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  1. Species differences in methanol and formic acid pharmacokinetics in mice, rabbits and primates

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeting, J. Nicole; Siu, Michelle; McCallum, Gordon P.; Miller, Lutfiya; Wells, Peter G.

    2010-08-15

    Methanol (MeOH) is metabolized primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase in humans, but by catalase in rodents, with species variations in the pharmacokinetics of its formic acid (FA) metabolite. The teratogenic potential of MeOH in humans is unknown, and its teratogenicity in rodents may not accurately reflect human developmental risk due to differential species metabolism, as for some other teratogens. To determine if human MeOH metabolism might be better reflected in rabbits than rodents, the plasma pharmacokinetics of MeOH and FA were compared in male CD-1 mice, New Zealand white rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys over time (24, 48 and 6 h, respectively) following a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 or 2 g/kg MeOH or its saline vehicle. Following the high dose, MeOH exhibited saturated elimination kinetics in all 3 species, with similar peak concentrations and a 2.5-fold higher clearance in mice than rabbits. FA accumulation within 6 h in primates was 5-fold and 43-fold higher than in rabbits and mice respectively, with accumulation being 10-fold higher in rabbits than mice. Over 48 h, FA accumulation was nearly 5-fold higher in rabbits than mice. Low-dose MeOH in mice and rabbits resulted in similarly saturated MeOH elimination in both species, but with approximately 2-fold higher clearance rates in mice. FA accumulation was 3.8-fold higher in rabbits than mice. Rabbits more closely than mice reflected primates for in vivo MeOH metabolism, and particularly FA accumulation, suggesting that developmental studies in rabbits may be useful for assessing potential human teratological risk.

  2. Human acid alpha-glucosidase from rabbit milk has therapeutic effect in mice with glycogen storage disease type II.

    PubMed

    Bijvoet, A G; Van Hirtum, H; Kroos, M A; Van de Kamp, E H; Schoneveld, O; Visser, P; Brakenhoff, J P; Weggeman, M; van Corven, E J; Van der Ploeg, A T; Reuser, A J

    1999-11-01

    Pompe's disease or glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII) belongs to the family of inherited lysosomal storage diseases. The underlying deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase leads in different degrees of severity to glycogen storage in heart, skeletal and smooth muscle. There is currently no treatment for this fatal disease, but the applicability of enzyme replacement therapy is under investigation. For this purpose, recombinant human acid alpha-glucosidase has been produced on an industrial scale in the milk of transgenic rabbits. In this paper we demonstrate the therapeutic effect of this enzyme in our knockout mouse model of GSDII. Full correction of acid alpha-glucosidase deficiency was obtained in all tissues except brain after a single dose of i.v. enzyme administration. Weekly enzyme infusions over a period of 6 months resulted in degradation of lysosomal glycogen in heart, skeletal and smooth muscle. The tissue morphology improved substantially despite the advanced state of disease at the start of treatment. The results have led to the start of a Phase II clinical trial of enzyme replacement therapy in patients.

  3. PET imaging of apoptosis in tumor-bearing mice and rabbits after paclitaxel treatment with 18F-Labeled recombinant human His10-annexin V

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Haidong; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Xie, Lin; Hou, Yanjie; Hua, Zichun; Hu, Minjin; Wang, Zizheng; Wang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring response to chemo- or radiotherapy is of great importance in clinical practice. Apoptosis imaging serves as a very useful tool for the early evaluation of tumor response. The goal of this study was PET imaging of apoptosis with 18F-labeled recombinant human annexin V linked with 10 histidine tag (18F-rh-His10-annexin V) in nude mice bearing an A549 tumor and rabbits bearing a VX2 lung cancer after paclitaxel therapy. 18F-rh-His10-annexin V was prepared by conjugation of rh-His10-annexin V with N-succinimidyl 4-[18F]fluorobenzoate. Biodistribution was determined in mice by the dissection method and small-animal PET. Single-dose paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) was used to induce apoptosis in A549 and VX2 tumor models. 18F-rh-His10-annexin V was injected into A549 mice and VX rabbits to acquire dynamic and static PET images 72 h after paclitaxel treatment. The uptake of 18F-rh-His10-annexin V in apoptotic cells 4 h after induction was 6.45±0.52 fold higher than that in non-induced cells. High focal uptake of 18F-rh-His10-annexin V was visualized in A549 (SUVmax: 0.35±0.13) and VX2 (0.41±0.23) tumor models after paclitaxel treatment, whereas lower uptake was found in the corresponding tumors before treatment (A549 SUVmax: 0.04±0.02; VX2: 0.009±0.002). The apoptotic index was 75.61±11.56% in the treated VX2 cancer, much higher than that in the untreated VX2 (8.03±2.81%). This study demonstrated the feasibility of 18F-rh-His10-annexin V for the detection of apoptosis after chemotherapy in A549 and VX2 tumor models. PMID:25625024

  4. Lung-targeting drug delivery system of baicalin-loaded nanoliposomes: development, biodistribution in rabbits, and pharmacodynamics in nude mice bearing orthotopic human lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yumeng; Liang, Jing; Zheng, Xiaoli; Pi, Chao; Liu, Hao; Yang, Hongru; Zou, Yonggen; Ye, Yun; Zhao, Ling

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to develop a kind of novel nanoliposomes for the lung-targeting delivery system of baicalin as a Chinese medicine monomer. Baicalin-loaded nanoliposomes were prepared by the effervescent dispersion and lyophilized techniques. Baicalin-loaded nanoliposomes had an average particle size of 131.7±11.7 nm with 0.19±0.02 polydispersity index, 82.8%±1.24% entrapment efficiency and 90.47%±0.93% of yield and sustaining drug release effect over 24 h and were stable for 12 months at least. In vitro no hemolytic activity was observed for the experimental drug concentration. After intravenous administration of baicalin-loaded nanoliposomes to rabbits, drug concentration in the lungs was the highest among the tested organs at all time points and was significantly higher than that of its solution. For the targeting parameters, the relative intake rate and the ratio of peak concentration of lung were 4.837 and 2.789, respectively. Compared with plasma, liver, spleen, and kidney, the ratios of targeting efficacy (Te)liposomes to (Te)injection of lung were increased by a factor of 14.131, 1.893, 3.357, and 3.470, respectively. Furthermore, the results showed that the baicalin-loaded nanoliposomes did not induce lung injury. Importantly, baicalin-loaded nanoliposomes showed better antitumor therapeutic efficacy in the nude mice bearing orthotopic human lung cancer with the median survival time of blank liposomes (11.40±0.16 days), baicalin solution (17.30±0.47 days), and baicalin-loaded nanoliposomes (25.90±0.53 days). Therefore, the liposome is a promising drug carrier with an excellent lung-targeting property and therapeutic effect for the treatment of lung disease, such as lung cancer. PMID:28096670

  5. Embryo-Fetal Developmental Toxicity Studies with Pregabalin in Mice and Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Morse, Dennis C

    2016-04-01

    Pregabalin was evaluated for potential developmental toxicity in mice and rabbits. Pregabalin was administered once daily by oral gavage to female albino mice (500, 1250, or 2500 mg/kg) and New Zealand White rabbits (250, 500, or 1250 mg/kg) during organogenesis (gestation day 6 through 15 [mice] or 6 through 20 [rabbits]). Fetuses were evaluated for viability, growth, and morphological development. Pregabalin administration to mice did not induce maternal or developmental toxicity at doses up to 2500 mg/kg, which was associated with a maternal plasma exposure (AUC0-24 ) of 3790 μg•hr/ml, ≥30 times the expected human exposure at the maximum recommended daily dose (MRD; 600 mg/day). In rabbits, treatment-related clinical signs occurred at all doses (AUC0-24 of 1397, 2023, and 4803 μg•hr/ml at 250, 500, and 1250 mg/kg, respectively). Maternal toxicity was evident at all doses and included ataxia, hypoactivity, and cool to touch. In addition, abortion and females euthanized moribund with total resorption occurred at 1250 mg/kg. There were no treatment-related malformations at any dose. At 1250 mg/kg, compared with study and historical controls, the percentage of fetuses with retarded ossification was significantly increased and the mean number of ossification sites was decreased, which correlated with decreased fetal and placental weights, consistent with in utero growth retardation. Therefore, the no-effect dose for developmental toxicity in rabbits was 500 mg/kg, which produced systemic exposure approximately 16-times human exposure at the MRD. These findings indicate that pregabalin, at the highest dose tested, was not teratogenic in mice or rabbits.

  6. Dermal irritation of petrolatum in rabbits but not in mice, rats or minipigs.

    PubMed

    Chandra, S A; Peterson, R A; Melich, D; Merrill, C M; Bailey, D; Mellon-Kusibab, K; Adler, R

    2014-08-01

    Petrolatum is widely used in cosmetics, topical pharmaceuticals and also as a vehicle in dermal toxicity studies. New Zealand white rabbits treated with white petrolatum (vehicle control) in a 2-week dermal irritation study exhibited moderate to severe erythema starting on Day 7 that subsided towards the end of the study. Histological examination of abraded and non-abraded petrolatum-treated skin obtained at termination (Day 15) revealed mild acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, dermal edema with mixed inflammatory cells in the dermis. Macroscopic and microscopic features noted in rabbits were consistent with dermal irritation to petrolatum. Wistar-Han rats, CD1 mice, C57/Bl/6J mice and Göttingen minipigs treated topically with white petrolatum did not exhibit clinical or histologic evidence of dermal irritation. Therapeutic agents developed for topical application are generally tested in rabbits during some point in development. Interpretation of skin irritation data from a single species can impact risk assessment for humans and on product labeling.

  7. Induction of phospholipid-binding antibodies in mice and rabbits by immunization with human beta 2 glycoprotein 1 or anticardiolipin antibodies alone.

    PubMed Central

    Pierangeli, S S; Harris, E N

    1993-01-01

    Anticardiolipin (aCL) antibodies are autoantibodies present in high concentrations in patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), a disorder of recurrent thrombosis and pregnancy loss. What induces aCL antibodies is uncertain, but a recent report suggested that immunization of mice with beta 2 glycoprotein 1 (beta 2 GP1) in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) resulted in aCL antibody production in the recipient mice. Since this observation might explain how autoantibodies might be induced by poor immunogens, such as phospholipids, we decided to explore the question further. In our first series of experiments, we found that aCL antibodies were induced in mice by beta 2GP1 mixed with adjuvants that did not contain lipids (Adju-Prime or aluminium hydroxide). This excluded the possibility that antibody induction occurred because beta 2GP1 formed complexes with lipids in FCA. We also found that aCL antibodies always appeared before anti-beta 2GP1 antibodies, excluding the possibility that aCL antibodies were directed to beta 2GP1 or were induced by formation of anti-idiotypic antibodies (to anti-beta 2GP1). In experiments, we found that immunization of mice with human IgG antibodies from patients with the APS (IgG-APS), also induced aCL antibodies. Immunization with pure bovine serum albumin (BSA) did not induce aCL antibodies. We propose that aCL antibodies are induced by proteins with high avidity for phospholipids. These proteins may be bound to phospholipids when introduced, or may bind circulating phospholipids, so transforming phospholipid molecules into immunogens. Similar mechanisms might explain autoantibody induction to other poor immunogens. PMID:8348755

  8. Novel Endogenous Retrovirus in Rabbits Previously Reported as Human Retrovirus 5

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, David J.; Voisset, Cécile; Venables, Patrick J. W.; Weiss, Robin A.

    2002-01-01

    Human retrovirus 5 (HRV-5) represented a fragment of a novel retrovirus sequence identified in human RNA and DNA preparations. In this study, the genome of HRV-5 was cloned and sequenced and integration sites were analyzed. Using PCR and Southern hybridization, we showed that HRV-5 is not integrated into human DNA. A survey of other species revealed that HRV-5 is present in the genomic DNA of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and belongs to an endogenous retrovirus family found in rabbits. The presence of rabbit sequences flanking HRV-5 proviruses in human DNA extracts suggested that rabbit DNA was present in our human extracts, and this was confirmed by PCR analysis that revealed the presence of rabbit mitochondrial DNA sequences in four of five human DNA preparations tested. The origin of the rabbit DNA and HRV-5 in human DNA preparations remains unclear, but laboratory contamination cannot explain the preferential detection of HRV-5 in inflammatory diseases and lymphomas reported previously. This is the first description of a retrovirus genome in rabbits, and sequence analysis shows that it is related to but distinct from A-type retroelements of mice and other rodents. The species distribution of HRV-5 is restricted to rabbits; other species, including other members of the order Lagomorpha, do not contain this sequence. Analysis of HRV-5 expression by Northern hybridization and reverse transcriptase PCR indicates that the virus is transcribed at a low level in many rabbit tissues. In light of these findings we propose that the sequence previously designated HRV-5 should now be denoted RERV-H (for rabbit endogenous retrovirus H). PMID:12072509

  9. Mice with human livers.

    PubMed

    Grompe, Markus; Strom, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    Animal models are used to study many aspects of human disease and to test therapeutic interventions. However, some very important features of human biology cannot be replicated in animals, even in nonhuman primates or transgenic rodents engineered with human genes. Most human microbial pathogens do not infect animals and the metabolism of many xenobiotics is different between human beings and animals. The advent of transgenic immune-deficient mice has made it possible to generate chimeric animals harboring human tissues and cells, including hepatocytes. The liver plays a central role in many human-specific biological processes and mice with humanized livers can be used to model human metabolism, liver injury, gene regulation, drug toxicity, and hepatotropic infections.

  10. Purification of rabbit and human serum paraoxonase.

    PubMed

    Furlong, C E; Richter, R J; Chapline, C; Crabb, J W

    1991-10-22

    Rabbit serum paraoxonase/arylesterase has been purified to homogeneity by Cibacron Blue-agarose chromatography, gel filtration, DEAE-Trisacryl M chromatography, and preparative SDS gel electrophoresis. Renaturation (Copeland et al., 1982) and activity staining of the enzyme resolved by SDS gel electrophoresis allowed for identification and purification of paraoxonase. Two bands of active enzyme were purified by this procedure (35,000 and 38,000). Enzyme electroeluted from the preparative gels was reanalyzed by analytical SDS gel electrophoresis, and two higher molecular weight bands (43,000 and 48,000) were observed in addition to the original bands. This suggested that repeat electrophoresis resulted in an unfolding or other modification and slower migration of some of the purified protein. The lower mobility bands stained weakly for paraoxonase activity in preparative gels. Bands of each molecular weight species were electroblotted onto PVDF membranes and sequenced. The gas-phase sequence analysis showed that both the active bands and apparent molecular weight bands had identical amino-terminal sequences. Amino acid analysis of the four electrophoretic components from PVDF membranes also indicated compositional similarity. The amino-terminal sequences are typical of the leader sequences of secreted proteins. Human serum paraoxonase was purified by a similar procedure, and ten residues of the amino terminus were sequenced by gas-phase procedures. One amino acid difference between the first ten residues of human and rabbit was observed.

  11. Transgenic rabbit that expresses a functional human lipoprotein (a)

    DOEpatents

    Rouy, Didier; Duverger, Nicolas; Emmanuel, Florence; Denefle, Patrice; Houdebine, Louis-Marie; Viglietta, Celine; Rubin, Edward M.; Hughes, Steven D.

    2003-01-01

    A transgenic rabbit which has in its genomic DNA sequences that encode apolipoprotein (a) and apolipoprotein B polypeptides which are capable of combining to produce lipoprotein (a), a process for creating such a rabbit, and the use of the rabbit to identify compounds which are effective in the treatment of human diseases which are associated with, induced and/or exacerbated by Lp(a) expression.

  12. LATENT HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM OF RABBITS AND MICE

    PubMed Central

    Knotts, F. B.; Cook, M. L.; Stevens, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 induces a long-standing latent infection in the central nervous system of mice and rabbits. The infection was extablished in the brain stems of rabbits after corneal inoculation of the virus, and in the spinal cords of mice after rear footpad infection. In these animals, infectious virus could not be recovered by direct isolation from tissues; it was detected only after the tissues were maintained as organ cultures in vitro. PMID:4353820

  13. Preclinical pharmacokinetics of KBF611, a new antituberculosis agent in mice and rabbits, and comparison with thiacetazone.

    PubMed

    Shahab, F M; Kobarfard, F; Shafaghi, B; Dadashzadeh, S

    2010-03-01

    Thiacetazone (TAZ), one of the oldest known antituberculosis drugs, causes severe skin reactions in patients co-infected with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). KBF611 is a new fluorinated thiacetazone analogue that has shown strong antituberculosis effects. In order to provide valuable information for subsequent preclinical development, pharmacokinetics of KBF611 and its analogue (TAZ) were studied and compared in two animal species (mice and rabbits) following intravenous and oral administration, and pharmacokinetic parameters were characterized. According to the calculated parameters, KBF611 showed a more favourable pharmacokinetics profile than TAZ in terms of half-life (0.89 h compared with 0.57 in mice, p < 0.05, and 2.71 compared with 0.98 in rabbits, p < 0.001) and volume of distribution (1.45 l kg(-1) compared with 0.86 l kg(-1) in mice, p < 0.05, and 1.01 l kg(-1) compared with 0.41 l kg(-1) in rabbits, p < 0.001) for tuberculosis therapy. In rabbits, the oral bioavailability of KBF611 was markedly lower than mice (39% compared with 82%), which may be attributed to a higher presystemic metabolism in rabbit liver. The results of in vivo studies on the metabolism of KBF611, supported by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis, showed that the incorporation of a fluorine atom to the TAZ structure made the molecule susceptible to N-deacetylation, a pathway not seen in TAZ metabolism. In summary, KBF611 could be considered a suitable candidate for further preclinical and clinical evaluation.

  14. Side effects of immunization with liver attenuated Trypanosoma cruzi in mice and rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Basombrío, M A; Besuschio, S; Cossio, P M

    1982-01-01

    Immunity against lethal, bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma cruzi was achieved in mice by preinoculation of approximately equal to 10(5) culture epimastigotes of an attenuated T. cruzi strain (TCC). The risks of TCC inoculation in terms of pathogenicity or eventual increase in virulence of TCC progeny were evaluated. No pathogenic parasites could be selected from TCC progeny by either mouse, triatome, or culture passages. Immunizing doses of live TCC did not induce in adult mice alterations resembling chronic Chagas' disease, as judged by patterns of mortality, tissue damage, autoantibodies, or parasite recovery. On the basis of the same criteria, However, a remarkable similarity could be established between the disease caused in mice by inoculation of low numbers (10(2)) of pathogenic trypomastigotes and human chronic Chagas' disease. Although patent parasitemias were never revealed in fresh blood mounts obtained from TCC-inoculated mice, a few hemocultures and xenodiagnoses gave positive results, particularly soon after inoculations at birth. The parasites recovered by either method remained in the attenuated, epimastigote stage. In rabbits, no local lesions, fever, weight loss, or histopathological alterations were detected after subcutaneous inoculation of 10(7) TCC organisms, although one fifth of the animals yielded positive hemocultures of epimastigotes. The contrasting host response to cultured epimastigotes as compared with blood trypomastigotes indicates that, in experimental Chagas' disease, immunoprotection is not necessarily associated with immunopathology. Images PMID:6804389

  15. Experimental transmission of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) from rabbit to wild mice (Mus spretus and Apodemus sylvaticus) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Gregorio; Alda, Fernando; Pagés, Albert; Merchán, Tomás

    2017-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is a highly lethal and contagious viral disease that produces haemorrhagic lesions in liver and lungs of domestic and wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). This study investigates the transmission of RHDV from infected rabbits to mice, based on the detection of viral RNA. Sixteen wild mice (Mus spretus, n=12 and Apodemus sylvaticus, n=4) were put in contact with nine rabbits inoculated with RHDV. No mice died following exposure to RHDV-infected rabbits or developed macroscopic haemorrhagic lesions. On the fourth day of contact, RHDV was detected by RT-PCR in the faeces of three of the four mice killed and in the livers of two of them. Three days after contact period with the inoculated rabbits (7th day of the experiment), RHDV was detected by RT-PCR in 100% (n=4) of the faeces and 50% (n=2) of the livers of euthanized animals. Ten days after contact period (14th day of the experiment), RHDV was not detected in the faeces or liver from any of the mice euthanized. However, 64days after contact period, RHDV was detected in the faeces of one mouse (1 of 4). We demonstrate cross-species transmission of RHDV-RNA from rabbit to rodent and the capability of RHDV-RNA to persist in mice for at least 10days after contact, and potentially up to two months, although viral replication within the rodent and/or infectivity was not evaluated in the present study.

  16. Attaching and effacing activities of rabbit and human enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in pig and rabbit intestines.

    PubMed Central

    Moon, H W; Whipp, S C; Argenzio, R A; Levine, M M; Giannella, R A

    1983-01-01

    Three strains of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), originally isolated from humans and previously shown to cause diarrhea in human volunteers by unknown mechanisms, and one rabbit EPEC strain were shown to attach intimately to and efface microvilli and cytoplasm from intestinal epithelial cells in both the pig and rabbit intestine. The attaching and effacing activities of these EPEC were demonstrable by light microscopic examination of routine histological sections and by transmission electron microscopy. It was suggested that intact colostrum-deprived newborn pigs and ligated intestinal loops in pigs and rabbits may be useful systems to detect EPEC that have attaching and effacing activities and for studying the pathogenesis of such infections. The lesions (attachment and effacement) produced by EPEC in these systems were multifocal, with considerable animal-to-animal variation in response to the same strain of EPEC. The EPEC strains also varied in the frequency and extent of lesion production. For example, three human EPEC strains usually caused extensive lesions in rabbit intestinal loops, whereas two other human EPEC strains usually did not produce lesions in this system. Images PMID:6350186

  17. Natural Pathogens of Laboratory Mice, Rats, and Rabbits and Their Effects on Research

    PubMed Central

    Baker, David G.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory mice, rats, and rabbits may harbor a variety of viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal agents. Frequently, these organisms cause no overt signs of disease. However, many of the natural pathogens of these laboratory animals may alter host physiology, rendering the host unsuitable for many experimental uses. While the number and prevalence of these pathogens have declined considerably, many still turn up in laboratory animals and represent unwanted variables in research. Investigators using mice, rats, and rabbits in biomedical experimentation should be aware of the profound effects that many of these agents can have on research. PMID:9564563

  18. Rabbit cardiomyopathy associated with a virus antigenically related to human coronavirus strain 229E.

    PubMed Central

    Small, J. D.; Aurelian, L.; Squire, R. A.; Strandberg, J. D.; Melby, E. C.; Turner, T. B.; Newman, B.

    1979-01-01

    A new disease of rabbits is described. Following an acute febrile course, animals die or recover by the 11th day postinoculation. The characteristic pathologic finding is multifocal myocardial degeneration and necrosis. The disease can be transmitted by various routes with tissue filtrates or with infectious sera diluted to 10(-6) and passed through 0.1 micron filters. Virus particles with morphologic features characteristic of a coronavirus are present in infectious but not in normal rabbit serums. The antigen(s) in the infectious serums cross-reacts with the 229E and the OC43 strains of human coronavirus. Antigen cross-reacting with the 229E virus is detectable by immunofluorescent staining in frozen sections of heart tissue from sick but not from healthy animals. Animals surviving infection seroconvert to coronavirus specificity, as demonstrated by the presence in convalescent serums of antibody capable of reacting with the 339E virus. Susceptibility to infection has not been demonstrated in mice, hamsters, or guinea pigs, and the virus was not adapted for growth in tissue culture. It is uncertain whether the agent is a natural pathogen of rabbits or a coronavirus contaminant from another species, possibly human. The name rabbit infectious cardiomyopathy is suggested for this disease. Images Figure 8 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 7 PMID:222151

  19. The quantitation of C6 in rabbit and human sera

    PubMed Central

    Tedesco, F.; Lachmann, P. J.

    1971-01-01

    C6 quantitation was carried out in rabbit and human sera by the single radial immunodiffusion technique. The C6 content of the rabbit and human sera used as standards was estimated by precipitin analysis, using an anti-C6 antiserum labelled with 125I. The mean C6 level in normal human serum was 11 μg/ml, whereas in normal rabbit serum it was 35 μg/ml. Sera from forty rabbits heterozygous for C6 deficiency were found to have a mean concentration of C6 of 14 μg/ml. The C6 level was estimated in sera from patients with various immunological disorders and found to be significantly higher in the sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and normal in the sera from patients with SLE, glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome and myeloma. C6 haemolytic assays were found to correlate well with the antigenic assays only in fresh sera. In various circumstances this correlation breaks down, presumably because of C6 inactivator. This inactivator, in contrast to C3-inactivator, appears to be bound to antigen–antibody complement complexes. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:4998970

  20. Disposition of human fibrinopeptide A in normal and nephrectomized rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Harenberg, J.; Stehle, G.; Waibel, S.; Hermann, H.J.; Eisenhut, M.; Zimmermann, R.

    1983-10-01

    The distribution, elimination, and metabolism of human fibrinopeptide A (FPA) were studied in normal and nephrectomized rabbits. The activity of /sup 125/I-labeled desamino-tyrosyl human FPA (DAT-FPA) was followed over 4 hours after i.v. administration. Results show that in normal rabbits (n . 10) DAT-FPA is eliminated from plasma in four phases with half-lives of 30 sec, 3.5 min, 15 min, and 90 min. The distribution of /sup 123/I-labeled DAT-FPA in plasma was determined in 15 control rabbits with scintigraphy over 2 hours. DAT-FPA was distributed primarily in the cardiovascular system, liver, and kidneys. In some animals minimal radioactivity was detected over the gall bladder. Radioactivity accumulated rapidly in the urinary bladder, approximately 50% being recorded after 15 min and 90% after 120 min. In the heart area radioactivity decreased with half-lives of 25 sec, 7.5 min, 25 min, and 180 min. Nephrectomized rabbits had similar initial fast distribution of DAT-FPA after administration of /sup 125/I-labeled (n . 10) and /sup 123/I-labeled peptide (n . 10). The estimated half-life of the slow component was in the order of several hours. The results of the scintigraphic and gel chromatographic studies show that FPA is primarily excreted in the urine. Previously reported half-lives of FPA reflect distribution rather than steady state conditions.

  1. Unusual metabolic characteristics in skeletal muscles of transgenic rabbits for human lipoprotein lipase

    PubMed Central

    Gondret, Florence; Jadhao, Sanjay B; Damon, Marie; Herpin, Patrick; Viglietta, Céline; Houdebine, Louis-Marie; Hocquette, Jean-François

    2004-01-01

    Background The lipoprotein lipase (LPL) hydrolyses circulating triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Thereby, LPL acts as a metabolic gate-keeper for fatty acids partitioning between adipose tissue for storage and skeletal muscle primarily for energy use. Transgenic mice that markedly over-express LPL exclusively in muscle, show increases not only in LPL activity, but also in oxidative enzyme activities and in number of mitochondria, together with an impaired glucose tolerance. However, the role of LPL in intracellular nutrient pathways remains uncertain. To examine differences in muscle nutrient uptake and fatty acid oxidative pattern, transgenic rabbits harboring a DNA fragment of the human LPL gene (hLPL) and their wild-type littermates were compared for two muscles of different metabolic type, and for perirenal fat. Results Analyses of skeletal muscles and adipose tissue showed the expression of the hLPL DNA fragment in tissues of the hLPL group only. Unexpectedly, the activity level of LPL in both tissues was similar in the two groups. Nevertheless, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation rate, measured ex vivo using [1-14C]oleate as substrate, was lower in hLPL rabbits than in wild-type rabbits for the two muscles under study. Both insulin-sensitive glucose transporter GLUT4 and muscle fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) contents were higher in hLPL rabbits than in wild-type littermates for the pure oxidative semimembranosus proprius muscle, but differences between groups did not reach significance when considering the fast-twitch glycolytic longissimus muscle. Variations in both glucose uptake potential, intra-cytoplasmic binding of fatty acids, and lipid oxidation rate observed in hLPL rabbits compared with their wild-type littermates, were not followed by any modifications in tissue lipid content, body fat, and plasma levels in energy-yielding metabolites. Conclusions Expression of intracellular binding proteins for both fatty acids and glucose, and their

  2. Rabbit models for the study of human atherosclerosis: from pathophysiological mechanisms to translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianglin; Kitajima, Shuji; Watanabe, Teruo; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Jifeng; Liu, Enqi; Chen, Y Eugene

    2015-02-01

    Laboratory animal models play an important role in the study of human diseases. Using appropriate animals is critical not only for basic research but also for the development of therapeutics and diagnostic tools. Rabbits are widely used for the study of human atherosclerosis. Because rabbits have a unique feature of lipoprotein metabolism (like humans but unlike rodents) and are sensitive to a cholesterol diet, rabbit models have not only provided many insights into the pathogenesis and development of human atherosclerosis but also made a great contribution to translational research. In fact, rabbit was the first animal model used for studying human atherosclerosis, more than a century ago. Currently, three types of rabbit model are commonly used for the study of human atherosclerosis and lipid metabolism: (1) cholesterol-fed rabbits, (2) Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits, analogous to human familial hypercholesterolemia due to genetic deficiency of LDL receptors, and (3) genetically modified (transgenic and knock-out) rabbits. Despite their importance, compared with the mouse, the most widely used laboratory animal model nowadays, the use of rabbit models is still limited. In this review, we focus on the features of rabbit lipoprotein metabolism and pathology of atherosclerotic lesions that make it the optimal model for human atherosclerotic disease, especially for the translational medicine. For the sake of clarity, the review is not an attempt to be completely inclusive, but instead attempts to summarize substantial information concisely and provide a guideline for experiments using rabbits.

  3. Immunoreactive Proteins of Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCDM 372 Identified by Gnotobiotic Mono-Colonized Mice Sera, Immune Rabbit Sera and Non-immune Human Sera

    PubMed Central

    Górska, Sabina; Dylus, Ewa; Rudawska, Angelika; Brzozowska, Ewa; Srutkova, Dagmar; Schwarzer, Martin; Razim, Agnieszka; Kozakova, Hana; Gamian, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The Bifidobacteria show great diversity in the cell surface architecture which may influence the physicochemical properties of the bacterial cell and strain specific properties. The immunomodulatory role of bifidobacteria has been extensively studied, however studies on the immunoreactivity of their protein molecules are very limited. Here, we compared six different methods of protein isolation and purification and we report identification of immunogenic and immunoreactive protein of two human Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum strains. We evaluated potential immunoreactive properties of proteins employing polyclonal sera obtained from germ free mouse, rabbit and human. The protein yield was isolation method-dependent and the reactivity of proteins detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting was heterogeneous and varied between different serum samples. The proteins with the highest immunoreactivity were isolated, purified and have them sequenced. Among the immunoreactive proteins we identified enolase, aspartokinase, pyruvate kinase, DnaK (B. longum ssp. longum CCM 7952) and sugar ABC transporter ATP-binding protein, phosphoglycerate kinase, peptidoglycan synthethase penicillin-binding protein 3, transaldolase, ribosomal proteins and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (B. longum ssp. longum CCDM 372). PMID:27746766

  4. Humanized mice and tissue transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Laurie L; Shultz, Leonard D.; Greiner, Dale L; Brehm, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of the molecular pathways that control immune responses, particularly immunomodulatory molecules that control the extent and duration of an immune response, have led to new approaches in the field of transplantation immunology to induce allograft survival. These molecular pathways are being defined precisely in murine models, and are now being translated into clinical practice. However, many of the newly available drugs are human-specific reagents and furthermore, there exist many species-specific differences between mouse and human immune systems. Recent advances in the development of humanized mice, i.e., immunodeficient mice engrafted with functional human immune systems, have led to the availability of a small animal model for the study of human immune responses. Humanized mice represent an important pre-clinical model system for evaluation of new drugs as well as identification of the mechanisms underlying human allograft rejection without putting patients at risk. This review highlights recent advances in the development of humanized mice and their use as pre-clinical models for the study of human allograft responses. PMID:26588186

  5. Spontaneous fatal Human herpesvirus 1 encephalitis in two domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    de Matos, Ricardo; Russell, Duncan; Van Alstine, William; Miller, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    Despite the particular susceptibility of the rabbit to experimental infection with Human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1) and the high seroprevalence of HHV-1 in human beings, reports of natural infection in pet rabbits are rare. The current report describes 2 cases of HHV encephalitis in pet rabbits in North America. Antemortem clinical signs included seizures, ptyalism, and muscle tremors. Results of complete blood cell count and plasma biochemistry panel were unremarkable except for a mild leukocytosis in both cases. Both rabbits died after a short period of hospitalization. Rabbit 1 presented mild optic chiasm hemorrhage on gross examination, while rabbit 2 had no gross lesions. Histologic findings for both cases included lymphocytic and/or lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis with necrosis and the presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies in neurons and glial cells. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of affected brain tissue using primers specific for Human herpesvirus 1 and 2 confirmed diagnosis of HHV encephalitis for rabbit 1. Immunohistochemical staining (poly- and monoclonal) and PCR analysis using primers specific to HHV-1 confirmed the diagnosis of HHV-1 encephalitis for rabbit 2. The owner of rabbit 2 was suspected to be the source of infection due to close contact during an episode of herpes labialis. Given the high susceptibility of rabbits to experimental HHV-1, high seroprevalence of HHV-1 in human beings, and severity of clinical disease in this species, clinician awareness and client education is important for disease prevention. Human herpesvirus 1 encephalitis should be considered as a differential diagnosis for rabbits with neurologic disease.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of mitomycin C in rabbit and human.

    PubMed

    van Hazel, G A; Kovach, J S

    1982-01-01

    A sensitive and specific high-pressure liquid chromatographic assay was developed to characterize the plasma elimination and urinary excretion of mitomycin C in humans. Extraction of mitomycin C and an internal standard, porfiromycin, from plasma by chromatography over a non-ionic resin, Porapak Q, yields high recovery of both compounds and facilitates measurement of as little as 5 ng mitomycin C by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The assay was used to characterize the plasma elimination of mitomycin C in rabbits and was shown to be applicable to the characterization of the pharmacokinetics of mitomycin C in humans receiving as little as 8 mg/m2.

  7. Hepatitis E Virus: First Description in a Pet House Rabbit. A New Transmission Route for Human?

    PubMed

    Caruso, C; Modesto, P; Prato, R; Scaglione, F E; De Marco, L; Bollo, E; Acutis, P L; Masoero, L; Peletto, S

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we identified for the first time hepatitis E virus (HEV) in a pet house rabbit, an adult 7 years old female of domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Importantly, the resulting phylogenetic tree showed that the HEV strain identified in the pet house rabbit was closely related to a human HEV sequence; this finding reawakens concerns regarding the zoonotic risk represented by HEV in animals and expands to house rabbit the spectrum of potential source of infection for humans. Potential for domestic transmission of HEV to humans should be taken into account.

  8. Hepatitis E virus strains in rabbits and evidence of a closely related strain in humans, France.

    PubMed

    Izopet, Jacques; Dubois, Martine; Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Lhomme, Sébastien; Marchandeau, Stéphane; Boucher, Samuel; Kamar, Nassim; Abravanel, Florence; Guérin, Jean-Luc

    2012-08-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains from rabbits indicate that these mammals may be a reservoir for HEVs that cause infection in humans. To determine HEV prevalence in rabbits and the strains' genetic characteristics, we tested bile, liver, and additional samples from farmed and wild rabbits in France. We detected HEV RNA in 7% (14/200) of bile samples from farmed rabbits (in 2009) and in 23% (47/205) of liver samples from wild rabbits (in 2007-2010). Full-length genomic sequences indicated that all rabbit strains belonged to the same clade (nucleotide sequences 72.2%-78.2% identical to HEV genotypes 1-4). Comparison with HEV sequences of human strains and reference sequences identified a human strain closely related to rabbit strain HEV. We found a 93-nt insertion in the X domain of open reading frame 1 of the human strain and all rabbit HEV strains. These findings indicate that the host range of HEV in Europe is expanding and that zoonotic transmission of HEV from rabbits is possible.

  9. Rabbit and human hepatitis E virus strains belong to a single serotype.

    PubMed

    Wang, Song; Cheng, Xianfeng; Dai, Xing; Dong, Chen; Xu, Mingjie; Liang, Jiuhong; Dong, Min; Purdy, Michael A; Meng, Jihong

    2013-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic pathogen and all four established genotypes of HEV belong to a single serotype. The recently identified rabbit HEV is antigenically and genetically related to human HEV. It is unclear whether rabbit HEV belongs to the same serotype as human HEV. The purpose of this study was to determine the serotypic relationship between rabbit and human HEVs. HEV ORF2 recombinant capsid protein p166 (amino acids 452-617) of four known HEV genotypes and rabbit HEV were used to induce immune serum, which were evaluated for their ability to neutralize human HEV genotype 1, 4, and rabbit HEV strains by an in vitro PCR-based HEV neutralization assay. Immune sera of five kinds of p166 proteins were all found to neutralize or cross-neutralize the three different HEV strains, suggesting a common neutralization epitope(s) existing between human and rabbit HEV. Rabbit models of a second-passage rabbit HEV strain, JS204-2, and a genotype 4 human HEV strain, NJ703, were established as evidenced by fecal virus shedding, viremia and anti-HEV IgG seroconversion. Six rabbits, recovered from JS204 infection, were challenged with NJ703, and another six recovered from NJ703 infection were challenged with JS204-2. After challenge, viremia was not detected, shorter fecal virus shedding durations and obvious early stage declines in anti-HEV IgG values were observed. The results from this study indicate that rabbit HEV belongs to the same serotype as human HEV.

  10. [Comparison of photodynamic effect with respect to human and rabbit erythrocytes].

    PubMed

    Galebskaia, L V; Solovtsova, I L; Solov'eva, M A; Zammoeva, D B; Kuz'menkov, A N

    2011-01-01

    Parameters of photoinduced lysis are studied for human and rabbit erythrocytes (photosensibilizer--Radachlorin, the light source--Shuttle HeNe lazer, lambda = 633 nm). The higher sensitivity to irradiation is revealed for rabbit erythrocytes. Treatment of erythrocytes with trypsin showed the surface proteins in human cells to produce a protective effect. Trypsynization of rabbit erythrocytes produced the opposite action--the rate of photohemolysis increased. Results of the study indicate the differences in sensitivity to the photoinduced lysis of erythrocytes of different species and participation of erythrocytes proteins in the effect of photohemolysis.

  11. Hypotensive effects of hemopressin and bradykinin in rabbits, rats and mice. A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Blais, Paul-André; Côté, Jérôme; Morin, Josée; Larouche, Annie; Gendron, Gabrielle; Fortier, Audrey; Regoli, Domenico; Neugebauer, Witold; Gobeil, Fernand

    2005-08-01

    Hemopressin is a novel vasoactive nonapeptide derived from hemoglobin's alpha-chain as recently reported by Rioli et al. [Rioli V, Gozzo FC, Heimann AS, Linardi A, Krieger JE, Shida CS, et al. Novel natural peptide substrates for endopeptidase 24.15, neurolysin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme. J Biol Chem 2003;278(10):8547-55]. In anesthetized male Wistar rats, this peptide exhibited hypotensive actions similar to those of bradykinin (BK) when administered intravenously (i.v.), and was found to be metabolized both in vitro and in vivo by several peptidases, including the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). In this study, these findings were expanded upon by examining: (i) the degradation kinetics following incubation with ACE purified from rabbit lung and (ii) the blood pressure lowering effects of HP and BK injected i.v. or intra-arterially (i.a.) in male rabbits, rats, and mice. Our findings demonstrate that, in vitro, HP and BK are both degraded by ACE, but at different velocity rates. Furthermore, both HP and BK induced transient hypotension in all animals tested, although the responses to HP relative to the administration sites were significantly lower (by 10-100-fold) on an equimolar basis compared to those of BK. In rabbits, the decrease of blood pressure induced by HP (10-100 nmol/kg) did not differ whether it was administered i.v. or i.a., suggesting an absence of pulmonary/cardiac inactivation in contrast to BK (0.1-1 nmol/kg). The in vivo effect of HP was significantly potentiated in rabbits immunostimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but was unaffected by both the B2 receptor antagonist HOE 140 (0.1 micromol/kg) and captopril (100 microg/kg), contrary to BK. Therefore, HP acts as a weak hypotensive mediator, which does not activate kinin B2 receptors, but uses a functional site and/or signaling paths appearing to be up-regulated by LPS.

  12. How Does Domain Replacement Affect Fibril Formation of the Rabbit/Human Prion Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xu; Huang, Jun-Jie; Zhou, Zheng; Chen, Jie; Liang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Background It is known that in vivo human prion protein (PrP) have the tendency to form fibril deposits and are associated with infectious fatal prion diseases, while the rabbit PrP does not readily form fibrils and is unlikely to cause prion diseases. Although we have previously demonstrated that amyloid fibrils formed by the rabbit PrP and the human PrP have different secondary structures and macromolecular crowding has different effects on fibril formation of the rabbit/human PrPs, we do not know which domains of PrPs cause such differences. In this study, we have constructed two PrP chimeras, rabbit chimera and human chimera, and investigated how domain replacement affects fibril formation of the rabbit/human PrPs. Methodology/Principal Findings As revealed by thioflavin T binding assays and Sarkosyl-soluble SDS-PAGE, the presence of a strong crowding agent dramatically promotes fibril formation of both chimeras. As evidenced by circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and proteinase K digestion assays, amyloid fibrils formed by human chimera have secondary structures and proteinase K-resistant features similar to those formed by the human PrP. However, amyloid fibrils formed by rabbit chimera have proteinase K-resistant features and secondary structures in crowded physiological environments different from those formed by the rabbit PrP, and secondary structures in dilute solutions similar to the rabbit PrP. The results from transmission electron microscopy show that macromolecular crowding caused human chimera but not rabbit chimera to form short fibrils and non-fibrillar particles. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate for the first time that the domains beyond PrP-H2H3 (β-strand 1, α-helix 1, and β-strand 2) have a remarkable effect on fibrillization of the rabbit PrP but almost no effect on the human PrP. Our findings can help to explain why amyloid fibrils formed by the rabbit PrP and the human PrP have different secondary

  13. Rabbit medicine.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Dinah G

    2007-01-01

    When filling prescriptions for a rabbit, it is important to know whether the rabbit is a pet or is being raised as a source of food for human consumption. Several drugs widely used for pet rabbits are prohibited from exralabel use in animals raised for food production. The list of banned drugs should always be perused prior to filling a prescription for a rabbit being raised for food production. Since no veterinary-approved products exist for rabbits and most medications must be compounded, pharmacists are likely to encounter prescriptions for rabbits in their practice. A basic understanding of rabbit anatomy, physiolgy and common diseases will assist pharmacists in distinguishing between safe and dangerous drugs for administration to rabbits.

  14. Rabbit Model of Human Gliomas: Implications for Intra-Arterial Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Huamin; Janowski, Miroslaw; Pearl, Monica S.; Malysz-Cymborska, Izabela; Li, Shen; Eberhart, Charles G.

    2017-01-01

    The prognosis for malignant brain tumors remains poor despite a combination of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. This is partly due to the blood-brain barrier, a major obstacle that prevents therapeutic agents from effectively reaching the tumor. We have recently developed a method for precise and predictable opening of the blood-brain barrier via the intra-arterial administration of mannitol, a hyperosmolar agent, in a rabbit model, whose vascular anatomy facilitates the use of standard interventional neuroradiology techniques and devices. To date, however, no protocols are available that enable human glioma modeling in rabbits. In this article, we report on the xenotransplantation of a human glioblastoma (GBM-1) in adult New Zealand rabbits. We induced multi-drug immunosuppression (Mycophenolate Mofetil, Dexamethasone, Tacrolimus) and stereotactically implanted GBM-1 tumor cells into rabbit brains. The rabbits were followed for 42 days, monitored by MRI and body weight measurements, and underwent postmortem histopathological analysis. On MRI, brain tumors were identified on T2-weighted scans. On histopathology, tumors were detected with hematoxylin/eosin and their human origin was confirmed with immunohistochemistry against human-specific antigens. Our method for human glioma modeling in rabbits provides the foundation to test novel treatment strategies, including intra-arterial therapeutic agent delivery. PMID:28103265

  15. Syphilis superinfection activates expression of human immunodeficiency virus I in latently infected rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, C. K.; Hughes, M. A.; Hsu, P. L.; Mahoney, S.; Duvic, M.; Sell, S.

    1991-01-01

    Superinfection of latently human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected rabbits with either Treponema pallidum or Shope fibroma virus (SFV) activates HIV expression. In addition, HIV-infected rabbits demonstrate prolonged cutaneous lesions (chancres) after intracutaneous challenge with T. pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis. Rabbits were infected by intravenous inoculation of 3 x 10(7) human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type III (HTLV-III)/B10 (HIV-1)-infected H9 (human) cells. Five weeks after initial infection, integrated HIV-1-specific DNA sequences were detected in the DNA of the peripheral blood lymphocytes of only one of eight rabbits using polymerase chain reactions (PCR); human DNA could not be detected at this time. Furthermore HIV infection could not be demonstrated by either seroconversion or PCR during the next 6 months. All HIV-infected rabbits remained clinically healthy and had normal white blood cell counts. Six months after HIV infection, four HIV-infected and two noninfected controls were superinfected with 10(6) T. pallidum in eight skin sites in the shaved skin of the back, and four infected and two control animals were challenged with an intradermal injection with SFV. After infection with either syphilis or SFV, the DNA from the white blood cells of all eight HIV-infected rabbits contained HIV sequences, and HIV sequences were demonstrated in dermal mononuclear cells of the syphilitic lesions by in situ hybridization. The SFV-induced tumors were rejected normally in the HIV-infected rabbits, but four of the four rabbits challenged with T. pallidum had delayed development of cutaneous lesions and three of four demonstrated larger and more prolonged lesions. White blood counts, mitogen responses, and interleukin-2 production remained within normal limits, and seroconversion for HIV was not detected. Three of four rabbits in a second group, challenged with T. pallidum 4 months after HIV-inoculation, also had delayed healing of syphilitic

  16. Rabbit muscle creatine phosphokinase. CDNA cloning, primary structure and detection of human homologues.

    PubMed

    Putney, S; Herlihy, W; Royal, N; Pang, H; Aposhian, H V; Pickering, L; Belagaje, R; Biemann, K; Page, D; Kuby, S

    1984-12-10

    A cDNA library was constructed from rabbit muscle poly(A) RNA. Limited amino acid sequence information was obtained on rabbit muscle creatine phosphokinase and this was the basis for design and synthesis of two oligonucleotide probes complementary to a creatine kinase cDNA sequence which encodes a pentapeptide. Colony hybridizations with the probes and subsequent steps led to isolation of two clones, whose cDNA segments partially overlap and which together encode the entire protein. The primary structure was established from the sequence of two cDNA clones and from independently determined sequences of scattered portions of the polypeptide. The reactive cysteine has been located to position 282 within the 380 amino acid polypeptide. The rabbit cDNA hybridizes to digests of human chromosomal DNA. This reveals a restriction fragment length polymorphism associated with the human homologue(s) which hybridizes to the rabbit cDNA.

  17. Experimental investigations in hamsters and rabbits with DNA extracted from human uterine tumors.

    PubMed

    Nastac, E; Athanasiu, P; Predescu, E; Stoian, M; Hozoc, M; Perju, A

    1980-01-01

    Experimental inoculation of a DNA preparation extracted from a fragment of non-irradiated human uterine cervix carcinoma was followed by the appearance of neoplasia in four hamsters and of lymphosarcoma in one rabbit. Similar DNA preparations obtained from three cases of irradiated human uterine cervix carcinoma and from a human uterine fibroma proved to have no biological activity.

  18. Humanization of excretory pathway in chimeric mice with humanized liver.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Hirotoshi; Katoh, Miki; Sawada, Toshiro; Nakajima, Miki; Soeno, Yoshinori; Yabuuchi, Hikaru; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Tateno, Chise; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2007-06-01

    The liver of a chimeric urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)(+/+)/severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse line recently established in Japan could be replaced by more than 80% with human hepatocytes. We previously reported that the chimeric mice with humanized liver could be useful as a human model in studies on drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. In the present study, the humanization of an excretory pathway was investigated in the chimeric mice. Cefmetazole (CMZ) was used as a probe drug. The CMZ excretions in urine and feces were 81.0 and 5.9% of the dose, respectively, in chimeric mice and were 23.7 and 59.4% of the dose, respectively, in control uPA(-/-)/SCID mice. Because CMZ is mainly excreted in urine in humans, the excretory profile of chimeric mice was demonstrated to be similar to that of humans. In the chimeric mice, the hepatic mRNA expression of human drug transporters could be quantified. On the other hand, the hepatic mRNA expression of mouse drug transporters in the chimeric mice was significantly lower than in the control uPA(-/-)/SCID mice. In conclusion, chimeric mice exhibited a humanized profile of drug excretion, suggesting that this chimeric mouse line would be a useful animal model in excretory studies.

  19. Humanized mice with ectopic artificial liver tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Alice A; Thomas, David K; Ong, Luvena L; Schwartz, Robert E; Golub, Todd R; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2011-07-19

    "Humanized" mice offer a window into aspects of human physiology that are otherwise inaccessible. The best available methods for liver humanization rely on cell transplantation into immunodeficient mice with liver injury but these methods have not gained widespread use due to the duration and variability of hepatocyte repopulation. In light of the significant progress that has been achieved in clinical cell transplantation through tissue engineering, we sought to develop a humanized mouse model based on the facile and ectopic implantation of a tissue-engineered human liver. These human ectopic artificial livers (HEALs) stabilize the function of cryopreserved primary human hepatocytes through juxtacrine and paracrine signals in polymeric scaffolds. In contrast to current methods, HEALs can be efficiently established in immunocompetent mice with normal liver function. Mice transplanted with HEALs exhibit humanized liver functions persistent for weeks, including synthesis of human proteins, human drug metabolism, drug-drug interaction, and drug-induced liver injury. Here, mice with HEALs are used to predict the disproportionate metabolism and toxicity of "major" human metabolites using multiple routes of administration and monitoring. These advances may enable manufacturing of reproducible in vivo models for diverse drug development and research applications.

  20. OBSERVATIONS ON THE PRODUCTION OF PYROGENIC SUBSTANCES BY RABBIT AND HUMAN LEUCOCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Fessler, J. H.; Cooper, K. E.; Cranston, W. I.; Vollum, R. L.

    1961-01-01

    1. The mechanism of release of a pyrogen from leucocytes has been studied in cells obtained from sterile rabbit peritoneal exudates and from rabbit blood. Attempts were made to induce human leucocytes—from blood—to release a pyrogen. 2. Rabbit leucocytes, kept below 4°C., were not pyrogenic and did not release any pyrogen when disintegrated. Incubating such cells, in various media, at 37°C. led to the formation of a pyrogen which was heat-labile. The maximum yield was attained after 1½ hours' incubation. 3. The formation of rabbit leucocytic pyrogen was prevented by freezing and thawing the leucocytes, by heating them to 56°C. for half an hour before incubation, and by ageing them in the cold. 4. Nitrofurazone (5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone) prevents the formation of leucocytic pyrogen when given by mouth to the cell-donor animals, or when added to leucocytes in intro. 5. Leucocytes from rabbit blood formed leucocytic pyrogen, on incubation in saline, and this formation was also inhibited by nitrofurazone. 6. No leucocytic pyrogen was released from human leucocytes subjected to mechanical, osmotic, or thermal damage, and it was not formed when the cells were incubated in saline. 7. The source of rabbit leucocytic pyrogen, the action of nitrofurazone on leucocytes, and the supposed role of leucocytic pyrogen in fever are discussed. PMID:13699218

  1. Histopathological Studies on Rabbits Infected by Bacteria Causing Infectious Keratitis in Human through Eye Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Aldebasi, Yousef H.; Mohamed, Hala A.; Aly, Salah M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim This study aimed to investigate the pathogenic effect of bacteria causing infectious keratitis among patients through experimental study conducted on rabbits’ eyes with the aid of histopathology as eye infection is a common disease in developing countries that may complicate to loss of vision. Methodology 100 swab samples were collected from human infected eyes, at Qassim region during 2012, for the isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The isolated pathogenic bacteria were tested to various antibiotics using some selected antibiotics discs through agar-well diffusion method. Then, experimental study conducted on 27 rabbits. The rabbits were divided randomly into three equal groups, each containing 9 rabbits. Rabbits of group (1) served as control group (Negative Control) and their eyes were inoculated with the buffer only. Rabbits of group (2) were inoculated through eyes with the isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Rabbits of group (3) were inoculated through eyes with the isolated Staphylococcus aureus. Results Out of 100 collected swab samples from human infected eyes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated with a total percentage of 25.21% and 15.65%; respectively and used in this study. Both bacterial isolates were sensitive to Gentamicin and Cefuroxime. Clinically, experimentally infected rabbits by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, revealed varying degree corneal abrasions, corneal abscess and dense corneal opacity. Histopathologically, at 3rd day post-infection (PI), the cornea revealed polymorpho-nuclear cells infiltration with loss of the outer epithelial lining. At 7th day PI, neutrophils were seen in the stroma. At 15th day PI, proliferation of fibroblasts and new vascularisation were seen in the stroma. Clinically, rabbits experimentally infected with Staphylococcus aureus, revealed corneal ulcers and focal abscesses. Histopathologically, at 3rd and 7th day PI, the cornea revealed edema and infiltration of

  2. [Mice are not Men and yet… how humanized mice inform us about human infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Cachat, Anne; Villaudy, Julien; Rigal, Dominique; Gazzolo, Louis; Duc Dodon, Madeleine

    2012-01-01

    The study of human pathologies is often limited by the absence of animal models which are robust, cost-effective and reproduce the hallmarks of human infections. While mice have been frequently employed to study human diseases, many of important pathogens display unique human tropism. These last two decades the graft of human progenitor cells or tissues into -immunodeficient mice has allowed the elaboration of so called humanized mice. Humanized mouse technology has made rapid progress, and it is now possible to achieve high levels of human chimerism in various organs and tissues, particularly the immune system and the liver. The review briefly summarizes the different models of humanized mice available for in vivo experiments. With a focus on lymphotropic, monocytotropic and hepatotropic viruses, we here discuss the current status and future prospects of these models for studying the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Furthermore, they provide a powerful tool for the development of innovative therapies.

  3. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of Bacillus anthracis spore deposition in rabbit and human respiratory airways

    SciTech Connect

    Kabilan, S.; Suffield, S. R.; Recknagle, K. P.; Jacob, R. E.; Einstein, D. R.; Kuprat, A. P.; Carson, J. P.; Colby, S. M.; Saunders, J. H.; Hines, S. A.; Teeguarden, J. G.; Straub, T. M.; Moe, M.; Taft, S. C.; Corley, R. A.

    2016-09-01

    Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and Lagrangian particle deposition models were developed to compare the deposition of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores in the respiratory airways of a human with that of the rabbit, a species commonly used in the study of anthrax disease. The respiratory airway geometries for each species were derived respectively from computed tomography (CT) and µCT images. Both models encompassed airways that extended from the external nose to the lung with a total of 272 outlets in the human model and 2878 outlets in the rabbit model. All simulations of spore deposition were conducted under transient, inhalation–exhalation breathing conditions using average species-specific minute volumes. Two different exposure scenarios were modeled in the rabbit based upon experimental inhalation studies. For comparison, human simulations were conducted at the highest exposure concentration used during the rabbit experimental exposures. Results demonstrated that regional spore deposition patterns were sensitive to airway geometry and ventilation profiles. Due to the complex airway geometries in the rabbit nose, higher spore deposition efficiency was predicted in the nasal sinus compared to the human at the same air concentration of anthrax spores. In contrast, higher spore deposition was predicted in the lower conducting airways of the human compared to the rabbit lung due to differences in airway branching pattern. This information can be used to refine published and ongoing biokinetic models of inhalation anthrax spore exposures, which currently estimate deposited spore concentrations based solely upon exposure concentrations and inhaled doses that do not factor in species-specific anatomy and physiology for deposition.

  4. Chemical compositions and properties of Schinus areira L. essential oil on airway inflammation and cardiovascular system of mice and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bigliani, María C; Rossetti, Víctor; Grondona, Ezequiel; Lo Presti, Silvina; Paglini, Patricia M; Rivero, Virginia; Zunino, María P; Ponce, Andrés A

    2012-07-01

    The main purpose was to investigate the effects of essential plant-oil of Schinus areira L. on hemodynamic functions in rabbits, as well as myocardial contractile strength and airways inflammation associated to bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. This study shows the important properties of the essential oil (EO) of S. areira studied and these actions on lung with significant inhibition associated to LPS, all of which was assessed in mice bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and evidenced by stability of the percentage of alveolar macrophages, infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and tumor necrosis factor-α concentration, and without pathway modifications in conjugated dienes activity. Clinical status (morbidity or mortality), macroscopic morphology and lung/body weight index were unaffected by the administration of the EO S. areira. Furthermore, the ex vivo analysis of isolated hearts demonstrated the negative inotropic action of the EO of S. areira in a mice model, and in rabbits changes in the hemodynamic parameters, such as a reduction of systolic blood pressure. We conclude that EO S. areira could be responsible for modifications on the cardiovascular and/or airway parameters.

  5. Humanized Mice as Preclinical Models in Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Safinia, N; Becker, P D; Vaikunthanathan, T; Xiao, F; Lechler, R; Lombardi, G

    2016-01-01

    Animal models have been instrumental in our understanding of the mechanisms of rejection and the testing of novel treatment options in the context of transplantation. We have now entered an exciting era with research on humanized mice driving advances in translational studies and in our understanding of the function of human cells in response to pathogens and cancer as well as the recognition of human allogeneic tissues in vivo. In this chapter we provide a historical overview of humanized mouse models of transplantation to date, outlining the distinct strains and share our experiences in the study of human transplantation immunology.

  6. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Bacillus anthracis Spore Deposition in Rabbit and Human Respiratory Airways

    SciTech Connect

    Kabilan, Senthil; Suffield, Sarah R.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Jacob, Rick E.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Carson, James P.; Colby, Sean M.; Saunders, James H.; Hines, Stephanie; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Straub, Tim M.; Moe, M.; Taft, Sarah; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-09-30

    Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and Lagrangian particle deposition models were developed to compare the deposition of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores in the respiratory airways of a human with that of the rabbit, a species commonly used in the study of anthrax disease. The respiratory airway geometries for each species were derived from computed tomography (CT) or µCT images. Both models encompassed airways that extended from the external nose to the lung with a total of 272 outlets in the human model and 2878 outlets in the rabbit model. All simulations of spore deposition were conducted under transient, inhalation-exhalation breathing conditions using average species-specific minute volumes. The highest exposure concentration was modeled in the rabbit based upon prior acute inhalation studies. For comparison, human simulation was also conducted at the same concentration. Results demonstrated that regional spore deposition patterns were sensitive to airway geometry and ventilation profiles. Due to the complex airway geometries in the rabbit nose, higher spore deposition efficiency was predicted in the upper conducting airways compared to the human at the same air concentration of anthrax spores. As a result, higher particle deposition was predicted in the conducting airways and deep lung of the human compared to the rabbit lung due to differences in airway branching pattern. This information can be used to refine published and ongoing biokinetic models of inhalation anthrax spore exposures, which currently estimate deposited spore concentrations based solely upon exposure concentrations and inhaled doses that do not factor in species-specific anatomy and physiology.

  7. Therapeutic efficiency of tissue-engineered human corneal endothelium transplants on rabbit primary corneal endotheliopathy.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ting-jun; Zhao, Jun; Hu, Xiu-zhong; Ma, Xi-ya; Zhang, Wen-bo; Yang, Chao-zhong

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic efficiency of tissue-engineered human corneal endothelia (TE-HCEs) on rabbit primary corneal endotheliopathy (PCEP), TE-HCEs reconstructed with monoclonal human corneal endothelial cells (mcHCECs) and modified denuded amniotic membranes (mdAMs) were transplanted into PCEP models of New Zealand white rabbits using penetrating keratoplasty. The TE-HCEs were examined using diverse techniques including slit-lamp biomicroscopy observation and pachymeter and tonometer measurements in vivo, and fluorescent microscopy, alizarin red staining, paraffin sectioning, scanning and transmission electron microscopy observations in vitro. The corneas of transplanted eyes maintained transparency for as long as 200 d without obvious edema or immune rejection. The corneal thickness of transplanted eyes decreased gradually after transplanting, reaching almost the thickness of normal eyes after 156 d, while the TE-HCE non-transplanted eyes were turbid and showed obvious corneal edema. The polygonal corneal endothelial cells in the transplanted area originated from the TE-HCE transplant. An intact monolayer corneal endothelium had been reconstructed with the morphology, cell density and structure similar to those of normal rabbit corneal endothelium. In conclusion, the transplanted TE-HCE can reconstruct the integrality of corneal endothelium and restore corneal transparency and thickness in PCEP rabbits. The TE-HCE functions normally as an endothelial barrier and pump and promises to be an equivalent of HCE for clinical therapy of human PCEP.

  8. A Rabbit Model of Acanthamoeba Keratitis That Better Reflects the Natural Human Infection.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xianmin; Zheng, Wenyu; Wang, Yuehua; Zhao, Donghai; Jiang, Xiaoming; Lv, Shijie

    2015-08-01

    Acanthamoeba species are ubiquitous, free-living protozoa that can invade the cornea and result in Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), a painful progressive sight-threatening corneal disease. Disease progression in current animal models is too rapid to mimic AK in humans accurately. This study provides a novel method for establishing AK in rabbits and compared it with the conventional method with regard to pathogenesis and immune response in humans. The New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two experimental groups (Groups A and B). Rabbits in the Group A (n = 14) received intrastromal injections of 1 × 10(4) /100 µL Acanthamoeba healyi trophozoites (conventional AK model). The Group B animals (n = 14) received microinjections of 1 × 10(4) /10 µL A. healyi trophozoites between the corneal epithelium and Bowman's layer, anterior to the corneal stroma (novel AK model). In addition, two rabbits were left untreated as normal controls. AK in the treated rabbits was evaluated clinically, histopathologically, and immunologically for 35 days. AK was successfully established in both the conventional and novel model groups. Compared with the Group A, AK in the Group B displayed an efficient immune response with less severe pathology. Moreover, the self-limiting but chronic nature of the infection in the Group B was strikingly similar to that of AK in humans. The novel animal model for AK described here more closely simulates the pathogenesis and immune response of Acanthamoeba corneal infection in humans than the animal models currently in use.

  9. Experimental observation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation into rabbit intervertebral discs

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Hao; Lin, Yazhou; Zhang, Guoqing; Gu, Rui; Chen, Bohua

    2016-01-01

    Allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation has been investigated worldwide. However, few reports have addressed the survival status of human BMSCs in the intervertebral discs (IVDs) in vivo following transplantation. The current study aimed to observe the survival status of human BMSCs in rabbit IVDs. The IVDs of 15 New Zealand white rabbits were divided into three groups: Punctured blank control group (L1-2); punctured physiological saline control group (L2-3); and punctured human BMSCs transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP) group (L3-4, L4-5 and L5-6). One, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after transplantation the IVDs were removed and a fluorescence microscope was used to observe the density of GFP-positive human BMSCs. The results indicated that in the sections of specimens removed at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks post-transplantation, no GFP-positive cells were observed in the control groups, whereas GFP-positive cells were apparent in the nucleus pulposus at all periods in the GFP-labeled human BMSCs group, and the cell density at 6 and 8 weeks was significantly less than that at 1, 2 and 4 weeks post-transplantation (P<0.001). Thus, it was identified that human BMSCs were able to survive in the rabbit IVDs for 8 weeks. PMID:27588177

  10. Rabbit antibodies to the cell wall polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae fail to protect mice from lethal challenge with encapsulated pneumococci.

    PubMed Central

    Szu, S C; Schneerson, R; Robbins, J B

    1986-01-01

    A conjugate, composed of the cell wall polysaccharide (C polysaccharide) of Streptococcus pneumoniae and bovine serum albumin (BSA), was prepared with the bifunctional agent N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio)-propionate. Analysis with monoclonal antibodies provided evidence that the phosphocholine (PC) moiety of the C polysaccharide was retained during the conjugation procedure. The C polysaccharide-BSA conjugate elicited antibodies to C polysaccharide in rabbits; no PC-specific antibodies were detected in globulins prepared from these hyperimmune sera obtained early and late after a second immunization. Rabbit hyperimmune sera were taken after multiple intravenous injections of the pneumococcus strain SRC-2, which has a capsulelike structure composed of the C polysaccharide. Globulin prepared from these antisera had both C polysaccharide- and PC-specific antibodies. Antibodies to C polysaccharide elicited by the C polysaccharide-BSA conjugate failed to protect mice against intraperitoneal challenge with a strain of type 3 or type 6A pneumococci. The anti-SRC-2 globulin conferred protection against both of these pneumococcal strains. Absorption of the SRC-2 globulin with C polysaccharide, however, failed to change its protective activity. These data provide evidence that antibodies to the C polysaccharide do not confer immunity against infection of mice with encapsulated pneumococci inoculated by the intraperitoneal route. Images PMID:3095243

  11. Production of human or humanized antibodies in mice.

    PubMed

    Laffleur, Brice; Pascal, Virginie; Sirac, Christophe; Cogné, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Mice are widely available laboratory animals that can easily be used for the production of antibodies against a broad range of antigens, using well-defined immunization protocols. Such an approach allows optimal in vivo affinity maturation of the humoral response. In addition, high-affinity antibodies arising in this context can readily be further characterized and produced as monoclonals after immortalizing and selecting specific antibody-producing cells through hybridoma derivation. Using such conventional strategies combined with mice that are either genetically engineered to carry humanized immunoglobulin (Ig) genes or engrafted with a human immune system, it is thus easy to obtain and immortalize clones that produce either fully human Ig or antibodies associating variable (V) domains with selected antigen specificities to customized human-like constant regions, with defined effector functions. In some instances, where there is a need for in vivo functional assays of a single antibody with a known specificity, it might be of interest to transiently express that gene in mice by in vivo gene transfer. This approach allows a rapid functional assay. More commonly, mice are used to obtain a diversified repertoire of antibody specificities after immunization by producing antibody molecules in the mouse B cell lineage from mouse strains with transgene Ig genes which are of human, humanized, or chimeric origin. After in vivo maturation of the immune response, this will lead to the secretion of antibodies with optimized antigen binding sites, associated to the desired human constant domains. This chapter focuses on two simple methods: (1) to obtain such humanized Ig mice and (2) to transiently express a human Ig gene in mice using hydrodynamics-based transfection.

  12. Ocular and systemic safety of a recombinant AAV8 vector for X-linked retinoschisis gene therapy: GLP studies in rabbits and Rs1-KO mice

    PubMed Central

    Marangoni, Dario; Bush, Ronald A; Zeng, Yong; Wei, Lisa L; Ziccardi, Lucia; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Bartoe, Joshua T; Palyada, Kiran; Santos, Maria; Hiriyanna, Suja; Wu, Zhijian; Colosi, Peter; Sieving, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is a retinal disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding the protein retinoschisin (RS1) and is one of the most common causes of macular degeneration in young men. Our therapeutic approach for XLRS is based on the administration of AAV8-scRS/IRBPhRS, an adeno-associated viral vector coding the human RS1 protein, via the intravitreal (IVT) route. Two Good Laboratory Practice studies, a 9-month study in New Zealand White rabbits (n = 124) injected with AAV8-scRS/IRBPhRS at doses of 2E9, 2E10, 2E11, and 1.5E12 vector genomes/eye (vg/eye), and a 6-month study in Rs1-KO mice (n = 162) dosed with 2E9 and 2E10 vg/eye of the same vector were conducted to assess ocular and systemic safety. A self-resolving, dose-dependent vitreal inflammation was the main ocular finding, and except for a single rabbit dosed with 1.5E12 vg/eye, which showed a retinal detachment, no other ocular adverse event was reported. Systemic toxicity was not identified in either species. Biodistribution analysis in Rs1-KO mice detected spread of vector genome in extraocular tissues, but no evidence of organ or tissues damage was found. These studies indicate that IVT administration of AAV8-scRS/IRBPhRS is safe and well tolerated and support its advancement into a phase 1/2a clinical trial for XLRS. PMID:27626041

  13. Co-administration of a CpG adjuvant (VaxImmune, CPG 7909) with CETP vaccines increased immunogenicity in rabbits and mice.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lawrence J; Hammond, Russell A; Forsberg, Eric M; Geoghegan-Barek, Kathleen M; Karalius, Brad H; Marsh, Henry C; Rittershaus, Charles W

    2009-02-01

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a plasma glycoprotein that facilitates the transfer of neutral lipids and phospholipids between lipoproteins and contributes to the regulation of the plasma concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Vaccines have been developed that elicit antibodies that bind to and reduce the lipid transfer function of CETP as a way to increase the plasma concentration of HDL-C and prevent or treat atherosclerosis. This study assessed the immunogenicity of two vaccine peptides. The first, CETi-1, is a dimerized synthetic peptide, including residues 461-476 of human CETP and residues 830-843 of tetanus toxoid, TT(830-843). The second, PADRE-CETP, is a monomeric peptide, in which a PADRE T cell epitope (aK-Cha-VAAWTLKAa) replaces the TT(830-843) T cell epitope of CETi-1. Both peptides were formulated with aluminum-containing adjuvants (Alhydrogel), and tested in mice and rabbits with or without the co-administration of the investigational TLR9 agonist VaxImmune (CPG 7909). In both mice and rabbits, the vaccine peptide utilizing the PADRE T cell epitope elicited stronger anti-CETP antibody responses than the CETi-1 vaccine. Also, co-administration of VaxImmune enhanced the anti-CETP antibody responses to both vaccines. Isotype analysis of the murine anti-CETP antibody response to both vaccines demonstrated a switch from IgG1 to IgG2a upon co-administration of VaxImmune. We conclude that (1) the PADRE T cell epitope is more potent than the TT(830-843) epitope in providing help for the anti-CETP antibody response; and (2) co-administration of VaxImmune with either vaccine increased immunogenicity as measured by antibody response.

  14. Application of Humanized Mice in Immunological Research.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wenwei; Zheng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    During the past decade, the development of humanized mouse models and their general applications in biomedical research greatly accelerated the translation of outcomes obtained from basic research into potential diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in clinic. In this chapter, we firstly present an overview on the history and current progress of diverse humanized mouse models and then focus on those equipped with reconstituted human immune system. The update advancement in the establishment of humanized immune system mice and their applications in the studies of the development of human immune system and the pathogenesis of multiple human immune-related diseases are intensively reviewed here, while the shortcoming and perspective of these potent tools are discussed as well. As a valuable bridge across the gap between bench work and clinical trial, progressive humanized mouse models will undoubtedly continue to play an indispensable role in the wide area of biomedical research.

  15. Characterization of cDNA clones encoding rabbit and human serum paraoxonase: The mature protein retains its signal sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Hassett, C.; Richter, R.J.; Humbert, R.; Omiecinski, C.J.; Furlong, C.E. ); Chapline, C.; Crabb, J.W. )

    1991-10-22

    Serum paraoxonase hydrolyzes the toxic metabolites of a variety of organophosphorus insecticides. High serum paraoxonase levels appear to protect against the neurotoxic effects of organophosphorus substrates of this enzyme. The amino acid sequence accounting for 42% of rabbit paraoxonase was determined. From these data, two oligonucleotide probes were synthesized and used to screen a rabbit liver cDNA library. Human paraoxonase clones were isolated from a liver cDNA library by using the rabbit cDNA as a hybridization probe. Inserts from three of the longest clones were sequenced, and one full-length clone contained an open reading frame encoding 355 amino acids, four less than the rabbit paraoxonase protein. Amino-terminal sequences derived from purified rabbit and human paraoxonase proteins suggested that the signal sequence is retained, with the exception of the initiator methionine residue. Characterization of the rabbit and human paraoxonase cDNA clones confirms that the signal sequences are not processed, except for the N-terminal methionine residue. The rabbit and human cDNA clones demonstrate striking nucleotide and deduced amino acid similarities (greater than 85%), suggesting an important metabolic role and constraints on the evolution of this protein.

  16. The effects of chemical modification on the antigenicity of human and rabbit immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed Central

    Hunneyball, I M; Stanworth, D R

    1976-01-01

    In order to characterize the precise structure within human and rabbit IgG molecules against which 'general' rheumatoid factors are directed, an immunochemical comparison has been made of the effects of the selective substitution of specific amino acid side-chains on various types of antigenicity exhibited by human and rabbit IgG. The epsilon-amino groups of lysine residues have been substituted by citraconylation and carbamylation; whilst tyrosine residues have been substituted by nitration with tetranitromethane. In this manner, evidence has been obtained which indicates that the autoantigenic determinants of human IgG are structurally distinct from species-specific ones and from certain Fc-located allotypic markers (Gm(a) and Gm(x)). It is also concluded that lysine residues are probably not involved in the site of IgG reactivity with 'general' rheumatoid factors, in contrast to tyrosine residues which appear to be implicated in the activity of human but not rabbit IgG. Images Figure 4 PMID:68918

  17. Human adipose-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells engraft into rabbit articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; He, Na; Feng, Chenchen; Liu, Victor; Zhang, Luyi; Wang, Fei; He, Jiaping; Zhu, Tengfang; Wang, Shuyang; Qiao, Weiwei; Li, Suke; Zhou, Guangdong; Zhang, Li; Dai, Chengxiang; Cao, Wei

    2015-05-27

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to have the potential for articular cartilage regeneration, and are suggested for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Here, we investigated whether intra-articular injection of xenogeneic human adipose-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (haMPCs) promoted articular cartilage repair in rabbit OA model and engrafted into rabbit articular cartilage. The haMPCs were cultured in vitro, and phenotypes and differentiation characteristics of cells were evaluated. OA was induced surgically by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) and medical meniscectomy of knee joints. At six weeks following surgery, hyaluronic acid (HA) or haMPCs was injected into the knee joints, the contralateral knee served as normal control. All animals were sacrificed at the 16th week post-surgery. Assessments were carried out by macroscopic examination, hematoxylin/eosin (HE) and Safranin-O/Fast green stainings and immunohistochemistry. The data showed that haMPC treatment promoted cartilage repair. Signals of human mitochondrial can be directly detected in haMPC treated cartilage. The haMPCs expressed human leukocyte antigen I (HLA-I) but not HLA-II-DR in vivo. These results suggest that intra-articular injection of haMPCs promotes regeneration of articular cartilage in rabbit OA model, and support the notion that MPCs are transplantable between HLA-incompatible individuals.

  18. Creation of chimeric human/rabbit APOBEC1 with HIV-1 restriction and DNA mutation activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Terumasa; Ong, Eugene Boon Beng; Watanabe, Nobumoto; Sakaguchi, Nobuo; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Koito, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    APOBEC1 (A1) proteins from lagomorphs and rodents have deaminase-dependent restriction activity against HIV-1, whereas human A1 exerts a negligible effect. To investigate these differences in the restriction of HIV-1 by A1 proteins, a series of chimeric proteins combining rabbit and human A1s was constructed. Homology models of the A1s indicated that their activities derive from functional domains that likely act in tandem through a dimeric interface. The C-terminal region containing the leucine-rich motif and the dimerization domains of rabbit A1 is important for its anti-HIV-1 activity. The A1 chimeras with strong anti-HIV-1 activity were incorporated into virions more efficiently than those without anti-HIV-1 activity, and exhibited potent DNA-mutator activity. Therefore, the C-terminal region of rabbit A1 is involved in both its packaging into the HIV-1 virion and its deamination activity against both viral cDNA and genomic RNA. This study identifies the novel molecular mechanism underlying the target specificity of A1.

  19. Transgenic rabbits as bioreactors for the production of human growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Limonta, J M; Castro, F O; Martínez, R; Puentes, P; Ramos, B; Aguilar, A; Lleonart, R L; de la Fuente, J

    1995-05-15

    Gene farming is one of the most promising areas in modern biotechnology. To assay the potential usefulness of transgenic rabbits as bioreactors, one call embryos were microinjected with a chimeric gene comprising 5' sequences from mouse whey acidic protein gene (mWAP) linked to the human growth hormone (hGH) gene. Transgenic animals were obtained and the presence of the foreign protein was detected in the milk and serum of these animals at levels of up to 50 micrograms ml-1 and 0.6 ng ml-1, respectively. Founder transgenics were able to transmit the microinjected gene to the first filial generation in a Mendelian fashion. These results showed that transgenic rabbits could constitute a suitable system for the rapid production of recombinant proteins in the milk of lactating females.

  20. Sheep, rabbit and chicken antisera against a human VH fragment: reactivity with immunoglobulins and lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Michaelsen, T E; Lea, T

    1982-01-01

    Antisera against a human VH fragment obtained from an IgG3, VH II, kappa protein (KUP) were raised in rabbits, sheep and chicken. The three types of anti-VH antisera reacted equally well with both intact immunoglobulin molecules and isolated heavy chains. The antisera did not detect any free heavy chain specific antigens by sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests although they reacted with some antigens which were more or less hidden on intact immunoglobulin molecules but well expressed on isolated heavy chains. The antisera reacted with more than 90% of IgG, IgA and IgM present in normal pooled serum. Experiments with T cells from normal peripheral blood indicated that the sheep and rabbit anti-VH antisera reacted with a 70,000 mol.wt T-cell surface antigen. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:6802746

  1. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor mRNA and protein in atherosclerotic lesions of rabbits and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, M. E.; Ylä-Herttuala, S.; Lipton, B. A.; Ord, V. A.; Witztum, J. L.; Steinberg, D.

    1992-01-01

    In this study, the authors demonstrate the expression of mRNA and the presence of protein for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF) in atherosclerotic lesions from humans and rabbits. In situ hybridization of serial sections of human fatty streaks demonstrated expression of MCSF mRNA by cells dispersed throughout the lesions. Immunocytochemical staining with a panel of MCSF-specific antibodies showed extensive cell-associated staining of all of the cell types in the lesions. Immunocytochemical studies of atherosclerotic lesions from Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) and cholesterol-fed rabbits demonstrated a similar cell-associated pattern of staining. There was no MCSF-specific staining of aortas from normal rabbits or of cultured aortic smooth muscle cells from either humans or rabbits. Macrophage-derived foam cells (MFC) were isolated from the aortas of ballooned, cholesterol-fed rabbits. A Northern blot demonstrated that RNA isolated from the MFC hybridized with a human cDNA probe for MCSF. RNA from alveolar macrophages isolated simultaneously from the same rabbits did not hybridize with the MCSF probe. Conditioned media from an 18- to 24-hour incubation of the MFC contained colony-stimulating activity as demonstrated in a mouse bone marrow culture assay. Most of this colony-stimulating activity was neutralized by preincubating the conditioned media with an MCSF-specific antibody. Images Figure 2 Figure 1 Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:1739123

  2. Xenobiotic receptor humanized mice and their utility.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Nico; Roland Wolf, C

    2013-02-01

    The nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha have important endogenous functions and are also involved in the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in response to exogenous xenobiotics. Though not belonging to the same protein family, the Per-Sim-ARNT domain receptor aryl hydrocarbon receptor functionally overlaps with the three nuclear receptors in many aspects and is therefore included in this review. Significant species differences in ligand affinity and biological responses as a result of activation of these receptors have been described. Several xenobiotic receptor humanized mice have been created to overcome these species differences and to provide in vivo models that are more predictive for human responses. This review provides an overview of the different xenobiotic receptor humanized mouse models described to date and will summarize how these models can be applied in basic research and improve drug discovery and development. Some of the key applications in the evaluation of drug induction, drug-drug interactions, nongenotoxic carcinogenicity, other toxicity, or efficacy studies are described. We also discuss relevant considerations in the interpretation of such data and potential future directions for the use of xenobiotic receptor humanized mice.

  3. Human malignant melanoma heterotransplanted to nude mice.

    PubMed

    Tropé, C; Johnsson, J E; Alm, P; Landberg, T; Olsson, H; Wennerberg, J

    1981-01-01

    Five different human malignant melanoma were heterotransplanted subcutaneously to nude mice. When small tissue pieces were used 3 out of 5 tumors grew. Subcutaneous injections of suspended tumor cells were also made, but all failed to take. Metastatic or infiltrative growth was never seen in the mice observed for up to 2.5 months. The successful grafts largely retained the original morphologicaL features. The three successfully transplanted tumors could all be serially transferred with 100% tumor take. In one case passage time was reduced from 40 days to 15 days. As measured with 3H-thymidine incorporation the proliferation rate increased during the passages. These changes might be due to a selection of more rapidly growing tumor cells in the nudes.

  4. The three-dimensional microanatomy of the rabbit and human cornea. A chemical and mechanical microdissection-SEM approach

    PubMed Central

    OJEDA, JOSÉ L.; VENTOSA, JUAN A.; PIEDRA, SONSOLES

    2001-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) microanatomy of the cornea is the major determinant of its optical and mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is the most commonly used method to obtain information on the overall 3D microanatomy of organs. However, SEM has not been successful in revealing the 3D microanatomy of the cornea, because the interior of the cornea is too compact to be explored by the electron beam. In this study, the 3D organisation of the cells and extracellular materials of human and rabbit corneas was examined after exposure by HCl and NaOH digestion, and by microdissection by the adhesive tape method. In the cornea of both species, all epithelial cells exhibited microplicae regardless of their location. This raises doubts about the tear film-holding role assigned to the microplicae of the superficial cells. Human and rabbit corneas differed in the collagen fibre patterns of the epithelial basement membranes. The 3D organisation of the stromal lamellae was similar in both species. In humans and rabbits, the keratocytes showed similar 3D features. However, the surface of human keratocytes located near Descemet's membrane exhibited small fenestrations that were not present in the rabbit keratocytes. The pattern of keratocyte innervation by the stromal neural plexus and 3D keratocyte microanatomy confirms that keratocytes form a large intercommunicating network within the corneal stroma. Two morphologically discrete subpopulations of keratocytes located at different stromal levels were identified in both human and rabbit corneas, suggesting that keratocytes are not functionally homogeneous. In addition, the density of the stromal neural plexus appeared to be greater in rabbits than in humans. Clear differences between human and rabbit corneas were observed in the collagen arrangement in Descemet's membrane, which may reflect their different biomechanical requirements. PMID:11760887

  5. Methanol exposure does not produce oxidatively damaged DNA in lung, liver or kidney of adult mice, rabbits or primates

    SciTech Connect

    McCallum, Gordon P.; Siu, Michelle; Sweeting, J. Nicole; Wells, Peter G.

    2011-01-15

    In vitro and in vivo genotoxicity tests indicate methanol (MeOH) is not mutagenic, but carcinogenic potential has been claimed in one controversial long-term rodent cancer bioassay that has not been replicated. To determine whether MeOH could indirectly damage DNA via reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated mechanisms, we treated male CD-1 mice, New Zealand white rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys with MeOH (2.0 g/kg ip) and 6 h later assessed oxidative damage to DNA, measured as 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) by HPLC with electrochemical detection. We found no MeOH-dependent increases in 8-oxodG in lung, liver or kidney of any species. Chronic treatment of CD-1 mice with MeOH (2.0 g/kg ip) daily for 15 days also did not increase 8-oxodG levels in these organs. These results were corroborated in DNA repair-deficient oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (Ogg1) knockout (KO) mice, which accumulated 8-oxodG in lung, kidney and liver with age, but exhibited no increase following MeOH, despite a 2-fold increase in renal 8-oxodG in Ogg1 KO mice following treatment with a ROS-initiating positive control, the renal carcinogen potassium bromate (KBrO{sub 3}; 100 mg/kg ip). These observations suggest that MeOH exposure does not promote the accumulation of oxidatively damaged DNA in lung, kidney or liver, and that environmental exposure to MeOH is unlikely to initiate carcinogenesis in these organs by DNA oxidation.

  6. Interspecies differences in the metabolism of methotrexate: An insight into the active site differences between human and rabbit aldehyde oxidase.

    PubMed

    Choughule, Kanika V; Joswig-Jones, Carolyn A; Jones, Jeffrey P

    2015-08-01

    Several drug compounds have failed in clinical trials due to extensive biotransformation by aldehyde oxidase (AOX) (EC 1.2.3.1). One of the main reasons is the difficulty in scaling clearance for drugs metabolised by AOX, from preclinical species to human. Using methotrexate as a probe substrate, we evaluated AOX metabolism in liver cytosol from human and commonly used laboratory species namely guinea pig, monkey, rat and rabbit. We found that the metabolism of methotrexate in rabbit liver cytosol was several orders of magnitude higher than any of the other species tested. The results of protein quantitation revealed that the amount of AOX1 in human liver was similar to rabbit liver. To understand if the observed differences in activity were due to structural differences, we modelled rabbit AOX1 using the previously generated human AOX1 homology model. Molecular docking of methotrexate into the active site of the enzyme led to the identification of important residues that could potentially be involved in substrate binding and account for the observed differences. In order to study the impact of these residue changes on enzyme activity, we used site directed mutagenesis to construct mutant AOX1 cDNAs by substituting nucleotides of human AOX1 with relevant ones of rabbit AOX1. AOX1 mutant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli. Differences in the kinetic properties of these mutants have been presented in this study.

  7. The use of rat, rabbit or human bone marrow derived cells for cytocompatibility evaluation of metallic elements.

    PubMed

    Tomás, H; Carvalho, G S; Fernandes, M H; Freire, A P; Abrantes, L M

    1997-04-01

    Rat, rabbit and human bone marrow cells were cultured according to the method previously reported for cells of rat origin [1] and were exposed, or not (control), to corrosion products of a Co-Cr orthopaedic alloy as well as to metal salts containing Co2+, Cr3+ and Cr6+. Cells were cultured for 21 days and analysed for the following biochemical parameters: intracellular MTT reduction (i.e. cell viability/proliferation), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and protein production. Morphological observations included both histochemistry (detection of ALP-positive cells, calcium and phosphate deposits) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Control cultures of rat and rabbit cells showed higher proliferation rates than human cells at the start of culture, but they all reached similar values on day 21. Protein production was parallel to cell proliferation. In contrast, ALP activity of rat cultures was much stronger than rabbit or human cultures. All cell types were able to develop the osteogenic phenotype in vitro.Co-Cr extract caused inhibitory effects on cell viability, on ALP activity and, to a lower extent, on protein production of all rat, rabbit and human cell cultures. Compared to rat and rabbit cultures, human cultures were the most sensitive to metal ions exposure.

  8. Macrophages and smooth muscle cells express lipoprotein lipase in human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Ylä-Herttuala, S; Lipton, B A; Rosenfeld, M E; Goldberg, I J; Steinberg, D; Witztum, J L

    1991-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL; EC 3.1.1.34) may promote atherogenesis by producing remnant lipoproteins on the endothelial surface and by acting on lipoproteins in the artery wall. In vitro, smooth muscle cells and macrophages synthesize LPL, but in human carotid lesions only a few smooth muscle cells were reported to contain LPL protein. Endothelial cells do not synthesize LPL in vitro, but in normal arteries intense immunostaining for LPL is present on the endothelium. We used Northern blot analysis, in situ hybridization, and immunocytochemistry of human and rabbit arteries to determine cellular distribution and the site of the synthesis of LPL in atherosclerotic lesions. Northern blot analysis showed that LPL mRNA was detectable in macrophage-derived foam cells isolated from arterial lesions of "ballooned" cholesterol-fed rabbits. In situ hybridization studies of atherosclerotic lesions with an antisense riboprobe showed a strong hybridization signal for LPL mRNA in some, but not all, lesion macrophages, which were mostly located in the subendothelial and edge areas of the lesions. Also, some smooth muscle cells in lesion areas also expressed LPL mRNA. Immunocytochemistry of frozen sections of rabbit lesions with a monoclonal antibody to human milk LPL showed intense staining for LPL protein in macrophage-rich intimal lesions. The results suggest that lesion macrophages and macrophage-derived foam cells express LPL mRNA and protein. Some smooth muscle cells in the lesion areas also synthesize LPL. These data are consistent with an important role for LPL in atherogenesis. Images PMID:1719546

  9. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Burt, Sara A; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H M

    2016-09-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates. Dutch rabbits are unlikely to be a zoonotic source.

  10. Effect of chemical enhancers and iontophoresis on thiocolchicoside permeation across rabbit and human skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Artusi, Mariella; Nicoli, Sara; Colombo, Paolo; Bettini, Ruggero; Sacchi, Antonia; Santi, Patrizia

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the permeation of thiocolchicoside across the skin in vitro. The effect of the chemical enhancer lauric acid and the physical technique of iontophoresis was investigated. Permeation experiments were performed in vitro using rabbit ear skin as barrier. The effect of lauric acid at different concentrations (2% and 4%) and of the vehicle (water, ethanol, or ethanol/water) was investigated. The primary effect of lauric acid was on the partitioning parameter, whereas the diffusive parameter did not change significantly. When human epidermis was used, the permeation parameters were generally lower, although not significantly different from rabbit ear skin. The data obtained with full-thickness human skin indicate that, despite the hydrophilic nature of thiocolchicoside, the resistance to drug transport is not limited to the stratum corneum, but that the underlying dermal tissue can also contribute. Iontophoresis enhanced the flux of thiocolchicoside compared with the passive control. The mechanism by which iontophoresis enhanced thiocolchicoside transport across the skin was electroosmosis. The permeation of thiocolchicoside across the skin can be enhanced using chemical or physical penetration enhancers.

  11. Protection of rabbits against challenge with rabbit papillomaviruses by immunization with the N terminus of human papillomavirus type 16 minor capsid antigen L2.

    PubMed

    Gambhira, Ratish; Jagu, Subhashini; Karanam, Balasubramanyam; Gravitt, Patti E; Culp, Timothy D; Christensen, Neil D; Roden, Richard B S

    2007-11-01

    Current L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines provide type-restricted protection against a small subset of the human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes associated with cervical cancer, necessitating continued cytologic screening of vaccinees. Cervical cancer is most problematic in countries that lack the resources for screening or highly multivalent HPV VLP vaccines, suggesting the need for a low-cost, broadly protective vaccinogen. Here, N-terminal L2 polypeptides comprising residues 1 to 88 or 11 to 200 derived from HPV16, bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1), or cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) were produced in bacteria. Rabbits were immunized with these N-terminal L2 polypeptides and concurrently challenged with CRPV and rabbit oral papillomavirus (ROPV). Vaccination with either N-terminal L2 polypeptides of CRPV effectively protected rabbits from CRPV challenge but not from papillomas induced by cutaneous challenge with CRPV genomic DNA. Furthermore, papillomas induced by CRPV genomic DNA deficient for L2 expression grew at the same rate as those induced by wild-type CRPV genomic DNA, further suggesting that the L2 polypeptide vaccines lack therapeutic activity. Neutralizing serum antibody titers of >15 correlated with protection (P < 0.001), a finding consistent with neutralizing antibody-mediated protection. Surprisingly, a remarkable degree of protection against heterologous papillomavirus types was observed after vaccination with N-terminal L2 polypeptides. Notably, vaccination with HPV16 L2 11-200 protected against cutaneous and mucosal challenge with CRPV and ROPV, respectively, papillomaviruses that are evolutionarily divergent from HPV16. Further, vaccination with HPV16 L2 11-200 generates broadly cross-neutralizing serum antibody, suggesting the potential of L2 as a second-generation preventive HPV vaccine antigen.

  12. Complete genome analysis of a rabbit rotavirus causing gastroenteritis in a human infant.

    PubMed

    Bonica, Melisa Berenice; Zeller, Mark; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Heylen, Elisabeth

    2015-02-17

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are responsible for causing infantile diarrhea both in humans and animals. The molecular characteristics of lapine RVA strains are only studied to a limited extent and so far G3P[14] and G3P[22] were found to be the most common G/P-genotypes. During the 2012-2013 rotavirus season in Belgium, a G3P[14] RVA strain was isolated from stool collected from a two-year-old boy. We investigated whether RVA/Human-wt/BEL/BE5028/2012/G3P[14] is completely of lapine origin or the result of reassortment event(s). Phylogenetic analyses of all gene segments revealed the following genotype constellation: G3-P[14]-I2-R2-C2-M3-A9-N2-T6-E5-H3 and indicated that BE5028 probably represents a rabbit to human interspecies transmission able to cause disease in a human child. Interestingly, BE5028 showed a close evolutionary relationship to RVA/Human-wt/BEL/B4106/2000/G3P[14], another lapine-like strain isolated in a Belgian child in 2000. The phylogenetic analysis of the NSP3 segment suggests the introduction of a bovine(-like) NSP3 into the lapine RVA population in the past 12 years. Sequence analysis of NSP5 revealed a head-to-tail partial duplication, combined with two short insertions and a deletion, indicative of the continuous circulation of this RVA lineage within the rabbit population.

  13. Dodecyl N,N-dimethylamino acetate and azone enhance drug penetration across human, snake, and rabbit skin.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, J; Rytting, J H; Paronen, P; Urtti, A

    1991-07-01

    The effectiveness of the penetration enhancers, dodecyl N,N-dimethylamino acetate (DDAA) and Azone, on pretreated human epidermis for the permeation of model drugs, indomethacin, 5-fluorouracil, and propranolol-HCl, was studied in in vitro diffusion cells. Snakeskin (Elaphe obsoleta) and rabbit pinna skin were compared as possible models for human skin. The drug concentrations were analyzed by HPLC. With all skins and all model drugs, DDAA increased drug permeability at least as well as Azone, and in most cases it was a more effective permeation enhancer. The relative permeation improvements in human skin, snakeskin, and rabbit skin were 10- to 20-, 5- to 50-, and 20- to 120-fold, respectively. Tritiated water served as an indicator of skin condition. Its penetration in the skin samples was independent of the drugs used, and both penetration enhancers significantly increased the flux of tritiated water through all skins. Thus, DDAA and Azone significantly increased the permeation of lipophilic and hydrophilic model compounds. Rabbit pinna skin was a poor model for human skin in vitro, while snakeskin was much closer to human skin in terms of transdermal permeability. In most cases drug permeability decreased in the order rabbit much greater than human greater than or less than snake.

  14. Lipoprotein(a) Promotes Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Dedifferentiation in Atherosclerotic Lesions of Human Apo(a) Transgenic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Tomonaga; Unoki, Hiroyuki; Sun, Huijun; Shimoyamada, Hiroaki; Marcovina, Santica; Shikama, Hisataka; Watanabe, Teruo; Fan, Jianglin

    2002-01-01

    Elevated plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels constitute an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism underlying Lp(a) atherogenicity is unclear. Recently, we demonstrated that Lp(a) may potentially be proatherogenic in transgenic rabbits expressing human apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)]. In this study, we further investigated atherosclerotic lesions of transgenic rabbits by morphometry and immunohistochemistry. On a cholesterol diet, human apo(a) transgenic rabbits had more extensive atherosclerotic lesions of the aorta, carotid artery, iliac artery, and coronary artery than did nontransgenic littermate rabbits as defined by increased intimal lesion area. Enhanced lesion development in transgenic rabbits was characterized by increased accumulation of smooth muscle cells, that was often associated with the Lp(a) deposition. To explore the possibility that Lp(a) may be involved in the smooth-muscle cell phenotypic modulation, we stained the lesions using a panel of monoclonal antibodies against smooth-muscle myosin heavy-chain isoforms (SM1, SM2, and SMemb) and basic transcriptional element binding protein-2 (BTEB2). We found that a large number of smooth muscle cells located in the apo(a)-containing areas of transgenic rabbits were positive for SMemb and BTEB2, suggesting that these smooth muscle cells were either immature or in the state of activation. In addition, transgenic rabbits showed delayed fibrinolytic activity accompanied by increased plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. We conclude that Lp(a) may enhance the lesion development by mediating smooth muscle cell proliferation and dedifferentiation possibly because of impaired fibrinolytic activity. PMID:11786416

  15. Biodistribution of a positron-emitting suicide inactivator of monoamine oxidase, carbon-11 pargyline, in mice and a rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Ishiwata, K.; Ido, T.; Yanai, K.; Kawashima, K.; Miura, Y.; Monma, M.; Watanuki, S.; Takahashi, T.; Iwata, R.

    1985-06-01

    Carbon-11 (/sup 11/C) pargyline, which is a suicide inactivator of Type B monoamine oxidase (MAO), was synthesized by the reaction of N-demethylpargyline with /sup 11/CH/sub 3/l. Biodistribution was investigated in mice, and positron tomographic images of the heart and lung in a rabbit were obtained. The distribution of /sup 11/C after administration of (/sup 11/C)pargyline was measured in several organs and blood at various time intervals. After 30 min its concentrations in the organs were constant. Subcellular distribution studies in the brain, lung, liver, and kidney showed that 59-70% of the /sup 11/C became acid-insoluble and 9-33% was present in the crude mitochondrial fraction at 60 min after injection. The uptakes of the /sup 11/C in each organ except for the kidney and spleen seemed to correlate with the in vitro enzymatic activity of Type B MAO. At high loading dose a nonspecific uptake was observed.

  16. A rabbit model for sublingual drug delivery: comparison with human pharmacokinetic studies of propranolol, verapamil and captopril.

    PubMed

    Dali, Manisha M; Moench, Paul A; Mathias, Neil R; Stetsko, Paul I; Heran, Christopher L; Smith, Ronald L

    2006-01-01

    A rabbit model for investigating sublingual drug absorption was established yielding results consistent with clinical data reported in the literature. Using propranolol as a model compound the effect of formulation and dosing variables was explored as a means to characterize the limiting parameters of this model. In addition, verapamil and captopril were selected as reference compounds to compare this model to sublingual absorption in humans. Rabbits were dosed sublingually and systemic absorption was measured over time. Sublingual absorption of propranolol was dependent on dosing solution pH and volume. Intra-oral spray device did not affect the overall exposure compared to instillation using a syringe. Despite species and dosing regimen differences the relative bioavailabilities of propranolol and verapamil were very similar in rabbits and humans. In contrast, captopril absorption from the sublingual cavity of rabbits was low and did not agree with that observed in man. Here we report a sublingual rabbit model of drug delivery and its potential utility in preclinical development of intra-oral dosage forms.

  17. The disposition of voriconazole in mouse, rat, rabbit, guinea pig, dog, and human.

    PubMed

    Roffey, S J; Cole, S; Comby, P; Gibson, D; Jezequel, S G; Nedderman, A N R; Smith, D A; Walker, D K; Wood, N

    2003-06-01

    Voriconazole is a new triazole antifungal agent with potent, wide-spectrum activity. Its pharmacokinetics and metabolism have been studied in mouse, rat, rabbit, dog, guinea pig, and humans after single and multiple administration by both oral and intravenous routes. Absorption of voriconazole is essentially complete in all species. The elimination of voriconazole is characterized by non-linear pharmacokinetics in all species. Consequently, pharmacokinetic parameters are dependent upon dose, and a superproportional increase in area under the curve is seen with increasing dose in rat and dog toxicology studies. Following multiple administration, there is a decrease in systemic exposure. This is most pronounced in mouse and rat, less so in dog, and not observed in guinea pig or rabbit. Repeat-dose toxicology studies in mouse, rat, and dog have demonstrated that induction of cytochrome P450 by voriconazole (autoinduction of metabolism) is responsible for the decreased exposure in these species. Autoinduction of metabolism is not observed in humans, and plasma steady-state concentrations remain constant with time. Voriconazole is extensively metabolized in all species. The major pathways in humans involve fluoropyrimidine N-oxidation, fluoropyrimidine hydroxylation, and methyl hydroxylation. Also, N-oxidation facilitates cleavage of the molecule, resulting in loss of the fluoropyrimidine moiety and subsequent conjugation with glucuronic acid. Major pathways are represented in animal species. The major circulating metabolite in rat, dog, and human is the N-oxide of voriconazole. It is not thought to contribute to efficacy since it is at least 100-fold less potent than voriconazole against fungal pathogens in vitro.

  18. Expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in macrophage-rich areas of human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Ylä-Herttuala, S; Lipton, B A; Rosenfeld, M E; Särkioja, T; Yoshimura, T; Leonard, E J; Witztum, J L; Steinberg, D

    1991-01-01

    The recruitment of monocyte-macrophages into the artery wall is one of the earliest events in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is a potent monocyte chemoattractant secreted by many cells in vitro, including vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. To test whether it is expressed in the artery in vivo, we used Northern blot analysis, in situ hybridization, and immunocytochemistry to study the expression of MCP-1 in normal and atherosclerotic human and rabbit arteries. Northern blot analysis showed that MCP-1 mRNA could be isolated from rabbit atherosclerotic lesions but not from the intima media of normal animals. Furthermore, MCP-1 mRNA was extracted from macrophage-derived foam cells isolated from arterial lesions of ballooned cholesterol-fed rabbits, whereas alveolar macrophages isolated simultaneously from the same rabbits did not express MCP-1 mRNA. MCP-1 mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in macrophage-rich regions of both human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions. No MCP-1 mRNA was found in sublesional medial smooth muscle cells or in normal arteries. By using immunocytochemistry, MCP-1 protein was demonstrated in human lesions, again only in macrophage-rich regions. Immunostaining of the serial sections with an antiserum against malondialdehyde-modified low density lipoprotein indicated the presence of oxidized low density lipoprotein indicated the presence of oxidized low density lipoprotein and/or other oxidation-specific lipid-protein adducts in the same areas that contained macrophages and MCP-1. We conclude that (i) MCP-1 is strongly expressed in a small subset of cells in macrophage-rich regions of human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions and (ii) MCP-1 may, therefore, play an important role in the ongoing recruitment of monocyte-macrophages into developing lesions in vivo. Images PMID:2052604

  19. A comparative study of candidal invasion in rabbit tongue mucosal explants and reconstituted human oral epithelium.

    PubMed

    Jayatilake, J A M S; Samaranayake, Y H; Samaranayake, L P

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the light and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) features of tissue invasion by three Candida species (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. dubliniensis) in two different tissue culture models: rabbit tongue mucosal explants (RTME) and reconstituted human oral epithelium (RHOE). Tongue mucosal biopsies of healthy New Zealand rabbits were maintained in explant culture using a transwell system. RHOE was obtained from Skinethic Laboratory (Nice, France). RTME and RHOE were inoculated with C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. dubliniensis separately and incubated at 37 degrees C, 5% CO(2), and 100% humidity up to 48 h. Light microscopic and SEM examinations of uninfected (controls) and infected tissues were performed at 24 and 48 h. C. albicans produced characteristic hallmarks of pathological tissue invasion in both tissue models over a period of 48 h. Hyphae penetrated through epithelial cells and intercellular gaps latter resembling thigmotropism. SEM showed cavitations on the epithelial cell surfaces particularly pronounced at sites of hyphal invasion. Some hyphae on RTME showed several clusters of blastospores attached in regular arrangements resembling "appareil sporifere". C. tropicalis and C. dubliniensis produced few hyphae mainly on RTME but they did not penetrate either model. Our findings indicate that multiple host-fungal interactions such as cavitations, thigmotropism, and morphogenesis take place during candidal tissue invasion. RTME described here appears to be useful in investigations of such pathogenic processes of Candida active at the epithelial front.

  20. Effects of peptides cleaved from human fibrinogen by plasmin on rabbit kidney cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Stachurska, J.; Janik, M.; Kobus, M.; Luczak, M.; Szmigielski, S.; Roszkowski, M.; Gerdin, B.; Saldeen, T.; Kopec, M.

    1983-02-15

    Low molecular weight fibrinogen degradation products (LMW-FDP) containing a mixture of dialysable peptides cleaved from human fibrinogen by plasmin are cytotoxic to an established line of rabbit kidney cells and to primary cultures of rabbit kidney cells. The presence of LMW-FDP in a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml during the cell cultivation caused a considerable release of /sup 51/Cr from prelabelled cells and inhibited /sup 3/H-thymidine and /sup 86/Rb uptake. Among three isolated peptides of established primary structure only one, 6D: Ser-Gln-Leu-Gln-Lys-Val-Pro-Pro-Glu-Trp-Lys, induced a significant effect, i.e. it enhanced /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation. Two others, 6A: Ala-Arg-Pro-Ala-Lys and 6E: Thr-Ser-Glu-Val-Lys, did not influence the examined parameters. Hence other components of LMW-FDP must be assumed to be responsible for the cytotoxic effect on kidney cell cultures.

  1. [Studies on the absorption, excretion and distribution of aclacinomycin A: absorption, excretion and distribution of aclacinomycin A in mice, rabbits and dogs by photometric assay (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Iguchi, H; Matsushita, Y; Ohmori, K; Hirano, S; Kiyosaki, T; Hori, S; Tone, H; Oki, T

    1980-02-01

    An anthracycline antitumor antibiotic, aclacinomycin A, was given to mice, rabbits or dogs intravenously to study the pharmacokinetics by photometric assay based on the absorption of anthracycline ring. The drug was rapidly eliminated from the blood in these animals. Drug levels were much higher in the blood cells than in the plasma. Tissue levels in dogs were 50 approximately 100 times higher than the blood levels, which showed the drug was rapidly transferred from the blood to tissues after administration. Higher levels were observed in the lungs, spleen and lymph nodes, where the drug was present as aclacinomycin A itself and the glycoside-type metabolites that were biologically active. The active form was also detected in the pancreas, heart, thymus, bone marrow and gastrointestinal tract. In the liver and kidneys, biologically inactive aglycone-type metabolites were observed. About 2 approximately 4% of the drug given to rabbits or dogs was recovered in the urine by 72 hours after administration, in which only 10% of the excreted drug was active form in rabbits but about 65% in dogs. The rest was inactive aglycone-type metabolites that were excreted almost in the conjugated form. Biliary excretion also contributed to the total clearance of the drug. Aclacinomycin A was absorbed even by oral administration in rabbits and dogs. Tissue distribution of the drug orally given to dogs was similar to that in intravenous administration, except that higher levels of active form were detected in the gastrointestinal tract and of inactive form in the liver.

  2. Experimentally infected human body lice (pediculus humanus humanus) as vectors of Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia conorii in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Houhamdi, Linda; Raoult, Didier

    2006-04-01

    The human body louse, the natural vector of Rickettsia prowazekii, is able to experimentally transmit the normally flea-borne rickettsia R. typhi, suggesting that the relationships between the body louse and rickettsiae are not specific. We used our experimental infection model to test the ability of body lice to transmit two prevalent tick-borne rickettsiae. Each of two rabbits was made bacteremic by injecting intravenously 2 x 10(6) plaque-forming units of either R. rickettsii or R. conorii. Four hundred body lice were infected by feeding on the bacteremic rabbit and were compared with 400 uninfected lice. Each louse group was fed once a day on a separate seronegative rabbit. The survival of infected lice was not different from that of uninfected controls. Lice remained infected for their lifespan, excreted R. rickettsii and R. conorii in their feces, but did not transmit the infection to their progeny. The nurse rabbit of uninfected lice remained asymptomatic and seronegative. Those rabbits used to feed infected lice developed bacteremia and seroconverted. Although the body louse is not a known vector of spotted fevers, it was able in our study to acquire, maintain, and transmit both R. rickettsii and R. conorii.

  3. Enzyme therapy for pompe disease with recombinant human alpha-glucosidase from rabbit milk.

    PubMed

    Van den Hout, J M; Reuser, A J; de Klerk, J B; Arts, W F; Smeitink, J A; Van der Ploeg, A T

    2001-04-01

    Pompe disease is a metabolic myopathy caused by deficiency of lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase. In this report we review the first 36 weeks of a clinical study on the safety and efficacy of enzyme therapy aimed at correcting the deficiency. Four patients with infantile Pompe disease were enrolled. They received recombinant human alpha-glucosidase from transgenic rabbit milk. The product is generally well tolerated and reaches the primary target tissues. Normalization of alpha-glucosidase activity in skeletal muscle was obtained and degradation of PAS-positive material was seen in tissue sections. The clinical condition of all patients improved. The effect on heart was most significant, with an impressive reduction of the left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Motor function improved. The positive preliminary results stimulate continuation and extension of efforts towards the realization of enzyme therapy for Pompe disease.

  4. Memory B Cells of Mice and Humans.

    PubMed

    Weisel, Florian; Shlomchik, Mark

    2017-01-30

    Wecomprehensively review memory B cells (MBCs), covering the definition of MBC and their identities and subsets, how MBCs are generated, where they are localized, how they are maintained, and how they are reactivated. Whereas naive B cells adopt multiple fates upon stimulation, MBCs are more restricted in their responses. Evolving work reveals that the MBC compartment in mice and humans consists of distinct subpopulations with differing effector functions. We discuss the various approaches to define subsets and subset-specific roles. A major theme is the need to both deliver faster effector function upon reexposure and readapt to antigenically variant pathogens while avoiding burnout, which would be the result if all MBCs generated only terminal effector function. We discuss cell-intrinsic differences in gene expression and signaling that underlie differences in function between MBCs and naive B cells and among MBC subsets and how this leads to memory responses. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Immunology Volume 35 is April 26, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  5. Human brain disease recreated in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, J.

    1990-12-14

    In the early 1980s, neurologist Stanley Prusiner suggested that scrapie, an apparently infectious degenerative brain disease of sheep, could be transmitted by prions, infectious particles made just of protein - and containing no nucleic acids. But prion research has come a long way since then. In 1985, the cloning of the gene encoding the prion protein proved that it does in fact exist. And the gene turned out to be widely expressed in the brains of higher organisms, a result suggesting that the prion protein has a normal brain function that can somehow be subverted, leading to brain degeneration. Then studies done during the past 2 years suggested that specific mutations in the prion gene might cause two similar human brain diseases, Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) and Creutzfelt-Jakob disease. Now, Prusiner's group at the University of California, San Francisco, has used genetic engineering techniques to recreate GSS by transplanting the mutated prion gene into mice. Not only will the animal model help neurobiologists answer the many remaining questions about prions and how they work, but it may also shed some light on other neurodegenerative diseases as well.

  6. N-/O-glycosylation analysis of human FVIIa produced in the milk of transgenic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Chevreux, Guillaume; Faid, Valegh; Scohyers, Jean-Marc; Bihoreau, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    Human coagulation factor VIIa is a glycoprotein that promotes haemostasis through activation of the coagulation cascade extrinsic pathway. Most haemophilia A/B patients with inhibitors are treated by injection of plasma-derived or recombinant FVIIa. The use of recombinant products raises questions about the ability of the host cell to produce efficiently post-translationally modified proteins. Glycosylation is especially critical considering that it can modulate protein safety and efficacy. The present paper reports the N-/O-glycosylation pattern of a new recombinant human factor VIIa expressed in the mammary glands of transgenic rabbits. Glycosylation was investigated by chromatography and advanced mass spectrometry techniques for glycan identification and quantitation. Mass spectrometry (MS)/MS analyses were performed to confirm the glycan structures as well as the position and branching of specific monosaccharides or substituents. The two N-glycosylation sites were found to be fully occupied mostly by mono- and bi-sialylated biantennary complex-type structures, the major form being A(2)G(2)S(1). Some oligomannose/hybrid structures were retrieved in lower abundance, the major ones being GlcNAcα1,O-phosphorylated at the C6-position of a Man residue (Man-6-(GlcNAcα1,O-)phosphate motif) as commonly observed on lysosomal proteins. No immunogenic glycotopes such as Galili (Galα1,3Gal) and HD antigens (N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc)) were detected. Concerning O-glycosylation, the product exhibited O-fucose and O-glucose-(xylose)(0, 1, 2) motifs as expected. The N-glycosylation consistency was also investigated by varying production parameters such as the period of lactation, the number of consecutive lactations and rabbit generations. Results show that the transgenesis technology is suitable for the long-term production of rhFVIIa with a reproducible glycosylation pattern.

  7. Culicidae (Diptera) selection of humans, chickens and rabbits in three different environments in the province of Chaco, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Marina; Zalazar, Laura; Willener, Juana Alicia; Almeida, Francisco Ludueña; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the selection of humans, chickens and rabbits by Culicidae in three different environments in the province of Chaco, Argentina. Mosquitoes were collected fortnightly using cylindrical metal traps containing animal bait (chickens and rabbits). The mosquitoes were collected between June 2001-May 2002. During the same period and with the same frequency, mosquitoes biting the human operators of the traps were collected during the first 15 min of exposure within different time intervals: from 09:00 am-11:00 am, 01:00 pm-03:00 pm, 05:00 pm-07:00 pm and 09:00 pm-10:00 pm. A total of 19,430 mosquitoes of 49 species belonging to 10 genera were collected. Culex species mainly selected chicken bait and Wyeomyia species selected rabbit bait. Ochlerotatus and Psorophora species were more abundant in rabbit-baited traps. Anopheles triannulatus, Coquillettidia nigricans, Ochlerotatus scapularis, Mansonia titillans and Psorophora albigenu showed a strong attraction for human bait. The Anopheles, Coquillettidia, Culex and Mansonia species were more active between 05:00 pm-09:00 pm, while Ochlerotatus, Psorophora, Haemagogus and Wyeomyia were most active from 09:00 am-07:00 pm. This study provides additional information about the biology and ecology of arbovirus vectors in Chaco. PMID:23903970

  8. Molecular identification and phylogenesis of dermatophytes isolated from rabbit farms and rabbit farm workers.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Weigl, Stefania; Figueredo, Luciana A; Otranto, Domenico

    2012-01-27

    Little information is available on the molecular epidemiology of dermatophytoses in rabbit farms and farm workers. A total of 117 isolates belonging to the Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex and 21 isolates of Microsporum canis were collected from rabbits with or without skin lesions, air samples of farms known to harbour these pathogens, and from farm workers with skin lesions, and molecularly characterized. Sequencing of amplicons from the T. mentagrophytes complex and M. canis isolates revealed the presence of one sequence-type for both partial chitin synthase-1 gene (pchs-1) and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS+), respectively. On the basis of comparative sequence analyses, isolated representing the T. mentagrophytes complex were molecularly identified as Trichophyton interdigitale (zoophilic) Priestley. The M. canis and T. interdigitale pchs-1 sequences herein analysed were 100% homologous to known sequences from different hosts (i.e., cats, dogs, humans and rabbits). Conversely, the ITS+ sequences of T. interdigitale from dogs, pigs and mice were identical, but displayed up to 8.6% difference with those from humans, guinea pigs and rabbits. The results of this study suggest that environmental and clinical isolates of T. interdigitale (zoophilic) and M. canis might share a common origin. Interestingly, the close phylogenetic relationship between T. interdigitale (zoophilic) strains and isolates from dogs, pigs and mice might indicate that these animals represented a reservoir of dermatophyte infection in rabbit farms. These animal species should therefore be considered when setting up control protocols to prevent infections by dermatophytes and their zoonotic transmission.

  9. PSITTACOSIS : III. EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED INFECTIONS IN RABBITS AND GUINEA PIGS.

    PubMed

    Rivers, T M; Berry, G P

    1931-06-30

    1. Rabbits and guinea pigs are susceptible to psittacosis virus introduced intracerebrally. By means of brain to brain passages in these animals the active agent is capable of propagation indefinitely. 2. Serial passages of the virus through rabbits and guinea pigs do not cause the active agent to lose its pathogenicity for parrots and mice. 3. The chief clinical evidences of infection in rabbits and guinea pigs following intracranial inoculation of the virus are fever and loss of weight. The pathological changes are characterized by a mild meningo-encephalitis, and fatty degeneration, focal necrosis, and infarction of the liver. 4. Rabbits upon recovery from an attack of psittacosis are actively immune. 5. Two strains of virus, human and parrot, were found to be immunologically similar. 6. No evidence was obtained to show that human convalescent serum possesses an appreciable amount of neutralizing substances.

  10. Bacteria-induced or bacterial product-induced preterm parturition in mice and rabbits is preceded by a significant fall in serum progesterone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Fidel, P I; Romero, R; Maymon, E; Hertelendy, F

    1998-01-01

    Bacterial products are thought to induce labor by stimulating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins in gestational tissues, leading to the onset of preterm parturition. Progesterone withdrawal is a prerequisite of parturition in many species. Yet a role for progesterone in the mechanisms responsible for preterm parturition, in the setting of infection, is unclear. The current studies were conducted to determine if a fall in serum progesterone concentrations occurs before the onset of bacterial product-induced preterm parturition in animals. Accordingly, pregnant mice at day 15 (70% gestation) were injected i.p. with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 50 microg/mouse) and timed-pregnant rabbits were inoculated transcervically with a suspension of E. coli to cause an ascending intrauterine infection. Control animals in both groups received equal volumes of sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution. Blood specimens were collected at regular intervals and serum progesterone levels were determined by RIA. Within 14 h of LPS administration, mice delivered their pups. The median concentrations of serum progesterone were significantly lower at 1 h, 4 h, 10 h, and at the onset of preterm parturition (11-12 h) after LPS injection, compared to that in animals given PBS. Similarly, E. coli-inoculated rabbits delivered 1-2 days posttranscervical inoculation and demonstrated 60% decrease in serum progesterone within 12-24 h of inoculation compared to those given PBS. Parturition in both control groups occurred at term, following typical progesterone withdrawal. It is concluded that LPS administration to pregnant mice and ascending intrauterine infection in pregnant rabbits is associated with a dramatic fall in serum progesterone concentrations prior to the onset of parturition.

  11. Demineralized dentin matrix combined with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in rabbit calvarial defects

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the osteogenic effects of demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) combined with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in rabbit calvarial defects with DDM and anorganic bovine bone (ABB) combined with rhBMP-2. Materials and Methods Four round defects with 8-mm diameters were created in each rabbit calvaria. Each defect was treated with one of the following: 1) DDM, 2) ABB/rhBMP-2, or 3) DDM/rhBMP-2. The rhBMP-2 was combined with DDM and ABB according to a stepwise dry and dip lyophilizing protocol. Histological and microcomputed tomography (µCT) analyses were performed to measure the amount of bone formation and bone volume after 2- and 8-week healing intervals. Results Upon histological observation at two weeks, the DDM and ABB/rhBMP-2 groups showed osteoconductive bone formation, while the DDM/rhBMP-2 group showed osteoconductive and osteoinductive bone formation. New bone formation was higher in DDM/rhBMP-2, DDM and ABB decreasing order. The amounts of bone formation were very similar at two weeks; however, at eight weeks, the DDM/rhBMP-2 group showed a two-fold greater amount of bone formation compared to the DDM and ABB/rhBMP-2 groups. The µCT analysis showed markedly increased bone volume in the DDM/rhBMP-2 group at eight weeks compared with that of the DDM group. Notably, there was a slight decrease in bone volume in the ABB/rhBMP-2 group at eight weeks. There were no significant differences among the DDM, ABB/rhBMP-2, and DDM/rhBMP-2 groups at two or eight weeks. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, DDM appears to be a suitable carrier for rhBMP-2 in orthotopic sites. PMID:27162749

  12. Targeting arterial wall sulfated glycosaminoglycans in rabbit atherosclerosis with a mouse/human chimeric antibody.

    PubMed

    Soto, Yosdel; Mesa, Niurka; Alfonso, Yumisley; Pérez, Arlenis; Batlle, Fernando; Griñán, Tania; Pino, Adonis; Viera, Justo; Frómeta, Milagros; Brito, Victor; Olivera, Armando; Zayas, Francisco; Vázquez, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    The progression of atherosclerosis is favored by increasing amounts of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the artery wall. We previously reported the reactivity of chP3R99 monoclonal antibody (mAb) with sulfated glycosaminoglycans and its association with the anti-atherogenic properties displayed. Now, we evaluated the accumulation of this mAb in atherosclerotic lesions and its potential use as a probe for specific in vivo detection of the disease. Atherosclerosis was induced in NZW rabbits (n = 14) by the administration of Lipofundin 20% using PBS-receiving animals as control (n = 8). Accumulation of chP3R99 mAb in atherosclerotic lesions was assessed either by immunofluorescence detection of human IgG in fresh-frozen sections of aorta, or by immunoscintigraphy followed by biodistribution of the radiotracer upon administration of (99m)Tc-chP3R99 mAb. Immunofluorescence studies revealed the presence of chP3R99 mAb in atherosclerotic lesions 24 h after intravenous administration, whereas planar images showed an evident accumulation of (99m)Tc-chP3R99 mAb in atherosclerotic rabbit carotids. Accordingly, (99m)Tc-chP3R99 mAb uptake by lesioned aortic arch and thoracic segment was increased 5.6-fold over controls and it was 3.9-folds higher in carotids, in agreement with immunoscintigrams. Moreover, the deposition of (99m)Tc-chP3R99 mAb in the artery wall was associated both with the presence and size of the lesions in the different portions of evaluated arteries and was greater than in non-targeted organs. In conclusion, chP3R99 mAb preferentially accumulates in arterial atherosclerotic lesions supporting the potential use of this anti-glycosaminoglycans antibody for diagnosis and treatment of atherosclerosis.

  13. Inhibition of sphincter of Oddi function by the nitric oxide carrier S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine in rabbits and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Slivka, A; Chuttani, R; Carr-Locke, D L; Kobzik, L; Bredt, D S; Loscalzo, J; Stamler, J S

    1994-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an inhibitor of gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Model systems of the gut predict the NO will complex with biological thiol (SH) groups, yielding S-nitrosothiols (RS-NO), which may limit the propensity to form mutagenic nitrosamines. The inhibitory effects of NO and its biologically relevant adducts on sphincter of Oddi (SO) motility have been inferred from animal studies; however, their importance in regulating human SO is not known. The objectives of this study were to (a) provide histologic confirmation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in human SO; (b) characterize the pharmacology of S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (SNAC), an exemplary S-nitrosothiol, on SO motility in a rabbit model; and (c) study the effects of topical SNAC on SO motility in humans. Immunocytochemical and histochemical identification of NOS was performed in human SO. The pharmacologic response of SNAC was defined in isolated rabbit SO using a standard bioassay. Topical SNAC was then applied to the duodenal papilla in patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and biliary manometry. NOS was localized to nerve fibers and bundles of the SO in rabbits and humans. SNAC inhibited spontaneous motility (frequency and amplitude) as well as acetylcholine-induced elevations in SO basal pressure in the rabbit model. In patients undergoing ERCP and biliary manometry, topical SNAC inhibited SO contraction freqency, basal pressure, and duodenal motility. NOS is localized to neural elements in human SO, implicating a role for NO in regulating SO function. Supporting this concept, SNAC is an inhibitor of SO and duodenal motility when applied topically to humans during ERCP. Our data suggest a novel clinical approach using local NO donors to control gastrointestinal motility and regulate sphincteric function. Images PMID:7525649

  14. Intestinal microbiota modulates gluten-induced immunopathology in humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Galipeau, Heather J; McCarville, Justin L; Huebener, Sina; Litwin, Owen; Meisel, Marlies; Jabri, Bana; Sanz, Yolanda; Murray, Joseph A; Jordana, Manel; Alaedini, Armin; Chirdo, Fernando G; Verdu, Elena F

    2015-11-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. The recent increase in CD incidence suggests that additional environmental factors, such as intestinal microbiota alterations, are involved in its pathogenesis. However, there is no direct evidence of modulation of gluten-induced immunopathology by the microbiota. We investigated whether specific microbiota compositions influence immune responses to gluten in mice expressing the human DQ8 gene, which confers moderate CD genetic susceptibility. Germ-free mice, clean specific-pathogen-free (SPF) mice colonized with a microbiota devoid of opportunistic pathogens and Proteobacteria, and conventional SPF mice that harbor a complex microbiota that includes opportunistic pathogens were used. Clean SPF mice had attenuated responses to gluten compared to germ-free and conventional SPF mice. Germ-free mice developed increased intraepithelial lymphocytes, markers of intraepithelial lymphocyte cytotoxicity, gliadin-specific antibodies, and a proinflammatory gliadin-specific T-cell response. Antibiotic treatment, leading to Proteobacteria expansion, further enhanced gluten-induced immunopathology in conventional SPF mice. Protection against gluten-induced immunopathology in clean SPF mice was reversed after supplementation with a member of the Proteobacteria phylum, an enteroadherent Escherichia coli isolated from a CD patient. The intestinal microbiota can both positively and negatively modulate gluten-induced immunopathology in mice. In subjects with moderate genetic susceptibility, intestinal microbiota changes may be a factor that increases CD risk.

  15. Intestinal Microbiota Modulates Gluten-Induced Immunopathology in Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Galipeau, Heather J.; McCarville, Justin L.; Huebener, Sina; Litwin, Owen; Meisel, Marlies; Jabri, Bana; Sanz, Yolanda; Murray, Joseph A.; Jordana, Manel; Alaedini, Armin; Chirdo, Fernando G.; Verdu, Elena F.

    2016-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. The recent increase in CD incidence suggests that additional environmental factors, such as intestinal microbiota alterations, are involved in its pathogenesis. However, there is no direct evidence of modulation of gluten-induced immunopathology by the microbiota. We investigated whether specific microbiota compositions influence immune responses to gluten in mice expressing the human DQ8 gene, which confers moderate CD genetic susceptibility. Germ-free mice, clean specific-pathogen-free (SPF) mice colonized with a microbiota devoid of opportunistic pathogens and Proteobacteria, and conventional SPF mice that harbor a complex microbiota that includes opportunistic pathogens were used. Clean SPF mice had attenuated responses to gluten compared to germ-free and conventional SPF mice. Germ-free mice developed increased intraepithelial lymphocytes, markers of intraepithelial lymphocyte cytotoxicity, gliadin-specific antibodies, and a proinflammatory gliadin-specific T-cell response. Antibiotic treatment, leading to Proteobacteria expansion, further enhanced gluten-induced immunopathology in conventional SPF mice. Protection against gluten-induced immunopathology in clean SPF mice was reversed after supplementation with a member of the Proteobacteria phylum, an enteroadherent Escherichia coli isolated from a CD patient. The intestinal microbiota can both positively and negatively modulate gluten-induced immunopathology in mice. In subjects with moderate genetic susceptibility, intestinal microbiota changes may be a factor that increases CD risk. PMID:26456581

  16. Cryptic Leishmaniosis by Leishmania infantum, a feature of canines only? A study of natural infection in wild rabbits, humans and dogs in southeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Chitimia, L; Muñoz-García, C I; Sánchez-Velasco, D; Lizana, V; Del Río, L; Murcia, L; Fisa, R; Riera, C; Giménez-Font, P; Jiménez-Montalbán, P; Martínez-Ramírez, A; Meseguer-Meseguer, J M; García-Bacete, I; Sánchez-Isarria, M A; Sanchis-Monsonís, G; García-Martínez, J D; Vicente, V; Segovia, M; Berriatua, E

    2011-09-08

    An epidemiological study was carried out to investigate asymptomatic Leishmania infantum infection by PCR and ELISA in wild rabbits, humans and domestic dogs in southeastern Spain. Seroprevalence was 0% (0/36) in rabbits, 2% (13/657) in humans and 7% (14/208) in dogs. The prevalence of PCR-positives was 0.6% (1/162) in rabbits tested in a wide range of tissue samples, 2% (8/392) in humans analysed in blood samples and 10% (20/193) and 67% (29/43) in dogs analysed in blood and lymphoid tissue samples, respectively. Results suggest that wild rabbits have a very low risk of becoming chronically infected with L. infantum, and provide further evidence that cryptic L. infantum infection is widespread in the domestic dog population and is also present in a comparatively smaller proportion of healthy humans. The epidemiological and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Development of the Lacrimal Apparatus in the Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Its Potential Role as an Animal Model for Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rehorek, S. J.; Holland, J. R.; Johnson, J. L.; Caprez, J. M.; Cray, J.; Mooney, M. P.; Hillenius, W. J.; Smith, T. D.

    2011-01-01

    Rabbits have been proposed as a model organism for the human lacrimal apparatus (LA), including the nasolacrimal duct (NLD), based principally on comparative studies of adult morphology; however, little is known about its development. The NLD first appears as an incomplete primordium in the subcutaneous region of the primordial eyelid and subsequently elongates to reach the naris. One posterior and three anterior orbital glands are present fetally although one of the anterior glands is soon lost. The NLD follows a tortuous path and passes through a bony canal consisting of lacrimal, maxilla, and maxilloturbinal bones at different regions. Although early developmental similarities exist to haplorhine primates, the narial opening of the NLD resembles strepsirrhines. This distinction, along with the ductal and glandular differences at the orbital end of the NLD, indicates that rabbits may be a poor model for LA drainage in primates, specifically humans. PMID:22567296

  18. Serological, biological, and molecular characterization of New Zealand white rabbits infected by intraperitoneal inoculation with cell-free human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Reina, S; Markham, P; Gard, E; Rayed, F; Reitz, M; Gallo, R C; Varnier, O E

    1993-01-01

    The availability of a small laboratory animal model suitable for the evaluation of methods for prevention and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection would be a valuable resource for AIDS research. Here we describe the infection of a strain of domestic rabbits by intraperitoneal inoculation with cell-free human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Evidence of infection includes the presence of an immune response that has persisted for almost 3 years and the detection of an reisolation of infectious virus from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and other tissues during the first 2 years. Typical viral proteins, DNA and RNA patterns, were observed in rabbit PBMCs and in cells infected by cocultivation with rabbit PBMCs. While a number of possible pathological changes were evaluated in infected rabbits, the presence of changes in lymph node structure similar to those reported in infected humans merits further investigation. Images PMID:7688823

  19. Volume regulatory potassium transport in rabbit and human sickle erythrocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Rohil, N.S.

    1988-01-01

    One approach to the therapy of sickle cell anemia is to decrease the hemoglobin concentration by inducing a slight swelling of the cell to retard the rate of hemoglobin polymerization. We found that a prolonged incubation of rabbit or human SS red cell in hypotonic medium caused an inactivation of the inactivation of swelling-stimulated potassium transport. The inactivation may have important practical consequences for the therapy of sickle cell anemia. Large cytoskeleton-free vesicles were prepared in order to study the possible role of the spectrin-actin membrane skeleton in the swelling-stimulated and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)-stimulated transport. NEM pretreatment stimulated {sup 86}Rb efflux in vesicles by a factor of 2.4 + 0.55 (mean {plus minus} S.D.). The NEM effect on {sup 86}Rb efflux was specific in that the {sup 22}Na efflux into a Na medium was not stimulated but actually inhibited. The {sup 86}Rb efflux from the vesicles was not stimulated by hypotonic media. This finding is consistent with a role of the membrane skeleton in the detection and/or transduction of the signal by which cell swelling activates the transport.

  20. Stretchable, multiplexed pH sensors with demonstrations on rabbit and human hearts undergoing ischemia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyun-Joong; Sulkin, Matthew S; Kim, Jong-Seon; Goudeseune, Camille; Chao, Hsin-Yun; Song, Joseph W; Yang, Sang Yoon; Hsu, Yung-Yu; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Efimov, Igor R; Rogers, John A

    2014-01-01

    Stable pH is an established biomarker of health, relevant to all tissues of the body, including the heart. Clinical monitoring of pH in a practical manner, with high spatiotemporal resolution, is particularly difficult in organs such as the heart due to its soft mechanics, curvilinear geometry, heterogeneous surfaces, and continuous, complex rhythmic motion. The results presented here illustrate that advanced strategies in materials assembly and electrochemical growth can yield interconnected arrays of miniaturized IrOx pH sensors encapsulated in thin, low-modulus elastomers to yield conformal monitoring systems capable of noninvasive measurements on the surface of the beating heart. A thirty channel custom data acquisition system enables spatiotemporal pH mapping with a single potentiostat. In vitro testing reveals super-Nernstian sensitivity with excellent uniformity (69.9 ± 2.2 mV/pH), linear response to temperature (-1.6 mV °C(-1) ), and minimal influence of extracellular ions (<3.5 mV). Device examples include sensor arrays on balloon catheters and on skin-like stretchable membranes. Real-time measurement of pH on the surfaces of explanted rabbit hearts and a donated human heart during protocols of ischemia-reperfusion illustrate some of the capabilities. Envisioned applications range from devices for biological research, to surgical tools and long-term implants.

  1. Recombinant expression of human nerve growth factor beta in rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Bo-Sheng; Lou, Ji-Yu

    2010-12-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is required for the differentiation and maintenance of sympathetic and sensory neurons. In the present study, the recombinant expression of human nerve growth factor beta (hNGF-β) gene in rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) was undertaken. Recombinant vector containing hNGF-β was constructed and transferred into rMSCs, the expressions of the exogenous in rMSCs were determined by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), ELISA and Western blot, whereas the biological activity of recombinant hNGF-β was confirmed using PC12 cells and cultures of dorsal root ganglion neurons from chicken embryos. The results showed that the hNGF-β gene expressed successfully in the rMSCs, a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 13.2 kDa was detected. The maximal expression level of recombinant hNGF-β in rMSCs reached 126.8012 pg/10(6) cells, the mean concentration was 96.4473 pg/10(6) cells. The recombinant hNGF-β in the rMSCs showed full biological activity when compared to commercial recombinant hNGF-β.

  2. Semisolid formulations containing cetirizine: human skin permeation and topical antihistaminic evaluation in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Ciurlizza, Claudia; Fernández, Francisco; Calpena, Ana Cristina; Lázaro, Raquel; Parra, Alexander; Clares, Beatriz

    2014-10-01

    Cetirizine dihydrochloride (CTZ) is a second-generation histamine H1 antagonist, effective for the treatment of a wide range of allergic diseases. It has been utilized for managing the symptoms of chronic urticaria and atopic skin conditions. Thus, two novel semisolid formulations, nanoemulsion (NE) and hydrogel (HG) were developed to study their potential utility as vehicles including cetirizine (CTZ) and evaluate the potential use as topical H1-antihistamines agents. The physicochemical and stability properties of both vehicles were tested. Drug release kinetics and human skin permeation studies were performed using Franz cells. The antihistaminic activity was assayed in New Zealand rabbits and compared with two commercial first generation antihistamines. Both formulations were stable and provided a sustained drug release. Amounts of CTZ remaining in the skin were higher for HG, showing the maximum biological effect at 30 min, similar to topical first generation H1-antihistamines commercially available. These results suggest that CTZ-HG could be a promising system for the treatment of topical allergy bringing rapid antihistaminic relief.

  3. Verapamil as an antiarrhythmic agent in congestive heart failure: hopping from rabbit to human?

    PubMed Central

    Stams, Thom RG; Bourgonje, Vincent JA; Vos, Marc A; van der Heyden, Marcel AG

    2012-01-01

    Repolarization-dependent cardiac arrhythmias only arise in hearts facing multiple ‘challenges’ affecting its so-called repolarization reserve. Congestive heart failure (CHF) is one such challenge frequently observed in humans and is accompanied by altered calcium handling within the contractile heart cell. This raises the question as to whether or not the well-known calcium channel antagonist verapamil acts as an antiarrhythmic drug in this setting, as seen in arrhythmia models without CHF. According to the study of Milberg et al. in this issue of BJP, the answer is yes. The results of this study, using a rabbit CHF model, raise important questions. First, given that the model combines CHF with a number of other interventions that predispose towards arrhythmia, will similar conclusions be reached in a setting where CHF is a more prominent proarrhythmic challenge; second, what is the extent to which other effects of calcium channel block would limit the clinical viability of this pharmacological approach in CHF? In vivo studies in large animal CHF models are now required to further explore this interesting, but complex, approach to the treatment of arrhythmia. LINKED ARTICLE This article is a commentary on Milberg et al., pp. 557–568 of this issue. To view this paper visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01721.x PMID:22188337

  4. Genetic Analysis of Daily Activity in Humans and Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of the technical developments that have made such genetic dissections a productive force in the mouse , have, when combined with innovations in...and Mice AFOSR grant F49620-97-1-0321 Joseph S. Takahashi Dept. of Neurobiology & Physiology Northwestern University 2153 North Campus Dr. Evanston...Activity in Humans and Mice Unclassified 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Takahashi, Joseph S. ; 5f. WORK

  5. Characterization of the rabbit homolog of human MUC1 glycoprotein isolated from bladder by affinity chromatography on immobilized jacalin.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, T; Xin, P; Buckley, M S; Erickson, D R; Bhavanandan, V P

    2000-07-01

    The urinary bladder is lined by transitional epithelium, the glycocalyx on the luminal surface has interesting properties and is implicated in protective functions. Glycoconjugates are major components of the glycocalyx, but their biochemical nature is not well understood. Previous studies on rabbit bladder indicated the presence of significant levels of sialoglycoproteins compared to glycosaminoglycans in the epithelium. In this study, rabbit explant cultures were radiolabeled by precursor sugars or amino acids and a major lectin-reactive glycoprotein of rabbit bladder mucosa was isolated by affinity chromatography on jacalin-agarose. The radiolabeled glycoprotein was purified to homogeneity by a second cycle on the lectin column, followed by gel filtration and density gradient centrifugation. The average molecular mass of the glycoprotein was estimated to be 245 kDa and 210 kDa by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE, respectively. Its buoyant density was 1.40 g/ml, suggesting a carbohydrate content of approximately 50%. The percent distribution of glucosamine-derived tritium label in sialic acid, galactosamine, and glucosamine was 30, 52, and 18, respectively. The glycoprotein consisted entirely of small sialylated and neutral oligosaccharides O-glycosidically linked to serine and threonine residues. The same glycoprotein could be immunoprecipitated with an antibody against the carboxy terminal 17 amino acid peptide of human MUC1 mucin glycoprotein. This suggests that this mucin glycoprotein is the rabbit homolog of MUC1 glycoprotein, which has been previously established to be a component of human bladder urothelium and has been purified from human urine and biochemically characterized.

  6. Human Bone Derived Collagen for the Development of an Artificial Corneal Endothelial Graft. In Vivo Results in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Natalia; Chacón, Manuel; Rodríguez-Barrientos, Carlos A.; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Naveiras, Miguel; Baamonde, Begoña; Alfonso, Jose F.; Zambrano-Andazol, Iriana; Riestra, Ana C.; Meana, Álvaro

    2016-01-01

    Corneal keratoplasty (penetrating or lamellar) using cadaveric human tissue, is nowadays the main treatment for corneal endotelial dysfunctions. However, there is a worldwide shortage of donor corneas available for transplantation and about 53% of the world’s population have no access to corneal transplantation. Generating a complete cornea by tissue engineering is still a tough goal, but an endothelial lamellar graft might be an easier task. In this study, we developed a tissue engineered corneal endothelium by culturing human corneal endothelial cells on a human purified type I collagen membrane. Human corneal endothelial cells were cultured from corneal rims after corneal penetrating keratoplasty and type I collagen was isolated from remnant cancellous bone chips. Isolated type I collagen was analyzed by western blot, liquid chromatography -mass spectrometry and quantified using the exponentially modified protein abundance index. Later on, collagen solution was casted at room temperature obtaining an optically transparent and mechanically manageable membrane that supports the growth of human and rabbit corneal endothelial cells which expressed characteristic markers of corneal endothelium: zonula ocluddens-1 and Na+/K+ ATPase. To evaluate the therapeutic efficiency of our artificial endothelial grafts, human purified type I collagen membranes cultured with rabbit corneal endothelial cells were transplanted in New Zealand white rabbits that were kept under a minimal immunosuppression regimen. Transplanted corneas maintained transparency for as long as 6 weeks without obvious edema or immune rejection and maintaining the same endothelial markers that in a healthy cornea. In conclusion, it is possible to develop an artificial human corneal endothelial graft using remnant tissues that are not employed in transplant procedures. This artificial endothelial graft can restore the integrality of corneal endothelium in an experimental model of endothelial dysfunction

  7. Prostaglandin E1 inhibits collagenase gene expression in rabbit synoviocytes and human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Salvatori, R; Guidon, P T; Rapuano, B E; Bockman, R S

    1992-07-01

    Cartilage breakdown, as seen in inflammatory and degenerative joint diseases, can be mediated by proteolytic enzymes, such as the metalloproteinase collagenase, the only enzyme able to digest collagen at neutral pH. In vitro collagenase gene expression can be stimulated by the phorbol ester tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate. We have investigated the effect of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) on 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate-stimulated collagenase mRNA levels in the rabbit synoviocyte cell line HIG-82. PGE1, but not PGE2 or PGF2 alpha, was able to selectively reduce collagenase mRNA levels in a dose-dependent fashion. PGE1 markedly increased intracellular levels of cAMP, while PGE2 and PGF2 alpha had little or no effect on cAMP production in the HIG-82 synoviocytes. Agents known to increase intracellular cAMP levels, such as the adenyl cyclase activator forskolin and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), mimicked the effect of PGE1, on collagenase mRNA levels. PGE1, forskolin, and IBMX also decreased collagenase mRNA levels in human skin fibroblasts, demonstrating that this observation was not unique to the HIG-82 cell line. Transient transfection experiments carried out in HIG-82 cells using a 1.2-kilobase portion of the 5'-flanking region of the human collagenase gene linked to the reporter gene luciferase demonstrated that PGE1, forskolin, and IBMX exert their inhibitory effect on the promoter region of the collagenase gene.

  8. Acute Radiation Hypotension in the Rabbit: a Model for the Human Radiation Shock Syndrome.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makale, Milan Theodore

    This study has shown that total body irradiation (TBI) of immature (40 to 100 day old) rabbits leads to an acute fall in mean arterial pressure (MAP) 30 to 90 minutes after exposure, which takes no more than about three minutes, and often results in pressures which are less than 50% of the lowest pre-exposure MAP. This is termed acute cardiovascular collapse (ACC). ACC is often accompanied by ECG T-wave elevation, a sharp rise in ear temperature, labored breathing, pupillary constriction, bladder emptying, and loss of abdominal muscle tone. About 73% of 40 to 100 day rabbits exhibit ACC; the others and most older rabbits display gradual pressure reductions (deliberate hypotension) which may be profound, and which may be accompanied by the same changes associated with ACC. ACC and deliberate hypotension occurred in rabbits cannulated in the dorsal aorta, and in non-operated animals. The decline in MAP for all 40 to 100 day cannulated rabbits (deliberate and ACC responders) is 55.4%. The experiments described below only involved 40 to 100 day cannulated TBI rabbits. Heart region irradiation resulted in an average MAP decline of 29.1%, with 1/15 rabbits showing ACC. Heart shielding during TBI reduced the decline in MAP to 19%, with 1/10 rabbits experiencing ACC. These results imply that the heart region, which includes the heart, part of the lungs, neural receptors, roots of the systemic vessels, and the blood, is a sensitive target. Bilateral vagotomy reduced the decline in MAP to 24.9%, and abolished ACC. Atropine (6 mg/kg) reduced the frequency of ACC to 26%, and the decline in MAP to 41.4%. In 11/13 rabbits the voltage generated by left vagal transmission rose after TBI. The vagi appear to participate in radiation hypotension. Heart shielding together with bilateral vagotomy reduced the decline in MAP to only 9.9%, with no ACC responders. The mean right ventricular pressure (MRVP) rose after TBI in 8/10 rabbits. In animals which displayed either ACC or steep

  9. Laying the Foundations for a Human-Predator Conflict Solution: Assessing the Impact of Bonelli's Eagle on Rabbits and Partridges

    PubMed Central

    Moleón, Marcos; Sánchez-Zapata, José A.; Gil-Sánchez, José M.; Barea-Azcón, José M.; Ballesteros-Duperón, Elena; Virgós, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Background Predation may potentially lead to negative effects on both prey (directly via predators) and predators (indirectly via human persecution). Predation pressure studies are, therefore, of major interest in the fields of theoretical knowledge and conservation of prey or predator species, with wide ramifications and profound implications in human-wildlife conflicts. However, detailed works on this issue in highly valuable –in conservation terms– Mediterranean ecosystems are virtually absent. This paper explores the predator-hunting conflict by examining a paradigmatic, Mediterranean-wide (endangered) predator-two prey (small game) system. Methodology/Principal Findings We estimated the predation impact (‘kill rate’ and ‘predation rate’, i.e., number of prey and proportion of the prey population eaten, respectively) of Bonelli's eagle Aquila fasciata on rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa populations in two seasons (the eagle's breeding and non-breeding periods, 100 days each) in SE Spain. The mean estimated kill rate by the seven eagle reproductive units in the study area was c. 304 rabbits and c. 262 partridges in the breeding season, and c. 237 rabbits and c. 121 partridges in the non-breeding period. This resulted in very low predation rates (range: 0.3–2.5%) for both prey and seasons. Conclusions/Significance The potential role of Bonelli's eagles as a limiting factor for rabbits and partridges at the population scale was very poor. The conflict between game profitability and conservation interest of either prey or predators is apparently very localised, and eagles, quarry species and game interests seem compatible in most of the study area. Currently, both the persecution and negative perception of Bonelli's eagle (the ‘partridge-eating eagle’ in Spanish) have a null theoretical basis in most of this area. PMID:21818399

  10. The flavonols quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, and galangin inhibit the net oxygen consumption by immune complex-stimulated human and rabbit neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-Rinhel, Andréa S G; Santos, Everton O L; Kabeya, Luciana M; Azzolini, Ana Elisa C S; Simões-Ambrosio, Livia M C; Lucisano-Valim, Yara M

    2014-01-01

    Stimulated human neutrophils exhibit increased net oxygen consumption (NOC) due to the conversion of O2 into the superoxide anion by the NADPH oxidase enzymatic complex during the respiratory burst. In several inflammatory diseases, overproduction of these oxidants causes tissue damage. The present study aims to: (a) optimize the experimental conditions used to measure the NOC in serum-opsonized zymosan (OZ)- and insoluble immune complex (i-IC)-stimulated human and rabbit neutrophils; and (b) compare the effect of four flavonols (quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, and galangin) on this activity. We used a Clark-type oxygen electrode to measure the NOC of stimulated neutrophils. Eliciting the neutrophil respiratory burst with OZ and i-IC yielded similar maximum O2 uptake levels within the same species, but the human neutrophil NOC was almost four times higher than the rabbit neutrophil NOC. The optimal experimental conditions established for both cell types were 4 x 10(6) neutrophils mL(-1), 2 mg mL(-1) OZ, and 240 microg mL(-1) i-IC. Upon stimulation with OZ or i-IC, the tested flavonols reduced the human and rabbit neutrophil NOC in the same order of potency--quercetin and galangin were the most and the least potent, respectively. These compounds were around four times more effective in inhibiting the rabbit as compared to the human neutrophil NOC, respectively. The four flavonols were not toxic to human or rabbit neutrophils. The experimental conditions used are suitable for both the determination of human and rabbit neutrophil NOC and for the assessment of the modulatory effects of natural compounds on these activities. The relationship between the level of NOC and the inhibitory potency of the flavonols suggests that rabbit neutrophils can be useful experimental models to predict the effect of drugs on immune complex-stimulated human neutrophils.

  11. The Immunologic Injury Composite with Balloon Injury Leads to Dyslipidemia: A Robust Rabbit Model of Human Atherosclerosis and Vulnerable Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guangyin; Li, Ming; Li, Liangjun; Xu, Yingzhi; Li, Peng; Yang, Cui; Zhou, Yanan; Zhang, Junping

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a condition in which a lipid deposition, thrombus formation, immune cell infiltration, and a chronic inflammatory response, but its systemic study has been hampered by the lack of suitable animal models, especially in herbalism fields. We have tried to perform a perfect animal model that completely replicates the stages of human atherosclerosis. This is the first combined study about the immunologic injury and balloon injury based on the cholesterol diet. In this study, we developed a modified protocol of the white rabbit model that could represent a novel approach to studying human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque. PMID:22988422

  12. Metabolism of intravenous methylnaltrexone in mice, rats, dogs, and humans.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Appavu; Tong, Zeen; Li, Hongshan; Erve, John C L; DeMaio, William; Goljer, Igor; McConnell, Oliver; Rotshteyn, Yakov; Hultin, Theresa; Talaat, Rasmy; Scatina, JoAnn

    2010-04-01

    Methylnaltrexone (MNTX), a selective mu-opioid receptor antagonist, functions as a peripherally acting receptor antagonist in tissues of the gastrointestinal tract. This report describes the metabolic fate of [(3)H]MNTX or [(14)C]MNTX bromide in mice, rats, dogs, and humans after intravenous administration. Separation and identification of plasma and urinary MNTX metabolites was achieved by high-performance liquid chromatography-radioactivity detection and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The structures of the most abundant human metabolites were confirmed by chemical synthesis and NMR spectroscopic analysis. Analysis of radioactivity in plasma and urine showed that MNTX underwent two major pathways of metabolism in humans: sulfation of the phenolic group to MNTX-3-sulfate (M2) and reduction of the carbonyl group to two epimeric alcohols, methyl-6alpha-naltrexol (M4) and methyl-6beta-naltrexol (M5). Neither naltrexone nor its metabolite 6beta-naltrexol were detected in human plasma after administration of MNTX, confirming an earlier observation that N-demethylation was not a metabolic pathway of MNTX in humans. The urinary metabolite profiles in humans were consistent with plasma profiles. In mice, the circulating and urinary metabolites included M5, MNTX-3-glucuronide (M9), 2-hydroxy-3-O-methyl MNTX (M6), and its glucuronide (M10). M2, M5, M6, and M9 were observed in rats. Dogs produced only one metabolite, M9. In conclusion, MNTX was not extensively metabolized in humans. Conversion to methyl-6-naltrexol isomers (M4 and M5) and M2 were the primary pathways of metabolism in humans. MNTX was metabolized to a higher extent in mice than in rats, dogs, and humans. Glucuronidation was a major metabolic pathway in mice, rats, and dogs, but not in humans. Overall, the data suggested species differences in the metabolism of MNTX.

  13. Lymphatic drainage of the skull base: comparative anatomic and advanced imaging studies in the rabbit and human with implications for spread of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qiuhang, Z; Zhenlin, W; Yan, Q; Jun, H; Yongfeng, S; Bo, H

    2010-09-01

    This preliminary study investigated the lymphatic drainage and distribution of lymphatic structures in the skull base. Characteristics of the rabbit skull base were analyzed and compared correspondingly with those of the human skull. The lymphatic circulation in the rabbit cranial base was detected by digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and lymph drainage in the human skull base was illustrated by interstitial magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL). Lymphatic structures and their distribution in MRL were identified by comparing with contrast-enhanced MRI and clinical data on basilar metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the human skull base. Anatomic similarity was found between the rabbit and human basilar regions. Well-visualized lymphatic pathways were found in the rabbit cranial base, and human lymphatic structures showed high signal intensity in enhanced T1-weighted MRL images. Lymphatic tissues in the human basilar region were found mainly distributed in the areas of the jugular foramen, foramen lacerum, and petrosal section of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Their distribution in the human basilar region was similar to the distribution in the rabbit basilar region and consistent with our clinical findings of the predilection sites of NPC metastasis in the skull base. Our studies show that bilateral symmetrical lymphatic structures were distributed along the ICA, internal jugular vein, and dura of cranial base in the central part of the middle and posterior skull base.

  14. Steroid metabolism in chimeric mice with humanized liver.

    PubMed

    Lootens, Leen; Van Eenoo, Peter; Meuleman, Philip; Pozo, Oscar J; Van Renterghem, Pieter; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Delbeke, Frans T

    2009-11-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids are considered to be doping agents and are prohibited in sports. Their metabolism needs to be elucidated to allow for urinary detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Steroid metabolism was assessed using uPA(+/+) SCID mice with humanized livers (chimeric mice). This study presents the results of 19-norandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione (19-norAD) administration to these in vivo mice. As in humans, 19-norandrosterone and 19-noretiocholanolone are the major detectable metabolites of 19-norAD in the urine of chimeric mice.A summary is given of the metabolic pathways found in chimeric mice after administration of three model steroid compounds (methandienone, androst-4-ene-3,17-dione and 19-norandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione). From these studies we can conclude that all major metabolic pathways for anabolic steroids in humans are present in the chimeric mouse. It is hoped that, in future, this promising chimeric mouse model might assist the discovery of new and possible longer detectable metabolites of (designer) steroids.

  15. Modeling cognition and disease using human glial chimeric mice.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Steven A; Nedergaard, Maiken; Windrem, Martha S

    2015-08-01

    As new methods for producing and isolating human glial progenitor cells (hGPCs) have been developed, the disorders of myelin have become especially compelling targets for cell-based therapy. Yet as animal modeling of glial progenitor cell-based therapies has progressed, it has become clear that transplanted hGPCs not only engraft and expand within murine hosts, but dynamically outcompete the resident progenitors so as to ultimately dominate the host brain. The engrafted human progenitor cells proceed to generate parenchymal astrocytes, and when faced with a hypomyelinated environment, oligodendrocytes as well. As a result, the recipient brains may become inexorably humanized with regards to their resident glial populations, yielding human glial chimeric mouse brains. These brains provide us a fundamentally new tool by which to assess the species-specific attributes of glia in modulating human cognition and information processing. In addition, the cellular humanization of these brains permits their use in studying glial infectious and inflammatory disorders unique to humans, and the effects of those disorders on the glial contributions to cognition. Perhaps most intriguingly, by pairing our ability to construct human glial chimeras with the production of patient-specific hGPCs derived from pluripotential stem cells, we may now establish mice in which a substantial proportion of resident glia are both human and disease-derived. These mice in particular may provide us new opportunities for studying the human-specific contributions of glia to psychopathology, as well as to higher cognition. As such, the assessment of human glial chimeric mice may provide us new insight into the species-specific contributions of glia to human cognitive evolution, as well as to the pathogenesis of human neurological and neuropsychiatric disease.

  16. Engraftment Potential of Adipose Tissue-Derived Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells After Transplantation in the Fetal Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-González, Itziar; Moreno, Rafael; Petriz, Jordi; Gratacós, Eduard

    2012-01-01

    Due to their favorable intrinsic features, including engraftment, differentiation, and immunomodulatory potential, adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proposed for therapeutic in utero intervention. Further improvement of such attributes for particular diseases might merely be achieved by ex vivo MSC genetic engineering previous to transplantation. Here, we evaluated for the first time the feasibility, biodistribution, long-term engraftment, and transgenic enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression of genetically engineered human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (EGFP+-ASCs) after intra-amniotic xenotransplantation at E17 of gestation into our validated pregnant rabbit model. Overall, the procedure was safe (86.4% survival rate; absence of anatomical defects). Stable, low-level engraftment of EGFP+-ASCs was confirmed by assessing the presence of the pWT-EGFP lentiviral provirus in the young transplanted rabbit tissues. Accordingly, similar frequencies of provirus-positive animals were found at both 8 weeks (60%) and 16 weeks (66.7%) after in utero intervention. The presence of EGFP+-ASCs was more frequent in respiratory epithelia (lung and trachea), according to the route of administration. However, we were unable to detect EGFP expression, neither by real-time polymerase chain reaction nor by immunohistochemistry, in the provirus-positive tissues, suggesting EGFP transgene silencing mediated by epigenetic events. Moreover, we noticed lack of both host cellular immune responses against xenogeneic ASCs and humoral immune responses against transgenic EGFP. Therefore, the fetal microchimerism achieved by the EGFP+-ASCs in the young rabbit hosts indicates induction of donor-specific tolerance after fetal rabbit xenotransplantation, which should boost postnatal transplantation for the early treatment/prevention of many devastating congenital disorders. PMID:22738094

  17. Experimental chemotherapy of human tumors heterotransplanted in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Giovanella, B C

    1980-01-01

    Human tumors heterotransplanted in nude mice offer the most realistic model for experimental chemotherapy of human neoplasms. Almost all the known human malignancies have been successfully transplanted in the nudes, although the rate of takes varies considerably between different tumor types. So far, a good correlation has been observed between the results obtained treating with the same drug the same tumor in the patient and in the nude mouse. Our experience in this field is, however, still too limited for the direct extrapolation of chemotherapeutic results obtained in the nudes to human tumors.

  18. Differential depletion of total T cells and regulatory T cells and prolonged allotransplant survival in CD3Ɛ humanized mice treated with polyclonal anti human thymocyte globulin

    PubMed Central

    Buszko, Maja; Cardini, Benno; Oberhuber, Rupert; Oberhuber, Lukas; Jakic, Bojana; Beierfuss, Anja; Wick, Georg; Cappellano, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Thymoglobulin (ATG) is a polyclonal rabbit antibody against human thymocytes used as a T cell-depleting agent to prevent or treat allotransplant rejection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of low dose ATG treatment exclusively on T cells using a humanized BALB/c human CD3Ɛ transgenic mouse model expressing both human and murine T cell receptors (TCR). Mice received a single intravenous (i.v.) injection of ATG. Blood and peripheral lymphoid organs were obtained after different time points. We found a significant T cell depletion in this mouse model. In addition, regulatory T cells (Tregs) proved to be less sensitive to depletion than the rest of T cells and the Treg:non-Treg ratio was therefore increased. Finally, we also investigated the effect of ATG in a heterotopic allogenic murine model of heart transplantation. Survival and transplant function were significantly prolonged in ATG-treated mice. In conclusion, we showed (a) an immunosuppressive effect of ATG in this humanized mouse model which is exclusively mediated by reactivity against human CD3Ɛ; (b) provided evidence for a relative resistance of Tregs against this regimen; and (c) demonstrated the immunomodulatory effect of ATG under these experimental circumstances by prolongation of heart allograft survival. PMID:28257450

  19. Use of human amniotic membrane wrap in reducing perineural adhesions in a rabbit model of ulnar nerve neurorrhaphy.

    PubMed

    Kim, S S; Sohn, S K; Lee, K Y; Lee, M J; Roh, M S; Kim, C H

    2010-03-01

    The object of this experimental study was to assess the effect of wrapping human amniotic membrane around a repaired ulnar nerve in a rabbit model of perineural adhesion. Ulnar nerves from 10 white New Zealand rabbits were exposed bilaterally, dissected and repaired. Human amniotic membrane was then wrapped around the repair site in one limb with no such wrap in the neurorrhaphy of the contralateral limb. Three months later, the same nerves were re-explored and removed using microsurgical external neurolysis. Perineural adhesion around the ulnar nerve was evaluated by blinded surgical dissection and scored using a visual 4-point qualitative scale. Extent and grade of fibrosis around repair sites were measured microscopically (x 200) after Masson trichrome staining using measure of the depth of fibrosis and the grading criteria of adhesion. Quantitative morphometric analysis was also performed under light microscopy (x 200) with the aid of a digital counter and virtual slide imaging software (ScanScope T2, Vista, CA, USA). Human amniotic membrane wrapped nerves showed significantly less perineural adhesion and fibrosis than controls (P < 0.05). No nerve healing problems were encountered. This study suggests that human amniotic membrane application can reduce fibrosis and adhesion around neurorrhaphy sites in this animal model.

  20. FDTD analysis of temperature elevation in the lens of human and rabbit models due to near-field and far-field exposures at 2.45 GHz.

    PubMed

    Oizumi, Takuya; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa; Fujiwara, Osamu; Watanabe, Soichi; Taki, Masao; Kojima, Masami; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Kazuyuki

    2013-07-01

    The eye is said to be one of the most sensitive organs to microwave heating. According to previous studies, the possibility of microwave-induced cataract formation has been experimentally investigated in rabbit and monkey eyes, but not for the human eye due to ethical reasons. In the present study, the temperature elevation in the lens, the skin around the eye and the core temperature of numerical human and rabbit models for far-field and near-field exposures at 2.45 GHz are investigated. The temperature elevations in the human and rabbit models were compared with the threshold temperatures for inducing cataracts, thermal pain in the skin and reversible health effects such as heat exhaustion or heat stroke. For plane-wave exposure, the core temperature elevation is shown to be essential both in the human and in the rabbit models as suggested in the international guidelines and standards. For localised exposure of the human eye, the temperature elevation of the skin was essential, and the lens temperature did not reach its threshold for thermal pain. On the other hand, the lens temperature elevation was found to be dominant for the rabbit eye.

  1. In vitro CD4+ lymphocyte transformation and infection in a rabbit model with a molecular clone of human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, N D; Newbound, G C; Ratner, L; Lairmore, M D

    1996-01-01

    We transfected human and rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with the ACH molecular clone of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) to study its in vitro and in vivo properties. PBMC transfected with ACH were shown to transfer infection to naive PBMC. ACH transformed rabbit PBMC, as indicated by interleukin-2-independent proliferation of a transfectant culture. This transformant culture was shown by flow cytometric analysis to be a CD4+ CD25+ T-lymphocyte population containing, as determined by Southern blot analysis, at least three integrated HTLV-1 proviral copies. HTLV-1 infection was produced in rabbits inoculated with ACH-transfected, irradiated PBMC. Inoculated rabbits seroconverted to positivity for antibodies against HTLV-1 and had steady or rising HTLV-1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody titers. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis revealed sustained seroconversion of rabbits to positivity for antibodies against all major viral antigenic determinants. Infection of rabbits was further demonstrated by antigen capture assay of p24 in PBMC and lymph node cultures and PCR amplification of proviral sequences from PBMC. These data suggest that ACH, like wild-type HTLV-1, infects and transforms primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and is infectious in vivo. This clone will facilitate investigations into the role of viral genes on biological properties of HTLV-1 in vitro and in vivo. PMID:8794375

  2. Activation of GPR119 Stimulates Human β-Cell Replication and Neogenesis in Humanized Mice with Functional Human Islets

    PubMed Central

    Ansarullah; Free, Colette; Christopherson, Jenica; Chen, Quanhai; Gao, Jie; Liu, Chengyang; Naji, Ali; Rabinovitch, Alex; Guo, Zhiguang

    2016-01-01

    Using humanized mice with functional human islets, we investigated whether activating GPR119 by PSN632408, a small molecular agonist, can stimulate human β-cell regeneration in vivo. Human islets were transplanted under the left kidney capsule of immunodeficient mice with streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetes. The recipient mice were treated with PSN632408 or vehicle and BrdU daily. Human islet graft function in the mice was evaluated by nonfasting glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance, and removal of the grafts. Immunostaining for insulin, glucagon, and BrdU or Ki67 was performed in islet grafts to evaluate α- and β-cell replication. Insulin and CK19 immunostaining was performed to evaluate β-cell neogenesis. Four weeks after human islet transplantation, 71% of PSN632408-treated mice achieved normoglycaemia compared with 24% of vehicle-treated mice. Also, oral glucose tolerance was significantly improved in the PSN632408-treated mice. PSN632408 treatment significantly increased both human α- and β-cell areas in islet grafts and stimulated α- and β-cell replication. In addition, β-cell neogenesis was induced from pancreatic duct cells in the islet grafts. Our results demonstrated that activation of GPR119 increases β-cell mass by stimulating human β-cell replication and neogenesis. Therefore, GPR119 activators may qualify as therapeutic agents to increase human β-cell mass in patients with diabetes. PMID:27413754

  3. Vaccines against human HER2 prevent mammary carcinoma in mice transgenic for human HER2

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The availability of mice transgenic for the human HER2 gene (huHER2) and prone to the development of HER2-driven mammary carcinogenesis (referred to as FVB-huHER2 mice) prompted us to study active immunopreventive strategies targeting the human HER2 molecule in a tolerant host. Methods FVB-huHER2 mice were vaccinated with either IL-12-adjuvanted human HER2-positive cancer cells or DNA vaccine carrying chimeric human-rat HER2 sequences. Onset and number of mammary tumors were recorded to evaluate vaccine potency. Mice sera were collected and passively transferred to xenograft-bearing mice to assess their antitumor efficacy. Results Both cell and DNA vaccines significantly delayed tumor onset, leading to about 65% tumor-free mice at 70 weeks, whereas mock-vaccinated FVB-huHER2 controls developed mammary tumors at a median age of 45 weeks. In the DNA vaccinated group, 65% of mice were still tumor-free at about 90 weeks of age. The number of mammary tumors per mouse was also significantly reduced in vaccinated mice. Vaccines broke the immunological tolerance to the huHER2 transgene, inducing both humoral and cytokine responses. The DNA vaccine mainly induced a high and sustained level of anti-huHER2 antibodies, the cell vaccine also elicited interferon (IFN)-γ production. Sera of DNA-vaccinated mice transferred to xenograft-carrying mice significantly inhibited the growth of human HER2-positive cancer cells. Conclusions Anti-huHER2 antibodies elicited in the tolerant host exert antitumor activity. PMID:24451168

  4. Disposable rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  5. Disposal rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.

    1983-10-12

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  6. Polycythemia in transgenic mice expressing the human erythropoietin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Semenza, G.L.; Traystman, M.D.; Gearhart, J.D.; Antonarakis, S.E. )

    1989-04-01

    Erythropoietin is a glycoprotein hormone that regulates mammalian erythropoiesis. To study the expression of the human erythropoietin gene, EPO, 4 kilobases of DNA encompassing the gene with 0.4 kilobase of 5{prime} flanking sequence and 0.7 kilobase of 3{prime} flanking sequence was microinjected into fertilized mouse eggs. Transgenic mice were generated that are polycythemic, with increased erythrocytic indices in peripheral blood, increased numbers of erythroid precursors in hematopoietic tissue, and increased serum erythropoietin levels. Transgenic homozygotes show a greater degree of polycythemia than do heterozygotes as well as striking extramedullary erythropoiesis. Human erythropoietin RNA was found not only in fetal liver, adult liver, and kidney but also in all other transgenic tissues analyzed. Anemia induced increased human erythropoietin RNA levels in liver but not kidney. These transgenic mice represent a unique model of polycythemia due to increased erythropoietin levels.

  7. Effects of HIV-1 on Cognition in Humanized NSG Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, Sidra Pervez

    Host species specificity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) creates a challenge to study the pathology, diagnostic tools, and therapeutic agents. The closely related simian immunodeficiency virus and studies of neurocognitive impairments on transgenic animals expressing partial viral genome have significant limitations. The humanized mice model provides a small animal system in which a human immune system can be engrafted and immunopathobiology of HIV-1 infection can be studied. However, features of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) were not evaluated in this model. Open field activity test was selected to characterize behavior of original strain NOD/scid-IL-2Rgammac null (NSG) mice, effects of engraftment of human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and functional human immune system (huNSG), and finally, investigate the behavior changes induced by chronic HIV-1 infection. Long-term infected HuNSG mice showed the loss of working memory and increased anxiety in the open field. Additionally, these animals were utilized for evaluation of central nervous system metabolic and structural changes. Detected behavioral abnormalities are correlated with obtained neuroimaging and histological abnormalities published.

  8. Effects of recombinant human interleukin-10 on Treg cells, IL-10 and TGF-β in transplantation of rabbit skin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai Shan; Fan, Xiao Qin; Zhang, Lei; Wen, Qiong Na; Feng, Ji Hong; Chen, Fu Chao; Luo, Jun Min; Sun, Wan Bang

    2014-02-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the rejection and survival time of grafted skin, and the changes of Treg cells, interleukin 10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in peripheral blood following skin transplantation with recombinant human interleukin-10 (rhIL-10) or cyclosporin A (CsA), as well as the role of IL-10 in immunological rejection mechanisms. A total of 36 rabbits were divided into two groups. The skin of a donor rabbit was transplanted onto the back of one receptor rabbit. Receptors were randomly divided into six groups, including rhIL-10 low-dose (5 µg/kg/d), rhIL-10 high-dose (10 µg/kg/d), CsA low-dose (5 mg/kg/d), CsA high-dose (10 mg/kg/d), rhIL-10 (5 µg/kg/d) and CsA (5 mg/kg/d) and negative control normal saline (NS; 1 ml/d). All groups received intramuscular drug injection for ten days, beginning one day prior to skin transplantation surgery. Following transplantation, each rabbit's peripheral blood was collected at different times. The changes of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, IL-10 and TGF-β were determined by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. When compared with the control group, the rejection and survival times of the experimental groups were longer following skin graft. Compared with the two CsA groups and the control group, the proportion of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells of rhIL-10 groups was significantly upregulated on the 4th and 7th days following surgery. However, TGF-β levels were not significantly different. Data suggested that the concentration of IL-10 was positively correlated with the proportion of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. In addition, IL-10 may delay the rejection time of rabbit skin transplantation and prolong the survival time. Thus, the role of IL-10 in inhibited allograft rejection may be associated with CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and IL-10, and may be independent of TGF-β.

  9. Bacillus cereus G9241 makes anthrax toxin and capsule like highly virulent B. anthracis Ames but behaves like attenuated toxigenic nonencapsulated B. anthracis Sterne in rabbits and mice.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Melissa K; Vergis, James M; Alem, Farhang; Palmer, John R; Keane-Myers, Andrea M; Brahmbhatt, Trupti N; Ventura, Christy L; O'Brien, Alison D

    2011-08-01

    Bacillus cereus G9241 was isolated from a welder with a pulmonary anthrax-like illness. The organism contains two megaplasmids, pBCXO1 and pBC218. These plasmids are analogous to the Bacillus anthracis Ames plasmids pXO1 and pXO2 that encode anthrax toxins and capsule, respectively. Here we evaluated the virulence of B. cereus G9241 as well as the contributions of pBCXO1 and pBC218 to virulence. B. cereus G9241 was avirulent in New Zealand rabbits after subcutaneous inoculation and attenuated 100-fold compared to the published 50% lethal dose (LD(50)) values for B. anthracis Ames after aerosol inoculation. A/J and C57BL/6J mice were comparably susceptible to B. cereus G9241 by both subcutaneous and intranasal routes of infection. However, the LD(50)s for B. cereus G9241 in both mouse strains were markedly higher than those reported for B. anthracis Ames and more like those of the toxigenic but nonencapsulated B. anthracis Sterne. Furthermore, B. cereus G9241 spores could germinate and disseminate after intranasal inoculation into A/J mice, as indicated by the presence of vegetative cells in the spleen and blood of animals 48 h after infection. Lastly, B. cereus G9241 derivatives cured of one or both megaplasmids were highly attenuated in A/J mice. We conclude that the presence of the toxin- and capsule-encoding plasmids pBCXO1 and pBC218 in B. cereus G9241 alone is insufficient to render the strain as virulent as B. anthracis Ames. However, like B. anthracis, full virulence of B. cereus G9241 for mice requires the presence of both plasmids.

  10. Magnetic resonance knee arthrography. Enhanced contrast by gadolinium complex in the rabbit and in humans.

    PubMed

    Engel, A

    1990-01-01

    This study contains the fundamentals and the technique of the intraarticular application of an MRI contrast agent in connection with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI arthrography). It also presents the resulting clinical relevance for knee joint diagnostics. The significance of MRI arthrography is linked above all to the central question of whether or not it is possible to depict the hyaline cartilage, its surface and its thickness with the help of MRI arthrography. MRI arthrography was used for in vitro examinations of rabbit knee joint cartilage and human joint cartilage. The in vivo application was carried out in 73 patients. Apart from the metric evaluation and the assessment of the information content of the MRI image, the corresponding histologic sections were made in 20 knee joints in order to compare the cartilage surface and the thickness of the cartilage with the results in the MRI image. The optimum amount of contrast agent for visualization was determined, the uptake and clearance of the contrast agent from the cartilage were assessed, and trace elements from the cartilage were also analyzed. The examination showed that the molecular structure of the contrast agent (gadolinium-DTPA) does not prevent the uptake of the contrast agent into the matrix of the hyaline cartilage. But this process is reversible. Thus, 14 hours after the intraarticular application of the contrast agent no measurable traces of gadolinium-DTPA could be established. The intraarticular application of the contrast agent also made it possible to achieve a constant and reproducible visualization of all joint structures. This affected mainly the surface of the hyaline cartilage. The best imaging quality was achieved with intraarticular application of 30 to 40 mL of a 2 mmolar solution of gadolinium-DTPA. The technique used for the intraarticular application is the same as for the common procedures of knee joint aspiration. The clinical importance of MRI arthrography lies in the fact that

  11. Engrafted human cells generate adaptive immune responses to Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection in humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Currently used mouse models fail to fully reflect human immunity to tuberculosis (TB), which hampers progress in research and vaccine development. Bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) mice, generated by engrafting human fetal liver, thymus, and hematopoietic stem cells in severely immunodeficient NOD/SCID/IL-2Rγ-/- (NSG) mice, have shown potential to model human immunity to infection. We engrafted HLA-A2-positive fetal tissues into NSG mice transgenically expressing human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2.1 (NSG-A2) to generate NSG-A2-BLT mice and characterized their human immune response to Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) infection to assess the utility of this model for investigating human TB. Results NSG-A2-BLT mice were infected intravenously with BCG and the immune response of engrafted human immune cells was characterized. After ex vivo antigenic stimulation of splenocytes, interferon (IFN)-γ-producing cells were detected by ELISPOT from infected, but not uninfected NSG-A2-BLT mice. However, the levels of secreted IFN-γ, determined by ELISA, were not significantly elevated by antigenic stimulation. NSG-A2-BLT mice were susceptible to BCG infection as determined by higher lung bacillary load than the non-engrafted control NSG-A2 mice. BCG-infected NSG-A2-BLT mice developed lung lesions composed mostly of human macrophages and few human CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. The lesions did not resemble granulomas typical of human TB. Conclusions Engrafted human immune cells in NSG-A2-BLT mice showed partial function of innate and adaptive immune systems culminating in antigen-specific T cell responses to mycobacterial infection. The lack of protection was associated with low IFN-γ levels and limited numbers of T cells recruited to the lesions. The NSG-A2-BLT mouse is capable of mounting a human immune response to M. tuberculosis in vivo but a quantitatively and possibly qualitatively enhanced effector response will be needed to improve the utility of this

  12. [Effects of NGF on chromaffin adrenaline-containing cells of adrenal medulla of rabbits transplanted into brains of mice].

    PubMed

    Jousselin-Hosaja, M; Derbin, C

    1993-01-01

    The graft of chromaffin adrenaline-containing (A) cells of rabbit adrenal medulla implanted to mouse brain and treated with NGF contains more survived cells 1 month after grafting than adrenal medulla alone. The cells developed either an intermediate (e.g. chromaffin cell and neuron) or a neuron-like phenotypes accompanied with a decrease in an immunoreactivity for PNMT (phenyletanolamine-N-methyltransferase). A gap junctions and attached plaques were found between grafted cells. The grafts received a synaptic input. The NGF influence on the fate of chromaffin A-containing cells is discussed.

  13. Development of humanized rabbit monoclonal antibodies against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 with potential antitumor effects.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanlan; Lee, Pierre; Ke, Yaohuang; Zhang, Yongke; Chen, Jungang; Dai, Jihong; Li, Mingzhen; Zhu, Weimin; Yu, Guo-Liang

    2013-07-05

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) plays a critical role in physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis through its receptors especially through VEGFR2. The lack of cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with human VEGFR2/mouse Flk-1 is a major obstacle in preclinical developments. In this study, using a unique hybridoma technique, we generated a panel of 30 neutralization anti-VEGFR2 rabbit monoclonal antibodies (RabMAbs) either blocking VEGF/VEGFR2 interaction or inhibiting VEGF-stimulated VEGFR2 tyrosine kinase phosphorylation. Among 18 RabMAbs with human/mouse VEGFR2 cross-reactivity, we humanized one lead candidate RabMAb by Mutational Lineage Guided (MLG) method and further demonstrated its potent inhibition of tumor growth in xenograft mouse model. Our study suggests that RabMAbs are highly relevant for therapeutic applications.

  14. Regulated expression of the human gastrin gene in mice.

    PubMed

    Mensah-Osman, Edith; Labut, Ed; Zavros, Yana; El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Law, David J; Merchant, Juanita L

    2008-11-29

    Gastrin is secreted from neuroendocrine cells residing in the adult antrum called G cells, but constitutively low levels are also expressed in the duodenum and fetal pancreas. Gastrin normally regulates gastric acid secretion by stimulating the proliferation of enterochromaffin-like cells and the release of histamine. Gastrin and progastrin forms are expressed in a number of pathological conditions and malignancies. However, the DNA regulatory elements in the human versus the mouse gastrin promoters differ suggesting differences in their transcriptional control. Thus, we describe here the expression of the human gastrin gene using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) in the antral and duodenal cells of gastrin null mice. All 5 founder lines expressed the 253 kb human gastrin BAC. hGasBAC transgenic mice were bred onto a gastrin null background so that the levels of human gastrin peptide could be analyzed by immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay without detecting endogenous mouse gastrin. We have shown previously that chronically elevated gastrin levels suppress somatostatin. Indeed, infusion of amidated rat gastrin depressed somatostatin levels, stimulated gastric acid secretion and an increase in the numbers of G cells in the antrum and duodenum. In conclusion, human gastrin was expressed in mouse enteroendocrine cells and was regulated by somatostatin. This mouse model provides a unique opportunity to study regulation of the human gastrin promoter in vivo by somatostatin and possibly other extracellular regulators contributing to our understanding of the mechanisms involved in transcriptional control of the human gene.

  15. Molecular phylogeny of the pinworms of mice, rats and rabbits, and its use to develop molecular beacon assays for the detection of pinworms in mice.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Sanford H; Bowman, Susan G

    2007-10-01

    Though pinworm infestation has been prevalent since the early years of laboratory animal medicine, the genomes of these parasites have not yet been sequenced. The authors used high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction to amplify a large portion of the ribosomal gene complex of four pinworm species commonly found in lab rodents and rabbits (Aspiculuris tetraptera, Passalurus ambiguus, Syphacia muris and Syphacia obvelata). They determined DNA sequences for these complexes and carried out phylogenetic analysis. Using this information, the authors developed real-time molecular beacon assays for pinworm detection, comparing the new diagnostic approach with traditional methods such as perianal tape testing, fecal flotation and direct examination of intestinal content.

  16. Human CD8+ T cells mediate protective immunity induced by a human malaria vaccine in human immune system mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangming; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Min; Funakoshi, Ryota; Sheetij, Dutta; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Crisanti, Andrea; Nussenzweig, Victor; Nussenzweig, Ruth S; Tsuji, Moriya

    2016-08-31

    A number of studies have shown that CD8+ T cells mediate protective anti-malaria immunity in a mouse model. However, whether human CD8+ T cells play a role in protection against malaria remains unknown. We recently established human immune system (HIS) mice harboring functional human CD8+ T cells (HIS-CD8 mice) by transduction with HLA-A∗0201 and certain human cytokines using recombinant adeno-associated virus-based gene transfer technologies. These HIS-CD8 mice mount a potent, antigen-specific HLA-A∗0201-restricted human CD8+ T-cell response upon immunization with a recombinant adenovirus expressing a human malaria antigen, the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP), termed AdPfCSP. In the present study, we challenged AdPfCSP-immunized HIS-CD8 mice with transgenic Plasmodium berghei sporozoites expressing full-length PfCSP and found that AdPfCSP-immunized (but not naïve) mice were protected against subsequent malaria challenge. The level of the HLA-A∗0201-restricted, PfCSP-specific human CD8+ T-cell response was closely correlated with the level of malaria protection. Furthermore, depletion of human CD8+ T cells from AdPfCSP-immunized HIS-CD8 mice almost completely abolished the anti-malaria immune response. Taken together, our data show that human CD8+ T cells mediate protective anti-malaria immunity in vivo.

  17. Auditory Distance Coding in Rabbit Midbrain Neurons and Human Perception: Monaural Amplitude Modulation Depth as a Cue

    PubMed Central

    Zahorik, Pavel; Carney, Laurel H.; Bishop, Brian B.; Kuwada, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying sound source distance localization are not well understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that a novel mechanism can create monaural distance sensitivity: a combination of auditory midbrain neurons' sensitivity to amplitude modulation (AM) depth and distance-dependent loss of AM in reverberation. We used virtual auditory space (VAS) methods for sounds at various distances in anechoic and reverberant environments. Stimulus level was constant across distance. With increasing modulation depth, some rabbit inferior colliculus neurons increased firing rates whereas others decreased. These neurons exhibited monotonic relationships between firing rates and distance for monaurally presented noise when two conditions were met: (1) the sound had AM, and (2) the environment was reverberant. The firing rates as a function of distance remained approximately constant without AM in either environment and, in an anechoic condition, even with AM. We corroborated this finding by reproducing the distance sensitivity using a neural model. We also conducted a human psychophysical study using similar methods. Normal-hearing listeners reported perceived distance in response to monaural 1 octave 4 kHz noise source sounds presented at distances of 35–200 cm. We found parallels between the rabbit neural and human responses. In both, sound distance could be discriminated only if the monaural sound in reverberation had AM. These observations support the hypothesis. When other cues are available (e.g., in binaural hearing), how much the auditory system actually uses the AM as a distance cue remains to be determined. PMID:25834060

  18. [Electrophysiological analysis of bruxisma of rabbits as natural model of the first bruxism in human being].

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Iu P; Kromin, A A

    2010-01-01

    In chronic experiences on 5 rabbits subjected to airmentary deprivation, impulse activity of the chewing muscles before and after the food was given to them was studied. It has been established, that flashes of bruxism nonoperiodically arise in rabbits in conditions of hunger and satiation and are shown in electric activity of masseter and mylohyoideus muscles in the form of burst type phase impulse activity of MU. Bruxism in conditions of hunger and satiation reflects in the same type way in structure of the time organization of impulse activity of the chewing muscles in the form of bimodal distributions of interpulse intervals and monomodal distributions of periods of the burst type rhythmic of action potentials. The alimentary motivation exerts inhibitory modulating influence on frequency of phase discharge activity of chewing center motoneurons in medulla oblongata and frequency of generation of the action potentials' bursts by the chewing muscles participating in bruxism. Impulse activity of chewing muscles during bruxism and food intake behaviour has the same-type character. Bruxism arises due to reorganization of the impulse activity of chewing center motoneurons innervating masseter and mylohyoideus muscles. There is no basis to suppose the presence of the special center of bruxism in medulla oblongata.Bruxism in rabbits an be considered as natural model of the first type bruxism in man.

  19. From rabbit antibody repertoires to rabbit monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Justus; Peng, Haiyong; Rader, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we explain why and how rabbit monoclonal antibodies have become outstanding reagents for laboratory research and increasingly for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Starting with the unique ontogeny of rabbit B cells that affords highly distinctive antibody repertoires rich in in vivo pruned binders of high diversity, affinity and specificity, we describe the generation of rabbit monoclonal antibodies by hybridoma technology, phage display and alternative methods, along with an account of successful humanization strategies. PMID:28336958

  20. Pathology of Human Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Xenografts in NSG Mice

    PubMed Central

    Powers, James F.; Pacak, Karel; Tischler, Arthur S.

    2016-01-01

    A major impediment to the development of effective treatments for metastatic or unresectable pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas has been the absence of valid models for pre-clinical testing. Attempts to establish cell lines or xenografts from human pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas have previously been unsuccessful. NOD-scid gamma (NSG) mice are a recently developed strain lacking functional B-cells, T-cells and NK cells. We report here that xenografts of primary human paragangliomas will take in NSG mice while maintaining their architectural and immunophenotypic characteristics as expressed in the patients. In contrast to grafts of cell lines and of most common types of primary tumors, the growth rate of grafted paragangliomas is very slow, accurately representing the growth rate of most pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas even in metastases in humans. Although the model is therefore technically challenging, primary patient derived xenografts of paragangliomas in NSG mice provide a potentially valuable new tool that could prove especially valuable for testing treatments aimed at eradicating the small tumor deposits that are often numerous in patients with metastatic paraganglioma. PMID:27709415

  1. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 suspended in fibrin glue enhances bone formation during distraction osteogenesis in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunfeng; Li, Rui; Hu, Jing; Song, Donghui; Jiang, Xiaowen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) has high potential for bone formation, but its in vivo effects are unpredictable due to the short life time. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of recombinant human (rh) BMP-2 suspended in fibrin on bone formation during distraction osteogenesis (DO) in rabbits. Material and methods The in vitro release kinetics of rhBMP-2 suspended in fibrin was tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Unilateral tibial lengthening for 10 mm was achieved in 48 rabbits. At the completion of osteodistraction, vehicle, fibrin, rhBMP-2 or rhBMP-2 suspended in fibrin (rhBMP-2 + fibrin) was injected into the center of the lengthened gap, with 12 animals in each group. Eight weeks later, the distracted callus was examined by histology, micro-CT and biomechanical testing. Radiographs of the distracted tibiae were taken at both 4 and 8 weeks after drug treatment. Results It was found that fibrin prolonged the life span of rhBMP-2 in vitro with sustained release during 17 days. The rhBMP-2 + fibrin treated animals showed the best results in bone mineral density, bone volume fraction, cortical bone thickness by micro-CT evaluation and mechanical properties by the three-point bending test when compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). In histological images, rhBMP-2 + fibrin treatment showed increased callus formation and better gap bridging compared to the other groups. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that fibrin holds promise to be a good carrier of rhBMP-2, and rhBMP-2 suspended in fibrin showed a stronger promoting effect on bone formation during DO in rabbits. PMID:27279839

  2. De Novo Generated Human Red Blood Cells in Humanized Mice Support Plasmodium falciparum Infection.

    PubMed

    Amaladoss, Anburaj; Chen, Qingfeng; Liu, Min; Dummler, Sara K; Dao, Ming; Suresh, Subra; Chen, Jianzhu; Preiser, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    Immunodeficient mouse-human chimeras provide a powerful approach to study host specific pathogens like Plasmodium (P.) falciparum that causes human malaria. Existing mouse models of P. falciparum infection require repeated injections of human red blood cells (RBCs). In addition, clodronate lipsomes and anti-neutrophil antibodies are injected to suppress the clearance of human RBCs by the residual immune system of the immunodeficient mice. Engraftment of NOD-scid Il2rg-/- mice with human hematopoietic stem cells leads to reconstitution of human immune cells. Although human B cell reconstitution is robust and T cell reconstitution is reasonable in the recipient mice, human RBC reconstitution is generally poor or undetectable. The poor reconstitution is mainly the result of a deficiency of appropriate human cytokines that are necessary for the development and maintenance of these cell lineages. Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding human erythropoietin and interleukin-3 into humanized mice by hydrodynamic tail-vein injection resulted in significantly enhanced reconstitution of erythrocytes. With this improved humanized mouse, here we show that P. falciparum infects de novo generated human RBCs, develops into schizonts and causes successive reinvasion. We also show that different parasite strains exhibit variation in their ability to infect these humanized mice. Parasites could be detected by nested PCR in the blood samples of humanized mice infected with P. falciparum K1 and HB3 strains for 3 cycles, whereas in other strains such as 3D7, DD2, 7G8, FCR3 and W2mef parasites could only be detected for 1 cycle. In vivo adaptation of K1 strain further improves the infection efficiency and parasites can be detected by microscopy for 3 cycles. The parasitemia ranges between 0.13 and 0.25% at the first cycle of infection, falls between 0.08 and 0.15% at the second cycle, and drops to barely detectable levels at the third cycle of infection. Compared to existing mouse models, our

  3. Mechanism of vasodilation induced by alpha-human atrial natriuretic polypeptide in rabbit and guinea-pig renal arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, K; Ishimatsu, T; Kuriyama, H

    1986-01-01

    Effects of alpha-human atrial natriuretic polypeptide (alpha-HANP) on electrical and mechanical properties of smooth muscle cells of the guinea-pig and rabbit renal arteries and of the guinea-pig mesenteric artery were investigated. alpha-HANP (up to 10 nM) modified neither the membrane potential nor resistance of smooth muscle cells of the guinea-pig and rabbit renal arteries. In the guinea-pig mesenteric and renal arteries, alpha-HANP (up to 10 nM) had no effect on the amplitude and facilitation (mesenteric artery) or depression (renal artery) of excitatory junction potentials nor on action potentials. In the guinea-pig renal artery, alpha-HANP (up to 10 nM) had no effect on the depolarization induced by noradrenaline (NA) (up to 10 microM) but markedly inhibited NA-induced contraction. alpha-HANP (10 nM) slightly inhibited the K-induced contraction. In the rabbit renal artery, alpha-HANP (10 nM) inhibited the NA-induced contraction and to a lesser extent the K-induced contraction. In the rabbit renal artery, the effects of alpha-HANP on the release of Ca from the cellular storage by two applications of NA, and its re-storage, were investigated in Ca-free solution containing 2 mM-EGTA. When 5 nM-alpha-HANP was applied before and during the first application of 0.5 microM-NA, the contraction was markedly inhibited but the contraction to a second application of 10 microM-NA was potentiated. If the first dose of NA was 10 microM the effect was very small. Under the same experimental procedures, nitroglycerine (10 microM) showed almost the same effects as alpha-HANP on the NA-induced contractions. When both the first (3 mM) and second (10 mM) contractions were evoked by caffeine in Ca-free solution, alpha-HANP (5 nM) and nitroglycerine (10 microM) inhibited both contractions to the same extent. In the rabbit renal artery, applications of alpha-HANP or nitroglycerine increased the amount of guanosine 3',5'-phosphate (cyclic GMP) in a dose-dependent manner. However, a

  4. Application of chimeric mice with humanized liver for study of human-specific drug metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Thomas J; Reddy, Vijay G B; Kakuni, Masakazu; Morikawa, Yoshio; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2014-06-01

    Human-specific or disproportionately abundant human metabolites of drug candidates that are not adequately formed and qualified in preclinical safety assessment species pose an important drug development challenge. Furthermore, the overall metabolic profile of drug candidates in humans is an important determinant of their drug-drug interaction susceptibility. These risks can be effectively assessed and/or mitigated if human metabolic profile of the drug candidate could reliably be determined in early development. However, currently available in vitro human models (e.g., liver microsomes, hepatocytes) are often inadequate in this regard. Furthermore, the conduct of definitive radiolabeled human ADME studies is an expensive and time-consuming endeavor that is more suited for later in development when the risk of failure has been reduced. We evaluated a recently developed chimeric mouse model with humanized liver on uPA/SCID background for its ability to predict human disposition of four model drugs (lamotrigine, diclofenac, MRK-A, and propafenone) that are known to exhibit human-specific metabolism. The results from these studies demonstrate that chimeric mice were able to reproduce the human-specific metabolite profile for lamotrigine, diclofenac, and MRK-A. In the case of propafenone, however, the human-specific metabolism was not detected as a predominant pathway, and the metabolite profiles in native and humanized mice were similar; this was attributed to the presence of residual highly active propafenone-metabolizing mouse enzymes in chimeric mice. Overall, the data indicate that the chimeric mice with humanized liver have the potential to be a useful tool for the prediction of human-specific metabolism of xenobiotics and warrant further investigation.

  5. Human BLyS Facilitates Engraftment of Human PBL Derived B Cells in Immunodeficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Madelyn R.; Appel, Michael C.; Giassi, Lisa J.; Greiner, Dale L.; Shultz, Leonard D.; Woodland, Robert T.

    2008-01-01

    The production of fully immunologically competent humanized mice engrafted with peripheral lymphocyte populations provides a model for in vivo testing of new vaccines, the durability of immunological memory and cancer therapies. This approach is limited, however, by the failure to efficiently engraft human B lymphocytes in immunodeficient mice. We hypothesized that this deficiency was due to the failure of the murine microenvironment to support human B cell survival. We report that while the human B lymphocyte survival factor, B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS/BAFF) enhances the survival of human B cells ex vivo, murine BLyS has no such protective effect. Although human B cells bound both human and murine BLyS, nuclear accumulation of NF-κB p52, an indication of the induction of a protective anti-apoptotic response, following stimulation with human BLyS was more robust than that induced with murine BLyS suggesting a fundamental disparity in BLyS receptor signaling. Efficient engraftment of both human B and T lymphocytes in NOD rag1−/− Prf1−/− immunodeficient mice treated with recombinant human BLyS is observed after adoptive transfer of human PBL relative to PBS treated controls. Human BLyS treated recipients had on average 40-fold higher levels of serum Ig than controls and mounted a de novo antibody response to the thymus-independent antigens in pneumovax vaccine. The data indicate that production of fully immunologically competent humanized mice from PBL can be markedly facilitated by providing human BLyS. PMID:18784835

  6. Rabbit anti-rabies immunoglobulins production and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinjian; Liu, Qiongqiong; Feng, Xiaomin; Tang, Qi; Wang, Zhongcan; Li, Suqing; Feng, Zhenqing; Zhu, Jin; Guan, Xiaohong

    2011-04-01

    Due to the disadvantages of human and equine rabies immunoglobulin, it is necessary to develop a substitute for HRIG and ERIG, especially for those people living in the developing countries. Because of higher affinity and lower immunogenicity of rabbit's immunoglobulins, anti-rabies immunoglobulins specific to rabies virus were produced in rabbits as a bioreactor, and had been characterized by ELISA, affinity assay, immunofluorescence assay (IFA), immunocytochemistry, rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). ELISA, affinity assay and IFA showed that rabbit RIG (RRIG) bound specifically to rabies virions. RFFIT result showed that RRIG has neutralization activity. This result was confirmed in vivo in a Kunming mouse challenge model and the protection rate of the treatment with RRIG was higher (25%) than that offered by HRIG when mice were challenged with a lethal RV dose. Our results demonstrate that RRIG is safe and efficacious as a candidate drug to replace rabies immunoglobulin in post-exposure prophylaxis.

  7. Repair of Osteochondral Defects Using Human Umbilical Cord Wharton's Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuyun; Jia, Yanhui; Yuan, Mei; Guo, Weimin; Huang, Jingxiang; Zhao, Bin; Peng, Jiang; Xu, Wenjing; Lu, Shibi; Guo, Quanyi

    2017-01-01

    Umbilical cord Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cell (WJMSC) is a new-found mesenchymal stem cell in recent years with multiple lineage potential. Due to its abundant resources, no damage procurement, and lower immunogenicity than other adult MSCs, WJMSC promises to be a good xenogenous cell candidate for tissue engineering. This in vivo pilot study explored the use of human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJMSCs) containing a tissue engineering construct xenotransplant in rabbits to repair full-thickness cartilage defects in the femoral patellar groove. We observed orderly spatial-temporal remodeling of hWJMSCs into cartilage tissues during repair over 16 months, with characteristic architectural features, including a hyaline-like neocartilage layer with good surface regularity, complete integration with adjacent host cartilage, and regenerated subchondral bone. No immune rejection was detected when xenograft hWJMSCs were implanted into rabbit cartilage defects. The repair results using hWJMSCs were superior to those of chondrogenically induced hWJMSCs after assessing gross appearance and histological grading scores. These preliminary results suggest that using novel undifferentiated hWJMSCs as seed cells might be a better approach than using transforming growth factor-β-induced differentiated hWJMSCs for in vivo tissue engineering treatment of cartilage defects. hWJMSC allografts may be promising for clinical applications.

  8. Repair of Osteochondral Defects Using Human Umbilical Cord Wharton's Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yanhui; Yuan, Mei; Guo, Weimin; Huang, Jingxiang; Zhao, Bin; Xu, Wenjing; Lu, Shibi

    2017-01-01

    Umbilical cord Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cell (WJMSC) is a new-found mesenchymal stem cell in recent years with multiple lineage potential. Due to its abundant resources, no damage procurement, and lower immunogenicity than other adult MSCs, WJMSC promises to be a good xenogenous cell candidate for tissue engineering. This in vivo pilot study explored the use of human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJMSCs) containing a tissue engineering construct xenotransplant in rabbits to repair full-thickness cartilage defects in the femoral patellar groove. We observed orderly spatial-temporal remodeling of hWJMSCs into cartilage tissues during repair over 16 months, with characteristic architectural features, including a hyaline-like neocartilage layer with good surface regularity, complete integration with adjacent host cartilage, and regenerated subchondral bone. No immune rejection was detected when xenograft hWJMSCs were implanted into rabbit cartilage defects. The repair results using hWJMSCs were superior to those of chondrogenically induced hWJMSCs after assessing gross appearance and histological grading scores. These preliminary results suggest that using novel undifferentiated hWJMSCs as seed cells might be a better approach than using transforming growth factor-β-induced differentiated hWJMSCs for in vivo tissue engineering treatment of cartilage defects. hWJMSC allografts may be promising for clinical applications. PMID:28261617

  9. Efficacy of five human melanocytic cell lines in experimental rabbit choroidal melanoma.

    PubMed

    López-Velasco, Rosario; Morilla-Grasa, Antonio; Saornil-Alvarez, María A; Ordóñez, José L; Blanco, Gonzalo; Rábano, Guillermo; Fernández, Nieves; Almaraz, Ana

    2005-02-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the ability of five uveal melanocytic cell lines to produce primary and metastatic uveal melanomas in immunosuppressed rabbits and to determine whether animal survival was improved by antibiotic administration. One hundred albino rabbit eyes, five groups of 20, were implanted in the suprachoroidal space with four melanoma cell lines (MKT-BR, OCM-1, 92-1 and SP 6.5) and one melanocytic line (UW-1). Rabbits were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin A (CsA) at a dosage of 15 mg/kg/day, decreased to 10 mg/kg/day after the fourth week. Prophylactic penicillin G, 10 to 2 x 10 IU, was administered intramuscularly at 5-day intervals. Animals were followed for 12 weeks and the ophthalmoscopic findings, weight and general well-being were recorded weekly. Autopsies were performed to study the eyes, liver and lungs under light microscopy. The mean global survival time in the groups was 43+/-4 days. Ophthalmoscopic intraocular tumours developed in 37% of the MKT-BR group, 50% of the OCM-1 group, 100% of the 92-1 group, 23% of the UW-1 group and 75% of the SP 6.5 group; histologically, tumours appeared in 36.8%, 45%, 100%, 58.8% and 100%, respectively. The 92-1 and SP 6.5 cell lines were associated with the most aggressive local behaviour. Lung metastases developed in the OCM-1 group (5%), 92-1 group (61.1%), UW-1 group (7.1%) and SP 6.5 group (42.1%), but were not present in the MKT-BR group. The 92-1 and SP 6.5 cell lines were the most efficient in local and metastatic tumour production. Prophylactic antibiotic administration did not improve animal survival.

  10. Growth suppressive efficacy of human lak cells against human lung-cancer implanted into scid mice.

    PubMed

    Teraoka, S; Kyoizumi, S; Suzuki, T; Yamakido, M; Akiyama, M

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the efficacy of immunotherapy using human lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells against a human-lung squamous-cell carcinoma cell line (RERF-LC-AI) implanted into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. A statistically significant growth suppressive effect on RERF-LC-AI implanted into SCID mice was observed when human LAK cells were administered into the caudal vein of the mice treated with a continuous supply (initiated prior to LAK cells injection) of rIL-2. The human LAK cells stained with PKH 2, a fluorescent dye, for later detection using flow cytometry were administered into the caudal vein of RERF-LC-AI bearing SCID mice; the cells persisted for 7 days in the implanted lung cancer tissue and in the mouse peripheral blood, but for 5 days in the mouse spleen. The number of infiltrated human LAK cells in each tissue increased dose-dependently with the number of injected cells. The results indicate that the antitumor effect most likely occurred during the early implantation period of the human LAK cells. These results demonstrate the applicability of this model to the in vivo study of human lung cancer therapy.

  11. Exocrine pancreatic disorders in transsgenic mice expressing human keratin 8

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, M. Llanos; Bravo, Ana; Ramírez, Angel; Escobar, Gabriela Morreale de; Were, Felipe; Merlino, Glenn; Vidal, Miguel; Jorcano, José L.

    1999-01-01

    Keratins K8 and K18 are the major components of the intermediate-filament cytoskeleton of simple epithelia. Increased levels of these keratins have been correlated with various tumor cell characteristics, including progression to malignancy, invasive behavior, and drug sensitivity, although a role for K8/K18 in tumorigenesis has not yet been demonstrated. To examine the function of these keratins, we generated mice expressing the human K8 (hk8) gene, which leads to a moderate keratin-content increase in their simple epithelia. These mice displayed progressive exocrine pancreas alterations, including dysplasia and loss of acinar architecture, redifferentiation of acinar to ductal cells, inflammation, fibrosis, and substitution of exocrine by adipose tissue, as well as increased cell proliferation and apoptosis. Histological changes were not observed in other simple epithelia, such as the liver. Electron microscopy showed that transgenic acinar cells have keratins organized in abundant filament bundles dispersed throughout the cytoplasm, in contrast to control acinar cells, which have scarce and apically concentrated filaments. The phenotype found was very similar to that reported for transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative mutant TGF-β type II receptor (TGFβRII mice). We show that these TGFβRII mutant mice also have elevated K8/K18 levels. These results indicate that simple epithelial keratins play a relevant role in the regulation of exocrine pancreas homeostasis and support the idea that disruption of mechanisms that normally regulate keratin expression in vivo could be related to inflammatory and neoplastic pancreatic disorders. PMID:10359568

  12. Human Genetic Disorders and Knockout Mice Deficient in Glycosaminoglycan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are constructed through the stepwise addition of respective monosaccharides by various glycosyltransferases and maturated by epimerases and sulfotransferases. The structural diversity of GAG polysaccharides, including their sulfation patterns and sequential arrangements, is essential for a wide range of biological activities such as cell signaling, cell proliferation, tissue morphogenesis, and interactions with various growth factors. Studies using knockout mice of enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of the GAG side chains of proteoglycans have revealed their physiological functions. Furthermore, mutations in the human genes encoding glycosyltransferases, sulfotransferases, and related enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of GAGs cause a number of genetic disorders including chondrodysplasia, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes. This review focused on the increasing number of glycobiological studies on knockout mice and genetic diseases caused by disturbances in the biosynthetic enzymes for GAGs. PMID:25126564

  13. Development of a cytotoxic T-cell assay in rabbits to evaluate early immune response to human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Rashade A H; Phipps, Andrew J; Yamamoto, Brenda; Green, Patrick; Lairmore, Michael D

    2009-12-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection causes adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia (ATL) following a prolonged clinical incubation period, despite a robust adaptive immune response against the virus. Early immune responses that allow establishment of the infection are difficult to study without effective animal models. We have developed a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) assay to monitor the early events of HTLV-1 infection in rabbits. Rabbit skin fibroblast cell lines were established by transformation with a plasmid expressing simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen and used as autochthonous targets (derived from same individual animal) to measure CTL activity against HTLV-1 infection in rabbits. Recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) constructs expressing either HTLV-1 envelope surface unit (SU) glycoprotein 46 or Tax proteins were used to infect fibroblast targets in a (51)Cr-release CTL assay. Rabbits inoculated with Jurkat T cells or ACH.2 cells (expressing ACH HTLV-1 molecule clone) were monitored at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 13, 21, and 34 wk post-infection. ACH.2-inoculated rabbits were monitored serologically and for viral infected cells following ex vivo culture. Proviral load analysis indicated that rabbits with higher proviral loads had significant CTL activity against HTLV-1 SU as early as 2 wk post-infection, while both low- and high-proviral-load groups had minimal Tax-specific CTL activity throughout the study. This first development of a stringent assay to measure HTLV-1 SU and Tax-specific CTL assay in the rabbit model will enhance immunopathogenesis studies of HTLV-1 infection. Our data suggest that during the early weeks following infection, HTLV-1-specific CTL responses are primarily targeted against Env-SU.

  14. Mice carrying a human GLUD2 gene recapitulate aspects of human transcriptome and metabolome development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Guo, Song; Jiang, Xi; Bryk, Jaroslaw; Naumann, Ronald; Enard, Wolfgang; Tomita, Masaru; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Khaitovich, Philipp; Pääbo, Svante

    2016-01-01

    Whereas all mammals have one glutamate dehydrogenase gene (GLUD1), humans and apes carry an additional gene (GLUD2), which encodes an enzyme with distinct biochemical properties. We inserted a bacterial artificial chromosome containing the human GLUD2 gene into mice and analyzed the resulting changes in the transcriptome and metabolome during postnatal brain development. Effects were most pronounced early postnatally, and predominantly genes involved in neuronal development were affected. Remarkably, the effects in the transgenic mice partially parallel the transcriptome and metabolome differences seen between humans and macaques analyzed. Notably, the introduction of GLUD2 did not affect glutamate levels in mice, consistent with observations in the primates. Instead, the metabolic effects of GLUD2 center on the tricarboxylic acid cycle, suggesting that GLUD2 affects carbon flux during early brain development, possibly supporting lipid biosynthesis. PMID:27118840

  15. The mesenchymal stem cells derived from transgenic mice carrying human coagulation factor VIII can correct phenotype in hemophilia A mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Gong, Xiuli; Gong, Zhijuan; Ren, Xiaoyie; Ren, Zhaorui; Huang, Shuzhen; Zeng, Yitao

    2013-12-20

    Hemophilia A (HA) is an inherited X-linked recessive bleeding disorder caused by coagulant factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency. Previous studies showed that introduction of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) modified by FVIII-expressing retrovirus may result in phenotypic correction of HA animals. This study aimed at the investigation of an alternative gene therapy strategy that may lead to sustained FVIII transgene expression in HA mice. B-domain-deleted human FVIII (hFVIIIBD) vector was microinjected into single-cell embryos of wild-type mice to generate a transgenic mouse line, from which hFVIIIBD-MSCs were isolated, followed by transplantation into HA mice. RT-PCR and real-time PCR analysis demonstrated the expression of hFVIIIBD in multi-organs of recipient HA mice. Immunohistochemistry showed the presence of hFVIIIBD positive staining in multi-organs of recipient HA mice. ELISA indicated that plasma hFVIIIBD level in recipient mice reached its peak (77 ng/mL) at the 3rd week after implantation, and achieved sustained expression during the 5-week observation period. Plasma FVIII activities of recipient HA mice increased from 0% to 32% after hFVIIIBD-MSCs transplantation. APTT (activated partial thromboplastin time) value decreased in hFVIIIBD-MSCs transplanted HA mice compared with untreated HA mice (45.5 s vs. 91.3 s). Our study demonstrated an effective phenotypic correction in HA mice using genetically modified MSCs from hFVIIIBD transgenic mice.

  16. Common-path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography of irradiated human skin and ventilated isolated rabbit lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, A.; Wendel, M.; Knels, L.; Knuschke, P.; Mehner, M.; Koch, T.; Boller, D.; Koch, P.; Koch, E.

    2005-08-01

    A compact common path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system based on a broadband superluminescence diode is used for biomedical imaging. The epidermal thickening of human skin after exposure to ultraviolet radiation is measured to proof the feasibility of FD-OCT for future substitution of invasive biopsies in a long term study on natural UV skin protection. The FD-OCT system is also used for imaging lung parenchyma. FD-OCT images of a formalin fixated lung show the same alveolar structure as scanning electron microscopy images. In the ventilated and blood-free perfused isolated rabbit lung FD-OCT is used for real-time cross-sectional image capture of alveolar mechanics throughout tidal ventilation. The alveolar mechanics changing from alternating recruitment-derecruitment at zero positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to persistent recruitment after applying a PEEP of 5 cm H2O is observed in the OCT images.

  17. Photoaffinity labeling of human platelet and rabbit kidney. cap alpha. -adrenoceptors with (/sup 3/H)SKF 102229

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, J.W.; Raymond, J.R.; Lefkowitz, R.J.; DeMarinis, R.M.

    1986-06-13

    A newly developed ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic photoaffinity ligand, 3-methyl-6-chloro-9-azido-1H-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-benzazepine (SKF 102229), has been radiolabeled with tritium to a specific activity of approx. 80 Ci/mmol. Using membranes prepared from human platelets and from rabbit kidney, ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptors have been covalently labeled following photolysis in the presence of (/sup 3/H)SKF 102229. As determined by SDS-PAGE, the apparent molecular weight of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptors from both of these tissues was 64,000. The yield of covalent insertion of (/sup 3/H)SKF 102229 into the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptor was very good. Thus, following photolysis up to 90% of the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptors could be irreversibly labeled with (/sup 3/H)SKF 102229.

  18. Two outer membrane lipoproteins from Histophilus somni are immunogenic in rabbits and sheep and induce protection against bacterial challenge in mice.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Brambila, Carolina; Rojas-Mayorquín, Argelia E; Flores-Samaniego, Beatriz; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Histophilus somni is an economically important pathogen of cattle and other ruminants and is considered one of the key components of the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex, the leading cause of economic loss in the livestock industry. BRD is a multifactorial syndrome, in which a triad of agents, including bacteria, viruses, and predisposing factors or "stressors," combines to induce disease. Although vaccines against H. somni have been used for many decades, traditional bacterins have failed to demonstrate effective protection in vaccinated animals. Hence, the BRD complex continues to produce strong adverse effects on the health and well-being of stock and feeder cattle. The generation of recombinant proteins may facilitate the development of more effective vaccines against H. somni, which could confer better protection against BRD. In the present study, primers were designed to amplify, clone, express, and purify two recombinant lipoproteins from H. somni, p31 (Plp4) and p40 (LppB), which are structural proteins of the outer bacterial membrane. The results presented here demonstrate, to our knowledge for the first time, that when formulated, an experimental vaccine enriched with these two recombinant lipoproteins generates high antibody titers in rabbits and sheep and exerts a protective effect in mice against septicemia induced by H. somni bacterial challenge.

  19. Two Outer Membrane Lipoproteins from Histophilus somni Are Immunogenic in Rabbits and Sheep and Induce Protection against Bacterial Challenge in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Brambila, Carolina; Rojas-Mayorquín, Argelia E.; Flores-Samaniego, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Histophilus somni is an economically important pathogen of cattle and other ruminants and is considered one of the key components of the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex, the leading cause of economic loss in the livestock industry. BRD is a multifactorial syndrome, in which a triad of agents, including bacteria, viruses, and predisposing factors or “stressors,” combines to induce disease. Although vaccines against H. somni have been used for many decades, traditional bacterins have failed to demonstrate effective protection in vaccinated animals. Hence, the BRD complex continues to produce strong adverse effects on the health and well-being of stock and feeder cattle. The generation of recombinant proteins may facilitate the development of more effective vaccines against H. somni, which could confer better protection against BRD. In the present study, primers were designed to amplify, clone, express, and purify two recombinant lipoproteins from H. somni, p31 (Plp4) and p40 (LppB), which are structural proteins of the outer bacterial membrane. The results presented here demonstrate, to our knowledge for the first time, that when formulated, an experimental vaccine enriched with these two recombinant lipoproteins generates high antibody titers in rabbits and sheep and exerts a protective effect in mice against septicemia induced by H. somni bacterial challenge. PMID:22971783

  20. Bee venom inhibits growth of human cervical tumors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Myoung; Jung, Yu Yeon; Park, Mi Hee; Oh, Sang Hyun; Yun, Hye Seok; Jun, Hyung Ok; Yoo, Hwan Soo; Han, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ung Soo; Yoon, Joo Hee; Song, Min Jong; Hong, Jin Tae

    2015-01-01

    We studied whether bee venom (BV) inhibits cervical tumor growth through enhancement of death receptor (DR) expressions and inactivation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in mice. In vivo study showed that BV (1 mg/kg) inhibited tumor growth. Similar inhibitory effects of BV on cancer growth in primary human cervical cancer cells were also found. BV (1–5 μg/ml) also inhibited the growth of cancer cells, Ca Ski and C33Aby the induction of apoptotic cell death in a dose dependent manner. Agreed with cancer cell growth inhibition, expression of death receptors; FAS, DR3 and DR6, and DR downstream pro-apoptotic proteins including caspase-3 and Bax was concomitantly increased, but the NF-κB activity and the expression of Bcl-2 were inhibited by treatment with BV in tumor mice, human cancer cell and human tumor samples as well as cultured cancer cells. In addition, deletion of FAS, DR3 and DR6 by small interfering RNA significantly reversed BV-induced cell growth inhibitory effects as well as NF-κB inactivation. These results suggest that BV inhibits cervical tumor growth through enhancement of FAS, DR3 and DR6 expression via inhibition of NF-κB pathway. PMID:25730901

  1. Comparative studies on neutralisation of primary HIV-1 isolates by human sera and rabbit anti-V3 peptide sera.

    PubMed

    Lawoko, A L; Johansson, B; Hjalmarsson, S; Christensson, B; Ljungberg, B; Al-Khalili, L; Sjölund, M; Pipkorn, R; Fenyö, E M; Blomberg, J

    1999-10-01

    IgG binding to V3 peptides and serum neutralising responses were studied in four HIV-1 infected individuals with progressive disease over a period of 31-70 months. The 18-20 mer peptides comprised residues 299-317 (numbering of HIV1 MN) in the N-terminal half of the V3 loop of the envelope glycoprotein gp120 and were derived from the sequences of autologous, as well as heterologous isolates. All four individuals studied lacked anti-V3 IgG binding to at least one autologous V3 sequence. V3 peptides to which autologous sera lacked binding IgG were all immunogenic in rabbits and induced antisera that were broadly cross-reactive by EIA and broadly cross-neutralising to primary HIV-1 isolates. This indicates that the peptides are immunogenic per se and that the respective human hosts have selective defects in recognising the corresponding V3 sequences. Despite the absence of antibody binding to autologous V3 peptides, the human sera had neutralising antibodies to autologous (three out of four cases), as well as heterologous isolates (all cases). Moreover, in vitro exposure of the patients' isolates to autologous neutralising serum or the homologous rabbit antiserum selected for variants with amino acid substitutions close to the crown of the V3 loop or in regions outside the sequence corresponding to peptides used for immunisation. The amino acid exchanges affected V3 positions known to be antigenic and which are also prone to change successively in infected persons. It is likely that neutralising antibodies recognise both linear and conformational epitopes in the V3 loop. Apparently, there are several, but restricted, numbers of ways for this structure to change its conformation and thereby give rise to neutralisation resistant viruses.

  2. A peptide derived from the human leptin molecule is a potent inhibitor of the leptin receptor function in rabbit endometrial cells.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Ruben Rene; Leavis, Paul C

    2003-07-01

    In this article we show that rabbit endometrial cells express leptin receptor and that human leptin triggers phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and up-regulates the expression of interleukin- 1 receptor type I as was previously found in human endometrial cells. Interestingly, leptin also upregulates the secretion of leukemia inhibitory factor and expression of its receptor by rabbit endometrial cells. Analysis of a structural model of the leptin-leptin receptor complex suggested that helices I and III of the human leptin structure were likely sites of interaction with the cytokine binding domain of leptin receptor. Accordingly, we synthesized a peptide (LPA-2) comprising helix III (residues 70-95) and investigated its ability to inhibit leptin receptor function. The effects of LPA-2 were assayed in rabbit endometrial cells, and an antileptin receptor antibody and a scrambled version of LPA-2 were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. LPA-2 binds specifically and with high affinity (Ki ~ 0.6 x 10-10 M) to leptin receptor and is a potent inhibitor of its functions in rabbit endometrial cells. Because leukemia inhibitory factor and interleukin- 1 have been implicated in embryo implantation, our results raise the possibility that the LPA-2-induced inhibition of leptin receptor may be exploited to study the actions of leptin in endometrium and in other tissues under conditions characterized by abnormal leptin production.

  3. Human umbilical cord blood cells ameliorate Alzheimer's disease in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Ende, N; Chen, R; Ende-Harris, D

    2001-01-01

    Having had success in extending the life of mice with a transgene for amyotropic lateral sclerosis (SOD1) mice and Huntington's disease (Hdexon1), we administered megadoses of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells to mice with Alzheimer's disease. These mice have an over-expression of human Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP), die early and develop a CNS disorder that includes neophobia. When given 110 x 10(6) human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells, these mice (HuAPP 695.SWE) had considerable extension of life with a p value of 0.001 when compared to control animals.

  4. Hantavirus-induced pathogenesis in mice with a humanized immune system.

    PubMed

    Kobak, Lidija; Raftery, Martin J; Voigt, Sebastian; Kühl, Anja A; Kilic, Ergin; Kurth, Andreas; Witkowski, Peter; Hofmann, Jörg; Nitsche, Andreas; Schaade, Lars; Krüger, Detlev H; Schönrich, Günther

    2015-06-01

    Hantaviruses are emerging zoonotic pathogens that can cause severe disease in humans. Clinical observations suggest that human immune components contribute to hantavirus-induced pathology. To address this issue we generated mice with a humanized immune system. Hantavirus infection of these animals resulted in systemic infection associated with weight loss, decreased activity, ruffled fur and inflammatory infiltrates of lung tissue. Intriguingly, after infection, humanized mice harbouring human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-restricted human CD8+ T cells started to lose weight earlier (day 10) than HLA class I-negative humanized mice (day 15). Moreover, in these mice the number of human platelets dropped by 77 % whereas the number of murine platelets did not change, illustrating how differences between rodent and human haemato-lymphoid systems may contribute to disease development. To our knowledge this is the first description of a humanized mouse model of hantavirus infection, and our results indicate a role for human immune cells in hantaviral pathogenesis.

  5. Intravenous immune globulin suppresses angiogenesis in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Yasuma, Reo; Cicatiello, Valeria; Mizutani, Takeshi; Tudisco, Laura; Kim, Younghee; Tarallo, Valeria; Bogdanovich, Sasha; Hirano, Yoshio; Kerur, Nagaraj; Li, Shengjian; Yasuma, Tetsuhiro; Fowler, Benjamin J; Wright, Charles B; Apicella, Ivana; Greco, Adelaide; Brunetti, Arturo; Ambati, Balamurali K; Helmers, Sevim Barbasso; Lundberg, Ingrid E; Viklicky, Ondrej; Leusen, Jeanette HW; Verbeek, J Sjef; Gelfand, Bradley D; Bastos-Carvalho, Ana; De Falco, Sandro; Ambati, Jayakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Human intravenous immune globulin (IVIg), a purified IgG fraction composed of ~ 60% IgG1 and obtained from the pooled plasma of thousands of donors, is clinically used for a wide range of diseases. The biological actions of IVIg are incompletely understood and have been attributed both to the polyclonal antibodies therein and also to their IgG (IgG) Fc regions. Recently, we demonstrated that multiple therapeutic human IgG1 antibodies suppress angiogenesis in a target-independent manner via FcγRI, a high-affinity receptor for IgG1. Here we show that IVIg possesses similar anti-angiogenic activity and inhibited blood vessel growth in five different mouse models of prevalent human diseases, namely, neovascular age-related macular degeneration, corneal neovascularization, colorectal cancer, fibrosarcoma and peripheral arterial ischemic disease. Angioinhibition was mediated by the Fc region of IVIg, required FcγRI and had similar potency in transgenic mice expressing human FcγRs. Finally, IVIg therapy administered to humans for the treatment of inflammatory or autoimmune diseases reduced kidney and muscle blood vessel densities. These data place IVIg, an agent approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, as a novel angioinhibitory drug in doses that are currently administered in the clinical setting. In addition, they raise the possibility of an unintended effect of IVIg on blood vessels. PMID:26925256

  6. Transgenic knockout mice with exclusively human sickle hemoglobinand sickle cell disease

    SciTech Connect

    Paszty, C.; Brion, C.; Manci, E.; Witkowska, E.; Stevens, M.; Narla, M.; Rubin, E.

    1997-06-13

    To create mice expressing exclusively human sicklehemoglobin (HbS), transgenic mice expressing human alpha-, gamma-, andbeta[S]-globin were generated and bred with knockout mice that haddeletions of the murine alpha- and beta-globin genes. These sickle cellmice have the major features (irreversibly sickled red cells, anemia,multiorgan pathology) found in humans with sickle cell disease and, assuch, represent a useful in vivo system to accelerate the development ofimproved therapies for this common genetic disease.

  7. Human immune system mice immunized with Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein induce protective human humoral immunity against malaria.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Li, Xiangming; Coelho-dos-Reis, Jordana G A; Zhang, Min; Mitchell, Robert; Nogueira, Raquel Tayar; Tsao, Tiffany; Noe, Amy R; Ayala, Ramses; Sahi, Vincent; Gutierrez, Gabriel M; Nussenzweig, Victor; Wilson, James M; Nardin, Elizabeth H; Nussenzweig, Ruth S; Tsuji, Moriya

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we developed human immune system (HIS) mice that possess functional human CD4+ T cells and B cells, named HIS-CD4/B mice. HIS-CD4/B mice were generated by first introducing HLA class II genes, including DR1 and DR4, along with genes encoding various human cytokines and human B cell activation factor (BAFF) to NSG mice by adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) vectors, followed by engrafting human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). HIS-CD4/B mice, in which the reconstitution of human CD4+ T and B cells resembles to that of humans, produced a significant level of human IgG against Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite (PfCS) protein upon immunization. CD4+ T cells in HIS-CD4/B mice, which possess central and effector memory phenotypes like those in humans, are functional, since PfCS protein-specific human CD4+ T cells secreting IFN-γ and IL-2 were detected in immunized HIS-CD4/B mice. Lastly, PfCS protein-immunized HIS-CD4/B mice were protected from in vivo challenge with transgenic P. berghei sporozoites expressing the PfCS protein. The immune sera collected from protected HIS-CD4/B mice reacted against transgenic P. berghei sporozoites expressing the PfCS protein and also inhibited the parasite invasion into hepatocytes in vitro. Taken together, these studies show that our HIS-CD4/B mice could mount protective human anti-malaria immunity, consisting of human IgG and human CD4+ T cell responses both specific for a human malaria antigen.

  8. High-level expression of a novel recombinant human plasminogen activator (rhPA) in the milk of transgenic rabbits and its thrombolytic bioactivity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Song, Shaozheng; Ge, Xin; Cheng, Yaobin; Lu, Rui; Zhang, Ting; Yu, Baoli; Ji, Xueqiao; Qi, Zhengqiang; Rong, Yao; Yuan, Yuguo; Cheng, Yong

    2016-08-01

    The human tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a key kinase of fibrinolysis that plays an important role in dissolving fibrin clots to promote thrombolysis. The recombinant human plasminogen activator (rhPA) has more thrombolytic advantages than the wild type tPA. To increase the half-life and thrombolytic activity of tPA, a mutant containing only the essential K2 fibrin-binding and P activating plasminogen domains of the wild type tPA was cloned. This fragment was then inserted into goat β-casein regulatory sequences. Then, a mammary gland-specific expression vector, PCL25/rhPA, was constructed, and the transgenic rabbits were generated. In this study, 18 live transgenic founders (12♀, 6♂) were generated using pronuclear microinjection. Six transgenic rabbits were obtained, and the expression levels of rhPA in the milk had a range of 15.2-630 µg/ml. A fibrin agarose plate assay of rhPA showed that it had strong thrombolytic bioactivity in vitro, and the highest specific activity was >360 (360 times more than that of alteplase). The results indicated that the rhPA containing only the K2 and P domains is efficiently expressed with higher thrombolytic bioactivity in the milk of transgenic rabbits. Our study also demonstrated a new method for the large-scale production of clinically relevant recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in the mammary glands of transgenic rabbits.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of topically applied recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor-2 in alkali-burned and intact rabbit eye.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jianqiu; Dou, Guifang; Zheng, Long; Yang, Ting; Jia, Xuechao; Tang, Lu; Huang, Yadong; Wu, Wencan; Li, Xiaokun; Wang, Xiaojie

    2015-07-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2), an effective agent in the development of epithelial tissue and regeneration during corneal wound healing, is a potential therapeutic option to treat the corneal diseases with corneal epithelial defects. However the tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics of KGF-2 have not been explored yet in eye upon topical application. Using (125)I-labeled recombinant human KGF-2 ((125)I-rhKGF-2), tissue distribution of rhKGF-2 in alkali-burned and control rabbit eyes was studied. Our results revealed that (125)I-rhKGF-2 was distributed to all eye tissues examined. The highest radioactivity level was found in the cornea, followed by iris, sclera, ciliary body, lens, aqueous humor, vitreous body, and serum in a greatest to least order. The levels of (125)I-rhKGF-2 were higher in corneas of alkali-burned eyes than those in control eyes though without statistical significance. Calculated pharmacokinetic parameters of t1/2, Cmax, and Tmax of rhKGF-2 in the rabbit corneas were 3.4 h, 135.2 ng/ml, and 0.5 h, respectively. In iris, lens, aqueous humor, and tear, t1/2, Cmax, and Tmax values were 6.2, 6.5, 5.2, and 2.5 h; 23.2, 4.5, 24.1, and 29,498.9 ng/ml; and 1.0, 0.5, 0.5, and 1.0 h, respectively. Predominant and rapid accumulation of rhKGF-2 in corneas suggests that therapeutic doses of rhKGF-2 could be delivered by topical application for treatment of corneal diseases.

  10. The presence of liver auto-antibodies induced by Entamoeba histolytica in the sera from both naturally infected humans and immunized rabbits.

    PubMed

    Faubert, G M; Meerovitch, E; McLaughlin, J

    1978-09-01

    Auto-antibodies against normal human liver have been detected in the sera of humans with highly positive indirect hemagglutination (IHA) amebiasis titers and with clinically-proven amebic liver abscess. Sera of amebiasis patients and rabbits immunized with killed Entamoeba histolytica were tested for anti-amebic antibodies by the IHA test and for auto-antibodies by the complement fixation test, using the antigens prepared from extracts of human liver and rabbit liver. A direct correlation was found to exist between high anti-Entamoeba antibody titers and the presence of anti-liver antibody in the serum. It is proposed that, in addition to direct parasite damage to host tissue, immunological damage could result from the attachment of circulating antigen to the cell surfaces of host tissues such as the liver.

  11. Podocyte-specific overexpression of human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 attenuates diabetic nephropathy in mice.

    PubMed

    Nadarajah, Renisha; Milagres, Rosangela; Dilauro, Marc; Gutsol, Alex; Xiao, Fengxia; Zimpelmann, Joseph; Kennedy, Chris; Wysocki, Jan; Batlle, Daniel; Burns, Kevin D

    2012-08-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) degrades angiotensin II to angiotensin-(1-7) and is expressed in podocytes. Here we overexpressed ACE2 in podocytes in experimental diabetic nephropathy using transgenic methods where a nephrin promoter drove the expression of human ACE2. Glomeruli from these mice had significantly increased mRNA, protein, and activity of ACE2 compared to wild-type mice. Male mice were treated with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. After 16 weeks, there was no significant difference in plasma glucose levels between wild-type and transgenic diabetic mice. Urinary albumin was significantly increased in wild-type diabetic mice at 4 weeks, whereas albuminuria in transgenic diabetic mice did not differ from wild-type nondiabetic mice. However, this effect was transient and by 16 weeks both transgenic and nontransgenic diabetic mice had similar rates of proteinuria. Compared to wild-type diabetic mice, transgenic diabetic mice had an attenuated increase in mesangial area, decreased glomerular area, and a blunted decrease in nephrin expression. Podocyte numbers decreased in wild-type diabetic mice at 16 weeks, but were unaffected in transgenic diabetic mice. At 8 weeks, kidney cortical expression of transforming growth factor-β1 was significantly inhibited in transgenic diabetic mice as compared to wild-type diabetic mice. Thus, the podocyte-specific overexpression of human ACE2 transiently attenuates the development of diabetic nephropathy.

  12. An immunohistochemical study of human platelets using a rabbit antibody against H18-K24 of apolipoprotein CIII (HATKTAK).

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Takao; Sakamoto, Haruhiko; Nakagawa, Toshitaka; Tanaka, Sumiko; Matsumoto, Kouichi; Ueno, Masaki

    2013-08-01

    H18-K24 of human apolipopotein CIII (Apo CIII) (HATKTAK) is an activator of the macromolecular activators of phagocytosis from platelets (MAPPs). Using a rabbit antibody against HATKTAK, we performed an immunohistochemical study of human platelets. Indirect ELISA showed that this antibody reacts with Apo CIII-derived peptides with a C-terminal of HATKTAK, but not with Apo CIII. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that reaction of anti-HATKTAK antibody occurred in the pseudopods of activated platelets. In blood coagula produced from the peripheral blood and formalin-fixed after various incubation periods, reaction of this antibody with platelets appeared rapidly with a peak at 3 to 6 h of incubation, and then diminished gradually. Leukocytes in the blood coagula were stained strongly positive. In tissue sections, fresh thrombi and hemorrhages with slight fibrin formation revealed a positive response of platelets to anti-HATKTAK antibody, whereas older ones with leukocytic infiltration, fibrin formation and organization did not. In addition to platelets, endothelial cells and leukocytes were stained positive by anti-HATKTAK antibody. All of the positive reactions by anti-HATKTAK antibody disappeared or diminished by co-incubation with HATKTAK. In conclusion, the anti-HATKTAK antibody reveals platelets during the early phase of activation.

  13. Efficient hydrolysis of the chemical warfare nerve agent tabun by recombinant and purified human and rabbit serum paraoxonase 1.

    PubMed

    Valiyaveettil, Manojkumar; Alamneh, Yonas; Biggemann, Lionel; Soojhawon, Iswarduth; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2010-12-03

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been described as an efficient catalytic bioscavenger due to its ability to hydrolyze organophosphates (OPs) and chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs). It is the future most promising candidate as prophylactic medical countermeasure against highly toxic OPs and CWNAs. Most of the studies conducted so far have been focused on the hydrolyzing potential of PON1 against nerve agents, sarin, soman, and VX. Here, we investigated the hydrolysis of tabun by PON1 with the objective of comparing the hydrolysis potential of human and rabbit serum purified and recombinant human PON1. The hydrolysis potential of PON1 against tabun, sarin, and soman was evaluated by using an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) back-titration Ellman method. Efficient hydrolysis of tabun (100 nM) was observed with ∼25-40 mU of PON1, while higher concentration (80-250 mU) of the enzyme was required for the complete hydrolysis of sarin (11 nM) and soman (3 nM). Our data indicate that tabun hydrolysis with PON1 was ∼30-60 times and ∼200-260 times more efficient than that with sarin and soman, respectively. Moreover, the catalytic activity of PON1 varies from source to source, which also reflects their efficiency of hydrolyzing different types of nerve agents. Thus, efficient hydrolysis of tabun by PON1 suggests its promising potential as a prophylactic treatment against tabun exposure.

  14. Comparison of the role of tyrosine residues in human IgG and rabbit IgG in binding of complement subcomponent C1q.

    PubMed Central

    McCall, M N; Easterbrook-Smith, S B

    1989-01-01

    Treatment of covalently cross-linked or heat-aggregated oligomers of human IgG with 4 mM-tetranitromethane abrogated their C1q-binding activity. In contrast, tetranitromethane modification of rabbit IgG oligomers, under identical conditions, had no effect upon their C1q-binding activity. The tetranitromethane treatment led to nitration of about ten tyrosine residues per IgG molecule in both species, and the modification was specific for tyrosine residues. Reduction of the nitrated protein with Na2S2O4 did not lead to recovery of C1q-binding activity in human IgG oligomers or to loss of activity in rabbit IgG oligomers. Tryptic peptides from the nitrated proteins were isolated and a peptide containing nitrotyrosine-319 was recovered from human IgG, as well as peptides from both species corresponding to the region around nitrotyrosine-278. These data are consistent with the inactivation of C1q-binding activity in human IgG being the result of nitration of tyrosine-319; the rabbit IgG is unaffected by nitration because position 319 is phenylalanine. The evidence supports the C1q-receptor site proposed by Burton, Boyd, Brampton, Easterbrook-Smith, Emanuel, Novotny, Rademacher, van Schravendijk, Sternberg & Dwek [(1980) Nature (London) 288, 338-344]: residues 316-338. PMID:2784672

  15. Expression of human factor IX in rabbit hepatocytes by retrovirus-mediated gene transfer: Potential for gene therapy of hemophilia B

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, A.R. Puget Sound Blood Center, Seattle, WA ); Darlington, G. ); Armentano, D.; Woo, S.L.C.

    1990-08-01

    Hemophilia B (Christmas disease) is a chromosome X-linked blood clotting disorder which results when factor IX is deficient or functionally defective. The enzyme is synthesized in the liver, and the existence of animal models for this genetic disease will permit the development of somatic gene therapy protocols aimed at transfer of the functional gene into the liver. The authors report the construction of an N2-based recombinant retroviral vector, NCMVFIX, for efficient transfer and expression of human factor IX cDNA in primary rabbit hepatocytes. In this construct the human cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter directs the expression of factor IX. Hepatocytes were isolated from 3-week-old New Zealand White rabbits, infected with the recombinant virus, and analyzed for secretion of active factor IX. The infected rabbit hepatocytes produced human factor IX that is indistinguishable from enzyme derived from normal human plasma. The recombinant protein is sufficiently {gamma}-carboxylated and is functionally active in clotting assays. These results establish the feasibility of using infected hepatocytes for the expression of this protein and are a step toward the goal of correcting hemophilia B by hepatic gene transfer.

  16. Feasibility and Efficacy of Autologous Bone Marrow Aspirate Transplantation Combined with Human Parathyroid Hormone 1-34 Administration to Treat Osteonecrosis in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Sugaya, Hisashi; Aoto, Katsuya; Uemura, Kenta; Tanaka, Kenta; Akaogi, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Masashi; Mishima, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    No studies have examined the transplantation of a bone marrow aspirate (BMA) containing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) combined with human parathyroid hormone 1-34 (hPTH1-34) administration. Therefore, we evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of autologous BMA transplantation combined with hPHT1-34 administration in a bone necrosis model. The metatarsal bones of rabbits were necrotized using liquid nitrogen, and the rabbits received a BMA transplantation or saline injection followed by hPTH1-34 (30 μg/kg) or saline administration three times per week (n = 3-4 per group). The rabbits were euthanized at 12 weeks after the initiation of treatment. No systemic adverse effects or local neoplastic lesions were observed. Importantly, the rabbits in the BMA transplantation plus hPTH1-34 group showed the highest bone volumes and histological scores of new bone. These data confirmed the feasibility of BMA transplantation combined with hPTH1-34, at least during the experimental period. The observed efficacy may be explained by a synergistic effect from the stimulation of MSC differentiation to osteoblasts with hPTH1-34-mediated suppression of apoptosis in osteoblasts. These results indicate the promising potential for BMA transplantation combined with hPTH1-34 administration in bone necrosis treatment. Longer term experiments are needed to confirm the safety of this therapeutic strategy. PMID:28386485

  17. Dysfunctional platelet membrane receptors: from humans to mice.

    PubMed

    Ware, Jerry

    2004-09-01

    Insights into hemostasis and thrombosis have historically benefited from the astute diagnosis of human bleeding and thrombotic disorders followed by decades of careful biochemical characterization. This work has set the stage for the development of a number of mouse models of hemostasis and thrombosis generated by gene targeting strategies in the mouse genome. The utility of these models is the in depth analysis that can be performed on the precise molecular interactions that support hemostasis and thrombosis along with efficacy testing of various therapeutic strategies. Already the mouse has proven to be an excellent model of the processes that support hemostasis and thrombosis in the human vasculature. A brief summary of the salient phenotypes from knockout mice missing key platelet receptors is presented, including the glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX-V and GP IIb/IIIa (alphaIIb/beta3) receptors; the collagen receptors, GP VI and alpha2/beta1; the protease activated receptors (PARs); and the purinergic receptors, P2Y(1) and P2Y(12). A few differences exist between mouse and human platelets and where appropriate those will be highlighted in this review. Concluding remarks focus on the importance of understanding the power and limitations of various in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models currently being used and the impact of the mouse strain on the described platelet phenotype.

  18. Human melanoma immunotherapy using tumor antigen-specific T cells generated in humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zheng; Xia, Jinxing; Fan, Wei; Wargo, Jennifer; Yang, Yong-Guang

    2016-01-01

    A major factor hindering the exploration of adoptive immunotherapy in preclinical settings is the limited availability of tumor-reactive human T cells. Here we developed a humanized mouse model that permits large-scale production of human T cells expressing the engineered melanoma antigen MART-1-specific TCR. Humanized mice, made by transplantation of human fetal thymic tissue and CD34+ cells virally-transduced with HLA class I-restricted melanoma antigen (MART-1)-specific TCR gene, showed efficient development of MART-1-TCR+ human T cells with predominantly CD8+ cells. Importantly, MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells developing in these mice were capable of mounting antigen-specific responses in vivo, as evidenced by their proliferation, phenotypic conversion and IFN-γ production following MART-1 peptide immunization. Moreover, these MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells mediated efficient killing of melanoma cells in an HLA/antigen-dependent manner. Adoptive transfer of in vitro expanded MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells induced potent antitumor responses that were further enhanced by IL-15 treatment in melanoma-bearing recipients. Finally, a short incubation of MART-1-specific T cells with rapamycin acted synergistically with IL-15, leading to significantly improved tumor-free survival in recipients with metastatic melanoma. These data demonstrate the practicality of using humanized mice to produce potentially unlimited source of tumor-specific human T cells for experimental and preclinical exploration of cancer immunotherapy. This study also suggests that pretreatment of tumor-reactive T cells with rapamycin in combination with IL-15 administration may be a novel strategy to improve the efficacy of adoptive T cell therapy. PMID:26824989

  19. Preclinical Model To Test Human Papillomavirus Virus (HPV) Capsid Vaccines In Vivo Using Infectious HPV/Cottontail Rabbit Papillomavirus Chimeric Papillomavirus Particles▿

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Andres F.; Culp, Timothy D.; Cladel, Nancy M.; Balogh, Karla K.; Budgeon, Lynn R.; Buck, Christopher B.; Christensen, Neil D.

    2006-01-01

    A human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine consisting of virus-like particles (VLPs) was recently approved for human use. It is generally assumed that VLP vaccines protect by inducing type-specific neutralizing antibodies. Preclinical animal models cannot be used to test for protection against HPV infections due to species restriction. We developed a model using chimeric HPV capsid/cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) genome particles to permit the direct testing of HPV VLP vaccines in rabbits. Animals vaccinated with CRPV, HPV type 16 (HPV-16), or HPV-11 VLPs were challenged with both homologous (CRPV capsid) and chimeric (HPV-16 capsid) particles. Strong type-specific protection was observed, demonstrating the potential application of this approach. PMID:17005666

  20. Generation of Novel Chimeric Mice with Humanized Livers by Using Hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID Mice.

    PubMed

    Tateno, Chise; Kawase, Yosuke; Tobita, Yoshimi; Hamamura, Satoko; Ohshita, Hiroki; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Sanada, Harumi; Kakuni, Masakazu; Shiota, Akira; Kojima, Yuha; Ishida, Yuji; Shitara, Hiroshi; Wada, Naoko A; Tateishi, Hiromi; Sudoh, Masayuki; Nagatsuka, Shin-Ichiro; Jishage, Kou-Ichi; Kohara, Michinori

    2015-01-01

    We have used homozygous albumin enhancer/promoter-driven urokinase-type plasminogen activator/severe combined immunodeficient (uPA/SCID) mice as hosts for chimeric mice with humanized livers. However, uPA/SCID mice show four disadvantages: the human hepatocytes (h-heps) replacement index in mouse liver is decreased due to deletion of uPA transgene by homologous recombination, kidney disorders are likely to develop, body size is small, and hemizygotes cannot be used as hosts as more frequent homologous recombination than homozygotes. To solve these disadvantages, we have established a novel host strain that has a transgene containing albumin promoter/enhancer and urokinase-type plasminogen activator cDNA and has a SCID background (cDNA-uPA/SCID). We applied the embryonic stem cell technique to simultaneously generate a number of transgenic lines, and found the line with the most appropriate levels of uPA expression-not detrimental but with a sufficiently damaged liver. We transplanted h-heps into homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice via the spleen, and monitored their human albumin (h-alb) levels and body weight. Blood h-alb levels and body weight gradually increased in the hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice and were maintained until they were approximately 30 weeks old. By contrast, blood h-alb levels and body weight in uPA/SCID chimeric mice decreased from 16 weeks of age onwards. A similar decrease in body weight was observed in the homozygous cDNA-uPA/SCID genotype, but h-alb levels were maintained until they were approximately 30 weeks old. Microarray analyses revealed identical h-heps gene expression profiles in homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice were identical to that observed in the uPA/SCID mice. Furthermore, like uPA/SCID chimeric mice, homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID chimeric mice were successfully infected with hepatitis B virus and C virus. These results indicate that hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice may be novel and useful hosts for

  1. A 5-fluorouracil-loaded floating gastroretentive hollow microsphere: development, pharmacokinetic in rabbits, and biodistribution in tumor-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu; Wei, Yumeng; Yang, Hongru; Pi, Chao; Liu, Hao; Ye, Yun; Zhao, Ling

    2016-01-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) was loaded in hollow microspheres to improve its oral bioavailability. 5-FU hollow microspheres were developed by a solvent diffusion–evaporation method. The effect of Span 80 concentration, ether/ethanol volume ratio, and polyvinyl pyrrolidone/ethyl cellulose weight ratio on physicochemical characteristics, floating, and in vitro release behaviors of 5-FU hollow microspheres was investigated and optimized. The formulation and technology composed of Span 80 (1.5%, w/v), ether/ethanol (1.0:10.0, v/v), and polyvinyl pyrrolidone/ethyl cellulose (1.0:10.0, w/w) were employed to develop three batch samples, which showed an excellent reproducibility. The microspheres were spherical with a hollow structure with high drug loading amount (28.4%±0.5%) and production yield (74.2%±0.6%); they exhibited excellent floating and sustained release characteristics in simulated gastric and intestinal fluid. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that 5-FU hollow microspheres significantly enhanced oral bioavailability (area under curve, [AUC](0−t): 12.53±1.65 mg/L*h vs 7.80±0.83 and 5.82±0.83 mg/L*h) with longer elimination half-life (t1/2) (15.43±2.12 hours vs 2.25±0.22 and 1.43±0.18 hours) and mean residence time (7.65±0.97 hours vs 3.61±0.41 and 2.34±0.35 hours), in comparison with its solid microspheres and powder. In vivo distribution results from tumor-bearing nude mice demonstrated that the animals administered with 5-FU hollow microspheres had much higher drug content in tumor, plasma, and stomach at 1 and 8 hours except for 0.5 hours sample collection time point in comparison with those administered with 5-FU solid microspheres and its powder. These results suggested that the hollow microspheres would be a promising controlled drug delivery system for an oral chemotherapy agent like 5-FU. PMID:27042001

  2. A 5-fluorouracil-loaded floating gastroretentive hollow microsphere: development, pharmacokinetic in rabbits, and biodistribution in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Wei, Yumeng; Yang, Hongru; Pi, Chao; Liu, Hao; Ye, Yun; Zhao, Ling

    2016-01-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) was loaded in hollow microspheres to improve its oral bioavailability. 5-FU hollow microspheres were developed by a solvent diffusion-evaporation method. The effect of Span 80 concentration, ether/ethanol volume ratio, and polyvinyl pyrrolidone/ethyl cellulose weight ratio on physicochemical characteristics, floating, and in vitro release behaviors of 5-FU hollow microspheres was investigated and optimized. The formulation and technology composed of Span 80 (1.5%, w/v), ether/ethanol (1.0:10.0, v/v), and polyvinyl pyrrolidone/ethyl cellulose (1.0:10.0, w/w) were employed to develop three batch samples, which showed an excellent reproducibility. The microspheres were spherical with a hollow structure with high drug loading amount (28.4%±0.5%) and production yield (74.2%±0.6%); they exhibited excellent floating and sustained release characteristics in simulated gastric and intestinal fluid. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that 5-FU hollow microspheres significantly enhanced oral bioavailability (area under curve, [AUC](0-t): 12.53±1.65 mg/L(*)h vs 7.80±0.83 and 5.82±0.83 mg/L(*)h) with longer elimination half-life (t1/2) (15.43±2.12 hours vs 2.25±0.22 and 1.43±0.18 hours) and mean residence time (7.65±0.97 hours vs 3.61±0.41 and 2.34±0.35 hours), in comparison with its solid microspheres and powder. In vivo distribution results from tumor-bearing nude mice demonstrated that the animals administered with 5-FU hollow microspheres had much higher drug content in tumor, plasma, and stomach at 1 and 8 hours except for 0.5 hours sample collection time point in comparison with those administered with 5-FU solid microspheres and its powder. These results suggested that the hollow microspheres would be a promising controlled drug delivery system for an oral chemotherapy agent like 5-FU.

  3. Ultrathin, Stretchable, Multiplexing pH Sensor Arrays on Biomedical Devices With Demonstrations on Rabbit and Human Hearts Undergoing Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hyun-Joong; Sulkin, Matthew S.; Kim, Jong-Seon; Goudeseune, Camille; Chao, Hsin-Yun; Song, Joseph W.; Yang, Sang Yoon; Hsu, Yung-Yu; Ghaffari, Roozbeh

    2014-01-01

    Stable pH is an established biomarker of health, relevant to all tissues of the body, including the heart. Clinical monitoring of pH in a practical manner, with high spatiotemporal resolution, is particularly difficult in organs such as the heart due to its soft mechanics, curvilinear geometry, heterogeneous surfaces and continuous, complex rhythmic motion. The results presented here illustrate that advanced strategies in materials assembly and electrochemical growth can yield interconnected arrays of miniaturized IrOx pH sensors encapsulated in thin, low-modulus elastomers to yield conformal monitoring systems capable of non-invasive measurements on the surface of the beating heart. A thirty channel custom data acquisition system enables spatiotemporal pH mapping with a single potentiostat. In-vitro testing reveals super-Nernstian sensitivity with excellent uniformity (69.9 ± 2.2 mV/pH), linear response to temperature (−1.6 mV/°C), and minimal influence of extracellular ions (< 3.5 mV). Device examples include sensor arrays on balloon catheters and on skin-like stretchable membranes. Real-time measurement of pH on the surfaces of explanted rabbit hearts and a donated human heart during protocols of ischemia-reperfusion illustrate some of the capabilities. Envisioned applications range from devices for biological research, to surgical tools and long-term implants. PMID:23868871

  4. Forebrain engraftment by human glial progenitor cells enhances synaptic plasticity and learning in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaoning; Chen, Michael; Wang, Fushun; Windrem, Martha; Wang, Su; Shanz, Steven; Xu, Qiwu; Oberheim, Nancy Ann; Bekar, Lane; Betstadt, Sarah; Silva, Alcino J; Takano, Takahiro; Goldman, Steven A; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2013-03-07

    Human astrocytes are larger and more complex than those of infraprimate mammals, suggesting that their role in neural processing has expanded with evolution. To assess the cell-autonomous and species-selective properties of human glia, we engrafted human glial progenitor cells (GPCs) into neonatal immunodeficient mice. Upon maturation, the recipient brains exhibited large numbers and high proportions of both human glial progenitors and astrocytes. The engrafted human glia were gap-junction-coupled to host astroglia, yet retained the size and pleomorphism of hominid astroglia, and propagated Ca2+ signals 3-fold faster than their hosts. Long-term potentiation (LTP) was sharply enhanced in the human glial chimeric mice, as was their learning, as assessed by Barnes maze navigation, object-location memory, and both contextual and tone fear conditioning. Mice allografted with murine GPCs showed no enhancement of either LTP or learning. These findings indicate that human glia differentially enhance both activity-dependent plasticity and learning in mice.

  5. Human platelets inhibit liver fibrosis in severe combined immunodeficiency mice

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Murata, Soichiro; Fukunaga, Kiyoshi; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of human platelets in liver fibrosis. METHODS: Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice were administered CCl4 and either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS group) or human platelet transfusions (hPLT group). Concentrations of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), matrix metallopeptidases (MMP)-9, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in the liver tissue were compared between the PBS and the hPLT groups by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. The effects of a human platelet transfusion on liver fibrosis included the fibrotic area, hydroxyproline content, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression, which were evaluated by picrosirius red staining, ELISA, and immunohistochemical staining using an anti-mouse α-SMA antibody, respectively. Phosphorylations of mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (Met) and SMAD3, downstream signals of HGF and TGF-β, were compared between the two groups by Western blotting and were quantified using densitometry. Hepatocyte apoptosis was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. Furthermore, the accumulation of human platelets in the liver 2 h after platelet transfusion was compared between normal and fibrotic livers by immunohistochemical staining using an anti-human CD41 antibody. RESULTS: The fibrotic area and hydroxyproline content in the liver were both significantly lower in the hPLT group when compared to the PBS group (fibrotic area, 1.7% ± 0.6% vs 2.5% ± 0.6%, P = 0.03; hydroxyproline content, 121 ± 26 ng/g liver vs 156 ± 47 ng/g liver, P = 0.04). There was less α-smooth muscle actin staining in the hPLT group than in the PBS group (0.5% ± 0.1% vs 0.8% ± 0.3%, P = 0.02). Hepatic expression levels of mouse HGF and MMP-9 were significantly higher in the hPLT group than in the PBS group (HGF, 109 ± 13 ng/g liver vs 88 ± 22 ng/g liver, P = 0.03; MMP-9, 113% ± 7%/GAPDH vs 92% ± 11%/GAPDH, P = 0.04). In contrast, the

  6. 70 years of radiation genetics: Fruit flies, mice and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, S.

    1997-03-01

    Radiation protection`s function is to protect society from the potential hazards that might occur through the human use of radiation, whether it be from energy production, medical uses or other sources of exposure. To do so, various scientific bodies are called upon to develop risk estimates which will provide society with adequate protection to the adverse effects of radiation, as best we can understand those adverse affects. Geneticists have the added burden, in that they must attempt to provide protection not only to the offspring of the present generation but also for all subsequent generations. While most of us have difficulty in thinking of effects that might be manifest only one or two generations into the future, some have projected potential risks for 50 to 100 generations. Here the author reviews work on fruit flies and mice, and studies of human exposures, which has provided much of the foundational information upon which geneticists can derive conclusions with regard to radiation protection questions.

  7. Human Catestatin Alters Gut Microbiota Composition in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rabbi, Mohammad F.; Munyaka, Peris M.; Eissa, Nour; Metz-Boutigue, Marie-Hélène; Khafipour, Ehsan; Ghia, Jean Eric

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian intestinal tract is heavily colonized with a dense, complex, and diversified microbial populations. In healthy individuals, an array of epithelial antimicrobial agents is secreted in the gut to aid intestinal homeostasis. Enterochromaffin cells (EC) in the intestinal epithelium are a major source of chromogranin A (CgA), which is a pro-hormone and can be cleaved into many bioactive peptides that include catestatin (CST). This study was carried out to evaluate the possible impact of CST on gut microbiota in vivo using a mouse model. The CST (Human CgA352−372) or normal saline was intrarectally administered in C57BL/6 male mice for 6 days and then sacrificed. Feces and colonic mucosa tissue samples were collected, DNA was extracted, the V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified and subjected to MiSeq Illumina sequencing. The α-diversity was calculated using Chao 1 and β-diversity was determined using QIIME. Differences at the genus level were determined using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) was used to predict functional capacity of bacterial community. CST treatment did not modify bacterial richness in fecal and colonic mucosa-associated microbiota; however, treatment significantly modified bacterial community composition between the groups. Also, CST-treated mice had a significantly lower relative abundance of Firmicutes and higher abundance of Bacteroidetes, observed only in fecal samples. However, at lower phylogenetic levels, PLS-DA analysis revealed that some bacterial taxa were significantly associated with the CST-treated mice in both fecal and colonic mucosa samples. In addition, differences in predicted microbial functional pathways in both fecal and colonic mucosa samples were detected. The results support the hypothesis that CST treatment modulates gut microbiota composition under non-pathophysiological conditions

  8. Expression of human apolipoprotein B and assembly of lipoprotein(a) in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Callow, M.J.; Stoltzfus, L.J.; Rubin, E.M.; Lawn, R.M.

    1994-03-15

    The atherogenic macromolecule lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has resisted in vivo analyses partly because it is found in a limited number of experimental animals. Although transgenic mice expressing human apolipoprotein (a) [apo(a)] have previously been described, they failed to assemble Lp(a) particles because of the inability of human apo(a) to associate with mouse apolipoprotein B (apoB). The authors isolated a 90-kilobase P1 phagemid containing the human apoB gene and with this DNA generated 13 lines of transgenic mice of which 11 expressed human apoB. The human apoB transcript was expressed and edited in the liver of the transgenic mice. Plasma concentrations of human apoB, as well as low density lipoprotein (LDL), were related to transgene copy number; the transgenic line with the most copies of human apoB had a >4-fold increase in LDL cholesterol compared with nontransgenics and a lipoprotein profile similar to that of humans. When human apoB and apo(a) transgenic mice were bred together, plasma apo(a) in mice expressing both human proteins was tightly associated with lipoproteins in the LDL density region. These studies demonstrate the successful expression of human apoB and the efficient assembly of Lp(a) in mice.

  9. Generic anti-drug antibody assay with drug tolerance in serum samples from mice exposed to human antibodies.

    PubMed

    Stubenrauch, Kay; Mackeben, Klaus; Vogel, Rudolf; Heinrich, Julia

    2012-11-15

    Knowledge of the anti-drug antibody (ADA) status is necessary in early research studies. Because specific assay materials are sparse and time is pressing, a generic assay format with drug tolerance for detection of ADAs in serum samples from mice exposed to immunoglobulin G (IgG) or antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) is highly desirable. This article describes a generic immune complex assay in the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format based on (i) transformation of free ADAs to immune complexes by preincubation with excess drug, (ii) the use of a murine anti-human Fab constant domain Fab as capture reagent, (iii) detection of the immune complexes by a peroxidase-labeled rabbit anti-murine Fc antibody, and (iv) ADA-positive control conjugates consisting of human Fab and murine IgG. Results of the experiments suggest that the generic immune complex assay for mouse serum samples was at least equivalent to specific ADA immune assays and even superior regarding drug tolerance. The generic immune complex assay confers versatility as it detects ADAs in complex with full-length IgG as well as with Fabs independent of the target specificity in mouse serum samples. These features help to save the sparse amounts of specific antibodies available in early research and development and speed up drug candidate selection.

  10. HIV-specific humoral and cellular immunity in rabbits vaccinated with recombinant human immunodeficiency virus-like gag-env particles

    SciTech Connect

    Haffar, O.K.; Smithgall, M.D.; Moran, P.A.; Travis, B.M.; Zarling, J.M.; Hu, S.L. )

    1991-08-01

    Recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-like gag-env particles produced in mammalian cells were inoculated into two New Zealand white rabbits. In parallel, two control rabbits were inoculated with the homologous HIV-1 virions inactivated by ultraviolet light (uv) and psoralen treatments. The humoral and cellular immune responses to HIV-1 were evaluated for both groups of animals. Recombinant particles elicited humoral immunity that was specific for all the viral structural proteins. The antibodies recognized both denatured and nondenatured proteins. Moreover, the sera neutralized the in vitro infectivity of the homologous virus in CEM cells. Importantly, the recombinant particles also generated a T helper response by priming with the HIV proteins. Similar results were observed with inactivated virus immunization. Therefore, the authors results suggest that the recombinant HIV-like particles elicit functional humoral immunity as well as cellular immunity and represent a novel vaccine candidate for AIDS.

  11. Influence of human myasthenia gravis thymus on the differentiation of human cord blood stem cells in SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian Ru; Liu, Ping Ping; Xuan, Xiao Yan; Guan, Sha Sha; Du, Ying; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Qing Yong

    2014-02-01

    The normal thymus contributes to T lymphocytes differentiation and induction of tolerance to self-antigens. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is characterized by abnormal thymic hyperplasia. To assess the potential influence of MG-thymus on the differentiation of T lymphocytes differentiation, we used the MG-thymus transplanted severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice model to evaluate the human cord blood stem cells differentiation. Thymus fragments from MG patient and human cord blood stem cells were transplanted into SCID mice successively. SCID mice were observed to develop sustained human T lymphocytes and a functional anti-tumor immune. The levels of various T cell subsets in SCID mice with MG-thymus were different from that of control group. Among that, the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells was significant lower in SCID mice with MG-thymus. The deficiency of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells seens to contribute to the pathogenesis of MG.

  12. Effects of 5-HT receptor agonists on depolarization-induced [3H]-noradrenaline release in rabbit hippocampus and human neocortex.

    PubMed Central

    Allgaier, C.; Warnke, P.; Stangl, A. P.; Feuerstein, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    1. The present study attempted to determine whether noradrenaline (NA) release in rabbit hippocampus and human neocortex is modulated by presynaptic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors. 2. Slices of rabbit hippocampus and human neocortex, loaded with [3H]-noradrenaline ([3H]-NA) were superfused and the effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor ligands on electrically evoked [3H]-NA release were investigated. 3. In rabbit hippocampus, 5-HT, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT; 32 microM) and 2-CH3-5-HT (32 microM) increased [3H]-NA release elicited with 360 pulses/3 Hz. Facilitation of transmitter release was not influenced by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, tropisetron but was prevented by the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, rauwolscine. When autoinhibition was avoided by stimulating the tissue with 4 pulses/100 Hz (pseudo-one pulse-(POP) stimulation), 2-CH3-5-HT decreased evoked transmitter release, whereas 5-HT and 5-CT had no effect. Inhibition caused by 2-CH3-5-HT was not affected by tropisetron but counteracted by the alpha 2-adrenoceptor ligands, clonidine and rauwolscine. Inhibition caused by clonidine was diminished in the presence of 5-CT or 2-CH3-5-HT. 4. In human neocortex, [3H]-NA release elicited with 360 pulses/3 Hz was increased by 10 microM 5-HT and 32 microM 5-CT, whereas 2-CH3-5-HT was ineffective. [3H]-NA release evoked with a modified POP stimulation (2 bursts of 4 pulses/100 Hz, 3.5 min apart) was not affected by 2-CH3-5-HT or 5-CT. 5. The present results indicate that 5-HT, 2-CH3-5-HT and 5-CT can act on presynaptic alpha 2-autoreceptors as partial agonists (2-CH3-5-HT; in rabbit hippocampal tissue) or antagonists (5-HT and 5-CT; in tissue of rabbit hippocampus and human neocortex). Furthermore the existence of autoinhibition dictates whether these drugs cause facilitation of release, inhibition or have no effect. PMID:8528558

  13. Normalizing the environment recapitulates adult human immune traits in laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Beura, Lalit K; Hamilton, Sara E; Bi, Kevin; Schenkel, Jason M; Odumade, Oludare A; Casey, Kerry A; Thompson, Emily A; Fraser, Kathryn A; Rosato, Pamela C; Filali-Mouhim, Ali; Sekaly, Rafick P; Jenkins, Marc K; Vezys, Vaiva; Haining, W Nicholas; Jameson, Stephen C; Masopust, David

    2016-04-28

    Our current understanding of immunology was largely defined in laboratory mice, partly because they are inbred and genetically homogeneous, can be genetically manipulated, allow kinetic tissue analyses to be carried out from the onset of disease, and permit the use of tractable disease models. Comparably reductionist experiments are neither technically nor ethically possible in humans. However, there is growing concern that laboratory mice do not reflect relevant aspects of the human immune system, which may account for failures to translate disease treatments from bench to bedside. Laboratory mice live in abnormally hygienic specific pathogen free (SPF) barrier facilities. Here we show that standard laboratory mouse husbandry has profound effects on the immune system and that environmental changes produce mice with immune systems closer to those of adult humans. Laboratory mice--like newborn, but not adult, humans--lack effector-differentiated and mucosally distributed memory T cells. These cell populations were present in free-living barn populations of feral mice and pet store mice with diverse microbial experience, and were induced in laboratory mice after co-housing with pet store mice, suggesting that the environment is involved in the induction of these cells. Altering the living conditions of mice profoundly affected the cellular composition of the innate and adaptive immune systems, resulted in global changes in blood cell gene expression to patterns that more closely reflected the immune signatures of adult humans rather than neonates, altered resistance to infection, and influenced T-cell differentiation in response to a de novo viral infection. These data highlight the effects of environment on the basal immune state and response to infection and suggest that restoring physiological microbial exposure in laboratory mice could provide a relevant tool for modelling immunological events in free-living organisms, including humans.

  14. Induction of farnesoid X receptor signaling in germ-free mice colonized with a human microbiota.

    PubMed

    Wahlström, Annika; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Ståhlman, Marcus; Khan, Muhammad-Tanweer; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich

    2017-02-01

    The gut microbiota influences the development and progression of metabolic diseases partly by metabolism of bile acids (BAs) and modified signaling through the farnesoid X receptor (FXR). In this study, we aimed to determine how the human gut microbiota metabolizes murine BAs and affects FXR signaling in colonized mice. We colonized germ-free mice with cecal content from a mouse donor or feces from a human donor and euthanized the mice after short-term (2 weeks) or long-term (15 weeks) colonization. We analyzed the gut microbiota and BA composition and expression of FXR target genes in ileum and liver. We found that cecal microbiota composition differed between mice colonized with mouse and human microbiota and was stable over time. Human and mouse microbiota reduced total BA levels similarly, but the humanized mice produced less secondary BAs. The human microbiota was able to reduce the levels of tauro-β-muricholic acid and induce expression of FXR target genes Fgf15 and Shp in ileum after long-term colonization. We show that a human microbiota can change BA composition and induce FXR signaling in colonized mice, but the levels of secondary BAs produced are lower than in mice colonized with a mouse microbiota.

  15. Transcriptional repression of Caveolin-1 (CAV1) gene expression by GATA-6 in bladder smooth muscle hypertrophy in mice and human beings.

    PubMed

    Boopathi, Ettickan; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Goldfarb, Robert; John, Mary; Srinivasan, Vittala Gopal; Alanzi, Jaber; Malkowicz, S Bruce; Kathuria, Hasmeena; Zderic, Stephen A; Wein, Alan J; Chacko, Samuel

    2011-05-01

    Hypertrophy occurs in urinary bladder wall smooth muscle (BSM) in men with partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO) caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in animal models of PBOO. Hypertrophied BSM from the rabbit model exhibits down-regulation of caveolin-1, a structural and functional protein of caveolae that function as signaling platforms to mediate interaction between receptor proteins and adaptor and effector molecules to regulate signal generation, amplification, and diversification. Caveolin-1 expression is diminished in PBOO-induced BSM hypertrophy in mice and in men with BPH. The proximal promoter of the human and mouse caveolin-1 (CAV1) gene was characterized, and it was observed that the transcription factor GATA-6 binds this promoter, causing reduced expression of caveolin-1. Furthermore, caveolin-1 expression levels inversely correlate with the abundance of GATA-6 in BSM hypertrophy in mice and human beings. Silencing of GATA6 gene expression up-regulates caveolin-1 expression, whereas overexpression of GATA-6 protein sustains the transcriptional repression of caveolin-1 in bladder smooth muscle cells. Together, these data suggest that GATA-6 acts as a transcriptional repressor of CAV1 gene expression in PBOO-induced BSM hypertrophy in men and mice. GATA-6-induced transcriptional repression represents a new regulatory mechanism of CAV1 gene expression in pathologic BSM, and may serve as a target for new therapy for BPH-induced bladder dysfunction in aging men.

  16. Monitoring of Venus transgenic cell migration during pregnancy in non-transgenic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Lipták, N; Hoffmann, O I; Kerekes, A; Iski, G; Ernszt, D; Kvell, K; Hiripi, L; Bősze, Z

    2017-04-01

    Cell transfer between mother and fetus were demonstrated previously in several species which possess haemochorial placenta (e.g. in humans, mice, rats, etc.). Here we report the assessment of fetal and maternal microchimerism in non-transgenic (non-TG) New Zealand white rabbits which were pregnant with transgenic (TG) fetuses and in non-TG newborns of TG does. The TG construct, including the Venus fluorophore cDNA driven by a ubiquitous cytomegalovirus enhancer, chicken ß-actin promoter (CAGGS), was previously integrated into the rabbit genome by Sleeping Beauty transposon system. Three different methods [fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR)] were employed to search for TG cells and gene products in blood and other tissues of non-TG rabbits. Venus positive peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were not detected in the blood of non-TG littermates or non-TG does by flow cytometry. Tissue samples (liver, kidney, skeletal and heart muscle) also proved to be Venus negative examined with fluorescence microscopy, while histology sections and PBMCs of TG rabbits showed robust Venus protein expression. In case of genomic DNA (gDNA) sourced from tissue samples of non-TG rabbits, CAGGS promoter-specific fragments could not be amplified by QPCR. Our data showed the lack of detectable cell transfer between TG and non-TG rabbits during gestation.

  17. Comparison of predictability for human pharmacokinetics parameters among monkeys, rats, and chimeric mice with humanised liver.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Maki; Iwasaki, Shinji; Chisaki, Ikumi; Nakagawa, Sayaka; Amano, Nobuyuki; Hirabayashi, Hideki

    2017-03-02

    1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of chimeric mice with humanised liver (PXB mice) for the prediction of clearance (CLt) and volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss), in comparison with monkeys, which have been reported as a reliable model for human pharmacokinetics (PK) prediction, and with rats, as a conventional PK model. 2. CLt and Vdss values in PXB mice, monkeys and rats were determined following intravenous administration of 30 compounds known to be mainly eliminated in humans via the hepatic metabolism by various drug-metabolising enzymes. Using single-species allometric scaling, human CLt and Vdss values were predicted from the three animal models. 3. Predicted CLt values from PXB mice exhibited the highest predictability: 25 for PXB mice, 21 for monkeys and 14 for rats were predicted within a three-fold range of actual values among 30 compounds. For predicted human Vdss values, the number of compounds falling within a three-fold range was 23 for PXB mice, 24 for monkeys, and 16 for rats among 29 compounds. PXB mice indicated a higher predictability for CLt and Vdss values than the other animal models. 4. These results demonstrate the utility of PXB mice in predicting human PK parameters.

  18. Melanopsin-based brightness discrimination in mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Brown, Timothy M; Tsujimura, Sei-Ichi; Allen, Annette E; Wynne, Jonathan; Bedford, Robert; Vickery, Graham; Vugler, Anthony; Lucas, Robert J

    2012-06-19

    Photoreception in the mammalian retina is not restricted to rods and cones but extends to a small number of intrinsically photoreceptive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), expressing the photopigment melanopsin. ipRGCs are known to support various accessory visual functions including circadian photoentrainment and pupillary reflexes. However, despite anatomical and physiological evidence that they contribute to the thalamocortical visual projection, no aspect of visual discrimination has been shown to rely upon ipRGCs. Based on their currently known roles, we hypothesized that ipRGCs may contribute to distinguishing brightness. This percept is related to an object's luminance-a photometric measure of light intensity relevant for cone photoreceptors. However, the perceived brightness of different sources is not always predicted by their respective luminance. Here, we used parallel behavioral and electrophysiological experiments to first show that melanopsin contributes to brightness discrimination in both retinally degenerate and fully sighted mice. We continued to use comparable paradigms in psychophysical experiments to provide evidence for a similar role in healthy human subjects. These data represent the first direct evidence that an aspect of visual discrimination in normally sighted subjects can be supported by inner retinal photoreceptors.

  19. Neuropathy in Human and Mice with PMP22 null

    PubMed Central

    Saporta, Mario Andre; Katona, Istvan; Zhang, Xuebao; Roper, Helen P.; Carr, Louise; Macdonald, Fiona; Brueton, Louise; Blake, Julian; Suter, Ueli; Reilly, Mary M.; Shy, Michael E.; Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objective Haploinsufficiency of PMP22 causes hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). However, the biological functions of PMP22 in humans are largely unexplored due to the absence of patients with PMP22 null mutations. Design, Setting and Participants We have evaluated a 7-year-old boy with PMP22 null. Findings were compared with those from nerves of Pmp22 null mice. Results Motor and sensory deficits in the proband were non-length dependent. Weakness was found in cranial muscles, but not in the limbs. Large fiber sensory modalities were profoundly abnormal, which started prior to the maturation of myelin. This is in line with the temporal pattern of PMP22 expression predominantly in cranial motor neurons and DRG during embryonic development, becoming undetectable in adulthood. Moreover, there were conspicuous maturation defects of myelinating Schwann cells that were more significant in motor nerve fibers than in sensory nerve fibers. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggest that PMP22 is important for the normal function of neurons that express PMP22 during early development, such as cranial motor neurons and spinal sensory neurons. Moreover, PMP22 deficiency differentially affects myelination between motor and sensory nerves, which may have contributed to the unique clinical phenotype in the patient with absence of PMP22. PMID:21670407

  20. Comparison of Human Hematopoietic Reconstitution in Different Strains of Immunodeficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Ashley I; Muench, Marcus O

    2017-01-15

    Immunodeficient mice play a critical role in hematology research as in vivo models of hematopoiesis and immunology. Multiple strains have been developed, but hematopoietic stem cell engraftment and immune reconstitution have not been methodically compared among them. Four mouse strains were transplanted with human fetal bone marrow or adult peripheral blood CD34(+) cells: NSG, NSG-3GS, hSCF-Tg-NSG, and hSIRPα-DKO. Hematopoietic engraftment in the bone marrow, blood, spleen, and liver was evaluated by flow cytometry 12 weeks after transplant. The highest levels of human engraftment were observed in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow, whereas peripheral blood cell chimerism was notably less. The highest levels of tissue engraftment were in hSCF-Tg-NSG mice, but NSG mice exhibited the highest blood leukocyte engraftment. hSCF-Tg-NSG mice also exhibited the highest levels of CD133(+)CD34(++) stem cells. hSIRPα-DKO engrafted poorly and exhibited poor breeding. Myelopoiesis was greatest in NSG-3GS mice, followed by hSCF-Tg-NSG and NSG mice, whereas B cell engraftment exhibited the opposite pattern. Engraftment of CD3(+) T cells, CD3(+)CD161(+) T cells, and CD3(-)CD56(+) NK cells was greatest in NSG-3GS mice. Mast cell engraftment was highest in hSCF-Tg-NSG mice, but was also elevated in spleen and livers of NSG-3GS mice. Basophils were most abundant in NSG-3GS mice. Overall, hSCF-Tg-NSG mice are the best recipient mice for studies requiring high levels of human hematopoiesis, stem cell engraftment, and an intermediate level of myelopoiesis, whereas NSG and NSG-3GS mice offer select advantages in the engraftment of certain blood cell lineages.

  1. Humanized Androgen Receptor Mice: A Genetic Model for Differential Response to Prostate Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    For each Q tract allele, we have currently obtained at least 30 experimental and 30 control mice . Some have reached their time points and tissues...overexpression of ETV1). Experimental mice have been generated and prostates are being microdissected as animals reach their time points. Initial...TITLE: Humanized Androgen Receptor Mice : A Genetic Model for Differential Response to Prostate Cancer Therapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Diane M

  2. The use of SCID mice in biotechnology and as a model for human disease

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, J.S. |; Boynton, E.; Gorczynski, R.; Hozumi, N.

    1996-05-01

    The use of SCID (severe combined immunodeficient) mice in medical research and biotechnology has increased tremendously in recent years. This review outlines the major characteristics of these animals and the impediments that they poise to the engraftment of human cells and tissues. The development of the SCID mice pretreatment protocol (anti-asialo GM 1 antisera and radiation) is described, and the results of xenotransplantation studies of human cells and tissues in these pretreated animals are outlined. Wherever possible, data from transplantation studies (of human tissues and cells) in pretreated and nonpretreated animals are compared. The potential of the pretreated SCID mice for medical research and biotechnology is discussed.

  3. Plasmodium falciparum full life cycle and Plasmodium ovale liver stages in humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Soulard, Valérie; Bosson-Vanga, Henriette; Lorthiois, Audrey; Roucher, Clémentine; Franetich, Jean- François; Zanghi, Gigliola; Bordessoulles, Mallaury; Tefit, Maurel; Thellier, Marc; Morosan, Serban; Le Naour, Gilles; Capron, Frédérique; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Snounou, Georges; Moreno-Sabater, Alicia; Mazier, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies of Plasmodium parasites that infect humans are restricted by their host specificity. Humanized mice offer a means to overcome this and further provide the opportunity to observe the parasites in vivo. Here we improve on previous protocols to achieve efficient double engraftment of TK-NOG mice by human primary hepatocytes and red blood cells. Thus, we obtain the complete hepatic development of P. falciparum, the transition to the erythrocytic stages, their subsequent multiplication, and the appearance of mature gametocytes over an extended period of observation. Furthermore, using sporozoites derived from two P. ovale-infected patients, we show that human hepatocytes engrafted in TK-NOG mice sustain maturation of the liver stages, and the presence of late-developing schizonts indicate the eventual activation of quiescent parasites. Thus, TK-NOG mice are highly suited for in vivo observations on the Plasmodium species of humans. PMID:26205537

  4. The effects of ethylene dibromide on semen quality and fertility in the rabbit: evaluation of a model for human seminal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Williams, J; Gladen, B C; Turner, T W; Schrader, S M; Chapin, R E

    1991-05-01

    Mature (12 months old) male New Zealand White rabbits (8-10/group) were dosed subcutaneously with ethylene dibromide (EDB) in corn oil (untreated and vehicle controls, 15, 30, or 45 mg/kg body wt/day for 5 days). Weekly semen samples (for 6 weeks preexposure, during treatment, and 12 weeks postdosing [pd]) were analyzed for sperm concentration, number, morphology, viability, and motion parameters (velocity, linearity, beat cross-frequency, amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH), and circularity), and semen pH, osmolality, volume, fructose, citric acid, carnitine, protein, and acid phosphatase (AP). Male fertility was assessed preexposure and at 4 and 12 weeks pd by artificial insemination of three females/male/time point with one million motile sperm. The percentage pregnant females, litter size, fetal body weights, and structural development were assessed. In the 45 mg/kg dose group of males there was 30% mortality and liver damage in 43% of the survivors as evidenced by increased levels of serum enzymes. Also in this group, EDB produced significant decreases in sperm velocity, percentage motility, and ALH (up to 25% at various times pd). There were also dose-related decreases in semen pH (up to 2%) and total ejaculate volume (up to 23%, 15 and 30 mg/kg dose groups only). AP activities were significantly elevated (up to 116%) 2 weeks pd in the 45 mg/kg dose group. All other semen parameters evaluated were unaffected. Male fertility and fetal structural development were also unaffected. Of the seven semen parameters perturbed by EDB in humans (Schrader et al., 1988), four were also affected in the rabbit (sperm velocity, percentage motility, pH, and volume), whereas sperm number, viability, and morphology were not. Thus, some of the male reproductive effects of EDB in the human have been modelled in the rabbit, although the rabbit appears not to be as sensitive, since semen parameters were affected only at doses close to the LD50 (55 mg/kg). The present study

  5. Amelogenin genes and sexual dimorphism of teeth in humans and mice

    SciTech Connect

    Blecher, S.R. )

    1992-12-01

    Mutant mice in which chromosomal complement and hormonal profile were discordant were studied. It appeared that the Y-chromosomally determined male-larger sexual dimorphism of tooth size seen in humans was not present in mice. It was concluded that the finding of smaller molars in males than in females was due to hormonal rather than chromosomal factors.

  6. The antifungal antibiotic, clotrimazole, inhibits chloride secretion by human intestinal T84 cells via blockade of distinct basolateral K+ conductances. Demonstration of efficacy in intact rabbit colon and in an in vivo mouse model of cholera.

    PubMed Central

    Rufo, P A; Merlin, D; Riegler, M; Ferguson-Maltzman, M H; Dickinson, B L; Brugnara, C; Alper, S L; Lencer, W I

    1997-01-01

    The antifungal antibiotic clotrimazole (CLT) blocks directly and with high potency the Ca2+-activated K+ channels of human erythrocytes, erythroleukemia cells, and ferret vascular smooth muscle cells. We recently reported that CLT inhibits Cl- secretion in human intestinal T84 cells, likely by affecting K+ transport (Rufo, P.A., L. Jiang, S.J. Moe, C. Brugnara, S.L. Alper, and W.I. Lencer. 1996. J. Clin. Invest. 98:2066-2075). To determine if CLT had direct effects on K+ conductances in T84 cells, we selectively permeabilized apical membranes of confluent T84 cell monolayers using the ionophore amphotericin B. This technique permits direct measurement of basolateral K+ transport. We found that CLT and a stable des-imidazolyl derivative inhibited directly two pharmacologically distinct basolateral membrane K+conductances, but had no effect on apical membrane Cl- conductances. The effects of CLT on Cl- secretion were also examined in intact tissue. CLT inhibited forskolin-induced Cl- secretion in rabbit colonic mucosal sheets mounted in Ussing chambers by 91%. CLT also inhibited cholera toxin-induced intestinal Cl- secretion in intact mice by 94%. These data provide direct evidence that CLT blocks Cl- secretion in intestinal T84 cells by inhibition of basolateral K+ conductances, and show that CLT inhibits salt and water secretion from intact tissue in vitro and in vivo. The results further support the suggestion that CLT and its metabolites may show clinical efficacy in the treatment of secretory diarrheas of diverse etiologies. PMID:9399958

  7. Teplizumab induces human gut-tropic regulatory cells in humanized mice and patients.

    PubMed

    Waldron-Lynch, Frank; Henegariu, Octavian; Deng, Songyan; Preston-Hurlburt, Paula; Tooley, James; Flavell, Richard; Herold, Kevan C

    2012-01-25

    The development and optimization of immune therapies in patients has been hampered by the lack of preclinical models in which their effects on human immune cells can be studied. As a result, observations that have been made in preclinical studies have suggested mechanisms of drug action in murine models that have not been confirmed in clinical studies. Here, we used a humanized mouse reconstituted with human hematopoietic stem cells to study the mechanism of action of teplizumab, an Fc receptor nonbinding humanized monoclonal antibody to CD3 being tested in clinical trials for the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. In this model, human gut-tropic CCR6(+) T cells exited the circulation and secondary lymph organs and migrated to the small intestine. These cells then produced interleukin-10 (IL-10), a regulatory cytokine, in quantities that could be detected in the peripheral circulation. Blocking T cell migration to the small intestine with natalizumab, which prevents cellular adhesion by inhibiting α(4) integrin binding, abolished the treatment effects of teplizumab. Moreover, IL-10 expression by CD4(+)CD25(high)CCR6(+)FoxP3 cells returning to the peripheral circulation was increased in patients with type 1 diabetes treated with teplizumab. These findings demonstrate that humanized mice may be used to identify novel immunologic mechanisms that occur in patients treated with immunomodulators.

  8. Pathology of Berkeley sickle cell mice: similarities and differences with human sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Manci, Elizabeth A; Hillery, Cheryl A; Bodian, Carol A; Zhang, Zheng G; Lutty, Gerard A; Coller, Barry S

    2006-02-15

    Because Berkeley sickle cell mice are used as an animal model for human sickle cell disease, we investigated the progression of the histopathology in these animals over 6 months and compared these findings to those published in humans with sickle cell disease. The murine study groups were composed of wild-type mixed C57Bl/6-SV129 (control) mice and sickle cell (SS) mice (alpha-/-, beta-/-, transgene +) of both sexes and between 1 and 6 months of age. SS mice were similar to humans with sickle cell disease in having erythrocytic sickling, vascular ectasia, intravascular hemolysis, exuberant hematopoiesis, cardiomegaly, glomerulosclerosis, visceral congestion, hemorrhages, multiorgan infarcts, pyknotic neurons, and progressive siderosis. Cerebral perfusion studies demonstrated increased blood-brain barrier permeability in SS mice. SS mice differed from humans with sickle cell disease in having splenomegaly, splenic hematopoiesis, more severe hepatic infarcts, less severe pulmonary manifestations, no significant vascular intimal hyperplasia, and only a trend toward vascular medial hypertrophy. Early retinal degeneration caused by a homozygous mutation (rd1) independent from that causing sickle hemoglobin was an incidental finding in some Berkeley mice. While our study reinforces the fundamental strength of this model, the notable differences warrant careful consideration when drawing parallels to human sickle cell disease.

  9. Chronic exposure to rifaximin causes hepatic steatosis in pregnane X receptor-humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W; Tanaka, Naoki; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2012-10-01

    Rifaximin, a nonsystemic antibiotic that exhibits low gastrointestinal absorption, is a potent agonist of human pregnane X receptor (PXR), which contributes to its therapeutic efficacy in inflammatory bowel disease. To investigate the effects of long-term administration of rifaximin on the liver, PXR-humanized mice were administered rifaximin for 6 months; wild-type and Pxr-null mice were treated in parallel as controls. Histological analysis revealed time-dependent intense hepatocellular fatty degeneration and increased hepatic triglycerides in PXR-humanized mice and not in wild-type and Pxr-null mice. After long-term treatment, PXR target genes were induced in small intestine and liver, with significant up-regulation in the expression of hepatic genes related to triglyceride synthesis and lipid accumulation. However, no significant hepatic accumulation of rifaximin was found, even after 6 months of treatment, in PXR-humanized mice. Genes in the small intestine that are involved in the uptake of fatty acids and triglycerides were induced along with increased triglyceride accumulation in intestinal epithelial cells of PXR-humanized mice; this was not observed in wild-type and Pxr-null mice. These findings suggest that long-term administration of rifaximin could lead to PXR-dependent hepatocellular fatty degeneration as a result of activation of genes involved in lipid uptake, thus indicating a potential adverse effect of rifaximin on liver function after long-term exposure.

  10. Human breast milk and antiretrovirals dramatically reduce oral HIV-1 transmission in BLT humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Angela; Swanson, Michael D; Nochi, Tomonori; Olesen, Rikke; Denton, Paul W; Chateau, Morgan; Garcia, J Victor

    2012-01-01

    Currently, over 15% of new HIV infections occur in children. Breastfeeding is a major contributor to HIV infections in infants. This represents a major paradox in the field because in vitro, breast milk has been shown to have a strong inhibitory effect on HIV infectivity. However, this inhibitory effect has never been demonstrated in vivo. Here, we address this important paradox using the first humanized mouse model of oral HIV transmission. We established that reconstitution of the oral cavity and upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humanized bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT) mice with human leukocytes, including the human cell types important for mucosal HIV transmission (i.e. dendritic cells, macrophages and CD4⁺ T cells), renders them susceptible to oral transmission of cell-free and cell-associated HIV. Oral transmission of HIV resulted in systemic infection of lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues that is characterized by the presence of HIV RNA in plasma and a gradual decline of CD4⁺ T cells in peripheral blood. Consistent with infection of the oral cavity, we observed virus shedding into saliva. We then evaluated the role of human breast milk on oral HIV transmission. Our in vivo results demonstrate that breast milk has a strong inhibitory effect on oral transmission of both cell-free and cell-associated HIV. Finally, we evaluated the effect of antiretrovirals on oral transmission of HIV. Our results show that systemic antiretrovirals administered prior to exposure can efficiently prevent oral HIV transmission in BLT mice.

  11. Myelostimulatory activity of recombinant human interleukin-2 in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Talmadge, J.E.; Schneider, M.; Keller, J.; Ruscetti, F.; Longo, D.; Pennington, R.; Bowersox, O.; Tribble, H.

    1989-05-01

    In a series of studies designed to extend our understanding of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and to study the effect of biologic response modifiers on bone marrow, we observed that administering recombinant human (rH) IL-2 to normal mice resulted in an increase in the frequency of colony-forming units-culture (CFU-C) in bone marrow. In addition, rH IL-2 was able to accelerate host recovery from cyclophosphamide (CTX)- or radiation-induced bone marrow depression and peripheral blood leukopenia. Not only can rH IL-2 accelerate, in a dose-dependent manner, the return of bone marrow, peripheral blood cellularity, and CFU-C frequency to normal levels following cytoreduction by CTX or irradiation, but it also significantly increases CFU-C frequency to greater than normal levels. Furthermore, rH IL-2 can significantly prolong survival of animals receiving a lethal dose of irradiation or CTX. Thus, multiple mechanisms are responsible for the synergistic therapeutic activity associated with rH IL-2 and CTX. rH IL-2 does not act only as an immunomodulatory agent in the presence or absence of suppressor T cells, but also accelerates host recovery from cytoreductive agents, resulting in decreased leukopenia and perhaps resistances to secondary infection. Thus, rH IL-2 plus chemotherapy may increase therapeutic activity against neoplastic disease, not only by adding immune stimulation to the direct antitumor effect of the drug but also by allowing delivery of higher, more effective doses of chemotherapy.

  12. [Studies on the absorption, excretion and distribution of aclacinomycin A: absorption, excretion and distribution of 14C- or 3H-aclacinomycin A in mice, rats and rabbits (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Iguchi, H; Seryu, Y; Kiyosaki, T; Hori, S; Tone, H; Oki, T

    1980-02-01

    A new anthracycline antitumor antibiotic, aclacinomycin A, was labeled with 3H uniformly or with 14C simultaneously at the anthracycline nucleus and L-rhodosamine. These labeled drugs were administered intravenously to normal dd mice, solid type Sarcoma 180 tumor-bearing ICR mice, normal or pregnant Wistar rats and normal rabbits, respectively. 14C-Aclacinomycin A given to rabbits (5 mg/kg) was rapidly cleared from the blood and transferred to tissues. But low level of radioactivity (equivalent to about 0.5 mcg/ml) was remained in the blood even 8 approximately 10 hours after administration. About 45% of the radioactivity were recovered from the urine and 20% from the feces by 72 hours after administration. Tissue levels of 3H-14C-aclacinomycin A given to normal and tumor-bearing mice were highest in the lungs and spleen. Higher distribution was observed also in the liver and kidneys 2 hours after administration. Bioassay revealed that the drug was present in the lungs and spleen in biologically active form and in the liver and kidneys in inactive form, respectively. In the tumor tissue the radioactivity was low but it persisted for 48 hours. Autoradiography with 14C-aclacinomycin A in rats demonstrated that radioactivity due to the drug distributed in the lungs, spleen, kidneys, thymus, intestine, lymph nodes, bone marrow, salivary gland, hypophysis and pineal body but it was rapidly cleared. About 0.2% of radioactivity given to a pregnant rat were transferred to a fetus when 14C-aclacinomycin A was administered intravenously on the 18 approximately 19th day of pregnancy.

  13. Rabbit hematology.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Kemba L

    2008-09-01

    Using laboratory animal medicine as an established resource, companion animal veterinarians have access to many physiologic and basic science studies that we can now merge with our clinical impressions. By working with reference laboratories, companion animal veterinarians are poised to accelerate our knowledge of the normal rabbit rapidly. The aim of this article is to discuss normal hematopoiesis and infectious and metabolic diseases that specifically target the hemolymphatic system. Additionally, photographic representation of cell types is provided.

  14. Resistance of mice to infection with the human strain of Hymenolepis nana.

    PubMed

    al-Baldawi, F A; Mahdi, N K; Abdul-Hafidh, B A

    1989-06-01

    Six attempts were made to infect mice by feeding them eggs of the human strain of Hymenolepis nana, but none was successful. No eggs were found in the mouse faeces 14 days after feeding, and no adult worms were recovered at post mortem examination. In attempts to induce cysticercoids to infect mice, beetles were either fed on infected human faeces or given Hymenolepis eggs on filter paper. Both methods were unsuccessful, as no cysticercoids were recovered six days after exposure of the beetles.

  15. Growth retardation and hair loss in transgenic mice overexpressing human H-ferritin gene.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Sumitaka; Harada, Kazutoshi; Morokoshi, Yukie; Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Furukawa, Takako; Saga, Tsuneo

    2013-06-01

    H-ferritin (HF) is a core subunit of the iron storage protein ferritin, and plays a central role in the regulation of cellular iron homeostasis. Recent studies revealed that ferritin and HF are involved in a wide variety of iron-independent functions, including regulating biological processes during physiological and pathological conditions, and can be overexpressed in some human diseases. To investigate the in vivo function of HF, we generated transgenic (tg) mice overexpressing the human HF gene (hHF-tg). We established two independent hHF-tg mouse lines. Although both lines of hHF-tg mice were viable, they showed reduced body size compared to wild-type (WT) mice at 4-12 weeks of age. Serum iron concentration and blood parameters of hHF-tg mice such as hemoglobin and red blood cell counts were comparable to those of WT mice. At 3-5 weeks of age, hHF-tg mice exhibited temporary loss of coat hair on the trunk, but not on the head or face. Histological analyses revealed that although initial hair development was normal, hHF-tg mice had epidermal hyperplasia with hyperkeratosis, dilated hair follicles, bended hair shafts and keratinous debris during the hairless period. In conclusion, we showed that hHF-tg mice exhibited mild growth retardation and temporary hairless phenotype. Our findings highlight the physiological roles of HF and demonstrate that hHF-tg mice are useful for understanding the in vivo functions of HF.

  16. Recapitulating adult human immune traits in laboratory mice by normalizing environment

    PubMed Central

    Beura, Lalit K.; Hamilton, Sara E.; Bi, Kevin; Schenkel, Jason M.; Odumade, Oludare A.; Casey, Kerry A.; Thompson, Emily A.; Fraser, Kathryn A.; Rosato, Pamela C.; Filali-Mouhim, Ali; Sekaly, Rafick P.; Jenkins, Marc K.; Vezys, Vaiva; Haining, W. Nicholas; Jameson, Stephen C.; Masopust, David

    2016-01-01

    Our current understanding of immunology was largely defined in laboratory mice because of experimental advantages including inbred homogeneity, tools for genetic manipulation, the ability to perform kinetic tissue analyses starting with the onset of disease, and tractable models. Comparably reductionist experiments are neither technically nor ethically possible in humans. Despite revealing many fundamental principals of immunology, there is growing concern that mice fail to capture relevant aspects of the human immune system, which may account for failures to translate disease treatments from bench to bedside1–8. Laboratory mice live in abnormally hygienic “specific pathogen free” (SPF) barrier facilities. Here we show that the standard practice of laboratory mouse husbandry has profound effects on the immune system and that environmental changes result in better recapitulation of features of adult humans. Laboratory mice lack effector-differentiated and mucosally distributed memory T cells, which more closely resembles neonatal than adult humans. These cell populations were present in free-living barn populations of feral mice, pet store mice with diverse microbial experience, and were induced in laboratory mice after co-housing with pet store mice, suggesting a role for environment. Consequences of altering mouse housing profoundly impacted the cellular composition of the innate and adaptive immune system and resulted in global changes in blood cell gene expression patterns that more closely aligned with immune signatures of adult humans rather than neonates, altered the mouse’s resistance to infection, and impacted T cell differentiation to a de novo viral infection. These data highlight the impact of environment on the basal immune state and response to infection and suggest that restoring physiological microbial exposure in laboratory mice could provide a relevant tool for modeling immunological events in free-living organisms, including humans. PMID

  17. Blocking effect of methylflavonolamine on human NaV1.5 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and on sodium currents in rabbit ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xin-rong; Ma, Ji-hua; Zhang, Pei-hua; Xing, Jun-lian

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the blocking effects of methylflavonolamine (MFA) on human NaV1.5 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and on sodium currents (INa) in rabbit ventricular myocytes. Methods: Human NaV1.5 channels were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and studied using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. INa and action potentials in rabbit ventricular myocytes were studied using the whole-cell recording. Results: MFA and lidocaine inhibited human NaV1.5 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes in a positive rate-dependent and concentration-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 72.61 μmol/L and 145.62 μmol/L, respectively. Both of them markedly shifted the steady-state activation curve of INa toward more positive potentials, shifted the steady-state inactivation curve of INa toward more negative potentials and postponed the recovery of the INa inactivation state. In rabbit ventricular myocytes, MFA inhibited INa with a shift in the steady-state inactivation curve toward more negative potentials, thereby postponing the recovery of the INa inactivation state. This shift was in a positive rate-dependent manner. Under current-clamp mode, MAF significantly decreased action potential amplitude (APA) and maximal depolarization velocity (Vmax) and shortened action potential duration (APD), but did not alter the resting membrane potential (RMP). The demonstrated that the kinetics of sodium channel blockage by MFA resemble those of class I antiarrhythmic agents such as lidocaine. Conclusion: MFA protects the heart against arrhythmias by its blocking effect on sodium channels. PMID:20173760

  18. Reproduction of epstein-barr virus infection and pathogenesis in humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Shigeyoshi

    2014-02-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is etiologically associated with a variety of diseases including lymphoproliferative diseases, lymphomas, carcinomas, and autoimmune diseases. Humans are the only natural host of EBV and limited species of new-world monkeys can be infected with the virus in experimental conditions. Small animal models of EBV infection, required for evaluation of novel therapies and vaccines for EBV-associated diseases, have not been available. Recently the development of severely immunodeficient mouse strains enabled production of humanized mice in which human immune system components are reconstituted and express their normal functions. Humanized mice can serve as infection models for human-specific viruses such as EBV that target cells of the immune system. This review summarizes recent studies by the author's group addressing reproduction of EBV infection and pathogenesis in humanized mice.

  19. Type 1 diabetes vaccine candidates promote human Foxp3+Treg induction in humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Serr, Isabelle; Fürst, Rainer W.; Achenbach, Peter; Scherm, Martin G.; Gökmen, Füsun; Haupt, Florian; Sedlmeier, Eva-Maria; Knopff, Annette; Shultz, Leonard; Willis, Richard A.; Ziegler, Anette-Gabriele; Daniel, Carolin

    2016-01-01

    Immune tolerance is executed partly by Foxp3+regulatory T (Treg) cells, which suppress autoreactive T cells. In autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) impaired tolerance promotes destruction of insulin-producing β-cells. The development of autoantigen-specific vaccination strategies for Foxp3+Treg-induction and prevention of islet autoimmunity in patients is still in its infancy. Here, using human haematopoietic stem cell-engrafted NSG-HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice, we provide direct evidence for human autoantigen-specific Foxp3+Treg-induction in vivo. We identify HLA-DQ8-restricted insulin-specific CD4+T cells and demonstrate efficient human insulin-specific Foxp3+Treg-induction upon subimmunogenic vaccination with strong agonistic insulin mimetopes in vivo. Induced human Tregs are stable, show increased expression of Treg signature genes such as Foxp3, CTLA4, IL-2Rα and TIGIT and can efficiently suppress effector T cells. Such Foxp3+Treg-induction does not trigger any effector T cells. These T1D vaccine candidates could therefore represent an expedient improvement in the challenge to induce human Foxp3+Tregs and to develop novel precision medicines for prevention of islet autoimmunity in children at risk of T1D. PMID:26975663

  20. Histological and immunocytochemical studies of human psoriatic lesions transplanted onto SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Sugai, J; Iizuka, M; Kawakubo, Y; Ozawa, A; Ohkido, M; Ueyama, Y; Tamaoki, N; Inokuchi, S; Shimamura, K

    1998-06-01

    To investigate the pathology of psoriasis, we developed an animal model for this disease using severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. These mice possess neither B nor T Lymphocytes so that both cellular and humoral immunities are impaired. For the in vivo study of psoriasis, human psoriatic skin was grafted on SCID mice. Long-term morphological and immunohistochemical changes in the grafted skin ware examined for up to 22 weeks after transplantation. The human skin graft were generally well maintained during this period, but the histological and immunohistochemical findings characteristic of psoriasis, except for acanthosis and hyperkeratosis, gradually disappeared as lymphocytic infiltration of the psoriatic lesions declined.

  1. Chronic hypertension and altered baroreflex responses in transgenic mice containing the human renin and human angiotensinogen genes.

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, D C; Thompson, M W; Carney, C L; Granwehr, B P; Schlager, G; Robillard, J E; Sigmund, C D

    1996-01-01

    We have generated a transgenic model consisting of both the human renin and human angiotensinogen genes to study further the role played by the renin-angiotensin system in regulating arterial pressure. Transgenic mice containing either gene alone were normotensive, whereas mice containing both genes were chronically hypertensive. Plasma renin activity and plasma angiotensin II levels were both markedly elevated in the double transgenic mice compared with either single transgenic or nontransgenic controls. The elevation in blood pressure caused by the human transgenes was independent of the genotype at the endogenous renin locus and was equal in mice homozygous for the Ren-1c allele or in mice containing one copy each of Ren-1c, Ren-1d, or Ren-2. Chronic overproduction of angiotensin II in the double transgenic mice resulted in a resetting of the baroreflex control of heart rate to a higher pressure without significantly changing the gain or sensitivity of the reflex. Moreover, this change was not due to the effects of elevated pressure itself since angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition had minimal effects on the baroreflex in spontaneously hypertensive BPH-2 control mice, which exhibit non-renin-dependent hypertension. This double transgenic model should provide an excellent tool for further studies on the mechanisms of hypertension initiated by the renin-angiotensin system. PMID:8613528

  2. [Preliminary establishment of transplanted human chronic myeloid leukemia model in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Min; Ding, Xin; Zhang, Long-Zhen; Cen, Jian-Nong; Chen, Zi-Xing

    2011-12-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a malignant clonal disease derived from hematopoietic stem cells. CML stem cells were thought to be the root which could lead disease development and ultimately rapid change. However, a stable animal model for studying the characteristics of CML stem cells is currently lacking. This study was aimed to establish a transplanted human CML nude-mice model to further explore the biological behavior of CML stem cells in vivo, and to enrich CML stem cells in nude mice by series transplantation. The 4 - 6 weeks old BALB/c nude mice pretreated by splenectomy (S), cytoxan intraperitoneal injection (C) and sublethal irradiation (I) were transplanted intravenously with (5 - 7) × 10(7) of bone marrow mononuclear cells from CML patients in chronic phase. Alternatively, 4 - 6 weeks old BALB/c nude mice pretreated by lethal irradiation were transplanted intravenously with 5 × 10(6) homologous bone marrow cells of BALB/c nude mice together with (5 - 7) × 10(7) of bone marrow mononuclear cells from CML patients in chronic phase simultaneously. The leukemic cells engrafted and infiltrated in organs and bone marrow of the mice were tracked by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), plastic-embedded biopsy and flow cytometry. The results of these two methods were compared. The results showed that human CML cells engrafted and infiltrating into the bone marrow of two nude mice pretreated with SCI could be detected. In spite of the low successful rate, results suggested the feasibility of this method by using BALB/c nude mice as a human CML animal model. In contrast, in nude mice pretreated by the lethal dose irradiation, CML cells in the bone marrow could not be found. It is concluded that human bone marrow CML cells can results in leukemia in nude mice pretreated by SCI. Thus this study provides a new strategy for establishment of CML animal models which deserves further elaboration.

  3. Myeloid Engraftment in Humanized Mice: Impact of Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor Treatment and Transgenic Mouse Strain.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Alice M; Harmon, Cathal; Whelan, Sarah; O'Brien, Eóin C; O'Reilly, Vincent P; Crotty, Paul; Kelly, Pamela; Ryan, Michelle; Hickey, Fionnuala B; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Little, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    Poor myeloid engraftment remains a barrier to experimental use of humanized mice. Focusing primarily on peripheral blood cells, we compared the engraftment profile of NOD-scid-IL2Rγc(-/-) (NSG) mice with that of NSG mice transgenic for human membrane stem cell factor (hu-mSCF mice), NSG mice transgenic for human interleukin (IL)-3, granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and stem cell factor (SGM3 mice). hu-mSCF and SGM3 mice showed enhanced engraftment of human leukocytes compared to NSG mice, and this was reflected in the number of human neutrophils and monocytes present in these strains. Importantly, discrete classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocyte populations were identifiable in the blood of NSG and hu-mSCF mice, while the nonclassical population was absent in the blood of SGM3 mice. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF) treatment increased the number of blood monocytes in NSG and hu-mSCF mice, and neutrophils in NSG and SGM3 mice; however, this effect appeared to be at least partially dependent on the stem cell donor used to engraft the mice. Furthermore, GCSF treatment resulted in a preferential expansion of nonclassical monocytes in both NSG and hu-mSCF mice. Human tubulointerstitial CD11c(+) cells were present in the kidneys of hu-mSCF mice, while monocytes and neutrophils were identified in the liver of all strains. Bone marrow-derived macrophages prepared from NSG mice were most effective at phagocytosing polystyrene beads. In conclusion, hu-mSCF mice provide the best environment for the generation of human myeloid cells, with GCSF treatment further enhancing peripheral blood human monocyte cell numbers in this strain.

  4. Behavioral effects of elevated expression of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 in mice.

    PubMed

    Kost, Sara; Sun, Chao; Xiong, Wei; Graham, Kathryn; Cass, Carol E; Young, James D; Albensi, Benedict C; Parkinson, Fiona E

    2011-10-10

    Adenosine concentrations are regulated by purinergic enzymes and nucleoside transporters. Transgenic mice with neuronal expression of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) have been generated (Parkinson et al., 2009 [7]). The present study tested the hypothesis that mice homozygous and heterozygous for the transgene exhibit differences in hENT1 mRNA and protein expression, and in behavioral responses to caffeine and ethanol, two drugs with adenosine-dependent actions. Real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify mice heterozygous and homozygous for the transgene. Gene expression, determined by real time PCR of cDNA reverse transcribed from cerebral cortex RNA, was 3.8-fold greater in homozygous mice. Protein abundance, determined by radioligand binding assays using 0.14nM [(3)H]S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine ([(3)H]NBTI), was up to 84% greater in cortex synaptosome membranes from homozygous than from heterozygous mice. In western blots with an antibody specific for hENT1, a protein of approximately 40kDa was strongly labelled in cortex samples from homozygous mice, weakly labelled in samples from heterozygous mice and absent from samples from wild type mice. In behavioral assays, transgenic mice showed a greater response to ethanol and a reduced response to caffeine than wild type littermates; however, no significant differences between heterozygous and homozygous mice were detected. These data indicate that the difference in ENT1 function between wild type and heterozygous mice was greater than that between heterozygous and homozygous mice. Therefore, either heterozygous or homozygous hENT1 transgenic mice can be used in studies of ENT1 regulation of adenosine levels and adenosine dependent behaviors.

  5. Impaired Immunogenicity of Meningococcal Neisserial Surface Protein A in Human Complement Factor H Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Lujan, Eduardo; Pajon, Rolando; Granoff, Dan M

    2015-11-23

    Neisserial surface protein A (NspA) is a highly conserved outer membrane protein previously investigated as a meningococcal vaccine candidate. Despite eliciting serum bactericidal activity in mice, a recombinant NspA vaccine failed to elicit serum bactericidal antibodies in a phase 1 clinical trial in humans. The discordant results may be explained by the recent discovery that NspA is a human-specific ligand of the complement inhibitor factor H (FH). Therefore, in humans but not mice, NspA would be expected to form a complex with FH, which could impair human anti-NspA protective antibody responses. To investigate this question, we immunized human FH transgenic BALB/c mice with three doses of recombinant NspA expressed in Escherichia coli microvesicles, with each dose being separated by 3 weeks. Three of 12 (25%) transgenic mice and 13 of 14 wild-type mice responded with bactericidal titers of ≥1:10 in postimmunization sera (P = 0.0008, Fisher's exact test). In contrast, human FH transgenic and wild-type mice immunized with a control meningococcal native outer membrane vesicle vaccine had similar serum bactericidal antibody responses directed at PorA, which is not known to bind human FH, and a mutant factor H binding protein (FHbp) antigen with a >50-fold lower level of FH binding than wild-type FHbp antigen binding.Thus, human FH can impair anti-NspA serum bactericidal antibody responses, which may explain the poor immunogenicity of the NspA vaccine previously tested in humans. A mutant NspA vaccine engineered to have decreased binding to human FH may increase protective antibody responses in humans.

  6. Selective inhibition of the alternative complement pathway by sCR1[desLHR-A] protects the rabbit isolated heart from human complement-mediated damage.

    PubMed

    Gralinski, M R; Wiater, B C; Assenmacher, A N; Lucchesi, B R

    1996-09-01

    Evidence is presented that treatment with a selective inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway, sCR1[desLHR-A], protects the ex vivo perfused rabbit heart from human complement-mediated injury. Hearts from male New Zealand white rabbits were perfused in the Langendorff mode. After equilibration, normal human plasma was added to the perfusate as a source of complement. Concomitant with the addition of human plasma, vehicle (n = 13), soluble complement receptor type 1 (sCR1) (n = 10), or sCR1[desLHR-A], a truncated version of sCR1 that lacks the C4b binding region (n = 10) was included in the perfusate. Hemodynamic variables were obtained for all groups before (baseline) and after the addition of human plasma. Compared to vehicle-treated hearts, variables recorded during perfusion with human plasma including coronary perfusion pressure, left ventricular developed pressure, and left ventricular end diastolic pressure, along with a reduction of creatine kinase efflux, were improved in hearts perfused with either complement inhibitor. In addition, in vitro hemolysis assays were utilized to discriminate between the classical and alternative pathways. The addition of sCR1 to human serum prevented both the classical and alternative pathway-mediated hemolysis while sCR1[desLHR-A] prevented only the alternative pathway-mediated lysis. This study indicates that deletion of the C4b-binding site from sCR1 results in a new pharmacological moiety, sCR1[desLHR-A], that primarily inhibits the alternative pathway of human complement.

  7. Fatal autoimmunity in mice reconstituted with human hematopoietic stem cells encoding defective FOXP3.

    PubMed

    Goettel, Jeremy A; Biswas, Subhabrata; Lexmond, Willem S; Yeste, Ada; Passerini, Laura; Patel, Bonny; Yang, Siyoung; Sun, Jiusong; Ouahed, Jodie; Shouval, Dror S; McCann, Katelyn J; Horwitz, Bruce H; Mathis, Diane; Milford, Edgar L; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Roncarolo, Maria-Grazia; Fiebiger, Edda; Marasco, Wayne A; Bacchetta, Rosa; Quintana, Francisco J; Pai, Sung-Yun; Klein, Christoph; Muise, Aleixo M; Snapper, Scott B

    2015-06-18

    Mice reconstituted with a human immune system provide a tractable in vivo model to assess human immune cell function. To date, reconstitution of murine strains with human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from patients with monogenic immune disorders have not been reported. One obstacle precluding the development of immune-disease specific "humanized" mice is that optimal adaptive immune responses in current strains have required implantation of autologous human thymic tissue. To address this issue, we developed a mouse strain that lacks murine major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) and instead expresses human leukocyte antigen DR1 (HLA-DR1). These mice displayed improved adaptive immune responses when reconstituted with human HSCs including enhanced T-cell reconstitution, delayed-type hypersensitivity responses, and class-switch recombination. Following immune reconstitution of this novel strain with HSCs from a patient with immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome, associated with aberrant FOXP3 function, mice developed a lethal inflammatory disorder with multiorgan involvement and autoantibody production mimicking the pathology seen in affected humans. This humanized mouse model permits in vivo evaluation of immune responses associated with genetically altered HSCs, including primary immunodeficiencies, and should facilitate the study of human immune pathobiology and the development of targeted therapeutics.

  8. Lack of fear response in mice (Mus musculus) exposed to human urine odor.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Germain F; Moser, Emily G; D'Ambrose, Steven P; Lin, David M

    2014-03-01

    A goal of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals is to improve animal welfare by minimizing sources of fear, anxiety, and stress. As a result, it includes recommendations on overcrowding, frequency of cage changes, enrichment, and group housing. However, human odorants are a potential but unexplored source of fear, anxiety, and stress. Although mice have been maintained for decades for animal research, whether mice perceive humans as predators is unknown. If so, this would necessitate changes in animal care and use procedures to minimize this source of chronic fear, anxiety, and stress. Odorants from predator urine are well known to elicit strong fear responses in mice, leading to modification of animal behavior and elevated levels of stress. To begin asking whether human odors influence mouse behavior, we tested the effect of human urine odor on fear response in mice. We assessed mouse behavior by using a modified shuttle cage to record various parameters of mouse exposure to odorants. We found that mice displayed fear responses to 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, a synthetic analog of red fox feces, but no fear response to DMSO, the diluent for 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline. In contrast, mice exposed to human urine samples showed no significant fear response.

  9. A humanized version of Foxp2 does not affect ultrasonic vocalization in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, K; Schreiweis, C; Minge, C; Pääbo, S; Fischer, J; Enard, W

    2015-11-01

    The transcription factor FOXP2 has been linked to severe speech and language impairments in humans. An analysis of the evolution of the FOXP2 gene has identified two amino acid substitutions that became fixed after the split of the human and chimpanzee lineages. Studying the functional consequences of these two substitutions in the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice showed alterations in dopamine levels, striatal synaptic plasticity, neuronal morphology and cortico-striatal-dependent learning. In addition, ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) of pups had a significantly lower average pitch than control littermates. To which degree adult USVs would be affected in mice carrying the 'humanized' Foxp2 variant remained unclear. In this study, we analyzed USVs of 68 adult male mice uttered during repeated courtship encounters with different females. Mice carrying the Foxp2(hum/hum) allele did not differ significantly in the number of call elements, their element structure or in their element composition from control littermates. We conclude that neither the structure nor the usage of USVs in adult mice is affected by the two amino acid substitutions that occurred in FOXP2 during human evolution. The reported effect for pup vocalization thus appears to be transient. These results are in line with accumulating evidence that mouse USVs are hardly influenced by vocal learning. Hence, the function and evolution of genes that are necessary, but not sufficient for vocal learning in humans, must be either studied at a different phenotypic level in mice or in other organisms.

  10. Lack of Fear Response in Mice (Mus musculus) Exposed to Human Urine Odor

    PubMed Central

    Rivard, Germain F; Moser, Emily G; D'Ambrose, Steven P; Lin, David M

    2014-01-01

    A goal of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals is to improve animal welfare by minimizing sources of fear, anxiety, and stress. As a result, it includes recommendations on overcrowding, frequency of cage changes, enrichment, and group housing. However, human odorants are a potential but unexplored source of fear, anxiety, and stress. Although mice have been maintained for decades for animal research, whether mice perceive humans as predators is unknown. If so, this would necessitate changes in animal care and use procedures to minimize this source of chronic fear, anxiety, and stress. Odorants from predator urine are well known to elicit strong fear responses in mice, leading to modification of animal behavior and elevated levels of stress. To begin asking whether human odors influence mouse behavior, we tested the effect of human urine odor on fear response in mice. We assessed mouse behavior by using a modified shuttle cage to record various parameters of mouse exposure to odorants. We found that mice displayed fear responses to 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, a synthetic analog of red fox feces, but no fear response to DMSO, the diluent for 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline. In contrast, mice exposed to human urine samples showed no significant fear response. PMID:24602539

  11. Colocalization of human papillomavirus type 11 E1[symbol: see text]E4 and L1 proteins in human foreskin implants grown in athymic mice.

    PubMed

    Brown, D R; Fan, L; Jones, J; Bryan, J

    1994-05-15

    The most abundant viral mRNA species in tissues infected with HPV 11 consists of two exons, joining a short segment of open reading frame (ORF) E1 to ORF E4, potentially encoding an protein of 10 kDa. E4 gene products have previously been identified by immunohistochemistry in human tissues infected with HPV 1 and HPV 16, and in HPV 11-infected raft cultures. The E1[symbol: see text]E4 mRNA is produced in abundance in HPV 11-infected human foreskin implants grown in athymic mice. In contrast, the L1 mRNA is present at low levels and appears late in the course of infection. To characterize the relationship of these proteins, polyclonal rabbit antisera were produced against bacterially expressed HPV 11 trpE/E1[symbol: see text]E4 and trpE/L1 fusion proteins and tested in an immunohistochemical assay of paraffin-embedded sections of HPV 11-infected human foreskin tissue fixed with 10% buffered formalin phosphate or zinc formalin. In sections fixed with either fixative, the anti-L1 serum stained nuclei of cells in the upper spinous and granular layers. In contrast, the anti-E1[symbol: see text]E4 serum stained the cell membrane and, to a lesser degree, the cytoplasm of cells in the upper spinous and granular layers of tissue fixed with zinc formalin, but not 10% buffered formalin phosphate. In sections treated with both the E1[symbol: see text]E4 and L1 antisera, cell membrane staining occurred in the same cells that exhibited nuclear staining. The HPV 11 E1[symbol: see text]E4 protein appears to be a cell membrane-associated protein. Expression of the HPV 11 E1[symbol: see text]E4 and L1 proteins may be influenced by similar factors in differentiating cells.

  12. 2-/sup 14/C-1-Allyl-3,5-diethyl-6-chlorouracil I: Synthesis, absorption in human skin, excretion, distribution, and metabolism in rats and rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, R.; Hempel, B.; Kiefer, G.

    1982-08-01

    With /sup 14/C-potassium cyanate as the starting material, 2-/sup 14/C-1-allyl-3,5-diethyl-6-chlorouracil was synthesized for in vitro and in vivo absorption studies in human skin and for metabolic studies in rats and rabbits. The radioactivity in the horny layer, epidermis, and dermis of the human skin was determined after different intervals of time, and the radioactivity excreted in the urine was measured by collecting samples for 5 days from a patient and also under occlusion conditions. Almost 90% of the radioactivity remained on the surface and approximately 6.28% penetrated and was systemically absorbed. Over a 5-day period, a total of 3.25% was excreted. Almost 3% was systemically absorbed and cumulated in the system. After intraperitoneal application in male and female rats, most of the radioactivity was excreted in the feces and urine, with female rats excreting more in the urine than male rats. The radioactivity rose in the organs in the first 3 hr and then decreased. At the end of 144 hr, no appreciable radioactivity could be found in the organs and tissues, except in the carcass where the cumulation was maximum (1%). After intravenous injection in rabbits, most of the radioactivity (80%) was excreted in the urine and only 4% in the feces. At the end of 96 hr, approximately 3% was cumulated in the body. The drug was quantitatively metabolized in both rats and rabbits: Metabolite 1 (70-85%), Metabolite 2 (10-15%), Metabolite 3 (5-10%), and Metabolite 4 (0.3%).

  13. Only humans have human placentas: molecular differences between mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, André; Morales-Prieto, Diana M; Pastuschek, Jana; Fröhlich, Karolin; Markert, Udo R

    2015-04-01

    The placenta is one of the organs with the highest evolutionary diversity among animal species. In consequence, an animal model that reflects human placentation exactly does not exist. However, the mouse is the most frequently used animal model for placenta and pregnancy research. It possesses a hemochorial placenta, which is similar, but also different from the human placenta. The question whether the similarities are sufficient for the achievement of useful results with regard to human pregnancy was debated recently at the 11th Congress of the European Society for Reproductive Immunology (Budapest, Hungary). Here, we discuss the molecular features of the human placenta that are restricted to primates or even to humans. Many of the primate-specific genetic novelties, e.g., the large microRNA cluster on chromosome 19, have been detected during the last 10-15 years and could not be referred to in earlier discussions. Now, in the light of recent findings and a better understanding of interspecies differences, we conclude that the mouse model is often overvalued. Owing to the increasing number of known human-specific factors in human placentation we consider that many aspects of human placentation can only be understood on the basis of experiments on human cells and tissues in combination with data collections from human subject studies.

  14. Induction of Both Local Immune Response in Mice and Protection in a Rabbit Model by Intranasal Immunization with Modified Vaccinia Ankara Virus Expressing a Secreted Form of Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Glycoprotein D.

    PubMed

    Del Medico Zajac, María Paula; Zanetti, Flavia Adriana; Esusy, María Soledad; Federico, Carlos Rodolfo; Zabal, Osvaldo; Valera, Alejandro Rafael; Calamante, Gabriela

    In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of mucosal delivery of a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) expressing the secreted version of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) glycoprotein D (MVA-gDs) without addition of adjuvant in two animal models. First, we demonstrated the capability of MVA-gDs of inducing both local and systemic anti-gD humoral immune response after intranasal immunization of mice. Then, we confirmed that two doses of MVA-gDs administered intranasally to rabbits induced systemic anti-gD antibodies and conferred protection against BoHV-1 challenge. Our results show the potential of using MVA as a vector for the rational design of veterinary vaccines capable of inducing specific and protective immune responses both at local and systemic level.

  15. The cottontail rabbits of Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Llewellyn, L.M.; Handley, C.O.

    1945-01-01

    Five races of cottontail rabbits belonging to three species occur in Virginia. One of them, the Mearns cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus mearnsi), is reported here for the first time. It occurs in six southwestern counties of the state, while the eastern cottontail (S. f. mallurus) occurs in the remainder of the state with the exception of Smith and Fishermans islands off the eastern coast of Cape Charles, where it is replaced by Hitchens cottontail (S. f. hitchensi). The New England cottontail (S. transitionalis) is found on the higher mountain peaks, above 3000 feet, and the swamp rabbit (S. palustris) occurs in the Dismal Swamp region of southeastern Virginia.....The height of the breeding season for the eastern cottontail in Virginia is March and April, but breeding continues through the entire year except in December and January. The average litter size based on embryo counts was 4.7. The sex ratio of 234 specimens from all parts of the state, taken mostly in the December to February period, was 53 males to 47 females. That of a group of 145 rabbits live-trapped at Blacksburg during February and Marchwas 58 males to 42 females. The figures show that males are more active than females during the winter months, and therefore are more easily taken then....In transplanting cottontails from one section of the state to another, it is recommended that only cottontails of the same race as those originally present in the region being restocked be released there....Tularemia is not a common disease among rabbits in Virginia, but the rabbit ticks are often carriers of the disease and may transmit it to rabbits. Rabbit ticks are also found to be carriers of Rocky Mountain fever and American Q. fever. After the ticks drop off the rabbits to hibernate in the ground, which is likely to occur during mid-winter in Virginia, there is relatively little danger of humans contracting tularemia by contact with rabbits. Present laws in Virginia which prohibit rabbit hunting until the

  16. Effects of lymphocyte profile on development of EBV-induced lymphoma subtypes in humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Kyung; Joo, Eun Hye; Song, Kyung-A; Choi, Bongkum; Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Kim, Sung Joo; Kang, Myung-Soo

    2015-10-20

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection causes both Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The present study reveals that EBV-induced HL and NHL are intriguingly associated with a repopulated immune cell profile in humanized mice. Newborn immunodeficient NSG mice were engrafted with human cord blood CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for a 8- or 15-wk reconstitution period (denoted (8w)hN and (15w)hN, respectively), resulting in human B-cell and T-cell predominance in peripheral blood cells, respectively. Further, novel humanized mice were established via engraftment of hCD34(+) HSCs together with nonautologous fetal liver-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or MSCs expressing an active notch ligand DLK1, resulting in mice skewed with human B or T cells, respectively. After EBV infection, whereas NHL developed more frequently in B-cell-predominant humanized mice, HL was seen in T-cell-predominant mice (P = 0.0013). Whereas human splenocytes from NHL-bearing mice were positive for EBV-associated NHL markers (hBCL2(+), hCD20(+), hKi67(+), hCD20(+)/EBNA1(+), and EBER(+)) but negative for HL markers (LMP1(-), EBNA2(-), and hCD30(-)), most HL-like tumors were characterized by the presence of malignant Hodgkin's Reed-Sternberg (HRS)-like cells, lacunar RS (hCD30(+), hCD15(+), IgJ(-), EBER(+)/hCD30(+), EBNA1(+)/hCD30(+), LMP(+)/EBNA2(-), hCD68(+), hBCL2(-), hCD20(-/weak,) Phospho STAT6(+)), and mummified RS cells. This study reveals that immune cell composition plays an important role in the development of EBV-induced B-cell lymphoma.

  17. Control of Mycobacterial Infections in Mice Expressing Human Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) but Not Mouse TNF.

    PubMed

    Olleros, Maria L; Chavez-Galan, Leslie; Segueni, Noria; Bourigault, Marie L; Vesin, Dominique; Kruglov, Andrey A; Drutskaya, Marina S; Bisig, Ruth; Ehlers, Stefan; Aly, Sahar; Walter, Kerstin; Kuprash, Dmitry V; Chouchkova, Miliana; Kozlov, Sergei V; Erard, François; Ryffel, Bernard; Quesniaux, Valérie F J; Nedospasov, Sergei A; Garcia, Irene

    2015-09-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is an important cytokine for host defense against pathogens but is also associated with the development of human immunopathologies. TNF blockade effectively ameliorates many chronic inflammatory conditions but compromises host immunity to tuberculosis. The search for novel, more specific human TNF blockers requires the development of a reliable animal model. We used a novel mouse model with complete replacement of the mouse TNF gene by its human ortholog (human TNF [huTNF] knock-in [KI] mice) to determine resistance to Mycobacterium bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis infections and to investigate whether TNF inhibitors in clinical use reduce host immunity. Our results show that macrophages from huTNF KI mice responded to BCG and lipopolysaccharide similarly to wild-type macrophages by NF-κB activation and cytokine production. While TNF-deficient mice rapidly succumbed to mycobacterial infection, huTNF KI mice survived, controlling the bacterial burden and activating bactericidal mechanisms. Administration of TNF-neutralizing biologics disrupted the control of mycobacterial infection in huTNF KI mice, leading to an increased bacterial burden and hyperinflammation. Thus, our findings demonstrate that human TNF can functionally replace murine TNF in vivo, providing mycobacterial resistance that could be compromised by TNF neutralization. This new animal model will be helpful for the testing of specific biologics neutralizing human TNF.

  18. Control of Mycobacterial Infections in Mice Expressing Human Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) but Not Mouse TNF

    PubMed Central

    Olleros, Maria L.; Chavez-Galan, Leslie; Segueni, Noria; Bourigault, Marie L.; Vesin, Dominique; Kruglov, Andrey A.; Drutskaya, Marina S.; Bisig, Ruth; Ehlers, Stefan; Aly, Sahar; Walter, Kerstin; Kuprash, Dmitry V.; Chouchkova, Miliana; Kozlov, Sergei V.; Erard, François; Ryffel, Bernard; Quesniaux, Valérie F. J.; Nedospasov, Sergei A.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is an important cytokine for host defense against pathogens but is also associated with the development of human immunopathologies. TNF blockade effectively ameliorates many chronic inflammatory conditions but compromises host immunity to tuberculosis. The search for novel, more specific human TNF blockers requires the development of a reliable animal model. We used a novel mouse model with complete replacement of the mouse TNF gene by its human ortholog (human TNF [huTNF] knock-in [KI] mice) to determine resistance to Mycobacterium bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis infections and to investigate whether TNF inhibitors in clinical use reduce host immunity. Our results show that macrophages from huTNF KI mice responded to BCG and lipopolysaccharide similarly to wild-type macrophages by NF-κB activation and cytokine production. While TNF-deficient mice rapidly succumbed to mycobacterial infection, huTNF KI mice survived, controlling the bacterial burden and activating bactericidal mechanisms. Administration of TNF-neutralizing biologics disrupted the control of mycobacterial infection in huTNF KI mice, leading to an increased bacterial burden and hyperinflammation. Thus, our findings demonstrate that human TNF can functionally replace murine TNF in vivo, providing mycobacterial resistance that could be compromised by TNF neutralization. This new animal model will be helpful for the testing of specific biologics neutralizing human TNF. PMID:26123801

  19. Serological studies of an acid-labile O-polysaccharide of Proteus vulgaris OX19 lipopolysaccharide using human and rabbit antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kaca, W; Swierzko, A S; Ziolkowski, A; Amano, K; Senchenkova, S N; Knirel, Y A

    1998-01-01

    In a Weil-Felix test, sera from patients infected with Rickettsia sp. agglutinate Proteus OX types of bacteria and Proteus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are responsible for the cross-reaction. Data on the character of LPS of one of the OX group strains, Proteus vulgaris OX19, are contradictory, and it remained unclear whether it has an O-polysaccharide (OPS) and is thus LPS of the smooth type (S) or not (rough-type LPS). Our studies showed that P. vulgaris OX19 (strain PZH-24) produces a smooth-type LPS that contains a long-chain OPS, but it undergoes depolymerization during mild acid hydrolysis conventionally used for LPS delipidation and loses the serological activity. An elucidation of the complete structure of OPS demonstrated the presence of a glycosyl phosphate linkage responsible for the acid-lability of the polysaccharide chain. In ELISA, both IgM type antibodies in a Weil-Felix test with human anti-Rickettsia typhi sera and rabbit anti-P. vulgaris OX19 antibodies reacted with OPS. Rabbit antibodies did not inhibit the cross-reaction with human antibodies and thus bind to different epitopes.

  20. Highly stable maintenance of a mouse artificial chromosome in human cells and mice.

    PubMed

    Kazuki, Kanako; Takehara, Shoko; Uno, Narumi; Imaoka, Natsuko; Abe, Satoshi; Takiguchi, Masato; Hiramatsu, Kei; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Kazuki, Yasuhiro

    2013-12-06

    Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) and mouse artificial chromosomes (MACs) display several advantages as gene delivery vectors, such as stable episomal maintenance that avoids insertional mutations and the ability to carry large gene inserts including the regulatory elements. Previously, we showed that a MAC vector developed from a natural mouse chromosome by chromosome engineering was more stably maintained in adult tissues and hematopoietic cells in mice than HAC vectors. In this study, to expand the utility for a gene delivery vector in human cells and mice, we investigated the long-term stability of the MACs in cultured human cells and transchromosomic mice. We also investigated the chromosomal copy number-dependent expression of genes on the MACs in mice. The MAC was stably maintained in human HT1080 cells in vitro during long-term culture. The MAC was stably maintained at least to the F8 and F4 generations in ICR and C57BL/6 backgrounds, respectively. The MAC was also stably maintained in hematopoietic cells and tissues derived from old mice. Transchromosomic mice containing two or four copies of the MAC were generated by breeding. The DNA contents were comparable to the copy number of the MACs in each tissue examined, and the expression of the EGFP gene on the MAC was dependent on the chromosomal copy number. Therefore, the MAC vector may be useful not only for gene delivery in mammalian cells but also for animal transgenesis.

  1. Identification of GLA/SE as an effective adjuvant for the induction of robust humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to EBV-gp350 in mice and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Heeke, Darren S; Lin, Rui; Rao, Eileen; Woo, Jennifer C; McCarthy, Michael P; Marshall, Jason D

    2016-05-17

    Childhood infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is often asymptomatic and may result in mild flu-like symptoms, but exposure during adolescence and young adulthood can lead to acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM) with a pathology characterized by swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, and severe fatigue lasting weeks or months. A vaccine targeting the envelope glycoprotein gp350 adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide complexed with the TLR4 agonist monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) achieved a 78% reduction in AIM incidence in a small phase II trial of college-age individuals, but development of this vaccine was halted by the manufacturer. Here, we report the evaluation in mice and rabbits of an EBV-gp350 vaccine combined with an adjuvant composed of the synthetic TLR4 agonist glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA) integrated into stable emulsion (SE). In mice, GLA/SE-adjuvanted gp350 generated high IgG titers (both IgG1 and IgG2a/c subtypes), elevated EBV-neutralizing antibody titers, and robust poly-functional anti-gp350 CD4(+) T cell responses. In addition, GLA/SE routinely demonstrated superior performance over aluminum hydroxide in all immunological readouts, including induction of durable neutralizing antibody titers out to at least 1 year post-vaccination. Both components of the GLA/SE adjuvant were found to be required to get optimal responses in both arms of the immune response: specifically, SE for neutralizing antibodies and GLA for induction of T cell responses. Furthermore, this vaccine also elicited high neutralizing antibody titers in a second species, rabbit. These promising results suggest that clinical development of a vaccine comprised of EBV-gp350 plus GLA/SE has the potential to prevent AIM in post-adolescents.

  2. RABBIT POX

    PubMed Central

    Rosahn, Paul D.; Hu, Ch'uan-K'uei

    1935-01-01

    Observations on an epidemic of rabbit pox occurring in an isolated animal room during the winter of 1933–34 are reported. The clinical manifestations, consisting of a generalized papular eruption involving the skin and mucous membranes, together with blepharitis, ophthalmia, nasal discharge and lymphadenopathy were essentially similar to those noted in a pox epidemic of the previous year. This was true in general also of the pathological findings except that vacuolization, local necrosis and vesicle formation were seen in the epidermis, while in the previous year the microscopic pathology in the skin was confined to the corium. Evidence was presented indicating that the infection can be transmitted through the medium of a personal carrier, and that transmission in this manner can occur during the incubation period or before a definite diagnosis is possible. The findings also demonstrated that the etiological agents responsible for the disease reported here and that of the previous year were immunologically related, and that the immunity in recovered animals effectively persisted during the entire period for which data are available, 9 to 12 months. It appeared also that young animals suckling an immune doe were more refractory to the development of the lesions of rabbit pox than were the young of susceptible does. PMID:19870418

  3. Repopulation of adult and neonatal mice with human hepatocytes: a chimeric animal model.

    PubMed

    Bissig, Karl-Dimiter; Le, Tam T; Woods, Niels-Bjarne; Verma, Inder M

    2007-12-18

    We report the successful transplantation of human hepatocytes in immunodeficient, fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase-deficient (fah(-/-)) mice. Engraftment occurs over the entire liver acinus upon transplantation. A few weeks after transplantation, increasing concentrations of human proteins (e.g., human albumin and human C3a) can be measured in the blood of the recipient mouse. No fusion between mouse and human hepatocytes can be detected. Three months after transplantation, up to 20% of the mouse liver is repopulated by human hepatocytes, and sustained expression of lentiviral vector transduced gene can be observed. We further report the development of a hepatocyte transplantation method involving a transcutaneous, intrahepatic injection in neonatal mice. Human hepatocytes engraft over the entire injected lobe with an expansion pattern similar to those observed with intrasplenic transplantation.

  4. A humanized version of Foxp2 affects cortico-basal ganglia circuits in mice.

    PubMed

    Enard, Wolfgang; Gehre, Sabine; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Hölter, Sabine M; Blass, Torsten; Somel, Mehmet; Brückner, Martina K; Schreiweis, Christiane; Winter, Christine; Sohr, Reinhard; Becker, Lore; Wiebe, Victor; Nickel, Birgit; Giger, Thomas; Müller, Uwe; Groszer, Matthias; Adler, Thure; Aguilar, Antonio; Bolle, Ines; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Dalke, Claudia; Ehrhardt, Nicole; Favor, Jack; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Hans, Wolfgang; Hölzlwimmer, Gabriele; Javaheri, Anahita; Kalaydjiev, Svetoslav; Kallnik, Magdalena; Kling, Eva; Kunder, Sandra; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Naton, Beatrix; Racz, Ildikó; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Schrewe, Anja; Busch, Dirk H; Graw, Jochen; Ivandic, Boris; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Ollert, Markus; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Schulz, Holger; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Fisher, Simon E; Morgenstern, Rudolf; Arendt, Thomas; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Fischer, Julia; Schwarz, Johannes; Pääbo, Svante

    2009-05-29

    It has been proposed that two amino acid substitutions in the transcription factor FOXP2 have been positively selected during human evolution due to effects on aspects of speech and language. Here, we introduce these substitutions into the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice. Although these mice are generally healthy, they have qualitatively different ultrasonic vocalizations, decreased exploratory behavior and decreased dopamine concentrations in the brain suggesting that the humanized Foxp2 allele affects basal ganglia. In the striatum, a part of the basal ganglia affected in humans with a speech deficit due to a nonfunctional FOXP2 allele, we find that medium spiny neurons have increased dendrite lengths and increased synaptic plasticity. Since mice carrying one nonfunctional Foxp2 allele show opposite effects, this suggests that alterations in cortico-basal ganglia circuits might have been important for the evolution of speech and language in humans.

  5. Plasma High-Mannose and Complex/Hybrid N-Glycans Are Associated with Hypercholesterolemia in Humans and Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Liang; Li, Qianwei; Li, Lingmei; Lin, Yan; Zhao, Sihai; Wang, Weirong; Wang, Rong; Li, Yongqin; Yuan, Jiangbei; Wang, Chengjian; Wang, Zhongfu; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

    2016-01-01

    N-glycans play important roles in various pathophysiological processes and can be used as clinical diagnosis markers. However, plasma N-glycans change and their pathophysiological significance in the setting of hypercholesterolemia, a major risk factor for atherosclerosis, is unknown. Here, we collected plasma from both hypercholesterolemic patients and cholesterol-fed hypercholesterolemic rabbits, and determined the changes in the whole-plasma N-glycan profile by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. We found that both the hypercholesterolemic patients and rabbits showed a dramatic change in their plasma glycan profile. Compared with healthy subjects, the hypercholesterolemic patients exhibited higher plasma levels of a cluster of high-mannose and complex/hybrid N-glycans (mainly including undecorated or sialylated glycans), whereas only a few fucosylated or fucosylated and sialylated N-glycans were increased. Additionally, cholesterol-fed hypercholesterolemic rabbits also displayed increased plasma levels of high-mannose in addition to high complex/hybrid N-glycan levels. The whole-plasma glycan profiles revealed that the plasma N-glycan levels were correlated with the plasma cholesterol levels, implying that N-glycans may be a target for treatment of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26999365

  6. Similarity of Bisphenol A Pharmacokinetics in Rhesus Monkeys and Mice: Relevance for Human Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Julia A.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Welshons, Wade V.; Drury, Bertram; Rottinghaus, George; Hunt, Patricia A.; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Laffont, Céline M.; VandeVoort, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Daily adult human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been estimated at < 1 μg/kg, with virtually complete first-pass conjugation in the liver in primates but not in mice. We measured unconjugated and conjugated BPA levels in serum from adult female rhesus monkeys and adult female mice after oral administration of BPA and compared findings in mice and monkeys with prior published data in women. Methods Eleven adult female rhesus macaques were fed 400 μg/kg deuterated BPA (dBPA) daily for 7 days. Levels of serum dBPA were analyzed by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (0.2 ng/mL limit of quantitation) over 24 hr on day 1 and on day 7. The same dose of BPA was fed to adult female CD-1 mice; other female mice were administered 3H-BPA at doses ranging from 2 to 100,000 μg/kg. Results In monkeys, the maximum unconjugated serum dBPA concentration of 4 ng/mL was reached 1 hr after feeding and declined to low levels by 24 hr, with no significant bioaccumulation after seven daily doses. Mice and monkeys cleared unconjugated serum BPA at virtually identical rates. We observed a linear (proportional) relationship between administered dose and serum BPA in mice. Conclusions BPA pharmacokinetics in women, female monkeys, and mice is very similar. By comparison with approximately 2 ng/mL unconjugated serum BPA reported in multiple human studies, the average 24-hr unconjugated serum BPA concentration of 0.5 ng/mL in both monkeys and mice after a 400 μg/kg oral dose suggests that total daily human exposure is via multiple routes and is much higher than previously assumed. PMID:20855240

  7. [Protective effects of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on hematopoietic organs of irradiated mice].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling-Zhen; Yin, Song-Mei; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Jia-Yu; Wei, Bo-Xiong; Zhan, Yu; Yu, Wei; Wu, Jin-Ming; Qu, Jia; Guo, Zi-Kuan

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the protective effects of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) on hematopoietic organs of irradiated mice. Human bone marrow MSC were isolated, ex vivo expanded, and identified by cell biological tests. Female BALB/c mice were irradiated with (60)Co γ-ray at a single dose of 6 Gy, and received different doses of human MSC and MSC lysates or saline via tail veins. The survival of mice was record daily, and the femurs and spleens were harvested on day 9 and 16 for pathologic examination. The histological changes were observed and the cellularity was scored. The results showed that the estimated survival time of MSC- and MSC lysate-treated mice was comparable to that of controls. The hematopoiesis in the bone marrow of mice that received high-dose (5×10(6)) of MSC or MSC lysates was partially restored on day 9 and the capacity of hemopoietic tissue and cellularity scorings were significantly elevated as compared with that of controls (P < 0.05). Proliferative nudes were also obviously observed in the spleens of mice that received high-dose of MSC or MSC lysates on d 9 after irradiation. The histological structures of the spleen and bone marrow of the mice that received high-doses (5×10(6)) of MSC or MSC lysates were restored to normal, the cell proliferation displayed extraordinarily active. Further, the cellularity scores of the bone marrow were not significantly different between the high-dose MSC and MSC lysate-treated mice. It is concluded that the bone marrow MSC can promote the hematopoietic recovery of the irradiated mice, which probably is associated with the bioactive materials inherently existed in bone marrow cells.

  8. Histidine decarboxylase deficiency causes Tourette syndrome: parallel findings in humans and mice

    PubMed Central

    Baldan, Lissandra Castellan; Rapanelli, Maximiliano; Crowley, Michael; Anderson, George M.; Loring, Erin; Gorczyca, Roxanne; Billingslea, Eileen; Wasylink, Suzanne; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Ercan-Sencicek, A. Gulhan; Krusong, Kuakarun; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Bloch, Michael H.; Hughes, Zoë A.; Krystal, John H.; Mayes, Linda; de Araujo, Ivan; Ding, Yu-Shin; State, Matthew W.; Pittenger, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by tics, sensorimotor gating deficiencies, and abnormalities of cortico-basal ganglia circuits. A mutation in histidine decarboxylase (Hdc), the key enzyme for the biosynthesis of histamine (HA), has been implicated as a rare genetic cause. Hdc knockout mice exhibited potentiated tic-like stereotypies, recapitulating core phenomenology of TS; these were mitigated by the dopamine D2 antagonist haloperidol, a proven pharmacotherapy, and by HA infusion into the brain. Prepulse inhibition was impaired in both mice and humans carrying Hdc mutations. HA infusion reduced striatal dopamine (DA) levels; in Hdc knockout mice, striatal DA was increased and the DA-regulated immediate early gene Fos was upregulated. Dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding was altered both in mice and in humans carrying the Hdc mutation. These data confirm HDC deficiency as a rare cause of TS and identify histamine-dopamine interactions in the basal ganglia as an important locus of pathology. PMID:24411733

  9. Extensive double humanization of both liver and hematopoiesis in FRGN mice.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Elizabeth M; Bial, J; Tarlow, Branden; Bial, G; Jensen, B; Greiner, D L; Brehm, M A; Grompe, M

    2014-11-01

    Preclinical research in animals often fails to adequately predict the outcomes observed in human patients. Chimeric animals bearing individual human tissues have been developed to provide improved models of human-specific cellular processes. Mice transplanted with human hematopoietic stem cells can be used to study human immune responses, infections of blood cells and processes of hematopoiesis. Animals with humanized livers are useful for modeling hepatotropic infections as well as drug metabolism and hepatotoxicity. However, many pathophysiologic processes involve both the liver and the hematolymphoid system. Examples include hepatitis C/HIV co-infection, immune mediated liver diseases, liver injuries with inflammation such as steatohepatitis and alcoholic liver disease. We developed a robust protocol enabling the concurrent double-humanization of mice with mature hepatocytes and human blood. Immune-deficient, fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (Fah(-/-)), Rag2(-/-) and Il2rg(-/-) deficient animals on the NOD-strain background (FRGN) were simultaneously co-transplanted with adult human hepatocytes and hematopoietic stem cells after busulfan and Ad:uPA pre-conditioning. Four months after transplantation the average human liver repopulation exceeded 80% and hematopoietic chimerism also was high (40-80% in bone marrow). Importantly, human macrophages (Kupffer cells) were present in the chimeric livers. Double-chimeric FRGN mice will serve as a new model for disease processes that involve interactions between hepatocytes and hematolymphoid cells.

  10. Chronic estrogen-induced cervical and vaginal squamous carcinogenesis in human papillomavirus type 16 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Arbeit, J M; Howley, P M; Hanahan, D

    1996-04-02

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), including type 16, have been identified as factors in cervical carcinogenesis. However, the presence and expression of the virus per se appear to be insufficient for carcinogenesis. Rather, cofactors most likely are necessary in addition to viral gene expression to initiate neoplasia. One candidate cofactor is prolonged exposure to sex hormones. To examine the possible effects of estrogen on HPV-associated neoplasia, we treated transgenic mice expressing the oncogenes of HPV16 under control of the human keratin-14 promoter (K14-HPV16 transgenic mice) and nontransgenic control mice with slow release pellets of 17beta-estradiol. Squamous carcinomas developed in a multistage pathway exclusively in the vagina and cervix of K14-HPV16 transgenic mice. Estrogen-induced carcinogenesis was accompanied by an incremental increase in the incidence and distribution of proliferating cells solely within the cervical and vaginal squamous epithelium of K14-HPV16 mice. Expression of the HPV transgenes in untreated transgenic mice was detectable only during estrus; estrogen treatment resulted in transgene expression that was persistent but not further upregulated, remaining at low levels at all stages of carcinogenesis. The data demonstrate a novel mechanism of synergistic cooperation between chronic estrogen exposure and the oncogenes of HPV16 that coordinates squamous carcinogenesis in the female reproductive tract of K14-HPV16 transgenic mice.

  11. A competitive advantage by neonatally engrafted human glial progenitors yields mice whose brains are chimeric for human glia.

    PubMed

    Windrem, Martha S; Schanz, Steven J; Morrow, Carolyn; Munir, Jared; Chandler-Militello, Devin; Wang, Su; Goldman, Steven A

    2014-11-26

    Neonatally transplanted human glial progenitor cells (hGPCs) densely engraft and myelinate the hypomyelinated shiverer mouse. We found that, in hGPC-xenografted mice, the human donor cells continue to expand throughout the forebrain, systematically replacing the host murine glia. The differentiation of the donor cells is influenced by the host environment, such that more donor cells differentiated as oligodendrocytes in the hypomyelinated shiverer brain than in myelin wild-types, in which hGPCs were more likely to remain as progenitors. Yet in each recipient, both the number and relative proportion of mouse GPCs fell as a function of time, concomitant with the mitotic expansion and spread of donor hGPCs. By a year after neonatal xenograft, the forebrain GPC populations of implanted mice were largely, and often entirely, of human origin. Thus, neonatally implanted hGPCs outcompeted and ultimately replaced the host population of mouse GPCs, ultimately generating mice with a humanized glial progenitor population. These human glial chimeric mice should permit us to define the specific contributions of glia to a broad variety of neurological disorders, using human cells in vivo.

  12. AAVrh.10 immunogenicity in mice and humans. Relevance of antibody cross-reactivity in human gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Thwaite, R; Pagès, G; Chillón, M; Bosch, A

    2015-02-01

    Simian adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype rh.10 is a promising gene therapy tool, achieving safe, sustained transgene expression in the nervous system, lung, liver and heart in animal models. To date, preexisting immunity in humans has not been confirmed, though exposure is unexpected. We compared the humoral immune response with serotypes AAVrh.10 and AAV9 in mice, and AAVrh.10, AAV9 and AAV2 in 100 healthy humans. Mice, injected-intravenously, raised significantly more anti-AAV9 than anti-AAVrh.10 IgG (immunoglobulins), and sera demonstrated greater neutralizing capacity, correspondingly. Antibody cross-binding studies in mice showed negligible cross-recognition between AAVrh.10, AAV9 and AAV2. In humans, IgG prevalence against the most common human serotype, AAV2, was 72%; AAV9, 47% and AAVrh.10, a surprising, 59%. Yet, neutralizing-antibody seroprevalences were 71% for AAV2, 18% for AAV9 and 21% for AAVrh.10. Thus, most anti-AAV9 and anti-AAVrh.10 IgG were nonneutralizing. Indeed, sera generally neutralized AAV2 more strongly than AAVrh.10. Further, all samples neutralizing AAVrh.10 or AAV9 also neutralized AAV2, suggesting antibody cross-recognition. This contrasts with the results in mice, and highlights the complexity of tailoring gene therapy to minimize the immune response in humans, when multiple-mixed infections during a lifetime evoke a broad repertoire of preexisting antibodies capable of cross reacting with non-human serotypes.

  13. Persistent hepatitis C virus infections and hepatopathological manifestations in immune-competent humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jizheng; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Hairong; Feng, Jin; Chi, Xiumei; Pan, Yu; Du, Jun; Guo, Min; Cao, Huang; Chen, Honghe; Wang, Zilong; Pei, Rongjuan; Wang, Qian; Pan, Lei; Niu, Junqi; Chen, Xinwen; Tang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The majority of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection develops chronic infection, which causes steatosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, understanding HCV chronicity and pathogenesis is hampered by its narrow host range, mostly restricted to human and chimpanzee. Recent endeavour to infect a variety of humanized mice has not been able to achieve persistent HCV infection unless the essential innate immune responsive genes are knocked out. Nevertheless, such immune-compromised humanized mice still lacked HCV infection-induced hepatopathogenesis. Here we report that transgenic mice in ICR background harboring both human CD81 and occludin genes (C/OTg) are permissive to HCV infection at a chronicity rate comparable to humans. In this mouse model, HCV accomplishes its replication cycle, leading to sustained viremia and infectivity for more than 12 months post infection with expected fibrotic and cirrhotic progression. Host factors favorable for HCV replication, and inadequate innate immune-response may contribute to the persistence. Lastly, NS3/4 protease inhibitor telaprevir can effectively inhibit de novo RNA synthesis and acute HCV infection of C/OTg mice. Thus, chronic HCV infection with complete replication cycle and hepatopathologic manifestations is recapitulated, for the first time, in immune-competent mice. This model will open a new venue to study the mechanisms of chronic hepatitis C and develop better treatments. PMID:25155355

  14. Sex-linked behavioural differences in mice expressing a human insulin transgene in the medial habenula.

    PubMed

    Douhet, P; Bertaina, V; Durkin, T; Calas, A; Destrade, C

    1997-12-01

    We previously reported that a human insulin transgene was specifically expressed in the medial habenula of the adult mouse brain, and that this expression was ascribed to the delta-168 transgene. The present study analyses the possible behavioural consequences of this insulin transgene expression using measures of food intake, spontaneous activity, emotional reactivity, learning and extinction performance of an operant task. The delta-168 transgenic mice did not differ from the C57BL/6 control mice as concerns food intake, behaviour in the open field, or emotional response in an elevated plus maze. On the other hand, measures of locomotor activity in a circular corridor revealed a significantly faster decline of spontaneous locomotor activity in male as compared to female delta-168 transgenic mice. Moreover, as compared to female transgenic mice, male transgenic mice exhibited a deficit in the rate of acquisition and an acceleration of the rate of extinction of a bar press response in a Skinner box. In contrast, the behaviour of female transgenic mice did not differ from either male or female C57BL/6 control mice. The results of the present study demonstrate that the behavioural modifications observed in delta-168 transgenic mice are sex-linked and suggest that these behavioural differences result from changes in the interaction (interface) between motivational and motor mechanisms mediated via the striato-habenulo-mesencephalic system.

  15. Immune humanization of immunodeficient mice using diagnostic bone marrow aspirates from carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Werner-Klein, Melanie; Proske, Judith; Werno, Christian; Schneider, Katharina; Hofmann, Hans-Stefan; Rack, Brigitte; Buchholz, Stefan; Ganzer, Roman; Blana, Andreas; Seelbach-Göbel, Birgit; Nitsche, Ulrich; Männel, Daniela N; Klein, Christoph A

    2014-01-01

    Tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice, while routinely used in cancer research, preclude studying interactions of immune and cancer cells or, if humanized by allogeneic immune cells, are of limited use for tumor-immunological questions. Here, we explore a novel way to generate cancer models with an autologous humanized immune system. We demonstrate that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from bone marrow aspirates of non-metastasized carcinoma patients, which are taken at specialized centers for diagnostic purposes, can be used to generate a human immune system in NOD-scid IL2rγ(null) (NSG) and HLA-I expressing NSG mice (NSG-HLA-A2/HHD) comprising both, lymphoid and myeloid cell lineages. Using NSG-HLA-A2/HHD mice, we show that responsive and self-tolerant human T cells develop and human antigen presenting cells can activate human T cells. As critical factors we identified the low potential of bone marrow HSPCs to engraft, generally low HSPC numbers in patient-derived bone marrow samples, cryopreservation and routes of cell administration. We provide here an optimized protocol that uses a minimum number of HSPCs, preselects high-quality bone marrow samples defined by the number of initially isolated leukocytes and intra-femoral or intra-venous injection. In conclusion, the use of diagnostic bone marrow aspirates from non-metastasized carcinoma patients for the immunological humanization of immunodeficient mice is feasible and opens the chance for individualized analyses of anti-tumoral T cell responses.

  16. Risk of zoonotic transmission of HEV from rabbits.

    PubMed

    Lhomme, Sébastien; Dubois, Martine; Abravanel, Florence; Top, Sokunthea; Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Guerin, Jean-Luc; Izopet, Jacques

    2013-10-01

    Hepatitis E virus strains from rabbits indicate that these mammals may be a reservoir for HEVs that cause infection in humans. Further issues remain to be clarified, including whether the genotype of rabbit HEV differs from human and swine HEV genotype 3 and whether rabbit HEV can infect human and other animals. HEV was found in farmed rabbits in several geographic areas of China, in USA and more recently in France. The prevalence of antibodies against HEV was 36%, 57% and 55% in rabbits from Virginia (USA), Gansu Province and Beijing (China), respectively. HEV RNA was detected in 16.5% of serum samples from farmed rabbits in Virginia, 7.5% in Gansu Province and 7.0% in Beijing. HEV RNA was detected in 7% of bile samples from farmed rabbits and in 23% of liver samples from wild rabbits in France. The full-length genomic sequences analysis indicates that all the rabbit strains belong to the same clade. Nucleotide sequences were 72.2-78.2% identical to HEV genotypes 1-4. Comparison with HEV sequences of human strains circulating in France and reference sequences identified a human strain closely related to rabbit HEV. A 93-nucleotide insertion in the X domain of the ORF1 of the human strain and in all the rabbit HEV strains was found. Moreover, the ability of rabbit HEV to cause cross-species infection in a pig model has recently been demonstrated. Rabbit HEV can replicate efficiently in human cell lines. Collectively, these data support the possibility of zoonotic transmission of HEV from rabbits.

  17. Transgenic mice expressing high plasma concentrations of human apolipoprotein B100 and lipoprotein(a).

    PubMed Central

    Linton, M F; Farese, R V; Chiesa, G; Grass, D S; Chin, P; Hammer, R E; Hobbs, H H; Young, S G

    1993-01-01

    The B apolipoproteins, apo-B48 and apo-B100, are key structural proteins in those classes of lipoproteins considered to be atherogenic [e.g., chylomicron remnants, beta-VLDL, LDL, oxidized LDL, and Lp(a)]. Here we describe the development of transgenic mice expressing high levels of human apo-B48 and apo-B100. A 79.5-kb human genomic DNA fragment containing the entire human apo-B gene was isolated from a P1 bacteriophage library and microinjected into fertilized mouse eggs. 16 transgenic founders expressing human apo-B were generated, and the animals with the highest expression had plasma apo-B100 levels nearly as high as those of normolipidemic humans (approximately 50 mg/dl). The human apo-B100 in transgenic mouse plasma was present largely in lipoproteins of the LDL class as shown by agarose gel electrophoresis, chromatography on a Superose 6 column, and density gradient ultracentrifugation. When the human apo-B transgenic founders were crossed with transgenic mice expressing human apo(a), the offspring that expressed both transgenes had high plasma levels of human Lp(a). Both the human apo-B and Lp(a) transgenic mice will be valuable resources for studying apo-B metabolism and the role of apo-B and Lp(a) in atherosclerosis. Images PMID:8254057

  18. Physiological time structure of the tibialis anterior motor activity during sleep in mice, rats and humans.

    PubMed

    Silvani, Alessandro; Lo Martire, Viviana; Salvadè, Agnese; Bastianini, Stefano; Ferri, Raffaele; Berteotti, Chiara; Baracchi, Francesca; Pace, Marta; Bassetti, Claudio L; Zoccoli, Giovanna; Manconi, Mauro

    2015-12-01

    The validation of rodent models for restless legs syndrome (Willis-Ekbom disease) and periodic limb movements during sleep requires knowledge of physiological limb motor activity during sleep in rodents. This study aimed to determine the physiological time structure of tibialis anterior activity during sleep in mice and rats, and compare it with that of healthy humans. Wild-type mice (n = 9) and rats (n = 8) were instrumented with electrodes for recording the electroencephalogram and electromyogram of neck muscles and both tibialis anterior muscles. Healthy human subjects (31 ± 1 years, n = 21) underwent overnight polysomnography. An algorithm for automatic scoring of tibialis anterior electromyogram events of mice and rats during non-rapid eye movement sleep was developed and validated. Visual scoring assisted by this algorithm had inter-rater sensitivity of 92-95% and false-positive rates of 13-19% in mice and rats. The distribution of the time intervals between consecutive tibialis anterior electromyogram events during non-rapid eye movement sleep had a single peak extending up to 10 s in mice, rats and human subjects. The tibialis anterior electromyogram events separated by intervals <10 s mainly occurred in series of two-three events, their occurrence rate in humans being lower than in mice and similar to that in rats. In conclusion, this study proposes reliable rules for scoring tibialis anterior electromyogram events during non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice and rats, demonstrating that their physiological time structure is similar to that of healthy young human subjects. These results strengthen the basis for translational rodent models of periodic limb movements during sleep and restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease.

  19. Seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic rabbits in Durango State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in rabbits is of public health importance because rabbit meat is consumed by humans, and rabbits are preyed upon by cats that then shed environmentally resistant oocysts. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 429 domestic rabbits in Durango State, Mexico using the mo...

  20. The Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of Lumiracoxib in Chimeric Humanized and Murinized FRG Mice.

    PubMed

    Dickie, A P; Wilson, C E; Schreiter, K; Wehr, R; Wilson, E M; Bial, J; Scheer, N; Wilson, I D; Riley, R J

    2017-03-25

    The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of lumiracoxib were studied, after administration of single 10 mg/kg oral doses to chimeric liver-humanized and murinized FRG mice. In the chimeric humanized mice, lumiracoxib reached peak observed concentrations in the blood of 1.10 ± 0.08 μg/mL at 0.25-0.5 h post-dose with an AUCinf of 1.74 ± 0.52 μg h/mL and an effective half-life for the drug of 1.42 ± 0.72 h (n=3). In the case of the murinized animals peak observed concentrations in the blood were determined as 1.15 ± 0.08 μg/mL at 0.25 h post-dose with an AUCinf of 1.94 ± 0.22 μg h/mL and an effective half-life of 1.28 ± 0.02 h (n=3). Analysis of blood indicated only the presence of unchanged lumiracoxib. Metabolic profiling of urine, bile and faecal extracts revealed a complex pattern of metabolites for both humanized and murinized animals with, in addition to unchanged parent drug, a variety of hydroxylated and conjugated metabolites detected. The profiles obtained in humanized mice were different compared to murinized animals with e.g., a higher proportion of the dose detected in the form of acyl glucuronide metabolites and much reduced amounts of taurine conjugates. Comparison of the metabolic profiles obtained from the present study with previously published data from C57bl/6J mice and humans, revealed a greater though not complete match between chimeric humanized mice and humans, such that the liver-humanized FRG model may represent a useful approach to assessing the biotransformation of such compounds in humans.

  1. Optimization and validation of RP-HPLC-UV method with solid-phase extraction for determination of buparvaquone in human and rabbit plasma: application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Gantala; Majid, M I A; Ramanathan, S; Mansor, S M; Nair, N K; Croft, Simon L; Navaratnam, V

    2008-05-01

    A simple, sensitive and specific reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method with UV detection at 251 nm was developed for quantitation of buparvaquone (BPQ) in human and rabbit plasma. The method utilizes 250 microL of plasma and sample preparation involves protein precipitation followed by solid-phase extraction. The method was validated on a C18 column with mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate buffer (0.02 m, pH 3.0) and acetonitrile in the ratio of 18:82 (v/v) at a flow rate of 1.1 mL/min. The calibration curves were linear (correlation coefficient>or=0.998) in the selected range. The method is specific and sensitive with limit of quantitation of 50 ng/mL for BPQ. The validated method was found to be accurate and precise in the working calibration range. Stability studies were carried out at different storage conditions and BPQ was found to be stable. Partial validation studies were carried out using rabbit plasma and intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were within 7%. This method is simple, reliable and can be routinely used for preclinical pharmacokinetic studies for BPQ.

  2. Hydrocaffeic and p-coumaric acids, natural phenolic compounds, inhibit UV-B damage in WKD human conjunctival cells in vitro and rabbit eye in vivo.

    PubMed

    Larrosa, Mar; Lodovici, Maura; Morbidelli, Lucia; Dolara, Piero

    2008-10-01

    This paper studied the effect on UV-B ocular damage of 10microM hydrocaffeic acid (HCAF) alone and as a mixture (MIX) (5 microM HCAF+5 microM p-coumaric acid). Since ocular UV-B damage is mediated by reactive oxygen species, the aim was to test if HCAF and MIX could reduce oxidation damage in human conjunctival cells (WKD) in vitro and in cornea and sclera of rabbits in vivo. After UVB irradiation (44 J/m(2)) of WKD cells, 8-oxodG levels in DNA were markedly increased and this effect was attenuated by HCAF and MIX. Rabbit eyes were treated by application of HCAF and MIX drops before UV-B exposure (79 J/m(2)). Corneal and scleral DNA oxidation damage, xanthine-oxidase (XO) activity and malondialdehyde levels (MDA) in corneal tissue and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in the aqueous humour were reduced by HCAF alone and in combination with p-coumaric acid, showing their potential as a topical treatment against UV-B damage.

  3. Atypical scrapie prions from sheep and lack of disease in transgenic mice overexpressing human prion protein.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Joiner, Susan; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Spiropoulos, John; Simmons, Marion M; Griffiths, Peter C; Groschup, Martin H; Hope, James; Brandner, Sebastian; Asante, Emmanuel A; Collinge, John

    2013-11-01

    Public and animal health controls to limit human exposure to animal prions are focused on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), but other prion strains in ruminants may also have zoonotic potential. One example is atypical/Nor98 scrapie, which evaded statutory diagnostic methods worldwide until the early 2000s. To investigate whether sheep infected with scrapie prions could be another source of infection, we inoculated transgenic mice that overexpressed human prion protein with brain tissue from sheep with natural field cases of classical and atypical scrapie, sheep with experimental BSE, and cattle with BSE. We found that these mice were susceptible to BSE prions, but disease did not develop after prolonged postinoculation periods when mice were inoculated with classical or atypical scrapie prions. These data are consistent with the conclusion that prion disease is less likely to develop in humans after exposure to naturally occurring prions of sheep than after exposure to epizootic BSE prions of ruminants.

  4. A Frailty Index Based On Deficit Accumulation Quantifies Mortality Risk in Humans and in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rockwood, K.; Blodgett, J. M.; Theou, O.; Sun, M. H.; Feridooni, H. A.; Mitnitski, A.; Rose, R. A.; Godin, J.; Gregson, E.; Howlett, S. E.

    2017-01-01

    Although many common diseases occur mostly in old age, the impact of ageing itself on disease risk and expression often goes unevaluated. To consider the impact of ageing requires some useful means of measuring variability in health in animals of the same age. In humans, this variability has been quantified by counting age-related health deficits in a frailty index. Here we show the results of extending that approach to mice. Across the life course, many important features of deficit accumulation are present in both species. These include gradual rates of deficit accumulation (slope = 0.029 in humans; 0.036 in mice), a submaximal limit (0.54 in humans; 0.44 in mice), and a strong relationship to mortality (1.05 [1.04–1.05] in humans; 1.15 [1.12–1.18] in mice). Quantifying deficit accumulation in individual mice provides a powerful new tool that can facilitate translation of research on ageing, including in relation to disease. PMID:28220898

  5. Pharmacokinetics and effects on serum cholinesterase activities of organophosphorus pesticides acephate and chlorpyrifos in chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Suemizu, Hiroshi; Sota, Shigeto; Kuronuma, Miyuki; Shimizu, Makiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides acephate and chlorpyrifos in foods have potential to impact human health. The aim of the current study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of acephate and chlorpyrifos orally administered at lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level doses in chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes. Absorbed acephate and its metabolite methamidophos were detected in serum from wild type mice and chimeric mice orally administered 150mg/kg. Approximately 70% inhibition of cholinesterase was evident in plasma of chimeric mice with humanized liver (which have higher serum cholinesterase activities than wild type mice) 1day after oral administrations of acephate. Adjusted animal biomonitoring equivalents from chimeric mice studies were scaled to human biomonitoring equivalents using known species allometric scaling factors and in vitro metabolic clearance data with a simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Estimated plasma concentrations of acephate and chlorpyrifos in humans were consistent with reported concentrations. Acephate cleared similarly in humans and chimeric mice but accidental/incidental overdose levels of chlorpyrifos cleared (dependent on liver metabolism) more slowly from plasma in humans than it did in mice. The data presented here illustrate how chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes in combination with a simple PBPK model can assist evaluations of toxicological potential of organophosphorus pesticides.

  6. A rabbit vaginal cell-derived antimicrobial peptide, RVFHbαP, blocks lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation in human vaginal cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Patgaonkar, Mandar S; Sathe, Ameya; Selvaakumar, C; Reddy, K V R

    2011-10-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) constitute a phylogenetically ancient form of innate immunity that provides host defense at various mucosal surfaces, including the vagina. Recently, we have identified one such AMP, rabbit vaginal fluid hemoglobin alpha peptide (RVFHbαP), from the vaginal lavage of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The recent demonstration of a protective role of this peptide in erythrocytes and vaginal cells led us to investigate (i) the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) interactive domain in RVFHbαP and (ii) whether RVFHbαP of rabbit origin modulates the cellular immune responses of another species (humans) in vitro. HeLa-S3, a human vaginal epithelial cell line (hVEC), was exposed to LPS alone (10 μg/ml for 6 h), or LPS-induced cells were treated with RVFHbαP (70.45 μM for 1 h) and cultured for 24 h, and the results obtained were compared with the medium control. We show here that RVFHbαP exerts an anti-inflammatory activity in hVECs, as suggested by the prevention of LPS-induced production of extracellular (supernatant) and intracellular (lysate) levels of cytokines (interleukin 6 [IL-6] and IL-1α) and chemokines (IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1]). The demonstration of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and NF-κB expression in hVECs and the observations of RVFHbαP suppression of human β-defensin-1 (hBD1) mRNA expression further support the hypothesis of a genomic activity of RVFHbαP. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry results demonstrate that RVFHbαP inhibits LPS-induced phagocytosis of Escherichia coli by macrophages. The chemotaxis studies performed using the Boyden chamber Transwell method showed the increased migration of U937 cells when supernatants of LPS-induced hVECs were used, and this effect was inhibited by RVFHbαP. In conclusion, our study proposes a novel explanation for the protective role of RVFHbαP in inflammation-associated infections, which not only may provide the new cellular targets for the screening of

  7. Human genome-specific real-time PCR method for sensitive detection and reproducible quantitation of human cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Pengyue; Xie, Zhenhua; Guo, Ling; Wang, Chengmei; Xie, Weidong; Wu, Yaojiong

    2012-12-01

    Xenotransplantation of human cells into immunodeficiency mice has been frequently used to study stem cells in tissue repair and regeneration and cancer cell metastasis. However, a sensitive and reproducible method to quantify cell engraftment lacks. Here, we developed a Real-Time PCR-based method which facilitated consistent detection and quantification of small amounts of human cells distributed in mouse organs after infusion. The principle of the method was to directly detect a humans-specific sequence in the human-murine genomic DNA mixture. In a mouse myocardial infarction model, the Real-Time PCR-based method consistently determined the amounts of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) engrafted into the heart and other organs 7 days after infusion of as little as 2.5 × 10(5) cells, indicating a high sensitivity, and the amounts of hMSCs detected in mice highly correlated to the numbers of hMSCs transplanted. Importantly, different from previous PCR-based methods, our method produced highly consistent and reproducible results. The reliability of the method was further proven by parallel analyses of DiI-labeled hMSCs in tissue sections and in single cell suspensions of mice. Our data show that the present human genomic DNA-specific primers-based Real-Time PCR method is sensitive and highly reproducible in determining the amount of xenotransplanted human cells in murine tissues.

  8. Inhibition of Acute in vivo Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection by Human Interleukin 10 Treatment of SCID Mice Implanted with Human Fetal Thymus and Liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollmann, Tobias R.; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo; Katopodis, Nikos F.; Hachamovitch, Moshe; Rubinstein, Arye; Kim, Ana; Goldstein, Harris

    1996-04-01

    To improve the usefulness of in vivo models for the investigation of the pathophysiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, we modified the construction of SCID mice implanted with human fetal thymus and liver (thy/liv-SCID-hu mice) so that the peripheral blood of the mice contained significant numbers of human monocytes and T cells. After inoculation with HIV-159, a primary patient isolate capable of infecting monocytes and T cells, the modified thy/liv-SCID-hu mice developed disseminated HIV infection that was associated with plasma viremia. The development of plasma viremia and HIV infection in thy/liv-SCID-hu mice inoculated with HIV-159 was inhibited by acute treatment with human interleukin (IL) 10 but not with human IL-12. The human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in these modified thy/liv-SCID-hu mice were responsive in vivo to treatment with exogenous cytokines. Human interferon γ expression in the circulating human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was induced by treatment with IL-12 and inhibited by treatment with IL-10. Thus, these modified thy/liv-SCID-hu mice should prove to be a valuable in vivo model for examining the role of immunomodulatory therapy in modifying HIV infection. Furthermore, our demonstration of the in vivo inhibitory effect of IL-10 on acute HIV infection suggests that further studies may be warranted to evaluate whether there is a role for IL-10 therapy in preventing HIV infection in individuals soon after exposure to HIV such as for children born to HIV-infected mothers.

  9. Human paraoxonase 1 overexpression in mice stimulates HDL cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport

    PubMed Central

    Ikhlef, Souade; Berrougui, Hicham; Kamtchueng Simo, Olivier; Zerif, Echarki

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of human PON1 overexpression in mice on cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport. PON1 overexpression in PON1-Tg mice induced a significant 3-fold (p<0.0001) increase in plasma paraoxonase activity and a significant ~30% (p<0.0001) increase in the capacity of HDL to mediate cholesterol efflux from J774 macrophages compared to wild-type mice. It also caused a significant 4-fold increase (p<0.0001) in the capacity of macrophages to transfer cholesterol to apoA-1, a significant 2-fold (p<0.0003) increase in ABCA1 mRNA and protein expression, and a significant increase in the expression of PPARγ (p<0.0003 and p<0.04, respectively) and LXRα (p<0.0001 and p<0.01, respectively) mRNA and protein compared to macrophages from wild-type mice. Moreover, transfection of J774 macrophages with human PON1 also increased ABCA1, PPARγ and LXRα protein expression and stimulates macrophages cholesterol efflux to apo A1. In vivo measurements showed that the overexpression of PON1 significantly increases the fecal elimination of macrophage-derived cholesterol in PON1-Tg mice. Overall, our results suggested that the overexpression of PON1 in mice may contribute to the regulation of the cholesterol homeostasis by improving the capacity of HDL to mediate cholesterol efflux and by stimulating reverse cholesterol transport. PMID:28278274

  10. Susceptibility to hepatotoxicity in transgenic mice that express a dominant-negative human keratin 18 mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Ku, N O; Michie, S A; Soetikno, R M; Resurreccion, E Z; Broome, R L; Oshima, R G; Omary, M B

    1996-01-01

    Keratins 8 and 18 (K8/18) are intermediate filament phosphoglycoproteins that are expressed preferentially in simple-type epithelia. We recently described transgenic mice that express point-mutant human K18 (Ku, N.-O., S. Michie, R.G. Oshima, and M.B. Omary. 1995. J. Cell Biol. 131:1303-1314) and develop chronic hepatitis and hepatocyte fragility in association with hepatocyte keratin filament disruption. Here we show that mutant K18 expressing transgenic mice are highly susceptible to hepatotoxicity after acute administration of acetaminophen (400 mg/Kg) or chronic ingestion of griseofulvin (1.25% wt/wt of diet). The predisposition to hepatotoxicity results directly from the keratin mutation since nontransgenic or transgenic mice that express normal human K18 are more resistant. Hepatotoxicity was manifested by a significant difference in lethality, liver histopathology, and biochemical serum testing. Keratin glycosylation decreased in all griseofulvin-fed mice, whereas keratin phosphorylation increased dramatically preferentially in mice expressing normal K18. The phosphorylation increase in normal K18 after griseofulvin feeding appears to involve sites that are different to those that increase after partial hepatectomy. Our results indicate that hepatocyte intermediate filament disruption renders mice highly susceptible to hepatotoxicity, and raises the possibility that K18 mutations may predispose to drug hepatotoxicity. The dramatic phosphorylation increase in nonmutant keratins could provide survival advantage to hepatocytes. PMID:8770877

  11. Comprehensive Survey of Intestinal Microbiota Changes in Offspring of Human Microbiota-Associated Mice.

    PubMed

    von Klitzing, Eliane; Öz, Fulya; Ekmekciu, Ira; Escher, Ulrike; Bereswill, Stefan; Heimesaat, Markus M

    2017-03-01

    Secondary abiotic mice generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment provide a valuable tool for association studies with microbiota derived from different vertebrate hosts. We here generated human microbiota-associated (hma) mice by human fecal microbiota transplantation of secondary abiotic mice and performed a comprehensive survey of the intestinal microbiota dynamics in offspring of hma mice over 18 weeks following weaning as compared to their mothers applying both cultural and molecular methods. Mice were maintained under standard hygienic conditions with open cages, handled under aseptic conditions, and fed autoclaved chow and water. Within 1 week post weaning, fecal loads of commensal enterobacteria and enterococci had decreased, whereas obligate anaerobic bacteria such as Bacteroides/Prevotella species and clostridia were stably colonizing the intestines of hma offspring at high loads. Lactobacilli numbers were successively increasing until 18 weeks post weaning in both hma offspring and mothers, whereas by then, bifidobacteria were virtually undetectable in the former only. Interestingly, fecal lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were higher in mothers as compared to their offspring at 5 and 18 weeks post weaning. We conclude that the intestinal microbiota composition changes in offspring of hma mice, but also their mothers over time particularly affecting aerobic and microaerobic species.

  12. Copper transport during lactation in transgenic mice expressing the human ATP7A protein

    PubMed Central

    Llanos, Roxana M.; Michalczyk, Agnes A.; Freestone, David J.; Currie, Scott; Linder, Maria C.; Ackland, M. Leigh; Mercer, Julian F.B.

    2008-01-01

    Both copper transporting ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B, are expressed in mammary epithelial cells but their role in copper delivery to milk has not been clarified. We investigated the role of ATP7A in delivery of copper to milk using transgenic mice that over-express human ATP7A. In mammary gland of transgenic mice, human ATP7A protein was 10- to 20-fold higher than in control mice, and was localized to the basolateral membrane of mammary epithelial cells in lactating mice. The copper concentration in the mammary gland of transgenic dams and stomach contents of transgenic pups was significantly reduced compared to non-transgenic mice. The mRNA levels of endogenous Atp7a, Atp7b, and Ctr1 copper transporters in the mammary gland were not altered by the expression of the ATP7A transgene, and the protein levels of Atp7b and ceruloplasmin were similar in transgenic and non-transgenic mice. These data suggest that ATP7A plays a role in removing excess copper from the mammary epithelial cells rather than supplying copper to milk. PMID:18515074

  13. Comprehensive Survey of Intestinal Microbiota Changes in Offspring of Human Microbiota-Associated Mice

    PubMed Central

    von Klitzing, Eliane; Öz, Fulya; Ekmekciu, Ira; Escher, Ulrike; Bereswill, Stefan; Heimesaat, Markus M.

    2017-01-01

    Secondary abiotic mice generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment provide a valuable tool for association studies with microbiota derived from different vertebrate hosts. We here generated human microbiota-associated (hma) mice by human fecal microbiota transplantation of secondary abiotic mice and performed a comprehensive survey of the intestinal microbiota dynamics in offspring of hma mice over 18 weeks following weaning as compared to their mothers applying both cultural and molecular methods. Mice were maintained under standard hygienic conditions with open cages, handled under aseptic conditions, and fed autoclaved chow and water. Within 1 week post weaning, fecal loads of commensal enterobacteria and enterococci had decreased, whereas obligate anaerobic bacteria such as Bacteroides/Prevotella species and clostridia were stably colonizing the intestines of hma offspring at high loads. Lactobacilli numbers were successively increasing until 18 weeks post weaning in both hma offspring and mothers, whereas by then, bifidobacteria were virtually undetectable in the former only. Interestingly, fecal lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were higher in mothers as compared to their offspring at 5 and 18 weeks post weaning. We conclude that the intestinal microbiota composition changes in offspring of hma mice, but also their mothers over time particularly affecting aerobic and microaerobic species. PMID:28386472

  14. PKCδ regulates hepatic insulin sensitivity and hepatosteatosis in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Bezy, Olivier; Tran, Thien T.; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Suzuki, Ryo; Emanuelli, Brice; Winnay, Jonathan; Mori, Marcelo A.; Haas, Joel; Biddinger, Sudha B.; Leitges, Michael; Goldfine, Allison B.; Patti, Mary Elizabeth; King, George L.; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2011-01-01

    C57BL/6J and 129S6/Sv (B6 and 129) mice differ dramatically in their susceptibility to developing diabetes in response to diet- or genetically induced insulin resistance. A major locus contributing to this difference has been mapped to a region on mouse chromosome 14 that contains the gene encoding PKCδ. Here, we found that PKCδ expression in liver was 2-fold higher in B6 versus 129 mice from birth and was further increased in B6 but not 129 mice in response to a high-fat diet. PRKCD gene expression was also elevated in obese humans and was positively correlated with fasting glucose and circulating triglycerides. Mice with global or liver-specific inactivation of the Prkcd gene displayed increased hepatic insulin signaling and reduced expression of gluconeogenic and lipogenic enzymes. This resulted in increased insulin-induced suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis, improved glucose tolerance, and reduced hepatosteatosis with aging. Conversely, mice with liver-specific overexpression of PKCδ developed hepatic insulin resistance characterized by decreased insulin signaling, enhanced lipogenic gene expression, and hepatosteatosis. Therefore, changes in the expression and regulation of PKCδ between strains of mice and in obese humans play an important role in the genetic risk of hepatic insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and hepatosteatosis; and thus PKCδ may be a potential target in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. PMID:21576825

  15. Vitamin E and diabetic nephropathy in mice model and humans.

    PubMed

    Farid, Nakhoul; Inbal, Dahan; Nakhoul, Nakhoul; Evgeny, Farber; Miller-Lotan, Rachel; Levy, Andrew P; Rabea, Asleh

    2013-11-06

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with increased oxidative stress due to elevated glucose levels in the plasma. Glucose promotes glycosylation of both plasma and cellular proteins with increased risk for vascular events. Diabetic patients suffer from a higher incidence of cardiovascular complications such as diabetic nephropathy. Haptoglobin (Hp) is an antioxidant plasma protein which binds free hemoglobin, thus preventing heme-iron mediated oxidation. Two alleles exist at the Hp gene locus (1 and 2) encoding three possible Hp genotypes that differ in their antioxidant ability, and may respond differently to vitamin E treatment. Several clinical studies to have shown that Hp 1-1 genotype is a superior antioxidant to the Hp 2-2 genotype and Hp 2-2 genotype is associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease. Vitamin E was found to have beneficial effect in patient and mice with Hp 2-2 genotype. In this review we have summarized the results of our studies in patients with diabetic nephropathy treated with vitamin E and in diabetic mice with different haptoglobin genotypes.

  16. Effects of human opiorphin on food intake and water intake in mice following central administration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Tian, Xiao-Zhu; Bai, Lu; Liu, Ze-Qi; Xiao, Xing-Peng; Liu, Pu; Li, Xiang-Kai

    2017-02-22

    Human opiorphin plays an important pharmacological functions in rats or mice. The present study was performed to investigate effects and underlying mechanism of central injected opiorphin on food intake and water intake in mice. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered opiorphin (5-20μg/kg) dose-dependently suppressed food intake in fasted mice, but had no influence on food intake in freely feeding mice. The cumulative food intake was significantly decreased at 60min after injection of 10 and 20μg/kg opiorphin and the food intake was significantly reduced during the 20-60min period after treatment. Non-selected opiate receptor antagonist naloxone could fully block the inhibitory effect induced by opiorphin on cumulative food intake at 60min in fasted mice, suggesting that the anorexic effect of opiorphin was related to the opioid system. Moreover, the anorexic effect induced by opiorphin in fasted mice was also significantly inhibited by pretreatment with captopril or valsartan, which suggested that endogenous angiotensin may be involved in the response to opiorphin. Interestingly, the effect of opiorphin on water intake was increased in both fasted and freely feeding mice, which was completely blocked by captopril and valsartan. Furthermore, naloxone did not modify the effect of opiorphin on water intake. All together, the food and water intake effects of opiorphin may be due to the protection of the endogenous angiotensin and opioid peptides from degradation by NEP or APN.

  17. Dendritic cell-mediated immune humanization of mice: implications for allogeneic and xenogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Salguero, Gustavo; Daenthanasanmak, Anusara; Münz, Christian; Raykova, Ana; Guzmán, Carlos A; Riese, Peggy; Figueiredo, Constanca; Länger, Florian; Schneider, Andreas; Macke, Laura; Sundarasetty, Bala Sai; Witte, Torsten; Ganser, Arnold; Stripecke, Renata

    2014-05-15

    De novo regeneration of immunity is a major problem after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). HCT modeling in severely compromised immune-deficient animals transplanted with human stem cells is currently limited because of incomplete maturation of lymphocytes and scarce adaptive responses. Dendritic cells (DC) are pivotal for the organization of lymph nodes and activation of naive T and B cells. Human DC function after HCT could be augmented with adoptively transferred donor-derived DC. In this study, we demonstrate that adoptive transfer of long-lived human DC coexpressing high levels of human IFN-α, human GM-CSF, and a clinically relevant Ag (CMV pp65 protein) promoted human lymphatic remodeling in immune-deficient NOD.Rag1(-/-).IL-2rγ(-/-) mice transplanted with human CD34(+) cells. After immunization, draining lymph nodes became replenished with terminally differentiated human follicular Th cells, plasma B cells, and memory helper and cytotoxic T cells. Human Igs against pp65 were detectable in plasma, demonstrating IgG class-switch recombination. Human T cells recovered from mice showed functional reactivity against pp65. Adoptive immunotherapy with engineered DC provides a novel strategy for de novo immune reconstitution after human HCT and a practical and effective tool for studying human lymphatic regeneration in vivo in immune deficient xenograft hosts.

  18. Evaluation of the efficiency of human immune system reconstitution in NSG mice and NSG mice containing a human HLA.A2 transgene using hematopoietic stem cells purified from different sources.

    PubMed

    Patton, John; Vuyyuru, Raja; Siglin, Amanda; Root, Michael; Manser, Tim

    2015-07-01

    Severely immunodeficient mice such as the NOD/SCID/IL2rγ(null) (NSG) strain can be engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), resulting in chimeric mice containing many components of the human immune system (Human Immune System mice or HIS mice). HIS mice can both support the replication of and recapitulate much of the immunological response to a variety of pathogens, including ones with strict human tropism, such as HIV-1. In an effort to develop a better mouse model for human infectious pathogen infection and possible immune resolution, we compared the human immune system reconstitution of NSG mice following injection with human CD34(+) HSCs purified from either fetal liver (FL) or umbilical cord blood (UCB). We analyzed reconstitution in standard NSG mice as well as a derivative of these mice containing an HLA.A2 encoding transgene (NSG.A2). HSCs from both sources effectively reconstituted hematopoietic lineages when injected into NSG mice. In marked contrast, total CD45(+) human hematopoietic cells in NSG.A2 mice were well reconstituted by HSCs from UCB but very poorly by HSCs purified from FL. Moreover, the reconstitution of T cell lineages in NSG.A2 mice by HSCs from UCB was inferior to that obtained using NSG mice. We also found that FL CD34(+) HSCs contain a much higher percentage of cells with a phenotype consistent with primitive progenitors than UCB HSCs. We discuss possible explanations for the influence of the HLA.A2 transgene on hematopoietic reconstitution using the two sources of HSCs.

  19. Comparative phamacokinetics of perfluorobutyrate (PFBA) in rats, mice, monkeys and humans and relevance to human exposure via drinking water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorobutyrate (PFBA) has been detected in precipitation, surface waters, water treatment effluent, and in public and private wells in Minnesota at up to low mug/L concentrations. We evaluated the pharmacokinetics of PFBA in rats, mice, monkeys, and humans to provide a rationa...

  20. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Perfluorobutyrate in Rats, Mice,Monkeys, and Humans and Relevance to Human Exposurevia Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorobutyrate (PFBA) has been detected in precipitation, surface waters, water treatment effluent, and in public and private wells in Minnesota at up to low mg/l concentrations. We evaluated the pharmacokinetics of PFBA in rats, mice, monkeys, and humans to provide a rati...

  1. Impaired growth of pancreatic exocrine cells in transgenic mice expressing human activin {beta}E subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Osamu . E-mail: ohashim@vmas.kitasato-u.ac.jp; Ushiro, Yuuki; Sekiyama, Kazunari; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Yoshioka, Kazuki; Mutoh, Ken-Ichiro; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa

    2006-03-10

    Activins, TGF-{beta} superfamily members, have multiple functions in a variety of cells and tissues. Recently, additional activin {beta} subunit genes, {beta}C and {beta}E, have been identified. To explore the role of activin E, we created transgenic mice overexpressing human activin {beta}E subunit. There were pronounced differences in the pancreata of the transgenic animals as compared with their wild-type counterparts. Pancreatic weight, expressed relative to total body weight, was significantly reduced. Histologically, adipose replacement of acini in the exocrine pancreas was observed. There was a significant decrease in the number of PCNA-positive cells in the acinar cells, indicating reduced proliferation in the exocrine pancreas of the transgenic mice. However, quantitative pancreatic morphometry showed that the total number and mass of the islets of the transgenic mice were comparable with those of the nontransgenic control mice. Our findings suggest a role for activin E in regulating the proliferation of pancreatic exocrine cells.

  2. Heterotransplantation of human cervix cancers in radiation-conditioned or nonconditioned athymic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Y.; Feola, J.M.; van Nagell, J.R.

    1985-12-01

    Primary human cervix cancers were implanted into athymic nude mice from 23 patient biopsy specimens. Tissue/tumor samples were implanted as chunks by trocar in different sites in irradiated (400 rad) or nonirradiated nude mice. Without irradiation 1 of 9 (11%) implanted tumors grew progressively and 13 of 26 (50%) implanted sites formed small implantation nodules that remained stable and usually regressed. In nude mice given 400-rad irradiation, 3 of 12 (25%) showed progressive tumor growth, 8 of 12 (67%) patient samples showed growth, and 24 of 36 (67%) implanted sites showed growth. Correlation with clinical data showed that the higher-stage and more malignant tumors were more likely to show progressive growth patterns, as was noted in three of five Stage III/IV cervix tumors grafted into 400-rad conditioned mice. Conversely, the lower-stage tumors were much less likely to show growth, and zero of nine samples with Stage I/II tumors showed progressive growth.

  3. Animal models to study the pathogenesis of human and animal Clostridium perfringens infections

    PubMed Central

    Uzal, Francisco A.; McClane, Bruce A.; Cheung, Jackie K.; Theoret, James; Garcia, Jorge P.; Moore, Robert J.; Rood, Julian I.

    2016-01-01

    The most common animal models used to study Clostridium perfringens infections in humans and animals are reviewed here. The classical C. perfringens-mediated histotoxic disease of humans is clostridial myonecrosis or gas gangrene and the use of a mouse myonecrosis model coupled with genetic studies has contributed greatly to our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Similarly, the use of a chicken model has enhanced our understanding of type A-mediated necrotic enteritis in poultry and has led to the identification of NetB as the primary toxin involved in disease. C. perfringens type A food poisoning is a highly prevalent bacterial illness in the USA and elsewhere. Rabbits and mice are the species most commonly used to study the action of enterotoxin, the causative toxin. Other animal models used to study the effect of this toxin are rats, non-human primates, sheep and cattle. In rabbits and mice, CPE produces severe necrosis of the small intestinal epithelium along with fluid accumulation. C. perfringens type D infection has been studied by inoculating epsilon toxin (ETX) intravenously into mice, rats, sheep, goats and cattle, and by intraduodenal inoculation of whole cultures of this microorganism in mice, sheep, goats and cattle. Molecular Koch's postulates have been fulfilled for enterotoxigenic C. perfringens type A in rabbits and mice, for C. perfringens type A necrotic enteritis and gas gangrene in chickens and mice, respectively, for C. perfringens type C in mice, rabbits and goats, and for C. perfringens type D in mice, sheep and goats. PMID:25770894

  4. Animal models to study the pathogenesis of human and animal Clostridium perfringens infections.

    PubMed

    Uzal, Francisco A; McClane, Bruce A; Cheung, Jackie K; Theoret, James; Garcia, Jorge P; Moore, Robert J; Rood, Julian I

    2015-08-31

    The most common animal models used to study Clostridium perfringens infections in humans and animals are reviewed here. The classical C. perfringens-mediated histotoxic disease of humans is clostridial myonecrosis or gas gangrene and the use of a mouse myonecrosis model coupled with genetic studies has contributed greatly to our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Similarly, the use of a chicken model has enhanced our understanding of type A-mediated necrotic enteritis in poultry and has led to the identification of NetB as the primary toxin involved in disease. C. perfringens type A food poisoning is a highly prevalent bacterial illness in the USA and elsewhere. Rabbits and mice are the species most commonly used to study the action of enterotoxin, the causative toxin. Other animal models used to study the effect of this toxin are rats, non-human primates, sheep and cattle. In rabbits and mice, CPE produces severe necrosis of the small intestinal epithelium along with fluid accumulation. C. perfringens type D infection has been studied by inoculating epsilon toxin (ETX) intravenously into mice, rats, sheep, goats and cattle, and by intraduodenal inoculation of whole cultures of this microorganism in mice, sheep, goats and cattle. Molecular Koch's postulates have been fulfilled for enterotoxigenic C. perfringens type A in rabbits and mice, for C. perfringens type A necrotic enteritis and gas gangrene in chickens and mice, respectively, for C. perfringens type C in mice, rabbits and goats, and for C. perfringens type D in mice, sheep and goats.

  5. Interleukin 1-induced augmentation of experimental metastases from a human melanoma in nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Giavazzi, R.; Garofalo, A.; Bani, M.R.; Abbate, M.; Ghezzi, P.; Boraschi, D.; Mantovani, A.; Dejana, E. )

    1990-08-01

    This study has examined the effect of the cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) on metastasis formation by the human melanoma A375M in nude mice. We have found that human recombinant IL-1 beta (a single injection greater than 0.01 micrograms per mouse i.v. given before tumor cells) induced an augmentation of experimental lung metastases from the A375M tumor cells in nude mice. This effect was rapidly induced and reversible within 24 h after IL-1 injection. A similar effect was induced by human recombinant IL-1 alpha and human recombinant tumor necrosis factor, but not by human recombinant interleukin 6. 5-(125I)odo-2'-deoxyuridine-radiolabeled A375M tumor cells injected i.v. remained at a higher level in the lungs of nude mice receiving IL-1 than in control mice. In addition, IL-1 injected 1 h, but not 24 h, after tumor cells enhanced lung colonization as well, thus suggesting an effect of IL-1 on the vascular transit of tumor cells. These findings may explain the observation of enhanced secondary localization of tumor cells at inflammatory sites and suggest that modulation of secondary spread should be carefully considered when assessing the ability of this cytokine to complement cytoreductive therapies.

  6. Opposite regulation of human versus mouse apolipoprotein A-I by fibrates in human apolipoprotein A-I transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Berthou, L; Duverger, N; Emmanuel, F; Langouët, S; Auwerx, J; Guillouzo, A; Fruchart, J C; Rubin, E; Denèfle, P; Staels, B; Branellec, D

    1996-01-01

    The regulation of liver apolipoprotein (apo) A-I gene expression by fibrates was studied in human apo A-I transgenic mice containing a human genomic DNA fragment driving apo A-I expression in liver. Treatment with fenofibrate (0.5% wt/wt) for 7 d increased plasma human apo A-I levels up to 750% and HDL-cholesterol levels up to 200% with a shift to larger particles. The increase in human apo A-I plasma levels was time and dose dependent and was already evident after 3 d at the highest dose (0.5% wt/wt) of fenofibrate. In contrast, plasma mouse apo A-I concentration was decreased after fenofibrate in nontransgenic mice. The increase in plasma human apo A-I levels after fenofibrate treatment was associated with a 97% increase in hepatic human apo A-I mRNA, whereas mouse apo A-I mRNA levels decreased to 51%. In nontransgenic mice, a similar down-regulation of hepatic apo A-I mRNA levels was observed. Nuclear run-on experiments demonstrated that the increase in human apo A-I and the decrease in mouse apo A-I gene expression after fenofibrate occurred at the transcriptional level. Since part of the effects of fibrates are mediated through the nuclear receptor PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor), the expression of the acyl CoA oxidase (ACO) gene was measured as a control of PPAR activation. Both in transgenic and nontransgenic mice, fenofibrate induced ACO mRNA levels up to sixfold. When transgenic mice were treated with gemfibrozil (0.5% wt/wt) plasma human apo A-I and HDL-cholesterol levels increased 32 and 73%, respectively, above control levels. The weaker effect of this compound on human apo A-I and HDL-cholesterol levels correlated with a less pronounced impact on ACO mRNA levels (a threefold increase) suggesting that the level of induction of human apo A-I gene is related to the PPAR activating potency of the fibrate used. Treatment of human primary hepatocytes with fenofibric acid (500 microM) provoked an 83 and 50% increase in apo A-I secretion and

  7. Generation of Human Antigen-Specific Monoclonal IgM Antibodies Using Vaccinated “Human Immune System” Mice

    PubMed Central

    van Geelen, Caroline M. M.; Noerder, Miriam; Huntington, Nicholas D.; Lim, Annick; Yasuda, Etsuko; Diehl, Sean A.; Scheeren, Ferenc A.; Ott, Michael; Weijer, Kees; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Di Santo, James P.; Beaumont, Tim; Guzman, Carlos A.; Spits, Hergen

    2010-01-01

    Background Passive transfer of antibodies not only provides immediate short-term protection against disease, but also can be exploited as a therapeutic tool. However, the ‘humanization’ of murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is a time-consuming and expensive process that has the inherent drawback of potentially altering antigenic specificity and/or affinity. The immortalization of human B cells represents an alternative for obtaining human mAbs, but relies on the availability of biological samples from vaccinated individuals or convalescent patients. In this work we describe a novel approach to generate fully human mAbs by combining a humanized mouse model with a new B cell immortalization technique. Methodology/Principal Findings After transplantation with CD34+CD38− human hematopoietic progenitor cells, BALB/c Rag2−/−IL-2Rγc−/− mice acquire a human immune system and harbor B cells with a diverse IgM repertoire. “Human Immune System” mice were then immunized with two commercial vaccine antigens, tetanus toxoid and hepatitis B surface antigen. Sorted human CD19+CD27+ B cells were retrovirally transduced with the human B cell lymphoma (BCL)-6 and BCL-XL genes, and subsequently cultured in the presence of CD40-ligand and IL-21. This procedure allows generating stable B cell receptor-positive B cells that secrete immunoglobulins. We recovered stable B cell clones that produced IgM specific for tetanus toxoid and the hepatitis B surface antigen, respectively. Conclusion/Significance This work provides the proof-of-concept for the usefulness of this novel method based on the immunization of humanized mice for the rapid generation of human mAbs against a wide range of antigens. PMID:20957227

  8. Increased renal oxidative stress in salt-sensitive human GRK4γ486V transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Diao, Zhenyu; Asico, Laureano D; Villar, Van Anthony M; Zheng, Xiaoxu; Cuevas, Santiago; Armando, Ines; Jose, Pedro A; Wang, Xiaoyan

    2017-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that salt-sensitive hypertension is caused by renal oxidative stress by measuring the blood pressure and reactive oxygen species-related proteins in the kidneys of human G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4γ (hGRK4γ) 486V transgenic mice and non-transgenic (Non-T) littermates on normal and high salt diets. High salt diet increased the blood pressure, associated with impaired sodium excretion, in hGRK4γ486V mice. Renal expressions of NOX isoforms were similar in both strains on normal salt diet but NOX2 was decreased by high salt diet to a greater extent in Non-T than hGRK4γ486V mice. Renal HO-2, but not HO-1, protein was greater in hGRK4γ486V than Non-T mice on normal salt diet and normalized by high salt diet. On normal salt diet, renal CuZnSOD and ECSOD proteins were similar but renal MnSOD was lower in hGRK4γ486V than Non-T mice and remained low on high salt diet. High salt diet decreased renal CuZnSOD in hGRK4γ486V but not Non-T mice and decreased renal ECSOD to a greater extent in hGRK4γ486V than Non-T mice. Renal SOD activity, superoxide production, and NOS3 protein were similar in two strains on normal salt diet. However, high salt diet decreased SOD activity and NOS3 protein and increased superoxide production in hGRK4γ486V mice but not in Non-T mice. High salt diet also increased urinary 8-isoprostane and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine to a greater extent in hGRK4γ486V than Non-T mice. hGRK4γwild-type mice were normotensive and hGRK4γ142V mice were hypertensive but both were salt-resistant and in normal redox balance. Chronic tempol treatment partially prevented the salt-sensitivity of hGRK4γ486V mice. Thus, hGRK4γ486V causes salt-sensitive hypertension due, in part, to defective renal antioxidant mechanisms.

  9. Neuroendocrine function in adult female transgenic mice expressing the human growth hormone gene.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, V; Bartke, A; Wagner, T E

    1992-04-01

    Adult female transgenic mice expressing the human GH (hGH) gene with mouse metallothionein-I promoter are sterile. To evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary function in these animals, adult female transgenic mice and nontransgenic normal littermates were ovariectomized. On days 7 and 8 after ovariectomy, mice were injected with either oil or primed with 0.5 micrograms estradiol benzoate (EB) in oil, 24 h later treated with 10 micrograms EB/100 g body wt and a day later bled for measurements of FSH, LH, and PRL levels. Plasma gonadotropin and PRL levels were also measured in ovary-intact transgenic and normal siblings at estrus. Additional ovariectomized EB-treated transgenic mice and normal siblings were injected with either saline or GnRH in saline (1 ng/g body wt) and were bled 15 min later for determination of circulating hormone levels. At estrus, in transgenic mice, circulating FSH and PRL levels were significantly lower (FSH:P less than 0.001; PRL:P less than 0.025), but plasma LH concentrations were higher (P less than 0.001) than those in nontransgenic mice. As expected, ovariectomy significantly increased (P less than 0.001) circulating FSH and LH levels in both groups of mice relative to ovary-intact animals, but the increase in plasma LH levels was attenuated in transgenic mice. The suppressive effect of estrogen on circulating FSH and LH levels were similar in transgenic and nontransgenic mice. Treatment with GnRH significantly increased plasma FSH and LH levels in both transgenic and normal mice. However, the plasma FSH and LH responses to GnRH administration were significantly reduced (P less than 0.001) in transgenic mice. The results of these studies indicate that adult female transgenic mice expressing the hGH gene are hypoprolactinemic. Yet due to PRL-like activity of hGH, the gonadotropin secretion is altered. Thus, endogenously secreted hGH modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary function of adult female transgenic mice bearing the hGH gene.

  10. Smoothened Agonist Reduces Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown in Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vir B.; Singh, Meera V.; Gorantla, Santhi; Poluektova, Larisa Y.; Maggirwar, Sanjay B.

    2016-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorder is characterized by recruitment of activated/infected leukocytes into the CNS via disrupted Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) that contributes to persistent neuro-inflammation. In this report, humanized NOD/scid-IL2Rγcnull mice were used to establish that impaired Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is associated with loss of BBB function and neurological damage, and that modulating Shh signaling can rescue these detrimental effects. Plasma viral load, p24 levels and CD4+ T cells were measured as markers of productive HIV infection. These mice also showed impaired exclusion of Evans blue dye from the brain, increased plasma levels of S100B, an astrocytic protein, and down-regulation of tight junction proteins Occludin and Claudin5, collectively indicating BBB dysfunction. Further, brain tissue from HIV+ mice indicated reduced synaptic density, neuronal atrophy, microglial activation, and astrocytosis. Importantly, reduced expression of Shh and Gli1 was also observed in these mice, demonstrating diminished Shh signaling. Administration of Shh mimetic, smoothened agonist (SAG) restored BBB integrity and also abated the neuropathology in infected mice. Together, our results suggest a neuroprotective role for Shh signaling in the context of HIV infection, underscoring the therapeutic potential of SAG in controlling HAND pathogenesis. PMID:27241024

  11. Co-transplantation of human hematopoietic stem cells and human breast cancer cells in NSG mice: a novel approach to generate tumor cell specific human antibodies.

    PubMed

    Wege, Anja K; Schmidt, Marcus; Ueberham, Elke; Ponnath, Marvin; Ortmann, Olaf; Brockhoff, Gero; Lehmann, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Humanized tumor mice (HTM) were generated by the co-transplantation of human hematopoietic stem cells and human breast cancer cells overexpressing HER2 into neonatal NOD-scid IL2Rγ(null) (NSG) mice. These mice are characterized by the development of a human immune system in combination with human breast cancer growth. Due to concurrent transplantation into newborn mice, transfer of MHC-mismatched tumor cells resulted in solid coexistence and immune cell activation (CD4(+) T cells, natural killer cells, and myeloid cells), but without evidence for rejection. Histological staining of the spleen of HTM revealed co-localization of human antigen-presenting cells together with human T and B cells allowing MHC-dependent interaction, and thereby the generation of T cell-dependent antibody production. Here, we investigated the capability of these mice to generate human tumor-specific antibodies and correlated immunoglobulin titers with tumor outgrowth. We found detectable IgM and also IgG amounts in the serum of HTM, which apparently controlled tumor development when IgG serum concentrations were above 10 µg/ml. Western blot analyses revealed that the tumor-specific antibodies generated in HTM did not recognize HER2/neu antigens, but different, possibly relevant antigens for breast cancer therapy. In conclusion, HTM offer a novel approach to generate complete human monoclonal antibodies that do not require further genetic manipulation (e. g., humanization) for a potential application in humans. In addition, efficacy and safety of the generated antibodies can be tested in the same mouse model under human-like conditions. This might be of particular interest for cancer subtypes with no currently available antibody therapy.

  12. European Concerted Action on Anticoagulation. A multicentre calibration study of WHO international reference preparations for thromboplastin, rabbit (RBT/90) and human (rTF/95)

    PubMed Central

    Poller, L; Keown, M; Chauhan, N; van den Besselaar, A M H P; Tripodi, A; Shiach, C; Jespersen, J

    2005-01-01

    A 10 centre calibration was performed after six years to determine the international sensitivity index (ISI) of rTF/95 relative to RBT/90, and to assess any international normalised ratio (INR) bias compared with the original multicentre calibration. After exclusion of one outlying centre, the follow up calibration gave a mean ISI for rTF/95 of 0.99, which although a small difference, is significantly greater than the mean ISI of 0.94 obtained previously. The change in ISI for international reference preparation (IRP) rTF/95 relative to RBT/90 would lead to a slight bias in INR for human compared with rabbit thromboplastins. At a theoretical INR of 3.0, the INR bias is 6.0%, and this is below the accepted 10% level of clinical relevance. Ongoing stability monitoring of World Health Organisation thromboplastin IRP is advised. PMID:15917425

  13. Hypoglycemic effect of guava juice in mice and human subjects.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J T; Yang, R S

    1983-01-01

    Guava is a plentiful fruit in Taiwan and it was taken from the plants of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae). According to the folklore in Chinese Medicine, gauva was useful in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. In the present study, acute i.p. treatment with 1 g/kg guava juice produced a marked hypoglycemic action in normal and alloxan-treated diabetic mice. Although effective duration of guava is more transient and it is less potent than chlorpropamide and metformin, blood glucose lowering effect of guava also can be obtained by oral administration in maturity-onset diabetic and healthy volunteers. Thus, it is suggested that guava may be employed to improve and/or prevent the disease of diabetes mellitus.

  14. Theoretical analysis of the neuraminidase epitope of the Mexican A H1N1 influenza strain, and experimental studies on its interaction with rabbit and human hosts.

    PubMed

    Loyola, Paola Kinara Reyes; Campos-Rodríguez, R; Bello, Martiniano; Rojas-Hernández, S; Zimic, Mirko; Quiliano, Miguel; Briz, Verónica; Muñoz-Fernández, M Angeles; Tolentino-López, Luis; Correa-Basurto, Jose

    2013-05-01

    The neuraminidase (NA) epitope from the Mexican AH1N1 influenza virus was identified by using sequences registered at the GenBank during the peak of a pandemic (from April 2009 to October 2010). First, NA protein sequences were submitted for multiple alignment analysis, and their three-dimensional models (3-D) were then built by using homology modeling. The most common sequence (denominated wild-type) and its mutants were submitted to linear and nonlinear epitope predictors, which included the major histocompatibility complex type II (MHC II) and B-cell peptides. The epitope prediction was in accordance with evolutionary behavior and some protein structural properties. The latter included a low NA mutation rate, NA 3-D surface exposure, and the presence of high hindrance side chain residues. After selecting the epitope, docking studies and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to explore interactions between the epitope and MHC II. Afterward, several experimental assays were performed to validate the theoretical study by using antibodies from humans (infected by pandemic H1N1) and rabbits (epitope vaccination). The results show 119 complete sequences that were grouped into 28 protein sequences according to their identity (one wild-type and 27 representative mutants (1-5 mutations)). The predictors yielded several epitopes, with the best fit being the one located in the C-terminal region. Theoretical methods demonstrated that the selected epitope reached the P4, P6, P7, and P9 pockets of MHC II, whereas the experimental evidence indicates that the epitope is recognized by human antibodies and also by rabbit antibodies immunized with the peptide.

  15. Substrate specificity of the electrogenic sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1-A (SLC4A4, variant A) from humans and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong-Ki; Boron, Walter F; Parker, Mark D

    2013-04-01

    In the basolateral membrane of proximal-tubule cells, NBCe1-A (SLC4A4, variant A), operating with an apparent Na(+):HCO(3)(-) stoichiometry of 1:3, contributes to the reclamation of HCO(3)(-) from the glomerular filtrate, thereby preventing whole body acidosis. Others have reported that NBCe1-like activity in human, rabbit, and rat renal preparations is substantially influenced by lithium, sulfite, oxalate, and harmaline. These data were taken as evidence for the presence of distinct Na(+) and CO(3)(2-) binding sites in NBCe1-A, favoring a model of 1 Na(+):1 HCO(3)(-):1 CO(3)(2-). Here, we reexamine these findings by expressing human or rabbit NBCe1-A clones in Xenopus oocytes. In oocytes, NBCe1-A exhibits a 1:2 stoichiometry and could operate in one of five thermodynamically equivalent transport modes: 1) cotransport of Na(+) + 2 HCO(3)(-), 2) cotransport of Na(+) + CO(3)(2-), 3) transport of NaCO(3)(-), 4) exchange of Na(+) + HCO(3)(-) for H(+), or 5) HCO(3)(-)-activated exchange of Na(+) for 2 H(+). In contrast to the behavior of NBCe1-like activity in renal preparations, we find that cloned NBCe1-A is only slightly stimulated by Li(+), not at all influenced by sulfite or oxalate, and only weakly inhibited by harmaline. These negative data do not uniquely support any of the five models above. In addition, we find that NBCe1-A mediates a small amount of Na(+)-independent NO(3)(-) transport and that NBCe1-A is somewhat inhibited by extracellular benzamil. We suggest that the features of NBCe1-like activity in renal preparations are influenced by yet-to-be-identified renal factors. Thus the actual ionic substrates of NBCe1 remain to be identified.

  16. Viral infections of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Peter J; Donnelly, Thomas M

    2013-05-01

    Viral diseases of rabbits have been used historically to study oncogenesis (e.g. rabbit fibroma virus, cottontail rabbit papillomavirus) and biologically to control feral rabbit populations (e.g. myxoma virus). However, clinicians seeing pet rabbits in North America infrequently encounter viral diseases although myxomatosis may be seen occasionally. The situation is different in Europe and Australia, where myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease are endemic. Advances in epidemiology and virology have led to detection of other lapine viruses that are now recognized as agents of emerging infectious diseases. Rabbit caliciviruses, related to rabbit hemorrhagic disease, are generally avirulent, but lethal variants are being identified in Europe and North America. Enteric viruses including lapine rotavirus, rabbit enteric coronavirus and rabbit astrovirus are being acknowledged as contributors to the multifactorial enteritis complex of juvenile rabbits. Three avirulent leporid herpesviruses are found in domestic rabbits. A fourth highly pathogenic virus designated leporid herpesvirus 4 has been described in Canada and Alaska. This review considers viruses affecting rabbits by their clinical significance. Viruses of major and minor clinical significance are described, and viruses of laboratory significance are mentioned.

  17. Immunogenicity and efficacy of Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan peptide mimotope-protein conjugates in human immunoglobulin transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Maitta, Robert W; Datta, Kausik; Lees, Andrew; Belouski, Shelley Sims; Pirofski, Liise-anne

    2004-01-01

    Peptide mimotopes of capsular polysaccharides have been proposed as antigens for vaccines against encapsulated pathogens. In this study, we determined the antibody response to and efficacy of P13, a peptide mimetic of the Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), in mice that produce human antibodies. P13 was conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT) or diphtheria toxoid (DT) and administered subcutaneously in Alhydrogel with or without CpG to mice transgenic for human immunoglobulin loci (XenoMouse mice) and expressing either immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) (G2 mice) or IgG4 (G4 mice). Mice were vaccinated and revaccinated two or three times. The serum antibody responses of the mice to GXM and P13 and antibody idiotype expression were analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that both P13-TT and P13-DT were antigenic, inducing a mimetic response to P13 in both G2 and G4 mice, and immunogenic, inducing a mimotope response including VH3 (idiotype)-positive antibodies to GXM in G2 but not G4 mice. CpG led to higher titers of IgG to P13 and GXM in P13-TT-vaccinated G2 mice. C. neoformans challenge of P13-protein conjugate-vaccinated and control G2 mice induced anamnestic IgG- and VH3-positive responses to GXM and was associated with a significantly decreased risk of death and a prolongation of survival in P13-DT-vaccinated mice compared to phosphate-buffered saline-treated or protein carrier-vaccinated mice. These findings reveal that P13 elicited a human antibody response with VH3 expression in human immunoglobulin transgenic mice that has been observed for human antibodies to GXM and support the concept that peptide mimotope-based vaccines may hold promise for the treatment of C. neoformans infections.

  18. Engraftment of human HSCs in nonirradiated newborn NOD-scid IL2rγnull mice is enhanced by transgenic expression of membrane-bound human SCF

    PubMed Central

    Racki, Waldemar J.; Leif, Jean; Burzenski, Lisa; Hosur, Vishnu; Wetmore, Amber; Gott, Bruce; Herlihy, Mary; Ignotz, Ronald; Dunn, Raymond; Shultz, Leonard D.; Greiner, Dale L.

    2012-01-01

    Immunodeficient mice engrafted with human HSCs support multidisciplinary translational experimentation, including the study of human hematopoiesis. Heightened levels of human HSC engraftment are observed in immunodeficient mice expressing mutations in the IL2-receptor common γ chain (IL2rg) gene, including NOD-scid IL2rγnull (NSG) mice. Engraftment of human HSC requires preconditioning of immunodeficient recipients, usually with irradiation. Such preconditioning increases the expression of stem cell factor (SCF), which is critical for HSC engraftment, proliferation, and survival. We hypothesized that transgenic expression of human membrane-bound stem cell factor Tg(hu-mSCF)] would increase levels of human HSC engraftment in nonirradiated NSG mice and eliminate complications associated with irradiation. Surprisingly, detectable levels of human CD45+ cell chimerism were observed after transplantation of cord blood–derived human HSCs into nonirradiated adult as well as newborn NSG mice. However, transgenic expression of human mSCF enabled heightened levels of human hematopoietic cell chimerism in the absence of irradiation. Moreover, nonirradiated NSG-Tg(hu-mSCF) mice engrafted as newborns with human HSCs rejected human skin grafts from a histoincompatible donor, indicating the development of a functional human immune system. These data provide a new immunodeficient mouse model that does not require irradiation preconditioning for human HSC engraftment and immune system development. PMID:22246028

  19. Mapping superficial lymphatic territories in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Soto-Miranda, Miguel A; Suami, Hiroo; Chang, David W

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the anatomy of the lymphatic system in the rabbit with regard to relationships between the lymphatic vessel and lymph node. According to our previous studies in human cadavers and canines, the superficial lymphatic system could be divided into lymphatic territories. The aim of this study was to completely map the superficial lymphatic system in the rabbit. We used our microinjection technique and histological analysis for dissecting studies and recently developed indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent lymphography for demonstrating dynamic lymph flow in living rabbits. Real-time ICG fluorescent lymphography was performed in two living New Zealand White rabbits, and direct dye microinjection of the lymphatic vessels was performed in eight dead rabbits. To assess the relationships between the vascular and lymphatic systems in rabbits, we performed radiocontrast injection into arteries in two dead rabbits prior to the lymphatic injection. The ICG fluorescent lymphography revealed eight lymphatic territories in the preauricular, submandibular, root of the lateral neck, axillary, lumbar, inguinal, root of the tail, and popliteal regions. We injected blue acrylic dye into every lymphatic vessel 0.1 mm in diameter or larger. We then dissected and chased the stained lymphatic vessels proximally until the vessels connected to the first tier lymph node. This procedure was repeated throughout the body until all the relationships between the lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes were defined. The lymphatic system of the rabbit could be defined as eight lymphatic territories, each with its own lymphatic vessels and lymph node.

  20. NOD/Shi-scid IL2rgamma(null) (NOG) mice more appropriate for humanized mouse models.

    PubMed

    Ito, M; Kobayashi, K; Nakahata, T

    2008-01-01

    "Humanized mice," in which various kinds of human cells and tissues can be engrafted and retain the same functions as in humans, are extremely useful because human diseases can be studied directly. Using the newly combined immunodeficient NOD-scid IL2rgamma(null) mice and Rag2(null) IL2rgamma(null) humanized mice, it has became possible to expand applications because various hematopoietic cells can be differentiated by human hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and the human immune system can be reconstituted to some degree. This work has attracted attention worldwide, but the development and use of immunodeficient mice in Japan are not very well known or understood. This review describes the history and characteristics of the NOD/Shi-scid IL2rgamma(null) (NOG) and BALB/cA-Rag2(null) IL2rgamma(null) mice that were established in Japan, including our unpublished data from researchers who are currently using these mice. In addition, we also describe the potential development of new immunodeficient mice that can be used as humanized mice in the future.

  1. Autoreactive Human TCR Initiate Insulitis and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in HLA DR4 Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gebe, John A.; Unrath, Kellee A.; Yue, Betty B.; Miyake, Tom; Falk, Ben A.; Nepom, Gerald T.

    2008-01-01

    A human TcR derived from an autoreactive T cell specific for GAD65, from a subject at high risk for autoimmune diabetes, was introduced into HLA-DR4 transgenic mice. The source of TCR was a CD4+ TH1+T cell clone which responded to an immunodominant epitope of the human islet protein GAD65, an epitope shared with both GAD65 and GAD67 in the mouse. The resulting HLA-DR4/GAD-TcR transgenic mice on a Rag2o/o/I-Abo/o/B6 background exhibited a CD4+ infiltrate into pancreatic islets that correlated with a loss of insulin in infiltrated islets. These mice also exhibited a subclinical impaired tolerance to exogenously fed glucose as assayed by an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. T cells containing the GAD65/67 (555–567) responsive TcR undergo strong negative selection as evidenced by a 10-fold lower thymocyte cellularity compared to non-TcR transgenic mice, and clonotype peripheral T cells represented approximately 1 percent of CD4+ T cells in Rag2 sufficient mice. Upon in vitro stimulation, GAD65/67 555–567 responsive T cells secrete IFN-γ, minimal IL2 and TNFα and no IL4, IL5, IL10, or IL17, consistent with a TH1 profile. These data demonstrate that CD4+ T cells specific for a naturally processed epitope within GAD can specifically home to pancreatic islets and lead to impaired islet beta cell function in diabetes-associated HLA-DR4 transgenic mice on the relatively non-autoimmune C57BL/6 background. The relatively slow progression and patchy insulitis are reminiscent of the chronic pre-clinical phase similar to a majority of human at-risk subjects, and models these indolent features of human T1D. PMID:17949947

  2. Transplantation of insulin-secreting cells differentiated from human adipose tissue-derived stem cells into type 2 diabetes mice.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ji Sun; Kang, Hyun Mi; Kim, Jiyoung; Park, Seah; Kim, Haekwon; Ahn, Chul Woo; Park, Jin Oh; Kim, Kyung Rae

    2014-01-10

    Currently, there are limited ways to preserve or recover insulin secretory capacity in human pancreas. We evaluated the efficacy of cell therapy using insulin-secreting cells differentiated from human eyelid adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hEAs) into type 2 diabetes mice. After differentiating hEAs into insulin-secreting cells (hEA-ISCs) in vitro, cells were transplanted into a type 2 diabetes mouse model. Serum levels of glucose, insulin and c-peptide were measured, and changes of metabolism and inflammation were assessed in mice that received undifferentiated hEAs (UDC group), differentiated hEA-ISCs (DC group), or sham operation (sham group). Human gene expression and immunohistochemical analysis were done. DC group mice showed improved glucose level, and survival up to 60 days compared to those of UDC and sham group. Significantly increased levels of human insulin and c-peptide were detected in sera of DC mice. RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis showed human gene expression and the presence of human cells in kidneys of DC mice. When compared to sham mice, DC mice exhibited lower levels of IL-6, triglyceride and free fatty acids as the control mice. Transplantation of hEA-ISCs lowered blood glucose level in type 2 diabetes mice by increasing circulating insulin level, and ameliorating metabolic parameters including IL-6.

  3. USING DNA MICROARRAYS TO CHARACTERIZE GENE EXPRESSION IN TESTES OF FERTILE AND INFERTILE HUMANS AND MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    USING DNA MICROARRAYS TO CHARACTERIZE GENE EXPRESSION
    IN TESTES OF FERTILE AND INFERTILE HUMANS AND MICE

    John C. Rockett1, J. Christopher Luft1, J. Brian Garges1, M. Stacey Ricci2, Pasquale Patrizio2, Norman B. Hecht2 and David J. Dix1
    Reproductive Toxicology Divisio...

  4. Novel metastasis model of human lung cancer in SCID mice depleted of NK cells.

    PubMed

    Yano, S; Nishioka, Y; Izumi, K; Tsuruo, T; Tanaka, T; Miyasaka, M; Sone, S

    1996-07-17

    Metastasis is a critical problem in the treatment of human lung cancer. Thus, a suitable animal model of metastasis of human lung cancer is required for in vivo biological and preclinical studies. In this study, we tried to establish a suitable model for this, using SCID mice. Neither human SCLC H69/VP cells (5 x 10(6)) nor squamous-cell carcinoma RERF-LC-AI cells (1 x 10(6)), injected through a tail vein, formed metastases in untreated SCID mice. Pre-treatment of SCID mice with anti-asialo GM1 serum resulted in only a few metastases of H69/VP cells, but pre-treatment with anti-mouse IL-2 receptor beta chain Ab (TM-beta 1) resulted in numerous lymph-node metastases 56 days after tumor inoculation. H69/VP-M cells, an in vivo-selected variant line, formed significant numbers of lymph-node metastases even in SCID mice pre-treated with anti-asialo GM1 serum. SCID mice depleted of NK cells by treatment with TM-beta 1 showed different patterns of metastasis when inoculated intravenously with the 2 different human lung cancer cell lines (H69/VP and RERF-LC-AI cells): H69/VP cells formed metastases mainly in systemic lymph nodes and the liver, whereas RERF-LC-AI cells formed metastases mainly in the liver and kidneys, with only a few in lymph nodes. A histopathological study showed that the metastatic colonies consisted of cancer cells. The numbers of metastatic colonies formed by the 2 cell lines increased with the number of cells inoculated. TM-beta 1 treatment of SCID mice efficiently removed NK cells from peripheral blood for at least 6 weeks, whereas, after treatment of the mice with anti-asialo GM1 serum, NK cells were recovered within 9 days. These findings suggest that NK-cell-depleted SCID mice may be useful as a model in biological and pre-clinical studies on metastasis of human lung cancer.

  5. Single dose adenovirus vectored vaccine induces a potent and long-lasting immune response against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus after parenteral or mucosal administration.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Erlinda; Toledo, Jorge R; Chiong, Maylin; Parra, Francisco; Rodríguez, Elsa; Montero, Carlos; Méndez, Lídice; Capucci, Lorenzo; Farnós, Omar

    2011-08-15

    Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is the etiological agent of a lethal and contagious disease of rabbits that remains as a serious problem worldwide. As this virus does not replicate in cell culture systems, the capsid protein gene has been expressed in heterologous hosts or inserted in replication-competent viruses in order to obtain non-conventional RHDV vaccines. However, due to technological or safety issues, current RHDV vaccines are still prepared from organs of infected rabbits. In this work, two human type 5 derived replication-defective adenoviruses encoding the rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus VP60 capsid protein were constructed. The recombinant protein was expressed as a multimer in mouse and rabbit cell lines at levels that ranged from approximately 120 to 160 mg/L of culture. Mice intravenously or subcutaneously inoculated with a single 10(8) gene transfer units (GTU) dose of the AdVP60 vector (designed for VP60 intracellular expression) seroconverted at days 7 and 14 post-immunization, respectively. This vector generated a stronger response than that obtained with a second vector (AdVP60sec) designed for VP60 secretion. Rabbits were then immunized by parenteral or mucosal routes with a single 10(9)GTU dose of the AdVP60 and the antibody response was evaluated using a competition ELISA specific for RHDV or RHDVa. Protective hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers were also promptly detected and IgG antibodies corresponding with inhibition percentages over 85% persisted up to one year in all rabbits, independently of the immunization route employed. These levels were similar to those elicited with inactivated RHDV or with VP60 obtained from yeast or insect cells. IgA specific antibodies were only found in saliva of rabbits immunized by intranasal instillation. The feasibility of VP60 production and vaccination of rabbits with replication-defective adenoviral vectors was demonstrated.

  6. Dwarfism and Altered Craniofacial Development in Rabbits Is Caused by a 12.1 kb Deletion at the HMGA2 Locus.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Miguel; Hu, Dou; Archer, John; Feng, Chungang; Afonso, Sandra; Chen, Congying; Blanco-Aguiar, José A; Garreau, Hervé; Boucher, Samuel; Ferreira, Paula G; Ferrand, Nuno; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Andersson, Leif

    2017-02-01

    The dwarf phenotype characterizes the smallest of rabbit breeds and is governed largely by the effects of a single dwarfing allele with an incompletely dominant effect on growth. Dwarf rabbits typically weigh under 1 kg and have altered craniofacial morphology. The dwarf allele is recessive lethal and dwarf homozygotes die within a few days of birth. The dwarf phenotype is expressed in heterozygous individuals and rabbits from dwarf breeds homozygous for the wild-type allele are normal, although smaller when compared to other breeds. Here, we show that the dwarf allele constitutes a ∼12.1 kb deletion overlapping the promoter region and first three exons of the HMGA2 gene leading to inactivation of this gene. HMGA2 has been frequently associated with variation in body size across species. Homozygotes for null alleles are viable in mice but not in rabbits and probably not in humans. RNA-sequencing analysis of rabbit embryos showed that very few genes (4-29 genes) were differentially expressed among the three HMGA2/dwarf genotypes, suggesting that dwarfism and inviability in rabbits are caused by modest changes in gene expression. Our results show that HMGA2 is critical for normal expression of IGF2BP2, which encodes an RNA-binding protein. Finally, we report a catalog of regions of elevated genetic differentiation between dwarf and normal-size rabbits, including LCORL-NCAPG, STC2, HOXD cluster, and IGF2BP2 Levels and patterns of genetic diversity at the LCORL-NCAPG locus further suggest that small size in dwarf breeds was enhanced by crosses with wild rabbits. Overall, our results imply that small size in dwarf rabbits results from a large effect, loss-of-function (LOF) mutation in HMGA2 combined with polygenic selection.

  7. Mice Expressing Minimally Humanized CD81 and Occludin Genes Support Hepatitis C Virus Uptake In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qiang; von Schaewen, Markus; Hrebikova, Gabriela; Heller, Brigitte; Sandmann, Lisa; Plaas, Mario; Ploss, Alexander

    2017-02-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes chronic infections in at least 150 million individuals worldwide. HCV has a narrow host range and robustly infects only humans and chimpanzees. The underlying mechanisms for this narrow host range are incompletely understood. At the level of entry, differences in the amino acid sequences between the human and mouse orthologues of two essential host factors, the tetraspanin CD81 and the tight junction protein occludin (OCLN), explain, at least in part, HCV's limited ability to enter mouse hepatocytes. We have previously shown that adenoviral or transgenic overexpression of human CD81 and OCLN facilitates HCV uptake into mouse hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo In efforts to refine these models, we constructed knock-in mice in which the second extracellular loops of CD81 and OCLN were replaced with the respective human sequences, which contain the determinants that are critical for HCV uptake. We demonstrate that the humanized CD81 and OCLN were expressed at physiological levels in a tissue-appropriate fashion. Mice bearing the humanized alleles formed normal tight junctions and did not exhibit any immunologic abnormalities, indicating that interactions with their physiological ligands were intact. HCV entry factor knock-in mice take up HCV with an efficiency similar to that in mice expressing HCV entry factors transgenically or adenovirally, demonstrating the utility of this model for studying HCV infection in vivo IMPORTANCE: At least 150 million individuals are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Chronic hepatitis C can result in progressive liver disease and liver cancer. New antiviral treatments can cure HCV in the majority of patients, but a vaccine remains elusive. To gain a better understanding of the processes culminating in liver failure and cancer and to prioritize vaccine candidates more efficiently, small-animal models are needed. Here, we describe the characterization of a new mouse model in which the parts of

  8. HIV-1 cellular and tissue replication patterns in infected humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Araínga, Mariluz; Su, Hang; Poluektova, Larisa Y.; Gorantla, Santhi; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2016-01-01

    Humanized mice have emerged as a testing platform for HIV-1 pathobiology by reflecting natural human disease processes. Their use to study HIV-1 biology, virology, immunology, pathogenesis and therapeutic development has served as a robust alternative to more-well developed animal models for HIV/AIDS. A critical component in reflecting such human pathobiology rests in defining the tissue and cellular sites for HIV-1 infection. To this end, we examined the tissue sites for viral infection in bone marrow, blood, spleens, liver, gut, brain, kidney and lungs of human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cell engrafted virus-infected NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ mice. Cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and sorted from species mixtures defined as CD34+ lineage negative progenitor cells, CD14+CD16+ monocyte-macrophages and central, stem cell and effector memory T cells. The cell distribution and viral life cycle were found dependent on the tissue compartment and time of infection. Cell subsets contained HIV-1 total and integrated DNA as well as multi-spliced and unspliced RNA in divergent proportions. The data support the idea that humanized mice can provide a means to examine the multifaceted sites of HIV-1 replication including, but not limited to progenitor cells and monocyte-macrophages previously possible only in macaques and human. PMID:26996968

  9. Triclosan causes spontaneous abortion accompanied by decline of estrogen sulfotransferase activity in humans and mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoli; Chen, Xiaojiao; Feng, Xuejiao; Chang, Fei; Chen, Minjian; Xia, Yankai; Chen, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS), an antibacterial agent, is identified in serum and urine of humans. Here, we show that the level of urinary TCS in 28.3% patients who had spontaneous abortion in mid-gestation were increased by 11.3-fold (high-TCS) compared with normal pregnancies. Oral administration of TCS (10 mg/kg/day) in mice (TCS mice) caused an equivalent urinary TCS level as those in the high-TCS abortion patients. The TCS-exposure from gestation day (GD) 5.5 caused dose-dependently fetal death during GD12.5–16.5 with decline of live fetal weight. GD15.5 TCS mice appeared placental thrombus and tissue necrosis with enhancement of platelet aggregation. The levels of placenta and plasma estrogen sulfotransferase (EST) mRNA and protein in TCS mice or high-TCS abortion patients were not altered, but their EST activities were significantly reduced compared to controls. Although the levels of serum estrogen (E2) in TCS mice and high-TCS abortion patients had no difference from controls, their ratio of sulfo-conjugated E2 and unconjugated E2 was reduced. The estrogen receptor antagonist ICI-182,780 prevented the enhanced platelet aggregation and placental thrombosis and attenuated the fetal death in TCS mice. The findings indicate that TCS-exposure might cause spontaneous abortion probably through inhibition of EST activity to produce placental thrombosis. PMID:26666354

  10. Dynamic Tracking Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Tropism following Smoke Inhalation Injury in NOD/SCID Mice

    PubMed Central

    Song, MeiJuan; Zhang, XiuWei; Sun, ShuLi; Xiao, PeiXin; Hou, ShiKe; Ding, Hui; Liu, ZiQuan; Dong, WenLong; Wang, JinQiang; Wang, Xue; Sun, ZhiGuang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple preclinical evidences have supported the potential value of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treatment of acute lung injury (ALI). However, few studies focus on the dynamic tropism of MSCs in animals with acute lung injury. In this study, we track systemically transplanted human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) in NOD/SCID mice with smoke inhalation injury (SII) through bioluminescence imaging (BLI). The results showed that hBMSCs systemically delivered into healthy NOD/SCID mouse initially reside in the lungs and then partially translocate to the abdomen after 24 h. Compared with the uninjured control group treated with hBMSCs, higher numbers of hBMSCs were found in the lungs of the SII NOD/SCID mice. In both the uninjured and SII mice, the BLI signals in the lungs steadily decreased over time and disappeared by 5 days after treatment. hBMSCs significantly attenuated lung injury, elevated the levels of KGF, decreased the levels of TNF-α in BALF, and inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration in the mice with SII. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that more systemically infused hBMSCs localized to the lungs in mice with SII. hBMSC xenografts repaired smoke inhalation-induced lung injury in mice. This repair was maybe due to the effect of anti-inflammatory and secreting KGF of hMSCs but not associated with the differentiation of the hBMSCs into alveolar epithelial cells. PMID:27725837

  11. Olfactory Sensitivity for Six Predator Odorants in CD-1 Mice, Human Subjects, and Spider Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Sarrafchi, Amir; Odhammer, Anna M. E.; Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa; Laska, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Using a conditioning paradigm, we assessed the olfactory sensitivity of six CD-1 mice (Mus musculus) for six sulfur-containing odorants known to be components of the odors of natural predators of the mouse. With all six odorants, the mice discriminated concentrations <0.1 ppm (parts per million) from the solvent, and with five of the six odorants the best-scoring animals were even able to detect concentrations <1 ppt (parts per trillion). Four female spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) and twelve human subjects (Homo sapiens) tested in parallel were found to detect the same six odorants at concentrations <0.01 ppm, and with four of the six odorants the best-scoring animals and subjects even detected concentrations <10 ppt. With all three species, the threshold values obtained here are generally lower than (or in the lower range of) those reported for other chemical classes tested previously, suggesting that sulfur-containing odorants may play a special role in olfaction. Across-species comparisons showed that the mice were significantly more sensitive than the human subjects and the spider monkeys with four of the six predator odorants. However, the human subjects were significantly more sensitive than the mice with the remaining two odorants. Human subjects and spider monkeys significantly differed in their sensitivity with only two of the six odorants. These comparisons lend further support to the notion that the number of functional olfactory receptor genes or the relative or absolute size of the olfactory bulbs are poor predictors of a species’ olfactory sensitivity. Analysis of odor structure–activity relationships showed that in both mice and human subjects the type of alkyl rest attached to a thietane and the type of oxygen moiety attached to a thiol significantly affected olfactory sensitivity. PMID:24278296

  12. Niacin and biosynthesis of PGD2 by platelet COX-1 in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wen-Liang; Stubbe, Jane; Ricciotti, Emanuela; Alamuddin, Naji; Ibrahim, Salam; Crichton, Irene; Prempeh, Maxwell; Lawson, John A.; Wilensky, Robert L.; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Puré, Ellen; FitzGerald, Garret A.

    2012-01-01

    The clinical use of niacin to treat dyslipidemic conditions is limited by noxious side effects, most commonly facial flushing. In mice, niacin-induced flushing results from COX-1–dependent formation of PGD2 and PGE2 followed by COX-2–dependent production of PGE2. Consistent with this, niacin-induced flushing in humans is attenuated when niacin is combined with an antagonist of the PGD2 receptor DP1. NSAID-mediated suppression of COX-2–derived PGI2 has negative cardiovascular consequences, yet little is known about the cardiovascular biology of PGD2. Here, we show that PGD2 biosynthesis is augmented during platelet activation in humans and, although vascular expression of DP1 is conserved between humans and mice, platelet DP1 is not present in mice. Despite this, DP1 deletion in mice augmented aneurysm formation and the hypertensive response to Ang II and accelerated atherogenesis and thrombogenesis. Furthermore, COX inhibitors in humans, as well as platelet depletion, COX-1 knockdown, and COX-2 deletion in mice, revealed that niacin evoked platelet COX-1–derived PGD2 biosynthesis. Finally, ADP-induced spreading on fibrinogen was augmented by niacin in washed human platelets, coincident with increased thromboxane (Tx) formation. However, in platelet-rich plasma, where formation of both Tx and PGD2 was increased, spreading was not as pronounced and was inhibited by DP1 activation. Thus, PGD2, like PGI2, may function as a homeostatic response to thrombogenic and hypertensive stimuli and may have particular relevance as a constraint on platelets during niacin therapy. PMID:22406532

  13. Immunopathological assessments of human Blastocystis spp. in experimentally infected immunocompetent and immunosuppresed mice.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas H; Ahmad, Azza K; Abdelgelil, Noha H; Abdellatif, Manal Z M; Kamal, Amany M; Hassanin, Kamel M A; Abdel-Razik, Abdel-Razik H; Abdel-Raheem, Ehab M

    2016-05-01

    Blastocystis spp., one of the most common parasites colonizing the human intestine, is an extracellular, luminal protozoan with controversial pathogenesis. The host's immune response against Blastocystis spp. infection has also not been defined yet. Therefore, this research aimed to assess the potential pathogenicity of this parasite and its ability to modulate the immune response in experimental infected immunocompetent and immunosuppresed mice. These results demonstrated that the infected immunosuppressed mice were more affected than infected immunocompetent mice. Histopathological examination of the small intestine in the infected immunosuppressed mice showed that Blastocystis spp. infiltrated all the layers. Moreover, the epithelia showed exfoliation and inflammatory cell infiltration in submucosa compared to that of the infected immunocompetent mice. As well, examination of the large intestine of the infected immunosuppressed group showed severe goblet cell hyperplasia. Blastocystis spp. infiltrated all the large intestine layers compared to that of the infected immunocompetent group. Furthermore, there was a significant upregulation of the expression of proinflammatory cytokines: interleukin 12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the infected immunosuppressed mice compared to that of the infected immunocompetent ones (p ≤ 0.004 and p ≤ 0.002, respectively). However, the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) was significantly downregulated in the infected immunosuppressed group compared to that of the infected immunocompetent group one at 10 days postinfection (p ≤ 0.002 and p ≤ 0.001, respectively). The results of this study revealed that Blastocystis spp. affected the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in both groups of mice compared to healthy normal (naive) group. Additionally, these data showed that there was a significant upregulation (p ≤ 0.005) of the locally

  14. The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), a source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, G; Chalmers, R M

    2010-12-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. have been found in the faeces of over 150 mammalian host species, but the risks to public health from wildlife are poorly understood. In summer 2008, the Cryptosporidium sp. rabbit genotype was identified as the aetiological agent in an outbreak of waterborne human cryptosporidiosis. The source was a wild rabbit that had entered a treated water tank. To establish current knowledge about Cryptosporidium spp. infecting lagomorphs, especially the host range and biological characteristics of the rabbit genotype, and the potential risks to public health that rabbits may pose in the transmission of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis, we undertook a literature and data review. The literature returned demonstrates that although the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) has been the most widely studied lagomorph, few large scale studies were found. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild rabbit populations in the two large scale studies was 0.9% (95%CI 0.2-5.0) and 0.0% (95%CI 0.0-1.6). Neither study provided age nor sex profiles nor typing of Cryptosporidium isolates. The infecting Cryptosporidium species was confirmed in just four other studies of rabbits, all of which showed the rabbit genotype. Human-infectious Cryptosporidium species including Cryptosporidium parvum have caused experimental infections in rabbits and it is likely that this may also occur naturally. No published studies of the host range and biological features of the Cryptosporidium rabbit genotype were identified, but information was generated on the identification and differentiation of the rabbit genotype at various genetic loci. Both pet and wild rabbits are a potential source of human cryptosporidiosis and as such, good hygiene practices are recommended during and after handling rabbits or exposure to their faeces, or potentially contaminated surfaces. Water supplies should be protected against access by wildlife, including rabbits.

  15. Vitamin D and Human Health: Lessons from Vitamin D Receptor Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bouillon, Roger; Carmeliet, Geert; Verlinden, Lieve; van Etten, Evelyne; Verstuyf, Annemieke; Luderer, Hilary F.; Lieben, Liesbet; Mathieu, Chantal; Demay, Marie

    2008-01-01

    The vitamin D endocrine system is essential for calcium and bone homeostasis. The precise mode of action and the full spectrum of activities of the vitamin D hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)2D], can now be better evaluated by critical analysis of mice with engineered deletion of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Absence of a functional VDR or the key activating enzyme, 25-OHD-1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), in mice creates a bone and growth plate phenotype that mimics humans with the same congenital disease or severe vitamin D deficiency. The intestine is the key target for the VDR because high calcium intake, or selective VDR rescue in the intestine, restores a normal bone and growth plate phenotype. The VDR is nearly ubiquitously expressed, and almost all cells respond to 1,25-(OH)2D exposure; about 3% of the mouse or human genome is regulated, directly and/or indirectly, by the vitamin D endocrine system, suggesting a more widespread function. VDR-deficient mice, but not vitamin D- or 1α-hydroxylase-deficient mice, and man develop total alopecia, indicating that the function of the VDR and its ligand is not fully overlapping. The immune system of VDR- or vitamin D-deficient mice is grossly normal but shows increased sensitivity to autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease or type 1 diabetes after exposure to predisposing factors. VDR-deficient mice do not have a spontaneous increase in cancer but are more prone to oncogene- or chemocarcinogen-induced tumors. They also develop high renin hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and increased thrombogenicity. Vitamin D deficiency in humans is associated with increased prevalence of diseases, as predicted by the VDR null phenotype. Prospective vitamin D supplementation studies with multiple noncalcemic endpoints are needed to define the benefits of an optimal vitamin D status. PMID:18694980

  16. Human isolates of Bartonella tamiae induce pathology in experimentally inoculated immunocompetent mice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bartonella tamiae, a newly described bacterial species, was isolated from the blood of three hospitalized patients in Thailand. These patients presented with headache, myalgia, anemia, and mild liver function abnormalities. Since B. tamiae was presumed to be the cause of their illness, these isolates were inoculated into immunocompetent mice to determine their relative pathogenicity in inducing manifestations of disease and pathology similar to that observed in humans. Methods Three groups of four Swiss Webster female mice aged 15-18 months were each inoculated with 106-7 colony forming units of one of three B. tamiae isolates [Th239, Th307, and Th339]. A mouse from each experimental group was sampled at 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks post-inoculation. Two saline inoculated age-matched controls were included in the study. Samples collected at necropsy were evaluated for the presence of B. tamiae DNA, and tissues were formalin-fixed, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and examined for histopathology. Results Following inoculation with B. tamiae, mice developed ulcerative skin lesions and subcutaneous masses on the lateral thorax, as well as axillary and inguinal lymphadenopathy. B. tamiae DNA was found in subcutaneous masses, lymph node, and liver of inoculated mice. Histopathological changes were observed in tissues of inoculated mice, and severity of lesions correlated with the isolate inoculated, with the most severe pathology induced by B. tamiae Th239. Mice inoculated with Th239 and Th339 demonstrated myocarditis, lymphadenitis with associated vascular necrosis, and granulomatous hepatitis and nephritis with associated hepatocellular and renal necrosis. Mice inoculated with Th307 developed a deep dermatitis and granulomas within the kidneys. Conclusions The three isolates of B. tamiae evaluated in this study induce disease in immunocompetent Swiss Webster mice up to 6 weeks after inoculation. The human patients from whom these isolates were obtained had

  17. Microenvironment-dependent growth of pre-neoplastic and malignant plasma cells in humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Das, Rituparna; Strowig, Till; Verma, Rakesh; Koduru, Srinivas; Hafemann, Anja; Hopf, Stephanie; Kocoglu, Mehmet H.; Borsotti, Chiara; Zhang, Lin; Branagan, Andrew; Eynon, Elizabeth; Manz, Markus G.; Flavell, Richard A.; Dhodapkar, Madhav V.

    2016-01-01

    Most human cancers including myeloma are preceded by a precursor state. There is an unmet need for in vivo models to study the interaction of human preneoplastic cells in the bone marrow microenvironment with non-malignant cells. Here, we genetically humanized mice to permit the growth of primary human pre-neoplastic and malignant plasma cells together with non-malignant cells in vivo [?]. Growth was largely restricted to the bone marrow, mirroring the pattern in patients. Xenografts captured the genomic complexity of parental tumors and revealed additional somatic changes. Moreover, xenografts from patients with preneoplastic gammopathy showed progressive growth, suggesting that the clinical stability of these lesions may in part be due to growth controls extrinsic to tumor cells. These data demonstrate a new approach to investigate the entire spectrum of human plasma cell neoplasia and illustrate the utility of humanized models for understanding the functional diversity of human tumors [?]. PMID:27723723

  18. Maintenance of the normal flora of human skin grafts transplanted to mice.

    PubMed

    Kearney, J N; Gowland, G; Holland, K T; Cunliffe, W J

    1982-10-01

    Full-thickness human cadaver skin was maintained on the dorso-lateral thoracic region of hairless mice whose immune rejection mechanism was suppressed using anti-mouse-thymocyte globulin. The bacterial profile of the pregrafted skin did not differ significantly from the normal human microflora. In contrast, the murine skin exhibited quantitative and qualitative differences from the human flora, in particular by the complete absence of Propionibacterium acnes, the dominant bacterium on sebum-rich areas of human skin. The normal microbial profile of the human grafts was maintained throughout the experimental period despite the novel environmental milieu. There was little contamination of the grafts from the normal murine flora. It was concluded that the grafted human skin would provide a realistic model for studying the ecology of human cutaneous micro-organisms.

  19. Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Humanized Mice Infected with HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Nusbaum, Rebecca J.; Calderon, Veronica E.; Huante, Matthew B.; Sutjita, Putri; Vijayakumar, Sudhamathi; Lancaster, Katrina L.; Hunter, Robert L.; Actor, Jeffrey K.; Cirillo, Jeffrey D.; Aronson, Judith; Gelman, Benjamin B.; Lisinicchia, Joshua G.; Valbuena, Gustavo; Endsley, Janice J.

    2016-01-01

    Co-infection with HIV increases the morbidity and mortality associated with tuberculosis due to multiple factors including a poorly understood microbial synergy. We developed a novel small animal model of co-infection in the humanized mouse to investigate how HIV infection disrupts pulmonary containment of Mtb. Following dual infection, HIV-infected cells were localized to sites of Mtb-driven inflammation and mycobacterial replication in the lung. Consistent with disease in human subjects, we observed increased mycobacterial burden, loss of granuloma structure, and increased progression of TB disease, due to HIV co-infection. Importantly, we observed an HIV-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine signature (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and IL-8), neutrophil accumulation, and greater lung pathology in the Mtb-co-infected lung. These results suggest that in the early stages of acute co-infection in the humanized mouse, infection with HIV exacerbates the pro-inflammatory response to pulmonary Mtb, leading to poorly formed granulomas, more severe lung pathology, and increased mycobacterial burden and dissemination. PMID:26908312

  20. Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Humanized Mice Infected with HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Nusbaum, Rebecca J; Calderon, Veronica E; Huante, Matthew B; Sutjita, Putri; Vijayakumar, Sudhamathi; Lancaster, Katrina L; Hunter, Robert L; Actor, Jeffrey K; Cirillo, Jeffrey D; Aronson, Judith; Gelman, Benjamin B; Lisinicchia, Joshua G; Valbuena, Gustavo; Endsley, Janice J

    2016-02-24

    Co-infection with HIV increases the morbidity and mortality associated with tuberculosis due to multiple factors including a poorly understood microbial synergy. We developed a novel small animal model of co-infection in the humanized mouse to investigate how HIV infection disrupts pulmonary containment of Mtb. Following dual infection, HIV-infected cells were localized to sites of Mtb-driven inflammation and mycobacterial replication in the lung. Consistent with disease in human subjects, we observed increased mycobacterial burden, loss of granuloma structure, and increased progression of TB disease, due to HIV co-infection. Importantly, we observed an HIV-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine signature (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and IL-8), neutrophil accumulation, and greater lung pathology in the Mtb-co-infected lung. These results suggest that in the early stages of acute co-infection in the humanized mouse, infection with HIV exacerbates the pro-inflammatory response to pulmonary Mtb, leading to poorly formed granulomas, more severe lung pathology, and increased mycobacterial burden and dissemination.

  1. Spina Bifida: Pathogenesis, Mechanisms, and Genes in Mice and Humans.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Zin, Siti W; Marwan, Ahmed I; Abou Chaar, Mohamad K; Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah M

    2017-01-01

    Spina bifida is among the phenotypes of the larger condition known as neural tube defects (NTDs). It is the most common central nervous system malformation compatible with life and the second leading cause of birth defects after congenital heart defects. In this review paper, we define spina bifida and discuss the phenotypes seen in humans as described by both surgeons and embryologists in order to compare and ultimately contrast it to the leading animal model, the mouse. Our understanding of spina bifida is currently limited to the observations we make in mouse models, which reflect complete or targeted knockouts of genes, which perturb the whole gene(s) without taking into account the issue of haploinsufficiency, which is most prominent in the human spina bifida condition. We thus conclude that the need to study spina bifida in all its forms, both aperta and occulta, is more indicative of the spina bifida in surviving humans and that the measure of deterioration arising from caudal neural tube defects, more commonly known as spina bifida, must be determined by the level of the lesion both in mouse and in man.

  2. Spina Bifida: Pathogenesis, Mechanisms, and Genes in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Abou Chaar, Mohamad K.; Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina

    2017-01-01

    Spina bifida is among the phenotypes of the larger condition known as neural tube defects (NTDs). It is the most common central nervous system malformation compatible with life and the second leading cause of birth defects after congenital heart defects. In this review paper, we define spina bifida and discuss the phenotypes seen in humans as described by both surgeons and embryologists in order to compare and ultimately contrast it to the leading animal model, the mouse. Our understanding of spina bifida is currently limited to the observations we make in mouse models, which reflect complete or targeted knockouts of genes, which perturb the whole gene(s) without taking into account the issue of haploinsufficiency, which is most prominent in the human spina bifida condition. We thus conclude that the need to study spina bifida in all its forms, both aperta and occulta, is more indicative of the spina bifida in surviving humans and that the measure of deterioration arising from caudal neural tube defects, more commonly known as spina bifida, must be determined by the level of the lesion both in mouse and in man. PMID:28286691

  3. Effects of Escherichia Coli-derived Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Loaded Porous Hydroxyaptite-based Ceramics on Calvarial Defect in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin-Young; Lee, Youngkyun; Seo, Seung-Jun; Lim, Jae-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Background Recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins (rhBMPs) have been widely used in regenerative therapies to promote bone formation. The production of rhBMPs using bacterial systems such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) is estimated to facilitate clinical applications by lowering the cost without compromising biological activity. In clinical practice, rhBMP-2 and osteoconductive carriers (e.g., hydroxyapatite [HA] and bovine bone xenograft) are used together. This study examined the effect of E. coli-derived rhBMP-2 combined with porous HA-based ceramics on calvarial defect in rabbits. Methods Six adult male New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. The experimental groups were divided into the following 4 groups: untreated (NC), bovine bone graft (BO), porous HA (HA) and porous HA with rhBMP-2 (HA-BMP). Four transosseous defects of 8 mm in diameter were prepared using stainless steel trephine bur in the frontal and parietal bones. Histological and histomorphometric analyses at 4 weeks after surgery revealed significant new bone formation by porous HA alone. Results HA-BMP showed significantly higher degree of bone formation compared with BO and HA group (P<0.05). The average new bone formation % (new bone area per total defect area) of NC, BO, HA, and HA-BMP at 4-week after surgery were 12.65±5.89%, 29.63±6.99%, 28.86±6.17% and 49.56±8.23%, respectively. However, there was no statistical difference in the bone formation between HA and BO groups. Conclusions HA-BMP promoted more bone formation than NC, BO and HA alone. Thus, using E. coli-derived rhBMP-2 combined with porous HA-based ceramics can promote new bone formation. PMID:28326298

  4. Cytochrome P450 down-regulation by serum from humans with a viral infection and from rabbits with an inflammatory reaction.

    PubMed

    Bleau, A M; Fradette, C; El-Kadi, A O; Côté, M C; du Souich, P

    2001-07-01

    Serum from humans with an upper respiratory viral infection (HS(URVI)) and from rabbits with a turpentine-induced acute inflammatory reaction (RS(TIAR)) reduces the activity of hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) following 4 h of incubation. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of HS(URVI) and RS(TIAR) on P450 activity and expression following 24 h of incubation with hepatocytes from control (H(CONT)) and rabbits with a TIAR (H(INFLA)). RS(TIAR) incubated with H(CONT) for 24 h reduced P450 content and activity, and CYP3A6 by 45%, without changing CYP1A1 and 1A2; when incubated with H(INFLA), RS(TIAR) decreased P450 content and activity without affecting CYP1A1 or 1A2. HS(URVI) incubated for 4 h with H(CONT) decreased P450 activity without affecting the amounts of CYP1A1, 1A2, or 3A6, although when incubated for 24 h, P450 activity and CYP3A6 amount decreased. HS(URVI) incubated with H(INFLA) for 4 h reduced P450 content and activity, and incubated for 24 h reduced activity, P450 content, and amount of CYP1A1 and 1A2 proteins. The present study demonstrates that 1) the effect of RS(TIAR) and HS(URVI) depends upon the susceptibility of the hepatocyte, i.e., H(CONT) or primed H(INFLA); 2) P450 down-regulation is preceded by a decrease in P450 activity; 3) the nature of the inflammatory reaction determines the repercussions on P450 activity and expression; and 4) CYP3A6 is more vulnerable than CYP1A1 and 1A2 to the down-regulation provoked by an inflammatory challenge.

  5. Human Malaria in Immunocompromised Mice: New In Vivo Model for Chemotherapy Studies

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, A.; Badell, E.; Van Rooijen, N.; Druilhe, P.

    2001-01-01

    We have recently designed a new Plasmodium falciparum mouse model and documented its potential for the study of immune effector mechanisms. In order to determine its value for drug studies, we evaluated its response to existing antimalarial drugs compared to that observed in humans. Immunocompromised BXN (bg/bg xid/xid nu/nu) mice were infected with either the sensitive NF54 strain or the multiresistant T24 strain and then treated with chloroquine, quinine, mefloquine, or dihydroartemisinin. A parallelism was observed between previously reported human responses and P. falciparum-parasitized human red blood cell (huRBC)–BXN mouse responses to classical antimalarial drugs, measured in terms of speed of decrease in parasitemia and of morphological alterations of the parasites. Mice infected with the sensitive strain were successfully cured after treatment with either chloroquine or mefloquine. In contrast, mice infected with the multiresistant strain failed to be cured by chloroquine or quinine but thereafter responded to dihydroartemisinin treatment. The speed of parasite clearance and the morphological alterations induced differed for each drug and matched previously reported observations, hence stressing the relevance of the model. These data thus suggest that P. falciparum-huRBC–BXN mice can provide a valuable in vivo system and should be included in the short list of animals that can be used for the evaluation of P. falciparum responses to drugs. PMID:11353636

  6. Human RPE Stem Cells Grown into Polarized RPE Monolayers on a Polyester Matrix Are Maintained after Grafting into Rabbit Subretinal Space

    PubMed Central

    Stanzel, Boris V.; Liu, Zengping; Somboonthanakij, Sudawadee; Wongsawad, Warapat; Brinken, Ralf; Eter, Nicole; Corneo, Barbara; Holz, Frank G.; Temple, Sally; Stern, Jeffrey H.; Blenkinsop, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Transplantation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is being developed as a cell-replacement therapy for age-related macular degeneration. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived RPE are currently translating toward clinic. We introduce the adult human RPE stem cell (hRPESC) as an alternative RPE source. Polarized monolayers of adult hRPESC-derived RPE grown on polyester (PET) membranes had near-native characteristics. Trephined pieces of RPE monolayers on PET were transplanted subretinally in the rabbit, a large-eyed animal model. After 4 days, retinal edema was observed above the implant, detected by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and fundoscopy. At 1 week, retinal atrophy overlying the fetal or adult transplant was observed, remaining stable thereafter. Histology obtained 4 weeks after implantation confirmed a continuous polarized human RPE monolayer on PET. Taken together, the xeno-RPE survived with retained characteristics in the subretinal space. These experiments support that adult hRPESC-derived RPE are a potential source for transplantation therapies. PMID:24511471

  7. Of men in mice: the success and promise of humanized mouse models for human malaria parasite infections

    PubMed Central

    Kaushansky, Alexis; Mikolajczak, Sebastian A.; Vignali, Marissa; Kappe, Stefan H.I.

    2014-01-01

    Forty percent of people worldwide are at risk of malaria infection, and despite control efforts it remains the most deadly parasitic disease. Unfortunately, rapid discovery and development of new interventions for malaria are hindered by the lack of small animal models that support the complex life cycles of the main parasite species infecting humans. Such tools must accommodate human parasite tropism for human tissue. Mouse models with human tissue developed to date have already enhanced our knowledge of human parasites, and are useful tools for assessing anti-parasitic interventions. Although these systems are imperfect, their continued refinement will likely broaden their utility. Some of the malaria parasite’s interactions with human hepatocytes and human erythrocytes can already be modeled with available humanized mouse systems. However, interactions with other relevant human tissues such as the skin and immune system, as well as most transitions between life cycle stages in vivo will require refinement of existing humanized mouse models. Here, we review the recent successes achieved in modeling human malaria parasite biology in humanized mice, and discuss how these models have potential to become an valuable part of the toolbox used for understanding the biology of, and development of interventions to, malaria. PMID:24506682

  8. Human cathepsin L rescues the neurodegeneration and lethality incathepsin B/L double deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Sevenich, Lisa; Pennacchio, Len A.; Peters, Christoph; Reinheckel, Thomas

    2006-01-09

    Cathepsin B (CTSB) and cathepsin L (CTSL) are two widelyexpressed cysteine proteases thought to predominantly reside withinlysosomes. Functional analysis of CTSL in humans is complicated by theexistence of two CTSL-like homologues (CTSL and CTSL2), in contrast tomice which contain only one CTSL enzyme. Thus transgenic expression ofhuman CTSL in CTSL deficient mice provides an opportunity to study the invivo functions of this human protease without interference by its highlyrelated homologue. While mice with single gene deficiencies for murineCTSB or CTSL survive without apparent neuromuscular impairment, murineCTSB/CTSL double deficient mice display degeneration of cerebellarPurkinje cells and neurons of the cerebral cortex, resulting in severehypotrophy, motility defects, and lethality during their third to fourthweek of life. Here we show that expression of human CTSL through agenomic transgene results in widespread expression of human CTSL in themouse which is capable of rescuing the lethality found in CTSB/CTSLdouble-deficient animals. Human CTSL is expressed in the brain of thesecompound mutants predominantly in neurons of the cerebral cortex and inPurkinje cells of the cerebellum, where it appears to prevent neuronalcell death.

  9. Presence of subclinical infection in gene-targeted human prion protein transgenic mice exposed to atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rona; Dobie, Karen; Hunter, Nora; Casalone, Cristina; Baron, Thierry; Barron, Rona M

    2013-12-01

    The transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to humans, leading to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has demonstrated that cattle transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) can pose a risk to human health. Until recently, TSE disease in cattle was thought to be caused by a single agent strain, BSE, also known as classical BSE, or BSE-C. However, due to the initiation of a large-scale surveillance programme throughout Europe, two atypical BSE strains, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, also named BSE-L) and BSE-H have since been discovered. To model the risk to human health, we previously inoculated these two forms of atypical BSE (BASE and BSE-H) into gene-targeted transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the human prion protein (PrP) (HuTg) but were unable to detect any signs of TSE pathology in these mice. However, despite the absence of TSE pathology, upon subpassage of some BASE-challenged HuTg mice, a TSE was observed in recipient gene-targeted bovine PrP Tg (Bov6) mice but not in HuTg mice. Disease transmission from apparently healthy individuals indicates the presence of subclinical BASE infection in mice expressing human PrP that cannot be identified by current diagnostic methods. However, due to the lack of transmission to HuTg mice on subpassage, the efficiency of mouse-to-mouse transmission of BASE appears to be low when mice express human rather than bovine PrP.

  10. Neutrophil activation during acetaminophen hepatotoxicity and repair in mice and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C. David; Bajt, Mary Lynn; Sharpe, Matthew R.; McGill, Mitchell R.; Farhood, Anwar; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2014-03-01

    Following acetaminophen (APAP) overdose there is an inflammatory response triggered by the release of cellular contents from necrotic hepatocytes into the systemic circulation which initiates the recruitment of neutrophils into the liver. It has been demonstrated that neutrophils do not contribute to APAP-induced liver injury, but their role and the role of NADPH oxidase in injury resolution are controversial. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to APAP overdose and neutrophil activation status was determined during liver injury and liver regeneration. Additionally, human APAP overdose patients (ALT: > 800 U/L) had serial blood draws during the injury and recovery phases for the determination of neutrophil activation. Neutrophils in the peripheral blood of mice showed an increasing activation status (CD11b expression and ROS priming) during and after the peak of injury but returned to baseline levels prior to complete injury resolution. Hepatic sequestered neutrophils showed an increased and sustained CD11b expression, but no ROS priming was observed. Confirming that NADPH oxidase is not critical to injury resolution, gp91{sup phox}−/− mice following APAP overdose displayed no alteration in injury resolution. Peripheral blood from APAP overdose patients also showed increased neutrophil activation status after the peak of liver injury and remained elevated until discharge from the hospital. In mice and humans, markers of activation, like ROS priming, were increased and sustained well after active liver injury had subsided. The similar findings between surviving patients and mice indicate that neutrophil activation may be a critical event for host defense or injury resolution following APAP overdose, but not a contributing factor to APAP-induced injury. - Highlights: • Neutrophil (PMN) function increases during liver repair after acetaminophen overdose. • Liver repair after acetaminophen (APAP)-overdose is not dependent on NADPH oxidase. • Human PMNs do not appear

  11. Laser-induced hyperthemia in the treatment of ocular tumors: experimental evaluation of temperature rise in rabbits' eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svaasand, Lars O.; Morinelli, Elisa; Gomer, Charles J.

    1990-08-01

    Experimental results for the optical properties of ocular tumors in the red to near infrared region from 600-900 nm and at the near infrared wavelength of 1064 nm are presented. The tumor models have been human retinoblastoma heterotransplanted in athyinic mice and B16 melanotic melanoma in athymic mice. The steady state retinal and tumor temperature rise during 1064 nm laser irradiation have been examined in vivo in normal albino and pigmented rabbits eye and in Greene''s melanoma inoculated in the retinachoroidal layers. 2.

  12. Cloning, Characteristics, and Functional Analysis of Rabbit NADPH Oxidase 5

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng; Yin, Caiyong; Dimitropoulou, Christiana; Fulton, David J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nox5 was the last member of the Nox enzyme family to be identified. Functionally distinct from the other Nox isoforms, our understanding of its physiological significance has been hampered by the absence of Nox5 in mouse and rat genomes. Nox5 is present in the genomes of other species such as the rabbit that have broad utility as models of cardiovascular disease. However, the mRNA sequence, characteristics, and functional analysis of rabbit Nox5 has not been fully defined and were the goals of the current study. Methods: Rabbit Nox5 was amplified from rabbit tissue, cloned, and sequenced. COS-7 cells were employed for expression and functional analysis via Western blotting and measurements of superoxide. We designed and synthesized miRNAs selectively targeting rabbit Nox5. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of rabbit Nox5 were aligned with those of putative rabbit isoforms (X1, X2, X3, and X4). A phylogenetic tree was generated based on the mRNA sequence for Nox5 from rabbit and other species. Results: Sequence alignment revealed that the identified rabbit Nox5 was highly conserved with the predicted sequence of rabbit Nox5. Cell based experiments reveal that rabbit Nox5 was robustly expressed and produced superoxide at rest and in a calcium and PMA-dependent manner that was susceptible to superoxide dismutase and the flavoprotein inhibitor, DPI. miRNA-1 was shown to be most effective in down-regulating the expression of rabbit Nox5. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship between rabbit and armadillo Nox5. Rabbit Nox5 was relatively closely related to human Nox5, but lies in a distinct cluster. Conclusion: Our study establishes the suitability of the rabbit as a model organism to further our understanding of the role of Nox5 in cardiovascular and other diseases and provides new information on the genetic relationship of Nox5 genes in different species. PMID:27486403

  13. Effective Elicitation of Human Effector CD8+ T Cells in HLA-B*51:01 Transgenic Humanized Mice after Infection with HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yoshinori; Nagata, Sayaka; Takiguchi, Masafumi

    2012-01-01

    Humanized mice are expected to be useful as small animal models for in vivo studies on the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. However, it is well known that human CD8+ T cells cannot differentiate into effector cells in immunodeficient mice transplanted with only human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), because human T cells are not educated by HLA in the mouse thymus. We here established HLA-B*51:01 transgenic humanized mice by transplanting human CD34+ HSCs into HLA-B*51:01 transgenic NOD/SCID/Jak3−/− mice (hNOK/B51Tg mice) and investigated whether human effector CD8+ T cells would be elicited in the mice or in those infected with HIV-1 NL4-3. There were no differences in the frequency of late effector memory and effector subsets (CD27lowCD28−CD45RA+/−CCR7− and CD27−CD28−CD45RA+/−CCR7−, respectively) among human CD8+ T cells and in that of human CD8+ T cells expressing CX3CR1 and/or CXCR1 between hNOK/B51Tg and hNOK mice. In contrast, the frequency of late effector memory and effector CD8+ T cell subsets and of those expressing CX3CR1 and/or CXCR1 was significantly higher in HIV-1-infected hNOK/B51Tg mice than in uninfected ones, whereas there was no difference in that of these subsets between HIV-1-infected and uninfected hNOK mice. These results suggest that hNOK/B51Tg mice had CD8+ T cells that were capable of differentiating into effector T cells after viral antigen stimulation and had a greater ability to elicit effector CD8+ T cells than hNOK ones. PMID:22880104

  14. Effective elicitation of human effector CD8+ T Cells in HLA-B*51:01 transgenic humanized mice after infection with HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoshinori; Nagata, Sayaka; Takiguchi, Masafumi

    2012-01-01

    Humanized mice are expected to be useful as small animal models for in vivo studies on the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. However, it is well known that human CD8(+) T cells cannot differentiate into effector cells in immunodeficient mice transplanted with only human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), because human T cells are not educated by HLA in the mouse thymus. We here established HLA-B*51:01 transgenic humanized mice by transplanting human CD34(+) HSCs into HLA-B*51:01 transgenic NOD/SCID/Jak3(-/-) mice (hNOK/B51Tg mice) and investigated whether human effector CD8(+) T cells would be elicited in the mice or in those infected with HIV-1 NL4-3. There were no differences in the frequency of late effector memory and effector subsets (CD27(low)CD28(-)CD45RA(+/-)CCR7(-) and CD27(-)CD28(-)CD45RA(+/-)CCR7(-), respectively) among human CD8(+) T cells and in that of human CD8(+) T cells expressing CX3CR1 and/or CXCR1 between hNOK/B51Tg and hNOK mice. In contrast, the frequency of late effector memory and effector CD8(+) T cell subsets and of those expressing CX3CR1 and/or CXCR1 was significantly higher in HIV-1-infected hNOK/B51Tg mice than in uninfected ones, whereas there was no difference in that of these subsets between HIV-1-infected and uninfected hNOK mice. These results suggest that hNOK/B51Tg mice had CD8(+) T cells that were capable of differentiating into effector T cells after viral antigen stimulation and had a greater ability to elicit effector CD8(+) T cells than hNOK ones.

  15. Of Mice and Men-Warning: Intact Versus Castrated Adult Male Mice as Xenograft Hosts Are Equivalent to Hypogonadal Versus Abiraterone Treated Aging Human Males, Respectively

    PubMed Central

    Sedelaar, J.P. Michiel; Dalrymple, Susan S.; Isaacs, John T.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Immune deficient male mice bearing human prostate cancer xenografts are used to evaluate therapeutic response to novel androgen ablation approaches and the results compared to surgical castration based upon assumption that testosterone microenvironment in intact and castrated adult male mice mimics eugonadal and castrated aging adult human males. METHODS To test these assumptions, serum total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) were determined longitudinally in groups (n > 20) of intact versus castrated adult male nude, NOG, and immune competent C57BL/6 mice. RESULTS In adult male mice, TT and FT varies by 30- to 100-fold within the same animal providing a microenvironment that is only equivalent to hypogonadal, not eugonadal, adult human males (TT is 1.7 ± 1.2 ng/ml [5.8 ± 4.1 nM] in nude and 2.5 ± 1.3 ng/ml [8.7 ± 4.4 nM] in NOG mice versus >4.2 ng/ml [14.7 nM] in eugonadal humans). This was confirmed based upon enhanced growth of androgen dependent human prostate cancer xenografts inoculated into mice supplemented with exogenous testosterone to elevate and chronically maintain serum TT at a level (5 ng/ml [18 nM]) equivalent to a 50-year-old eugonadal human male. In castrated mice, TT and FT range from 2 to 20 pg/ml (7–70 pM) and <0.8 pg/ml (<2.6 pM), respectively, which is equivalent to castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients treated with abiraterone. This was confirmed based upon the inability of another CYP17A1 inhibitor, ketoconazole, to inhibit the growth of CRPC xenografts in castrated mice. CONCLUSIONS Adult male mice supplemented with testosterone mimic eugonadal human males, while unsupplemented animals mimic standard androgen ablation and castrated animals mimic abiraterone treated patients. These studies confirm what is claimed in Robert Burns’ poem “To a Mouse” that “The best laid schemes of mice and men/often go awry. PMID:23775398

  16. Engineering a humanized bone organ model in mice to study bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Martine, Laure C; Holzapfel, Boris M; McGovern, Jacqui A; Wagner, Ferdinand; Quent, Verena M; Hesami, Parisa; Wunner, Felix M; Vaquette, Cedryck; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Brown, Toby D; Nowlan, Bianca; Wu, Dan Jing; Hutmacher, Cosmo Orlando; Moi, Davide; Oussenko, Tatiana; Piccinini, Elia; Zandstra, Peter W; Mazzieri, Roberta; Lévesque, Jean-Pierre; Dalton, Paul D; Taubenberger, Anna V; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2017-04-01

    Current in vivo models for investigating human primary bone tumors and cancer metastasis to the bone rely on the injection of human cancer cells into the mouse skeleton. This approach does not mimic species-specific mechanisms occurring in human diseases and may preclude successful clinical translation. We have developed a protocol to engineer humanized bone within immunodeficient hosts, which can be adapted to study the interactions between human cancer cells and a humanized bone microenvironment in vivo. A researcher trained in the principles of tissue engineering will be able to execute the protocol and yield study results within 4-6 months. Additive biomanufactured scaffolds seeded and cultured with human bone-forming cells are implanted ectopically in combination with osteogenic factors into mice to generate a physiological bone 'organ', which is partially humanized. The model comprises human bone cells and secreted extracellular matrix (ECM); however, other components of the engineered tissue, such as the vasculature, are of murine origin. The model can be further humanized through the engraftment of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that can lead to human hematopoiesis within the murine host. The humanized organ bone model has been well characterized and validated and allows dissection of some of the mechanisms of the bone metastatic processes in prostate and breast cancer.

  17. Transgenic mice expressing a human mutant beta1 thyroid receptor are hyperactive, impulsive, and inattentive.

    PubMed

    Siesser, W B; Zhao, J; Miller, L R; Cheng, S-Y; McDonald, M P

    2006-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed childhood psychiatric disorder. We have found that a transgenic mouse bearing a human mutant thyroid receptor (TRbeta1) expresses all of the defining symptoms of ADHD--inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity--as well as a 'paradoxical' response to methylphenidate (MPH). As with ADHD, the behavioral phenotypes expressed by the TRbeta transgenic mice are dynamic and sensitive to changes in environmental conditions, stress, and reinforcement. TRbeta transgenic mice are euthyroid except for a brief period during postnatal development, but the behavioral phenotypes, elevated dopamine turnover, and paradoxical response to MPH persist into adulthood. Thus, like the vast majority of children with ADHD, the TRbeta transgenic mice exhibit the symptoms of ADHD in the complete absence of thyroid abnormalities. This suggests that even transient perturbations in developmental thyroid homeostasis can have long-lasting behavioral and cognitive consequences, including producing the full spectrum of symptoms of ADHD.

  18. Plasmodium vivax liver stage development and hypnozoite persistence in human liver-chimeric mice.

    PubMed

    Mikolajczak, Sebastian A; Vaughan, Ashley M; Kangwanrangsan, Niwat; Roobsoong, Wanlapa; Fishbaugher, Matthew; Yimamnuaychok, Narathatai; Rezakhani, Nastaran; Lakshmanan, Viswanathan; Singh, Naresh; Kaushansky, Alexis; Camargo, Nelly; Baldwin, Michael; Lindner, Scott E; Adams, John H; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Prachumsri, Jetsumon; Kappe, Stefan H I

    2015-04-08

    Plasmodium vivax malaria is characterized by periodic relapses of symptomatic blood stage parasite infections likely initiated by activation of dormant liver stage parasites-hypnozoites. The lack of tractable P. vivax animal models constitutes an obstacle in examining P. vivax liver stage infection and drug efficacy. To overcome this obstacle, we have used human liver-chimeric (huHep) FRG KO mice as a model for P. vivax infection. FRG KO huHep mice support P. vivax sporozoite infection, liver stage development, and hypnozoite formation. We show complete P. vivax liver stage development, including maturation into infectious exo-erythrocytic merozoites as well as the formation and persistence of hypnozoites. Prophylaxis or treatment with the antimalarial primaquine can prevent and eliminate liver stage infection, respectively. Thus, P. vivax-infected FRG KO huHep mice are a model to investigate liver stage development and dormancy and may facilitate the discovery of drugs targeting relapsing malaria.

  19. Pigmentation, pleiotropy, and genetic pathways in humans and mice

    SciTech Connect

    Barsh, G.S.

    1995-10-01

    Some of the most striking polymorphisms in human populations affect the color of our eyes, hair, or skin. Despite some simple lessons from high school biology (blue eyes are recessive; brown are dominant), the genetic basis of such phenotypic variability has, for the most part, eluded Mendelian description. A logical place to search for the keys to understanding common variation in human pigmentation are genes in which defects cause uncommon conditions such as albinism or piebaldism. The area under this lamppost has recently gotten larger, with two articles, one in this issue of the Journal, that describe the map position for Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) and with the recent cloning of a gene that causes X-linked ocular albinism (OA1). In addition, a series of three recent articles in Cell demonstrate (1) that defects in the gene encoding the endothelin B (ET{sub B}) receptor cause hypopigmentation and Hirschsprung disease in a Mennonite population and the mouse mutation piebald(s) and (2) that a defect in the edn3 gene, which encodes one of the ligands for the ET{sub B} receptor, causes the lethal spotting (ls) mouse mutation. 47 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Bacillus cereus G9241 Makes Anthrax Toxin and Capsule like Highly Virulent B. anthracis Ames but Behaves like Attenuated Toxigenic Nonencapsulated B. anthracis Sterne in Rabbits and Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    20. Kuroki, R., et al. 2009. Nosocomial bacteremia caused by biofilm-forming Bacillus cereus and Bacillus tlrurin!{iensis. Intern. Med. 48:791-796...Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Bacillus cereus G9241 Makes Anthrax Toxin and Capsule like Highly Virulent B. anthracis Ames but Behaves like...G9241 for mice requires the presence of both plasmids. The Bacillus cereus group, of which Bacillus anthracis, Bacil- lus thuringiensis, and B

  1. Besnoitia oryctofelisi n. sp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) from domestic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Sreekumar, C; Lindsay, D S; Hill, D; Rosenthal, B M; Venturini, L; Venturini, M C; Greiner, E C

    2003-06-01

    A species of Besnoitia from naturally infected rabbits from Argentina was propagated experimentally in mice, gerbils, rabbits, cats, and cell cultures. Cats fed tissue cysts from rabbits shed oocysts with a prepatent period of nine to 13 days. Sporulated oocysts were infective to gerbils, rabbits, outbred Swiss Webster and interferon gamma gene knockout mice. Bradyzoites were infective orally to gerbils and cats. Tachyzoites were successfully cultivated and maintained in vitro in bovine monocytes and African green monkey kidney cells. Schizonts were seen in the lamina propria of the small intestine of cats fed tissue cysts; the largest ones measured 52 x 45 microm. Schizonts were also present in mesenteric lymph nodes, livers, and other extra-intestinal organs of cats fed tissue cysts. Oocysts were 10-14 x 10-13 microm in size. This rabbit-derived species of Besnoitia resembled B. darlingi of the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana with an opossum-cat cycle, but it was not transmissible to D. virginiana, and B. darlingi of opossums was not transmissible to rabbits. Based on biological, serological, antigenic, and molecular differences between the rabbit and the opossum Besnoitia, a new name, B. oryctofelisi is proposed for the parasite from domestic rabbits from Argentina.

  2. A Multi-Agent Alphavirus DNA Vaccine Delivered by Intramuscular Electroporation Elicits Robust and Durable Virus Specific Immune Responses in Mice and Rabbits and Completely Protects Mice against Lethal Venezuelan, Western, and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Aerosol Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-26

    A Multi-Agent Alphavirus DNA Vaccine Delivered by Intramuscular Electroporation Elicits 1 Robust and Durable Virus-Specific Immune Responses in Mice...Agent Alphavirus DNA Vaccine Protects Mice 12 13 #Address correspondence to Lesley C. Dupuy, lesley.c.dupuy.ctr@mail.mil. 14 *Present address...virus (VEEV) DNA vaccine 21 that was optimized for increased antigen expression and delivered by intramuscular (IM) 22 electroporation (EP) elicits

  3. Impaired muscarinic endothelium-dependent relaxation and cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate formation in atherosclerotic human coronary artery and rabbit aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Bossaller, C; Habib, G B; Yamamoto, H; Williams, C; Wells, S; Henry, P D

    1987-01-01

    The dependence of vascular relaxation on an intact endothelium and the relationship between relaxation and cyclic GMP accumulation were determined in coronary arteries isolated from cardiac transplantation patients with or without coronary atherosclerosis. In nonatherosclerotic arteries, the endothelium-dependent agent acetylcholine produced concentration-related relaxations. In atherosclerotic arteries, endothelium-dependent relaxations were abolished with acetylcholine, partly suppressed with substance P and histamine, and completely preserved with the ionophore A23187. In these arteries, the endothelium-independent agent nitroglycerin remained fully active. Accumulation of cyclic GMP in atherosclerotic strips was suppressed with acetylcholine but unattenuated with A23187 and nitroglycerin. In aortas from rabbits with diet-induced atherosclerosis, there was likewise an impaired cholinergic relaxation and cyclic GMP accumulation in the presence of preserved responses to A23187 and nitroglycerin. The results demonstrate that impaired cholinergic responses in atherosclerotic arteries reflect a muscarinic defect and not an inability of endothelium to release endothelial factor or smooth muscle to respond to it. PMID:2432088

  4. Thyroid dysfunction associated with follicular cell steatosis in obese male mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Jung Uee; Joung, Kyong Hye; Kim, Yong Kyung; Ryu, Min Jeong; Lee, Seong Eun; Kim, Soung Jung; Chung, Hyo Kyun; Choi, Min Jeong; Chang, Joon Young; Lee, Sang-Hee; Kweon, Gi Ryang; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Koon Soon; Kim, Seong-Min; Jo, Young Suk; Park, Jeongwon; Cheng, Sheue-Yann; Shong, Minho

    2015-03-01

    Adult thyroid dysfunction is a common endocrine disorder associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. A recent epidemiologic study revealed a link between obesity and increased prevalence of hypothyroidism. It is conceivable that excessive adiposity in obesity might lead to expansion of the interfollicular adipose (IFA) depot or steatosis in thyroid follicular cells (thyroid steatosis, TS). In this study, we investigated the morphological and functional changes in thyroid glands of obese humans and animal models, diet-induced obese (DIO), ob/ob, and db/db mice. Expanded IFA depot and TS were observed in obese patients. Furthermore, DIO mice showed increased expression of lipogenesis-regulation genes, such as sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), and fatty acid synthetase (FASN) in the thyroid gland. Steatosis and ultrastructural changes, including distension of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial distortion in thyroid follicular cells, were uniformly observed in DIO mice and genetically obese mouse models, ob/ob and db/db mice. Obese mice displayed a variable degree of primary thyroid hypofunction, which was not corrected by PPARγ agonist administration. We propose that systemically increased adiposity is associated with characteristic IFA depots and TS and may cause or influence the development of primary thyroid failure.

  5. Effects of cinnarizine, a calcium antagonist that produces human parkinsonism, in parkin knock out mice.

    PubMed

    Serrano, A; Menéndez, J; Casarejos, M J; Solano, R M; Gallego, E; Sánchez, M; Mena, M A; García de Yebenes, J

    2005-08-01

    Cinnarizine, a calcium antagonist that produces parkinsonism in humans, induces behavioural changes such as alopecia, buco-lingual dyskinesia and reduction of motor activity in female parkin knock out (PK-KO) mice but not in wild-type (WT) controls. PK-KO mice have high striatal dopamine levels and increased dopamine metabolism in spite of low reduced tyrosine hydroxylase protein. Cinnarizine, which blocks dopamine receptors and increases dopamine release, further increased dopamine metabolism. PK-KO mice increased GSH levels as a compensatory mechanism against enhanced free radical production related to acceleration of dopamine turnover. Neuronal markers, such as beta-tubulin slightly increased in PK-KO and furthermore with cinnarizine. Astroglial markers were decreased in PK-KO mice, and this effect was potentiated by cinnarizine, suggesting abnormal glia in these animals. Microglia was hyperactivated in PK-KO midbrain, suggesting inflammation in these animals. Proapoptotic proteins were increased by cinnarizine and, to a lesser extent, in PK-KO mice. Our data indicate that mutation of parkin is a risk factor for drug-induced parkinsonism.

  6. Cigarette Smoke Induces Immune Responses to Vimentin in both, Arthritis-Susceptible and -Resistant Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bidkar, Mitali; Vassallo, Robert; Luckey, David; Smart, Michele; Mouapi, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease marked by chronic synovial inflammation and both, genetic and environmental factors are involved in its pathogenesis. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DRB1*0401 is associated with susceptibility to develop RA, while cigarette smoke (CS) exposure promotes seropositive disease with increased severity in DRB1*0401+ individuals. Smokers have higher levels of antibodies against citrullinated peptides. In this study, we determined whether the response to a known autoantigen, Vimentin (Vim) is shared epitope specific and how CS influences this response using transgenic-mice carrying RA-susceptible,*0401, and -resistant, *0402, genes. Following relatively brief exposure to CS, peptidyl arginine deiminase (PAD) enzyme expression was increased in murine lungs. Cigarette smoking led to production of Interferon (IFN)-γ with reduced levels of Interleukin (IL)-10 by splenocytes of *0401 mice. In contrast, CS augmented Th2 cytokines along with T-regulatory cells in *0402 mice. An increase in levels of antibodies to native and citrullinated Vim was observed in naïve mice of both strains following CS exposure. Our data showed that both arthritis-susceptible and -resistant mice can generate cellular and humoral immunity to Vim; however CS-induced modulation of host immunity is dependent on the interaction with the host HLA genes. PMID:27602574

  7. An animal model of adult T-cell leukemia: humanized mice with HTLV-1-specific immunity.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Kenta; Xun, Runze; Tei, Mami; Ueno, Takaharu; Tanaka, Masakazu; Takenouchi, Norihiro; Fujisawa, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-16

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is causally associated with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), an aggressive T-cell malignancy with a poor prognosis. To elucidate ATL pathogenesis in vivo, a variety of animal models have been established; however, the mechanisms driving this disorder remain poorly understood due to deficiencies in each of these animal models. Here, we report a novel HTLV-1-infected humanized mouse model generated by intra-bone marrow injection of human CD133(+) stem cells into NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2Rγc null (NOG) mice (IBMI-huNOG mice). Upon infection, the number of CD4(+) human T cells in the periphery increased rapidly, and atypical lymphocytes with lobulated nuclei resembling ATL-specific flower cells were observed 4 to 5 months after infection. Proliferation was seen in both CD25(-) and CD25(+) CD4 T cells with identical proviral integration sites; however, a limited number of CD25(+)-infected T-cell clones eventually dominated, indicating an association between clonal selection of infected T cells and expression of CD25. Additionally, HTLV-1-specific adaptive immune responses were induced in infected mice and might be involved in the control of HTLV-1-infected cells. Thus, the HTLV-1-infected IBMI-huNOG mouse model successfully recapitulated the development of ATL and may serve as an important tool for investigating in vivo mechanisms of ATL leukemogenesis and evaluating anti-ATL drug and vaccine candidates.

  8. CYP2D plays a major role in berberine metabolism in liver of mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao; Cheng, Xingguo; Zhou, Honghao; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2011-11-01

    Berberine is a widely used plant extract for gastrointestinal infections, and is reported to have potential benefits in treatment for diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. It has been suggested that interactions between berberine-containing products and cytochromes P450 (CYPs) exist, but little is known about which CYPs mediate the metabolism of berberine in vivo. In this study, berberine metabolites in urine and feces of mice were analyzed, and the role that CYPs play in producing these metabolites were characterized in liver microsomes from mice (MLM) and humans (HLM), as well as recombinant human CYPs. Eleven berberine metabolites were identified in mice, including 5 unconjugated metabolites, mainly in feces, and 6 glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, predominantly in urine. Three novel berberine metabolites were observed. Three unconjugated metabolites of berberine were produced by MLM, HLM, and recombinant human CYPs. CYP2D6 was the primary recombinant human CYP producing these metabolites, followed by CYP1A2, 3A4, 2E1 and CYP2C19. The metabolism of berberine in MLM and HLM was decreased the most by a CYP2D inhibitor, and moderately by inhibitors of CYP1A and 3A. CYP2D plays a major role in berberine biotransformation, therefore, CYP2D6 pharmacogenetics and potential drug-drug interactions should be considered when berberine is used.

  9. Variant rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in young rabbits, Spain.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Kevin P; Nicieza, Inés; Balseiro, Ana; Muguerza, María A; Rosell, Joan M; Casais, Rosa; Álvarez, Ángel L; Parra, Francisco

    2012-12-01

    Outbreaks of rabbit hemorrhagic disease have occurred recently in young rabbits on farms on the Iberian Peninsula where rabbits were previously vaccinated. Investigation identified a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant genetically related to apathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. Improved antivirus strategies are needed to slow the spread of this pathogen.

  10. Partial Conservation between Mice and Humans in Olfactory Bulb Interneuron Transcription Factor Codes.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Nana; Cave, John W

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian main olfactory bulb (OB) has a large population of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons that contains several subtypes defined by the co-expression other neurotransmitters and calcium binding proteins. The three most commonly studied OB interneuron subtypes co-express either Calretinin, Calbindin, or Tyrosine hydroxylase (Th). Combinations of transcription factors used to specify the phenotype of progenitors are referred to as transcription factor codes, and the current understanding of transcription factor codes that specify OB inhibitory neuron phenotypes are largely based on studies in mice. The conservation of these transcription factor codes in the human OB, however, has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to establish whether transcription factor codes in OB interneurons are conserved between mice and humans. This study compared the co-expression of Foxp2, Meis2, Pax6, and Sp8 transcription factors with Calretinin, Calbindin, or Th in human and mouse OB interneurons. This analysis found strong conservation of Calretinin co-expression with Sp8 and Meis2 as well as Th co-expression with Pax6 and Meis2. This analysis also showed that selective Foxp2 co-expression with Calbindin was conserved between mice and humans, which suggests Foxp2 is a novel determinant of the OB Calbindin interneuron phenotype. Together, the findings in this study provide insight into the conservation of transcription codes for OB interneuron phenotypes between humans and mice, as well as reveal some important differences between the species. This advance in our understanding of transcription factor codes in OB interneurons provides an important complement to the codes that have been established for other regions within the mammalian central nervous system, such as the cortex and spinal cord.

  11. Partial Conservation between Mice and Humans in Olfactory Bulb Interneuron Transcription Factor Codes

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Nana; Cave, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian main olfactory bulb (OB) has a large population of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons that contains several subtypes defined by the co-expression other neurotransmitters and calcium binding proteins. The three most commonly studied OB interneuron subtypes co-express either Calretinin, Calbindin, or Tyrosine hydroxylase (Th). Combinations of transcription factors used to specify the phenotype of progenitors are referred to as transcription factor codes, and the current understanding of transcription factor codes that specify OB inhibitory neuron phenotypes are largely based on studies in mice. The conservation of these transcription factor codes in the human OB, however, has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to establish whether transcription factor codes in OB interneurons are conserved between mice and humans. This study compared the co-expression of Foxp2, Meis2, Pax6, and Sp8 transcription factors with Calretinin, Calbindin, or Th in human and mouse OB interneurons. This analysis found strong conservation of Calretinin co-expression with Sp8 and Meis2 as well as Th co-expression with Pax6 and Meis2. This analysis also showed that selective Foxp2 co-expression with Calbindin was conserved between mice and humans, which suggests Foxp2 is a novel determinant of the OB Calbindin interneuron phenotype. Together, the findings in this study provide insight into the conservation of transcription codes for OB interneuron phenotypes between humans and mice, as well as reveal some important differences between the species. This advance in our understanding of transcription factor codes in OB interneurons provides an important complement to the codes that have been established for other regions within the mammalian central nervous system, such as the cortex and spinal cord. PMID:27489533

  12. Exploring transplacental transmission of Pneumocystis oryctolagi in first-time pregnant and multiparous rabbit does.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Catherine A; Chabé, Magali; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Durand-Joly, Isabelle; Gantois, Nausicaa; Conseil, Valérie; López, Claudia; Duriez, Thérèse; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Vargas, Sergio L

    2007-12-01

    Pneumocystis sp. is transmitted through the airborne route and presents a high host-species-specificity. Occasional reports of Pneumocystis pneumonia in still births and newborn infants suggest that other routes of transmission, e.g. transplacental might occur. The latter has been reported in rabbits but available data indicate that transplacental transmission of Pneumocystis seems not to occur in corticosteroid-treated rats and in SCID mice. The present study was undertaken to evaluate transplacental transmission of Pneumocystis oryctolagi. The spontaneously-acquired pneumocystosis rabbit model using hybrid California/New Zealand white female rabbits was selected because of similarities among rabbit and human placentas. Three different experiments were conducted in France and Chile. Pneumocystis organisms were detected by microscopy in the lungs of pregnant does and Pneumocystis DNA was found in the lungs of fetuses from the multiparous does from the second week to the end of gestation. Pneumocystis DNA was not detected in fetuses from primiparous does. Detection of Pneumocystis oryctolagi--DNA in fetuses of multiparous does and not in those of primiparous ones, suggests that transplacental transmission may be favored by multiple gestations. Whether Pneumocystis-DNA in fetal tissues from multiparous does resulted from transplacental passage of viable transmissible forms requires further investigation.

  13. Differential Response to Trichloroethylene-Induced Hepatosteatosis in Wild-Type and PPARα-Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ramdhan, Doni Hikmat; Kamijima, Michihiro; Wang, Dong; Ito, Yuki; Naito, Hisao; Yanagiba, Yukie; Hayashi, Yumi; Tanaka, Naoki; Aoyama, Toshifumi; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Nakajima, Tamie

    2010-01-01

    Background Trichloroacetic acid, an oxidative metabolite of trichloroethylene (TRI), is a ligand of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR) α, which is involved in lipid homeostasis and anti-inflammation. Objective We examined the role of mouse and human PPARα in TRI-induced hepatic steatosis and toxicity. Methods Male wild-type (mPPARα), Pparα-null, and humanized PPARα (hPPARα) mice on an Sv/129 background were exposed via inhalation to 0, 1,000, and 2,000 ppm TRI for 8 hr/day for 7 days. We assessed TRI-induced steatosis or hepatic damage through biochemical and histopathological measurements. Results Plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities increased in all mouse lines after exposure to 1,000 and 2,000 ppm TRI. Exposure induced hepatocyte necrosis and inflammatory cells in all mouse lines, but hepatic lipid accumulation was observed only in Pparα-null and hPPARα mice. No differences were observed in TRI-mediated induction of hepatic PPARα target genes except for a few genes that differed between mPPARα and hPPARα mice. However, TRI significantly increased expression of triglyceride (TG)-synthesizing enzymes, diacylglicerol acyltransferases, and PPARγ in Pparα-null and hPPARα mice, which may account for the increased TG in their livers. TRI exposure elevated nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) p52 mRNA and protein in all mice regardless of PPARα genotype. Conclusions NFκB-p52 is a candidate molecular marker for inflammation caused by TRI, and PPARα may be involved in TRI-induced hepatosteatosis. However, human PPARα may afford only weak protection against TRI-mediated effects compared with mouse PPARα. PMID:20709644

  14. Infectivity and development of the human strain of Hymenolepis nana in ICR mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, P C

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the infectivity and development of the human strain of Hymenolepis nana in mice, a human strain of H. nana was inoculated into ICR mice. H. nana eggs were concentrated by the sedimentation method and inoculated by a disposable syringe (1 ml) connected to a long needle (8 cm) into the stomach of mice. Mouse feces were examined daily beginning day 5 after inoculation and the mice were sacrificed from days 19 to 65 post-infection (PI). The infection rate and worm recovery rate were 69% and 17%, respectively. The prepatent period ranged from 7 to 23 days. Autoinfection was found to occur in an ICR mouse infected with 60 eggs; 102 worms were recovered from its small intestinal lumen on day 19 PI. One row of hooklets was found on the scolex and the mean number of hooks was 19. The average length, width, and number of segments were 51 mm, 0.6 mm, and 1,099, respectively. The mean length and number of immature segments were 9 mm and 414 segments, mature segments 20 mm and 390 segments, and gravid segments 22 mm and 295 segments. The average length, width, and number of segments in 26 autoinfected worms were 11.5 mm, 0.3 mm, and 189 segments. The mean length and number of immature segments were 3.9 mm and 41 segments, mature segments 4.4 mm and 65 segments, and gravid segments 3.2 mm and 83 segments, respectively.

  15. Sustained inflammasome activity in macrophages impairs wound healing in type 2 diabetic humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Rita E; Fang, Milie M; Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M; Ennis, William J; Koh, Timothy J

    2014-03-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that sustained activity of the Nod-like receptor protein (NLRP)-3 inflammasome in wounds of diabetic humans and mice contributes to the persistent inflammatory response and impaired healing characteristic of these wounds. Macrophages (Mp) isolated from wounds on diabetic humans and db/db mice exhibited sustained inflammasome activity associated with low level of expression of endogenous inflammasome inhibitors. Soluble factors in the biochemical milieu of these wounds are sufficient to activate the inflammasome, as wound-conditioned medium activates caspase-1 and induces release of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 in cultured Mp via a reactive oxygen species-mediated pathway. Importantly, inhibiting inflammasome activity in wounds of db/db mice using topical application of pharmacological inhibitors improved healing of these wounds, induced a switch from proinflammatory to healing-associated Mp phenotypes, and increased levels of prohealing growth factors. Furthermore, data generated from bone marrow-transfer experiments from NLRP-3 or caspase-1 knockout to db/db mice indicated that blocking inflammasome activity in bone marrow cells is sufficient to improve healing. Our findings indicate that sustained inflammasome activity in wound Mp contributes to impaired early healing responses of diabetic wounds and that the inflammasome may represent a new therapeutic target for improving healing in diabetic individuals.

  16. Increased human AP endonuclease 1 level confers protection against the paternal age effect in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Jamila R.; Reddick, Traci L.; Perez, Marissa; Centonze, Victoria E.; Mitra, Sankar; Izumi, Tadahide; McMahan, C. Alex; Walter, Christi A.

    2015-01-01

    Increased paternal age is associated with a greater risk of producing children with genetic disorders originating from de novo germline mutations. Mice mimic the human condition by displaying an age-associated increase in spontaneous mutant frequency in spermatogenic cells. The observed increase in mutant frequency appears to be associated with a decrease in the DNA repair protein, AP endonuclease1 (APEX1) and Apex1 heterozygous mice display an accelerated paternal age effect as young adults. In this study, we directly tested if APEX1 over-expression in cell lines and transgenic mice could prevent increases in mutagenesis. Cell lines with ectopic expression of APEX1 had increased APEX1 activity and lower spontaneous and induced mutations in the lacI reporter gene relative to the control. Spermatogenic cells obtained from mice transgenic for human APEX1 displayed increased APEX1 activity, were protected from the age-dependent increase in spontaneous germline mutagenesis, and exhibited increased apoptosis in the spermatogonial cell population. These results directly indicate that increases in APEX1 level confer protection against the murine paternal age effect, thus highlighting the role of APEX1 in preserving reproductive health with increasing age and in protection against genotoxin-induced mutagenesis in somatic cells. PMID:26201249

  17. Damascenine induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in mice and in vitro assessed human erythrocyte toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Khettal, Bachra; Tir, Lydia; Boudrioua, Souad

    2015-01-01

    Nigella damascena seed is characterized by the presence of the major alkaloid, damascenine and its related metabolites. To our knowledge, no detailed subchronic toxicological assessment of damascenine (DA) has been reported. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of DA in vivo after sub-chronic intraperitoneal (i.p) administration in mice and in vitro following human erythrocyte hemolysis. In vivo, a total of 48 adult male and female Swiss albino mice were used in a sub-chronic toxicity study. The mice received intraperitoneally two doses of DA (20 and 100 mg/kg) for 28 days. Food intake, body weight and central body temperature were measured during the experiment. After completion of drug treatment, biochemical and histological analyses were performed. No mortality was observed in any of the treatment groups of mice, showing no toxic effects during the study. Neither were biochemical parameters altered; no significant differences were observed concerning glucose, bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea, and creatinine parameters. No histopathological alterations were found in kidney and liver structures. In vitro, we focused on the human erythrocyte hemolytic process in the presence of several concentrations of DA. High level concentration of 1 000 μg/ml of DA revealed normal cell shapes and absence of hemolysis and deformation. PMID:27486370

  18. Topical cyclosporin induces hair growth in human split skin grafted onto nude mice.

    PubMed

    Gilhar, A; Etzioni, A; Moscona, R

    1991-01-01

    Previously we observed that systemic CyA induces hair growth in an experimental model of human scalp skin graft transplanted onto nude mice. In the present study we investigated the role of topical CyA in the murine transplantation model, using human split-thickness skin grafts (HSTSG). Ten mice grafted with 1-mm-thick skin and another 10 mice grafted with 0.4-mm-thick skin were treated topically with CyA in olive oil. Ten other mice, treated with olive oil only, served as a control group. At the end of the study we observed hair growth only on the grafted skin of the CyA-treated group. Four out of 10 grafts showed hair growth in each of the groups. Quantitative analysis of transverse sections of cylindrical punch biopsy specimens of HSTSG before transplantation revealed anagen follicles, including small ones and telogen/catagen follicles, whereas specimens after skin transplantation showed terminal follicles mostly in the anagen phase. The present study provides further support to previous observations regarding the beneficial effect of CyA on hair growth.

  19. Phosphodiesterases and Adrenal Cushing in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Szarek, E.; Stratakis, C. A.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of benign adrenal cortex lesions leading to Cushing syndrome are associated to one or another abnormality of the cAMP/cGMP-phosphodiesterase signaling pathway. Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are key regulatory enzymes of intracellular cAMP/cGMP levels. These second messengers play important regulatory roles in controlling steroidogenesis in the adrenal. Disruption of PDEs has been associated with a number of adrenal diseases. Specifically, genetic mutations have been associated with benign adrenal lesions, leading to Cushing syndrome and/or related adrenal hyperplasias. A Genome Wide Association study, in 2006, led to the identification of mutations in 2 PDE genes: PDE8B and PDE11A; mutations in these 2 genes modulate steroidogenesis. Further human studies have identified PDE2 as also directly regulating steroidogenesis. PDE2 decreases aldosterone production. This review focuses on the most recent knowledge we have gained on PDEs and their association with adrenal steroidogenesis and altered function, through analysis of patient cohorts and what we have learned from mouse studies. PMID:25232906

  20. High efficiency of muscle regeneration after human myoblast clone transplantation in SCID mice.

    PubMed Central

    Huard, J; Verreault, S; Roy, R; Tremblay, M; Tremblay, J P

    1994-01-01

    SCID mouse tibialis anterior muscles were first irradiated to prevent regeneration by host myoblasts and injected with notexin to damage the muscle fibers and trigger regeneration. The muscles were then injected with roughly 5 million human myoblasts. 1 mo later, 16-33% of the normal number of muscle fibers were present in the injected muscle, because of incomplete regeneration. However, > 90% of these muscle fibers contained human dystrophin. Some newly formed muscle fibers had an accumulation of human dystrophin and desmin on a part of their membrane. Such accumulations have been demonstrated at neuromuscular junctions before suggesting that the new muscle fibers are innervated and functional. The same pool of clones of human myoblasts produced only < or = 4% of muscle fibers containing human dystrophin when injected in nude mice muscles. Several of the human myoblasts did not fuse and remained in interstitial space or tightly associated with muscle fibers suggesting that some of them have formed satellite cells. Moreover, cultures of 98% pure human myoblasts were obtained from transplanted SCID muscles. In some mice where the muscle regeneration was not complete, the muscle fibers containing human dystrophin also expressed uniformly HLA class 1, confirming that the fibers are of human origin. The presence of hybrid muscle fibers containing human dystrophin and mouse MHC was also demonstrated following transplantation. These results establish that in absence of an immune reaction, transplanted human myoblasts participate to the muscle regeneration with a high degree of efficacy even if the animals were killed only 1 mo after the transplantation. Images PMID:8113396

  1. Deoxycholic acid formation in gnotobiotic mice associated with human intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Narushima, Seiko; Itoha, Kikuji; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Park, Sang-Hee; Nagata, Keiko; Kuruma, Kazuo; Uchida, Kiyohisa

    2006-09-01

    In humans and animals, intestinal flora is indispensable for bile acid transformation. The goal of our study was to establish gnotobiotic mice with intestinal bacteria of human origin in order to examine the role of intestinal bacteria in the transformation of bile acids in vivo using the technique of gnotobiology. Eight strains of bile acid-deconjugating bacteria were isolated from ex-germ-free mice inoculated with a human fecal dilution of 10(-6), and five strains of 7alpha-dehydroxylating bacteria were isolated from the intestine of limited human flora mice inoculated only with clostridia. The results of biochemical tests and 16S rDNA sequence analysis showed that seven out of eight bile acid-deconjugating strains belong to a bacteroides cluster (Bacteroides vulgatus, B. distasonis, and B. uniformis), and one strain had high similarity with Bilophila wadsworthia. All five strains that converted cholic acid to deoxycholic acid had greatest similarity with Clostridium hylemonae. A combination of 10 isolated strains converted taurocholic acid into deoxycholic acid both in vitro and in the mouse intestine. These results indicate that the predominant bacteria, mainly Bacteroides, in human feces comprise one of the main bacterial groups for the deconjugation of bile acids, and clostridia may play an important role in 7aplha-dehydroxylation of free-form primary bile acids in the intestine although these strains are not predominant. The gnotobiotic mouse with bacteria of human origin could be a useful model in studies of bile acid metabolism by human intestinal bacteria in vivo.

  2. Neutralizing human antibodies prevent Zika virus replication and fetal disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Sapparapu, Gopal; Fernandez, Estefania; Kose, Nurgun; Bin Cao; Fox, Julie M; Bombardi, Robin G; Zhao, Haiyan; Nelson, Christopher A; Bryan, Aubrey L; Barnes, Trevor; Davidson, Edgar; Mysorekar, Indira U; Fremont, Daved H; Doranz, Benjamin J; Diamond, Michael S; Crowe, James E

    2016-12-15

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that can cause severe disease, including congenital birth defects during pregnancy. To develop candidate therapeutic agents against ZIKV, we isolated a panel of human monoclonal antibodies from subjects that were previously infected with ZIKV. We show that a subset of antibodies recognize diverse epitopes on the envelope (E) protein and exhibit potent neutralizing activity. One of the most inhibitory antibodies, ZIKV-117, broadly neutralized infection of ZIKV strains corresponding to African and Asian-American lineages. Epitope mapping studies revealed that ZIKV-117 recognized a unique quaternary epitope on the E protein dimer-dimer interface. We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of ZIKV-117 in pregnant and non-pregnant mice. Monoclonal antibody treatment markedly reduced tissue pathology, placental and fetal infection, and mortality in mice. Thus, neutralizing human antibodies can protect against maternal-fetal transmission, infection and disease, and reveal important determinants for structure-based rational vaccine design efforts.

  3. Human melanopsin-AAV2/8 transfection to retina transiently restores visual function in rd1 mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming-Ming; Dai, Jia-Man; Liu, Wen-Yi; Zhao, Cong-Jian; Lin, Bin; Yin, Zheng-Qin

    2016-01-01

    AIM To explore whether ectopic expression of human melanopsin can effectively and safely restore visual function in rd1 mice. METHODS Hematoxylin-eosin staining of retinal sections from rd1 mice was used to detect the thickness of the outer nuclear layer to determine the timing of surgery. We constructed a human melanopsin-AAV2/8 viral vector and injected it into the subretinal space of rd1 mice. The Phoenix Micron IV system was used to exclude the aborted injections, and immunohistochemistry was used to validate the ectopic expression of human melanopsin. Furthermore, visual electrophysiology and behavioral tests were used to detect visual function 30 and 45d after the injection. The structure of the retina was compared between the human melanopsin-injected group and phosphate buffer saline (PBS)-injected group. RESULTS Retinas of rd1 mice lost almost all of their photoreceptors on postnatal day 28 (P28). We therefore injected the human melanopsin-adeno-associated virus (AAV) 2/8 viral vector into P30 rd1 mice. After excluding aborted injections, we used immunohistochemistry of the whole mount retina to confirm the ectopic expression of human melanopsin by co-expression of human melanopsin and YFP that was carried by a viral vector. At 30d post-injection, visual electrophysiology and the behavioral test significantly improved. However, restoration of vision disappeared 45d after human melanopsin injection. Notably, human melanopsin-injected mice did not show any structural differences in their retinas compared with PBS-injected mice. CONCLUSION Ectopic expression of human melanopsin effectively and safely restores visual function in rd1 mice. PMID:27275417

  4. AGIA Tag System Based on a High Affinity Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody against Human Dopamine Receptor D1 for Protein Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Tomoya; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Uematsu, Atsushi; Yamanaka, Satoshi; Nomura, Shunsuke; Nemoto, Keiichirou; Iwasaki, Takahiro; Takahashi, Hirotaka; Sawasaki, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Polypeptide tag technology is widely used for protein detection and affinity purification. It consists of two fundamental elements: a peptide sequence and a binder which specifically binds to the peptide tag. In many tag systems, antibodies have been used as binder due to their high affinity and specificity. Recently, we obtained clone Ra48, a high-affinity rabbit monoclonal antibody (mAb) against dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1). Here, we report a novel tag system composed of Ra48 antibody and its epitope sequence. Using a deletion assay, we identified EEAAGIARP in the C-terminal region of DRD1 as the minimal epitope of Ra48 mAb, and we named this sequence the “AGIA” tag, based on its central sequence. The tag sequence does not include the four amino acids, Ser, Thr, Tyr, or Lys, which are susceptible to post-translational modification. We demonstrated performance of this new tag system in biochemical and cell biology applications. SPR analysis demonstrated that the affinity of the Ra48 mAb to the AGIA tag was 4.90 × 10−9 M. AGIA tag showed remarkably high sensitivity and specificity in immunoblotting. A number of AGIA-fused proteins overexpressed in animal and plant cells were detected by anti-AGIA antibody in immunoblotting and immunostaining with low background, and were immunoprecipitated efficiently. Furthermore, a single amino acid substitution of the second Glu to Asp (AGIA/E2D) enabled competitive dissociation of AGIA/E2D-tagged protein by adding wild-type AGIA peptide. It enabled one-step purification of AGIA/E2D-tagged recombinant proteins by peptide competition under physiological conditions. The sensitivity and specificity of the AGIA system makes it suitable for use in multiple methods for protein analysis. PMID:27271343

  5. Hepatitis D Virus Infection of Mice Expressing Human Sodium Taurocholate Co-transporting Polypeptide

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Fengfeng; Jing, Zhiyi; Li, Yunfei; Liu, Yang; Peng, Bo; Yan, Huan; Qi, Yonghe; Sun, Yinyan; Guo, Ju-Tao; Sui, Jianhua; Wang, Fengchao; Li, Wenhui

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is the smallest virus known to infect human. About 15 million people worldwide are infected by HDV among those 240 million infected by its helper hepatitis B virus (HBV). Viral hepatitis D is considered as one of the most severe forms of human viral hepatitis. No specific antivirals are currently available to treat HDV infection and antivirals against HBV do not ameliorate hepatitis D. Liver sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) was recently identified as a common entry receptor for HDV and HBV in cell cultures. Here we show HDV can infect mice expressing human NTCP (hNTCP-Tg). Antibodies against critical regions of HBV envelope proteins blocked HDV infection in the hNTCP-Tg mice. The infection was acute yet HDV genome replication occurred efficiently, evident by the presence of antigenome RNA and edited RNA species specifying large delta antigen in the livers of infected mice. The resolution of HDV infection appears not dependent on adaptive immune response, but might be facilitated by innate immunity. Liver RNA-seq analyses of HDV infected hNTCP-Tg and type I interferon receptor 1 (IFNα/βR1) null hNTCP-Tg mice indicated that in addition to induction of type I IFN response, HDV infection was also associated with up-regulation of novel cellular genes that may modulate HDV infection. Our work has thus proved the concept that NTCP is a functional receptor for HDV infection in vivo and established a convenient small animal model for investigation of HDV pathogenesis and evaluation of antiviral therapeutics against the early steps of infection for this important human pathogen. PMID:25902143

  6. Methamphetamine toxicity is attenuated in mice that overexpress human manganese superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Maragos, W F; Jakel, R; Chesnut, D; Pocernich, C B; Butterfield, D A; St Clair, D; Cass, W A

    2000-09-29

    We have investigated methamphetamine (MA) toxicity in transgenic mice that overexpress the human form of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Our results reveal a significant reduction in the long-term depletion of striatal dopamine and protein oxidation following repeated administration of MA in transgenic vs. non-transgenic littermates. These findings support the notion that ROS contribute to MA-induced brain damage and suggest that mitochondria may play an important role in this form of neurodegeneration.

  7. Progressive squamous epithelial neoplasia in K14-human papillomavirus type 16 transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Arbeit, J M; Münger, K; Howley, P M; Hanahan, D

    1994-01-01

    To model human papillomavirus-induced neoplastic progression, expression of the early region of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) was targeted to the basal cells of the squamous epithelium in transgenic mice, using a human keratin 14 (K14) enhancer/promoter. Twenty-one transgenic founder mice were produced, and eight lines carrying either wild-type or mutant HPV16 early regions that did not express the E1 or E2 genes were established. As is characteristic of human cancers, the E6 and E7 genes remained intact in these mutants. The absence of E1 or E2 function did not influence the severity of the phenotype that eventually developed in the transgenic mice. Hyperplasia, papillomatosis, and dysplasia appeared at multiple epidermal and squamous mucosal sites, including ear and truncal skin, face, snout and eyelids, and anus. The ears were the most consistently affected site, with pathology being present in all lines with 100% penetrance. This phenotype also progressed through discernible stages. An initial mild hyperplasia was followed by hyperplasia, which further progressed to dysplasia and papillomatosis. During histopathological progression, there was an incremental increase in cellular DNA synthesis, determined by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation, and a profound perturbation in keratinocyte terminal differentiation, as revealed by immunohistochemistry to K5, K14, and K10 and filaggrin. These K14-HPV16 transgenic mice present an opportunity to study the role of the HPV16 oncogenes in the neoplastic progression of squamous epithelium and provide a model with which to identify genetic and epigenetic factors necessary for carcinogenesis. Images PMID:7515971

  8. Humanized Androgen Receptor Mice: A Genetic Model for Differential Response to Prostate Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    the androgen axis, including those encoding enzymes of testosterone synthesis ( cytochrome P450c17) and conversion (steroid-5--reductase type 2...J., Gronberg, H., 2006. Germ- line genetic variation in the key androgen-regulating genes androgen receptor, cytochrome P450 , and steroid-5-alpha...4 Humanized Androgen Receptor Mice: A Genetic Model for Differential Response to Prostate Cancer Therapy INTRODUCTION Androgen

  9. Jagged 1 is a major Notch ligand along cholangiocarcinoma development in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Che, L; Fan, B; Pilo, M G; Xu, Z; Liu, Y; Cigliano, A; Cossu, A; Palmieri, G; Pascale, R M; Porcu, A; Vidili, G; Serra, M; Dombrowski, F; Ribback, S; Calvisi, D F; Chen, X

    2016-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a rare yet deadly malignancy with limited treatment options. Activation of the Notch signalling cascade has been implicated in cholangiocarcinogenesis. However, while several studies focused on the Notch receptors required for ICC development, little is known about the upstream inducers responsible for their activation. Here, we show that the Jagged 1 (Jag1) ligand is almost ubiquitously upregulated in human ICC samples when compared with corresponding non-tumorous counterparts. Furthermore, we found that while overexpression of Jag1 alone does not lead to liver tumour development, overexpression of Jag1 synergizes with activated AKT signalling to promote liver carcinogenesis in AKT/Jag1 mice. Histologically, tumours consisted exclusively of ICC, with hepatocellular tumours not occurring in AKT/Jag1 mice. Furthermore, tumours from AKT/Jag1 mice exhibited extensive desmoplastic reaction, an important feature of human ICC. At the molecular level, we found that both AKT/mTOR and Notch cascades are activated in AKT/Jag1 ICC tissues, and that the Notch signalling is necessary for ICC development in AKT/Jag1 mice. In human ICC cell lines, silencing of Jag1 via specific small interfering RNA reduces proliferation and increases apoptosis. Finally, combined inhibition of AKT and Notch pathways is highly detrimental for the in vitro growth of ICC cell lines. In summary, our study demonstrates that Jag1 is an important upstream inducer of the Notch signalling in human and mouse ICC. Targeting Jag1 might represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of this deadly disease. PMID:27918553

  10. Persistent and High-Level Expression of Human Liver Prolidase in Vivo in Mice Using Adenovirus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    prolidase group, the 4 sur- viving mice demonstrated signs of nerve agent poisoning , includ- ing piloerection, salivation, and splayed hind limbs, etc...help with the animal experiments. References [1] B.P. Doctor, A. Saxena, Bioscavengers for the protection of humans against organophosphate toxicity...h after the 2nd DFP challenge without any signs of DFP poisoning . 194 V. Aleti et al. / Chemico-Biological Interactions 203 (2013) 191–195 [12] M

  11. Humanized Monoclonal Antibody That Passively Protects Mice against Systemic and Intranasal Ricin Toxin Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Sully, Erin K.; Bohorova, Natasha; Bohorov, Ognian; Kim, Do; Pauly, Michael H.; Whaley, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    PB10 is a murine monoclonal antibody against an immunodominant epitope on ricin toxin's enzymatic subunit. Here, we characterize a fully humanized version of PB10 IgG1 (hPB10) and demonstrate that it has potent in vitro and in vivo toxin-neutralizing activities. We also report the minimum serum concentrations of hPB10 required to protect mice against 10 times the 50% lethal dose of ricin when delivered by injection and inhalation. PMID:27466351

  12. Cell Active Hydroxylactam Inhibitors of Human Lactate Dehydrogenase with Oral Bioavailability in Mice.

    PubMed

    Purkey, Hans E; Robarge, Kirk; Chen, Jinhua; Chen, Zhongguo; Corson, Laura B; Ding, Charles Z; DiPasquale, Antonio G; Dragovich, Peter S; Eigenbrot, Charles; Evangelista, Marie; Fauber, Benjamin P; Gao, Zhenting; Ge, Hongxiu; Hitz, Anna; Ho, Qunh; Labadie, Sharada S; Lai, Kwong Wah; Liu, Wenfeng; Liu, Yajing; Li, Chiho; Ma, Shuguang; Malek, Shiva; O'Brien, Thomas; Pang, Jodie; Peterson, David; Salphati, Laurent; Sideris, Steve; Ultsch, Mark; Wei, BinQing; Yen, Ivana; Yue, Qin; Zhang, Huihui; Zhou, Aihe

    2016-10-13

    A series of trisubstituted hydroxylactams was identified as potent enzymatic and cellular inhibitors of human lactate dehydrogenase A. Utilizing structure-based design and physical property optimization, multiple inhibitors were discovered with <10 μM lactate IC50 in a MiaPaca2 cell line. Optimization of the series led to 29, a potent cell active molecule (MiaPaca2 IC50 = 0.67 μM) that also possessed good exposure when dosed orally to mice.

  13. Efficacy of immune sera from human immunoglobulin transgenic mice immunized with a peptide mimotope of Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan.

    PubMed

    Maitta, Robert W; Datta, Kausik; Pirofski, Liise-Anne

    2004-09-28

    The efficacy of antibody mediated immunity against Cryptococcus neoformans has not been established experimentally for human antibodies. Our group has previously shown that immunization with a conjugate consisting of a peptide mimotope of the C. neoformans capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), P13, and diphtheria toxoid (P13-DT) prolonged survival of transgenic mice with human immunoglobulin loci, XenoMouse mice, which were challenged with a lethal dose of C. neoformans. In the study reported herein, we determined the efficacy of human antibodies in the sera of immunized XenoMouse mice against C. neoformans in passive transfer experiments in naïve BALB/c mice. Survival studies were performed with sera from XenoMouse mice expressing human IgG2/kappa (G2/k mice) or IgG4/kappa (G4/k mice) that had been immunized with P13-tetanus toxoid (TT)/Alhydrogel with or without CpG, and G2/k mice that had been immunized with P13-DT/Alhydrogel/CpG or Alhydrogel/CpG, obtained on day 7 (early sera) and days 30 or 35-59 (late sera) after primary immunization. Compared to mice receiving sera from G2/k-PBS-treated mice, the survival of naïve mice was prolonged by both early and late sera from G2/k-P13-DT/Alhydrogel/CpG-immunized mice, but only late sera from G2/k-P13-TT/Alhydrogel/CpG-immunized mice. Late, but not early sera from G2/k-Alhydrogel/CpG-immunized mice also prolonged survival. For all sera, prolongation of survival was associated with GXM-specific serum IgM. Sera from G2/k mice that received P13-TT without CpG, and all groups of G4/k mice had low to undetectable levels of antibody to GXM and were not protective. Our findings suggest that GXM-specific human IgM may be a functional mediator of protection against C. neoformans.

  14. Expression of Attractin in male reproductive tract of human and mice and its correlation with male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dan; Ming, Yu; Li, Jie; Chi, Yan; Li, Hong-Gang; Zou, Yu-Jie; Xiong, Cheng-Liang

    2014-10-01

    The expression of Attractin mRNA and protein in testis and semen of human and male mice was investigated. Human testis and semen samples were all collected from Reproductive Center of Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University in December, 2012. Testis samples were collected from 7 cases of obstructive azoospermias when they were subjected to diagnosed testis biopsy, and 30 normal human semen samples were obtained from those cases of semen analysis. Adult mice testis tissues were obtained from 10 2-month-old male BALB/c mice, and 60 male mice at different ages were classified into 10 groups (day 1, 5, 10, 15, 21, 28, 35, 42, 56, and 120 respectively, n=6 each). The expression of Attractin mRNA and protein in testis was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting respectively. Human semen samples were centrifuged into sperm plasma (SP) and sperm extract (SE), and mice sperm samples were collected from the epididymis of 10 adult male BALB/c mice. Western blotting was used to determine the Attractin protein expression level. Attractin mRNA and protein were expressed in the testis of both patients with obstructive azoospermias and adult Bcl/B mice. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that no Attractin mRNA was detectable in day 1 male BALB/c mice group. The Attractin mRNA and protein levels were low on the day 10, and increased with age until day 56. On the day 120, the expression levels of Attractin were decreased. As for human semen samples, Attractin protein was expressed in both SP and SE, but didn't exist in samples from the epididymis of male BALB/c mice. It was suggested that Attractin acted as a novel active substance and was involved in male reproduction in both human and BALB/c mice, but it exerted a different expression profile in different mammal species.

  15. EGF receptor mutations in lung cancer: from humans to mice and maybe back to humans.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2006-06-01

    Deletions in exon 19 and nucleotide substitutions in exon 21 are the most common mutations of the EGFR (ErbB1) in NSCLC. These mutations endow the receptor with constitutive kinase activity. Most tumors expressing these mutants respond well to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, suggesting that they are dependent on mutant EGFR signaling. Two groups developed transgenic mice in which expression of these mutants is temporally induced in mouse lung. Mice expressing EGFR mutants develop bronchioloalveolar cancer and lung adenocarcinoma, which are highly sensitive to EGFR inhibitors. These mouse models provide important opportunities for studying the biology of NSCLC and the refinement of anti-EGFR therapies.

  16. Demonstration of Nondeclarative Sequence Learning in Mice: Development of an Animal Analog of the Human Serial Reaction Time Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Michael A.; Hersch, Steven M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate nondeclarative sequence learning in mice using an animal analog of the human serial reaction time task (SRT) that uses a within-group comparison of behavior in response to a repeating sequence versus a random sequence. Ten female B6CBA mice performed eleven 96-trial sessions containing 24 repetitions of a 4-trial…

  17. The effect of pregabalin on sensorimotor gating in 'low' gating humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Acheson, Dean T; Stein, Murray B; Paulus, Martin P; Geyer, Mark A; Risbrough, Victoria B

    2012-09-01

    Pregabalin, an anticonvulsant and anxiolytic compound that binds to α2-δ auxiliary subunit Types 1 and 2 of voltage-gated calcium channels, has been shown to reduce excitatory neurotransmission partially through modulation of glutamatergic signaling. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle is an operational measure of sensorimotor gating impacted by disruption of the glutamatergic system and is reduced in schizophrenia patients. Dysregulation of the glutamatergic system has also been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Here we tested the hypothesis that pregabalin may ameliorate PPI in a model of deficient gating in humans and mice. In study 1, 14 healthy human subjects participated in a within subjects, cross-over study with placebo, 50 mg or 200 mg pregabalin treatment prior to undergoing a PPI task. In study 2, 24 C57BL/6 mice underwent a similar procedure with vehicle, 30 and 100 mg/kg dose treatments. In both studies, subjects were assigned to a "Low" or "High" gating group using a median split procedure based on their PPI performance during placebo/vehicle. Drug effects were then examined across these groups. In humans, pregabalin treatment significantly increased PPI performance in the "low gating" group. In mice, pregabalin treatment significantly increased PPI in the low gating group but reduced PPI in the high gating group. Across species, pregabalin treatment improves PPI in subjects with low gating. These data support further exploration of pregabalin as a potential treatment for disorders characterized by sensorimotor gating deficits and glutamatergic hypersignaling, such as schizophrenia.

  18. [Establishment of a keloid model by transplanting human keloid onto the backs of nude mice].

    PubMed

    Philandrianos, C; Gonnelli, D; Andrac-Meyer, L; Bruno, M; Magalon, G; Mordon, S

    2014-08-01

    Keloid scar is a proliferative healing dysfunction formed by an excessive build-up of collagen fibers on the dermis. It is responsible of aesthetic and functional disabilities. There is no ideal treatment and recurrence occurs very often. Keloid scars occur only to human, that's why animal model needs to be made to study this pathology and new treatments. Few models have been described using human keloid scars implanted into subcutaneous tissue of nude mice or rat. To allow study of topical and laser treatment we have developed a new animal model using human keloid scar fragment with epidermal and dermal tissue implanted into back of nude mice like a full thickness skin graft. Keloid fragments from five donors have been grafted onto 40 nudes mice. Macroscopic and microscopic studies have been made at day 28, 56, 84 and 112. We observed integration of the fragments in all cases. Hyalinized collagen bundles were observed in all implant biopsies confirming the stability of the keloid architecture within 112 days. This model is easily reproducible and allows the study of topical treatment and laser due to the accessibility of the keloid.

  19. Apolipoprotein A5: A newly identified gene impacting plasmatriglyceride levels in humans and mice

    SciTech Connect

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2002-09-15

    Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) is a newly described member of theapolipoprotein gene family whose initial discovery arose from comparativesequence analysis of the mammalian APOA1/C3/A4 gene cluster. Functionalstudies in mice indicated that alteration in the level of APOA5significantly impacted plasma triglyceride concentrations. Miceover-expressing human APOA5 displayed significantly reducedtriglycerides, while mice lacking apoA5 had a large increase in thislipid parameter. Studies in humans have also suggested an important rolefor APOA5 in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations. In theseexperiments, polymorphisms in the human gene were found to define severalcommon haplotypes that were associated with significant changes intriglyceride concentrations in multiple populations. Several separateclinical studies have provided consistent and strong support for theeffect with 24 percent of Caucasians, 35 percent of African-Americans and53 percent of Hispanics carrying APOA5 haplotypes associated withincreased plasma triglyceride levels. In summary, APOA5 represents anewly discovered gene involved in triglyceride metabolism in both humansand mice whose mechanism of action remains to be deciphered.

  20. Cross-species transmission of gibbon and orangutan hepatitis B virus to uPA/SCID mice with human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Sa-Nguanmoo, Pattaratida; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Sugiyama, Masaya; Murakami, Shuko; Payungporn, Sunchai; Sommanustweechai, Angkana; Mizokami, Masashi; Poovorawan, Yong

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the potential of cross-species transmission of non-human primate HBV to humans, severe combined immunodeficiency mice transgenic for urokinase-type plasminogen activator, in which the mouse liver has been engrafted with human hepatocytes, were inoculated with non-human primate HBV. HBV-DNA positive serum samples from a gibbon or orangutan were inoculated into 6 chimeric mice. HBV-DNA, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and HB core-related antigen in sera and HBV cccDNA in liver were detectable in 2 of 3 mice each from the gibbon and orangutan. Likewise, applying immunofluorescence HBV core protein was only found in human hepatocytes expressing human albumin. The HBV sequences from mouse sera were identical to those from orangutan and gibbon sera determined prior to inoculation. In conclusion, human hepatocytes have been infected with gibbon/orangutan HBV.

  1. Aldolase-B knockout in mice phenocopies hereditary fructose intolerance in humans.

    PubMed

    Oppelt, Sarah A; Sennott, Erin M; Tolan, Dean R

    2015-03-01

    The rise in fructose consumption, and its correlation with symptoms of metabolic syndrome (MBS), has highlighted the need for a better understanding of fructose metabolism. To that end, valid rodent models reflecting the same metabolism as in humans, both biochemically and physiologically, are critical. A key to understanding any type of metabolism comes from study of disease states that affect such metabolism. A serious defect of fructose metabolism is the autosomal recessive condition called hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI), caused by mutations in the human aldolase B gene (Aldob). Those afflicted with HFI experience liver and kidney dysfunction after fructose consumption, which can lead to death, particularly during infancy. With very low levels of fructose exposure, HFI patients develop non-alcoholic fatty acid liver disease and fibrosis, sharing liver pathologies also seen in MBS. A major step toward establishing that fructose metabolism in mice mimics that of humans is reported by investigating the consequences of targeting the mouse aldolase-B gene (Aldo2) for deletion in mice (Aldo2(-/-)). The Aldo2(-/-) homozygous mice show similar pathology following exposure to fructose as humans with HFI such as failure to thrive, liver dysfunction, and potential morbidity. Establishing that this mouse reflects the symptoms of HFI in humans is critical for comparison of rodent studies to the human condition, where this food source is increasing, and increasingly controversial. This animal should provide a valuable resource for answering remaining questions about fructose metabolism in HFI, as well as help investigate the biochemical mechanisms leading to liver pathologies seen in MBS from high fructose diets.

  2. A repeated injection of polyethyleneglycol-conjugated recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase elicits immune response in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Chilukuri, Nageswararao Sun Wei; Parikh, Kalpana; Naik, Ramachandra S.; Tang Lin; Doctor, Bhupendra P.; Saxena, Ashima

    2008-09-15

    Human serum butyrylcholinesterase (Hu BChE) serves as an efficacious bioscavenger of highly toxic organophosphorus (OP) compounds. Since there is a concern that the supply of native Hu BChE may be limited, monomeric and tetrameric forms of recombinant Hu BChE (rHu BChE) were evaluated as replacements and found that they lacked sufficient stability in vivo. However, their in vivo stability could be significantly prolonged by conjugation with polyethyleneglycol-20K (PEG) suggesting that monomeric and tetrameric PEG-rHu BChE could function as bioscavengers. Here, the immunogenicity of PEG-rHu BChE was evaluated in mice following two injections given four weeks apart. In addition to pharmacokinetic parameters, such as mean residence time, maximal concentration, time to reach the maximal concentration, elimination half-life and area under the plasma concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity, the presence of circulating anti-rHu BChE antibodies was also determined. Although the pharmacokinetic parameters were significantly improved for the first injection of monomeric and tetrameric PEG-rHu BChEs, they were much lower for the second injection. Anti-rHu BChE antibodies were detected in the blood of mice following the first and second enzyme injections and their levels were approximately higher by 5-fold and 2-fold in mice injected with monomeric and tetrameric PEG-rHu BChEs as compared to mice injected with unconjugated enzymes. The findings that the rapid clearance of a repeat injection of PEG-rHu BChEs in mice which coincides with the presence of circulating anti-rHu BChE antibodies suggest that PEG conjugation prolonged the circulatory stability of rHu BChE but failed to eliminate its immunogenicity in mice.

  3. Generating double knockout mice to model genetic intervention for diabetic cardiomyopathy in humans.

    PubMed

    Chavali, Vishalakshi; Nandi, Shyam Sundar; Singh, Shree Ram; Mishra, Paras Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a rapidly increasing disease that enhances the chances of heart failure twofold to fourfold (as compared to age and sex matched nondiabetics) and becomes a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. There are two broad classifications of diabetes: type1 diabetes (T1D) and type2 diabetes (T2D). Several mice models mimic both T1D and T2D in humans. However, the genetic intervention to ameliorate diabetic cardiomyopathy in these mice often requires creating double knockout (DKO). In order to assess the therapeutic potential of a gene, that specific gene is either overexpressed (transgenic expression) or abrogated (knockout) in the diabetic mice. If the genetic mice model for diabetes is used, it is necessary to create DKO with transgenic/knockout of the target gene to investigate the specific role of that gene in pathological cardiac remodeling in diabetics. One of the important genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in diabetes is matrix metalloproteinase-9 (Mmp9). Mmp9 is a collagenase that remains latent in healthy hearts but induced in diabetic hearts. Activated Mmp9 degrades extracellular matrix (ECM) and increases matrix turnover causing cardiac fibrosis that leads to heart failure. Insulin2 mutant (Ins2+/-) Akita is a genetic model for T1D that becomes diabetic spontaneously at the age of 3-4 weeks and show robust hyperglycemia at the age of 10-12 weeks. It is a chronic model of T1D. In Ins2+/- Akita, Mmp9 is induced. To investigate the specific role of Mmp9 in diabetic hearts, it is necessary to create diabetic mice where Mmp9 gene is deleted. Here, we describe the method to generate Ins2+/-/Mmp9-/- (DKO) mice to determine whether the abrogation of Mmp9 ameliorates diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  4. Effects of herbal medicine on human uterine tumor-bearing nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Ohh, Mi Hyang; Kim, Seong Jin; Han, Jong Kwon; Pak, Sok Cheon; Chee, Kew-mahn

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign uterine neoplasms associated with significant morbidity. Herbal formulas capable of restoring yin-yang balance by dispersing blood stasis may be useful for managing fibroid symptoms. Materials and Methods: In this study, the antitumor properties of three herbs viz., Trogopterus xanthipes Milen-Edwards, Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, and Ulmus davidiana Planch were evaluated in nude mice injected intravenously with human malignant myomas. Tumor fragments were xenografted subcutaneously through a flank incision in female mice. The mice entered the study for 8 weeks when their tumors reached the threshold volume (260 mm3). The mice were randomly allocated to receive subcutaneous injections of normal saline (Group 1; negative control), P. lactiflora Pallas (Group 2), U. davidiana Planch (Group 3), T. xanthipes Milen-Edwards (Group 4), and intravenous injections of paclitaxel (Group 5; positive control). The weight and tumor volume were measured, followed by histopathology. Results: A few cases of abdominal distention and death were observed in the negative control group. Furthermore, a considerable enlargement of the liver and spleen was observed in the negative control group at autopsy with a gradual increase in body weight during the experiment. The mean tumor volume which increased in negative control mice reduced in mice treated with herbal remedies or paclitaxel from day 14 onwards (P < 0.05). The degree of necrosis and apoptosis induction from herbal treatments was similar to that of paclitaxel. Conclusion: Collectively, three herbs viz., T. xanthipes Milen-Edwards, P. lactiflora Pallas, and U. davidiana Planch were able to induce necrosis and apoptosis of uterine leiomyoma cells, proving antitumor properties against uterine fibroids. PMID:27757274

  5. Human urine and plasma concentrations of bisphenol A extrapolated from pharmacokinetics established in in vivo experiments with chimeric mice with humanized liver and semi-physiological pharmacokinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Miyaguchi, Takamori; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Makiko; Shida, Satomi; Nishiyama, Sayako; Takano, Ryohji; Murayama, Norie; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to extrapolate to humans the pharmacokinetics of estrogen analog bisphenol A determined in chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes. Higher plasma concentrations and urinary excretions of bisphenol A glucuronide (a primary metabolite of bisphenol A) were observed in chimeric mice than in control mice after oral administrations, presumably because of enterohepatic circulation of bisphenol A glucuronide in control mice. Bisphenol A glucuronidation was faster in mouse liver microsomes than in human liver microsomes. These findings suggest a predominantly urinary excretion route of bisphenol A glucuronide in chimeric mice with humanized liver. Reported human plasma and urine data for bisphenol A glucuronide after single oral administration of 0.1mg/kg bisphenol A were reasonably estimated using the current semi-physiological pharmacokinetic model extrapolated from humanized mice data using algometric scaling. The reported geometric mean urinary bisphenol A concentration in the U.S. population of 2.64μg/L underwent reverse dosimetry modeling with the current human semi-physiological pharmacokinetic model. This yielded an estimated exposure of 0.024μg/kg/day, which was less than the daily tolerable intake of bisphenol A (50μg/kg/day), implying little risk to humans. Semi-physiological pharmacokinetic modeling will likely prove useful for determining the species-dependent toxicological risk of bisphenol A.

  6. Gluten exacerbates IgA nephropathy in humanized mice through gliadin-CD89 interaction.

    PubMed

    Papista, Christina; Lechner, Sebastian; Ben Mkaddem, Sanae; LeStang, Marie-Bénédicte; Abbad, Lilia; Bex-Coudrat, Julie; Pillebout, Evangéline; Chemouny, Jonathan M; Jablonski, Mathieu; Flamant, Martin; Daugas, Eric; Vrtovsnik, François; Yiangou, Minas; Berthelot, Laureline; Monteiro, Renato C

    2015-08-01

    IgA1 complexes containing deglycosylated IgA1, IgG autoantibodies, and a soluble form of the IgA receptor (sCD89), are hallmarks of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Food antigens, notably gluten, are associated with increased mucosal response and IgAN onset, but their implication in the pathology remains unknown. Here, an IgAN mouse model expressing human IgA1 and CD89 was used to examine the role of gluten in IgAN. Mice were given a gluten-free diet for three generations to produce gluten sensitivity, and then challenged for 30 days with a gluten diet. A gluten-free diet resulted in a decrease of mesangial IgA1 deposits, transferrin 1 receptor, and transglutaminase 2 expression, as well as hematuria. Mice on a gluten-free diet lacked IgA1-sCD89 complexes in serum and kidney eluates. Disease severity depended on gluten and CD89, as shown by reappearance of IgAN features in mice on a gluten diet and by direct binding of the gluten-subcomponent gliadin to sCD89. A gluten diet exacerbated intestinal IgA1 secretion, inflammation, and villous atrophy, and increased serum IgA1 anti-gliadin antibodies, which correlated with proteinuria in mice and patients. Moreover, early treatment of humanized mice with a gluten-free diet prevented mesangial IgA1 deposits and hematuria. Thus, gliadin-CD89 interaction may aggravate IgAN development through induction of IgA1-sCD89 complex formation and a mucosal immune response. Hence, early-stage treatment with a gluten-free diet could be beneficial to prevent disease.

  7. A human apolipoprotein E mimetic peptide reduces atherosclerosis in aged apolipoprotein E null mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanyong; Liu, Hongmei; Liu, Mengting; Li, Feifei; Liu, Liangchen; Du, Fen; Fan, Daping; Yu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is well known as an antiatherogenic protein via regulating lipid metabolism and inflammation. We previously reported that a human apoE mimetic peptide, EpK, reduced atherosclerosis in apoE null (apoE-/-) mice through reducing inflammation without affecting plasma lipid levels. Here, we construct another human apoE mimetic peptide, named hEp, and investigate whether expression of hEp can reduce atherosclerotic lesion development in aged female apoE-/- mice with pre-existing lesions. We found that chemically synthesized hEp significantly decreased cholesterol accumulation induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein and the expression of inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-6 induced by lipopolysaccharide in macrophages. In an in vivo study, Lv-hEp-GFP lentiviruses were intravenously injected into 9 month-old apoE-/- mice. Mice were then fed a chow diet for 18 weeks. Results showed that in comparison to the Lv-GFP lentivirus injection (Lv-GFP) group, Lv-hEp-GFP lentivirus injection achieved hepatic hEp expression and secretion in apoE-/- mice. It was observed that hEp expression significantly reduced plasma VLDL and LDL cholesterol levels and decreased aortic atherosclerotic lesions. This was accompanied by an increase of LDL receptor expression and a reduction of TNFα and IL-6 mRNA levels in the liver. Moreover, expression of hEp increased plasma paraoxonase-1 activity and decreased plasma myeloperoxidase activity and serum amyloid A levels. Our study provides evidence that hEp may be developed as a promising therapeutic apoE mimetic peptide for atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular diseases through its induction of plasma VLDL/LDL cholesterol clearance as well as its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:27648138

  8. Inhibition of subcutaneously implanted human pituitary tumor cells in nude mice by LRIG1.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; He, X J; Xu, H Q; Chen, Z W; Fan, H H

    2016-05-06

    The aim of this study was to explore the inhibition of subcutaneously implanted human pituitary tumor cells in nude mice by LRIG1 and its mechanism. For this study, athymic nude mice were injected with either normal pituitary tumor RC-4B/C cells or LRIG1-transfected RC-4B/C cells. We then calculated the volume inhibition rate of the tumors, as well as the apoptosis index of tumor cells and the expression of Ras, Raf, AKt, and ERK mRNA in tumor cells. Tumor cell morphological and structural changes were also observed under electron microscope. Our data showed that subcutaneous tumor growth was slowed or even halted in LRIG1-transfected tumors. The tumor volumes were significantly different between the two groups of mice (χ2 = 2.14, P < 0.05). The tumor apoptosis index was found to be 8.72% in the control group and 39.7% in LRIG1-transfected mice (χ2 = 7.59, P < 0.05). The levels of Ras, Raf, and AKt mRNA in LRIG1-transfected RC-4B/C cells were significantly reduced after transfection (P < 0.01). Transfected subcutaneous tumor cells appeared to be in early or late apoptosis under an electron microscope, while only a few subcutaneous tumor cells appeared to be undergoing apoptosis in the control group. In conclusion, the LRIG1 gene is able to inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis in subcutaneously implanted human pituitary tumors in nude mice. The mechanism of LRIG1 may involve the inhibition of the PI3K/ Akt and Ras/Raf/ERK signal transduction pathways.

  9. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase-transduced human cytotoxic T cells suppress the growth of human melanoma in immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed

    Verra, Natascha C V; Jorritsma, Annelies; Weijer, Kees; Ruizendaal, Janneke J; Voordouw, Arie; Weder, Pauline; Hooijberg, Erik; Schumacher, Ton N M; Haanen, John B A G; Spits, Hergen; Luiten, Rosalie M

    2004-03-15

    Immunotherapy of melanoma by adoptive transfer of tumor-reactive T lymphocytes aims at increasing the number of activated effectors at the tumor site that can mediate tumor regression. The limited life span of human T lymphocytes, however, hampers obtaining sufficient cells for adoptive transfer therapy. We have shown previously that the life span of human T cells can be greatly extended by transduction with the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, without altering antigen specificity or effector function. We developed a murine model to evaluate the efficacy of hTERT-transduced human CTLs with antitumor reactivity to eradicate autologous tumor cells in vivo. We transplanted the human melanoma cell line melAKR or melAKR-Flu, transduced with a retrovirus encoding the influenza virus/HLA-A2 epitope, in RAG-2(-/-) IL-2Rgamma (-/-) double knockout mice. Adoptive transfer of the hTERT-transduced influenza virus-specific CTL clone INFA24 or clone INFA13 inhibited the growth of melAKR-Flu tumors in vivo and not of the parental melAKR melanoma cells. Furthermore, the hTERT-transduced CTL clone INFA13 inhibited tumor growth to the same extent in vivo as the untransduced CTL clone, as determined by in vivo imaging of luciferase gene-transduced melAKR-Flu tumors, indicating that hTERT did not affect the in vivo function of CTL. These results demonstrate that hTERT-transduced human CTLs are capable of mediating antitumor activity in vivo in an antigen-specific manner. hTERT-transduced MART-1-specific CTL clones AKR4D8 and AKR103 inhibited the growth of syngeneic melAKR tumors in vivo. Strikingly, melAKR-Flu cells were equally killed by the MART-1-specific CTL clones and influenza virus-specific CTL clones in vitro, but only influenza-specific CTLs were able to mediate tumor regression in vivo. The influenza-specific CTL clones were found to produce higher levels of IFNgamma on tumor cell recognition than the MART-1-specific CTL clones, which may result from the

  10. Immunomodulating Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 in Mice and in Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Fukuwatari, Yasushi; Okumura, Ko; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Furukawa, Mai; Ohno, Naohito; Mori, Kazu; Gao, Ming; Motoi, Masuro

    2008-01-01

    We performed studies on murine models and human volunteers to examine the immunoenhancing effects of the naturally outdoor-cultivated fruit body of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 (i.e. Agaricus blazei). Antitumor, leukocyte-enhancing, hepatopathy-alleviating and endotoxin shock-alleviating effects were found in mice. In the human study, percentage body fat, percentage visceral fat, blood cholesterol level and blood glucose level were decreased, and natural killer cell activity was increased. Taken together, the results strongly suggest that the A. brasiliensis fruit body is useful as a health-promoting food. PMID:18604247

  11. Targeting breast cancer stem cells by dendritic cell vaccination in humanized mice with breast tumor: preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Phuc Van; Le, Hanh Thi; Vu, Binh Thanh; Pham, Viet Quoc; Le, Phong Minh; Phan, Nhan Lu-Chinh; Trinh, Ngu Van; Nguyen, Huyen Thi-Lam; Nguyen, Sinh Truong; Nguyen, Toan Linh; Phan, Ngoc Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer (BC) is one of the leading cancers in women. Recent progress has enabled BC to be cured with high efficiency. However, late detection or metastatic disease often renders the disease untreatable. Additionally, relapse is the main cause of death in BC patients. Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are considered to cause the development of BC and are thought to be responsible for metastasis and relapse. This study aimed to target BCSCs using dendritic cells (DCs) to treat tumor-bearing humanized mice models. Materials and methods NOD/SCID mice were used to produce the humanized mice by transplantation of human hematopoietic stem cells. Human BCSCs were injected into the mammary fat pad to produce BC humanized mice. Both hematopoietic stem cells and DCs were isolated from the human umbilical cord blood, and immature DCs were produced from cultured mononuclear cells. DCs were matured by BCSC-derived antigen incubation for 48 hours. Mature DCs were vaccinated to BC humanized mice with a dose of 106 cells/mice, and the survival percentage was monitored in both treated and untreated groups. Results The results showed that DC vaccination could target BCSCs and reduce the tumor size and prolong survival. Conclusion These results suggested that targeting BCSCs with DCs is a promising therapy for BC. PMID:27499638

  12. Development of a Zealand white rabbit deposition model to study inhalation anthrax.

    PubMed

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E; Einstein, Daniel R; Kuprat, Andrew P; Corley, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Despite using rabbits in several inhalation exposure experiments to study diseases such as anthrax, there is a lack of understanding regarding deposition characteristics and fate of inhaled particles (bio-aerosols and viruses) in the respiratory tracts of rabbits. Such information allows dosimetric extrapolation to humans to inform human outcomes. The lung geometry of the New Zealand white rabbit (referred to simply as rabbits throughout the article) was constructed using recently acquired scanned images of the conducting airways of rabbits and available information on its acinar region. In addition, functional relationships were developed for the lung and breathing parameters of rabbits as a function of body weight. The lung geometry and breathing parameters were used to extend the existing deposition model for humans and several other species to rabbits. Evaluation of the deposition model for rabbits was made by comparing predictions with available measurements in the literature. Deposition predictions in the lungs of rabbits indicated smaller deposition fractions compared to those found in humans across various particle diameter ranges. The application of the deposition model for rabbits was demonstrated by extrapolating deposition predictions in rabbits to find equivalent human exposure concentrations assuming the same dose-response relationship between the two species. Human equivalent exposure concentration levels were found to be much smaller than those for rabbits.

  13. Development of a Zealand white rabbit deposition model to study inhalation anthrax

    SciTech Connect

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-01-28

    Despite using rabbits in several inhalation exposure experiments to study diseases such as anthrax, there is a lack of understanding regarding deposition characteristics and fate of inhaled particles (bio-aerosols and viruses) in the respiratory tracts of rabbits. Such information allows dosimetric extrapolation to humans to inform human outcomes. The lung geometry of the New Zealand white rabbit (referred to simply as rabbits throughout the article) was constructed using recently acquired scanned images of the conducting airways of rabbits and available information on its acinar region. In addition, functional relationships were developed for the lung and breathing parameters of rabbits as a function of body weight. The lung geometry and breathing parameters were used to extend the existing deposition model for humans and several other species to rabbits. Evaluation of the deposition model for rabbits was made by comparing predictions with available measurements in the literature. Deposition predictions in the lungs of rabbits indicated smaller deposition fractions compared to those found in humans across various particle diameter ranges. The application of the deposition model for rabbits was demonstrated by extrapolating deposition predictions in rabbits to find equivalent human exposure concentrations assuming the same dose-response relationship between the two species. Human equivalent exposure concentration levels were found to be much smaller than those for rabbits.

  14. Faithful expression of the human 5q31 cytokine cluster intransgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Dee A.; Wang, Zhi-En; Symula, Derek J.; McArthur, CliffordJ.; Rubin, Edward M.; Frazer, Kelly A.; Locksley, Richard M.

    1999-12-03

    ILs 4,5, and 13, cardinal cytokines produced by Th2 cells,are coordinately expressed and clustered in the 150-kb syntenic regions on mouse chromosome 11 and human chromosome 5q31. We analyzed two sets of human yeast artificial chromosome transgenic mice that contained the5931cytokines to assess whether conserved sequences required for their coordinate and cell-specific regulation are contained within the cytokine cluster itself. Human Il-4, IL-13, and Il-5 were expressed under Th2, but not Th1, conditions in vitro. Each of these cytokines was produced during infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, a Th2 inducing stimulus, and human Il-4 was generated after activation of NK T cells in vivo.Consistently fewer cells produced the endogenous mouse cytokines in transgenic than in control mice, suggesting competition for stable expression between the mouse and human genes. These data imply the existence of both conserved trans-activating factors and cis-regulatory elements that underlie the coordinate expression and lineage specificity of the type 2 ctyokine genes in lymphocytes.

  15. Modeling recent human evolution in mice by expression of a selected EDAR variant

    PubMed Central

    Kamberov, Yana G.; Wang, Sijia; Tan, Jingze; Gerbault, Pascale; Wark, Abigail; Tan, Longzhi; Yang, Yajun; Li, Shilin; Tang, Kun; Chen, Hua; Powell, Adam; Itan, Yuval; Fuller, Dorian; Lohmueller, Jason; Mao, Junhao; Schachar, Asa; Paymer, Madeline; Hostetter, Elizabeth; Byrne, Elizabeth; Burnett, Melissa; McMahon, Andrew P.; Thomas, Mark G.; Lieberman, Daniel E.; Jin, Li; Tabin, Clifford J.; Morgan, Bruce A.; Sabeti, Pardis C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary An adaptive variant of the human Ectodysplasin receptor, EDARV370A, is one of the strongest candidates of recent positive selection from genome-wide scans. We have modeled EDAR370A in mice and characterized its phenotype and evolutionary origins in humans. Our computational analysis suggests the allele arose in Central China approximately 30,000 years ago. Although EDAR370A has been associated with increased scalp hair thickness and changed tooth morphology in humans, its direct biological significance and potential adaptive role remain unclear. We generated a knock-in mouse model and find that, as in humans, hair thickness is increased in EDAR370A mice. We identify novel biological targets affected by the mutation, including mammary and eccrine glands. Building on these results, we find that EDAR370A is associated with an increased number of active eccrine glands in the Han Chinese. This interdisciplinary approach yields unique insight into the generation of adaptive variation among modern humans. PMID:23415220

  16. Global metabolite profiling of human colorectal cancer xenografts in mice using HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Neil J; Lai, Lindsay; Wilkinson, Robert W; Odedra, Rajesh; Wilson, Ian D; Barnes, Alan J

    2013-06-07

    Reversed-phase gradient LC-MS was used to perform untargeted metabonomic analysis on extracts of human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines (COLO 205, HT-29, HCT 116 and SW620) subcutaneously implanted into age-matched athymic nude male mice to study small molecule metabolic profiles and examine possible correlations with human cancer biopsies. Following high mass accuracy data analysis using MS and MS/MS, metabolites were identified by searching against major metabolite databases including METLIN, MASSBANK, The Human Metabolome Database, PubChem, Biospider, LipidMaps and KEGG. HT-29 and COLO 205 tumor xenografts showed a distribution of metabolites that differed from SW620 and HCT 116 xenografts (predominantly on the basis of relative differences in the amounts of amino acids and lipids detected). This finding is consistent with NMR-based analysis of human colorectal tissue, where the metabolite profiles of HT-29 tumors exhibit the greatest similarity to human rectal cancer tissue with respect to changes in the relative amounts of lipids and choline-containing compounds. As the metabolic signatures of cancer cells result from oncogene-directed metabolic reprogramming, the HT-29 xenografts in mice may prove to be a useful model to further study the tumor microenvironment and cancer biology.

  17. Pregnane X Receptor–Humanized Mice Recapitulate Gender Differences in Ethanol Metabolism but Not Hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Spruiell, Krisstonia; Gyamfi, Afua A.; Yeyeodu, Susan T.; Richardson, Ricardo M.; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Both human and rodent females are more susceptible to developing alcoholic liver disease following chronic ethanol (EtOH) ingestion. However, little is known about the relative effects of acute EtOH exposure on hepatotoxicity in female versus male mice. The nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR; NR1I2) is a broad-specificity sensor with species-specific responses to toxic agents. To examine the effects of the human PXR on acute EtOH toxicity, the responses of male and female PXR-humanized (hPXR) transgenic mice administered oral binge EtOH (4.5 g/kg) were analyzed. Basal differences were observed between hPXR males and females in which females expressed higher levels of two principal enzymes responsible for EtOH metabolism, alcohol dehydrogenase 1 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, and two key mediators of hepatocyte replication and repair, cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. EtOH ingestion upregulated hepatic estrogen receptor α, cyclin D1, and CYP2E1 in both genders, but differentially altered lipid and EtOH metabolism. Consistent with higher basal levels of EtOH-metabolizing enzymes, blood EtOH was more rapidly cleared in hPXR females. These factors combined to provide greater protection against EtOH-induced liver injury in female hPXR mice, as revealed by markers for liver damage, lipid peroxidation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. These results indicate that female hPXR mice are less susceptible to acute binge EtOH-induced hepatotoxicity than their male counterparts, due at least in part to the relative suppression of cellular stress and enhanced expression of enzymes involved in both EtOH metabolism and hepatocyte proliferation and repair in hPXR females. PMID:26159875

  18. P-Selectin preserves immune tolerance in mice and is reduced in human cutaneous lupus

    PubMed Central

    González-Tajuelo, Rafael; Silván, Javier; Pérez-Frías, Alicia; de la Fuente-Fernández, María; Tejedor, Reyes; Espartero-Santos, Marina; Vicente-Rabaneda, Esther; Juarranz, Ángeles; Muñoz-Calleja, Cecilia; Castañeda, Santos; Gamallo, Carlos; Urzainqui, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Mice deficient in P-Selectin presented altered immunity/tolerance balance. We have observed that the absence of P-Selectin promotes splenomegaly with reduced naïve T cell population, elevated activated/effector T cell subset, increased germinal center B and Tfh populations and high production of autoreactive antibodies. Moreover, 1.5-3-month-old P-selectin KO mice showed reduced IL-10-producing leukocytes in blood and a slightly reduced Treg population in the skin. With aging and, coinciding with disease severity, there is an increase in the IL17+ circulating and dermal T cell subpopulations and reduction of dermal Treg. As a consequence, P-Selectin deficient mice developed a progressive autoimmune syndrome showing skin alterations characteristic of lupus prone mice and elevated circulating autoantibodies, including anti-dsDNA. Similar to human SLE, disease pathogenesis was characterized by deposition of immune complexes in the dermoepidermal junction and renal glomeruli, and a complex pattern of autoantibodies. More important, skin biopsies of cutaneous lupus erythematosus patients did not show increased expression of P-Selectin, as described for other inflammatory diseases, and the number of vessels expressing P-Selectin was reduced. PMID:28150814

  19. P-Selectin preserves immune tolerance in mice and is reduced in human cutaneous lupus.

    PubMed

    González-Tajuelo, Rafael; Silván, Javier; Pérez-Frías, Alicia; de la Fuente-Fernández, María; Tejedor, Reyes; Espartero-Santos, Marina; Vicente-Rabaneda, Esther; Juarranz, Ángeles; Muñoz-Calleja, Cecilia; Castañeda, Santos; Gamallo, Carlos; Urzainqui, Ana

    2017-02-02

    Mice deficient in P-Selectin presented altered immunity/tolerance balance. We have observed that the absence of P-Selectin promotes splenomegaly with reduced naïve T cell population, elevated activated/effector T cell subset, increased germinal center B and Tfh populations and high production of autoreactive antibodies. Moreover, 1.5-3-month-old P-selectin KO mice showed reduced IL-10-producing leukocytes in blood and a slightly reduced Treg population in the skin. With aging and, coinciding with disease severity, there is an increase in the IL17(+) circulating and dermal T cell subpopulations and reduction of dermal Treg. As a consequence, P-Selectin deficient mice developed a progressive autoimmune syndrome showing skin alterations characteristic of lupus prone mice and elevated circulating autoantibodies, including anti-dsDNA. Similar to human SLE, disease pathogenesis was characterized by deposition of immune complexes in the dermoepidermal junction and renal glomeruli, and a complex pattern of autoantibodies. More important, skin biopsies of cutaneous lupus erythematosus patients did not show increased expression of P-Selectin, as described for other inflammatory diseases, and the number of vessels expressing P-Selectin was reduced.

  20. Infectious Chikungunya Virus in the Saliva of Mice, Monkeys and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Joy; Rudd, Penny A.; Prow, Natalie A.; Belarbi, Essia; Roques, Pierre; Larcher, Thibaut; Gresh, Lionel; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Schroder, Wayne A.; Suhrbier, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging, ordinarily mosquito-transmitted, alphavirus that occasionally produces hemorrhagic manifestations, such as nose bleed and bleeding gums, in human patients. Interferon response factor 3 and 7 deficient (IRF3/7-/-) mice, which are deficient for interferon α/β responses, reliably develop hemorrhagic manifestations after CHIKV infection. Here we show that infectious virus was present in the oral cavity of CHIKV infected IRF3/7-/- mice, likely due to hemorrhagic lesions in the olfactory epithelium that allow egress of infected blood into the nasal, and subsequently, oral cavities. In addition, IRF3/7-/- mice were more susceptible to infection with CHIKV via intranasal and oral routes, with IRF3/7-/- mice also able to transmit virus mouse-to-mouse without an arthropod vector. Cynomolgus macaques often show bleeding gums after CHIKV infection, and analysis of saliva from several infected monkeys also revealed the presence of viral RNA and infectious virus. Furthermore, saliva samples collected from several acute CHIKV patients with hemorrhagic manifestations were found to contain viral RNA and infectious virus. Oral fluids can therefore be infectious during acute CHIKV infections, likely due to hemorrhagic manifestations in the oral/nasal cavities. PMID:26447467

  1. Foxc1 Ablated Mice Are Anhidrotic and Recapitulate Features of Human Miliaria Sweat Retention Disorder.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chang-Yi; Ishii, Ryuga; Campbell, Dean P; Michel, Marc; Piao, Yulan; Kume, Tsutomu; Schlessinger, David

    2017-01-01

    Sweat glands are critical for thermoregulation. The single tubular structure of sweat glands has a lower secretory portion and an upper reabsorptive duct leading to the secretory pore in the skin. Genes that determine sweat gland structure and function are largely unidentified. Here we report that a Fox family transcription factor, Foxc1, is obligate for appreciable sweat duct activity in mice. When Foxc1 was specifically ablated in skin, sweat glands appeared mature, but the mice were severely hypohidrotic. Morphologic analysis revealed that sweat ducts were blocked by hyperkeratotic or parakeratotic plugs. Consequently, lumens in ducts and secretory portions were dilated, and blisters and papules formed on the skin surface in the knockout mice. The phenotype was strikingly similar to the human sweat retention disorder miliaria. We further show that Foxc1 deficiency ectopically induces the expression of keratinocyte terminal differentiation markers in the duct luminal cells, which most likely contribute to keratotic plug formation. Among those differentiation markers, we show that Sprr2a transcription is directly repressed by overexpressed Foxc1 in keratinocytes. In summary, Foxc1 regulates sweat duct luminal cell differentiation, and mutant mice mimic miliaria and provide a possible animal model for its study.

  2. Infectious Chikungunya Virus in the Saliva of Mice, Monkeys and Humans.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Joy; Rudd, Penny A; Prow, Natalie A; Belarbi, Essia; Roques, Pierre; Larcher, Thibaut; Gresh, Lionel; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Schroder, Wayne A; Suhrbier, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging, ordinarily mosquito-transmitted, alphavirus that occasionally produces hemorrhagic manifestations, such as nose bleed and bleeding gums, in human patients. Interferon response factor 3 and 7 deficient (IRF3/7-/-) mice, which are deficient for interferon α/β responses, reliably develop hemorrhagic manifestations after CHIKV infection. Here we show that infectious virus was present in the oral cavity of CHIKV infected IRF3/7-/- mice, likely due to hemorrhagic lesions in the olfactory epithelium that allow egress of infected blood into the nasal, and subsequently, oral cavities. In addition, IRF3/7-/- mice were more susceptible to infection with CHIKV via intranasal and oral routes, with IRF3/7-/- mice also able to transmit virus mouse-to-mouse without an arthropod vector. Cynomolgus macaques often show bleeding gums after CHIKV infection, and analysis of saliva from several infected monkeys also revealed the presence of viral RNA and infectious virus. Furthermore, saliva samples collected from several acute CHIKV patients with hemorrhagic manifestations were found to contain viral RNA and infectious virus. Oral fluids can therefore be infectious during acute CHIKV infections, likely due to hemorrhagic manifestations in the oral/nasal cavities.

  3. Transgenic mice carrying the human poliovirus receptor: new animal models for study of poliovirus neurovirulence.

    PubMed Central

    Horie, H; Koike, S; Kurata, T; Sato-Yoshida, Y; Ise, I; Ota, Y; Abe, S; Hioki, K; Kato, H; Taya, C

    1994-01-01

    Recombinant viruses between the virulent Mahoney and attenuated Sabin 1 strains of poliovirus type 1 were subjected to neurovirulence tests using a transgenic (Tg) mouse line, ICR-PVRTg1, that carried the human poliovirus receptor gene. The Tg mice were inoculated intracerebrally with these recombinant viruses and observed for clinical signs, histopathological lesions, and viral antigens as parameters of neurovirulence of the viruses. These parameters observed in the Tg mice were different for different inoculated viruses. Dose-dependent incidences of paralysis and of death were observed in the Tg mice inoculated with any viruses used. This indicates that values of 50% lethal dose are useful to score a wide range of neurovirulence of poliovirus. The neurovirulence of individual viruses estimated by the Tg mouse model had a strong correlation with those estimated by monkey model. Consequently, the mouse tests identified the neurovirulence determinants on the genome of poliovirus that had been identified by monkey tests. In addition, the mouse tests revealed new neurovirulence determinants, that is, different nucleotides between the two strains at positions 189 and 21 and/or 935 in the 5'-proximal 1,122 nucleotides. The Tg mice used in this study may be suitable for replacing monkeys for investigating poliovirus neurovirulence. Images PMID:8289371

  4. Three-dimensional bioprinting of multilayered constructs containing human mesenchymal stromal cells for osteochondral tissue regeneration in the rabbit knee joint.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jin-Hyung; Jang, Ki-Mo; Hahn, Sei Kwang; Park, Ju Young; Jung, Hyuntae; Oh, Kyunghoon; Park, Kyeng Min; Yeom, Junseok; Park, Sun Hwa; Kim, Sung Won; Wang, Joon Ho; Kim, Kimoon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-02-04

    The use of cell-rich hydrogels for three-dimensional (3D) cell culture has shown great potential for a variety of biomedical applications. However, the fabrication of appropriate constructs has been challenging. In this study, we describe a 3D printing process for the preparation of a multilayered 3D construct containing human mesenchymal stromal cells with a hydrogel comprised of atelocollagen and supramolecular hyaluronic acid (HA). This construct showed outstanding regenerative ability for the reconstruction of an osteochondral tissue in the knee joints of rabbits. We found that the use of a mechanically stable, host-guest chemistry-based hydrogel was essential and allowed two different types of extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogels to be easily printed and stacked into one multilayered construct without requiring the use of potentially harmful chemical reagents or physical stimuli for post-crosslinking. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to validate the potential of a 3D printed multilayered construct consisting of two different ECM materials (atelocollagen and HA) for heterogeneous tissue regeneration using an in vivo animal model. We believe that this 3D printing-based platform technology can be effectively exploited for regeneration of various heterogeneous tissues as well as osteochondral tissue.

  5. Efficacy of CMX001 as a Prophylactic and Presymptomatic Antiviral Agent in New Zealand White Rabbits Infected with Rabbitpox Virus, a Model for Orthopoxvirus Infections of Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Amanda D.; Adams, Mathew M.; Lampert, Bernhard; Foster, Scott; Lanier, Randall; Robertson, Alice; Painter, George; Moyer, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    CMX001, a lipophilic nucleotide analog formed by covalently linking 3-(hexdecyloxy)propan-1-ol to cidofovir (CDV), is being developed as a treatment for smallpox. CMX001 has dramatically increased potency versus CDV against all dsDNA viruses and, in contrast to CDV, is orally available and has shown no evidence of nephrotoxicity in healthy volunteers or severely ill transplant patients to date. Although smallpox has been eliminated from the environment, treatments are urgently being sought due to the risk of smallpox being used as a bioterrorism agent and for monkeypox virus, a zoonotic disease of Africa, and adverse reactions to smallpox virus vaccinations. In the absence of human cases of smallpox, new treatments must be tested for efficacy in animal models. Here we first review and discuss the rabbitpox virus (RPV) infection of New Zealand White rabbits as a model for smallpox to test the efficacy of CMX001 as a prophylactic and early disease antiviral. Our results should also be applicable to monkeypox virus infections and for treatment of adverse reactions to smallpox vaccination. PMID:21369346

  6. Molecular characterization of Rickettsia rickettsii isolated from human clinical samples and from the rabbit tick Haemaphysalis leporispalustris collected at different geographic zones in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Hun, Laya; Cortés, Ximena; Taylor, Lizeth

    2008-12-01

    Five strains of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae previously isolated from human clinical cases and from the tick Haemaphysalis leporispalustris were used for molecular characterization in this study to establish their genetic relationship compared with the prototype Rickettsia rickettsii strain Sheila Smith. Samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the rickettsial genes gtlA, ompA, and ompB. PCR products of the latter two genes were DNA sequenced and compared with available sequences in GenBank. The ompA partial sequences of the five Costa Rican isolates showed 100% identity to several R. rickettsii sequences available in GenBank, including the sequence of the virulent reference strain Sheila Smith, whereas the ompB partial sequences of the five Costa Rican isolates showed 99.8-100% identity to R. rickettsii sequences from GenBank. This study showed the first molecular detection of R. rickettsii isolates from Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever patients and from the rabbit tick H. leporispalustris in different geographical zones in Costa Rica.

  7. A murine monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody detects a common idiotope on human, mouse and rabbit antibodies to allergen Lol p IV.

    PubMed

    Zhou, E M; Dzuba-Fischer, J M; Rector, E S; Sehon, A H; Kisil, F T

    1991-09-01

    A syngeneic mouse monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody (anti-Id), designated as B1/1, was generated against a monoclonal antibody (MoAb 91) specific for Ryegrass pollen allergen Lol p IV. This anti-Id recognized an idiotope (Id) that was also present on other monoclonal antibodies with the same specificity as MoAb 91. Observations that (i) the anti-Id inhibited the binding of MoAb 91 to Lol p IV and (ii) the Id-anti-Id interaction could be inhibited by Lol p IV indicated that the Id was located within or near the antigen combining site. These properties served to characterize B1/1 as an internal image anti-Id. Evidence that an immune response in different species to Lol p IV elicits the formation of antibodies which express a common Id was provided by the observations that (i) the Id-anti-Id interactions could be inhibited by mouse, human and rabbit antisera to Lol p IV and (ii) the binding of these antisera to Lol p IV could be inhibited by the anti-Id. Interestingly, the internal image anti-Id B1/1 also recognized an Id on a monoclonal antibody which was directed to an epitope of Lol p IV, different from that recognized by MoAb 91.

  8. Enterotoxin Gene Cluster-Encoded SEI and SElN from Staphylococcus aureus Isolates are Crucial for the Induction of Human Blood Cell Proliferation and Pathogenicity in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Roetzer, Andreas; Gruener, Corina S.; Haller, Guenter; Beyerly, John; Model, Nina; Eibl, Martha M.

    2016-01-01

    Among the toxin family of bacterial superantigens, the six members of the enterotoxin gene cluster (egc) seem to have unusual characteristics. They are present in the majority of Staphylococcus aureus strains, but their role in disease remains uncertain. We assessed secretion levels, immunogenicity, and toxicity of native and recombinant egc proteins. After having developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, we found different quantities of egc proteins secreted by bacterial isolates. Supernatants induced proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, purified recombinant egc proteins were shown to have differing superantigenicity potentials. Immunization with identical amounts of all members of egc, and the prominent toxic agent SEB, resulted in neutralizing antisera. Two egc proteins, SEI and SElN, were found to play a predominant role within the cluster. Both displayed the highest potential to activate blood cells, and were essential to be neutralized in supernatants. The application of a supernatant of a strain bearing only egc was sufficient for a lethal outcome in a rabbit model. Again, neutralization of SEI and SElN led to the survival of all tested animals. Finally, nanogram amounts of purified rSEI and rSElN led to lethality in vivo, pointing out the importance of both as virulence determinants among egc superantigens. PMID:27801832

  9. Expression of human protamine P1 in sperm of transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrobek, A.J.; Keith, C.; Stilwell, J.; Lowe, X.; Anderson, G.

    1994-12-31

    Transgenic mice were produced by pronuclear injection with DNA constructs containing human protamine P1 cDNA recombined with a murine protamine P1 promoter, and were identified by PCR. Expression of human P1 was investigated using huplm, a monoclonal antibody specific for human P1, applied to murine testicular cells, smears of epididymal sperm, and smears of detergent-isolated sperm nuclei. Various antibodies and nontransgenic littermates were used as controls. Two male founders (T3 and T7) sired more than five generations of transgenic offspring each with continued expression of human P1 in their sperm. Transgenic animals appear of normal fertility with sperm of typical nuclear morphology. The human P1 transgene was expressed postmeioticly in both lines, as expected. Nearly 100% of sperm of T3 and T7 hemizygotes labeled with huplm, consistent with complete diffusion of human P1 protein through the intercellular bridge of spermatogenic cells. Human P1 labeling of sperm nuclei was not visibly affected by sonication or by treatment with the detergent MATAB or the reducing agent DTT. A third founder female (T5) showed a transmission pattern consistent with insertion of the transgene into an X chromosome; her transgenic offspring expressed human P1 in only a small fraction of sperm. Human P1 transgenes may serve as efficient targets for germinal mutations and transgenicmice may provide promising models for investigating the DNA complexes.

  10. Sleep deprivation impairs performance in the 5-choice continuous performance test: similarities between humans and mice.

    PubMed

    van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Acheson, Dean; Risbrough, Victoria; Drummond, Sean; Geyer, Mark A; Young, Jared W

    2014-03-15

    Several groups undergo extended periods without sleep due to working conditions or mental illness. Such sleep deprivation (SD) can deleteriously affect attentional processes and disrupt work and family functioning. Understanding the biological underpinnings of SD effects may assist in developing sleep therapies and cognitive enhancers. Utilizing cross-species tests of attentional processing in humans and rodents would aid in mechanistic studies examining SD-induced inattention. We assessed the effects of 36h of: (1) Total SD (TSD) in healthy male and female humans (n=50); and (2) REM SD (RSD) in male C57BL/6 mice (n=26) on performance in the cross-species 5-choice continuous performance test (5C-CPT). The 5C-CPT includes target trials on which subjects were required to respond and non-target trials on which subjects were required to inhibit from responding. TSD-induced effects on human psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) were also examined. Effects of SD were also examined on mice split into good and poor performance groups based on pre-deprivation scores. In the human 5C-CPT, TSD decreased hit rate and vigilance with trend-level effects on accuracy. In the PVT, TSD slowed response times and increased lapses. In the mouse 5C-CPT, RSD reduced accuracy and hit rate with trend-level effects on vigilance, primarily in good performers. In conclusion, SD induced impaired 5C-CPT performance in both humans and mice and validates the 5C-CPT as a cross-species translational task. The 5C-CPT can be used to examine mechanisms underlying SD-induced deficits in vigilance and assist in testing putative cognitive enhancers.

  11. INFECTIOUS PAPILLOMATOSIS OF RABBITS

    PubMed Central

    Shope, Richard E.; Hurst, E. Weston

    1933-01-01

    A papilloma has been observed in wild cottontail rabbits and has been found to be transmissible to both wild and domestic rabbits. The clinical and pathological pictures of the condition have been described. It has been found that the causative agent is readily filtrable through Berkefeld but not regularly through Seitz filters, that it stores well in glycerol, that it is still active after heating to 67°C. for 30 minutes, but not after heating to 70°C., and that it exhibits a marked tropism for cutaneous epithelium. The activities and properties of the papilloma-producing agent warrant its classification as a filtrable virus. Rabbits carrying experimentally produced papillomata are partially or completely immune to reinfection and, furthermore, their sera partially or completely neutralize the causative virus. The disease is transmissible in series through wild rabbits and virus of wild rabbit origin is readily transmissible to domestic rabbits, producing in this species papillomata identical in appearance with those found in wild rabbits. However, the condition is not transmissible in series through domestic rabbits. The possible significance of this observation has been discussed. The virus of infectious papillomatosis is not related immunologically to either the virus of infectious fibroma or to that of infectious myxoma of rabbits. PMID:19870219

  12. Use of Humanized Mice to Study the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Koboziev, Iurii; Jones-Hall, Yava; Valentine, John F.; Webb, Cynthia Reinoso; Furr, Kathryn L.; Grisham, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Animal models of disease have been used extensively by the research community for the past several decades to better understand the pathogenesis of different diseases as well as assess the efficacy and toxicity of different therapeutic agents. Retrospective analyses of numerous preclinical intervention studies using mouse models of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases reveal a generalized failure to translate promising interventions or therapeutics into clinically-effective treatments in patients. Although several possible reasons have been suggested to account for this generalized failure to translate therapeutic efficacy from the laboratory bench to the patient’s bedside, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the mouse immune system may not adequately recapitulate the immuno-pathological mechanisms observed in human diseases. Indeed, it is well-known that >80 major differences exist between mouse and human immunology; all of which contribute to significant differences in immune system development, activation and responses to challenges in innate and adaptive immunity. This inconvenient reality has prompted investigators to attempt to humanize the mouse immune system in order to address important, human-specific questions that are impossible to study in patients. The successful long-term engraftment of human hemato-lymphoid cells in mice would provide investigators with a relatively inexpensive, small animal model to study clinically-relevant mechanisms as well as facilitate the evaluation of human-specific therapies in vivo. The discovery that targeted mutation of the IL-2 receptor common gamma chain in lymphopenic mice allows for the long-term engraftment of functional human immune cells has advanced greatly our ability to humanize the mouse immune system. The objective of this review is to present a brief overview of the recent advances that have been made in the development and use of humanized mice with special emphasis on autoimmune and chronic

  13. Adenovirus-Vectored Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies Directed Against gp120 Prevent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Acquisition in Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan; Jackson, Andrew; Beloor, Jagadish; Kumar, Priti; Sutton, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite nearly three decades of research, a safe and effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has yet to be achieved. More recently, the discovery of highly potent anti-gp160 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) has garnered renewed interest in using antibody-based prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. Here, we encoded bNAbs in first-generation adenoviral (ADV) vectors, which have the distinctive features of a large coding capacity and ease of propagation. A single intramuscular injection of ADV-vectorized bNAbs in humanized mice generated high serum levels of bNAbs that provided protection against multiple repeated challenges with a high dose of HIV-1, prevented depletion of peripheral CD4+ T cells, and reduced plasma viral loads to below detection limits. Our results suggest that ADV vectors may be a viable option for the prophylactic and perhaps therapeutic use of bNAbs in humans. PMID:25953321

  14. Transmission electron microscopic observations on ultrastructural alterations in Schistosoma mansoni adult worms recovered from C57BL/6 mice treated with radiation-attenuated vaccine and/or praziquantel in addition to passive immunization with normal and vaccinated rabbit sera against infection.

    PubMed

    El-Shabasy, Eman A; Reda, Enayat S; Abdeen, Sherif H; Said, Ashraf E; Ouhtit, Allal

    2015-04-01

    Although the current treatment of schistosomiasis relies largely on praziquantel (PZQ), it has not been successful in significantly reducing the overall rate of disease cases, one of the suggested reasons being the inevitable resistance to PZQ. Previous studies showed that radiation-attenuated vaccine provides protection against Schistosoma mansoni in a host of various species. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of various vaccination strategies in C57BL/6 mice, including single or multiple vaccination strategy, subcurative dose (20 mg/kg) of PZQ, and a combination of single vaccination with subcurative dose of PZQ. Treatment either with subcurative dose of PZQ or with a single vaccination of attenuated cercariae (500 per mouse), caused significant reduction in total worm burden, hepatic, and intestinal ova counts of 43.03, 73.2, and 59.5 and 37.97, 52.02, and 26.3%, respectively. Furthermore, tegumental changes were observed. In multiple vaccinated group, there was an extensive lysis in tegumental layers. High deformations in gastrodermis, testis cells, vitelline cells, and oocytes were recorded. Also, this study is to explore the role of humoral immunity using highly resistant rabbits that had been exposed to three immunizations with ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated cercariae (8000 per rabbit in each immunization), and their sera were tested for their ability to transfer protection. The reduction in challenge worm burden had reached 32.76-43.64% when compared with recipients of normal serum or no serum. The reduction in hepatic and intestinal ova counts reached to 74.4 and 71.08% in group immunized with vaccinated rabbit sera. Swelling and extensive lysis of tegumental layers, gastrodermis lumen, spermatocytes, and deformation of oocytes were recorded with more severity than that recorded in normal rabbit sera group. Our findings recorded that multiple vaccination strategy is the most effective strategy then passive transfer of vaccinated rabbit. This gives

  15. Chronic wasting disease prions are not transmissible to transgenic mice overexpressing human prion protein.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Malin K; Al-Doujaily, Huda; Sigurdson, Christina J; Glatzel, Markus; O'Malley, Catherine; Powell, Caroline; Asante, Emmanuel A; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Brandner, Sebastian; Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Collinge, John

    2010-10-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease that affects free-ranging and captive cervids, including mule deer, white-tailed deer, Rocky Mountain elk and moose. CWD-infected cervids have been reported in 14 USA states, two Canadian provinces and in South Korea. The possibility of a zoonotic transmission of CWD prions via diet is of particular concern in North America where hunting of cervids is a popular sport. To investigate the potential public health risks posed by CWD prions, we have investigated whether intracerebral inoculation of brain and spinal cord from CWD-infected mule deer transmits prion infection to transgenic mice overexpressing human prion protein with methionine or valine at polymorphic residue 129. These transgenic mice have been utilized in extensive transmission studies of human and animal prion disease and are susceptible to BSE and vCJD prions, allowing comparison with CWD. Here, we show that these mice proved entirely resistant to infection with mule deer CWD prions arguing that the transmission barrier associated with this prion strain/host combination is greater than that observed with classical BSE prions. However, it is possible that CWD may be caused by multiple prion strains. Further studies will be required to evaluate the transmission properties of distinct cervid prion strains as they are characterized.

  16. ISG15 deficiency and increased viral resistance in humans but not mice

    PubMed Central

    Speer, Scott D.; Li, Zhi; Buta, Sofija; Payelle-Brogard, Béatrice; Qian, Li; Vigant, Frederic; Rubino, Erminia; Gardner, Thomas J.; Wedeking, Tim; Hermann, Mark; Duehr, James; Sanal, Ozden; Tezcan, Ilhan; Mansouri, Nahal; Tabarsi, Payam; Mansouri, Davood; Francois-Newton, Véronique; Daussy, Coralie F.; Rodriguez, Marisela R.; Lenschow, Deborah J.; Freiberg, Alexander N.; Tortorella, Domenico; Piehler, Jacob; Lee, Benhur; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Pellegrini, Sandra; Bogunovic, Dusan

    2016-01-01

    ISG15 is an interferon (IFN)-α/β-induced ubiquitin-like protein. It exists as a free molecule, intracellularly and extracellularly, and conjugated to target proteins. Studies in mice have demonstrated a role for Isg15 in antiviral immunity. By contrast, human ISG15 was shown to have critical immune functions, but not in antiviral immunity. Namely, free extracellular ISG15 is crucial in IFN-γ-dependent antimycobacterial immunity, while free intracellular ISG15 is crucial for USP18-mediated downregulation of IFN-α/β signalling. Here we describe ISG15-deficient patients who display no enhanced susceptibility to viruses in vivo, in stark contrast to Isg15-deficient mice. Furthermore, fibroblasts derived from ISG15-deficient patients display enhanced antiviral protection, and expression of ISG15 attenuates viral resistance to WT control levels. The species-specific gain-of-function in antiviral immunity observed in ISG15 deficiency is explained by the requirement of ISG15 to sustain USP18 levels in humans, a mechanism not operating in mice. PMID:27193971

  17. ISG15 deficiency and increased viral resistance in humans but not mice.

    PubMed

    Speer, Scott D; Li, Zhi; Buta, Sofija; Payelle-Brogard, Béatrice; Qian, Li; Vigant, Frederic; Rubino, Erminia; Gardner, Thomas J; Wedeking, Tim; Hermann, Mark; Duehr, James; Sanal, Ozden; Tezcan, Ilhan; Mansouri, Nahal; Tabarsi, Payam; Mansouri, Davood; Francois-Newton, Véronique; Daussy, Coralie F; Rodriguez, Marisela R; Lenschow, Deborah J; Freiberg, Alexander N; Tortorella, Domenico; Piehler, Jacob; Lee, Benhur; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Pellegrini, Sandra; Bogunovic, Dusan

    2016-05-19

    ISG15 is an interferon (IFN)-α/β-induced ubiquitin-like protein. It exists as a free molecule, intracellularly and extracellularly, and conjugated to target proteins. Studies in mice have demonstrated a role for Isg15 in antiviral immunity. By contrast, human ISG15 was shown to have critical immune functions, but not in antiviral immunity. Namely, free extracellular ISG15 is crucial in IFN-γ-dependent antimycobacterial immunity, while free intracellular ISG15 is crucial for USP18-mediated downregulation of IFN-α/β signalling. Here we describe ISG15-deficient patients who display no enhanced susceptibility to viruses in vivo, in stark contrast to Isg15-deficient mice. Furthermore, fibroblasts derived from ISG15-deficient patients display enhanced antiviral protection, and expression of ISG15 attenuates viral resistance to WT control levels. The species-specific gain-of-function in antiviral immunity observed in ISG15 deficiency is explained by the requirement of ISG15 to sustain USP18 levels in humans, a mechanism not operating in mice.

  18. IRF5 governs liver macrophage activation that promotes hepatic fibrosis in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Alzaid, Fawaz; Lagadec, Floriane; Albuquerque, Miguel; Ballaire, Raphaëlle; Orliaguet, Lucie; Hainault, Isabelle; Blugeon, Corinne; Lemoine, Sophie; Lehuen, Agnès; Saliba, David G.; Udalova, Irina A.; Paradis, Valérie; Foufelle, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis arises from inflammation in the liver initiated by resident macrophage activation and massive leukocyte accumulation. Hepatic macrophages hold a central position in maintaining homeostasis in the liver and in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic liver injury linked to fibrogenesis. Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) has recently emerged as an important proinflammatory transcription factor involved in macrophage activation under acute and chronic inflammation. Here, we revealed that IRF5 is significantly induced in liver macrophages from human subjects developing liver fibrosis from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or hepatitis C virus infection. Furthermore, IRF5 expression positively correlated with clinical markers of liver damage, such as plasma transaminase and bilirubin levels. Interestingly, mice lacking IRF5 in myeloid cells (MKO) were protected from hepatic fibrosis induced by metabolic or toxic stresses. Transcriptional reprogramming of macrophages lacking IRF5 was characterized by immunosuppressive and antiapoptotic properties. Consequently, IRF5 MKO mice respond to hepatocellular stress by promoting hepatocyte survival, leading to complete protection from hepatic fibrogenesis. Our findings reveal a regulatory network, governed by IRF5, that mediates hepatocyte death and liver fibrosis in mice and humans. Therefore, modulating IRF5 function may be an attractive approach to experimental therapeutics in fibroinflammatory liver disease. PMID:27942586

  19. Metabolic shifts induced by human H460 cells in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linsheng; Wang, Yaqiong; Zheng, Tian; Cao, Bei; Li, Mengjie; Shi, Jian; Aa, Nan; Wang, Xinwen; Zhao, Chunyan; Aa, Jiye; Wang, Guangji

    2016-03-01

    Tumor markers are most popularly used in diagnosis of various cancers clinically. However, the confounding factors of individual background diversities, such as genetics, food preferences, living styles, physical exercises, etc., greatly challenge the identification of tumor markers. Study of the metabolic impact of inoculated tumors on model animals can facilitate the identification of metabolomic markers relevant to tumor insult. In this study, serum metabolites from nude mice (n = 14) inoculated with human H460 cells (human nonsmall cell lung carcinoma) were profiled using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The mice with inoculated tumors showed an obviously different metabolic pattern from the control; identification of the discriminatory metabolites suggested the metabolic perturbation of free fatty acids, amino acids, glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle turnover. The significantly decreased TCA intermediates, free fatty acids, 3-hydroxybutyric acid and fluctuating amino acids (t-test, p < 0.05) in serum of tumor-bearing mice characterized the metabolic impact of local inoculated H460 tumor cells on the whole system. This indicates that they are candidate metabolomic markers for translational study of lung cancer, clinically.

  20. Species specificity and augmentation of responses to class II major histocompatibility complex molecules in human CD4 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Murine T cell responses to human class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules were shown to be a minimum of 20-70-fold lower than responses to allogeneic molecules. Transgenic mice expressing slightly below normal (75-95%) or very high (250-380%) cell surface levels of human CD4 were utilized to determine whether this was due to a species-specific interaction between murine CD4 and class II molecules. Human CD4 was shown to function in signal transduction events in murine T cells based on the ability of anti-human CD4 antibody to synergize with suboptimal doses of anti-murine CD3 antibody in stimulating T cell proliferation. In mice expressing lower levels of human CD4, T cell responses to human class II molecules were enhanced up to threefold, whereas allogeneic responses were unaltered. In mice expressing high levels of human CD4, responses to human class II molecules were enhanced at least 10-fold, whereas allogeneic responses were between one and three times the level of normal responses. The relatively greater enhancement of the response to human class II molecules in both lines argues for a preferential interaction between human CD4 and human class II molecules. In mice expressing lower levels of human CD4, responses to human class II molecules were blocked by antibodies to CD4 of either species, indicating participation by both molecules. In mice expressing high levels of human CD4, responses to both human and murine class II molecules were almost completely blocked with anti-human CD4 antibody, whereas anti-murine CD4 antibody had no effect. However, anti-murine CD4 continued to synergize with anti-CD3 in stimulating T cell proliferation in these mice. Thus, overexpression of human CD4 selectively impaired the ability of murine CD4 to assist in the process of antigen recognition. The ability of human CD4 to support a strong allogeneic response under these conditions indicates that this molecule can interact with murine class II molecules to a

  1. Rats and mice immunised with chimeric human/mouse proteinase 3 produce autoantibodies to mouse Pr3 and rat granulocytes

    PubMed Central

    van der Geld, Ymke M; Hellmark, Thomas; Selga, Daina; Heeringa, Peter; Huitema, Minke G; Limburg, Pieter C; Kallenberg, Cees G M

    2007-01-01

    Aim In this study, we employed chimeric human/mouse Proteinase 3 (PR3) proteins as tools to induce an autoantibody response to PR3 in rats and mice. Method Rats and mice were immunised with recombinant human PR3 (HPR3), recombinant murine PR3 (mPR3), single chimeric human/mouse PR3 (HHm, HmH, mHH, mmH, mHm, Hmm) or pools of chimeric proteins. Antibodies to mPR3 and HPR3 were measured by ELISA. Antibodies to rat PR3 were determined by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on rat white blood cells. Urinalysis was performed by dipstick analysis. Kidney and lung tissue was obtained for pathological examination. Results In mice, immunisation with the chimeric human/mouse PR3 Hmm led to an autoantibody response to mPR3. Rats immunised with the chimeric human/mouse PR3 Hmm, HmH and mmH, or a pool of the chimeric human/mouse PR3 proteins, produced antibodies selectively binding to rat granulocytes as detected by IIF. No gross pathological abnormalities could be detected in kidney or lungs of mice or rats immunised with chimeric human/mouse PR3. Conclusion Immunisation with chimeric human/mouse proteins induces autoantibodies to PR3 in rats and mice. Chimeric proteins can be instrumental in developing experimental models for autoimmune diseases. PMID:17644551

  2. Activation of Notch1 promotes development of human CD8(+) single positive T cells in humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Haji, Yoichi; Suzuki, Makiko; Moriya, Kunihiko; So, Takanori; Hozumi, Katsuto; Mizuma, Masamichi; Unno, Michiaki; Ishii, Naoto

    2014-05-02

    Notch1 mutations are found in more than 50% of human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells. However, the functions of Notch1 for human T cell development and leukemogenesis are not well understood. To examine the role of Notch1, human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which had been transduced with a constitutively active form of Notch1 (ICN1), were transplanted into severely immunodeficient NOD/Shi-scid-IL2rγ(null) (NOG) mice. We found that the great majority of the ICN1-expressing hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow expressed surface markers for T cells, such as CD3, CD4, and CD8, and that this T cell development was independent of the thymus. Accordingly, phenotypically mature CD8(+) single positive (SP) T cells were observed in the spleen. Furthermore, T-ALL developed in one NOG recipient mouse out of 26 that had been secondary transferred with the T cells developed in the first NOG mice. These results indicate that Notch1 signaling in HSCs promotes CD8(+) SP T cell development, and that T cell leukemogenesis may require additional oncogenic factors other than Notch1 activation.

  3. Distinct Differences on Neointima Formation in Immunodeficient and Humanized Mice after Carotid or Femoral Arterial Injury

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Jill; van Ark, Joris; van Dijk, Marcory C.; Greiner, Dale L.; Shultz, Leonard D.; van Goor, Harry; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention is widely adopted to treat patients with coronary artery disease. However, restenosis remains an unsolved clinical problem after vascular interventions. The role of the systemic and local immune response in the development of restenosis is not fully understood. Hence, the aim of the current study was to investigate the role of the human immune system on subsequent neointima formation elicited by vascular injury in a humanized mouse model. Immunodeficient NOD.Cg-PrkdcscidIL2rgtm1Wjl(NSG) mice were reconstituted with human (h)PBMCs immediately after both carotid wire and femoral cuff injury were induced in order to identify how differences in the severity of injury influenced endothelial regeneration, neointima formation, and homing of human inflammatory and progenitor cells. In contrast to non-reconstituted mice, hPBMC reconstitution reduced neointima formation after femoral cuff injury whereas hPBMCs promoted neointima formation after carotid wire injury 4 weeks after induction of injury. Neointimal endothelium and smooth muscle cells in the injured arteries were of mouse origin. Our results indicate that the immune system may differentially respond to arterial injury depending on the severity of injury, which may also be influenced by the intrinsic properties of the arteries themselves, resulting in either minimal or aggravated neointima formation. PMID:27759053

  4. Preconditioning allows engraftment of mouse and human embryonic lung cells, enabling lung repair in mice.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Chava; Shezen, Elias; Aronovich, Anna; Klionsky, Yael Zlotnikov; Yaakov, Yasmin; Assayag, Miri; Biton, Inbal Eti; Tal, Orna; Shakhar, Guy; Ben-Hur, Herzel; Shneider, David; Vaknin, Zvi; Sadan, Oscar; Evron, Shmuel; Freud, Enrique; Shoseyov, David; Wilschanski, Michael; Berkman, Neville; Fibbe, Willem E; Hagin, David; Hillel-Karniel, Carmit; Krentsis, Irit Milman; Bachar-Lustig, Esther; Reisner, Yair

    2015-08-01

    Repair of injured lungs represents a longstanding therapeutic challenge. We show that human and mouse embryonic lung tissue from the canalicular stage of development (20-22 weeks of gestation for humans, and embryonic day 15-16 (E15-E16) for mouse) are enriched with progenitors residing in distinct niches. On the basis of the marked analogy to progenitor niches in bone marrow (BM), we attempted strategies similar to BM transplantation, employing sublethal radiation to vacate lung progenitor niches and to reduce stem cell competition. Intravenous infusion of a single cell suspension of canalicular lung tissue from GFP-marked mice or human fetal donors into naphthalene-injured and irradiated syngeneic or SCID mice, respectively, induced marked long-term lung chimerism. Donor type structures or 'patches' contained epithelial, mesenchymal and endothelial cells. Transplantation of differentially labeled E16 mouse lung cells indicated that these patches were probably of clonal origin from the donor. Recipients of the single cell suspension transplant exhibited marked improvement in lung compliance and tissue damping reflecting the energy dissipation in the lung tissues. Our study provides proof of concept for lung reconstitution by canalicular-stage human lung cells after preconditioning of the pulmonary niche.

  5. ADAM19: A Novel Target for Metabolic Syndrome in Humans and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Weerasekera, Lakshini; Rudnicka, Caroline; Sang, Qing-Xiang; Johnson, Matthew P.; Moses, Eric K.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Blangero, John; Hricova, Jana; Schlaich, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is one of the most prevalent metabolic diseases in the Western world and correlates directly with insulin resistance, which may ultimately culminate in type 2 diabetes (T2D). We sought to ascertain whether the human metalloproteinase A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase 19 (ADAM19) correlates with parameters of the metabolic syndrome in humans and mice. To determine the potential novel role of ADAM19 in the metabolic syndrome, we first conducted microarray studies on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a well-characterised human cohort. Secondly, we examined the expression of ADAM19 in liver and gonadal white adipose tissue using an in vivo diet induced obesity mouse model. Finally, we investigated the effect of neutralising ADAM19 on diet induced weight gain, insulin resistance in vivo, and liver TNF-α levels. Significantly, we show that, in humans, ADAM19 strongly correlates with parameters of the metabolic syndrome, particularly BMI, relative fat, HOMA-IR, and triglycerides. Furthermore, we identified that ADAM19 expression was markedly increased in the liver and gonadal white adipose tissue of obese and T2D mice. Excitingly, we demonstrate in our diet induced obesity mouse model that neutralising ADAM19 therapy results in weight loss, improves insulin sensitivity, and reduces liver TNF-α levels. Our novel data suggest that ADAM19 is pro-obesogenic and enhances insulin resistance. Therefore, neutralisation of ADAM19 may be a potential therapeutic approach to treat obesity and T2D. PMID:28265178

  6. Specific Inflammatory Stimuli Lead to Distinct Platelet Responses in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Lea M.; Clancy, Lauren; Tanriverdi, Kahraman; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Kramer, Carolyn D.; Weinberg, Ellen O.; He, Xianbao; Mekasha, Samrawit; Mick, Eric; Ingalls, Robin R.; Genco, Caroline A.; Freedman, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Diverse and multi-factorial processes contribute to the progression of cardiovascular disease. These processes affect cells involved in the development of this disease in varying ways, ultimately leading to atherothrombosis. The goal of our study was to compare the differential effects of specific stimuli – two bacterial infections and a Western diet – on platelet responses in ApoE-/- mice, specifically examining inflammatory function and gene expression. Results from murine studies were verified using platelets from participants of the Framingham Heart Study (FHS; n = 1819 participants). Methods Blood and spleen samples were collected at weeks 1 and 9 from ApoE-/- mice infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis or Chlamydia pneumoniae and from mice fed a Western diet for 9 weeks. Transcripts based on data from a Western diet in ApoE-/- mice were measured in platelet samples from FHS using high throughput qRT-PCR. Results At week 1, both bacterial infections increased circulating platelet-neutrophil aggregates. At week 9, these cells individually localized to the spleen, while Western diet resulted in increased platelet-neutrophil aggregates in the spleen only. Microarray analysis of platelet RNA from infected or Western diet-fed mice at week 1 and 9 showed differential profiles. Genes, such as Serpina1a, Ttr, Fgg, Rpl21, and Alb, were uniquely affected by infection and diet. Results were reinforced in platelets obtained from participants of the FHS. Conclusion Using both human studies and animal models, results demonstrate that variable sources of inflammatory stimuli have the ability to influence the platelet phenotype in distinct ways, indicative of the diverse function of platelets in thrombosis, hemostasis, and immunity. PMID:26148065

  7. Mice Expressing Mutant Trpv4 Recapitulate the Human TRPV4 Disorders††

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuqing; Lee, Brendan; Cohn, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Activating mutations in TRPV4 are known to cause a spectrum of skeletal dysplasias ranging from autosomal dominant brachyolmia to lethal metatropic dysplasia. To develop an animal model of these disorders, we created transgenic mice expressing either wild-type or mutant TRPV4. Mice transgenic for wild-type Trpv4 showed no morphological changes at embryonic day 16.5, but did have a delay in bone mineralization. Overexpression of a mutant TRPV4 caused a lethal skeletal dysplasia that phenocopied many abnormalities associated with metatropic dysplasia in humans, including dumbbell-shaped long bones, a small ribcage, abnormalities in the autopod, and abnormal ossification in the vertebrae. The difference in phenotype between embryos transgenic for wild-type or mutant Trpv4 demonstrates that an increased amount of wild-type protein can be tolerated and that an activating mutation of this protein is required to produce a skeletal dysplasia phenotype. PMID:24644033

  8. Cystic fibrosis mice carrying the missense mutation G551D replicate human genotype-phenotype correlations.

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, S J; Alton, E W; Smith, S N; Lunn, D P; Farley, R; Lovelock, P K; Thomson, S A; Hume, D A; Lamb, D; Porteous, D J; Dorin, J R; Wainwright, B J

    1996-01-01

    We have generated a mouse carrying the human G551D mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) by a one-step gene targeting procedure. These mutant mice show cystic fibrosis pathology but have a reduced risk of fatal intestinal blockage compared with 'null' mutants, in keeping with the reduced incidence of meconium ileus in G551D patients. The G551D mutant mice show greatly reduced CFTR-related chloride transport, displaying activity intermediate between that of cftr(mlUNC) replacement ('null') and cftr(mlHGU) insertional (residual activity) mutants and equivalent to approximately 4% of wild-type CFTR activity. The long-term survival of these animals should provide an excellent model with which to study cystic fibrosis, and they illustrate the value of mouse models carrying relevant mutations for examining genotype-phenotype correlations. Images PMID:8605891

  9. Human Endometrial Adenocarcinoma Transplanted into Nude Mice: Growth Regulation by Estradiol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyaswaroop, P. G.; Zaino, R. J.; Mortel, R.

    1983-01-01

    A model for studying the growth of primary tumors of human endometrium and its regulation by 17β -estradiol has been developed in which ovariectomized nude mice are used as recipients. The receptors for sex steroids are maintained during serial transplantation of the tumor in this system. Although the rate of growth of receptor-negative endometrial tumors transplanted into ovariectomized nude mice is unaffected by the sustained presence or absence of estradiol, the growth of receptor-positive tumors is significantly increased by estradiol. Receptor-positive tumors treated with estradiol produced elevated concentrations of progesterone receptor. That the progesterone receptor is functional in this tumor is evident from the induction of estradiol 17β -dehydrogenase activity upon progestin administration. These findings are consistent with receptor-mediated regulation of growth of endometrial carcinoma.

  10. Differential expression of anti-glycan antibodies in schistosome-infected humans, rhesus monkeys and mice

    PubMed Central

    Luyai, Anthony E; Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie; Prasanphanich, Nina Salinger; Mickum, Megan L; Lasanajak, Yi; Song, Xuezheng; Nyame, A Kwame; Wilkins, Patricia; Rivera-Marrero, Carlos A; Smith, David F; Van Die, Irma; Secor, W Evan; Cummings, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a debilitating parasitic disease of humans, endemic in tropical areas, for which no vaccine is available. Evidence points to glycan antigens as being important in immune responses to infection. Here we describe our studies on the comparative humoral immune responses to defined schistosome-type glycan epitopes in Schistosoma mansoni-infected humans, rhesus monkeys and mice. Rhesus anti-glycan responses over the course of infection were screened on a defined glycan microarray comprising semi-synthetic glycopeptides terminating with schistosome-associated or control mammalian-type glycan epitopes, as well as a defined glycan microarray of mammalian-type glycans representing over 400 glycan structures. Infected rhesus monkeys generated a high immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response to the core xylose/core α3 fucose epitope of N-glycans, which peaked at 8–11 weeks post infection, coinciding with maximal ability to kill schistosomula in vitro. By contrast, infected humans generated low antibody levels to this epitope. At 18 months following praziquantel therapy to eliminate the parasite, antibody levels were negligible. Mice chronically infected with S. mansoni generated high levels of anti-fucosylated LacdiNAc (GalNAcβ1, 4(Fucα1, 3)GlcNAc) IgM antibodies, but lacked a robust response to the core xylose/core α3 fucose N-glycan antigens compared with other species studied, and their sera demonstrated an intermediate level of schistosomula killing in vitro. These differential responses to parasite glycan antigens may be related to the ability of rhesus monkeys to self-cure in contrast to the chronic infection seen in humans and mice. Our results validate defined glycan microarrays as a useful technology to evaluate diagnostic and vaccine antigens for schistosomiasis and perhaps other infections. PMID:24727442

  11. Inactivation of fatty acid synthase impairs hepatocarcinogenesis driven by AKT in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Pilo, Giulia M.; Li, Xiaolei; Cigliano, Antonio; Latte, Gavinella; Che, Li; Joseph, Christy; Mela, Marta; Wang, Chunmei; Jiang, Lijie; Ribback, Silvia; Simile, Maria M.; Pascale, Rosa M.; Dombrowski, Frank; Evert, Matthias; Semenkovich, Clay F.; Chen, Xin; Calvisi, Diego F.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Cumulating evidence underlines the crucial role of aberrant lipogenesis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we investigated the oncogenic potential of fatty acid synthase (FASN), the master regulator of de novo lipogenesis, in the mouse liver. Methods FASN was overexpressed in the mouse liver, either alone or in combination with activated N-Ras, c-Met, or SCD1, via hydrodynamic injection. Activated AKT