscle cells. Together, these data suggest that GATA-6 acts as a transcriptional repressor of CAV1 gene expression in PBOO-induced BSM hypertrophy in men and mice. GATA-6-induced transcriptional repression represents a new regulatory mechanism of CAV1 gene expression in pathologic BSM, and may serve as a target for new therapy for BPH-induced bladder dysfunction in aging men. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcriptional Repression of Caveolin-1 (CAV1) Gene Expression by GATA-6 in Bladder Smooth Muscle Hypertrophy in Mice and Human Beings

    PubMed Central

    Boopathi, Ettickan; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Goldfarb, Robert; John, Mary; Srinivasan, Vittala Gopal; Alanzi, Jaber; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Kathuria, Hasmeena; Zderic, Stephen A.; Wein, Alan J.; Chacko, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Hypertrophy occurs in urinary bladder wall smooth muscle (BSM) in men with partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO) caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in animal models of PBOO. Hypertrophied BSM from the rabbit model exhibits down-regulation of caveolin-1, a structural and functional protein of caveolae that function as signaling platforms to mediate interaction between receptor proteins and adaptor and effector molecules to regulate signal generation, amplification, and diversification. Caveolin-1 expression is diminished in PBOO-induced BSM hypertrophy in mice and in men with BPH. The proximal promoter of the human and mouse caveolin-1 (CAV1) gene was characterized, and it was observed that the transcription factor GATA-6 binds this promoter, causing reduced expression of caveolin-1. Furthermore, caveolin-1 expression levels inversely correlate with the abundance of GATA-6 in BSM hypertrophy in mice and human beings. Silencing of GATA6 gene expression up-regulates caveolin-1 expression, whereas overexpression of GATA-6 protein sustains the transcriptional repression of caveolin-1 in bladder smooth muscle cells. Together, these data suggest that GATA-6 acts as a transcriptional repressor of CAV1 gene expression in PBOO-induced BSM hypertrophy in men and mice. GATA-6-induced transcriptional repression represents a new regulatory mechanism of CAV1 gene expression in pathologic BSM, and may serve as a target for new therapy for BPH-induced bladder dysfunction in aging men. PMID:21514437

  16. Neuropathy in Human and Mice with PMP22 null

    PubMed Central

    Saporta, Mario Andre; Katona, Istvan; Zhang, Xuebao; Roper, Helen P.; Carr, Louise; Macdonald, Fiona; Brueton, Louise; Blake, Julian; Suter, Ueli; Reilly, Mary M.; Shy, Michael E.; Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objective Haploinsufficiency of PMP22 causes hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). However, the biological functions of PMP22 in humans are largely unexplored due to the absence of patients with PMP22 null mutations. Design, Setting and Participants We have evaluated a 7-year-old boy with PMP22 null. Findings were compared with those from nerves of Pmp22 null mice. Results Motor and sensory deficits in the proband were non-length dependent. Weakness was found in cranial muscles, but not in the limbs. Large fiber sensory modalities were profoundly abnormal, which started prior to the maturation of myelin. This is in line with the temporal pattern of PMP22 expression predominantly in cranial motor neurons and DRG during embryonic development, becoming undetectable in adulthood. Moreover, there were conspicuous maturation defects of myelinating Schwann cells that were more significant in motor nerve fibers than in sensory nerve fibers. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggest that PMP22 is important for the normal function of neurons that express PMP22 during early development, such as cranial motor neurons and spinal sensory neurons. Moreover, PMP22 deficiency differentially affects myelination between motor and sensory nerves, which may have contributed to the unique clinical phenotype in the patient with absence of PMP22. PMID:21670407

  17. Melanopsin-based brightness discrimination in mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Brown, Timothy M; Tsujimura, Sei-Ichi; Allen, Annette E; Wynne, Jonathan; Bedford, Robert; Vickery, Graham; Vugler, Anthony; Lucas, Robert J

    2012-06-19

    Photoreception in the mammalian retina is not restricted to rods and cones but extends to a small number of intrinsically photoreceptive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), expressing the photopigment melanopsin. ipRGCs are known to support various accessory visual functions including circadian photoentrainment and pupillary reflexes. However, despite anatomical and physiological evidence that they contribute to the thalamocortical visual projection, no aspect of visual discrimination has been shown to rely upon ipRGCs. Based on their currently known roles, we hypothesized that ipRGCs may contribute to distinguishing brightness. This percept is related to an object's luminance-a photometric measure of light intensity relevant for cone photoreceptors. However, the perceived brightness of different sources is not always predicted by their respective luminance. Here, we used parallel behavioral and electrophysiological experiments to first show that melanopsin contributes to brightness discrimination in both retinally degenerate and fully sighted mice. We continued to use comparable paradigms in psychophysical experiments to provide evidence for a similar role in healthy human subjects. These data represent the first direct evidence that an aspect of visual discrimination in normally sighted subjects can be supported by inner retinal photoreceptors.

  18. Melanopsin-Based Brightness Discrimination in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Timothy M.; Tsujimura, Sei-ichi; Allen, Annette E.; Wynne, Jonathan; Bedford, Robert; Vickery, Graham; Vugler, Anthony; Lucas, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Photoreception in the mammalian retina is not restricted to rods and cones but extends to a small number of intrinsically photoreceptive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), expressing the photopigment melanopsin [1–4]. ipRGCs are known to support various accessory visual functions including circadian photoentrainment and pupillary reflexes. However, despite anatomical and physiological evidence that they contribute to the thalamocortical visual projection [5–7], no aspect of visual discrimination has been shown to rely upon ipRGCs. Based on their currently known roles, we hypothesized that ipRGCs may contribute to distinguishing brightness. This percept is related to an object's luminance—a photometric measure of light intensity relevant for cone photoreceptors. However, the perceived brightness of different sources is not always predicted by their respective luminance [8–12]. Here, we used parallel behavioral and electrophysiological experiments to first show that melanopsin contributes to brightness discrimination in both retinally degenerate and fully sighted mice. We continued to use comparable paradigms in psychophysical experiments to provide evidence for a similar role in healthy human subjects. These data represent the first direct evidence that an aspect of visual discrimination in normally sighted subjects can be supported by inner retinal photoreceptors. PMID:22633808

  19. Inflammatory Induction of Human Resistin Causes Insulin Resistance in Endotoxemic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeong-Kyu; Qatanani, Mohammed; Briggs, Erika R.; Ahima, Rexford S.; Lazar, Mitchell A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although adipocyte-derived murine resistin links insulin resistance to obesity, the role of human resistin, predominantly expressed in mononuclear cells and induced by inflammatory signals, remains unclear. Given the mounting evidence that obesity and type 2 diabetes are inflammatory diseases, we sought to determine the relationship between inflammatory increases in human resistin and insulin resistance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS To investigate the role of human resistin on glucose homeostasis in inflammatory states, we generated mice lacking murine resistin but transgenic for a bacterial artificial chromosome containing human resistin (BAC-Retn), whose expression was similar to that in humans. The metabolic and molecular phenotypes of BAC-Retn mice were assessed after acute and chronic endotoxemia (i.e., exposure to inflammatory lipopolysaccharide). RESULTS We found that BAC-Retn mice have circulating resistin levels within the normal human range, and similar to humans, lipopolysaccharide markedly increased serum resistin levels. Acute endotoxemia caused hypoglycemia in mice lacking murine resistin, and this was attenuated in BAC-Retn mice. In addition, BAC-Retn mice developed severe hepatic insulin resistance under chronic endotoxemia, accompanied by increased inflammatory responses in liver and skeletal muscle. CONCLUSIONS These results strongly support the role of human resistin in the development of insulin resistance in inflammation. Thus, human resistin may link insulin resistance to inflammatory diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. PMID:21282361

  20. Comparison of predictability for human pharmacokinetics parameters among monkeys, rats, and chimeric mice with humanised liver.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Maki; Iwasaki, Shinji; Chisaki, Ikumi; Nakagawa, Sayaka; Amano, Nobuyuki; Hirabayashi, Hideki

    2017-03-02

    1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of chimeric mice with humanised liver (PXB mice) for the prediction of clearance (CLt) and volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss), in comparison with monkeys, which have been reported as a reliable model for human pharmacokinetics (PK) prediction, and with rats, as a conventional PK model. 2. CLt and Vdss values in PXB mice, monkeys and rats were determined following intravenous administration of 30 compounds known to be mainly eliminated in humans via the hepatic metabolism by various drug-metabolising enzymes. Using single-species allometric scaling, human CLt and Vdss values were predicted from the three animal models. 3. Predicted CLt values from PXB mice exhibited the highest predictability: 25 for PXB mice, 21 for monkeys and 14 for rats were predicted within a three-fold range of actual values among 30 compounds. For predicted human Vdss values, the number of compounds falling within a three-fold range was 23 for PXB mice, 24 for monkeys, and 16 for rats among 29 compounds. PXB mice indicated a higher predictability for CLt and Vdss values than the other animal models. 4. These results demonstrate the utility of PXB mice in predicting human PK parameters.

  1. New generation humanized mice for virus research: comparative aspects and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Akkina, Ramesh

    2013-01-05

    Work with human specific viruses will greatly benefit from the use of an in vivo system that provides human target cells and tissues in a physiological setting. In this regard humanized mice (hu-Mice) have played an important role in our understanding of viral pathogenesis and testing of therapeutic strategies. Limitations with earlier versions of hu-Mice that lacked a functioning human immune system are currently being overcome. The new generation hu-Mouse models are capable of multilineage human hematopoiesis and generate T cells, B cells, macrophages and dendritic cells required for an adaptive human immune response. Now any human specific pathogen that can infect humanized mice can be studied in the context of ongoing infection and immune responses. Two leading humanized mouse models are currently employed: the hu-HSC model is created by transplantation of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), whereas the BLT mouse model is prepared by transplantation of human fetal liver, thymus and HSC. A number of human specific viruses such as HIV-1, dengue, EBV and HCV are being studied intensively in these systems. Both models permit infection by mucosal routes with viruses such as HIV-1 thus allowing transmission prevention studies. Cellular and humoral immune responses are seen in both the models. While there is efficient antigen specific IgM production, IgG responses are suboptimal due to inefficient immunoglobulin class switching. With the maturation of T cells occurring in the autologous human thymus, BLT mice permit human HLA restricted T cell responses in contrast to hu-HSC mice. However, the strength of the immune responses needs further improvement in both models to reach the levels seen in humans. The scope of hu-Mice use is further broadened by transplantation of additional tissues like human liver thus permitting immunopathogenesis studies on hepatotropic viruses such as HCV. Numerous studies that encompass antivirals, gene therapy, viral evolution, and the

  2. New generation humanized mice for virus research: Comparative aspects and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Akkina, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Work with human specific viruses will greatly benefit from the use of an in vivo system that provides human target cells and tissues in a physiological setting. In this regard humanized mice (hu-Mice) have played an important role in our understanding of viral pathogenesis and testing of therapeutic strategies. Limitations with earlier versions of hu-Mice that lacked a functioning human immune system are currently being overcome. The new generation hu-Mouse models are capable of multilineage human hematopoiesis and generate T cells, B cells, macrophages and dendritic cells required for an adaptive human immune response. Now any human specific pathogen that can infect humanized mice can be studied in the context of ongoing infection and immune responses. Two leading humanized mouse models are currently employed: the hu-HSC model is created by transplantation of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), whereas the BLT mouse model is prepared by transplantation of human fetal liver, thymus and HSC. A number of human specific viruses such as HIV-1, dengue, EBV and HCV are being studied intensively in these systems. Both models permit infection by mucosal routes with viruses such as HIV-1 thus allowing transmission prevention studies. Cellular and humoral immune responses are seen in both the models. While there is efficient antigen specific IgM production, IgG responses are suboptimal due to inefficient immunoglobulin class switching. With the maturation of T cells occurring in the autologous human thymus, BLT mice permit human HLA restricted T cell responses in contrast to hu-HSC mice. However, the strength of the immune responses needs further improvement in both models to reach the levels seen in humans. The scope of hu-Mice use is further broadened by transplantation of additional tissues like human liver thus permitting immunopathogenesis studies on hepatotropic viruses such as HCV. Numerous studies that encompass antivirals, gene therapy, viral evolution, and the

  3. A Novel HLA (HLA-A*0201) Transgenic Rabbit Model for Preclinical Evaluation of Human CD8+ T Cell Epitope-Based Vaccines against Ocular Herpes

    PubMed Central

    Chentoufi, Aziz A.; Dasgupta, Gargi; Christensen, Neil D.; Hu, Jiafen; Choudhury, Zareen S.; Azeem, Arfan; Jester, James V.; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Wechsler, Steven L.; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2013-01-01

    We introduced a novel humanized HLA-A*0201 transgenic (HLA Tg) rabbit model to assess the protective efficacy of a human CD8+ T cell epitope-based vaccine against primary ocular herpes infection and disease. Each of the three immunodominant human CD8+ T cell peptide epitopes from HSV-1 glycoprotein D (gD53–61, gD70–78, and gD278–286) were joined with a promiscuous human CD4+ T cell peptide epitope (gD49–82) to construct three separate pairs of CD4–CD8 peptides. Each CD4–CD8 peptide pair was then covalently linked to an Nε-palmitoyl–lysine residue via a functional base lysine amino group to construct CD4–CD8 lipopeptides. HLA Tg rabbits were immunized s.c. with a mixture of the three CD4–CD8 HSV-1 gD lipopeptides. The HSV-gD–specific T cell responses induced by the mixture of CD4–CD8 lipopeptide vaccine and the protective efficacy against acute virus replication and ocular disease were determined. Immunization induced HSV-gD49–82–specific CD4+ T cells in draining lymph node (DLN); induced HLA-restricted HSV-gD53–61, gD70–78, and gD278–286–specific CD8+ T cells in DLN, conjunctiva, and trigeminal ganglia and reduced HSV-1 replication in tears and corneal eye disease after ocular HSV-1 challenge. In addition, the HSV-1 epitope-specific CD8+ T cells induced in DLNs, conjunctiva, and the trigeminal ganglia were inversely proportional with corneal disease. The humanized HLA Tg rabbits appeared to be a useful preclinical animal model for investigating the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of human CD8+ T cell epitope-based prophylactic vaccines against ocular herpes. The relevance of HLA Tg rabbits for future investigation of human CD4–CD8 epitope-based therapeutic vaccines against recurrent HSV-1 is discussed. PMID:20124097

  4. A novel HLA (HLA-A*0201) transgenic rabbit model for preclinical evaluation of human CD8+ T cell epitope-based vaccines against ocular herpes.

    PubMed

    Chentoufi, Aziz A; Dasgupta, Gargi; Christensen, Neil D; Hu, Jiafen; Choudhury, Zareen S; Azeem, Arfan; Jester, James V; Nesburn, Anthony B; Wechsler, Steven L; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2010-03-01

    We introduced a novel humanized HLA-A*0201 transgenic (HLA Tg) rabbit model to assess the protective efficacy of a human CD8(+) T cell epitope-based vaccine against primary ocular herpes infection and disease. Each of the three immunodominant human CD8(+) T cell peptide epitopes from HSV-1 glycoprotein D (gD(53-61), gD(70-78), and gD(278-286)) were joined with a promiscuous human CD4(+) T cell peptide epitope (gD(49-82)) to construct three separate pairs of CD4-CD8 peptides. Each CD4-CD8 peptide pair was then covalently linked to an N(epsilon)-palmitoyl-lysine residue via a functional base lysine amino group to construct CD4-CD8 lipopeptides. HLA Tg rabbits were immunized s.c. with a mixture of the three CD4-CD8 HSV-1 gD lipopeptides. The HSV-gD-specific T cell responses induced by the mixture of CD4-CD8 lipopeptide vaccine and the protective efficacy against acute virus replication and ocular disease were determined. Immunization induced HSV-gD(49-82)-specific CD4(+) T cells in draining lymph node (DLN); induced HLA-restricted HSV-gD(53-61), gD(70-78), and gD(278-286)-specific CD8(+) T cells in DLN, conjunctiva, and trigeminal ganglia and reduced HSV-1 replication in tears and corneal eye disease after ocular HSV-1 challenge. In addition, the HSV-1 epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells induced in DLNs, conjunctiva, and the trigeminal ganglia were inversely proportional with corneal disease. The humanized HLA Tg rabbits appeared to be a useful preclinical animal model for investigating the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of human CD8(+) T cell epitope-based prophylactic vaccines against ocular herpes. The relevance of HLA Tg rabbits for future investigation of human CD4-CD8 epitope-based therapeutic vaccines against recurrent HSV-1 is discussed.

  5. Induction of lymphomas on implantation of human oral squamous cell carcinomas in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Teni, T R; Saranath, D; Mahale, A M; Pai, S A; Ahire, S D; Ingle, A D

    2001-02-01

    Cancer cells from five oral cancer patients and pleomorphic adenoma cells from one individual were inoculated as single cell suspension into subcutis of 30 Swiss nude mice and tail vein of additional 30 mice. Further, tumor tissue pieces from three oral cancer patients were xenografted s.c. in 18 nude mice, and 10 mice were kept as controls. In animals implanted with tumor pieces, 7/18 (39%) mice, developed squamous cell carcinoma at the site of inoculation within 8-15 days, while tumors were not observed in mice inoculated with single cell suspension, up to 60/90 days. In 8/68 (12%) mice, white foci were observed in several tissues, with hepatomegaly and splenomegaly noted in 27/68 (39%) mice. Histopathological examination of various tissues revealed presence of large cell lymphoma in several organs in 14/68 (21%) mice. No regional or distant metastasis of the implanted oral tumor cells was detected. Mice injected with cells from pleomorphic adenoma, also demonstrated large cell lymphoma in 2/10 (20%) mice, whereas none of the 10 control animals showed any gross abnormalities or microscopic abnormalities in several organs. 2/16 (12%) lymphomas exhibited positive reaction with mouse B cell antibodies illustrating the murine origin of the lymphomas, and these were immunophenotyed as B cell lymphomas. The lymphomas were also examined with mouse T cell antibodies and none reacted positively with the mouse T cell antibodies. The lymphomas also failed to react with human T cell, B cell and human Leucocyte common antigen (LCA) antibodies, indicating that the induced lymphomas were not of human origin. The tumor specimens from seven of eight oral cancer patients and the pleomorphic adenoma patient induced lymphomas in nude mice. Thus it appears that xenografting oral tumor cells into nude mice may cause induction of the murine lymphomas, and this needs further investigation.

  6. Comparison of Human Hematopoietic Reconstitution in Different Strains of Immunodeficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Ashley I; Muench, Marcus O

    2017-01-15

    Immunodeficient mice play a critical role in hematology research as in vivo models of hematopoiesis and immunology. Multiple strains have been developed, but hematopoietic stem cell engraftment and immune reconstitution have not been methodically compared among them. Four mouse strains were transplanted with human fetal bone marrow or adult peripheral blood CD34(+) cells: NSG, NSG-3GS, hSCF-Tg-NSG, and hSIRPα-DKO. Hematopoietic engraftment in the bone marrow, blood, spleen, and liver was evaluated by flow cytometry 12 weeks after transplant. The highest levels of human engraftment were observed in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow, whereas peripheral blood cell chimerism was notably less. The highest levels of tissue engraftment were in hSCF-Tg-NSG mice, but NSG mice exhibited the highest blood leukocyte engraftment. hSCF-Tg-NSG mice also exhibited the highest levels of CD133(+)CD34(++) stem cells. hSIRPα-DKO engrafted poorly and exhibited poor breeding. Myelopoiesis was greatest in NSG-3GS mice, followed by hSCF-Tg-NSG and NSG mice, whereas B cell engraftment exhibited the opposite pattern. Engraftment of CD3(+) T cells, CD3(+)CD161(+) T cells, and CD3(-)CD56(+) NK cells was greatest in NSG-3GS mice. Mast cell engraftment was highest in hSCF-Tg-NSG mice, but was also elevated in spleen and livers of NSG-3GS mice. Basophils were most abundant in NSG-3GS mice. Overall, hSCF-Tg-NSG mice are the best recipient mice for studies requiring high levels of human hematopoiesis, stem cell engraftment, and an intermediate level of myelopoiesis, whereas NSG and NSG-3GS mice offer select advantages in the engraftment of certain blood cell lineages.

  7. Humanized Androgen Receptor Mice: A Genetic Model for Differential Response to Prostate Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    For each Q tract allele, we have currently obtained at least 30 experimental and 30 control mice . Some have reached their time points and tissues...overexpression of ETV1). Experimental mice have been generated and prostates are being microdissected as animals reach their time points. Initial...TITLE: Humanized Androgen Receptor Mice : A Genetic Model for Differential Response to Prostate Cancer Therapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Diane M

  8. Plasmodium falciparum full life cycle and Plasmodium ovale liver stages in humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Soulard, Valérie; Bosson-Vanga, Henriette; Lorthiois, Audrey; Roucher, Clémentine; Franetich, Jean- François; Zanghi, Gigliola; Bordessoulles, Mallaury; Tefit, Maurel; Thellier, Marc; Morosan, Serban; Le Naour, Gilles; Capron, Frédérique; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Snounou, Georges; Moreno-Sabater, Alicia; Mazier, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies of Plasmodium parasites that infect humans are restricted by their host specificity. Humanized mice offer a means to overcome this and further provide the opportunity to observe the parasites in vivo. Here we improve on previous protocols to achieve efficient double engraftment of TK-NOG mice by human primary hepatocytes and red blood cells. Thus, we obtain the complete hepatic development of P. falciparum, the transition to the erythrocytic stages, their subsequent multiplication, and the appearance of mature gametocytes over an extended period of observation. Furthermore, using sporozoites derived from two P. ovale-infected patients, we show that human hepatocytes engrafted in TK-NOG mice sustain maturation of the liver stages, and the presence of late-developing schizonts indicate the eventual activation of quiescent parasites. Thus, TK-NOG mice are highly suited for in vivo observations on the Plasmodium species of humans. PMID:26205537

  9. The use of SCID mice in biotechnology and as a model for human disease

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, J.S. |; Boynton, E.; Gorczynski, R.; Hozumi, N.

    1996-05-01

    The use of SCID (severe combined immunodeficient) mice in medical research and biotechnology has increased tremendously in recent years. This review outlines the major characteristics of these animals and the impediments that they poise to the engraftment of human cells and tissues. The development of the SCID mice pretreatment protocol (anti-asialo GM 1 antisera and radiation) is described, and the results of xenotransplantation studies of human cells and tissues in these pretreated animals are outlined. Wherever possible, data from transplantation studies (of human tissues and cells) in pretreated and nonpretreated animals are compared. The potential of the pretreated SCID mice for medical research and biotechnology is discussed.

  10. Intrapleural Adenoviral Delivery of Human Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor–1 Exacerbates Tetracycline-Induced Pleural Injury in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Karandashova, Sophia; Florova, Galina; Azghani, Ali O.; Komissarov, Andrey A.; Koenig, Kathy; Tucker, Torry A.; Allen, Timothy C.; Stewart, Kris; Tvinnereim, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor–1 (PAI-1) are associated with pleural injury, but its effects on pleural organization remain unclear. A method of adenovirus-mediated delivery of genes of interest (expressed under a cytomegalovirus promoter) to rabbit pleura was developed and used with lacZ and human (h) PAI-1. Histology, β-galactosidase staining, Western blotting, enzymatic and immunohistochemical analyses of pleural fluids (PFs), lavages, and pleural mesothelial cells were used to evaluate the efficiency and effects of transduction. Transduction was selective and limited to the pleural mesothelial monolayer. The intrapleural expression of both genes was transient, with their peak expression at 4 to 5 days. On Day 5, hPAI-1 (40–80 and 200–400 nM of active and total hPAI-1 in lavages, respectively) caused no overt pleural injury, effusions, or fibrosis. The adenovirus-mediated delivery of hPAI-1 with subsequent tetracycline-induced pleural injury resulted in a significant exacerbation of the pleural fibrosis observed on Day 5 (P = 0.029 and P = 0.021 versus vehicle and adenoviral control samples, respectively). Intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy (IPFT) with plasminogen activators was effective in both animals overexpressing hPAI-1 and control animals with tetracycline injury alone. An increase in intrapleural active PAI-1 (from 10–15 nM in control animals to 20–40 nM in hPAI-1–overexpressing animals) resulted in the increased formation of PAI-1/plasminogen activator complexes in vivo. The decrease in intrapleural plasminogen-activating activity observed at 10 to 40 minutes after IPFT correlates linearly with the initial concentration of active PAI-1. Therefore, active PAI-1 in PFs affects the outcome of IPFT, and may be both a biomarker of pleural injury and a molecular target for its treatment. PMID:23002099

  11. Differential effects of human interferon alpha and interferon gamma on xenografted human thyroid tissue in severe combined immunodeficient mice and nude mice.

    PubMed

    Kawai, K; Enomoto, T; Fornasier, V; Resetkova, E; Volpé, R

    1997-03-01

    We have studied the in vivo effects of human interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) administration on human thyroid tissue xenografted into two mouse strains: severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and nude mice. Human lymphocytes survive in SCID mice but are lysed in nude mice. Thyroid tissues from Graves' disease or Hashimoto's thyroiditis, or paranodular [normal, (N)] tissue was xenografted into SCID mice (0.8 g/mouse) pretreated with anti-asialo GM-1 antiserum and radiation and also into nude mice. One week after xenografting, SCID and nude mice were divided into three groups. Group A was treated with IFN-alpha intraperitoneally (2,000 units/mouse) three times weekly; group B was treated with IFN-gamma similarly; group C was treated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) only (control). Autologous human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were added to mice receiving N xenografts. Blood was taken every 2 weeks for levels of IgG and thyroid antibodies (TAb). After 6 weeks of treatment, mice were sacrificed, and xenograft thyrocyte histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR) and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) expression were measured. In addition, thyrocyte cultures were stimulated in vitro with 200 units/ml of either IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma or PBS (control). SCID mice xenografted with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) in group A showed a significantly higher TAb production than group C, whereas in group B, TAb production was not statistically increased compared to control (group C). SCID mice xenografted with N did not produce TAb in any group, nor did nude mice xenografted with AITD. Thyrocyte HLA-DR expression was markedly increased in group A and B in SCID mice xenografted with Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and N tissue compared to group C. In contrast, only group B (IFN-gamma) showed an increase in thyrocyte HLA-DR in nude mice. In the in vitro studies, only IFN-gamma (not IFN-alpha) stimulated

  12. Amelogenin genes and sexual dimorphism of teeth in humans and mice

    SciTech Connect

    Blecher, S.R. )

    1992-12-01

    Mutant mice in which chromosomal complement and hormonal profile were discordant were studied. It appeared that the Y-chromosomally determined male-larger sexual dimorphism of tooth size seen in humans was not present in mice. It was concluded that the finding of smaller molars in males than in females was due to hormonal rather than chromosomal factors.

  13. The antifungal antibiotic, clotrimazole, inhibits chloride secretion by human intestinal T84 cells via blockade of distinct basolateral K+ conductances. Demonstration of efficacy in intact rabbit colon and in an in vivo mouse model of cholera.

    PubMed Central

    Rufo, P A; Merlin, D; Riegler, M; Ferguson-Maltzman, M H; Dickinson, B L; Brugnara, C; Alper, S L; Lencer, W I

    1997-01-01

    The antifungal antibiotic clotrimazole (CLT) blocks directly and with high potency the Ca2+-activated K+ channels of human erythrocytes, erythroleukemia cells, and ferret vascular smooth muscle cells. We recently reported that CLT inhibits Cl- secretion in human intestinal T84 cells, likely by affecting K+ transport (Rufo, P.A., L. Jiang, S.J. Moe, C. Brugnara, S.L. Alper, and W.I. Lencer. 1996. J. Clin. Invest. 98:2066-2075). To determine if CLT had direct effects on K+ conductances in T84 cells, we selectively permeabilized apical membranes of confluent T84 cell monolayers using the ionophore amphotericin B. This technique permits direct measurement of basolateral K+ transport. We found that CLT and a stable des-imidazolyl derivative inhibited directly two pharmacologically distinct basolateral membrane K+conductances, but had no effect on apical membrane Cl- conductances. The effects of CLT on Cl- secretion were also examined in intact tissue. CLT inhibited forskolin-induced Cl- secretion in rabbit colonic mucosal sheets mounted in Ussing chambers by 91%. CLT also inhibited cholera toxin-induced intestinal Cl- secretion in intact mice by 94%. These data provide direct evidence that CLT blocks Cl- secretion in intestinal T84 cells by inhibition of basolateral K+ conductances, and show that CLT inhibits salt and water secretion from intact tissue in vitro and in vivo. The results further support the suggestion that CLT and its metabolites may show clinical efficacy in the treatment of secretory diarrheas of diverse etiologies. PMID:9399958

  14. Molecular Evidence and Functional Expression of a Novel Drug Efflux pump (ABCC2) in Human Corneal Epithelium and Rabbit Cornea and its role in Ocular drug efflux

    PubMed Central

    Karla, Pradeep K.; Pal, Dhananjay; Quinn, Tim; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2007-01-01

    Cornea is considered as a major barrier for ocular drug delivery. Low ocular bioavailability of drugs has been attributed primarily to low permeability across corneal epithelium thus leading to sub-therapeutic concentrations of drug in the eye and treatment failure. The role of drug efflux proteins, particularly the Pglycoprotein in ocular drug bioavailability has been reported. The objective of this research was to determine whether human corneal epithelium expresses multi drug resistance associated proteins contributing to drug efflux by employing both cultured corneal cells and freshly excised rabbit cornea. SV40 HCEC and rPCEC were selected for in-vitro testing. SV40-HCEC and freshly excised rabbit corneas were utilized for transport studies. [3H]-cyclosporine-A and [14C]-erythromycin which are known substrates for ABCC2 and MK-571, a specific inhibitor for MRP were applied in this study. RT-PCR indicated a unique and distinct band at ∼272 bp corresponding to ABCC2 in HCEC, SV40-HCEC, rabbit cornea, rPCEC and MDCKII-MRP2 cells. Also RT-PCR indicated a unique band ∼181 bp for HCEC and SV40-HCEC. Immunoprecipitation followed by Western Blot analysis revealed a specific band at ∼190-kDa in membrane fraction of SV40-HCEC, MDCKII-MRP2 and no band with isotype control. Uptake of [3H]-cyclosporine-A and [14C]-erythromycin in the presence of MK-571 was significantly enhanced than control in both SV40 HCEC and rPCEC. Similarly a significant elevation in (A→B) permeability of [3H]-cyclosporine-A and [14C]-erythromycin was observed in the presence of MK-571 in SV40-HCEC. A→B transport of [3H]-cyclosporine-A was elevated in the presence of MK-571 in freshly excised rabbit cornea indicating potential role of this efflux transporter and high clinical significance of this finding. PMID:17156953

  15. Tonsillar application of killed Streptococcus mutans induces specific antibodies in rabbit saliva and blood plasma without inducing a cross-reacting antibody to human cardiac muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Fukuizumi, T; Inoue, H; Tsujisawa, T; Uchiyama, C

    1997-01-01

    When Streptococcus mutans cells are injected into the skeletal muscle of rabbits, an antibody against human cardiac muscle, as well as an anti-S. mutans antibody, is induced in blood plasma. Our previous study showed that when sheep erythrocytes are applied to palatine tonsils, an antibody against the applied cells is induced both in blood plasma and saliva. This antibody has no activity against cardiac muscle. It is not clear, however, if S. mutans application to the tonsils evokes an antibody response against cardiac muscle. In this study, we immunized rabbits against S. mutans or Streptococcus sobrinus by tonsillar application or by intramuscular injection every 3 days for 6 weeks. Tonsillar applications of formalin-killed cells of S. mutans induced saliva immunoglobulin A (IgA) and blood plasma IgG to the applied cells. In contrast, intramuscular injection of such cells induced only blood plasma IgG. When the route of immunization was intramuscular injection, antibodies in blood plasma cross-reacted with cardiac muscle. By enzyme-immunohistochemistry and Ouchterlony immunodiffusion tests, no cross-reaction to cardiac muscle was observed with the antibody in saliva or in blood plasma after the tonsillar applications. Western blotting of the S. mutans antigen showed that blood plasma from rabbits injected with S. mutans reacted with antigens of 46, 52, 62, and 85 kDa, while that from rabbits subjected to tonsillar application of S. mutans did not react with these bands. Similar results were obtained for S. sobrinus applications. Thus, tonsillar applications of mutants group streptococci induce antibodies differing in antigen specificity and do not induce any cross-reacting antibody to cardiac muscle. PMID:9353033

  16. Humanized Mice for the Study of Type 1 Diabetes and Beta Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    King, Marie; Pearson, Todd; Rossini, Aldo A.; Shultz, Leonard D.; Greiner, Dale L.

    2008-01-01

    Our understanding of the basic biology of diabetes has been guided by observations made using animal models, particularly rodents. However, humans are not mice, and outcomes predicted by murine studies are not always representative of actual outcomes in the clinic. In particular, investigators studying diabetes have relied heavily on mouse and rat models of autoimmune type 1-like diabetes, and experimental results using these models have not been representative of many of the clinical trials in type 1 diabetes. In this manuscript, we describe the availability of new models of humanized mice for the study of three areas of diabetes. These include the use of humanized mice for the study of 1) human islet stem and progenitor cells, 2) human islet allograft rejection, and 3) human immunity and autoimmunity. These humanized mouse models provide an important pre-clinical bridge between in vitro studies and rodent models and the translation of discoveries in these model systems to the clinic. PMID:19120266

  17. Experimental Infection of Rabbits with Rabbit and Genotypes 1 and 4 Hepatitis E Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hongxia; Zheng, Lin; Liu, Yunbo; Zhao, Chenyan; Harrison, Tim J.; Ma, Yuyuan; Sun, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingang; Wang, Youchun

    2010-01-01

    Background A recent study provided evidence that farmed rabbits in China harbor a novel hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype. Although the rabbit HEV isolate had 77–79% nucleotide identity to the mammalian HEV genotypes 1 to 4, their genomic organization is very similar. Since rabbits are used widely experimentally, including as models of infection, we investigated whether they constitute an appropriate animal model for human HEV infection. Methods Forty-two SPF rabbits were divided randomly into eleven groups and inoculated with six different isolates of rabbit HEV, two different doses of a second-passage rabbit HEV, and with genotype 1 and 4 HEV. Sera and feces were collected weekly after inoculation. HEV antigen, RNA, antibody and alanine aminotransferase in sera and HEV RNA in feces were detected. The liver samples were collected during necropsy subject to histopathological examination. Findings Rabbits inoculated with rabbit HEV became infected with HEV, with viremia, fecal virus shedding and high serum levels of viral antigens, and developed hepatitis, with elevation of the liver enzyme, ALT. The severity of disease corresponded to the infectious dose (genome equivalents), with the most severe hepatic disease caused by strain GDC54-18. However, only two of nine rabbits infected with HEV genotype 4, and none infected with genotype 1, developed hepatitis although six of nine rabbits inoculated with the genotype 1 HEV and in all rabbits inoculated with the genotype 4 HEV seroconverted to be positive for anti-HEV IgG antibody by 14 weeks post-inoculation. Conclusions These data indicate that rabbits are an appropriate model for rabbit HEV infection but are not likely to be useful for the study of human HEV. The rabbit HEV infection of rabbits may provide an appropriate parallel animal model to study HEV pathogenesis. PMID:20161794

  18. Teplizumab induces human gut-tropic regulatory cells in humanized mice and patients.

    PubMed

    Waldron-Lynch, Frank; Henegariu, Octavian; Deng, Songyan; Preston-Hurlburt, Paula; Tooley, James; Flavell, Richard; Herold, Kevan C

    2012-01-25

    The development and optimization of immune therapies in patients has been hampered by the lack of preclinical models in which their effects on human immune cells can be studied. As a result, observations that have been made in preclinical studies have suggested mechanisms of drug action in murine models that have not been confirmed in clinical studies. Here, we used a humanized mouse reconstituted with human hematopoietic stem cells to study the mechanism of action of teplizumab, an Fc receptor nonbinding humanized monoclonal antibody to CD3 being tested in clinical trials for the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. In this model, human gut-tropic CCR6(+) T cells exited the circulation and secondary lymph organs and migrated to the small intestine. These cells then produced interleukin-10 (IL-10), a regulatory cytokine, in quantities that could be detected in the peripheral circulation. Blocking T cell migration to the small intestine with natalizumab, which prevents cellular adhesion by inhibiting α(4) integrin binding, abolished the treatment effects of teplizumab. Moreover, IL-10 expression by CD4(+)CD25(high)CCR6(+)FoxP3 cells returning to the peripheral circulation was increased in patients with type 1 diabetes treated with teplizumab. These findings demonstrate that humanized mice may be used to identify novel immunologic mechanisms that occur in patients treated with immunomodulators.

  19. Human breast milk and antiretrovirals dramatically reduce oral HIV-1 transmission in BLT humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Angela; Swanson, Michael D; Nochi, Tomonori; Olesen, Rikke; Denton, Paul W; Chateau, Morgan; Garcia, J Victor

    2012-01-01

    Currently, over 15% of new HIV infections occur in children. Breastfeeding is a major contributor to HIV infections in infants. This represents a major paradox in the field because in vitro, breast milk has been shown to have a strong inhibitory effect on HIV infectivity. However, this inhibitory effect has never been demonstrated in vivo. Here, we address this important paradox using the first humanized mouse model of oral HIV transmission. We established that reconstitution of the oral cavity and upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humanized bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT) mice with human leukocytes, including the human cell types important for mucosal HIV transmission (i.e. dendritic cells, macrophages and CD4⁺ T cells), renders them susceptible to oral transmission of cell-free and cell-associated HIV. Oral transmission of HIV resulted in systemic infection of lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues that is characterized by the presence of HIV RNA in plasma and a gradual decline of CD4⁺ T cells in peripheral blood. Consistent with infection of the oral cavity, we observed virus shedding into saliva. We then evaluated the role of human breast milk on oral HIV transmission. Our in vivo results demonstrate that breast milk has a strong inhibitory effect on oral transmission of both cell-free and cell-associated HIV. Finally, we evaluated the effect of antiretrovirals on oral transmission of HIV. Our results show that systemic antiretrovirals administered prior to exposure can efficiently prevent oral HIV transmission in BLT mice.

  20. Chronic exposure to rifaximin causes hepatic steatosis in pregnane X receptor-humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W; Tanaka, Naoki; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2012-10-01

    Rifaximin, a nonsystemic antibiotic that exhibits low gastrointestinal absorption, is a potent agonist of human pregnane X receptor (PXR), which contributes to its therapeutic efficacy in inflammatory bowel disease. To investigate the effects of long-term administration of rifaximin on the liver, PXR-humanized mice were administered rifaximin for 6 months; wild-type and Pxr-null mice were treated in parallel as controls. Histological analysis revealed time-dependent intense hepatocellular fatty degeneration and increased hepatic triglycerides in PXR-humanized mice and not in wild-type and Pxr-null mice. After long-term treatment, PXR target genes were induced in small intestine and liver, with significant up-regulation in the expression of hepatic genes related to triglyceride synthesis and lipid accumulation. However, no significant hepatic accumulation of rifaximin was found, even after 6 months of treatment, in PXR-humanized mice. Genes in the small intestine that are involved in the uptake of fatty acids and triglycerides were induced along with increased triglyceride accumulation in intestinal epithelial cells of PXR-humanized mice; this was not observed in wild-type and Pxr-null mice. These findings suggest that long-term administration of rifaximin could lead to PXR-dependent hepatocellular fatty degeneration as a result of activation of genes involved in lipid uptake, thus indicating a potential adverse effect of rifaximin on liver function after long-term exposure.

  1. Pathology of Berkeley sickle cell mice: similarities and differences with human sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Manci, Elizabeth A; Hillery, Cheryl A; Bodian, Carol A; Zhang, Zheng G; Lutty, Gerard A; Coller, Barry S

    2006-02-15

    Because Berkeley sickle cell mice are used as an animal model for human sickle cell disease, we investigated the progression of the histopathology in these animals over 6 months and compared these findings to those published in humans with sickle cell disease. The murine study groups were composed of wild-type mixed C57Bl/6-SV129 (control) mice and sickle cell (SS) mice (alpha-/-, beta-/-, transgene +) of both sexes and between 1 and 6 months of age. SS mice were similar to humans with sickle cell disease in having erythrocytic sickling, vascular ectasia, intravascular hemolysis, exuberant hematopoiesis, cardiomegaly, glomerulosclerosis, visceral congestion, hemorrhages, multiorgan infarcts, pyknotic neurons, and progressive siderosis. Cerebral perfusion studies demonstrated increased blood-brain barrier permeability in SS mice. SS mice differed from humans with sickle cell disease in having splenomegaly, splenic hematopoiesis, more severe hepatic infarcts, less severe pulmonary manifestations, no significant vascular intimal hyperplasia, and only a trend toward vascular medial hypertrophy. Early retinal degeneration caused by a homozygous mutation (rd1) independent from that causing sickle hemoglobin was an incidental finding in some Berkeley mice. While our study reinforces the fundamental strength of this model, the notable differences warrant careful consideration when drawing parallels to human sickle cell disease.

  2. Chronic Exposure to Rifaximin Causes Hepatic Steatosis in Pregnane X Receptor-Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Frank, J.

    2012-01-01

    Rifaximin, a nonsystemic antibiotic that exhibits low gastrointestinal absorption, is a potent agonist of human pregnane X receptor (PXR), which contributes to its therapeutic efficacy in inflammatory bowel disease. To investigate the effects of long-term administration of rifaximin on the liver, PXR-humanized mice were administered rifaximin for 6 months; wild-type and Pxr-null mice were treated in parallel as controls. Histological analysis revealed time-dependent intense hepatocellular fatty degeneration and increased hepatic triglycerides in PXR-humanized mice and not in wild-type and Pxr-null mice. After long-term treatment, PXR target genes were induced in small intestine and liver, with significant up-regulation in the expression of hepatic genes related to triglyceride synthesis and lipid accumulation. However, no significant hepatic accumulation of rifaximin was found, even after 6 months of treatment, in PXR-humanized mice. Genes in the small intestine that are involved in the uptake of fatty acids and triglycerides were induced along with increased triglyceride accumulation in intestinal epithelial cells of PXR-humanized mice; this was not observed in wild-type and Pxr-null mice. These findings suggest that long-term administration of rifaximin could lead to PXR-dependent hepatocellular fatty degeneration as a result of activation of genes involved in lipid uptake, thus indicating a potential adverse effect of rifaximin on liver function after long-term exposure. PMID:22790967

  3. Myelostimulatory activity of recombinant human interleukin-2 in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Talmadge, J.E.; Schneider, M.; Keller, J.; Ruscetti, F.; Longo, D.; Pennington, R.; Bowersox, O.; Tribble, H.

    1989-05-01

    In a series of studies designed to extend our understanding of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and to study the effect of biologic response modifiers on bone marrow, we observed that administering recombinant human (rH) IL-2 to normal mice resulted in an increase in the frequency of colony-forming units-culture (CFU-C) in bone marrow. In addition, rH IL-2 was able to accelerate host recovery from cyclophosphamide (CTX)- or radiation-induced bone marrow depression and peripheral blood leukopenia. Not only can rH IL-2 accelerate, in a dose-dependent manner, the return of bone marrow, peripheral blood cellularity, and CFU-C frequency to normal levels following cytoreduction by CTX or irradiation, but it also significantly increases CFU-C frequency to greater than normal levels. Furthermore, rH IL-2 can significantly prolong survival of animals receiving a lethal dose of irradiation or CTX. Thus, multiple mechanisms are responsible for the synergistic therapeutic activity associated with rH IL-2 and CTX. rH IL-2 does not act only as an immunomodulatory agent in the presence or absence of suppressor T cells, but also accelerates host recovery from cytoreductive agents, resulting in decreased leukopenia and perhaps resistances to secondary infection. Thus, rH IL-2 plus chemotherapy may increase therapeutic activity against neoplastic disease, not only by adding immune stimulation to the direct antitumor effect of the drug but also by allowing delivery of higher, more effective doses of chemotherapy.

  4. Rabbit hematology.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Kemba L

    2008-09-01

    Using laboratory animal medicine as an established resource, companion animal veterinarians have access to many physiologic and basic science studies that we can now merge with our clinical impressions. By working with reference laboratories, companion animal veterinarians are poised to accelerate our knowledge of the normal rabbit rapidly. The aim of this article is to discuss normal hematopoiesis and infectious and metabolic diseases that specifically target the hemolymphatic system. Additionally, photographic representation of cell types is provided.

  5. [Studies on the absorption, excretion and distribution of aclacinomycin A: absorption, excretion and distribution of 14C- or 3H-aclacinomycin A in mice, rats and rabbits (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Iguchi, H; Seryu, Y; Kiyosaki, T; Hori, S; Tone, H; Oki, T

    1980-02-01

    A new anthracycline antitumor antibiotic, aclacinomycin A, was labeled with 3H uniformly or with 14C simultaneously at the anthracycline nucleus and L-rhodosamine. These labeled drugs were administered intravenously to normal dd mice, solid type Sarcoma 180 tumor-bearing ICR mice, normal or pregnant Wistar rats and normal rabbits, respectively. 14C-Aclacinomycin A given to rabbits (5 mg/kg) was rapidly cleared from the blood and transferred to tissues. But low level of radioactivity (equivalent to about 0.5 mcg/ml) was remained in the blood even 8 approximately 10 hours after administration. About 45% of the radioactivity were recovered from the urine and 20% from the feces by 72 hours after administration. Tissue levels of 3H-14C-aclacinomycin A given to normal and tumor-bearing mice were highest in the lungs and spleen. Higher distribution was observed also in the liver and kidneys 2 hours after administration. Bioassay revealed that the drug was present in the lungs and spleen in biologically active form and in the liver and kidneys in inactive form, respectively. In the tumor tissue the radioactivity was low but it persisted for 48 hours. Autoradiography with 14C-aclacinomycin A in rats demonstrated that radioactivity due to the drug distributed in the lungs, spleen, kidneys, thymus, intestine, lymph nodes, bone marrow, salivary gland, hypophysis and pineal body but it was rapidly cleared. About 0.2% of radioactivity given to a pregnant rat were transferred to a fetus when 14C-aclacinomycin A was administered intravenously on the 18 approximately 19th day of pregnancy.

  6. Reassessment of sst(5) somatostatin receptor expression in normal and neoplastic human tissues using the novel rabbit monoclonal antibody UMB-4.

    PubMed

    Lupp, Amelie; Hunder, Anna; Petrich, Aline; Nagel, Falko; Doll, Christian; Schulz, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The frequent overexpression of somatostatin receptors (sst) in neuroendocrine tumors provides the molecular basis for the diagnostic and therapeutic application of stable somatostatin analogs. Whereas octreotide acts mainly via the sst(2) receptor, the novel pan-somatostatin analog pasireotide exhibits particular high affinity for the sst(5) receptor. To determine whether a patient is a candidate for octreotide or pasireotide therapy, it is important to evaluate the somatostatin receptor status. However, so far highly specific rabbit monoclonal antibodies have been developed for the sst(2) receptor only (clone UMB-1). Here, we have extensively characterized a novel rabbit monoclonal antibody for the human sst(5) receptor (clone UMB-4). In a comparative immunohistochemical study, the expression of sst(5) and sst(2) receptors was assessed using UMB-4 and UMB-1, respectively. Western blot experiments unequivocally demonstrated that UMB-4 selectively detected its cognate sst(5) receptor and did not cross-react with other proteins present in crude tissue homogenates. UMB-4 yielded a highly effective immunostaining of distinct cell populations in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human tissues with a predominance of plasma membrane staining. In the pituitary, sst(5) was present on all growth hormone (GH)- and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)-producing cells whereas sst(2) was only observed on a subpopulation of GH-positive cells. Consequently, sst(5) was detectable on the majority of GH and ACTH adenomas. In contrast, sst(2) was only seen on GH but not on ACTH adenomas. The rabbit monoclonal antibodies UMB-4 and UMB-1 will facilitate the assessment of the somatostatin receptor status of human tumors during routine histopathological examinations. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Blocking effect of methylflavonolamine on human NaV1.5 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and on sodium currents in rabbit ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xin-rong; Ma, Ji-hua; Zhang, Pei-hua; Xing, Jun-lian

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the blocking effects of methylflavonolamine (MFA) on human NaV1.5 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and on sodium currents (INa) in rabbit ventricular myocytes. Methods: Human NaV1.5 channels were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and studied using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. INa and action potentials in rabbit ventricular myocytes were studied using the whole-cell recording. Results: MFA and lidocaine inhibited human NaV1.5 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes in a positive rate-dependent and concentration-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 72.61 μmol/L and 145.62 μmol/L, respectively. Both of them markedly shifted the steady-state activation curve of INa toward more positive potentials, shifted the steady-state inactivation curve of INa toward more negative potentials and postponed the recovery of the INa inactivation state. In rabbit ventricular myocytes, MFA inhibited INa with a shift in the steady-state inactivation curve toward more negative potentials, thereby postponing the recovery of the INa inactivation state. This shift was in a positive rate-dependent manner. Under current-clamp mode, MAF significantly decreased action potential amplitude (APA) and maximal depolarization velocity (Vmax) and shortened action potential duration (APD), but did not alter the resting membrane potential (RMP). The demonstrated that the kinetics of sodium channel blockage by MFA resemble those of class I antiarrhythmic agents such as lidocaine. Conclusion: MFA protects the heart against arrhythmias by its blocking effect on sodium channels. PMID:20173760

  8. Resistance of mice to infection with the human strain of Hymenolepis nana.

    PubMed

    al-Baldawi, F A; Mahdi, N K; Abdul-Hafidh, B A

    1989-06-01

    Six attempts were made to infect mice by feeding them eggs of the human strain of Hymenolepis nana, but none was successful. No eggs were found in the mouse faeces 14 days after feeding, and no adult worms were recovered at post mortem examination. In attempts to induce cysticercoids to infect mice, beetles were either fed on infected human faeces or given Hymenolepis eggs on filter paper. Both methods were unsuccessful, as no cysticercoids were recovered six days after exposure of the beetles.

  9. Growth retardation and hair loss in transgenic mice overexpressing human H-ferritin gene.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Sumitaka; Harada, Kazutoshi; Morokoshi, Yukie; Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Furukawa, Takako; Saga, Tsuneo

    2013-06-01

    H-ferritin (HF) is a core subunit of the iron storage protein ferritin, and plays a central role in the regulation of cellular iron homeostasis. Recent studies revealed that ferritin and HF are involved in a wide variety of iron-independent functions, including regulating biological processes during physiological and pathological conditions, and can be overexpressed in some human diseases. To investigate the in vivo function of HF, we generated transgenic (tg) mice overexpressing the human HF gene (hHF-tg). We established two independent hHF-tg mouse lines. Although both lines of hHF-tg mice were viable, they showed reduced body size compared to wild-type (WT) mice at 4-12 weeks of age. Serum iron concentration and blood parameters of hHF-tg mice such as hemoglobin and red blood cell counts were comparable to those of WT mice. At 3-5 weeks of age, hHF-tg mice exhibited temporary loss of coat hair on the trunk, but not on the head or face. Histological analyses revealed that although initial hair development was normal, hHF-tg mice had epidermal hyperplasia with hyperkeratosis, dilated hair follicles, bended hair shafts and keratinous debris during the hairless period. In conclusion, we showed that hHF-tg mice exhibited mild growth retardation and temporary hairless phenotype. Our findings highlight the physiological roles of HF and demonstrate that hHF-tg mice are useful for understanding the in vivo functions of HF.

  10. Human COMT over-expression confers a heightened susceptibility to dyskinesia in mice.

    PubMed

    Solís, Oscar; García-Montes, Jose-Rubén; Garcia-Sanz, Patricia; Herranz, Antonio S; Asensio, Maria-José; Kang, Gina; Hiroi, Noboru; Moratalla, Rosario

    2017-06-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) degrades dopamine and its precursor l-DOPA and plays a critical role in regulating synaptic dopamine actions. We investigated the effects of heightened levels of COMT on dopamine-regulated motor behaviors and molecular alterations in a mouse model of dyskinesia. Transgenic mice overexpressing human COMT (TG) and their wildtype (WT) littermates received unilateral 6-OHDA lesions in the dorsal striatum and were treated chronically with l-DOPA for two weeks. l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia was exacerbated in TG mice without altering l-DOPA motor efficacy as determined by contralateral rotations or motor coordination. Inductions of FosB and phospho-acetylated histone 3 (molecular correlates of dyskinesia) were potentiated in the lesioned striatum of TG mice compared with their WT littermates. The TG mice had lower basal levels of dopamine in the striatum. In mice with lesions, l-DOPA induces a greater increase in the dopamine metabolite 3-methoxytyramine in the lesioned striatum of dyskinetic TG mice than in WT mice. The levels of serotonin and its metabolite were similar in TG and WT mice. Our results demonstrate that human COMT overexpression confers a heightened susceptibility to l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia and alters molecular and neurochemical responses in the lesioned striatum of mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Recapitulating adult human immune traits in laboratory mice by normalizing environment

    PubMed Central

    Beura, Lalit K.; Hamilton, Sara E.; Bi, Kevin; Schenkel, Jason M.; Odumade, Oludare A.; Casey, Kerry A.; Thompson, Emily A.; Fraser, Kathryn A.; Rosato, Pamela C.; Filali-Mouhim, Ali; Sekaly, Rafick P.; Jenkins, Marc K.; Vezys, Vaiva; Haining, W. Nicholas; Jameson, Stephen C.; Masopust, David

    2016-01-01

    Our current understanding of immunology was largely defined in laboratory mice because of experimental advantages including inbred homogeneity, tools for genetic manipulation, the ability to perform kinetic tissue analyses starting with the onset of disease, and tractable models. Comparably reductionist experiments are neither technically nor ethically possible in humans. Despite revealing many fundamental principals of immunology, there is growing concern that mice fail to capture relevant aspects of the human immune system, which may account for failures to translate disease treatments from bench to bedside1–8. Laboratory mice live in abnormally hygienic “specific pathogen free” (SPF) barrier facilities. Here we show that the standard practice of laboratory mouse husbandry has profound effects on the immune system and that environmental changes result in better recapitulation of features of adult humans. Laboratory mice lack effector-differentiated and mucosally distributed memory T cells, which more closely resembles neonatal than adult humans. These cell populations were present in free-living barn populations of feral mice, pet store mice with diverse microbial experience, and were induced in laboratory mice after co-housing with pet store mice, suggesting a role for environment. Consequences of altering mouse housing profoundly impacted the cellular composition of the innate and adaptive immune system and resulted in global changes in blood cell gene expression patterns that more closely aligned with immune signatures of adult humans rather than neonates, altered the mouse’s resistance to infection, and impacted T cell differentiation to a de novo viral infection. These data highlight the impact of environment on the basal immune state and response to infection and suggest that restoring physiological microbial exposure in laboratory mice could provide a relevant tool for modeling immunological events in free-living organisms, including humans. PMID

  12. Reproduction of epstein-barr virus infection and pathogenesis in humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Shigeyoshi

    2014-02-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is etiologically associated with a variety of diseases including lymphoproliferative diseases, lymphomas, carcinomas, and autoimmune diseases. Humans are the only natural host of EBV and limited species of new-world monkeys can be infected with the virus in experimental conditions. Small animal models of EBV infection, required for evaluation of novel therapies and vaccines for EBV-associated diseases, have not been available. Recently the development of severely immunodeficient mouse strains enabled production of humanized mice in which human immune system components are reconstituted and express their normal functions. Humanized mice can serve as infection models for human-specific viruses such as EBV that target cells of the immune system. This review summarizes recent studies by the author's group addressing reproduction of EBV infection and pathogenesis in humanized mice.

  13. Freeze-dried sperm fertilization leads to full-term development in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-Long; Kusakabe, Hirokazu; Chang, Ching-Chien; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Schmidt, David W; Julian, Marina; Pfeffer, Robert; Bormann, Charles L; Tian, X Cindy; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2004-06-01

    To date, the laboratory mouse is the only mammal in which freeze-dried spermatozoa have been shown to support full-term development after microinjection into oocytes. Because spermatozoa in mice, unlike in most other mammals, do not contribute centrosomes to zygotes, it is still unknown whether freeze-dried spermatozoa in other mammals are fertile. Rabbit sperm was selected as a model because of its similarity to human sperm (considering the centrosome inheritance pattern). Freeze- drying induces rabbit spermatozoa to undergo dramatic changes, such as immobilization, membrane breaking, and tail fragmentation. Even when considered to be "dead" in the conventional sense, rabbit spermatozoa freeze-dried and stored at ambient temperature for more than 2 yr still have capability comparable to that of fresh spermatozoa to support preimplantation development after injection into oocytes followed by activation. A rabbit kit derived from a freeze-dried spermatozoon was born after transferring 230 sperm-injected oocytes into eight recipients. The results suggest that freeze-drying could be applied to preserve the spermatozoa from most other species, including human. The present study also raises the question of whether rabbit sperm centrosomes survive freeze-drying or are not essential for embryonic development.

  14. Immunohistochemical demonstration of epidermal growth factor in human gastric cancer xenografts of nude mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshiyuki, T; Shimizu, Y; Onda, M; Tokunaga, A; Kiyama, T; Nishi, K; Mizutani, T; Matsukura, N; Tanaka, N; Akimoto, M

    1990-02-15

    Thirty-two surgical specimens and three cell lines of human gastric cancers were used for subcutaneous transplantation into nude mice, resulting in the establishment of eight (25%) xenografts from the surgical specimens and two (67%) from the cell lines. The localization of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the surgical specimens and cell lines of the gastric cancers and their xenografts in nude mice was then investigated immunohistochemically. Epidermal growth factor was stained in the cytoplasm of the cancer cells, being detected in 16 (50%) of the 32 surgical specimens and in all of the cell lines. Seven (44%) of the sixteen EGF-positive surgical specimens and one (6%) of the 16 EGF-negative ones were tumorigenic in nude mice. All of the xenografts in nude mice were positive for EGF. The tumorigenicity of human gastric cancer xenografts in nude mice may, therefore, be correlated with the presence of EGF in cancer cells.

  15. In vivo regulation of the heme oxygenase-1 gene in humanized transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junghyun; Zarjou, Abolfazl; Traylor, Amie M.; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Jaimes, Edgar A.; Hull, Travis D.; George, James F.; Mikhail, Fady M.; Agarwal, Anupam

    2012-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in heme degradation producing equimolar amounts of carbon monoxide, iron, and biliverdin. Induction of HO-1 is a beneficial response to tissue injury in diverse animal models of diseases including acute kidney injury. In vitro analysis has shown that the human HO-1 gene is transcriptionally regulated by changes in chromatin conformation but whether such control occurs in vivo is not known. To enable such analysis, we generated transgenic mice, harboring an 87-kb bacterial artificial chromosome expressing human HO-1 mRNA and protein and bred these mice with HO-1 knockout mice to generate humanized BAC transgenic mice. This successfully rescued the phenotype of the knockout mice including reduced birth rates, tissue iron overload, splenomegaly, anemia, leukocytosis, dendritic cell abnormalities and survival after acute kidney injury induced by rhabdomyolysis or cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Transcription factors such as USF1/2, JunB, Sp1, and CTCF were found to associate with regulatory regions of the human HO-1 gene in the kidney following rhabdomyolysis. Chromosome Conformation Capture and ChIP-loop assays confirmed this in the formation of chromatin looping in vivo. Thus, these bacterial artificial chromosome humanized HO-1 mice are a valuable model to study the human HO-1 gene providing insight to the in vivo architecture of the gene in acute kidney injury and other diseases. PMID:22495295

  16. Type 1 diabetes vaccine candidates promote human Foxp3+Treg induction in humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Serr, Isabelle; Fürst, Rainer W.; Achenbach, Peter; Scherm, Martin G.; Gökmen, Füsun; Haupt, Florian; Sedlmeier, Eva-Maria; Knopff, Annette; Shultz, Leonard; Willis, Richard A.; Ziegler, Anette-Gabriele; Daniel, Carolin

    2016-01-01

    Immune tolerance is executed partly by Foxp3+regulatory T (Treg) cells, which suppress autoreactive T cells. In autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) impaired tolerance promotes destruction of insulin-producing β-cells. The development of autoantigen-specific vaccination strategies for Foxp3+Treg-induction and prevention of islet autoimmunity in patients is still in its infancy. Here, using human haematopoietic stem cell-engrafted NSG-HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice, we provide direct evidence for human autoantigen-specific Foxp3+Treg-induction in vivo. We identify HLA-DQ8-restricted insulin-specific CD4+T cells and demonstrate efficient human insulin-specific Foxp3+Treg-induction upon subimmunogenic vaccination with strong agonistic insulin mimetopes in vivo. Induced human Tregs are stable, show increased expression of Treg signature genes such as Foxp3, CTLA4, IL-2Rα and TIGIT and can efficiently suppress effector T cells. Such Foxp3+Treg-induction does not trigger any effector T cells. These T1D vaccine candidates could therefore represent an expedient improvement in the challenge to induce human Foxp3+Tregs and to develop novel precision medicines for prevention of islet autoimmunity in children at risk of T1D. PMID:26975663

  17. Trans-chromosomic mice containing a human CYP3A cluster for prediction of xenobiotic metabolism in humans.

    PubMed

    Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Aueviriyavit, Sasitorn; Oshima, Takeshi; Kuroiwa, Yoshimi; Tsukazaki, Yasuko; Senda, Naoto; Kawakami, Hiroki; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Abe, Satoshi; Takiguchi, Masato; Hoshiya, Hidetoshi; Kajitani, Naoyo; Takehara, Shoko; Kubo, Kinya; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Chiba, Kan; Tomizuka, Kazuma; Oshimura, Mitsuo

    2013-02-01

    Human CYP3A is the most abundant P450 isozyme present in the human liver and small intestine, and metabolizes around 50% of medical drugs on the market. The human CYP3A subfamily comprises four members (CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A7, CYP3A43) encoded on human chromosome 7. However, transgenic mouse lines carrying the entire human CYP3A cluster have not been constructed because of limitations in conventional cloning techniques. Here, we show that the introduction of a human artificial chromosome (HAC) containing the entire genomic human CYP3A locus recapitulates tissue- and stage-specific expression of human CYP3A genes and xenobiotic metabolism in mice. About 700 kb of the entire CYP3A genomic segment was cloned into a HAC (CYP3A-HAC), and trans-chromosomic (Tc) mice carrying a single copy of germline-transmittable CYP3A-HAC were generated via a chromosome-engineering technique. The tissue- and stage-specific expression profiles of CYP3A genes were consistent with those seen in humans. We further generated mice carrying the CYP3A-HAC in the background homozygous for targeted deletion of most endogenous Cyp3a genes. In this mouse strain with 'fully humanized' CYP3A genes, the kinetics of triazolam metabolism, CYP3A-mediated mechanism-based inactivation effects and formation of fetal-specific metabolites of dehydroepiandrosterone observed in humans were well reproduced. Thus, these mice are likely to be valuable in evaluating novel drugs metabolized by CYP3A enzymes and in studying the regulation of human CYP3A gene expression. Furthermore, this system can also be used for generating Tc mice carrying other human metabolic genes.

  18. Serial transplantation of a human acute T lymphoblastic leukemia into nude mice.

    PubMed

    Martinotti, M G; Arione, R; Foà, R; Pegoraro, L; Jemma, C; Forni, G

    1986-12-31

    A human acute T lymphoblastic leukemia line (PF-382) was serially transplanted into nude mice. No takes were observed in untreated nude mice, whereas solid tumors were observed in splenectomized and total body, sublethally irradiated mice. The minimal tumor-inducing dose and the latency time remained unchanged after the third and fifth serial transplants. Moreover, leukemic cells recovered from the 8th in vivo passages displayed the same differentiation antigens and chromosomal markers as the in vitro PF-382 cell line used for the first transplant. This stable and well-characterized experimental system could be a new model for T-lymphocyte differentiation and immune-reactivity against human leukemias.

  19. Histological and immunocytochemical studies of human psoriatic lesions transplanted onto SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Sugai, J; Iizuka, M; Kawakubo, Y; Ozawa, A; Ohkido, M; Ueyama, Y; Tamaoki, N; Inokuchi, S; Shimamura, K

    1998-06-01

    To investigate the pathology of psoriasis, we developed an animal model for this disease using severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. These mice possess neither B nor T Lymphocytes so that both cellular and humoral immunities are impaired. For the in vivo study of psoriasis, human psoriatic skin was grafted on SCID mice. Long-term morphological and immunohistochemical changes in the grafted skin ware examined for up to 22 weeks after transplantation. The human skin graft were generally well maintained during this period, but the histological and immunohistochemical findings characteristic of psoriasis, except for acanthosis and hyperkeratosis, gradually disappeared as lymphocytic infiltration of the psoriatic lesions declined.

  20. Chronic hypertension and altered baroreflex responses in transgenic mice containing the human renin and human angiotensinogen genes.

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, D C; Thompson, M W; Carney, C L; Granwehr, B P; Schlager, G; Robillard, J E; Sigmund, C D

    1996-01-01

    We have generated a transgenic model consisting of both the human renin and human angiotensinogen genes to study further the role played by the renin-angiotensin system in regulating arterial pressure. Transgenic mice containing either gene alone were normotensive, whereas mice containing both genes were chronically hypertensive. Plasma renin activity and plasma angiotensin II levels were both markedly elevated in the double transgenic mice compared with either single transgenic or nontransgenic controls. The elevation in blood pressure caused by the human transgenes was independent of the genotype at the endogenous renin locus and was equal in mice homozygous for the Ren-1c allele or in mice containing one copy each of Ren-1c, Ren-1d, or Ren-2. Chronic overproduction of angiotensin II in the double transgenic mice resulted in a resetting of the baroreflex control of heart rate to a higher pressure without significantly changing the gain or sensitivity of the reflex. Moreover, this change was not due to the effects of elevated pressure itself since angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition had minimal effects on the baroreflex in spontaneously hypertensive BPH-2 control mice, which exhibit non-renin-dependent hypertension. This double transgenic model should provide an excellent tool for further studies on the mechanisms of hypertension initiated by the renin-angiotensin system. PMID:8613528

  1. [Preliminary establishment of transplanted human chronic myeloid leukemia model in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Min; Ding, Xin; Zhang, Long-Zhen; Cen, Jian-Nong; Chen, Zi-Xing

    2011-12-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a malignant clonal disease derived from hematopoietic stem cells. CML stem cells were thought to be the root which could lead disease development and ultimately rapid change. However, a stable animal model for studying the characteristics of CML stem cells is currently lacking. This study was aimed to establish a transplanted human CML nude-mice model to further explore the biological behavior of CML stem cells in vivo, and to enrich CML stem cells in nude mice by series transplantation. The 4 - 6 weeks old BALB/c nude mice pretreated by splenectomy (S), cytoxan intraperitoneal injection (C) and sublethal irradiation (I) were transplanted intravenously with (5 - 7) × 10(7) of bone marrow mononuclear cells from CML patients in chronic phase. Alternatively, 4 - 6 weeks old BALB/c nude mice pretreated by lethal irradiation were transplanted intravenously with 5 × 10(6) homologous bone marrow cells of BALB/c nude mice together with (5 - 7) × 10(7) of bone marrow mononuclear cells from CML patients in chronic phase simultaneously. The leukemic cells engrafted and infiltrated in organs and bone marrow of the mice were tracked by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), plastic-embedded biopsy and flow cytometry. The results of these two methods were compared. The results showed that human CML cells engrafted and infiltrating into the bone marrow of two nude mice pretreated with SCI could be detected. In spite of the low successful rate, results suggested the feasibility of this method by using BALB/c nude mice as a human CML animal model. In contrast, in nude mice pretreated by the lethal dose irradiation, CML cells in the bone marrow could not be found. It is concluded that human bone marrow CML cells can results in leukemia in nude mice pretreated by SCI. Thus this study provides a new strategy for establishment of CML animal models which deserves further elaboration.

  2. Human Cancer Growth and Therapy In NOD/SCID/IL2Rγnull (NSG) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Leonard D.; Goodwin, Neal; Ishikawa, Fumihiko; Hosur, Vishnu; Lyons, Bonnie L.; Greiner, Dale L.

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of the “nude” mouse over 40 years ago, investigators have attempted to model human tumor growth in immunodeficient mice. The field has advanced significantly over the ensuing years due to improvements in the murine recipient of human tumors. These improvements include the discovery of the scid mutation and development of targeted mutations in the recombination activating genes 1 and 2 (Rag1null, Rag2null) that severely cripple the adaptive immune response of the murine host. More recently, mice deficient in adaptive immunity have been crossed with mice bearing targeted mutations designed to weaken the innate immune system, ultimately leading to the development of immunodeficient mice bearing a targeted mutation in the IL2 receptor common gamma chain gene (IL2rγnull). The IL2rγnull mutation has been used to develop several immunodeficient strains of mice, including the NOD-scid IL2rγnull (NSG) strain. Using NSG mice as human xenograft recipients, it is now possible to grow almost all types of primary human tumors in vivo, including most solid tumors and hematological malignancies that maintain characteristics of the primary tumor in the patient. Programs to optimize patient-specific therapy using patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor growth in NSG mice have been established at several institutions, including The Jackson Laboratory. Moreover, NSG mice can be engrafted with functional human immune systems permitting for the first time the potential to study primary human tumors in vivo in the presence of a human immune system. PMID:24987146

  3. Myeloid Engraftment in Humanized Mice: Impact of Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor Treatment and Transgenic Mouse Strain.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Alice M; Harmon, Cathal; Whelan, Sarah; O'Brien, Eóin C; O'Reilly, Vincent P; Crotty, Paul; Kelly, Pamela; Ryan, Michelle; Hickey, Fionnuala B; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Little, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    Poor myeloid engraftment remains a barrier to experimental use of humanized mice. Focusing primarily on peripheral blood cells, we compared the engraftment profile of NOD-scid-IL2Rγc(-/-) (NSG) mice with that of NSG mice transgenic for human membrane stem cell factor (hu-mSCF mice), NSG mice transgenic for human interleukin (IL)-3, granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and stem cell factor (SGM3 mice). hu-mSCF and SGM3 mice showed enhanced engraftment of human leukocytes compared to NSG mice, and this was reflected in the number of human neutrophils and monocytes present in these strains. Importantly, discrete classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocyte populations were identifiable in the blood of NSG and hu-mSCF mice, while the nonclassical population was absent in the blood of SGM3 mice. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF) treatment increased the number of blood monocytes in NSG and hu-mSCF mice, and neutrophils in NSG and SGM3 mice; however, this effect appeared to be at least partially dependent on the stem cell donor used to engraft the mice. Furthermore, GCSF treatment resulted in a preferential expansion of nonclassical monocytes in both NSG and hu-mSCF mice. Human tubulointerstitial CD11c(+) cells were present in the kidneys of hu-mSCF mice, while monocytes and neutrophils were identified in the liver of all strains. Bone marrow-derived macrophages prepared from NSG mice were most effective at phagocytosing polystyrene beads. In conclusion, hu-mSCF mice provide the best environment for the generation of human myeloid cells, with GCSF treatment further enhancing peripheral blood human monocyte cell numbers in this strain.

  4. Mycobacteriosis in the rabbit and rodent.

    PubMed

    McClure, Diane E

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous mycobacteriosis is rare in rabbits and rodents with the exception of the pygmy rabbit, and there are only a handful of reported cases involving other rodents. Mycobacterium avium complex was the most commonly identified organism in reports of spontaneous mycobacteriosis involving rabbits and rodents. The resistance of rabbits and rodents to mycobacterial disease has been useful in understanding the disease in humans and other animals. Preventing or controlling Mycobacterium sp transmission from wildlife to domestic animals will require collaboration between agriculture, wildlife, environmental, and political entities. Understanding the ecology and epidemiology of mycobacteria is needed for better worldwide management of tuberculosis.

  5. Selective inhibition of the alternative complement pathway by sCR1[desLHR-A] protects the rabbit isolated heart from human complement-mediated damage.

    PubMed

    Gralinski, M R; Wiater, B C; Assenmacher, A N; Lucchesi, B R

    1996-09-01

    Evidence is presented that treatment with a selective inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway, sCR1[desLHR-A], protects the ex vivo perfused rabbit heart from human complement-mediated injury. Hearts from male New Zealand white rabbits were perfused in the Langendorff mode. After equilibration, normal human plasma was added to the perfusate as a source of complement. Concomitant with the addition of human plasma, vehicle (n = 13), soluble complement receptor type 1 (sCR1) (n = 10), or sCR1[desLHR-A], a truncated version of sCR1 that lacks the C4b binding region (n = 10) was included in the perfusate. Hemodynamic variables were obtained for all groups before (baseline) and after the addition of human plasma. Compared to vehicle-treated hearts, variables recorded during perfusion with human plasma including coronary perfusion pressure, left ventricular developed pressure, and left ventricular end diastolic pressure, along with a reduction of creatine kinase efflux, were improved in hearts perfused with either complement inhibitor. In addition, in vitro hemolysis assays were utilized to discriminate between the classical and alternative pathways. The addition of sCR1 to human serum prevented both the classical and alternative pathway-mediated hemolysis while sCR1[desLHR-A] prevented only the alternative pathway-mediated lysis. This study indicates that deletion of the C4b-binding site from sCR1 results in a new pharmacological moiety, sCR1[desLHR-A], that primarily inhibits the alternative pathway of human complement.

  6. Impaired Immunogenicity of Meningococcal Neisserial Surface Protein A in Human Complement Factor H Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Lujan, Eduardo; Pajon, Rolando; Granoff, Dan M

    2015-11-23

    Neisserial surface protein A (NspA) is a highly conserved outer membrane protein previously investigated as a meningococcal vaccine candidate. Despite eliciting serum bactericidal activity in mice, a recombinant NspA vaccine failed to elicit serum bactericidal antibodies in a phase 1 clinical trial in humans. The discordant results may be explained by the recent discovery that NspA is a human-specific ligand of the complement inhibitor factor H (FH). Therefore, in humans but not mice, NspA would be expected to form a complex with FH, which could impair human anti-NspA protective antibody responses. To investigate this question, we immunized human FH transgenic BALB/c mice with three doses of recombinant NspA expressed in Escherichia coli microvesicles, with each dose being separated by 3 weeks. Three of 12 (25%) transgenic mice and 13 of 14 wild-type mice responded with bactericidal titers of ≥1:10 in postimmunization sera (P = 0.0008, Fisher's exact test). In contrast, human FH transgenic and wild-type mice immunized with a control meningococcal native outer membrane vesicle vaccine had similar serum bactericidal antibody responses directed at PorA, which is not known to bind human FH, and a mutant factor H binding protein (FHbp) antigen with a >50-fold lower level of FH binding than wild-type FHbp antigen binding.Thus, human FH can impair anti-NspA serum bactericidal antibody responses, which may explain the poor immunogenicity of the NspA vaccine previously tested in humans. A mutant NspA vaccine engineered to have decreased binding to human FH may increase protective antibody responses in humans.

  7. Behavioral effects of elevated expression of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 in mice.

    PubMed

    Kost, Sara; Sun, Chao; Xiong, Wei; Graham, Kathryn; Cass, Carol E; Young, James D; Albensi, Benedict C; Parkinson, Fiona E

    2011-10-10

    Adenosine concentrations are regulated by purinergic enzymes and nucleoside transporters. Transgenic mice with neuronal expression of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) have been generated (Parkinson et al., 2009 [7]). The present study tested the hypothesis that mice homozygous and heterozygous for the transgene exhibit differences in hENT1 mRNA and protein expression, and in behavioral responses to caffeine and ethanol, two drugs with adenosine-dependent actions. Real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify mice heterozygous and homozygous for the transgene. Gene expression, determined by real time PCR of cDNA reverse transcribed from cerebral cortex RNA, was 3.8-fold greater in homozygous mice. Protein abundance, determined by radioligand binding assays using 0.14nM [(3)H]S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine ([(3)H]NBTI), was up to 84% greater in cortex synaptosome membranes from homozygous than from heterozygous mice. In western blots with an antibody specific for hENT1, a protein of approximately 40kDa was strongly labelled in cortex samples from homozygous mice, weakly labelled in samples from heterozygous mice and absent from samples from wild type mice. In behavioral assays, transgenic mice showed a greater response to ethanol and a reduced response to caffeine than wild type littermates; however, no significant differences between heterozygous and homozygous mice were detected. These data indicate that the difference in ENT1 function between wild type and heterozygous mice was greater than that between heterozygous and homozygous mice. Therefore, either heterozygous or homozygous hENT1 transgenic mice can be used in studies of ENT1 regulation of adenosine levels and adenosine dependent behaviors.

  8. Fatal autoimmunity in mice reconstituted with human hematopoietic stem cells encoding defective FOXP3.

    PubMed

    Goettel, Jeremy A; Biswas, Subhabrata; Lexmond, Willem S; Yeste, Ada; Passerini, Laura; Patel, Bonny; Yang, Siyoung; Sun, Jiusong; Ouahed, Jodie; Shouval, Dror S; McCann, Katelyn J; Horwitz, Bruce H; Mathis, Diane; Milford, Edgar L; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Roncarolo, Maria-Grazia; Fiebiger, Edda; Marasco, Wayne A; Bacchetta, Rosa; Quintana, Francisco J; Pai, Sung-Yun; Klein, Christoph; Muise, Aleixo M; Snapper, Scott B

    2015-06-18

    Mice reconstituted with a human immune system provide a tractable in vivo model to assess human immune cell function. To date, reconstitution of murine strains with human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from patients with monogenic immune disorders have not been reported. One obstacle precluding the development of immune-disease specific "humanized" mice is that optimal adaptive immune responses in current strains have required implantation of autologous human thymic tissue. To address this issue, we developed a mouse strain that lacks murine major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) and instead expresses human leukocyte antigen DR1 (HLA-DR1). These mice displayed improved adaptive immune responses when reconstituted with human HSCs including enhanced T-cell reconstitution, delayed-type hypersensitivity responses, and class-switch recombination. Following immune reconstitution of this novel strain with HSCs from a patient with immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome, associated with aberrant FOXP3 function, mice developed a lethal inflammatory disorder with multiorgan involvement and autoantibody production mimicking the pathology seen in affected humans. This humanized mouse model permits in vivo evaluation of immune responses associated with genetically altered HSCs, including primary immunodeficiencies, and should facilitate the study of human immune pathobiology and the development of targeted therapeutics.

  9. Colocalization of human papillomavirus type 11 E1[symbol: see text]E4 and L1 proteins in human foreskin implants grown in athymic mice.

    PubMed

    Brown, D R; Fan, L; Jones, J; Bryan, J

    1994-05-15

    The most abundant viral mRNA species in tissues infected with HPV 11 consists of two exons, joining a short segment of open reading frame (ORF) E1 to ORF E4, potentially encoding an protein of 10 kDa. E4 gene products have previously been identified by immunohistochemistry in human tissues infected with HPV 1 and HPV 16, and in HPV 11-infected raft cultures. The E1[symbol: see text]E4 mRNA is produced in abundance in HPV 11-infected human foreskin implants grown in athymic mice. In contrast, the L1 mRNA is present at low levels and appears late in the course of infection. To characterize the relationship of these proteins, polyclonal rabbit antisera were produced against bacterially expressed HPV 11 trpE/E1[symbol: see text]E4 and trpE/L1 fusion proteins and tested in an immunohistochemical assay of paraffin-embedded sections of HPV 11-infected human foreskin tissue fixed with 10% buffered formalin phosphate or zinc formalin. In sections fixed with either fixative, the anti-L1 serum stained nuclei of cells in the upper spinous and granular layers. In contrast, the anti-E1[symbol: see text]E4 serum stained the cell membrane and, to a lesser degree, the cytoplasm of cells in the upper spinous and granular layers of tissue fixed with zinc formalin, but not 10% buffered formalin phosphate. In sections treated with both the E1[symbol: see text]E4 and L1 antisera, cell membrane staining occurred in the same cells that exhibited nuclear staining. The HPV 11 E1[symbol: see text]E4 protein appears to be a cell membrane-associated protein. Expression of the HPV 11 E1[symbol: see text]E4 and L1 proteins may be influenced by similar factors in differentiating cells.

  10. 2-/sup 14/C-1-Allyl-3,5-diethyl-6-chlorouracil I: Synthesis, absorption in human skin, excretion, distribution, and metabolism in rats and rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, R.; Hempel, B.; Kiefer, G.

    1982-08-01

    With /sup 14/C-potassium cyanate as the starting material, 2-/sup 14/C-1-allyl-3,5-diethyl-6-chlorouracil was synthesized for in vitro and in vivo absorption studies in human skin and for metabolic studies in rats and rabbits. The radioactivity in the horny layer, epidermis, and dermis of the human skin was determined after different intervals of time, and the radioactivity excreted in the urine was measured by collecting samples for 5 days from a patient and also under occlusion conditions. Almost 90% of the radioactivity remained on the surface and approximately 6.28% penetrated and was systemically absorbed. Over a 5-day period, a total of 3.25% was excreted. Almost 3% was systemically absorbed and cumulated in the system. After intraperitoneal application in male and female rats, most of the radioactivity was excreted in the feces and urine, with female rats excreting more in the urine than male rats. The radioactivity rose in the organs in the first 3 hr and then decreased. At the end of 144 hr, no appreciable radioactivity could be found in the organs and tissues, except in the carcass where the cumulation was maximum (1%). After intravenous injection in rabbits, most of the radioactivity (80%) was excreted in the urine and only 4% in the feces. At the end of 96 hr, approximately 3% was cumulated in the body. The drug was quantitatively metabolized in both rats and rabbits: Metabolite 1 (70-85%), Metabolite 2 (10-15%), Metabolite 3 (5-10%), and Metabolite 4 (0.3%).

  11. A humanized version of Foxp2 does not affect ultrasonic vocalization in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, K; Schreiweis, C; Minge, C; Pääbo, S; Fischer, J; Enard, W

    2015-11-01

    The transcription factor FOXP2 has been linked to severe speech and language impairments in humans. An analysis of the evolution of the FOXP2 gene has identified two amino acid substitutions that became fixed after the split of the human and chimpanzee lineages. Studying the functional consequences of these two substitutions in the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice showed alterations in dopamine levels, striatal synaptic plasticity, neuronal morphology and cortico-striatal-dependent learning. In addition, ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) of pups had a significantly lower average pitch than control littermates. To which degree adult USVs would be affected in mice carrying the 'humanized' Foxp2 variant remained unclear. In this study, we analyzed USVs of 68 adult male mice uttered during repeated courtship encounters with different females. Mice carrying the Foxp2(hum/hum) allele did not differ significantly in the number of call elements, their element structure or in their element composition from control littermates. We conclude that neither the structure nor the usage of USVs in adult mice is affected by the two amino acid substitutions that occurred in FOXP2 during human evolution. The reported effect for pup vocalization thus appears to be transient. These results are in line with accumulating evidence that mouse USVs are hardly influenced by vocal learning. Hence, the function and evolution of genes that are necessary, but not sufficient for vocal learning in humans, must be either studied at a different phenotypic level in mice or in other organisms.

  12. Lack of fear response in mice (Mus musculus) exposed to human urine odor.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Germain F; Moser, Emily G; D'Ambrose, Steven P; Lin, David M

    2014-03-01

    A goal of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals is to improve animal welfare by minimizing sources of fear, anxiety, and stress. As a result, it includes recommendations on overcrowding, frequency of cage changes, enrichment, and group housing. However, human odorants are a potential but unexplored source of fear, anxiety, and stress. Although mice have been maintained for decades for animal research, whether mice perceive humans as predators is unknown. If so, this would necessitate changes in animal care and use procedures to minimize this source of chronic fear, anxiety, and stress. Odorants from predator urine are well known to elicit strong fear responses in mice, leading to modification of animal behavior and elevated levels of stress. To begin asking whether human odors influence mouse behavior, we tested the effect of human urine odor on fear response in mice. We assessed mouse behavior by using a modified shuttle cage to record various parameters of mouse exposure to odorants. We found that mice displayed fear responses to 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, a synthetic analog of red fox feces, but no fear response to DMSO, the diluent for 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline. In contrast, mice exposed to human urine samples showed no significant fear response.

  13. Lack of Fear Response in Mice (Mus musculus) Exposed to Human Urine Odor

    PubMed Central

    Rivard, Germain F; Moser, Emily G; D'Ambrose, Steven P; Lin, David M

    2014-01-01

    A goal of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals is to improve animal welfare by minimizing sources of fear, anxiety, and stress. As a result, it includes recommendations on overcrowding, frequency of cage changes, enrichment, and group housing. However, human odorants are a potential but unexplored source of fear, anxiety, and stress. Although mice have been maintained for decades for animal research, whether mice perceive humans as predators is unknown. If so, this would necessitate changes in animal care and use procedures to minimize this source of chronic fear, anxiety, and stress. Odorants from predator urine are well known to elicit strong fear responses in mice, leading to modification of animal behavior and elevated levels of stress. To begin asking whether human odors influence mouse behavior, we tested the effect of human urine odor on fear response in mice. We assessed mouse behavior by using a modified shuttle cage to record various parameters of mouse exposure to odorants. We found that mice displayed fear responses to 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, a synthetic analog of red fox feces, but no fear response to DMSO, the diluent for 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline. In contrast, mice exposed to human urine samples showed no significant fear response. PMID:24602539

  14. Utilization of an antibody specific for human dystrophin to follow myoblast transplantation in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Huard, J; Tremblay, G; Verreault, S; Labrecque, C; Tremblay, J P

    1993-01-01

    Human myoblasts were transplanted in nude mice. The efficacy of these transplantations was analyzed using a monoclonal antibody (NCLDys3) specific for human dystrophin. This antibody did not reveal any dystrophin in nude mice that did not receive a human myoblast transplantation. However, about 30 days after a human myoblast transplantation, dystrophin-positive muscle fibers were observed. They were not abundant, and were present either in small clusters or isolated. This technique follows the fate of myoblast transplantation in animals that already have dystrophin, and distinguishes between new dystrophin-positive fibers due to the transplantation and the revertant fibers in mdx mice. Moreover, this technique does not require any labelling of the myoblasts before transplantation. It can also be used to detect dystrophin produced following the fusion of myoblasts transfected with the human dystrophin gene.

  15. Only humans have human placentas: molecular differences between mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, André; Morales-Prieto, Diana M; Pastuschek, Jana; Fröhlich, Karolin; Markert, Udo R

    2015-04-01

    The placenta is one of the organs with the highest evolutionary diversity among animal species. In consequence, an animal model that reflects human placentation exactly does not exist. However, the mouse is the most frequently used animal model for placenta and pregnancy research. It possesses a hemochorial placenta, which is similar, but also different from the human placenta. The question whether the similarities are sufficient for the achievement of useful results with regard to human pregnancy was debated recently at the 11th Congress of the European Society for Reproductive Immunology (Budapest, Hungary). Here, we discuss the molecular features of the human placenta that are restricted to primates or even to humans. Many of the primate-specific genetic novelties, e.g., the large microRNA cluster on chromosome 19, have been detected during the last 10-15 years and could not be referred to in earlier discussions. Now, in the light of recent findings and a better understanding of interspecies differences, we conclude that the mouse model is often overvalued. Owing to the increasing number of known human-specific factors in human placentation we consider that many aspects of human placentation can only be understood on the basis of experiments on human cells and tissues in combination with data collections from human subject studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Human alpha 1-antitrypsin therapy induces fatal anaphylaxis in non-obese diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y; Parker, M; Pileggi, A; Zhang, B; Choi, Y-K; Molano, R D; Wasserfall, C; Ricordi, C; Inverardi, L; Brantly, M; Schatz, D; Atkinson, M; Song, S

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that human alpha-1 antitrypsin (hAAT) gene delivery prevents type 1 diabetes (T1D) in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Furthermore, hAAT protein administration prolongs acceptance of islet allografts. Therefore, we evaluated the use of purified hAAT protein therapy to prevent T1D in NOD mice. Female NOD, non-obese resistant (NOR), Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with vehicle alone or vehicle containing hAAT, human albumin or mouse albumin (or mg/injection/mouse; 2×/week). Preparations of clinical-grade hAAT included API®, Aralast®, Prolastin® and Zemaira®. Surprisingly, hAAT administration was associated with a high rate of fatal anaphylaxis. In studies seeking T1D prevention at 4 weeks of age, 100% mice died after six injections of hAAT. When administrated at 8–10 weeks of age, most (80–100%) NOD mice died following the fourth injection of hAAT, while 0% of Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice and 10% of NOR mice died. Interestingly, repeated injections of human albumin, but not mouse albumin, also induced sudden death in NOD mice. Antibodies to hAAT were induced 2–3 weeks after hAAT administration and death was prevented by treatment with anti-platelet-activating factor along with anti-histamine. In studies of disease reversal in NOD mice, using the four pharmaceutical grade formulations of hAAT, anaphylactic deaths were observed with all hAAT preparations. The propensity for fatal anaphylaxis following antigenic administration appears to be NOD- but not hAAT-specific. The susceptibility of NOD mice to hypersensitivity provides a significant limitation for testing of hAAT. Development of strategies to avoid this unwanted response is required to use this promising therapeutic agent for T1D. PMID:18759852

  17. Methanol teratogenicity in mutant mice with deficient catalase activity and transgenic mice expressing human catalase.

    PubMed

    Siu, Michelle T; Wiley, Michael J; Wells, Peter G

    2013-04-01

    The role of catalase in methanol (MeOH) teratogenesis is unclear. In rodents it both detoxifies reactive oxygen species (ROS) and metabolizes MeOH and its formic acid (FA) metabolite. We treated pregnant mice expressing either high (hCat) or low catalase activity (aCat), or their wild-type (WT) controls, with either MeOH (4g/kg ip) or saline. hCat mice and WTs were similarly susceptible to MeOH-initiated ophthalmic abnormalities and cleft palates. aCat and WT mice appeared resistant, precluding assessment of the developmental impact of catalase deficiency. Catalase activity was respectively increased at least 1.5-fold, and decreased by at least 35%, in hCat and aCat embryos and maternal livers. MeOH and FA pharmacokinetic profiles were similar among hCat, aCat and WT strains. Although the hCat results imply no ROS involvement, embryo culture studies suggest this may be confounded by maternal factors and/or a requirement for higher catalase activity in the hCat mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fatal autoimmunity in mice reconstituted with human hematopoietic stem cells encoding defective FOXP3

    PubMed Central

    Goettel, Jeremy A.; Biswas, Subhabrata; Lexmond, Willem S.; Yeste, Ada; Passerini, Laura; Patel, Bonny; Yang, Siyoung; Sun, Jiusong; Ouahed, Jodie; Shouval, Dror S.; McCann, Katelyn J.; Horwitz, Bruce H.; Mathis, Diane; Milford, Edgar L.; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Roncarolo, Maria-Grazia; Fiebiger, Edda; Marasco, Wayne A.; Bacchetta, Rosa; Quintana, Francisco J.; Pai, Sung-Yun; Klein, Christoph; Muise, Aleixo M.

    2015-01-01

    Mice reconstituted with a human immune system provide a tractable in vivo model to assess human immune cell function. To date, reconstitution of murine strains with human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from patients with monogenic immune disorders have not been reported. One obstacle precluding the development of immune-disease specific “humanized” mice is that optimal adaptive immune responses in current strains have required implantation of autologous human thymic tissue. To address this issue, we developed a mouse strain that lacks murine major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) and instead expresses human leukocyte antigen DR1 (HLA-DR1). These mice displayed improved adaptive immune responses when reconstituted with human HSCs including enhanced T-cell reconstitution, delayed-type hypersensitivity responses, and class-switch recombination. Following immune reconstitution of this novel strain with HSCs from a patient with immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome, associated with aberrant FOXP3 function, mice developed a lethal inflammatory disorder with multiorgan involvement and autoantibody production mimicking the pathology seen in affected humans. This humanized mouse model permits in vivo evaluation of immune responses associated with genetically altered HSCs, including primary immunodeficiencies, and should facilitate the study of human immune pathobiology and the development of targeted therapeutics. PMID:25833964

  19. The cottontail rabbits of Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Llewellyn, L.M.; Handley, C.O.

    1945-01-01

    Five races of cottontail rabbits belonging to three species occur in Virginia. One of them, the Mearns cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus mearnsi), is reported here for the first time. It occurs in six southwestern counties of the state, while the eastern cottontail (S. f. mallurus) occurs in the remainder of the state with the exception of Smith and Fishermans islands off the eastern coast of Cape Charles, where it is replaced by Hitchens cottontail (S. f. hitchensi). The New England cottontail (S. transitionalis) is found on the higher mountain peaks, above 3000 feet, and the swamp rabbit (S. palustris) occurs in the Dismal Swamp region of southeastern Virginia.....The height of the breeding season for the eastern cottontail in Virginia is March and April, but breeding continues through the entire year except in December and January. The average litter size based on embryo counts was 4.7. The sex ratio of 234 specimens from all parts of the state, taken mostly in the December to February period, was 53 males to 47 females. That of a group of 145 rabbits live-trapped at Blacksburg during February and Marchwas 58 males to 42 females. The figures show that males are more active than females during the winter months, and therefore are more easily taken then....In transplanting cottontails from one section of the state to another, it is recommended that only cottontails of the same race as those originally present in the region being restocked be released there....Tularemia is not a common disease among rabbits in Virginia, but the rabbit ticks are often carriers of the disease and may transmit it to rabbits. Rabbit ticks are also found to be carriers of Rocky Mountain fever and American Q. fever. After the ticks drop off the rabbits to hibernate in the ground, which is likely to occur during mid-winter in Virginia, there is relatively little danger of humans contracting tularemia by contact with rabbits. Present laws in Virginia which prohibit rabbit hunting until the

  20. Induction of Both Local Immune Response in Mice and Protection in a Rabbit Model by Intranasal Immunization with Modified Vaccinia Ankara Virus Expressing a Secreted Form of Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Glycoprotein D.

    PubMed

    Del Medico Zajac, María Paula; Zanetti, Flavia Adriana; Esusy, María Soledad; Federico, Carlos Rodolfo; Zabal, Osvaldo; Valera, Alejandro Rafael; Calamante, Gabriela

    In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of mucosal delivery of a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) expressing the secreted version of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) glycoprotein D (MVA-gDs) without addition of adjuvant in two animal models. First, we demonstrated the capability of MVA-gDs of inducing both local and systemic anti-gD humoral immune response after intranasal immunization of mice. Then, we confirmed that two doses of MVA-gDs administered intranasally to rabbits induced systemic anti-gD antibodies and conferred protection against BoHV-1 challenge. Our results show the potential of using MVA as a vector for the rational design of veterinary vaccines capable of inducing specific and protective immune responses both at local and systemic level.

  1. Serological studies of an acid-labile O-polysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris OX19 lipopolysaccharide using human and rabbit antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kaca, W; Swierzko, A S; Ziolkowski, A; Amano, K; Senchenkova, S N; Knirel, Y A

    1998-01-01

    In a Weil-Felix test, sera from patients infected with Rickettsia sp. agglutinate Proteus OX types of bacteria and Proteus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are responsible for the cross-reaction. Data on the character of LPS of one of the OX group strains, Proteus vulgaris OX19, are contradictory, and it remained unclear whether it has an O-polysaccharide (OPS) and is thus LPS of the smooth type (S) or not (rough-type LPS). Our studies showed that P. vulgaris OX19 (strain PZH-24) produces a smooth-type LPS that contains a long-chain OPS, but it undergoes depolymerization during mild acid hydrolysis conventionally used for LPS delipidation and loses the serological activity. An elucidation of the complete structure of OPS demonstrated the presence of a glycosyl phosphate linkage responsible for the acid-lability of the polysaccharide chain. In ELISA, both IgM type antibodies in a Weil-Felix test with human anti-Rickettsia typhi sera and rabbit anti-P. vulgaris OX19 antibodies reacted with OPS. Rabbit antibodies did not inhibit the cross-reaction with human antibodies and thus bind to different epitopes.

  2. Efficacy of CMX001 as a Post Exposure Antiviral in New Zealand White Rabbits Infected with Rabbitpox Virus, a Model for Orthopoxvirus Infections of Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Amanda D.; Adams, Mathew M.; Wallace, Greg; Burrage, Andrew M.; Lindsey, Scott F.; Smith, Andrew J.; Swetnam, Daniele; Manning, Brandi R.; Gray, Stacey A.; Lampert, Bernhard; Foster, Scott; Lanier, Randall; Robertson, Alice; Painter, George; Moyer, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    CMX001, a lipophilic nucleotide analog formed by covalently linking 3-(hexdecyloxy)propan-1-ol to cidofovir (CDV), is being developed as a treatment for smallpox. In the absence of human cases of smallpox, new treatments must be tested for efficacy in animal models. Previously, we demonstrated the efficacy of CMX001 in protecting New Zealand White rabbits from mortality following intradermal infection with rabbitpox virus as a model for smallpox, monkeypox and for treatment of adverse reactions to smallpox vaccination. Here we extend these studies by exploring different dosing regimens and performing randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled studies. In addition, because rabbitpox virus can be transmitted via naturally generated aerosols (animal to animal transmission), we report on studies to test the efficacy of CMX001 in protecting rabbits from lethal rabbitpox virus disease when infection occurs by animal to animal transmission. In all cases, CMX001 treatment was initiated at the onset of observable lesions in the ears to model the use of CMX001 as a treatment for symptomatic smallpox. The results demonstrate that CMX001 is an effective treatment for symptomatic rabbitpox virus infection. The rabbitpox model has key similarities to human smallpox including an incubation period, generalized systemic disease, the occurrence of lesions which may be used as a trigger for initiating therapy, and natural animal to animal spread, making it an appropriate model. PMID:21373379

  3. An improved Protein G with higher affinity for human/rabbit IgG Fc domains exploiting a computationally designed polar network

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Ramesh K.; Gaiotto, Tiziano; Bradbury, Andrew R.M.; Strauss, Charlie E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Protein G is an IgG binding protein that has been widely exploited for biotechnological purposes. Rosetta protein modeling identified a set of favorable polar mutations in Protein G, at its binding interface with the Fc domain of Immunoglobulin G, that were predicted to increase the stability and tighten the binding relative to native Protein G, with only a minor perturbation of the binding mode seen in the crystal structure. This triple mutant was synthesized and evaluated experimentally. Relative to the native protein G, the mutant showed a 3.5-fold enhancement in display level on the surface of yeast and a 5-fold tighter molar affinity for rabbit and human IgG. We attribute the improved affinity to a network of hydrogen bonds exploiting specific polar groups on human and rabbit Fc. The relative specificity increased as well since there was little affinity enhancement for goat and mouse Fc, while the affinity for rat Fc was poorer by half. This designed Protein G will be useful in biotechnological applications as a recombinant protein, where its improved affinity, display and specificity will increase antibody capture sensitivity and capacity. Furthermore, the display of this protein on the surface of yeast introduces the concept of the use of yeast as an affinity matrix. PMID:24632761

  4. Effects of lymphocyte profile on development of EBV-induced lymphoma subtypes in humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Kyung; Joo, Eun Hye; Song, Kyung-A; Choi, Bongkum; Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Kim, Sung Joo; Kang, Myung-Soo

    2015-10-20

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection causes both Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The present study reveals that EBV-induced HL and NHL are intriguingly associated with a repopulated immune cell profile in humanized mice. Newborn immunodeficient NSG mice were engrafted with human cord blood CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for a 8- or 15-wk reconstitution period (denoted (8w)hN and (15w)hN, respectively), resulting in human B-cell and T-cell predominance in peripheral blood cells, respectively. Further, novel humanized mice were established via engraftment of hCD34(+) HSCs together with nonautologous fetal liver-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or MSCs expressing an active notch ligand DLK1, resulting in mice skewed with human B or T cells, respectively. After EBV infection, whereas NHL developed more frequently in B-cell-predominant humanized mice, HL was seen in T-cell-predominant mice (P = 0.0013). Whereas human splenocytes from NHL-bearing mice were positive for EBV-associated NHL markers (hBCL2(+), hCD20(+), hKi67(+), hCD20(+)/EBNA1(+), and EBER(+)) but negative for HL markers (LMP1(-), EBNA2(-), and hCD30(-)), most HL-like tumors were characterized by the presence of malignant Hodgkin's Reed-Sternberg (HRS)-like cells, lacunar RS (hCD30(+), hCD15(+), IgJ(-), EBER(+)/hCD30(+), EBNA1(+)/hCD30(+), LMP(+)/EBNA2(-), hCD68(+), hBCL2(-), hCD20(-/weak,) Phospho STAT6(+)), and mummified RS cells. This study reveals that immune cell composition plays an important role in the development of EBV-induced B-cell lymphoma.

  5. Increased Susceptibility of Humanized NSG Mice to Panton-Valentine Leukocidin and Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Ching Wen; Kolar, Stacey L.; Müller, Sabrina; Rodriguez, Maria D.; Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Fan, Xuemo; Beenhouwer, David O.; Town, Terrence; Liu, George Y.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of skin and soft-tissue infections worldwide. Mice are the most commonly used animals for modeling human staphylococcal infections. However a supra-physiologic S. aureus inoculum is required to establish gross murine skin pathology. Moreover, many staphylococcal factors, including Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) elaborated by community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA), exhibit selective human tropism and cannot be adequately studied in mice. To overcome these deficiencies, we investigated S. aureus infection in non-obese diabetic (NOD)/severe combined immune deficiency (SCID)/IL2rγnull (NSG) mice engrafted with human CD34+ umbilical cord blood cells. These “humanized” NSG mice require one to two log lower inoculum to induce consistent skin lesions compared with control mice, and exhibit larger cutaneous lesions upon infection with PVL+ versus isogenic PVL- S. aureus. Neutrophils appear important for PVL pathology as adoptive transfer of human neutrophils alone to NSG mice was sufficient to induce dermonecrosis following challenge with PVL+ S. aureus but not PVL- S. aureus. PMX53, a human C5aR inhibitor, blocked PVL-induced cellular cytotoxicity in vitro and reduced the size difference of lesions induced by the PVL+ and PVL- S. aureus, but PMX53 also reduced recruitment of neutrophils and exacerbated the infection. Overall, our findings establish humanized mice as an important translational tool for the study of S. aureus infection and provide strong evidence that PVL is a human virulence factor. PMID:26618545

  6. Effect of human chorionic gonadotropin on the transport of manganese and zinc and tissue uptake of radioactivity following subcutaneous administration of tritiated estrone in manganese deficient and nondeficient rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Hidiroglou, M; Ivan, M; Ho, S K

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-four eight month old virgin New Zealand doe rabbits were used in an experiment designed to study the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin on the transport of 54Mn and 65Zn in their tissues. Although human chorionic gonadotropin treatment did not result in any change in 65Zn transport, that of 54Mn was affected. In another experiment, the tissue uptake of tritiated estrone was studied in manganese deficient and nondeficient rabbits. There were no differences in radioactivity uptake between the two diets but the pattern of tissue uptake was different from other reports. PMID:861839

  7. Control of Mycobacterial Infections in Mice Expressing Human Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) but Not Mouse TNF

    PubMed Central

    Olleros, Maria L.; Chavez-Galan, Leslie; Segueni, Noria; Bourigault, Marie L.; Vesin, Dominique; Kruglov, Andrey A.; Drutskaya, Marina S.; Bisig, Ruth; Ehlers, Stefan; Aly, Sahar; Walter, Kerstin; Kuprash, Dmitry V.; Chouchkova, Miliana; Kozlov, Sergei V.; Erard, François; Ryffel, Bernard; Quesniaux, Valérie F. J.; Nedospasov, Sergei A.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is an important cytokine for host defense against pathogens but is also associated with the development of human immunopathologies. TNF blockade effectively ameliorates many chronic inflammatory conditions but compromises host immunity to tuberculosis. The search for novel, more specific human TNF blockers requires the development of a reliable animal model. We used a novel mouse model with complete replacement of the mouse TNF gene by its human ortholog (human TNF [huTNF] knock-in [KI] mice) to determine resistance to Mycobacterium bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis infections and to investigate whether TNF inhibitors in clinical use reduce host immunity. Our results show that macrophages from huTNF KI mice responded to BCG and lipopolysaccharide similarly to wild-type macrophages by NF-κB activation and cytokine production. While TNF-deficient mice rapidly succumbed to mycobacterial infection, huTNF KI mice survived, controlling the bacterial burden and activating bactericidal mechanisms. Administration of TNF-neutralizing biologics disrupted the control of mycobacterial infection in huTNF KI mice, leading to an increased bacterial burden and hyperinflammation. Thus, our findings demonstrate that human TNF can functionally replace murine TNF in vivo, providing mycobacterial resistance that could be compromised by TNF neutralization. This new animal model will be helpful for the testing of specific biologics neutralizing human TNF. PMID:26123801

  8. Control of Mycobacterial Infections in Mice Expressing Human Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) but Not Mouse TNF.

    PubMed

    Olleros, Maria L; Chavez-Galan, Leslie; Segueni, Noria; Bourigault, Marie L; Vesin, Dominique; Kruglov, Andrey A; Drutskaya, Marina S; Bisig, Ruth; Ehlers, Stefan; Aly, Sahar; Walter, Kerstin; Kuprash, Dmitry V; Chouchkova, Miliana; Kozlov, Sergei V; Erard, François; Ryffel, Bernard; Quesniaux, Valérie F J; Nedospasov, Sergei A; Garcia, Irene

    2015-09-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is an important cytokine for host defense against pathogens but is also associated with the development of human immunopathologies. TNF blockade effectively ameliorates many chronic inflammatory conditions but compromises host immunity to tuberculosis. The search for novel, more specific human TNF blockers requires the development of a reliable animal model. We used a novel mouse model with complete replacement of the mouse TNF gene by its human ortholog (human TNF [huTNF] knock-in [KI] mice) to determine resistance to Mycobacterium bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis infections and to investigate whether TNF inhibitors in clinical use reduce host immunity. Our results show that macrophages from huTNF KI mice responded to BCG and lipopolysaccharide similarly to wild-type macrophages by NF-κB activation and cytokine production. While TNF-deficient mice rapidly succumbed to mycobacterial infection, huTNF KI mice survived, controlling the bacterial burden and activating bactericidal mechanisms. Administration of TNF-neutralizing biologics disrupted the control of mycobacterial infection in huTNF KI mice, leading to an increased bacterial burden and hyperinflammation. Thus, our findings demonstrate that human TNF can functionally replace murine TNF in vivo, providing mycobacterial resistance that could be compromised by TNF neutralization. This new animal model will be helpful for the testing of specific biologics neutralizing human TNF.

  9. Activation of human T cells in hypertension: Studies of Humanized Mice and Hypertensive Humans

    PubMed Central

    Itani, Hana A.; McMaster, William G.; Saleh, Mohamed A.; Nazarewicz, Rafal R.; Mikolajczyk, Tomasz P.; Kaszuba, Anna; Konior, Anna; Prejbisz, Aleksander; Januszewicz, Andrzej; Norlander, Allison E.; Chen, Wei; Bonami, Rachel H.; Marshall, Andrew F.; Poffenberger, Greg; Weyand, Cornelia M.; Madhur, Meena S.; Moore, Daniel J.; Harrison, David G.; Guzik, Tomasz J.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence supports an important role for T cells in the genesis of hypertension. Because this work has predominantly been performed in experimental animals, we sought to determine whether human T cells are activated in hypertension. We employed a humanized mouse model in which the murine immune system is replaced by the human immune system. Angiotensin II increased systolic pressure to 162 mm Hg vs. 116 mm Hg for sham treated animals. Flow cytometry of thoracic lymph nodes, thoracic aorta and kidney revealed increased infiltration of human leukocytes (CD45+) and T lymphocytes (CD3+ and CD4+) in response to angiotensin II infusion. Interestingly, there was also an increase in the memory T cells (CD3+/CD45RO+) in the aortas and lymph nodes. Prevention of hypertension using hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide prevented the accumulation of T cells in these tissues. Studies of isolated human T cells and monocytes indicated that angiotensin II had no direct effect on cytokine production by T cells or the ability of dendritic cells to drive T cell proliferation. We also observed an increase in circulating IL-17A producing CD4+ T cells and both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that produce IFN-γ in hypertensive compared to normotensive humans. Thus, human T cells become activated and invade critical end-organ tissues in response to hypertension in a humanized mouse model. This response likely reflects the hypertensive milieu encountered in vivo and is not a direct effect of the hormone angiotensin II. PMID:27217403

  10. The NHLBI-Sponsored Consortium for preclinicAl assESsment of cARdioprotective Therapies (CAESAR): A New Paradigm for Rigorous, Accurate, and Reproducible Evaluation of Putative Infarct-Sparing Interventions in Mice, Rabbits, and Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Steven P.; Tang, Xian-Liang; Guo, Yiru; Steenbergen, Charles; Lefer, David J.; Kukreja, Rakesh C.; Kong, Maiying; Li, Qianhong; Bhushan, Shashi; Zhu, Xiaoping; Du, Junjie; Nong, Yibing; Stowers, Heather L.; Kondo, Kazuhisa; Hunt, Gregory N.; Goodchild, Traci T.; Orr, Adam; Chang, Carlos C.; Ockaili, Ramzi; Salloum, Fadi N.; Bolli, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Despite four decades of intense effort and substantial financial investment, the cardioprotection field has failed to deliver a single drug that effectively reduces myocardial infarct size in patients. A major reason is insufficient rigor and reproducibility in preclinical studies. Objective To develop a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT)-like infrastructure to conduct rigorous and reproducible preclinical evaluation of cardioprotective therapies. Methods and Results With NHLBI support, we established the Consortium for preclinicAl assESsment of cARdioprotective therapies (CAESAR), based on the principles of randomization, investigator blinding, a priori sample size determination and exclusion criteria, appropriate statistical analyses, and assessment of reproducibility. To validate CAESAR, we tested the ability of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) to reduce infarct size in three species (at two sites/species): mice (n=22-25/group), rabbits (n=11-12/group), and pigs (n=13/group). During this validation phase, i) we established protocols that gave similar results between Centers and confirmed that IPC significantly reduced infarct size in all species, and ii) we successfully established a multi-center structure to support CAESAR’s operations, including two surgical Centers for each species, a Pathology Core (to assess infarct size), a Biomarker Core (to measure plasma cardiac troponin levels), and a Data Coordinating Center – all with the oversight of an external Protocol Review and Monitoring Committee. Conclusions CAESAR is operational, generates reproducible results, can detect cardioprotection, and provides a mechanism for assessing potential infarct-sparing therapies with a level of rigor analogous to multicenter RCTs. This is a revolutionary new approach to cardioprotection. Importantly, we provide state-of-the-art, detailed protocols (“CAESAR protocols”) for measuring infarct size in mice, rabbits, and pigs in a manner that is

  11. Highly stable maintenance of a mouse artificial chromosome in human cells and mice.

    PubMed

    Kazuki, Kanako; Takehara, Shoko; Uno, Narumi; Imaoka, Natsuko; Abe, Satoshi; Takiguchi, Masato; Hiramatsu, Kei; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Kazuki, Yasuhiro

    2013-12-06

    Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) and mouse artificial chromosomes (MACs) display several advantages as gene delivery vectors, such as stable episomal maintenance that avoids insertional mutations and the ability to carry large gene inserts including the regulatory elements. Previously, we showed that a MAC vector developed from a natural mouse chromosome by chromosome engineering was more stably maintained in adult tissues and hematopoietic cells in mice than HAC vectors. In this study, to expand the utility for a gene delivery vector in human cells and mice, we investigated the long-term stability of the MACs in cultured human cells and transchromosomic mice. We also investigated the chromosomal copy number-dependent expression of genes on the MACs in mice. The MAC was stably maintained in human HT1080 cells in vitro during long-term culture. The MAC was stably maintained at least to the F8 and F4 generations in ICR and C57BL/6 backgrounds, respectively. The MAC was also stably maintained in hematopoietic cells and tissues derived from old mice. Transchromosomic mice containing two or four copies of the MAC were generated by breeding. The DNA contents were comparable to the copy number of the MACs in each tissue examined, and the expression of the EGFP gene on the MAC was dependent on the chromosomal copy number. Therefore, the MAC vector may be useful not only for gene delivery in mammalian cells but also for animal transgenesis.

  12. Impulsivity is Associated with Uric Acid: Evidence from Humans and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Cutler, Roy G.; Camandola, Simonetta; Uda, Manuela; Feldman, Neil H.; Cucca, Francesco; Zonderman, Alan B.; Mattson, Mark P.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Schlessinger, David; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Background The ability to control impulses varies greatly, and difficulty with impulse control can have severe consequences; in the extreme, it is the defining feature of many psychiatric disorders. Evidence from disparate lines of research suggests that uric acid is elevated in psychiatric disorders characterized by high impulsivity, such as ADHD and bipolar disorder. The present research tests the hypothesis that impulsivity is associated with higher uric acid in humans and mice. Methods Using two longitudinal, non-clinical community samples (total N=6883), we test whether there is an association between uric acid and normal variation in trait impulsivity measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. We also examined the effect of uric acid on behavior by comparing wild-type mice (WT), which naturally have low levels of uric acid, to mice genetically modified (UOX) to accumulate high levels of uric acid. Results In both human samples, the emotional aspects of trait impulsivity, specifically Impulsiveness and Excitement-Seeking, were associated with higher levels of uric acid concurrently and when uric acid was measured 3–5 years later. Consistent with the human data, the UOX mice displayed significantly more exploratory and novelty-seeking behavior than the WT mice. Conclusion Higher uric acid was associated with impulsivity in both humans and mice. The identification of biological markers of impulsivity may lead to a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in impulsivity, and may suggest potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23582268

  13. Human Resistin in Chemotherapy-Induced Heart Failure in Humanized Male Mice and in Women Treated for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Daniel R.; Briggs, Erika R.; Qatanani, Mohammed; Sawaya, Heloisa; Sebag, Igal A.; Picard, Michael H.; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle

    2013-01-01

    Resistin is a circulating mediator of insulin resistance mainly expressed in human monocytes and responsive to inflammatory stimuli. Recent clinical studies have connected elevated resistin levels with the development and severity of heart failure. To further our understanding of the role of human resistin in heart failure, we studied a humanized mouse model lacking murine resistin but transgenic for the human Retn gene (Hum-Retn mice), which exhibits basal and inflammation-stimulated resistin levels similar to humans. Specifically, we explored whether resistin underlies acute anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. Remarkably, doxorubicin (25mg/kg ip) led to a 4-fold induction of serum resistin levels in Hum-Retn mice. Moreover, doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity was greater in the Hum-Retn mice than in littermate controls not expressing human resistin (Retn−/−). Hum-Retn mice showed increased cardiac mRNA levels of inflammatory and cell adhesion genes compared with Retn−/− mice. Macrophages, but not cardiomyocytes, from Hum-Retn mice treated with doxorubicin in vitro showed dramatic induction of hRetn (human resistin) mRNA and protein expression. We also examined resistin levels in anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients with and without cardiotoxicity. Intriguingly, serum resistin levels in women undergoing anthracycline-containing chemotherapy increased significantly at 3 months and remained elevated at 6 months in those with subsequent cardiotoxicity. Further, elevation in resistin correlated with decline in ejection fraction in these women. These results suggest that elevated resistin is a biomarker of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity and may contribute in the development of heart failure via its direct effects on macrophages. These results further implicate resistin as a link between inflammation, metabolism, and heart disease. PMID:23981771

  14. RABBIT POX

    PubMed Central

    Rosahn, Paul D.; Hu, Ch'uan-K'uei

    1935-01-01

    Observations on an epidemic of rabbit pox occurring in an isolated animal room during the winter of 1933–34 are reported. The clinical manifestations, consisting of a generalized papular eruption involving the skin and mucous membranes, together with blepharitis, ophthalmia, nasal discharge and lymphadenopathy were essentially similar to those noted in a pox epidemic of the previous year. This was true in general also of the pathological findings except that vacuolization, local necrosis and vesicle formation were seen in the epidermis, while in the previous year the microscopic pathology in the skin was confined to the corium. Evidence was presented indicating that the infection can be transmitted through the medium of a personal carrier, and that transmission in this manner can occur during the incubation period or before a definite diagnosis is possible. The findings also demonstrated that the etiological agents responsible for the disease reported here and that of the previous year were immunologically related, and that the immunity in recovered animals effectively persisted during the entire period for which data are available, 9 to 12 months. It appeared also that young animals suckling an immune doe were more refractory to the development of the lesions of rabbit pox than were the young of susceptible does. PMID:19870418

  15. Orthologous myosin isoforms and scaling of shortening velocity with body size in mouse, rat, rabbit and human muscles.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, M A; Canepari, M; Rossi, R; D'Antona, G; Reggiani, C; Bottinelli, R

    2003-02-01

    Maximum shortening velocity (V(0)) was determined in single fibres dissected from hind limb skeletal muscles of rabbit and mouse and classified according to their myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition. The values for rabbit and mouse V(0) were compared with the values previously obtained in man and rat under identical experimental conditions. Significant differences in V(0) were found between fibres containing corresponding myosin isoforms in different species: as a general rule for each isoform V(0) decreased with body mass. Myosin isoform distributions of soleus and tibialis anterior were analysed in mouse, rat, rabbit and man: the proportion of slow myosin generally increased with increasing body size. The diversity between V(0) of corresponding myosin isoforms and the different myosin isoform composition of corresponding muscles determine the scaling of shortening velocity of whole muscles with body size, which is essential for optimisation of locomotion. The speed of actin translocation (V(f)) in in vitro motility assay was determined with myosins extracted from single muscle fibres of all four species: significant differences were found between myosin isoforms in each species and between corresponding myosin isoforms in different species. The values of V(0) and V(f) determined for each myosin isoform were significantly correlated, strongly supporting the view that the myosin isoform expressed is the major determinant of maximum shortening velocity in muscle fibres.

  16. Plasma High-Mannose and Complex/Hybrid N-Glycans Are Associated with Hypercholesterolemia in Humans and Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bai, Liang; Li, Qianwei; Li, Lingmei; Lin, Yan; Zhao, Sihai; Wang, Weirong; Wang, Rong; Li, Yongqin; Yuan, Jiangbei; Wang, Chengjian; Wang, Zhongfu; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

    2016-01-01

    N-glycans play important roles in various pathophysiological processes and can be used as clinical diagnosis markers. However, plasma N-glycans change and their pathophysiological significance in the setting of hypercholesterolemia, a major risk factor for atherosclerosis, is unknown. Here, we collected plasma from both hypercholesterolemic patients and cholesterol-fed hypercholesterolemic rabbits, and determined the changes in the whole-plasma N-glycan profile by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. We found that both the hypercholesterolemic patients and rabbits showed a dramatic change in their plasma glycan profile. Compared with healthy subjects, the hypercholesterolemic patients exhibited higher plasma levels of a cluster of high-mannose and complex/hybrid N-glycans (mainly including undecorated or sialylated glycans), whereas only a few fucosylated or fucosylated and sialylated N-glycans were increased. Additionally, cholesterol-fed hypercholesterolemic rabbits also displayed increased plasma levels of high-mannose in addition to high complex/hybrid N-glycan levels. The whole-plasma glycan profiles revealed that the plasma N-glycan levels were correlated with the plasma cholesterol levels, implying that N-glycans may be a target for treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

  17. Plasma High-Mannose and Complex/Hybrid N-Glycans Are Associated with Hypercholesterolemia in Humans and Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Liang; Li, Qianwei; Li, Lingmei; Lin, Yan; Zhao, Sihai; Wang, Weirong; Wang, Rong; Li, Yongqin; Yuan, Jiangbei; Wang, Chengjian; Wang, Zhongfu; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

    2016-01-01

    N-glycans play important roles in various pathophysiological processes and can be used as clinical diagnosis markers. However, plasma N-glycans change and their pathophysiological significance in the setting of hypercholesterolemia, a major risk factor for atherosclerosis, is unknown. Here, we collected plasma from both hypercholesterolemic patients and cholesterol-fed hypercholesterolemic rabbits, and determined the changes in the whole-plasma N-glycan profile by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. We found that both the hypercholesterolemic patients and rabbits showed a dramatic change in their plasma glycan profile. Compared with healthy subjects, the hypercholesterolemic patients exhibited higher plasma levels of a cluster of high-mannose and complex/hybrid N-glycans (mainly including undecorated or sialylated glycans), whereas only a few fucosylated or fucosylated and sialylated N-glycans were increased. Additionally, cholesterol-fed hypercholesterolemic rabbits also displayed increased plasma levels of high-mannose in addition to high complex/hybrid N-glycan levels. The whole-plasma glycan profiles revealed that the plasma N-glycan levels were correlated with the plasma cholesterol levels, implying that N-glycans may be a target for treatment of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26999365

  18. Captopril Pretreatment Produces an Additive Cardioprotection to Isoflurane Preconditioning in Attenuating Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rabbits and in Humans.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yi; Li, Haobo; Liu, Peiyu; Xu, Jun-mei; Irwin, Michael G; Xia, Zhengyuan; Tian, Guogang

    2015-01-01

    Pretreatment with the angiotensin-converting inhibitor captopril or volatile anesthetic isoflurane has, respectively, been shown to attenuate myocardial ischemia reperfusion (MI/R) injury in rodents and in patients. It is unknown whether or not captopril pretreatment and isoflurane preconditioning (Iso) may additively or synergistically attenuate MI/R injury. Patients selected for heart valve replacement surgery were randomly assigned to five groups: untreated control (Control), captopril pretreatment for 3 days (Cap3d), or single dose captopril (Cap1hr, 1 hour) before surgery with or without Iso (Cap3d+Iso and Cap1hr+Iso). Rabbit MI/R model was induced by occluding coronary artery for 30 min followed by 2-hour reperfusion. Rabbits were randomized to receive sham operation (Sham), MI/R (I/R), captopril (Cap, 24 hours before MI/R), Iso, or the combination of captopril and Iso (Iso+Cap). In patients, Cap3d+Iso but not Cap1hr+Iso additively reduced postischemic myocardial injury and attenuated postischemic myocardial inflammation. In rabbits, Cap or Iso significantly reduced postischemic myocardial infarction. Iso+Cap additively reduced cellular injury that was associated with improved postischemic myocardial functional recovery and reduced myocardial apoptosis and attenuated oxidative stress. A joint use of 3-day captopril treatment and isoflurane preconditioning additively attenuated MI/R by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation.

  19. Captopril Pretreatment Produces an Additive Cardioprotection to Isoflurane Preconditioning in Attenuating Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rabbits and in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yi; Liu, Peiyu; Xu, Jun-mei; Irwin, Michael G.; Xia, Zhengyuan; Tian, Guogang

    2015-01-01

    Background. Pretreatment with the angiotensin-converting inhibitor captopril or volatile anesthetic isoflurane has, respectively, been shown to attenuate myocardial ischemia reperfusion (MI/R) injury in rodents and in patients. It is unknown whether or not captopril pretreatment and isoflurane preconditioning (Iso) may additively or synergistically attenuate MI/R injury. Methods and Results. Patients selected for heart valve replacement surgery were randomly assigned to five groups: untreated control (Control), captopril pretreatment for 3 days (Cap3d), or single dose captopril (Cap1hr, 1 hour) before surgery with or without Iso (Cap3d+Iso and Cap1hr+Iso). Rabbit MI/R model was induced by occluding coronary artery for 30 min followed by 2-hour reperfusion. Rabbits were randomized to receive sham operation (Sham), MI/R (I/R), captopril (Cap, 24 hours before MI/R), Iso, or the combination of captopril and Iso (Iso+Cap). In patients, Cap3d+Iso but not Cap1hr+Iso additively reduced postischemic myocardial injury and attenuated postischemic myocardial inflammation. In rabbits, Cap or Iso significantly reduced postischemic myocardial infarction. Iso+Cap additively reduced cellular injury that was associated with improved postischemic myocardial functional recovery and reduced myocardial apoptosis and attenuated oxidative stress. Conclusion. A joint use of 3-day captopril treatment and isoflurane preconditioning additively attenuated MI/R by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:26273143

  20. Repopulation of adult and neonatal mice with human hepatocytes: a chimeric animal model.

    PubMed

    Bissig, Karl-Dimiter; Le, Tam T; Woods, Niels-Bjarne; Verma, Inder M

    2007-12-18

    We report the successful transplantation of human hepatocytes in immunodeficient, fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase-deficient (fah(-/-)) mice. Engraftment occurs over the entire liver acinus upon transplantation. A few weeks after transplantation, increasing concentrations of human proteins (e.g., human albumin and human C3a) can be measured in the blood of the recipient mouse. No fusion between mouse and human hepatocytes can be detected. Three months after transplantation, up to 20% of the mouse liver is repopulated by human hepatocytes, and sustained expression of lentiviral vector transduced gene can be observed. We further report the development of a hepatocyte transplantation method involving a transcutaneous, intrahepatic injection in neonatal mice. Human hepatocytes engraft over the entire injected lobe with an expansion pattern similar to those observed with intrasplenic transplantation.

  1. A humanized version of Foxp2 affects cortico-basal ganglia circuits in mice.

    PubMed

    Enard, Wolfgang; Gehre, Sabine; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Hölter, Sabine M; Blass, Torsten; Somel, Mehmet; Brückner, Martina K; Schreiweis, Christiane; Winter, Christine; Sohr, Reinhard; Becker, Lore; Wiebe, Victor; Nickel, Birgit; Giger, Thomas; Müller, Uwe; Groszer, Matthias; Adler, Thure; Aguilar, Antonio; Bolle, Ines; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Dalke, Claudia; Ehrhardt, Nicole; Favor, Jack; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Hans, Wolfgang; Hölzlwimmer, Gabriele; Javaheri, Anahita; Kalaydjiev, Svetoslav; Kallnik, Magdalena; Kling, Eva; Kunder, Sandra; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Naton, Beatrix; Racz, Ildikó; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Schrewe, Anja; Busch, Dirk H; Graw, Jochen; Ivandic, Boris; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Ollert, Markus; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Schulz, Holger; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Fisher, Simon E; Morgenstern, Rudolf; Arendt, Thomas; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Fischer, Julia; Schwarz, Johannes; Pääbo, Svante

    2009-05-29

    It has been proposed that two amino acid substitutions in the transcription factor FOXP2 have been positively selected during human evolution due to effects on aspects of speech and language. Here, we introduce these substitutions into the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice. Although these mice are generally healthy, they have qualitatively different ultrasonic vocalizations, decreased exploratory behavior and decreased dopamine concentrations in the brain suggesting that the humanized Foxp2 allele affects basal ganglia. In the striatum, a part of the basal ganglia affected in humans with a speech deficit due to a nonfunctional FOXP2 allele, we find that medium spiny neurons have increased dendrite lengths and increased synaptic plasticity. Since mice carrying one nonfunctional Foxp2 allele show opposite effects, this suggests that alterations in cortico-basal ganglia circuits might have been important for the evolution of speech and language in humans.

  2. Cognitive components in mice and humans: combining genetics and touchscreens for medical translation.

    PubMed

    Nithianantharajah, Jess; Grant, Seth G N

    2013-10-01

    Human disorders of cognition arise from hundreds of gene mutations and mice serve as models for developing and testing therapeutic approaches. Recent advancements using touchscreen psychological tests that measure similar components of cognition in mice and humans can be combined with genetics. These experiments formally demonstrate that different components of cognition in humans and mice are not merely analogous, but homologous, sharing common descent and genetic constitution. They also show that it is possible to genetically dissect different behaviours and identify their underlying molecular mechanisms. Using these methods as standardised approaches offers the prospect of understanding the genetic architecture of the cognitive repertoire and the identification of new targets for drug development. Rigorously defining homologous mechanisms using genetics and touchscreen tests may also improve drug trial design. Recommendations for mouse clinical trial protocols combined with human genetics are proposed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Allergen-induced migration of human cells in allergic severe combined immunodeficiency mice.

    PubMed

    Duez, C; Akoum, H; Marquillies, P; Cesbron, J Y; Tonnel, A B; Pestel, J

    1998-02-01

    Recently, we have shown that severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice, intraperitoneally reconstituted with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt)-sensitive patients, produced human IgE and developed a pulmonary inflammatory-type reaction after exposure to allergen aerosol. In order to understand the potential mechanisms involved in the human cell migration in SCID mice, we analysed their phenotypic profile in the lungs, spleen and thymus, 2 months after Dpt inhalation. The human cell recruitment in these organs was found to be allergen-dependent as CD45+ human cells were only detected in hu-SCID mice after Dpt exposure. The composition of the pulmonary human T-cell infiltrate, preferentially memory (CD45RO), activated (human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR) and CD4+ cells, was similar to that described in asthmatic patients. However, CD20+ B cells were predominately recruited in the spleen and thymus and may be IgE-producing cells in the spleen. In the lungs, the percentage of human leucocytes expressing the alpha-chain of the lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) (CD11a) was higher than those of CD49d+ or CD54+ cells, in contrast to the spleen and thymus, suggesting a potential role of LFA-1 in the human cell migration towards SCID mice lung. In conclusion, this model could be useful in the study of factors implicated in the cellular migration towards the lymphoid organs during an allergic reaction.

  4. Chimeric TK-NOG Mice: A Predictive Model for Cholestatic Human Liver Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dan; Wu, Manhong; Nishimura, Sachiko; Nishimura, Toshihiko; Michie, Sara A.; Zheng, Ming; Yang, Zicheng; Yates, Alexander John; Day, Jeffrey S.; Hillgren, Kathleen M.; Takeda, Saori Takedai; Guan, Yuan; Guo, Yingying

    2015-01-01

    Due to the substantial interspecies differences in drug metabolism and disposition, drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in humans is often not predicted by studies performed in animal species. For example, a drug (bosentan) used to treat pulmonary artery hypertension caused unexpected cholestatic liver toxicity in humans, which was not predicted by preclinical toxicology studies in multiple animal species. In this study, we demonstrate that NOG mice expressing a thymidine kinase transgene (TK-NOG) with humanized livers have a humanized profile of biliary excretion of a test (cefmetazole) drug, which was shown by an in situ perfusion study to result from interspecies differences in the rate of biliary transport and in liver retention of this drug. We also found that readily detectable cholestatic liver injury develops in TK-NOG mice with humanized livers after 1 week of treatment with bosentan (160, 32, or 6 mg/kg per day by mouth), whereas liver toxicity did not develop in control mice after 1 month of treatment. The laboratory and histologic features of bosentan-induced liver toxicity in humanized mice mirrored that of human subjects. Because DILI has become a significant public health problem, drug safety could be improved if preclinical toxicology studies were performed using humanized TK-NOG. PMID:25424997

  5. Extensive double humanization of both liver and hematopoiesis in FRGN mice.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Elizabeth M; Bial, J; Tarlow, Branden; Bial, G; Jensen, B; Greiner, D L; Brehm, M A; Grompe, M

    2014-11-01

    Preclinical research in animals often fails to adequately predict the outcomes observed in human patients. Chimeric animals bearing individual human tissues have been developed to provide improved models of human-specific cellular processes. Mice transplanted with human hematopoietic stem cells can be used to study human immune responses, infections of blood cells and processes of hematopoiesis. Animals with humanized livers are useful for modeling hepatotropic infections as well as drug metabolism and hepatotoxicity. However, many pathophysiologic processes involve both the liver and the hematolymphoid system. Examples include hepatitis C/HIV co-infection, immune mediated liver diseases, liver injuries with inflammation such as steatohepatitis and alcoholic liver disease. We developed a robust protocol enabling the concurrent double-humanization of mice with mature hepatocytes and human blood. Immune-deficient, fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (Fah(-/-)), Rag2(-/-) and Il2rg(-/-) deficient animals on the NOD-strain background (FRGN) were simultaneously co-transplanted with adult human hepatocytes and hematopoietic stem cells after busulfan and Ad:uPA pre-conditioning. Four months after transplantation the average human liver repopulation exceeded 80% and hematopoietic chimerism also was high (40-80% in bone marrow). Importantly, human macrophages (Kupffer cells) were present in the chimeric livers. Double-chimeric FRGN mice will serve as a new model for disease processes that involve interactions between hepatocytes and hematolymphoid cells.

  6. Alpha Interferon and HIV Infection Cause Activation of Human T Cells in NSG-BLT Mice

    PubMed Central

    Long, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    The development of small animal models for the study of HIV transmission is important for evaluation of HIV prophylaxis and disease pathogenesis. In humanized bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) mice, hematopoiesis is reconstituted by implantation of human fetal liver and thymus tissue (Thy/Liv) plus intravenous injection of autologous liver-derived hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPC). This results in reconstitution of human leukocytes in the mouse peripheral blood, lymphoid organs, and mucosal sites. NOD-scid interleukin-2 receptor-negative (IL-2Rγ−/−) (NSG)-BLT mice were inoculated intravaginally with HIV and were monitored for plasma viremia by a branched DNA assay 4 weeks later. T-cell activation was determined by expression of CD38 and HLA-DR on human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in mouse peripheral blood at the time of inoculation and 4 weeks later. Additional BLT mice were treated with human alpha interferon 2b (IFN-α2b) (intron A) and assessed for T-cell activation. Productive HIV infection in BLT mice was associated with T-cell activation (increases in CD38 mean fluorescence intensity and both the frequency and absolute number of CD38+ HLA-DR+ T cells) that correlated strongly with plasma viral load and was most pronounced in the CD8+ T-cell compartment. This T-cell activation phenotype was recapitulated in NSG-BLT mice treated with intron A. HIV susceptibility correlated with the number of HSPC injected, yet a number of mice receiving the Thy/Liv implant alone, with no HSPC injection, were also susceptible to intravaginal HIV. These results are consistent with studies linking T-cell activation to progressive disease in humans and lend support for the use of NSG-BLT mice in studies of HIV pathogenesis. PMID:22238321

  7. Histidine decarboxylase deficiency causes Tourette syndrome: parallel findings in humans and mice

    PubMed Central

    Baldan, Lissandra Castellan; Rapanelli, Maximiliano; Crowley, Michael; Anderson, George M.; Loring, Erin; Gorczyca, Roxanne; Billingslea, Eileen; Wasylink, Suzanne; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Ercan-Sencicek, A. Gulhan; Krusong, Kuakarun; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Bloch, Michael H.; Hughes, Zoë A.; Krystal, John H.; Mayes, Linda; de Araujo, Ivan; Ding, Yu-Shin; State, Matthew W.; Pittenger, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by tics, sensorimotor gating deficiencies, and abnormalities of cortico-basal ganglia circuits. A mutation in histidine decarboxylase (Hdc), the key enzyme for the biosynthesis of histamine (HA), has been implicated as a rare genetic cause. Hdc knockout mice exhibited potentiated tic-like stereotypies, recapitulating core phenomenology of TS; these were mitigated by the dopamine D2 antagonist haloperidol, a proven pharmacotherapy, and by HA infusion into the brain. Prepulse inhibition was impaired in both mice and humans carrying Hdc mutations. HA infusion reduced striatal dopamine (DA) levels; in Hdc knockout mice, striatal DA was increased and the DA-regulated immediate early gene Fos was upregulated. Dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding was altered both in mice and in humans carrying the Hdc mutation. These data confirm HDC deficiency as a rare cause of TS and identify histamine-dopamine interactions in the basal ganglia as an important locus of pathology. PMID:24411733

  8. Similarity of Bisphenol A Pharmacokinetics in Rhesus Monkeys and Mice: Relevance for Human Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Julia A.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Welshons, Wade V.; Drury, Bertram; Rottinghaus, George; Hunt, Patricia A.; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Laffont, Céline M.; VandeVoort, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Daily adult human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been estimated at < 1 μg/kg, with virtually complete first-pass conjugation in the liver in primates but not in mice. We measured unconjugated and conjugated BPA levels in serum from adult female rhesus monkeys and adult female mice after oral administration of BPA and compared findings in mice and monkeys with prior published data in women. Methods Eleven adult female rhesus macaques were fed 400 μg/kg deuterated BPA (dBPA) daily for 7 days. Levels of serum dBPA were analyzed by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (0.2 ng/mL limit of quantitation) over 24 hr on day 1 and on day 7. The same dose of BPA was fed to adult female CD-1 mice; other female mice were administered 3H-BPA at doses ranging from 2 to 100,000 μg/kg. Results In monkeys, the maximum unconjugated serum dBPA concentration of 4 ng/mL was reached 1 hr after feeding and declined to low levels by 24 hr, with no significant bioaccumulation after seven daily doses. Mice and monkeys cleared unconjugated serum BPA at virtually identical rates. We observed a linear (proportional) relationship between administered dose and serum BPA in mice. Conclusions BPA pharmacokinetics in women, female monkeys, and mice is very similar. By comparison with approximately 2 ng/mL unconjugated serum BPA reported in multiple human studies, the average 24-hr unconjugated serum BPA concentration of 0.5 ng/mL in both monkeys and mice after a 400 μg/kg oral dose suggests that total daily human exposure is via multiple routes and is much higher than previously assumed. PMID:20855240

  9. [Protective effects of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on hematopoietic organs of irradiated mice].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling-Zhen; Yin, Song-Mei; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Jia-Yu; Wei, Bo-Xiong; Zhan, Yu; Yu, Wei; Wu, Jin-Ming; Qu, Jia; Guo, Zi-Kuan

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the protective effects of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) on hematopoietic organs of irradiated mice. Human bone marrow MSC were isolated, ex vivo expanded, and identified by cell biological tests. Female BALB/c mice were irradiated with (60)Co γ-ray at a single dose of 6 Gy, and received different doses of human MSC and MSC lysates or saline via tail veins. The survival of mice was record daily, and the femurs and spleens were harvested on day 9 and 16 for pathologic examination. The histological changes were observed and the cellularity was scored. The results showed that the estimated survival time of MSC- and MSC lysate-treated mice was comparable to that of controls. The hematopoiesis in the bone marrow of mice that received high-dose (5×10(6)) of MSC or MSC lysates was partially restored on day 9 and the capacity of hemopoietic tissue and cellularity scorings were significantly elevated as compared with that of controls (P < 0.05). Proliferative nudes were also obviously observed in the spleens of mice that received high-dose of MSC or MSC lysates on d 9 after irradiation. The histological structures of the spleen and bone marrow of the mice that received high-doses (5×10(6)) of MSC or MSC lysates were restored to normal, the cell proliferation displayed extraordinarily active. Further, the cellularity scores of the bone marrow were not significantly different between the high-dose MSC and MSC lysate-treated mice. It is concluded that the bone marrow MSC can promote the hematopoietic recovery of the irradiated mice, which probably is associated with the bioactive materials inherently existed in bone marrow cells.

  10. Activation of Human T Cells in Hypertension: Studies of Humanized Mice and Hypertensive Humans.

    PubMed

    Itani, Hana A; McMaster, William G; Saleh, Mohamed A; Nazarewicz, Rafal R; Mikolajczyk, Tomasz P; Kaszuba, Anna M; Konior, Anna; Prejbisz, Aleksander; Januszewicz, Andrzej; Norlander, Allison E; Chen, Wei; Bonami, Rachel H; Marshall, Andrew F; Poffenberger, Greg; Weyand, Cornelia M; Madhur, Meena S; Moore, Daniel J; Harrison, David G; Guzik, Tomasz J

    2016-07-01

    Emerging evidence supports an important role for T cells in the genesis of hypertension. Because this work has predominantly been performed in experimental animals, we sought to determine whether human T cells are activated in hypertension. We used a humanized mouse model in which the murine immune system is replaced by the human immune system. Angiotensin II increased systolic pressure to 162 versus 116 mm Hg for sham-treated animals. Flow cytometry of thoracic lymph nodes, thoracic aorta, and kidney revealed increased infiltration of human leukocytes (CD45(+)) and T lymphocytes (CD3(+) and CD4(+)) in response to angiotensin II infusion. Interestingly, there was also an increase in the memory T cells (CD3(+)/CD45RO(+)) in the aortas and lymph nodes. Prevention of hypertension using hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide prevented the accumulation of T cells in these tissues. Studies of isolated human T cells and monocytes indicated that angiotensin II had no direct effect on cytokine production by T cells or the ability of dendritic cells to drive T-cell proliferation. We also observed an increase in circulating interleukin-17A producing CD4(+) T cells and both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that produce interferon-γ in hypertensive compared with normotensive humans. Thus, human T cells become activated and invade critical end-organ tissues in response to hypertension in a humanized mouse model. This response likely reflects the hypertensive milieu encountered in vivo and is not a direct effect of the hormone angiotensin II. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. A competitive advantage by neonatally engrafted human glial progenitors yields mice whose brains are chimeric for human glia.

    PubMed

    Windrem, Martha S; Schanz, Steven J; Morrow, Carolyn; Munir, Jared; Chandler-Militello, Devin; Wang, Su; Goldman, Steven A

    2014-11-26

    Neonatally transplanted human glial progenitor cells (hGPCs) densely engraft and myelinate the hypomyelinated shiverer mouse. We found that, in hGPC-xenografted mice, the human donor cells continue to expand throughout the forebrain, systematically replacing the host murine glia. The differentiation of the donor cells is influenced by the host environment, such that more donor cells differentiated as oligodendrocytes in the hypomyelinated shiverer brain than in myelin wild-types, in which hGPCs were more likely to remain as progenitors. Yet in each recipient, both the number and relative proportion of mouse GPCs fell as a function of time, concomitant with the mitotic expansion and spread of donor hGPCs. By a year after neonatal xenograft, the forebrain GPC populations of implanted mice were largely, and often entirely, of human origin. Thus, neonatally implanted hGPCs outcompeted and ultimately replaced the host population of mouse GPCs, ultimately generating mice with a humanized glial progenitor population. These human glial chimeric mice should permit us to define the specific contributions of glia to a broad variety of neurological disorders, using human cells in vivo.

  12. AAVrh.10 immunogenicity in mice and humans. Relevance of antibody cross-reactivity in human gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Thwaite, R; Pagès, G; Chillón, M; Bosch, A

    2015-02-01

    Simian adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype rh.10 is a promising gene therapy tool, achieving safe, sustained transgene expression in the nervous system, lung, liver and heart in animal models. To date, preexisting immunity in humans has not been confirmed, though exposure is unexpected. We compared the humoral immune response with serotypes AAVrh.10 and AAV9 in mice, and AAVrh.10, AAV9 and AAV2 in 100 healthy humans. Mice, injected-intravenously, raised significantly more anti-AAV9 than anti-AAVrh.10 IgG (immunoglobulins), and sera demonstrated greater neutralizing capacity, correspondingly. Antibody cross-binding studies in mice showed negligible cross-recognition between AAVrh.10, AAV9 and AAV2. In humans, IgG prevalence against the most common human serotype, AAV2, was 72%; AAV9, 47% and AAVrh.10, a surprising, 59%. Yet, neutralizing-antibody seroprevalences were 71% for AAV2, 18% for AAV9 and 21% for AAVrh.10. Thus, most anti-AAV9 and anti-AAVrh.10 IgG were nonneutralizing. Indeed, sera generally neutralized AAV2 more strongly than AAVrh.10. Further, all samples neutralizing AAVrh.10 or AAV9 also neutralized AAV2, suggesting antibody cross-recognition. This contrasts with the results in mice, and highlights the complexity of tailoring gene therapy to minimize the immune response in humans, when multiple-mixed infections during a lifetime evoke a broad repertoire of preexisting antibodies capable of cross reacting with non-human serotypes.

  13. Persistent hepatitis C virus infections and hepatopathological manifestations in immune-competent humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jizheng; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Hairong; Feng, Jin; Chi, Xiumei; Pan, Yu; Du, Jun; Guo, Min; Cao, Huang; Chen, Honghe; Wang, Zilong; Pei, Rongjuan; Wang, Qian; Pan, Lei; Niu, Junqi; Chen, Xinwen; Tang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The majority of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection develops chronic infection, which causes steatosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, understanding HCV chronicity and pathogenesis is hampered by its narrow host range, mostly restricted to human and chimpanzee. Recent endeavour to infect a variety of humanized mice has not been able to achieve persistent HCV infection unless the essential innate immune responsive genes are knocked out. Nevertheless, such immune-compromised humanized mice still lacked HCV infection-induced hepatopathogenesis. Here we report that transgenic mice in ICR background harboring both human CD81 and occludin genes (C/OTg) are permissive to HCV infection at a chronicity rate comparable to humans. In this mouse model, HCV accomplishes its replication cycle, leading to sustained viremia and infectivity for more than 12 months post infection with expected fibrotic and cirrhotic progression. Host factors favorable for HCV replication, and inadequate innate immune-response may contribute to the persistence. Lastly, NS3/4 protease inhibitor telaprevir can effectively inhibit de novo RNA synthesis and acute HCV infection of C/OTg mice. Thus, chronic HCV infection with complete replication cycle and hepatopathologic manifestations is recapitulated, for the first time, in immune-competent mice. This model will open a new venue to study the mechanisms of chronic hepatitis C and develop better treatments. PMID:25155355

  14. Conditional expression of human bone Gla protein in osteoblasts causes skeletal abnormality in mice.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Tsukui, Tohru; Tanaka, Daisuke; Maruyama, Yojiro; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Inoue, Satoshi

    2012-07-20

    Bone Gla protein (BGP), also known as osteocalcin, is one of the most abundant γ-carboxylated noncollagenous protein in bone matrix and plays important roles in mineralization and calcium ion homeostasis. BGP is synthesized specifically in osteoblasts; however, its precise function in bone metabolism has not been fully elucidated. To investigate the in vivo function of human BGP (hBGP), we generated CAG-GFP(floxed)-hBGP transgenic mice carrying a transgene cassette composed of the promoter and a floxed GFP linked to hBGP cDNA. The mice were crossed with ColI-Cre mice, which express the Cre recombinase driven by the mouse collagen type 1a1 gene promoter, to obtain hBGP(ColI) conditional transgenic mice that expressed human BGP in osteoblasts. The hBGP(ColI) mice did not survive more than 2days after birth. The analysis of the 18.5-day post coitum fetuses of the hBGP(ColI) mice revealed that they displayed abnormal skeletal growth such as deformity of the rib and short femur and cranium lengths. Moreover, increased BGP levels were detected in the serum of the neonates. These findings indicate that hBGP expression in osteoblasts resulted in the abnormal skeletal growth in the mice. Our study provides a valuable model for understanding the fundamental role of BGP in vivo. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Chronic estrogen-induced cervical and vaginal squamous carcinogenesis in human papillomavirus type 16 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Arbeit, J M; Howley, P M; Hanahan, D

    1996-04-02

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), including type 16, have been identified as factors in cervical carcinogenesis. However, the presence and expression of the virus per se appear to be insufficient for carcinogenesis. Rather, cofactors most likely are necessary in addition to viral gene expression to initiate neoplasia. One candidate cofactor is prolonged exposure to sex hormones. To examine the possible effects of estrogen on HPV-associated neoplasia, we treated transgenic mice expressing the oncogenes of HPV16 under control of the human keratin-14 promoter (K14-HPV16 transgenic mice) and nontransgenic control mice with slow release pellets of 17beta-estradiol. Squamous carcinomas developed in a multistage pathway exclusively in the vagina and cervix of K14-HPV16 transgenic mice. Estrogen-induced carcinogenesis was accompanied by an incremental increase in the incidence and distribution of proliferating cells solely within the cervical and vaginal squamous epithelium of K14-HPV16 mice. Expression of the HPV transgenes in untreated transgenic mice was detectable only during estrus; estrogen treatment resulted in transgene expression that was persistent but not further upregulated, remaining at low levels at all stages of carcinogenesis. The data demonstrate a novel mechanism of synergistic cooperation between chronic estrogen exposure and the oncogenes of HPV16 that coordinates squamous carcinogenesis in the female reproductive tract of K14-HPV16 transgenic mice.

  16. Human cell engraftment after busulfan or irradiation conditioning of NOD/SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Robert-Richard, Elodie; Ged, Cécile; Ortet, Jacqueline; Santarelli, Xavier; Lamrissi-Garcia, Isabelle; de Verneuil, Hubert; Mazurier, Frédéric

    2006-10-01

    Human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) xenotransplantation in NOD/SCID mice requires recipient conditioning, classically achieved by sublethal irradiation. Pretreatment with immunosuppressive and alkylating agents has been reported, but has not been rigorously tested against standard irradiation protocols. Here, we report that treatment of mice with a single dose (35 mg/kg) of Busilvex, an injectable form of busulfan, enables equivalent engraftment compared to 3.5 Gy irradiation. Mice treated with two doses of 25 mg/kg to reduce busulfan toxicity showed increased chimerism. Busulfan conditioning and irradiation resulted in comparable sensitivity of HSC detection as evaluated by limiting dilution analysis.

  17. Risk of zoonotic transmission of HEV from rabbits.

    PubMed

    Lhomme, Sébastien; Dubois, Martine; Abravanel, Florence; Top, Sokunthea; Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Guerin, Jean-Luc; Izopet, Jacques

    2013-10-01

    Hepatitis E virus strains from rabbits indicate that these mammals may be a reservoir for HEVs that cause infection in humans. Further issues remain to be clarified, including whether the genotype of rabbit HEV differs from human and swine HEV genotype 3 and whether rabbit HEV can infect human and other animals. HEV was found in farmed rabbits in several geographic areas of China, in USA and more recently in France. The prevalence of antibodies against HEV was 36%, 57% and 55% in rabbits from Virginia (USA), Gansu Province and Beijing (China), respectively. HEV RNA was detected in 16.5% of serum samples from farmed rabbits in Virginia, 7.5% in Gansu Province and 7.0% in Beijing. HEV RNA was detected in 7% of bile samples from farmed rabbits and in 23% of liver samples from wild rabbits in France. The full-length genomic sequences analysis indicates that all the rabbit strains belong to the same clade. Nucleotide sequences were 72.2-78.2% identical to HEV genotypes 1-4. Comparison with HEV sequences of human strains circulating in France and reference sequences identified a human strain closely related to rabbit HEV. A 93-nucleotide insertion in the X domain of the ORF1 of the human strain and in all the rabbit HEV strains was found. Moreover, the ability of rabbit HEV to cause cross-species infection in a pig model has recently been demonstrated. Rabbit HEV can replicate efficiently in human cell lines. Collectively, these data support the possibility of zoonotic transmission of HEV from rabbits.

  18. Human lactoferrin protects against Streptococcus mutans-induced caries in mice.

    PubMed

    Velusamy, S K; Markowitz, K; Fine, D H; Velliyagounder, K

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the importance of human lactoferrin (hLF) in an experimental caries induced by Streptococcus mutans in a lactoferrin-knockout (LFKO(-/-)) mouse model compared with C576J/BL wild-type (WT) mice. The WT and LFKO(-/-) mice were infected with S. mutans (1 × 10(8) cells) and/or sham infection. Furthermore, the effect of hLF administration was evaluated in LFKO(-/-) mice infected with S. mutans. Mice were assessed for colonization, salivary pH, and caries development. The results showed that the lactoferrin-knockout infected (LFKO(-/-) I) mice had significantly higher colonization with S. mutans (P = 0.02), lower salivary pH (P = 0.01), and more carious lesions (P = 0.01) when compared to wild-type infected (WTI) mice. In addition, the administration of hLF did not show any evidence of S. mutans colonization as well as carious lesions (P = 0.001) in LFKO(-/-) I mice when compared to untreated LFKO(-/-) I mice. These results show that endogenous LF protects against S. mutans-induced caries and that exogenous hLF can exert a protective effect against caries development. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Sex-linked behavioural differences in mice expressing a human insulin transgene in the medial habenula.

    PubMed

    Douhet, P; Bertaina, V; Durkin, T; Calas, A; Destrade, C

    1997-12-01

    We previously reported that a human insulin transgene was specifically expressed in the medial habenula of the adult mouse brain, and that this expression was ascribed to the delta-168 transgene. The present study analyses the possible behavioural consequences of this insulin transgene expression using measures of food intake, spontaneous activity, emotional reactivity, learning and extinction performance of an operant task. The delta-168 transgenic mice did not differ from the C57BL/6 control mice as concerns food intake, behaviour in the open field, or emotional response in an elevated plus maze. On the other hand, measures of locomotor activity in a circular corridor revealed a significantly faster decline of spontaneous locomotor activity in male as compared to female delta-168 transgenic mice. Moreover, as compared to female transgenic mice, male transgenic mice exhibited a deficit in the rate of acquisition and an acceleration of the rate of extinction of a bar press response in a Skinner box. In contrast, the behaviour of female transgenic mice did not differ from either male or female C57BL/6 control mice. The results of the present study demonstrate that the behavioural modifications observed in delta-168 transgenic mice are sex-linked and suggest that these behavioural differences result from changes in the interaction (interface) between motivational and motor mechanisms mediated via the striato-habenulo-mesencephalic system.

  20. Immune humanization of immunodeficient mice using diagnostic bone marrow aspirates from carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Werner-Klein, Melanie; Proske, Judith; Werno, Christian; Schneider, Katharina; Hofmann, Hans-Stefan; Rack, Brigitte; Buchholz, Stefan; Ganzer, Roman; Blana, Andreas; Seelbach-Göbel, Birgit; Nitsche, Ulrich; Männel, Daniela N; Klein, Christoph A

    2014-01-01

    Tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice, while routinely used in cancer research, preclude studying interactions of immune and cancer cells or, if humanized by allogeneic immune cells, are of limited use for tumor-immunological questions. Here, we explore a novel way to generate cancer models with an autologous humanized immune system. We demonstrate that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from bone marrow aspirates of non-metastasized carcinoma patients, which are taken at specialized centers for diagnostic purposes, can be used to generate a human immune system in NOD-scid IL2rγ(null) (NSG) and HLA-I expressing NSG mice (NSG-HLA-A2/HHD) comprising both, lymphoid and myeloid cell lineages. Using NSG-HLA-A2/HHD mice, we show that responsive and self-tolerant human T cells develop and human antigen presenting cells can activate human T cells. As critical factors we identified the low potential of bone marrow HSPCs to engraft, generally low HSPC numbers in patient-derived bone marrow samples, cryopreservation and routes of cell administration. We provide here an optimized protocol that uses a minimum number of HSPCs, preselects high-quality bone marrow samples defined by the number of initially isolated leukocytes and intra-femoral or intra-venous injection. In conclusion, the use of diagnostic bone marrow aspirates from non-metastasized carcinoma patients for the immunological humanization of immunodeficient mice is feasible and opens the chance for individualized analyses of anti-tumoral T cell responses.

  1. Forebrain engraftment by human glial progenitor cells enhances synaptic plasticity and learning in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiaoning; Chen, Michael; Wang, Fushun; Windrem, Martha; Wang, Su; Shanz, Steven; Xu, Qiwu; Oberheim, Nancy Ann; Bekar, Lane; Betstadt, Sarah; Silva, Alcino J.; Takano, Takahiro; Goldman, Steven A.; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2013-01-01

    Human astrocytes are larger and more complex than those of infraprimate mammals, suggesting that their role in neural processing has expanded with evolution. To assess the cell-autonomous and species-selective properties of human glia, we engrafted human glial progenitor cells (GPCs) into neonatal immunodeficient mice. Upon maturation, the recipient brains exhibited large numbers and high proportions of both human glial progenitors and astrocytes. The engrafted human glia were gap junction-coupled to host astroglia, yet retained the size and pleomorphism of hominid astroglia, and propagated Ca2+ signals 3-fold faster than their hosts. Long term potentiation (LTP) was sharply enhanced in the human glial chimeric mice, as was their learning, as assessed by Barnes maze navigation, object-location memory, and both contextual and tone fear conditioning. Mice allografted with murine GPCs showed no enhancement of either LTP or learning. These findings indicate that human glia differentially enhance both activity-dependent plasticity and learning in mice. PMID:23472873

  2. Seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic rabbits in Durango State, Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in rabbits is of public health importance because rabbit meat is consumed by humans, and rabbits are preyed upon by cats that then shed environmentally resistant oocysts. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 429 domestic rabbits in Durango State, Mexico using the mo...

  3. Muscle atrophy and motor neuron degeneration in human NEDL1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Haraguchi, Seiki; Koda, Tadayuki; Hashimoto, Kenji; Nakagawara, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most frequent adult-onset motor neuron disease. Approximately 20% cases of familial ALS show the mutation in the superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) gene. We previously demonstrated that homologue to E6AP carboxyl terminus- (HECT-) type ubiquitin protein E3 ligase (NEDL1) physically bind to mutated SOD1 protein but not wild-type SOD1 and promote the degradation of mutated SOD1 protein through ubiquitin-mediated proteasome pathway. To further understand the role of NEDL1 involved in the pathogenesis of familial ALS, we generated transgenic mice with human NEDL1 cDNA. The transgenic mice with human NEDL1 expression showed motor dysfunctions in rotarod, hanging wire, and footprint pattern examination. Histological studies indicated degeneration of neurons in the lumbar spinal cord and muscle atrophy. The number of activated microglia in the spinal cord of transgenic mice was significantly higher than that of wild-type mice, suggesting that inflammation might be observed in the spinal cord of transgenic mice. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the human NEDL1 transgenic mice might develop ALS-like symptoms, showing signs of motor abnormalities, accompanied with significant reduction in muscle strength.

  4. Oral administration of dextran sodium sulphate induces a caecum-localized colitis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Irina; Nicholls, Flora; Atrott, Kirstin; Cee, Alexandra; Tewes, Bernhard; Greinwald, Roland; Rogler, Gerhard; Frey-Wagner, Isabelle

    2015-06-01

    Trichuris suis ova (TSO) have shown promising results in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but the mechanisms which underlies this therapeutic effect cannot be studied in mice and rats as T. suis fails to colonize the rodent intestine, whilst hatching in humans and rabbits. As a suitable rabbit IBD model is currently not available, we developed a rabbit colitis model by administration of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS). White Himalayan rabbits (n = 12) received 0.1% DSS in the daily water supply for five days. Clinical symptoms were monitored daily, and rabbits were sacrificed at different time points. A genomewide expression analysis was performed with RNA isolated from caecal lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) and intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). The disease activity index of DSS rabbits increased up to 2.1 ± 0.4 (n = 6) at day 10 (controls <0.5). DSS induced a caecum-localized pathology with crypt architectural distortion, stunted villous surface and inflammatory infiltrate in the lamina propria. The histopathology score reached a peak of 14.2 ± 4.9 (n = 4) at day 10 (controls 7.7 ± 0.9, n = 5). Expression profiling revealed an enrichment of IBD-related genes in