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Sample records for racial discrimination childhood

  1. Parental racial socialization profiles: Association with demographic factors, racial discrimination, childhood socialization, and racial identity.

    PubMed

    White-Johnson, Rhonda L; Ford, Kahlil R; Sellers, Robert M

    2010-04-01

    The authors examined patterns of racial socialization practices in a sample of 212 African American mothers. They investigated the relation between parent profiles of racial socialization messages with child and parent demographic factors and race-related experiences, as well as parent racial identity attitudes. Using latent class analyses, the authors identified 3 patterns of parent-reported racial socialization experiences: multifaceted, low race salience, and unengaged. In general, findings indicate that mothers in the multifaceted profile were more educated, experienced more racial discrimination, and talked about race during their childhood more than mothers in the unengaged profile. The multifaceted profile also differed from the low race salience and unengaged profiles on several racial identity dimensions. Although the patterned approach used in this study lends itself to a more complex study of racial socialization in future research, it also highlights the associations between parent's race-relevant experiences and the messages they communicate to their children about race.

  2. Racial Discrimination, Racial Identity, and Impostor Phenomenon: A Profile Approach.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Donte L; Hoggard, Lori S; Neblett, Enrique W

    2017-04-17

    This study examined the association between racial discrimination and the impostor phenomenon (IP) and the moderating influence of racial identity on this relationship. One hundred fifty-seven African American college students (68% female; mean age = 18.63) completed measures of racial discrimination, racial identity, and IP during 2 waves of data collection. Utilizing latent profile analyses, 4 patterns of racial identity were identified: Undifferentiated, Multiculturalist, Race-Focused, and Humanist. Racial discrimination predicted higher subsequent levels of IP. Racial identity did not moderate the impact of racial discrimination; however, students in the Multiculturalist and Humanist groups reported the lowest and highest levels of IP at Wave 2, respectively. IP is influenced by racial discrimination experiences as well as by the significance and meaning that individuals ascribe to being African American. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Bullying Victimization and Racial Discrimination Among Australian Children.

    PubMed

    Priest, Naomi; King, Tania; Bécares, Laia; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2016-10-01

    To compare the prevalence of bullying victimization and racial discrimination by ethnicity. We completed a cross-sectional analysis of 3956 children aged 12 to 13 years from wave 5 (2011-2012) of the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Bullying victimization and racial discrimination were weakly associated and differently patterned by ethnicity. Children from visible minorities reported less bullying victimization but more racial discrimination than did their peers with Australian-born parents. Indigenous children reported the highest risk of bullying victimization and racial discrimination. Peer victimization and racial discrimination each require specific attention as unique childhood stressors. A focus on general bullying victimization alone may miss unique stress exposures experienced by children from stigmatized ethnic backgrounds.

  4. Racial/Ethnic Workplace Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (p<0.001). In the total sample, discrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232

  5. Racial identity and autonomic responses to racial discrimination.

    PubMed

    Neblett, Enrique W; Roberts, Steven O

    2013-10-01

    Several studies identify racial identity-the significance and meaning that individuals attribute to race-as a mitigating factor in the association between racial discrimination and adjustment. In this study, we employed a visual imagery paradigm to examine whether racial identity would moderate autonomic responses to blatant and subtle racial discrimination analogues with Black and White perpetrators. We recruited 105 African American young adults from a public, southeastern university in the United States. The personal significance of race as well as personal feelings about African Americans and feelings about how others view African Americans moderated autonomic responses to the vignettes. We use polyvagal theory and a stress, appraisal, and coping framework to interpret our results with an eye toward elucidating the ways in which racial identity may inform individual differences in physiological responses to racial discrimination. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Racial Discrimination in the British Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firth, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Contains results of a study of racial discrimination in the British job market for accountants and financial executives. Results show that considerable discrimination remains several years after the adoption of the Race Relations Act of 1968. (CT)

  7. Everyday Racial Discrimination, Everyday Non-racial Discrimination, and Physical Health Among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Mouzon, Dawne M; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Woodward, Amanda; Chatters, Linda M

    2017-01-01

    Past research has identified a link between discrimination and health outcomes among people of color. Perceptions of the cause of discrimination (racial vs. other) seem to be important for mental health; however, this relationship has not been fully examined for physical health. Using data from the National Survey of American Life, we find that, among African Americans, racial discrimination and overall discrimination regardless of attribution are associated with negative health outcomes while non-racial discrimination is not. The results suggest that racial discrimination has a unique adverse effect on physical health for African Americans that practitioners need to better understand.

  8. Associations of racial discrimination and parental discrimination coping messages with African American adolescent racial identity.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M

    2015-06-01

    Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization.

  9. Social Status Correlates of Reporting Racial Discrimination and Gender Discrimination among Racially Diverse Women

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Annie E.; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in Northern California (11.4% African American, 16.8% Latina, 10.1% Asian and 61.7% Caucasian). A multivariate analysis revealed that race, financial difficulty and marital status were significantly correlated with higher reports of racial discrimination, while race, education, financial difficulty and nativity were significantly correlated with gender discrimination scores. Our findings suggest that the social patterning of perceiving racial discrimination is somewhat different from that of gender discrimination. This has implications in the realm of discrimination research and applied interventions, as different forms of discrimination may have unique covariates that should be accounted for in research analysis or program design. PMID:19485231

  10. A Longitudinal Examination of Racial Identity and Racial Discrimination among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany; Sellers, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the longitudinal association between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity among a sample of 219 African American adolescents, aged 14 to 18. Structural equation modeling was used to test relations between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity dimensions, namely, racial centrality, private…

  11. Racial Discrimination, Cultural Resilience, and Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn; George, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Racial discrimination is a social determinant of health for First Nations people. Cultural resilience has been regarded as a potentially positive resource for social outcomes. Using a compensatory model of resilience, this study sought to determine if cultural resilience (compensatory factor) neutralized or offset the detrimental effect of racial discrimination (social risk factor) on stress (outcome). Methods: Data were collected from October 2012 to February 2013 (N = 340) from adult members of the Kettle and Stony Point First Nation community in Ontario, Canada. The outcome was perceived stress; risk factor, racial discrimination; and compensatory factor, cultural resilience. Control variables included individual (education, sociability) and family (marital status, socioeconomic status) resilience resources and demographics (age and gender). The model was tested using sequential regression. Results: The risk factor, racial discrimination, increased stress across steps of the sequential model, while cultural resilience had an opposite modest effect on stress levels. In the final model with all variables, age and gender were significant, with the former having a negative effect on stress and women reporting higher levels of stress than males. Education, marital status, and socioeconomic status (household income) were not significant in the model. The model had R2 = 0.21 and adjusted R2 = 0.18 and semipartial correlation (squared) of 0.04 and 0.01 for racial discrimination and cultural resilience, respectively. Conclusions: In this study, cultural resilience compensated for the detrimental effect of racial discrimination on stress in a modest manner. These findings may support the development of programs and services fostering First Nations culture, pending further study. PMID:27254805

  12. Racial Discrimination, Cultural Resilience, and Stress.

    PubMed

    Spence, Nicholas D; Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn; George, Julie

    2016-05-01

    Racial discrimination is a social determinant of health for First Nations people. Cultural resilience has been regarded as a potentially positive resource for social outcomes. Using a compensatory model of resilience, this study sought to determine if cultural resilience (compensatory factor) neutralized or offset the detrimental effect of racial discrimination (social risk factor) on stress (outcome). Data were collected from October 2012 to February 2013 (N = 340) from adult members of the Kettle and Stony Point First Nation community in Ontario, Canada. The outcome was perceived stress; risk factor, racial discrimination; and compensatory factor, cultural resilience. Control variables included individual (education, sociability) and family (marital status, socioeconomic status) resilience resources and demographics (age and gender). The model was tested using sequential regression. The risk factor, racial discrimination, increased stress across steps of the sequential model, while cultural resilience had an opposite modest effect on stress levels. In the final model with all variables, age and gender were significant, with the former having a negative effect on stress and women reporting higher levels of stress than males. Education, marital status, and socioeconomic status (household income) were not significant in the model. The model had R(2) = 0.21 and adjusted R(2) = 0.18 and semipartial correlation (squared) of 0.04 and 0.01 for racial discrimination and cultural resilience, respectively. In this study, cultural resilience compensated for the detrimental effect of racial discrimination on stress in a modest manner. These findings may support the development of programs and services fostering First Nations culture, pending further study. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. [Access to health care and racial discrimination].

    PubMed

    Carde, Estelle

    2007-01-01

    Discrimination is defined as different, unfavourable and illegitimate treatment. This post-doctoral research was conducted on racial discrimination, specifically with respect to health care access. The authors observed and questioned during the course of semi-directed interviews, 175 health care professionals on-site at their workplaces (administrators, care providers, social workers) in metropolitan France and French Guiana. Based on a qualitative analysis of this material, three types of discriminatory practices were identified. The first two were rooted in the individual professional's perception of the patient's racial origin (illegitimatising and differentiation). The third was ingrained in institutional logic independent of the professionals' intentions (indirect discrimination). The article concludes with a series of recommendations which aim to combat these types of discrimination.

  14. Black Canadians' Coping Responses to Racial Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Justine; Kuo, Ben C. H.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of a cultural coping framework, the present study examined coping responses to racial discrimination among 190 Black Canadians. The study assessed the respondents' coping with both general (i.e., problem- and emotion-focused coping) and Africultural coping strategies (i.e., spiritual-centered, collective, and ritual-centered coping)…

  15. Black Canadians' Coping Responses to Racial Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Justine; Kuo, Ben C. H.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of a cultural coping framework, the present study examined coping responses to racial discrimination among 190 Black Canadians. The study assessed the respondents' coping with both general (i.e., problem- and emotion-focused coping) and Africultural coping strategies (i.e., spiritual-centered, collective, and ritual-centered coping)…

  16. Racial discrimination and perinatal sleep quality.

    PubMed

    Francis, Brittney; Klebanoff, Mark; Oza-Frank, Reena

    2017-08-01

    This research examined the association between perceived everyday racial discrimination, as a psychosocial stressor, and perinatal sleep quality. Cross-sectional (N=640) and longitudinal associations (N=133) between everyday experiences of discrimination and sleep quality were examined using a pregnancy and postpartum data registry. We studied a sample of 640 unique women from the Perinatal Research Repository (PRR), a longitudinal study of mothers, fathers, and babies recruited from Nationwide Children's Hospital and The Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio. Discrimination and sleep quality were assessed using the Experiences of Discrimination Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, respectively. Overall, everyday discrimination was associated with poorer global sleep quality and all but three sleep sub-measures of the PSQI cross-sectionally, but not longitudinally. When stratified, the adverse effects of everyday discrimination varied by race and perinatal time period. Increases in everyday discrimination were independently associated with poorer sleep initiation, poorer sleep maintenance and poorer daytime dysfunction. Findings suggest that the immediate stressors of everyday racial discrimination were independently associated with poorer sleep quality among pregnant women cross-sectionally. Poorer sleep quality has been associated with numerous adverse perinatal outcomes and this association may be important in understanding racial discrimination as a risk factor. Our failure to identify a longitudinal association makes the direction of causation uncertain, however. Further longitudinal studies are necessary to clarify the association, given the potential importance of poor sleep quality in the pathogenesis of pregnancy complications. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Parental experiences of racial discrimination and youth racial socialization in two-parent African American families.

    PubMed

    McNeil Smith, Shardé; Reynolds, Jamila E; Fincham, Frank D; Beach, Steven R H

    2016-04-01

    Parents experiencing racial discrimination are likely to transmit racial socialization messages to their children to protect them from future injustices. This study was conducted to better understand the role of parents' racial discrimination in their racial socialization practices for 2-parent African American families. Using a sample from the Promoting Strong African American Families (N = 322 couples) program, we examined the effects of experienced discrimination on one's own and one's partner's racial socialization practices with male (n = 154) and female (n = 168) offspring. Multiple-group actor-partner interdependence models showed that racial discrimination was associated with racial socialization practices. In addition, maternal experiences of discrimination had stronger relations to socialization messages relayed to daughters and greater paternal experiences of discrimination had stronger relations to socialization messages given to sons. This study demonstrates variability in how male and female children in African American families are socialized as a result of their parents' experiences with racial discrimination. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Perceived racial discrimination and racial identity profiles among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Eleanor K

    2009-04-01

    The present study examined the relation between multiple types of racial discrimination and psychological well-being across racial identity profiles. A sample of 322 African American adolescents completed measures of racial identity, racial discrimination, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Cluster analyses were conducted to create previously identified racial identity profiles and 3 were evident: Buffering/Defensive, Alienated, and Idealized. The racial identity profiles moderated the relation between perceptions of racial discrimination and psychological well-being such that perceptions of racial discrimination were linked to higher levels of depressive symptoms for Alienated youth but not for Buffering/Defensive or Idealized youth. The implications for the racial discrimination literature among African American adolescents are discussed.

  19. Impulsivity moderates the association between racial discrimination and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Latzman, Robert D; Chan, Wing Yi; Shishido, Yuri

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol use among university students is a serious public health concern, particularly among minority students who may use alcohol to cope with experiences of racial discrimination. Although the impact of racial discrimination on alcohol use has been well-established, individual differences in factors that may act to either attenuate or exacerbate the negative effects of racial discrimination are largely unknown. One potentially fruitful individual differences trait that has repeatedly been found to predict alcohol problems is the multidimensional personality trait of impulsivity. Nonetheless, the ways in which various aspects of impulsivity interact with racial discrimination is yet unknown. The current study, therefore, examined the joint and interactive contribution of racial discrimination and impulsivity in the prediction of alcohol consumption among racial minority university students. Participants included 336 Black/African-American and Asian/Asian-American university students. Results revealed both racial discrimination and impulsivity to be significantly associated with alcohol problems. Further, individuals' responses to racial discrimination were not uniform. Specifically, the association between racial discrimination and alcohol problems was moderated by lack of Premeditation; racial discrimination was most strongly predictive of alcohol problems for those who reported low level of premeditation. Findings from the present study highlight the importance of investigating risk factors for alcohol problems across multiple levels of the ecology as individual personality traits appear to relate to how one might respond to the experience of racial discrimination. © 2013.

  20. A Longitudinal Examination of Racial Identity and Racial Discrimination Among African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany; Sellers, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the longitudinal association between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity among a sample of 219 African American adolescents, aged 14 to 18. Structural equation modeling was used to test relations between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity dimensions, namely racial centrality, private regard, and public regard at three time points. The results indicated that perceived racial discrimination at Time 1 was negatively linked to public regard at Time 2. Nested analyses using age were conducted and perceptions of racial discrimination at Time 2 were negatively linked to private regard at Time 3 among older adolescents. The findings imply that perceived racial discrimination is linked to negative views that the broader society has of African Americans. PMID:19467000

  1. Racial Identity Matters: The Relationship between Racial Discrimination and Psychological Functioning in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Robert M.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Martin, Pamela P.; Lewis, R. L'Heureux

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the interrelationships among racial discrimination, racial identity, and psychological functioning in a sample of 314 African American adolescents. Racial discrimination was associated with lower levels of psychological functioning as measured by perceived stress, depressive symptomatology, and psychological well-being.…

  2. The Influence of Racial Identity Profiles on the Relationship between Racial Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Kira Hudson; Kohn-Wood, Laura P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the association between racial identity profiles, discrimination, and mental health outcomes. African American college students (N = 194) completed measures of racial discrimination, racial identity, college hassles, and depressive symptoms. Four meaningful profiles emerged through a cluster analysis of seven dimensions of…

  3. Racial Discrimination and Racial Socialization as Predictors of African American Adolescents’ Racial Identity Development using Latent Transition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio; Sellers, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined perceptions of racial discrimination and racial socialization on racial identity development among 566 African American adolescents over three years. Latent class analyses were used to estimate identity statuses (Diffuse, Foreclosed, Moratorium and Achieved). The probabilities of transitioning from one stage to another were examined with latent transition analyses to determine the likelihood of youth progressing, regressing or remaining constant. Racial socialization and perceptions of racial discrimination were examined as covariates to assess the association with changes in racial identity status. The results indicated that perceptions of racial discrimination were not linked to any changes in racial identity. Youth who reported higher levels of racial socialization were less likely to be in Diffuse or Foreclosed compared to the Achieved group. PMID:21875184

  4. Racial discrimination and racial socialization as predictors of African American adolescents' racial identity development using latent transition analysis.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Eleanor K; Yip, Tiffany; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio; Sellers, Robert M

    2012-03-01

    The present study examined perceptions of racial discrimination and racial socialization on racial identity development among 566 African American adolescents over 3 years. Latent class analyses were used to estimate identity statuses (Diffuse, Foreclosed, Moratorium, and Achieved). The probabilities of transitioning from one stage to another were examined with latent transition analyses to determine the likelihood of youth progressing, regressing, or remaining constant. Racial socialization and perceptions of racial discrimination were examined as covariates to assess the association with changes in racial identity status. The results indicated that perceptions of racial discrimination were not linked to any changes in racial identity. Youth who reported higher levels of racial socialization were less likely to be in Diffuse or Foreclosed compared with the Achieved group. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Neighborhood Racial Composition, Racial Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Sharon F.; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2015-01-01

    While evidence indicates that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African Americans, there is little research investigating predictors of experienced racial discrimination. This paper examines neighborhood racial composition and sociodemographic factors as antecedents to experienced racial discrimination and resultant levels of depressive symptoms among African American adults. The sample included 505 socioeconomically-diverse African American adults from Baltimore, MD. Study data were obtained via self-report and geocoding of participant addresses based on 2010 census data. Study hypotheses were tested using multiple pathways within a longitudinal Structural Equation Model. Experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with age and sex such that older individuals and males experienced increased levels of racial discrimination. In addition, the percentage of White individuals residing in a neighborhood was positively associated with levels of experienced racial discrimination for African American neighborhood residents. Experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with later depressive symptoms. Neighborhood-level contextual factors such as neighborhood racial composition and individual differences in sociodemographic characteristics appear to play an important role in the experience of racial discrimination and the etiology of depression in African American adults. PMID:24969707

  6. Neighborhood racial composition, racial discrimination, and depressive symptoms in African Americans.

    PubMed

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2014-12-01

    While evidence indicates that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African Americans, there is little research investigating predictors of experienced racial discrimination. This paper examines neighborhood racial composition and sociodemographic factors as antecedents to experienced racial discrimination and resultant levels of depressive symptoms among African American adults. The sample included 505 socioeconomically-diverse African American adults from Baltimore, MD. Study data were obtained via self-report and geocoding of participant addresses based on 2010 census data. Study hypotheses were tested using multiple pathways within a longitudinal Structural Equation Model. Experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with age and sex such that older individuals and males experienced increased levels of racial discrimination. In addition, the percentage of White individuals residing in a neighborhood was positively associated with levels of experienced racial discrimination for African American neighborhood residents. Experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with later depressive symptoms. Neighborhood-level contextual factors such as neighborhood racial composition and individual differences in sociodemographic characteristics appear to play an important role in the experience of racial discrimination and the etiology of depression in African American adults.

  7. Estimating the mental health costs of racial discrimination.

    PubMed

    Elias, Amanuel; Paradies, Yin

    2016-11-29

    Racial discrimination is a pervasive social problem in several advanced countries such as the U.S., U.K., and Australia. Public health research also indicates a range of associations between exposure to racial discrimination and negative health, particularly, mental health including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the direct negative health impact of racial discrimination has not been costed so far although economists have previously estimated indirect non-health related productivity costs. In this study, we estimate the burden of disease due to exposure to racial discrimination and measure the cost of this exposure. Using prevalence surveys and data on the association of racial discrimination with health outcomes from a global meta-analysis, we apply a cost of illness method to measure the impact of racial discrimination. This estimate indicates the direct health cost attributable to racial discrimination and we convert the estimates to monetary values based on conventional parameters. Racial discrimination costs the Australian economy 235,452 in disability adjusted life years lost, equivalent to $37.9 billion per annum, roughly 3.02% of annual gross domestic product (GDP) over 2001-11, indicating a sizeable loss for the economy. Substantial cost is incurred due to increased prevalence of racial discrimination as a result of its association with negative health outcomes (e.g. depression, anxiety and PTSD). This implies that potentially significant cost savings can be made through measures that target racial discrimination. Our research contributes to the debate on the social impact of racial discrimination, with implications for policies and efforts addressing it.

  8. Legitimating Racial Discrimination: Emotions, Not Beliefs, Best Predict Discrimination in a Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Talaska, Cara A; Fiske, Susan T; Chaiken, Shelly

    2008-09-01

    Investigations of racial bias have emphasized stereotypes and other beliefs as central explanatory mechanisms and as legitimating discrimination. In recent theory and research, emotional prejudices have emerged as another, more direct predictor of discrimination. A new comprehensive meta-analysis of 57 racial attitude-discrimination studies finds a moderate relationship between overall attitudes and discrimination. Emotional prejudices are twices as closely related to racial discrimination as stereotypes and beliefs are. Moreover, emotional prejudices are closely related to both observed and self-reported discrimination, whereas stereotypes and beliefs are related only to self-reported discrimination. Implications for justifying discrimination are discussed.

  9. Legitimating Racial Discrimination: Emotions, Not Beliefs, Best Predict Discrimination in a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Talaska, Cara A.; Chaiken, Shelly

    2013-01-01

    Investigations of racial bias have emphasized stereotypes and other beliefs as central explanatory mechanisms and as legitimating discrimination. In recent theory and research, emotional prejudices have emerged as another, more direct predictor of discrimination. A new comprehensive meta-analysis of 57 racial attitude-discrimination studies finds a moderate relationship between overall attitudes and discrimination. Emotional prejudices are twices as closely related to racial discrimination as stereotypes and beliefs are. Moreover, emotional prejudices are closely related to both observed and self-reported discrimination, whereas stereotypes and beliefs are related only to self-reported discrimination. Implications for justifying discrimination are discussed. PMID:24052687

  10. Discrimination, Racial Identity, and Cytokine Levels Among African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Low-grade inflammation, measured by circulating levels of cytokines, is a pathogenic mechanism for several chronic diseases of aging. Identifying factors related to inflammation among African American youths may yield insights into mechanisms underlying racial disparities in health. The purpose of the study was to determine whether (a) reported racial discrimination from ages 17 to 19 forecast heightened cytokine levels at age 22, and (b) this association is lower for youths with positive racial identities. Methods A longitudinal research design was used with a community sample of 160 African Americans who were 17 at the beginning of the study. Discrimination and racial identity were measured with questionnaires, and blood was drawn to measure basal cytokine levels. Ordinary least squares regression analyses were used to examine the hypotheses. Results After controlling for socioeconomic risk, life stress, depressive symptoms, and body mass index, racial discrimination (β = .307, p < .01), racial identity (β = −.179, p < .05), and their interaction (β = −.180, p < .05) forecast cytokine levels. Youths exposed to high levels of racial discrimination evinced elevated cytokine levels 3 years later. This association was not significant for young adults with positive racial identities. Conclusions High levels of interpersonal racial discrimination and the development of a positive racial identity operate jointly to determine low-grade inflammation levels that have been found to forecast chronic diseases of aging, such as coronary disease and stroke. PMID:25907649

  11. Prior experiences of racial discrimination and racial differences in health care system distrust.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Katrina; Putt, Mary; Halbert, Chanita H; Grande, David; Schwartz, Jerome Sanford; Liao, Kaijun; Marcus, Noora; Demeter, Mirar B; Shea, Judy A

    2013-02-01

    Factors contributing to racial differences in health care system distrust (HCSD) are currently unknown. Proposed potential contributing factors are prior experiences of racial discrimination and racial residential segregation. Random digit dialing survey of 762 African American and 1267 white adults living in 40 US metropolitan statistical areas. Measures included the Revised Health Care System Distrust scale, the Experiences of Discrimination scale, metrics of access to care, sociodemographic characteristics, and the level of racial residential segregation in the city (using the isolation index). In unadjusted analyses, African Americans had higher levels of HCSD, particularly values distrust, and greater experiences of discrimination. Experience of discrimination was also strongly associated with HCSD. Adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, health care access, and residential segregation had little effect on the association between African American race and overall HCSD or values distrust. In contrast, adjusting for experiences of racial discrimination reversed the association so that distrust was lower among African Americans than whites (odds ratio 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.85 for the overall measure). The Sobel test for mediation was strongly significant (P<0.001). Higher HCSD among African Americans is explained by a greater burden of experiences of racial discrimination than whites. Reasons for higher distrust among whites after adjusting for experiences of racial discrimination are not known. Efforts to eliminate racial discrimination and restore trust given prior discrimination are needed.

  12. Perceived racial discrimination and hypertension: a comprehensive systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dolezsar, Cynthia M; McGrath, Jennifer J; Herzig, Alyssa J M; Miller, Sydney B

    2014-01-01

    Discrimination is posited to underlie racial disparities in hypertension. Extant literature suggests a possible association between racial discrimination and blood pressure, although inconsistent findings have been reported. The aim of this comprehensive systematic review was to quantitatively evaluate the association between perceived racial discrimination with hypertensive status and systolic, diastolic, and ambulatory blood pressure. Electronic database search of PubMed and PsycINFO (keywords: blood pressure/hypertension/diastolic/systolic, racism/discrimination/prejudice/unfair treatment) was combined with descendancy and ascendancy approaches. Forty-four articles (N = 32,651) met inclusion criteria. Articles were coded for demographics, hypertensive diagnosis, blood pressure measurement, discrimination measure and constructs, study quality, and effect sizes. Random effects meta-analytic models were tested based on Fisher's Z, the derived common effect size metric. Overall, perceived racial discrimination was associated with hypertensive status, Zhypertension = 0.048, 95% CI [.013, .087], but not with resting blood pressure, Zsystolic = 0.011, 95% CI [-.006, .031], Zdiastolic = .016, 95% CI [-.006, .034]. Moderators that strengthened the relation included sex (male), race (Black), age (older), education (lower), and hypertensive status. Perceived discrimination was most strongly associated with nighttime ambulatory blood pressure, especially among Blacks. Despite methodological limitations in the existing literature, there was a small, significant association between perceived discrimination and hypertension. Future studies should consider ambulatory nighttime blood pressure, which may more accurately capture daily variation attributable to experienced racial discrimination. Perceived discrimination may partly explain racial health disparities. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Racial Discrimination, John Henryism, and Depression Among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Darrell L.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Geronimus, Arline T.; Jackson, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from previous studies indicates that racial discrimination is significantly associated with depression and that African Americans with higher levels of socioeconomic status (SES) report greater exposure to racial discrimination compared to those with lower SES levels. Coping strategies could alter the relationship between racial discrimination and depression among African Americans. This study first examined whether greater levels of SES were associated with increased reports of racial discrimination and ratings of John Henryism, a measure of high-effort coping, among African Americans. Second, we examined whether high-effort coping moderated the relationship between racial discrimination and depression. Data were drawn from the National Survey of American Life Reinterview (n = 2,137). Analyses indicated that greater levels of education were positively associated with racial discrimination (p < .001) and increased levels of racial discrimination were positively related to depression (p < .001), controlling for all sociodemographic factors. Greater levels of John Henryism were associated with increased odds of depression but there was no evidence to suggest that the relationship between discrimination and depression was altered by the effects of John Henryism. PMID:27529626

  14. Racial Discrimination, John Henryism, and Depression Among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Darrell L; Neighbors, Harold W; Geronimus, Arline T; Jackson, James S

    2016-06-01

    Evidence from previous studies indicates that racial discrimination is significantly associated with depression and that African Americans with higher levels of socioeconomic status (SES) report greater exposure to racial discrimination compared to those with lower SES levels. Coping strategies could alter the relationship between racial discrimination and depression among African Americans. This study first examined whether greater levels of SES were associated with increased reports of racial discrimination and ratings of John Henryism, a measure of high-effort coping, among African Americans. Second, we examined whether high-effort coping moderated the relationship between racial discrimination and depression. Data were drawn from the National Survey of American Life Reinterview (n = 2,137). Analyses indicated that greater levels of education were positively associated with racial discrimination (p < .001) and increased levels of racial discrimination were positively related to depression (p < .001), controlling for all sociodemographic factors. Greater levels of John Henryism were associated with increased odds of depression but there was no evidence to suggest that the relationship between discrimination and depression was altered by the effects of John Henryism.

  15. Racial Discrimination and Adverse Birth Outcomes: An Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Bower, Kelly; Epstein, Elizabeth; Sharps, Phyllis

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This article presents an integrative review of the literature examining the relationship between racial discrimination and adverse birth outcomes. Methods Searches for research studies published from 2009 to 2015 were conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Embase. Articles were assessed for potential inclusion using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2009 framework. Results Fifteen studies met criteria for review. The majority of the studies found a significant relationship between racial discrimination and low birth weight, preterm birth, and small for gestational age. Each of the studies that examined more proximal variables related to birth outcomes such as entry into prenatal care, employment opportunities, neighborhood characteristics, or inflammatory markers found significant associations between the specific variables examined and racial discrimination. Participants in qualitative studies discussed experiences of institutional racism with regard to several components of prenatal care including access and quality of care. Discussion Racial discrimination is a significant risk factor for adverse birth outcomes. To best understand the mechanisms by which racial discrimination impacts birth outcomes, and to inform the development of effective interventions that eliminate its harmful effects on health, longitudinal research that incorporates comprehensive measures of racial discrimination is needed. Health care providers must fully acknowledge and address the psychosocial factors that impact health outcomes in minority racial/ethnic women. PMID:27737504

  16. Racial Discrimination and Adverse Birth Outcomes: An Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Bower, Kelly M; Epstein, Elizabeth; Sharps, Phyllis

    2016-11-01

    This article presents an integrative review of the literature examining the relationship between racial discrimination and adverse birth outcomes. Searches for research studies published from 2009 to 2015 were conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Embase. Articles were assessed for potential inclusion using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2009 framework. Fifteen studies met criteria for review. The majority of the studies found a significant relationship between racial discrimination and low birth weight, preterm birth, and small for gestational age. Each of the studies that examined more proximal variables related to birth outcomes such as entry into prenatal care, employment opportunities, neighborhood characteristics, or inflammatory markers found significant associations between the specific variables examined and racial discrimination. Participants in qualitative studies discussed experiences of institutional racism with regard to several components of prenatal care including access and quality of care. Racial discrimination is a significant risk factor for adverse birth outcomes. To best understand the mechanisms by which racial discrimination impacts birth outcomes, and to inform the development of effective interventions that eliminate its harmful effects on health, longitudinal research that incorporates comprehensive measures of racial discrimination is needed. Health care providers must fully acknowledge and address the psychosocial factors that impact health outcomes in minority racial/ethnic women. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  17. The lagged effects of racial discrimination on depressive symptomology and interactions with racial identity.

    PubMed

    Hoggard, Lori S; Byrd, Christy M; Sellers, Robert M

    2015-04-01

    Scholars agree on the negative impacts of racial discrimination on the mental health of African Americans (Brondolo et al., 2008). Yet research is needed to explore the impacts of everyday discrimination over time, especially compared to nonracial daily hassles, in an ecologically valid manner. It is also widely accepted that racial identity can moderate the impact of racial hassles (Sellers, Copeland-Linder, Martin, & Lewis 2006), but few studies have examined this moderating effect over time. The current study addresses gaps in the current literature by analyzing the relationship between reported racial and nonracial stressors over the course of four days. Participants were 225 college students at three institutions who participated in a 20-day daily diary study. Each day, participants reported whether they had experienced a stressful event and their depressive symptoms. We compared reports of depressive symptoms the day an event occurred and two days after for racial and nonracial stressors and examined whether racial identity served as a moderator. The results showed that individuals experienced similar increases for racial and nonracial stressors when events occur and similar decreases in the following two days. Additionally, symptom trajectories varied by racial identity. Implications for the understanding of racial discrimination's role in the well-being of African Americans are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The Relation of Racial Identity and Racial Socialization to Coping with Discrimination among African American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Lionel D.

    2003-01-01

    Surveyed African American high school students regarding whether strategies they used to cope with perceived discrimination related to their racial identity and racial socialization. The degree to which race was central to self-concept and identity was unrelated to both approach and avoidance strategies. Frequency of receiving socialization…

  19. The Impact of African American Parents' Racial Discrimination Experiences and Perceived Neighborhood Cohesion on their Racial Socialization Practices.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Farzana T; English, Devin; Busby, Danielle R; Lambert, Sharon F; Harrison, Aubrey; Stock, Michelle L; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2016-07-01

    Parental racial socialization is a parenting tool used to prepare African American adolescents for managing racial stressors. While it is known that parents' racial discrimination experiences affect the racial socialization messages they provide, little is known about the influence of factors that promote supportive and communal parenting, such as perceived neighborhood cohesion. In cohesive neighborhoods, neighbors may help parents address racial discrimination by monitoring youth and conveying racial socialization messages; additionally, the effect of neighborhood cohesion on parents' racial socialization may differ for boys and girls because parents socialize adolescents about race differently based on expected encounters with racial discrimination. Therefore, the current study examines how parents' perception of neighborhood cohesion and adolescents' gender moderate associations between parents' racial discrimination experiences and the racial socialization messages they deliver to their adolescents. Participants were a community sample of 608 African American adolescents (54 % girls; mean age = 15.5) and their primary caregivers (86 % biological mothers; mean age = 42.0). Structural equation modeling indicated that parental racial discrimination was associated with more promotion of mistrust messages for boys and girls in communities with low neighborhood cohesion. In addition, parental racial discrimination was associated with more cultural socialization messages about racial pride and history for boys in neighborhoods with low neighborhood cohesion. The findings suggest that parents' racial socialization messages are influenced by their own racial discrimination experiences and the cohesiveness of the neighborhood; furthermore, the content of parental messages delivered varies based on adolescents' gender.

  20. The Impact of African American Parents’ Racial Discrimination Experiences and Perceived Neighborhood Cohesion on their Racial Socialization Practices

    PubMed Central

    English, Devin; Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Harrison, Aubrey; Stock, Michelle L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2016-01-01

    Parental racial socialization is a parenting tool used to prepare African American adolescents for managing racial stressors. While it is known that parents’ racial discrimination experiences affect the racial socialization messages they provide, little is known about the influence of factors that promote supportive and communal parenting, such as perceived neighborhood cohesion. In cohesive neighborhoods, neighbors may help parents address racial discrimination by monitoring youth and conveying racial socialization messages; additionally, the effect of neighborhood cohesion on parents’ racial socialization may differ for boys and girls because parents socialize adolescents about race differently based on expected encounters with racial discrimination. Therefore, the current study examines how parents’ perception of neighborhood cohesion and adolescents’ gender moderate associations between parents’ racial discrimination experiences and the racial socialization messages they deliver to their adolescents. Participants were a community sample of 608 African American adolescents (54 % girls; mean age = 15.5) and their primary caregivers (86 % biological mothers; mean age = 42.0). Structural equation modeling indicated that parental racial discrimination was associated with more promotion of mistrust messages for boys and girls in communities with low neighborhood cohesion. In addition, parental racial discrimination was associated with more cultural socialization messages about racial pride and history for boys in neighborhoods with low neighborhood cohesion. The findings suggest that parents’ racial socialization messages are influenced by their own racial discrimination experiences and the cohesiveness of the neighborhood; furthermore, the content of parental messages delivered varies based on adolescents’ gender. PMID:27189721

  1. The Sociology of Discrimination: Racial Discrimination in Employment, Housing, Credit, and Consumer Markets.

    PubMed

    Pager, Devah; Shepherd, Hana

    2008-01-01

    Persistent racial inequality in employment, housing, and a wide range of other social domains has renewed interest in the possible role of discrimination. And yet, unlike in the pre-civil rights era, when racial prejudice and discrimination were overt and widespread, today discrimination is less readily identifiable, posing problems for social scientific conceptualization and measurement. This article reviews the relevant literature on discrimination, with an emphasis on racial discrimination in employment, housing, credit markets, and consumer interactions. We begin by defining discrimination and discussing relevant methods of measurement. We then provide an overview of major findings from studies of discrimination in each of the four domains; and, finally, we turn to a discussion of the individual, organizational, and structural mechanisms that may underlie contemporary forms of discrimination. This discussion seeks to orient readers to some of the key debates in the study of discrimination and to provide a roadmap for those interested in building upon this long and important line of research.

  2. Racial Discrimination in Legal Education, 1950 to 1963.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardozo, Michael H.

    1993-01-01

    The process by which the American Association of Law Schools created its policy on racial discrimination in legal education is chronicled from 1950 to 1963, focusing on its initial resolution in 1950, a 1951 special committee report, and adoption of a revised resolution banning discrimination on the basis of race or color in 1951. (MSE)

  3. Racial Discrimination and Asian Mental Health: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2011-01-01

    Although research on racial discrimination and mental health has proliferated, findings are varied and dispersed. This study explored the critical question of how Asians, in particular, deal with discrimination and how this relates to Asian mental health. With 99 correlations from 23 independent studies, the overall relationship between racial…

  4. Racial Identification, Racial Discrimination, and Substance Use Vulnerability Among African American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Michelle L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Walsh, Laura A.; Gerrard, Meg

    2016-01-01

    Two studies examined racial identity (RI) as a protective factor against substance use cognitions among African American young adults who either envisioned or experienced racial discrimination. In Study 1, participants envisioned a discrimination or nondiscrimination scenario, and then their willingness to use drugs and an indirect measure of substance use were assessed. Discrimination was associated with higher levels of use cognitions among participants with low levels of RI. In Study 2, participants were excluded or included in an online game (Cyberball) by White peers and then engaged in an RI-affirmation or control writing task. Participants attributed this exclusion to racial discrimination. Excluded participants who did not affirm their RI reported the highest levels of substance use cognitions, especially if they had engaged in higher levels of previous substance use. These findings highlight the importance of RI among Black young adults and the impact of discrimination on health behaviors. PMID:21628598

  5. Racial discrimination: how not to do it.

    PubMed

    Hochman, Adam

    2013-09-01

    The UNESCO Statements on Race of the early 1950s are understood to have marked a consensus amongst natural scientists and social scientists that 'race' is a social construct. Human biological diversity was shown to be predominantly clinal, or gradual, not discreet, and clustered, as racial naturalism implied. From the seventies social constructionists added that the vast majority of human genetic diversity resides within any given racialised group. While social constructionism about race became the majority consensus view on the topic, social constructionism has always had its critics. Sesardic (2010) has compiled these criticisms into one of the strongest defences of racial naturalism in recent times. In this paper I argue that Sesardic equivocates between two versions of racial naturalism: a weak version and a strong version. As I shall argue, the strong version is not supported by the relevant science. The weak version, on the other hand, does not contrast properly with what social constructionists think about 'race'. By leaning on this weak view Sesardic's racial naturalism intermittently gains an appearance of plausibility, but this view is too weak to revive racial naturalism. As Sesardic demonstrates, there are new arguments for racial naturalism post-Human Genome Diversity Project. The positive message behind my critique is how to be a social constructionist about race in the post-genomic era. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Racial Discrimination and Psychological Wellbeing of Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N; Engeland, Christopher G; Garfield, Lindsey; Templin, Thomas N

    African American women are more likely to be exposed to racial discrimination and to experience psychological distress compared with white women. Although studies have shown that social support is positively related to psychological wellbeing, little is known about the potential buffering effect of social support on the relationship between racial discrimination and psychological wellbeing of pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to determine if social support moderates effects of racial discrimination on psychological wellbeing among pregnant African American women. Using a cross-sectional design, 107 African American women between 15 and 26 weeks gestation from an urban university-based midwifery practice completed questionnaires. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also reported lower levels of social support and psychological wellbeing (p <.05). Maternal child nurses should be aware that experiences of racial discrimination have negative effects on psychological wellbeing of pregnant African American women regardless of their levels of social support. However, social support can reduce psychological distress and improve wellbeing of pregnant women. Therefore, nurses need to provide pregnant women with positive and supportive experiences that may improve their psychological wellbeing.

  7. Racial Discrimination, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, and Crime: A Micro-Sociological Model of Risk and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Callie Harbin; Simons, Ronald L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2012-01-01

    Dominant theoretical explanations of racial disparities in criminal offending overlook a key risk factor associated with race: interpersonal racial discrimination. Building on recent studies that analyze race and crime at the micro-level, we specify a social psychological model linking personal experiences with racial discrimination to an…

  8. Racial Discrimination, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, and Crime: A Micro-Sociological Model of Risk and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Callie Harbin; Simons, Ronald L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2012-01-01

    Dominant theoretical explanations of racial disparities in criminal offending overlook a key risk factor associated with race: interpersonal racial discrimination. Building on recent studies that analyze race and crime at the micro-level, we specify a social psychological model linking personal experiences with racial discrimination to an…

  9. Dimensions of Racial Identity and Perceived Discrimination in Health Care.

    PubMed

    Stepanikova, Irena; Oates, Gabriela R

    2016-10-20

    Perceived discrimination is an important risk factor for minority health. Drawing from the scholarship on multidimensionality of race, this study examines the relationships between perceived discrimination in health care and two dimensions of racial identity: self-identified race/ethnicity and perceived attributed race/ethnicity (respondents' perceptions of how they are racially classified by others). We used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data collected in 2004-2013 and we specifically examined the data on perceived racial discrimination in health care during the past 12 months, perceived attributed race/ethnicity, and self-identified race/ethnicity. In models adjusting for sociodemographic and other factors, both dimensions of racial/ethnic identity contributed independently to perceived discrimination in health care. After controlling for self-identified race/ethnicity, respondents who reported being classified as Black, Asian, Hispanic, and Native American had higher likelihood of perceived discrimination than respondents who reported being classified as White. Similarly, after taking perceived attributed race/ethnicity into account, self-identified Blacks, Native Americans, and multiracial respondents were more likely to report perceived discrimination than counterparts who self-identified as White. The model using only perceived attributed race/ethnicity to predict perceived discrimination showed a superior fit with the data than the model using only self-identified race/ethnicity. Perceived attributed race/ethnicity captures an aspect of racial/ethnic identity that is correlated, but not interchangeable, with self-identified race/ethnicity and contributes uniquely to perceived discrimination in health care. Applying the concept of multidimensionality of race/ethnicity to health disparities research may reveal understudied mechanisms linking race/ethnicity to health risks.

  10. The protective role of racial identity and Africentric worldview in the association between racial discrimination and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Neblett, Enrique W; Carter, Sierra E

    2012-06-01

    To examine the protective effects of racial identity and Africentric worldview on the association between racial discrimination and blood pressure (BP). Two hundred ten African American young adults completed questionnaires assessing demographic characteristics, prior racial discrimination experiences, racial identity, and Africentric worldview. Resting BP was assessed before and after completion of the study measures. Racial discrimination was unrelated to BP in the overall sample (systolic BP, p = .444; diastolic BP [DBP], p = .915; mean arterial pressure, p = .774). However, racial identity and Africentric worldview moderated the association between racial discrimination and BP. Racial discrimination was negatively related to DBP for participants who felt that others viewed African Americans less favorably and who endorsed the uniqueness of the African American experience (B = -2.59, standard error [SE] = 1.29, p = .046). These individuals also had the lowest DBP at high levels of racial discrimination. Racial discrimination was positively associated with DBP for individuals with low levels of Africentric orientation (B = 1.43, SE = 0.72, p = .048) but was unrelated to DBP at moderate (B = 0.24, SE = 0.65, p = .718) and high (B = -0.96, SE = 1.01, p = .341) levels of Africentric worldview. Racial and cultural personal characteristics such as racial identity and Africentric orientation may serve an important protective function for BP in African American young adults.

  11. From Racial Discrimination to Substance Use: The Buffering Effects of Racial Socialization.

    PubMed

    Neblett, Enrique W; Terzian, Mary; Harriott, Valencia

    2010-07-15

    The experience of race-based discrimination may place African American youth at risk for substance use initiation and substance use disorders. This article examines the potential of parental racial socialization-a process by which parents convey messages to their children about race-to protect against the impact of racial discrimination on substance use outcomes. Focusing on stress as a major precipitating factor in substance use, the article postulates several possible mechanisms by which racial socialization might reduce stress and the subsequent risk for substance use. It discusses future research directions with the goal of realizing the promise of racial socialization as a resilience factor in African American and ethnic minority youth mental health.

  12. From Racial Discrimination to Substance Use: The Buffering Effects of Racial Socialization

    PubMed Central

    Neblett, Enrique W.; Terzian, Mary; Harriott, Valencia

    2010-01-01

    The experience of race-based discrimination may place African American youth at risk for substance use initiation and substance use disorders. This article examines the potential of parental racial socialization—a process by which parents convey messages to their children about race—to protect against the impact of racial discrimination on substance use outcomes. Focusing on stress as a major precipitating factor in substance use, the article postulates several possible mechanisms by which racial socialization might reduce stress and the subsequent risk for substance use. It discusses future research directions with the goal of realizing the promise of racial socialization as a resilience factor in African American and ethnic minority youth mental health. PMID:23750178

  13. Racial Socialization in Transracial Adoptive Families: Does It Help Adolescents Deal with Discrimination Stress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Leigh A.; Smith, Jocelyn R.; Hrapczynski, Katie M.; Riley, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Racial socialization protects minority adolescents from stress associated with racial discrimination. The process of racial socialization, however, may be challenging in transracial adoptive families. White parents may struggle with preparing their children for discrimination and fostering the development of racial pride. Thus, transracially…

  14. Racial Socialization in Transracial Adoptive Families: Does It Help Adolescents Deal with Discrimination Stress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Leigh A.; Smith, Jocelyn R.; Hrapczynski, Katie M.; Riley, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Racial socialization protects minority adolescents from stress associated with racial discrimination. The process of racial socialization, however, may be challenging in transracial adoptive families. White parents may struggle with preparing their children for discrimination and fostering the development of racial pride. Thus, transracially…

  15. Racial and ethnic socialization as moderators of racial discrimination and school adjustment of adopted and nonadopted Korean American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Seol, Kyoung Ok; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Lee, Richard M; Park, Ji Eun; Kyeong, Yena

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the roles of racial and ethnic socialization in the link between racial discrimination and school adjustment among a sample of 233 adopted Korean American adolescents from White adoptive families and 155 nonadopted Korean American adolescents from immigrant Korean families. Adopted Korean American adolescents reported lower levels of racial discrimination, racial socialization, and ethnic socialization than nonadopted Korean American adolescents. However, racial discrimination was negatively related to school belonging and school engagement, and ethnic socialization was positively related to school engagement for both groups. Racial socialization also had a curvilinear relationship with school engagement for both groups. A moderate level of racial socialization predicted positive school engagement, whereas low and high levels of racial socialization predicted negative school engagement. Finally, ethnic socialization moderated the link between racial discrimination and school belonging, which differed between groups. In particular, ethnic socialization exacerbated the relations between racial discrimination and school belonging for adopted Korean American adolescents, whereas ethnic socialization buffered this link for nonadopted Korean American adolescents. The findings illustrate the complex relationship between racial and ethnic socialization, racial discrimination, and school adjustment. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Discrimination and racial disparities in health: evidence and needed research

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Selina A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review and critique of empirical research on perceived discrimination and health. The patterns of racial disparities in health suggest that there are multiple ways by which racism can affect health. Perceived discrimination is one such pathway and the paper reviews the published research on discrimination and health that appeared in PubMed between 2005 and 2007. This recent research continues to document an inverse association between discrimination and health. This pattern is now evident in a wider range of contexts and for a broader array of outcomes. Advancing our understanding of the relationship between perceived discrimination and health will require more attention to situating discrimination within the context of other health-relevant aspects of racism, measuring it comprehensively and accurately, assessing its stressful dimensions, and identifying the mechanisms that link discrimination to health. PMID:19030981

  17. School diversity and racial discrimination among African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Eleanor K; Douglass, Sara

    2014-04-01

    The study presented here examined school context as a moderator in the relation between daily perceptions of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. The sample included 75 Black adolescents who completed daily surveys for 14 days. The results indicated that approximately 97% of adolescents reported experiencing at least one discriminatory experience over the 2-week period. During the daily diary period, the 2-week average was 26 discriminatory experiences with a daily average of 2.5 discriminatory events. The results indicated perceptions of racial discrimination were linked to increased depressive symptoms on the following day. This relation was apparent for Black youth attending predominantly Black and White high schools, but not for Black youth attending schools with no clear racial majority.

  18. Racial discrimination experienced by aboriginal university students in Canada.

    PubMed

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul

    2012-10-01

    Racial discrimination is an established life course social determinant of health associated with adverse psychological outcomes among minority populations. However, little is known about the extent to which Aboriginal people in Canada may experience racial discrimination and consequent adverse psychological effects. This study sought to measure the extent to which Aboriginal university students living in an urban area of Canada experienced racism, to triangulate this evidence with US data and qualitative findings, and to examine the impact of these experiences on mental health. Data for this mixed method study were collected via in-person surveys with a volunteer sample of Aboriginal university students (n = 60) living in a mid-sized city in central Canada in 2008-2009. Results indicate Aboriginal university students experienced more frequent racism across a greater number of life situations than African- and Latino-American adults in the United States. Student reactions to these experiences were symptomatic of what has been termed racial battle fatigue in the United States. Students who considered themselves traditional or cultural Aboriginal persons were significantly more likely to experience discrimination. Results underline the need for policies aimed at reducing racism directed at Aboriginal people in urban areas and the growth of services to help Aboriginal people cope with these experiences. Results highlight the need for further research to determine the potential pathogenic consequences of racial discrimination for Aboriginal people in Canada.

  19. Coping with Racial Discrimination: The Role of Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Gerrard, Meg; Stock, Michelle L.; Roberts, Megan E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; O’Hara, Ross E.; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Wills, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Three studies tested the hypothesis that the relation between perceived racial discrimination and substance use reported in previous research is moderated by use of substances as a coping mechanism. Studies 1 and 2 were experimental studies of African American adolescents’ and young adults’ reactions to a discrimination experience. Results revealed that those who endorsed substance use-as-coping reported more willingness to use substances after experiencing discrimination. Study 3 was a prospective study of the relation between perceived discrimination and substance use over an 8-year period in African American adolescents. Results demonstrated that discrimination is associated with increases in substance use, but only among adolescents who endorse substance use-as-coping. Together, these three studies provide evidence that experiencing discrimination has both short- and long-term detrimental effects on African Americans’ substance use, but significantly more so for those who adopt a pattern of using substances as a coping mechanism. PMID:22545585

  20. Patterns of Racial Socialization and Psychological Adjustment: Can Parental Communications about Race Reduce the Impact of Racial Discrimination?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; White, Rhonda L.; Ford, Kahlil R.; Philip, Cheri L.; Nguye-N, Hoa X.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses two waves of data to examine the relations among racial discrimination experiences, patterns of racial socialization practices, and psychological adjustment in a sample of 361 African American adolescents. Using latent class analyses, we identified four patterns of child-reported racial socialization experiences: Moderate Positive,…

  1. Perceived Racial Discrimination and Self-Esteem in African American Youth: Racial Socialization as a Protective Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris-Britt, April; Valrie, Cecelia R.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.

    2007-01-01

    Racial socialization was examined as a protective factor that might buffer African American youth from the negative effects of perceived racial discrimination. Two types of racial socialization were examined: messages about race pride and preparation for bias. One hundred twenty-eight eighth-grade African American students participated in the…

  2. Patterns of Racial Socialization and Psychological Adjustment: Can Parental Communications about Race Reduce the Impact of Racial Discrimination?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; White, Rhonda L.; Ford, Kahlil R.; Philip, Cheri L.; Nguye-N, Hoa X.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses two waves of data to examine the relations among racial discrimination experiences, patterns of racial socialization practices, and psychological adjustment in a sample of 361 African American adolescents. Using latent class analyses, we identified four patterns of child-reported racial socialization experiences: Moderate Positive,…

  3. Perceived Racial Discrimination and Self-Esteem in African American Youth: Racial Socialization as a Protective Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris-Britt, April; Valrie, Cecelia R.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.

    2007-01-01

    Racial socialization was examined as a protective factor that might buffer African American youth from the negative effects of perceived racial discrimination. Two types of racial socialization were examined: messages about race pride and preparation for bias. One hundred twenty-eight eighth-grade African American students participated in the…

  4. Racial Discrimination in Occupations; Perceived and Actual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Castellano B.; Turner, Barbara F.

    1981-01-01

    A study of perceived discrimination by race and by sex for each of 21 occupations was compared with actual percentages of Blacks in each field. The study suggested that: (1) perception of opportunity corresponded to actual structure of opportunity; and (2) both a change in the social structure and individual belief systems is needed to further…

  5. Racial Discrimination in Occupations: Perceived and Actual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Castellano B.; Turner, Barbara F.

    The relationship between the actual representation of Blacks in certain occupations and individual perceptions of the occupational opportunity structure were examined. A scale which rated the degree of perceived discrimination against Blacks in 21 occupations was administered to 75 black male, 70 black female, 1,429 white male and 1,457 white…

  6. Sacred Cows, Competition, and Racial Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Robert E.; Meiners, Roger E.

    1988-01-01

    Proposition 48 of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), which calls for tougher academic standards for students seeking to participate in Division I athletics, discriminates against Black athletes and historically Black colleges and universities. The NCAA violates antitrust laws by price-fixing; it is not essential or even important…

  7. The Sociology of Discrimination: Racial Discrimination in Employment, Housing, Credit, and Consumer Markets

    PubMed Central

    Pager, Devah; Shepherd, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Persistent racial inequality in employment, housing, and a wide range of other social domains has renewed interest in the possible role of discrimination. And yet, unlike in the pre–civil rights era, when racial prejudice and discrimination were overt and widespread, today discrimination is less readily identifiable, posing problems for social scientific conceptualization and measurement. This article reviews the relevant literature on discrimination, with an emphasis on racial discrimination in employment, housing, credit markets, and consumer interactions. We begin by defining discrimination and discussing relevant methods of measurement. We then provide an overview of major findings from studies of discrimination in each of the four domains; and, finally, we turn to a discussion of the individual, organizational, and structural mechanisms that may underlie contemporary forms of discrimination. This discussion seeks to orient readers to some of the key debates in the study of discrimination and to provide a roadmap for those interested in building upon this long and important line of research. PMID:20689680

  8. Gender Matters, Too: The Influences of School Racial Discrimination and Racial Identity on Academic Engagement Outcomes among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavous, Tabbye M.; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Smalls, Ciara; Griffin, Tiffany; Cogburn, Courtney

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined relationships among racial identity, school-based racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11 (n = 204 boys and n = 206 girls). The authors found gender differences in peer and classroom discrimination and in the impact of earlier and later discrimination…

  9. Racial discrimination and posttraumatic stress symptoms as pathways to sexual HIV risk behaviors among urban Black heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Bowleg, Lisa; Fitz, Caroline C; Burkholder, Gary J; Massie, Jenne S; Wahome, Rahab; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    In light of evidence that racial discrimination and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are neither rare nor extraordinary for many Black urban men, we examined the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual HIV risk behaviors in a predominantly low-income sample of 526 urban Black heterosexually identified men; 64% of whom were unemployed and 55% of whom reported a history of incarceration. We tested the hypothesis that PTSS would mediate the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual risk. Participants in the predominantly low-income urban sample ranged in age from 18 to 45 (M = 28.80, SD = 7.57). Three multiple regression models were used to test the study's mediational model. As hypothesized, PTSS mediated the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual risk behaviors. Most participants (97%) reported experiences with everyday racial discrimination. Results empirically support the notion of racial discrimination-based traumatic stress as a pathway to Black heterosexual men's increased sexual risk behaviors. Results also highlighted key demographic differences with older men reporting fewer PTSS and sexual risk behaviors compared with younger men. Incarceration was related to both PTSS and sexual risk, underscoring the role that incarceration may play in Black heterosexual men's adverse health outcomes. Our study highlights the need for more qualitative and quantitative research to understand the nature of PTSS in Black heterosexual men and mechanisms such as substance use that may link traumatic experiences and sexual risk. Future research could also assess experiences with childhood sexual abuse, violence, and incarceration to gain a more in-depth understanding of the sources of traumatic stress in Black heterosexual men's lives. We advocate for the development of community-based individual and structural-level interventions to help Black heterosexual men in urban areas develop effective strategies to

  10. Racial discrimination as race-based trauma, coping strategies and dissociative symptoms among emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Polanco-Roman, Lillian; Danies, Ashley; Anglin, Deidre M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The race-based traumatic stress theory (Carter, 2007) suggests that some racial and ethnic minority individuals may experience racial discrimination as a psychological trauma, as it may elicit a response comparable to posttraumatic stress. The present study examined this further by determining the relation between racial discrimination and dissociation, a common response to trauma exposure. Further, we examined whether active coping strategies specifically employed to cope with racial discrimination related to less dissociative symptomatology. Methods The predominant racial and ethnic minority sample (N=743) of emerging adults (i.e., ages 18-29) recruited from a public university in Northeastern U.S. completed a battery of self-report measures on racial discrimination, responses to racial discrimination, traumatic life events and dissociative symptoms. Results Frequency of racial discrimination was positively associated with dissociative symptoms in regression analyses adjusted for demographics and other traumatic life events. Additionally, more active coping strategies in response to racial discrimination were negatively associated with dissociative symptoms. Conclusion Racial and ethnic minority emerging adults who experience racial discrimination, possibly as traumatic, may be more vulnerable to dissociative symptoms. However, different strategies of coping with racial discrimination may differentially impact risk for dissociation. PMID:26963957

  11. Racial discrimination as race-based trauma, coping strategies, and dissociative symptoms among emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Polanco-Roman, Lillian; Danies, Ashley; Anglin, Deidre M

    2016-09-01

    The race-based traumatic stress theory (Carter, 2007) suggests that some racial- and ethnic-minority individuals experience racial discrimination as psychological trauma, as it may elicit a response comparable to posttraumatic stress. In the present study, we examined this further by determining the relation between racial discrimination and dissociation, a common response to trauma exposure. Further, we examined whether active coping strategies specifically employed to cope with racial discrimination related to less dissociative symptomatology. The predominant racial- and ethnic-minority sample (N = 743) of emerging adults, ages 18-29, recruited from a public university in northeastern United States completed a battery of self-report measures on racial discrimination, responses to racial discrimination, traumatic life events, and dissociative symptoms. Frequency of racial discrimination was positively associated with dissociative symptoms in regression analyses adjusted for demographics and other traumatic life events. In addition, more active coping strategies in response to racial discrimination were negatively associated with dissociative symptoms. Racial- and ethnic-minority emerging adults who experience racial discrimination, possibly as traumatic, may be more vulnerable to dissociative symptoms. However, different strategies of coping with racial discrimination may differentially impact risk for dissociation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. "More than skin deep": stress neurobiology and mental health consequences of racial discrimination.

    PubMed

    Berger, Maximus; Sarnyai, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority groups across the world face a complex set of adverse social and psychological challenges linked to their minority status, often involving racial discrimination. Racial discrimination is increasingly recognized as an important contributing factor to health disparities among non-dominant ethnic minorities. A growing body of literature has recognized these health disparities and has investigated the relationship between racial discrimination and poor health outcomes. Chronically elevated cortisol levels and a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis appear to mediate effects of racial discrimination on allostatic load and disease. Racial discrimination seems to converge on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and may impair the function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hence showing substantial similarities to chronic social stress. This review provides a summary of recent literature on hormonal and neural effects of racial discrimination and a synthesis of potential neurobiological pathways by which discrimination affects mental health.

  13. The specter of discrimination: Fear of interpersonal racial discrimination among adolescents in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Herda, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This analysis examines fear of interpersonal racial discrimination among Black, Hispanic, and White adolescents. The extent and correlates of these concerns are examined using survey data from the Project for Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Borrowing from the fear-of-crime literature, the contact hypothesis, and group threat theory, several hypotheses are developed linking discrimination fear to direct personal experience with discrimination, indirect or vicarious experience, and environmental signals of discrimination. Results show that about half of Blacks and Hispanics have feared discrimination in the past year. Multivariate results indicate that fear is most likely if one has experienced victimization first-hand and when one's parent is affected by discrimination. Further, a larger presence neighborhood outgroups produces greater fear. Overall, discrimination fear constitutes an additional obstacle for minority adolescents as they transition to adulthood. The phenomenon warrants increased scholarly attention and represents a fruitful avenue for future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Racial and non-racial discrimination and smoking status among South African adults 10 years after apartheid.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2014-11-01

    Despite a long history of discrimination and persisting racial disparities in smoking prevalence, little research exists on the relationship between discrimination and smoking in South Africa. This analysis examined chronic (day-to-day) and acute (lifetime) experiences of racial and non-racial (eg, age, gender or physical appearance) discrimination and smoking status among respondents to the South Africa Stress and Health study. Logistic regression models were constructed using SAS-Callable SUDAAN. Both chronic racial discrimination (RR=1.45, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.85) and chronic non-racial discrimination (RR=1.69, 95% CI 1.37 to 2.08) predicted a higher risk of smoking, but neither type of acute discrimination did. Total (sum of racial and non-racial) chronic discrimination (RR=1.46, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.78) and total acute discrimination (RR=1.28, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.60) predicted a higher risk of current smoking. Racial and non-racial discrimination may be related to South African adults' smoking behaviour, but this relationship likely varies by the timing and frequency of these experiences. Future research should use longitudinal data to identify the temporal ordering of the relationships studied, include areas outside of South Africa to increase generalisability and consider the implications of these findings for smoking cessation approaches in South Africa. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Transgenerational Consequences of Racial Discrimination for African American Health

    PubMed Central

    Goosby, Bridget J.; Heidbrink, Chelsea

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in African American health remain pervasive and persist transgenerationally. There is a growing consensus that both structural and interpersonal racial discrimination are key mechanisms affecting African American health. The Biopsychosocial Model of Racism as a Stressor posits that the persistent stress of experiencing discrimination take a physical toll on the health of African Americans and is ultimately manifested in the onset of illness. However, the degree to which the health consequences of racism and discrimination can be passed down from one generation to the next is an important avenue of exploration. In this review, we discuss and link literature across disciplines demonstrating the harmful impact of racism on African American physical health and the health of their offspring. PMID:24855488

  16. Racial Discrimination in the Boston Housing Market. Discussion Paper D76-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Robert

    This paper analyzes three theories of racial discrimination by arguing that a dual housing market, a strong white taste for segregation, and pure racial price discrimination are all operative in the Boston urbanized area. Research dealing with discrimination and price differentials in housing for blacks is reviewed. It is pointed out that there…

  17. Racial discrimination, social support, and sexual HIV risk among Black heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Bowleg, Lisa; Burkholder, Gary J; Massie, Jenné S; Wahome, Rahab; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies document the adverse impact of racial discrimination on African Americans' health outcomes, but few have focused on HIV risk. We examined the relationship between racial discrimination and sexual risk in a sample of 526 Black heterosexual men and tested the hypothesis that social support would moderate this relationship. Participants in the predominantly low-income urban sample ranged in age from 18 to 45. High social support had a buffering impact on the relationship between racial discrimination and sexual risk. Among men reporting high racial discrimination, those with more social support reported less sexual risk than men with low social support. Men who reported high racial discrimination and low social support reported more sexual risk than men in any of the other groups. The study highlights social support as an important but understudied protective factor that may reduce sexual risk for Black heterosexual men who report high levels of racial discrimination.

  18. Sociocultural Factors and School Engagement among African American Youth: The Roles of Racial Discrimination, Racial Socialization, and Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the links between racial discrimination and school engagement and the roles of racial socialization and ethnic identity as protective factors in those linkages in a sample of 148, sixth through twelfth grade African American adolescents from working and middle-class two-parent families. In home interviews, youth described…

  19. Sociocultural Factors and School Engagement among African American Youth: The Roles of Racial Discrimination, Racial Socialization, and Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the links between racial discrimination and school engagement and the roles of racial socialization and ethnic identity as protective factors in those linkages in a sample of 148, sixth through twelfth grade African American adolescents from working and middle-class two-parent families. In home interviews, youth described…

  20. PERCEIVED RACIAL DISCRIMINATION AMONG HOME HEALTH AIDES: EVIDENCE FROM A NATIONAL SURVEY.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doohee; Muslin, Ivan; McInerney, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    Home health aides are one of our essential human resources in the U.S. long-term care industry but understanding whether home health aides experience racial discrimination in the workplace and, if so, which personal/organizational factors are associated at the national level has been unnoticed. Using a nationally representative sample (n=3377), we attempt to investigate the association between racial discrimination and personal and organizational factors. The study found the 13.5% prevalence rate of racial discrimination. The study findings from multiple regression analysis reveal that black home care aides are more likely than white aides to experience racial discrimination in the workplace, suggesting that racial disparity may be an additional barrier to our home health care industry. National chain affiliation and low income were also found to be associated with perceived racial discrimination.

  1. Ethnic identity, racial discrimination and attenuated psychotic symptoms in an urban population of emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Anglin, Deidre M; Lui, Florence; Espinosa, Adriana; Tikhonov, Aleksandr; Ellman, Lauren

    2016-01-28

    Studies suggest strong ethnic identity generally protects against negative mental health outcomes associated with racial discrimination. In light of evidence suggesting racial discrimination may enhance psychosis risk in racial and ethnic minority (REM) populations, the present study explored the relationship between ethnic identity and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS) and whether ethnic identity moderates the association between racial discrimination and these symptoms. A sample of 644 non-help-seeking REM emerging adults was administered self-report inventories for psychosis risk, experiences of discrimination and ethnic identity. Latent class analysis was applied to determine the nature and number of ethnic identity types in this population. The direct association between ethnic identity and APPS and the interaction between ethnic identity and racial discrimination on APPS were determined in linear regression analyses. Results indicated three ethnic identity classes (very low, moderate to high and very high). Ethnic identity was not directly related to APPS; however, it was related to APPS under racially discriminating conditions. Specifically, participants who experienced discrimination in the moderate to high or very high ethnic identity classes reported fewer symptoms than participants who experienced discrimination in the very low ethnic identity class. Strong ethnic group affiliation and connection may serve a protective function for psychosis risk in racially discriminating environments and contexts among REM young adults. The possible social benefits of strong ethnic identification among REM youth who face racial discrimination should be explored further in clinical high-risk studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, problem behaviors, and mental health among minority urban youth.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Amy L; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M; Staras, Stephanie A S; O'Mara, Ryan J; Livingston, Melvin D; Komro, Kelli A

    2013-01-01

    We examined perceived frequency and intensity of racial/ethnic discrimination and associations with high-risk behaviors/conditions among adolescents. With surveys from 2490 racial/ethnic minority adolescents primarily with low socioeconomic status, we used regression analysis to examine associations between racial/ethnic discrimination and behavioral health outcomes (alcohol use, marijuana use, physical aggression, delinquency, victimization, depression, suicidal ideation, and sexual behaviors). Most adolescents (73%) experienced racial/ethnic discrimination and 42% of experiences were 'somewhat-' or 'very disturbing.' Adolescents reporting frequent and disturbing racial/ethnic discrimination were at increased risk of all measured behaviors, except alcohol and marijuana use. Adolescents who experienced any racial/ethnic discrimination were at increased risk for victimization and depression. Regardless of intensity, adolescents who experienced racial/ethnic discrimination at least occasionally were more likely to report greater physical aggression, delinquency, suicidal ideation, younger age at first oral sex, unprotected sex during last intercourse, and more lifetime sexual partners. Most adolescents had experienced racial/ethnic discrimination due to their race/ethnicity. Even occasional experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination likely contribute to maladaptive behavioral and mental health outcomes among adolescents. Prevention and coping strategies are important targets for intervention.

  3. Racial Socialization of Biracial Youth: Maternal Messages and Approaches to Address Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Alethea; Hunter, Andrea G.

    2013-01-01

    We explored how mothers of biracial youth prepare their children to navigate diverse racial ecologies and experiences of racism and discrimination. A qualitative thematic analysis was used to identify racial socialization messages mothers used and emergent racial socialization approaches. Mothers of biracial youth engaged in the full range of…

  4. Racial Discrimination and Ethnic Disparities in Sleep Disturbance: the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Paine, Sarah-Jane; Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Research on the relationship between racial discrimination and sleep is limited. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the independent relationship between ethnicity, sex, age, socioeconomic position, experience of racial discrimination and self-reported sleep disturbances, and (2) determine the statistical contribution of experience of racial discrimination to ethnic disparities in sleep disturbances. Methods: The study used data from the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey, a nationally-representative, population-based survey of New Zealand adults (≥ 15 years). The sample included 4,108 self-identified Māori (indigenous New Zealanders) and 6,261 European adults. Outcome variables were difficulty falling asleep, frequent nocturnal awakenings, and early morning awakenings. Experiences of racial discrimination across five domains were used to assess overall racial discrimination “ever” and the level of exposure to racial discrimination. Socioeconomic position was measured using neighborhood deprivation, education, and equivalized household income. Results: Māori had a higher prevalence of each sleep disturbance item than Europeans. Reported experiences of racial discrimination were independently associated with each sleep disturbance item, adjusted for ethnicity, sex, age group, and socioeconomic position. Sequential logistic regression models showed that racial discrimination and socioeconomic position explained most of the disparity in difficulty falling asleep and frequent nocturnal awakening between Māori and Europeans; however, ethnic differences in early morning awakenings remained. Conclusions: Racial discrimination may play an important role in ethnic disparities in sleep disturbances in New Zealand. Activities to improve the sleep health of non-dominant ethnic groups should consider the potentially multifarious ways in which racial discrimination can disturb sleep. Citation: Paine SJ, Harris R, Cormack D, Stanley J. Racial

  5. Racial Discrimination and Mental Health in the USA: Testing the Reverse Racism Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Woo, Bongki

    2017-08-15

    The present study examined whether the health disadvantages consequent of racial discrimination experienced by four racial/ethnic minority groups are equivalent with that of the dominant racial group. Data was derived from the 2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression and heterogeneous choice models were used to test the moderating role of race/ethnicity in regards to the associations between racial discrimination and ten DSM-V diagnoses. Non-Hispanic blacks reported the highest levels of experiencing racial discrimination, while Non-Hispanic whites reported the lowest. Exposure to racial discrimination was associated with higher odds of psychiatric disorders for non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics than it was for non-Hispanic whites, while non-Hispanic American Indians/Alaska Natives had lower odds of psychiatric disorders. Analyses indicated that racial discrimination poses stronger mental health disadvantages on racial/ethnic minorities than it does to non-Hispanic whites. This finding not only refutes the notion of reverse racism, but also calls for more efforts to close the racial/ethnic health gap for those exposed to racial discrimination.

  6. Observed Racial Socialization and Maternal Positive Emotions in African American Mother-Adolescent Discussions About Racial Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Smith-Bynum, Mia A; Anderson, Riana E; Davis, BreAnna L; Franco, Marisa G; English, Devin

    2016-11-01

    This study examined patterns of (a) observed racial socialization messages in dyadic discussions between 111 African American mothers and adolescents (Mage  = 15.50) and (b) mothers' positive emotions displayed during the discussion. Mothers displayed more advocacy on behalf of their adolescents in response to discrimination by a White teacher than to discrimination by a White salesperson. Mothers displayed consistent emotional support of adolescents' problem solving across both dilemmas but lower warmth in response to the salesperson dilemma. Findings illustrate evidence of the transactional nature of racial socialization when presented with adolescents' racial dilemmas. The role of adolescent gender in mothers' observed racial socialization responses is also discussed. A framework for a process-oriented approach to racial socialization is presented.

  7. Sociocultural Factors and School Engagement among African American Youth: The Roles of Racial Discrimination, Racial Socialization and Ethnic Identity.

    PubMed

    Dotterer, Aryn M; McHale, Susan M; Crouter, Ann C

    2009-04-01

    This study investigated the links between racial discrimination and school engagement and the roles of racial socialization and ethnic identity as protective factors in those linkages in a sample of 148, 6(th) through 12(th) grade African American adolescents from working and middle class two-parent families. In home interviews youth described their ethnic identity, discrimination experiences at school, and school engagement (school bonding, school grades, school self-esteem), and parents rated their racial socialization practices. Analyses revealed that discrimination was negatively related to school self-esteem and school bonding. Racial socialization had additive effects on school self-esteem and school bonding, but did not moderate the discrimination -- school engagement association. For boys, ethnic identity had additive effects on school bonding, but for girls, ethnic identity moderated the relation between discrimination and school bonding: When girls experienced more discrimination and had lower ethnic identity, they reported lower school bonding. Discrimination, racial socialization, and ethnic identity were not related to school grades.

  8. Self-reported racial/ethnic discrimination and bronchodilator response in African American youth with asthma.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Sonia; Borrell, Luisa N; Eng, Celeste; Nguyen, Myngoc; Thyne, Shannon; LeNoir, Michael A; Burke-Harris, Nadine; Burchard, Esteban G; Thakur, Neeta

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is a multifactorial disease composed of endotypes with varying risk profiles and outcomes. African Americans experience a high burden of asthma and of psychosocial stress, including racial discrimination. It is unknown which endotypes of asthma are vulnerable to racial/ethnic discrimination. We examined the association between self-reported racial/ethnic discrimination and bronchodilator response (BDR) among African American youth with asthma ages 8 to 21 years (n = 576) and whether this association varies with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level. Self-reported racial/ethnic discrimination was assessed by a modified Experiences of Discrimination questionnaire as none or any. Using spirometry, BDR was specified as the mean percentage change in forced expiratory volume in one second before and after albuterol administration. TNF-α was specified as high/low levels based on our study population mean. Linear regression was used to examine the association between self-reported racial/ethnic discrimination and BDR adjusted for selected characteristics. An interaction term between TNF-α levels and self-reported racial/ethnic discrimination was tested in the final model. Almost half of participants (48.8%) reported racial/ethnic discrimination. The mean percent BDR was higher among participants reporting racial/ethnic discrimination than among those who did not (10.8 versus 8.9, p = 0.006). After adjustment, participants reporting racial/ethnic discrimination had a 1.7 (95% CI: 0.36-3.03) higher BDR mean than those not reporting racial/ethnic discrimination. However, we found heterogeneity of this association according to TNF-α levels (p-interaction = 0.040): Among individuals with TNF-α high level only, we observed a 2.78 higher BDR mean among those reporting racial/ethnic discrimination compared with those not reporting racial/ethnic discrimination (95%CI: 0.79-4.77). We found BDR to be increased in participants reporting racial/ethnic discrimination and

  9. Racial Discrimination, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, and Crime: A Micro-sociological Model of Risk and Resilience.

    PubMed

    Burt, Callie Harbin; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2012-08-01

    Dominant theoretical explanations of racial disparities in criminal offending overlook a key risk factor associated with race: interpersonal racial discrimination. Building on recent studies that analyze race and crime at the micro-level, we specify a social psychological model linking personal experiences with racial discrimination to an increased risk of offending. We add to this model a consideration of an adaptive facet of African American culture: ethnic-racial socialization, and explore whether two forms-cultural socialization and preparation for bias-provide resilience to the criminogenic effects of interpersonal racial discrimination. Using panel data from several hundred African American male youth from the Family and Community Health Study, we find that racial discrimination is positively associated with increased crime in large part by augmenting depression, hostile views of relationships, and disengagement from conventional norms. Results also indicate that preparation for bias significantly reduces the effects of discrimination on crime, primarily by reducing the effects of these social psychological mediators on offending. Cultural socialization has a less influential but beneficial effect. Finally, we show that the more general parenting context within which preparation for bias takes place influences its protective effects.

  10. Racial Discrimination, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, and Crime: A Micro-sociological Model of Risk and Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Callie Harbin; Simons, Ronald L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2013-01-01

    Dominant theoretical explanations of racial disparities in criminal offending overlook a key risk factor associated with race: interpersonal racial discrimination. Building on recent studies that analyze race and crime at the micro-level, we specify a social psychological model linking personal experiences with racial discrimination to an increased risk of offending. We add to this model a consideration of an adaptive facet of African American culture: ethnic-racial socialization, and explore whether two forms—cultural socialization and preparation for bias—provide resilience to the criminogenic effects of interpersonal racial discrimination. Using panel data from several hundred African American male youth from the Family and Community Health Study, we find that racial discrimination is positively associated with increased crime in large part by augmenting depression, hostile views of relationships, and disengagement from conventional norms. Results also indicate that preparation for bias significantly reduces the effects of discrimination on crime, primarily by reducing the effects of these social psychological mediators on offending. Cultural socialization has a less influential but beneficial effect. Finally, we show that the more general parenting context within which preparation for bias takes place influences its protective effects. PMID:24058204

  11. Racial Discrimination: A Continuum of Violence Exposure for Children of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders-Phillips, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews and examines findings on the impact of racial discrimination on the development and functioning of children of color in the US. Based on current definitions of violence and child maltreatment, exposure to racial discrimination should be considered as a form of violence that can significantly impact child outcomes and limit the…

  12. Racial Discrimination: A Continuum of Violence Exposure for Children of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders-Phillips, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews and examines findings on the impact of racial discrimination on the development and functioning of children of color in the US. Based on current definitions of violence and child maltreatment, exposure to racial discrimination should be considered as a form of violence that can significantly impact child outcomes and limit the…

  13. Cumulative Effect of Racial Discrimination on the Mental Health of Ethnic Minorities in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Stephanie; Nazroo, James; Bécares, Laia

    2016-07-01

    To examine the longitudinal association between cumulative exposure to racial discrimination and changes in the mental health of ethnic minority people. We used data from 4 waves (2009-2013) of the UK Household Longitudinal Study, a longitudinal household panel survey of approximately 40 000 households, including an ethnic minority boost sample of approximately 4000 households. Ethnic minority people who reported exposure to racial discrimination at 1 time point had 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) mental component scores 1.93 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -3.31, -0.56) points lower than did those who reported no exposure to racial discrimination, whereas those who had been exposed to 2 or more domains of racial discrimination, at 2 different time points, had SF-12 mental component scores 8.26 (95% CI = -13.33, -3.18) points lower than did those who reported no experiences of racial discrimination. Controlling for racial discrimination and other socioeconomic factors reduced ethnic inequalities in mental health. Cumulative exposure to racial discrimination has incremental negative long-term effects on the mental health of ethnic minority people in the United Kingdom. Studies that examine exposure to racial discrimination at 1 point in time may underestimate the contribution of racism to poor health.

  14. Discrimination, racial identity, and cytokine levels among African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Miller, Gregory E; Chen, Edith

    2015-05-01

    Low-grade inflammation, measured by circulating levels of cytokines, is a pathogenic mechanism for several chronic diseases of aging. Identifying factors related to inflammation among African-American youths may yield insights into mechanisms underlying racial disparities in health. The purpose of the study was to determine whether (1) reported racial discrimination from ages 17-19 years forecasts heightened cytokine levels at the age of 22 years and (2) this association is lower for youths with positive racial identities. A longitudinal research design was used with a community sample of 160 African-Americans who were aged 17 years at the beginning of the study. Discrimination and racial identity were measured with questionnaires, and blood was drawn to measure basal cytokine levels. Ordinary least squares regression analyses were used to examine the hypotheses. After controlling for socioeconomic risk, life stress, depressive symptoms, and body mass index, racial discrimination (β = .307; p < .01), racial identity (β = -.179; p < .05), and their interaction (β = -.180; p < .05) forecast cytokine levels. Youths exposed to high levels of racial discrimination evinced elevated cytokine levels 3 years later. This association was not significant for young adults with positive racial identities. High levels of interpersonal racial discrimination and the development of a positive racial identity operate jointly to determine low-grade inflammation levels that have been found to forecast chronic diseases of aging, such as coronary disease and stroke. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Relation of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, and Racial Socialization to Discrimination-Distress: A Meta-Analysis of Black Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial…

  16. The Relation of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, and Racial Socialization to Discrimination-Distress: A Meta-Analysis of Black Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial…

  17. Gender matters, too: the influences of school racial discrimination and racial identity on academic engagement outcomes among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chavous, Tabbye M; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Smalls, Ciara; Griffin, Tiffany; Cogburn, Courtney

    2008-05-01

    The authors examined relationships among racial identity, school-based racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11 (n = 204 boys and n = 206 girls). The authors found gender differences in peer and classroom discrimination and in the impact of earlier and later discrimination experiences on academic outcomes. Racial centrality related positively to school performance and school importance attitudes for boys. Also, centrality moderated the relationship between discrimination and academic outcomes in ways that differed across gender. For boys, higher racial centrality related to diminished risk for lower school importance attitudes and grades from experiencing classroom discrimination relative to boys lower in centrality, and girls with higher centrality were protected against the negative impact of peer discrimination on school importance and academic self-concept. However, among lower race-central girls, peer discrimination related positively to academic self-concept. Finally, socioeconomic background moderated the relationship of discrimination with academic outcomes differently for girls and boys. The authors discuss the need to consider interactions of individual- and contextual-level factors in better understanding African American youths' academic and social development.

  18. An Exploratory Examination of the Associations among Racial and Ethnic Discrimination, Racial Climate, and Trauma-Related Symptoms in a College Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Evans, Sarah A.; Walter, Rebecca A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the association among perceptions of racial and/or ethnic discrimination, racial climate, and trauma-related symptoms among 289 racially diverse college undergraduates. Study measures included the Perceived Stress Scale, the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder…

  19. Racial Discrimination and Ethnic Disparities in Sleep Disturbance: the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Paine, Sarah-Jane; Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James

    2016-02-01

    Research on the relationship between racial discrimination and sleep is limited. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the independent relationship between ethnicity, sex, age, socioeconomic position, experience of racial discrimination and self-reported sleep disturbances, and (2) determine the statistical contribution of experience of racial discrimination to ethnic disparities in sleep disturbances. The study used data from the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey, a nationally-representative, population-based survey of New Zealand adults (≥ 15 years). The sample included 4,108 self-identified Māori (indigenous New Zealanders) and 6,261 European adults. Outcome variables were difficulty falling asleep, frequent nocturnal awakenings, and early morning awakenings. Experiences of racial discrimination across five domains were used to assess overall racial discrimination "ever" and the level of exposure to racial discrimination. Socioeconomic position was measured using neighborhood deprivation, education, and equivalized household income. Māori had a higher prevalence of each sleep disturbance item than Europeans. Reported experiences of racial discrimination were independently associated with each sleep disturbance item, adjusted for ethnicity, sex, age group, and socioeconomic position. Sequential logistic regression models showed that racial discrimination and socioeconomic position explained most of the disparity in difficulty falling asleep and frequent nocturnal awakening between Māori and Europeans; however, ethnic differences in early morning awakenings remained. Racial discrimination may play an important role in ethnic disparities in sleep disturbances in New Zealand. Activities to improve the sleep health of non-dominant ethnic groups should consider the potentially multifarious ways in which racial discrimination can disturb sleep. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  20. Perceived Racial Discrimination and Self-Esteem in African American Youth: Racial Socialization as a Protective Factor

    PubMed Central

    Harris-Britt, April; Valrie, Cecelia R.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.

    2010-01-01

    Racial socialization was examined as a protective factor that might buffer African American youth from the negative effects of perceived racial discrimination. Two types of racial socialization were examined: messages about race pride and preparation for bias. One hundred twenty-eight eighth-grade African American students participated in the study. As anticipated, both types of socialization moderated the relationship between discrimination and self-esteem. The negative relationship between perceived discrimination and self-esteem was mitigated for youth who reported more messages about race pride and a moderate amount of preparation for bias from their parents. In contrast, low race pride socialization and both high and low preparation for bias were associated with a negative relationship between perceived discrimination and self-esteem. PMID:20700391

  1. Perceived Racial Discrimination and Self-Esteem in African American Youth: Racial Socialization as a Protective Factor.

    PubMed

    Harris-Britt, April; Valrie, Cecelia R; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J

    2007-12-01

    Racial socialization was examined as a protective factor that might buffer African American youth from the negative effects of perceived racial discrimination. Two types of racial socialization were examined: messages about race pride and preparation for bias. One hundred twenty-eight eighth-grade African American students participated in the study. As anticipated, both types of socialization moderated the relationship between discrimination and self-esteem. The negative relationship between perceived discrimination and self-esteem was mitigated for youth who reported more messages about race pride and a moderate amount of preparation for bias from their parents. In contrast, low race pride socialization and both high and low preparation for bias were associated with a negative relationship between perceived discrimination and self-esteem.

  2. Racial discrimination, gender discrimination, and substance abuse among Latina/os nationwide.

    PubMed

    Otiniano Verissimo, Angie Denisse; Gee, Gilbert C; Ford, Chandra L; Iguchi, Martin Y

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between discrimination and substance abuse among Latina/os, and further examines whether this relationship differs by gender and type of discrimination. Analyses focus on the Latina/o respondents (n = 1,039 men; n = 1,273 women) from the National Latino and Asian American Study carried out from 2002-2003. Outcomes were alcohol abuse and drug abuse measured using DSM-IV definitions and criteria. Additional covariates included immigrant characteristics and demographics. Analyses were completed using gender-stratified multinomial logistic regression. Men reported more discrimination (39.6% vs. 30.3%) and had higher prevalence of alcohol abuse (16.5% vs. 4.5%) and drug abuse (9.5% vs. 2.3%) than women. Discrimination was significantly associated with increased risk of alcohol abuse for women and increased risk of drug abuse for men. Men and women also varied in the types of discrimination (e.g., racial vs. gender) reported, and in the associations between these types of discrimination and substance abuse. These data indicate that discrimination is associated with different substance abuse outcomes between genders. Future research should consider the mechanisms that explain these differences.

  3. Past racial discrimination exacerbates the effects of racial exclusion on negative affect, perceived control, and alcohol-risk cognitions among Black young adults.

    PubMed

    Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Molloy, Brianne K; Lambert, Sharon F

    2017-06-01

    Racial discrimination is associated with alcohol use and risky sex cognitions and behaviors, which are risk factors for negative health outcomes, including human immunodeficiency virus infection. The current study investigated the causal impact of racial discrimination on alcohol and sexual-risk cognitions while exploring potential mediators that might help explain this relation: negative affect, perceived control, and meaningful existence. We also examined if past discrimination impacts the strength of (moderates) these effects. Participants were 287 Black/African American young adults aged 18-25. They were randomly assigned to be excluded or included by White peers via the game Cyberball. Racial exclusion (vs. inclusion) predicted greater: perceived racial discrimination, negative affect, alcohol use willingness, and reduced perceived control and meaningful existence. Furthermore, excluded participants who experienced more past racial discrimination reported the lowest perceived control, and greatest negative affect and alcohol-risk cognitions. The findings suggest that past racial discrimination exacerbates the harmful health effects of immediate experiences of discrimination.

  4. The relation of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress: a meta-analysis of Black Americans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Debbiesiu L; Ahn, Soyeon

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial discrimination and psychological distress. Discrimination significantly related to aspects of racial identity, including immersion-emersion, public regard, encounter, Afrocentricity/racial centrality/private regard, and internalization. Distress significantly correlated with preencounter/assimilation, encounter, public regard, immersion-emersion, and Afrocentricity/racial centrality/private regard. Several of these relationships were significantly moderated by the measure of racial identity or demographic variables (gender or age). Implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Discrimination, racial bias, and telomere length in African-American men.

    PubMed

    Chae, David H; Nuru-Jeter, Amani M; Adler, Nancy E; Brody, Gene H; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Epel, Elissa S

    2014-02-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is an indicator of general systemic aging, with shorter LTL being associated with several chronic diseases of aging and earlier mortality. Identifying factors related to LTL among African Americans may yield insights into mechanisms underlying racial disparities in health. To test whether the combination of more frequent reports of racial discrimination and holding a greater implicit anti-black racial bias is associated with shorter LTL among African-American men. Cross-sectional study of a community sample of 92 African-American men aged between 30 and 50 years. Participants were recruited from February to May 2010. Ordinary least squares regressions were used to examine LTL in kilobase pairs in relation to racial discrimination and implicit racial bias. Data analysis was completed in July 2013. After controlling for chronologic age and socioeconomic and health-related characteristics, the interaction between racial discrimination and implicit racial bias was significantly associated with LTL (b=-0.10, SE=0.04, p=0.02). Those demonstrating a stronger implicit anti-black bias and reporting higher levels of racial discrimination had the shortest LTL. Household income-to-poverty threshold ratio was also associated with LTL (b=0.05, SE=0.02, p<0.01). Results suggest that multiple levels of racism, including interpersonal experiences of racial discrimination and the internalization of negative racial bias, operate jointly to accelerate biological aging among African-American men. Societal efforts to address racial discrimination in concert with efforts to promote positive in-group racial attitudes may protect against premature biological aging in this population. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine All rights reserved.

  6. Investigating the relationship between socially-assigned ethnicity, racial discrimination and health advantage in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Cormack, Donna M; Harris, Ricci B; Stanley, James

    2013-01-01

    While evidence of the contribution of racial discrimination to ethnic health disparities has increased significantly, there has been less research examining relationships between ascribed racial/ethnic categories and health. It has been hypothesized that in racially-stratified societies being assigned as belonging to the dominant racial/ethnic group may be associated with health advantage. This study aimed to investigate associations between socially-assigned ethnicity, self-identified ethnicity, and health, and to consider the role of self-reported experience of racial discrimination in any relationships between socially-assigned ethnicity and health. The study used data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey (n = 12,488), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of adults 15 years and over. Racial discrimination was measured as reported individual-level experiences across five domains. Health outcome measures examined were self-reported general health and psychological distress. The study identified varying levels of agreement between participants' self-identified and socially-assigned ethnicities. Individuals who reported both self-identifying and being socially-assigned as always belonging to the dominant European grouping tended to have more socioeconomic advantage and experience less racial discrimination. This group also had the highest odds of reporting optimal self-rated health and lower mean levels of psychological distress. These differences were attenuated in models adjusting for socioeconomic measures and individual-level racial discrimination. The results suggest health advantage accrues to individuals who self-identify and are socially-assigned as belonging to the dominant European ethnic grouping in New Zealand, operating in part through socioeconomic advantage and lower exposure to individual-level racial discrimination. This is consistent with the broader evidence of the negative impacts of racism on health and ethnic inequalities

  7. Associations between trajectories of perceived racial discrimination and psychological symptoms among African American adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Bynum, Mia A.; Lambert, Sharon F.; English, Devin; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Many African American adolescents experience racial discrimination, with adverse consequences; however, stability and change in these experiences over time have not been examined. We examined longitudinal patterns of perceived racial discrimination assessed in grades 7 – 10 and how these discrimination trajectories related to patterns of change in depressive and anxious symptoms and aggressive behaviors assessed over the same 4-year period. Growth mixture modeling performed on a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (n = 504) revealed three trajectories of discrimination: (1) increasing, (2) decreasing, and (3) stable low. As predicted, African American boys were more frequent targets for racial discrimination as they aged, and were more likely to be in the increasing group. Results of parallel process growth mixture modeling revealed that youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were four times more likely to be in an increasing depression trajectory than youth in the low stable discrimination trajectory. Though youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were nearly twice as likely to be in the high aggression trajectory, results were not statistically significant. These results indicate an association between variation in the growth of perceived racial discrimination and youth behavior and psychological well-being over the adolescent years. PMID:24955844

  8. Racial discrimination associated with higher diastolic blood pressure in a sample of American Indian adults.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Zaneta M; Blair, Irene V; Buchwald, Dedra S; Manson, Spero M

    2017-05-01

    Hypertension prevalence is high among American Indians (AIs). AIs experience a substantial burden of interpersonal racial discrimination, which in other populations has been associated with higher blood pressure. The purpose of this study is to understand whether racial discrimination experiences are associated with higher blood pressure in AIs. We used the Everyday Discrimination Scale to evaluate the relationship between discrimination and measured blood pressure among 77 AIs from two reservation communities in the Northern Plains. We used multivariate linear regression to evaluate the association of racial discrimination with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Racial discrimination, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were analyzed as continuous variables. All analyses adjusted for sex, waist circumference, age, posttraumatic stress disorder status, and education. We found that 61% of participants experienced discrimination that they attributed to their race or ancestry. Racial discrimination was associated with significantly higher diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.22, SE = 0.09, p = .02), and with a similar non-significant trend toward higher systolic blood pressure (β = 0.25, SE = 0.15, p = .09). The results of this analysis suggest that racial discrimination may contribute to higher diastolic blood pressure within Native communities. These findings highlight one pathway through which the social environment can shape patterns of biology and health in AI and other socially and politically marginalized groups. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Associations between trajectories of perceived racial discrimination and psychological symptoms among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smith-Bynum, Mia A; Lambert, Sharon F; English, Devin; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2014-11-01

    Many African American adolescents experience racial discrimination, with adverse consequences; however, stability and change in these experiences over time have not been examined. We examined longitudinal patterns of perceived racial discrimination assessed in Grades 7-10 and how these discrimination trajectories related to patterns of change in depressive and anxious symptoms and aggressive behaviors assessed over the same 4-year period. Growth mixture modeling performed on a community epidemiologically defined sample of urban African American adolescents (n = 504) revealed three trajectories of discrimination: increasing, decreasing, and stable low. As predicted, African American boys were more frequent targets for racial discrimination as they aged, and they were more likely to be in the increasing group. The results of parallel process growth mixture modeling revealed that youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were four times more likely to be in an increasing depression trajectory than were youth in the low stable discrimination trajectory. Though youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were nearly twice as likely to be in the high aggression trajectory, results were not statistically significant. These results indicate an association between variation in the growth of perceived racial discrimination and youth behavior and psychological well-being over the adolescent years.

  10. Do experiences of racial discrimination predict cardiovascular disease among African American men? The moderating role of internalized negative racial group attitudes.

    PubMed

    Chae, David H; Lincoln, Karen D; Adler, Nancy E; Syme, S Leonard

    2010-09-01

    Studies examining associations between racial discrimination and cardiovascular health outcomes have been inconsistent, with some studies finding the highest risk of hypertension among African Americans who report no discrimination. A potential explanation of the latter is that hypertension and other cardiovascular problems are fostered by internalization and denial of racial discrimination. To explore this hypothesis, the current study examines the role of internalized negative racial group attitudes in linking experiences of racial discrimination and history of cardiovascular disease among African American men. We predicted a significant interaction between reported discrimination and internalized negative racial group attitudes in predicting cardiovascular disease. Weighted logistic regression analyses were conducted among 1216 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL; 2001-2003). We found no main effect of racial discrimination in predicting history of cardiovascular disease. However, agreeing with negative beliefs about Blacks was positively associated with cardiovascular disease history, and also moderated the effect of racial discrimination. Reporting racial discrimination was associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease among African American men who disagreed with negative beliefs about Blacks. However, among African American men who endorsed negative beliefs about Blacks, the risk of cardiovascular disease was greatest among those reporting no discrimination. Findings suggest that racial discrimination and the internalization of negative racial group attitudes are both risk factors for cardiovascular disease among African American men. Furthermore, the combination of internalizing negative beliefs about Blacks and the absence of reported racial discrimination appear to be associated with particularly poor cardiovascular health. Steps to address racial discrimination as well as programs aimed at developing a positive

  11. Racial and Ethnic Socialization as Moderators of Racial Discrimination and School Adjustment of Adopted and Non-adopted Korean American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Seol, Kyoung Ok; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Lee, Richard M.; Park, Ji Eun; Kyeong, Yena

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated roles of racial and ethnic socialization in the link between racial discrimination and school adjustment among a sample of 233 adopted Korean American adolescents from White adoptive families and 155 non-adopted Korean American adolescents from immigrant Korean families. Adopted Korean American adolescents reported lower levels of racial discrimination, racial socialization, and ethnic socialization than non-adopted Korean American adolescents. However, racial discrimination was negatively related to school belonging and school engagement, and ethnic socialization was positively related to school engagement for both groups. Racial socialization also had a curvilinear relationship with school engagement for both groups. Moderate level of racial socialization predicted positive school engagement, whereas low and high levels of racial socialization predicted negative school engagement. Finally, ethnic socialization moderated the link between racial discrimination and school belonging, which differed between groups. In particular, ethnic socialization exacerbated the relations between racial discrimination and school belonging for adopted Korean American adolescents, whereas, ethnic socialization buffered this link for non-adopted Korean American adolescents. Findings illustrate the complex relationship between racial and ethnic socialization, racial discrimination, and school adjustment. PMID:26479418

  12. See no evil: color blindness and perceptions of subtle racial discrimination in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Offermann, Lynn R; Basford, Tessa E; Graebner, Raluca; Jaffer, Salman; De Graaf, Sumona Basu; Kaminsky, Samuel E

    2014-10-01

    Workplace discrimination has grown more ambiguous, with interracial interactions often perceived differently by different people. The present study adds to the literature by examining a key individual difference variable in the perception of discrimination at work, namely individual color-blind attitudes. We examined relationships between 3 dimensions of color-blind attitudes (Racial Privilege, Institutional Discrimination, and Blatant Racial Issues) and perceptions of racial microaggressions in the workplace as enacted by a White supervisor toward a Black employee (i.e., discriminatory actions ranging from subtle to overt). Findings showed that observer views on institutional discrimination fully mediated, and blatant racial issues partially mediated, the relationships between racial group membership and the perception of workplace microaggressions. Non-Hispanic Whites endorsed color blindness as institutional discrimination and blatant racial issues significantly more than members of racioethnic minority groups, and higher levels of color-blind worldviews were associated with lower likelihoods of perceiving microaggressions. Views on racial privilege did not differ significantly between members of different racial groups or affect microaggression perceptions. Implications for organizations concerned about promoting more inclusive workplaces are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Confronting as autonomy promotion: Speaking up against discrimination and psychological well-being in racial minorities.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Diana T; Himmelstein, Mary S; Young, Danielle M; Albuja, Analia F; Garcia, Julie A

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have considered confrontation in the context of coping with discriminatory experiences. These studies test for the first time whether confronting racial discrimination is associated with greater psychological well-being and physical health through the promotion of autonomy. In two separate samples of racial minorities who had experienced racial discrimination, confrontation was associated with greater psychological well-being, and this relationship was mediated by autonomy promotion. These findings did not extend to physical health symptoms. These studies provide preliminary evidence that confrontation may aid in the process of regaining autonomy after experiencing discrimination and therefore promote well-being. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Racial discrimination, multiple group identities, and civic beliefs among immigrant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wing Yi; Latzman, Robert D

    2015-10-01

    The present study tested the independent and interactive effects of multiple group identities (i.e., American and ethnic) and racial discrimination on civic beliefs among immigrant adolescents. Seventy-seven participants completed a questionnaire during after-school programs. Ethnic identity was positively associated with civic beliefs whereas racial discrimination was negatively related to civic beliefs, and racial discrimination moderated the relationships between multiple group identities and civic beliefs. Our findings highlight the importance of studying structural and individual factors jointly in the investigation of civic beliefs among immigrant adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic Identity, and Substance Use Among Latina/os: Are They Gendered?

    PubMed

    Molina, Kristine M; Jackson, Benita; Rivera-Olmedo, Noemi

    2016-02-01

    Prior research suggests that stronger racial/ethnic identification offsets negative effects of discrimination on substance use. Yet research in this area and on whether gender modifies this association is limited for Latina/os. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether different sources of discrimination (everyday and racial/ethnic) are associated with substance use (alcohol use disorder, smoking), if racial/ethnic identity buffers this association, and the potential moderating role of gender among these variables. We present cross-sectional, US population-based data from the Latina/o adult sample (1427 females and 1127 males) of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Respondents completed self-reported measures of everyday and racial/ethnic discrimination, racial/ethnic identity, smoking status, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) lifetime alcohol use disorder. Weighted logistic regression analyses showed that before inclusion of three-way interactions and adjusting for covariates, everyday discrimination predicted increased risk for any DSM-IV lifetime alcohol use disorders. Moderation analyses revealed that the effect of everyday discrimination on the risk of being a current smoker was strongest for Latino men with high levels of racial/ethnic identity compared to those with low racial/ethnic identity. No differences were noted among Latino women. There were no main or interaction effects of racial/ethnic discrimination for any substance use outcome. Findings suggest differential associations for type of discrimination and outcome and that the role of racial/ethnic identity is gender-specific for smoking, appearing particularly detrimental for Latino men reporting high levels of racial/ethnic identity.

  16. Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic Identity, and Substance Use Among Latina/os: Are They Gendered?

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Benita; Rivera-Olmedo, Noemi

    2016-01-01

    Background Prior research suggests that stronger racial/ethnic identification offsets negative effects of discrimination on substance use. Yet research in this area and on whether gender modifies this association is limited for Latina/os. Purpose The purpose of the present study is to examine whether different sources of discrimination (everyday and racial/ethnic) are associated with substance use (alcohol use disorder, smoking), if racial/ethnic identity buffers this association, and the potential moderating role of gender among these variables. Methods We present cross-sectional, US population-based data from the Latina/o adult sample (1427 females and 1127 males) of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Respondents completed self-reported measures of everyday and racial/ethnic discrimination, racial/ethnic identity, smoking status, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) lifetime alcohol use disorder. Results Weighted logistic regression analyses showed that before inclusion of three-way interactions and adjusting for covariates, everyday discrimination predicted increased risk for any DSM-IV lifetime alcohol use disorders. Moderation analyses revealed that the effect of everyday discrimination on the risk of being a current smoker was strongest for Latino men with high levels of racial/ethnic identity compared to those with low racial/ethnic identity. No differences were noted among Latino women. There were no main or interaction effects of racial/ethnic discrimination for any substance use outcome. Conclusions Findings suggest differential associations for type of discrimination and outcome and that the role of racial/ethnic identity is gender-specific for smoking, appearing particularly detrimental for Latino men reporting high levels of racial/ethnic identity. PMID:26489844

  17. Racial and nonracial discrimination and smoking status among South African adults ten years after apartheid

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite a long history of discrimination and persisting racial disparities in smoking prevalence, little research exists on the relationship between discrimination and smoking in South Africa. Methods This analysis examined chronic (day to day) and acute (lifetime) experiences of racial and nonracial (e.g., age, gender, or physical appearance) discrimination and smoking status among respondents to the South Africa Stress and Health Study (SASH). Logistic regression models were constructed using SAS-Callable SUDAAN. Results Both chronic racial discrimination (RR=1.45, 95%CI: 1.14–1.85) and chronic nonracial discrimination (RR=1.69, 95%CI: 1.37–2.08) predicted a higher risk of smoking, but neither type of acute discrimination did. Total (sum of racial and nonracial) chronic discrimination (RR=1.46, 95%CI: 1.20–1.78) and total acute discrimination (RR=1.28, 95%CI: 1.01–1.60) predicted a higher risk of current smoking. Conclusions Racial and nonracial discrimination may be related to South African adults’ smoking behavior, but this relationship likely varies by the timing and frequency of these experiences. Future research should use longitudinal data to identify the temporal ordering of the relationships studied, include areas outside of South Africa to increase generalizability, and consider the implications of these findings for smoking cessation approaches in South Africa. PMID:24789604

  18. Pervasive Preferences: Racial and Ethnic Discrimination in Undergraduate Admissions across the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Robert; Nagai, Althea K.

    The admissions policies of 47 colleges and universities were studied to consider the issue of racial and ethnic discrimination in undergraduate admissions. The Center for Equal Opportunity asked schools for data about students' application status, racial and ethnic group membership, verbal and mathematics Scholastic Assessment Test scores, and…

  19. Ethnic and Mainstream Social Connectedness, Perceived Racial Discrimination, and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Meifen; Wang, Kenneth T.; Heppner, Puncky Paul; Du, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Carter (2007) proposed the notion of race-based traumatic stress and argued that experiences of racial discrimination can be viewed as a type of trauma. In a sample of 383 Chinese international students at 2 predominantly White midwestern universities, the present results supported this notion and found that perceived racial discrimination…

  20. 5 CFR 4.2 - Prohibition against racial, political or religious discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition against racial, political or religious discrimination. 4.2 Section 4.2 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES PROHIBITED PRACTICES (RULE IV) § 4.2 Prohibition against racial, political or religious...

  1. Ethnic and Mainstream Social Connectedness, Perceived Racial Discrimination, and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Meifen; Wang, Kenneth T.; Heppner, Puncky Paul; Du, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Carter (2007) proposed the notion of race-based traumatic stress and argued that experiences of racial discrimination can be viewed as a type of trauma. In a sample of 383 Chinese international students at 2 predominantly White midwestern universities, the present results supported this notion and found that perceived racial discrimination…

  2. Parental racial socialization as a moderator of the effects of racial discrimination on educational success among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Huguley, James P

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether parental racial socialization practices moderated the relation between racial discrimination in school and adolescents' educational outcomes. Using data from a longitudinal study of an economically diverse sample of 630 African American adolescents (mean age=14.5) from a major East Coast metropolis, the results revealed that cultural socialization attenuated the effect of teacher discrimination on grade point average (GPA) and educational aspirations, as well as the effect of peer discrimination on GPA. Also, preparation for bias and cultural socialization interacted to make unique contributions to African American adolescents' educational outcomes. Finally, there was some evidence that teacher discrimination was more detrimental to the academic engagement of African American males than females. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  3. Correlates of Attitudes Favorable to Racial Discrimination Among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwich, Bruce A.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Independent variables significantly correlated with an attitudinal tendency to discriminate among whites: prejudice, perceived nonconformity, parental social pressure, fear of future competition, political separatism, anxiety about racial conflict, assaultiveness, and equal status contact. Prejudice, parental pressure, and institutional…

  4. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Mental Illness Stigma and Discrimination Among Californians Experiencing Mental Health Challenges.

    PubMed

    Wong, Eunice C; Collins, Rebecca L; Cerully, Jennifer; Seelam, Rachana; Roth, Beth

    2017-01-01

    Reports racial and ethnic differences on the California Well-Being Survey, a surveillance tool that tracks mental illness stigma and discrimination among a sample of California adults experiencing psychological distress.

  5. The Perceived Payoff of Education: Do Generational Status and Racial Discrimination Matter?

    PubMed

    Mroczkowski, Alison L; Sánchez, Bernadette; Carter, Jocelyn Smith

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among racial discrimination, generational status, and perceptions of the economic value of education among Latina/o youth. Participants were 400 urban, low-income, Latina/o students from a large Midwestern U.S. city who completed surveys in both 9th and 10th grades. Results revealed that more perceived racial discrimination was associated with more perceived economic limitations of education. When analyzed by generational status, more racial discrimination in 9th grade was significantly related to lower perceived economic value of education in 10th grade for third-generation and later participants, but not for first- or second-generation participants. The results provide evidence for the diverse experiences of racial discrimination and perceived economic value of education across generational groups. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  6. Perceived Racial Discrimination and Risk of Uterine Leiomyomata

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Lauren A.; Palmer, Julie R.; Cozier, Yvette C.; Hunt, Matthew O.; Stewart, Elizabeth A.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Background The incidence of uterine leiomyomata (fibroids, myomas) is 2-3 times higher in black women than white women. Black women also report higher levels of racial discrimination. We evaluated the hypothesis that greater exposure to racism increases myoma risk in black women. Methods Data were derived from the Black Women’s Health Study, a prospective cohort study of US black women age 21-69 years in 1995. In 1997, women reported on “everyday” and “life-time” experiences of racism. From 1997 through 2003, we followed 22,002 premenopausal women to assess the association between self-reported racism and risk of myomas. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from Cox regression models. Results During 107,127 person-years of follow-up, 3440 new cases of uterine myomas confirmed by ultrasound (n = 2774) or surgery (n = 666) were reported. All IRRs for “lifetime” and “everyday” experiences of racism were above 1.0. Using a summary variable that averaged the responses from 5 “everyday” racism items, multivariable IRRs comparing quartiles 2, 3, and 4 to quintile 1 (lowest) were 1.16 (95% CI = 1.04-1.29), 1.19 (1.06-1.32), and 1.27 (1.14-1.43), respectively. Multivariable IRRs comparing women who reported 1, 2, or 3 lifetime occurrences of major discrimination (ie, job, housing, or police) relative to those who reported none were 1.04 (0.96-1.13), 1.17 (1.07-1.28), and 1.24 (1.10-1.39), respectively. Results did not vary according to case definition (ultrasound vs. surgery) or health care utilization. Associations were weaker among foreign-born women and among women with higher coping skills. Conclusions Perceived racism was associated with an increased risk of uterine myomas in US-born black women. PMID:17917606

  7. An Unwelcomed Digital Visitor in the Classroom: The Longitudinal Impact of Online Racial Discrimination on Academic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynes, Brendesha M.; Del Toro, Juan; Lozada, Fantasy T.

    2015-01-01

    Online racial discrimination experiences often reflect attacks on the humanity and intelligence of members of specific racial groups (e.g., African Americans and Latinos). Such experiences may have detrimental effects on academic outcomes over time. Changes in reports of online racial discrimination and academic motivation were examined among a…

  8. Perceived discrimination, racial identity, and health behaviors among black primary-care patients who use drugs.

    PubMed

    Squires, Leah E; Palfai, Tibor P; Allensworth-Davies, Don; Cheng, Debbie M; Bernstein, Judith; Kressin, Nancy; Saitz, Richard

    2017-03-10

    Blacks who use drugs are at heightened risk for health problems. Discrimination experiences may contribute to these risks by influencing health behaviors. This study examined associations between discrimination, racial identity, and health behaviors (alcohol use, cigarette smoking, low physical activity, and unprotected [condomless] sex) in a sample of 203 Black primary-care patients who reported current drug use. Logistic regression analyses did not find direct effects of discrimination or identity on outcomes. Hypothesized moderation of discrimination by racial identity was not observed in expected direction for the outcome of unprotected sex.

  9. Racial Ideological Beliefs and Racial Discrimination Experiences as Predictors of Academic Engagement among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalls, Ciara; White, Rhonda; Chavous, Tabbye; Sellers, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents' understandings of their social identities and related personal experiences influence their adaptations and responses within domains in which those identities are salient. The authors explore associations of racial identity beliefs regarding how Blacks should act, think, and behave (racial ideologies) and racial discrimination…

  10. The Defining Moment: Children's Conceptualization of Race and Experiences with Racial Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Hannon, Lonnie; Fernandez, Jose R.; Cockerham, William C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines whether children of marginalized racial/ethnic groups have an awareness of race at earlier ages than youth from non-marginalized groups, documents their experiences with racial discrimination, and utilizes a modified racism-related stress model to explore the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and self-esteem. Data were collected for non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic children aged 7 – 12 using face-to-face interviews (n = 175). The concept of race was measured by assessing whether children could define race, if not a standard definition was provided. Racial discrimination was measured using the Williams Every-day-Discrimination Scale, self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Scale, and ethnic identity was assessed using the Multi-group Ethnic Identity Measure. Non-Hispanic black children were able to define race more accurately, but overall, Hispanic children encountered more racial discrimination, with frequent reports of ethnic slurs. Additionally, after accounting for ethnic identity, perceived racial discrimination remained a salient stressor that contributed to low self-esteem. PMID:21532908

  11. Relationships among Neighborhood Environment, Racial Discrimination, Psychological Distress, and Preterm Birth in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Park, Chang G.; Dieber, William; Block, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To (a) examine the relationships among objective and perceived indicators of neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, psychological distress, and gestational age at birth; (b) determine if neighborhood environment and racial discrimination predicted psychological distress; (c) determine if neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, and psychological distress predicted preterm birth; and (d) determine if psychological distress mediated the effects of neighborhood environment and racial discrimination on preterm birth. Design Descriptive correlational comparative. Setting Postpartum unit of a medical center in Chicago. Participants African American women (n1 = 33 with preterm birth; n2 = 39 with full-term birth). Methods Women completed the instruments 24 to 72 hours after birth. Objective measures of the neighborhood were derived using geographic information systems (GIS). Results Women who reported higher levels of perceived social and physical disorder and perceived crime also reported higher levels of psychological distress. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also had higher levels of psychological distress. Objective social disorder and perceived crime predicted psychological distress. Objective physical disorder and psychological distress predicted preterm birth. Psychological distress mediated the effect of objective social disorder and perceived crime on preterm birth. Conclusion Women’s neighborhood environments and racial discrimination were related to psychological distress, and these factors may increase the risk for preterm birth. PMID:23030593

  12. The Defining Moment: Children's Conceptualization of Race and Experiences with Racial Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Hannon, Lonnie; Fernandez, Jose R; Cockerham, William C

    2011-04-01

    This paper examines whether children of marginalized racial/ethnic groups have an awareness of race at earlier ages than youth from non-marginalized groups, documents their experiences with racial discrimination, and utilizes a modified racism-related stress model to explore the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and self-esteem. Data were collected for non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic children aged 7 - 12 using face-to-face interviews (n = 175). The concept of race was measured by assessing whether children could define race, if not a standard definition was provided. Racial discrimination was measured using the Williams Every-day-Discrimination Scale, self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Scale, and ethnic identity was assessed using the Multi-group Ethnic Identity Measure. Non-Hispanic black children were able to define race more accurately, but overall, Hispanic children encountered more racial discrimination, with frequent reports of ethnic slurs. Additionally, after accounting for ethnic identity, perceived racial discrimination remained a salient stressor that contributed to low self-esteem.

  13. Relationships among neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, psychological distress, and preterm birth in African American women.

    PubMed

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N; Dancy, Barbara L; Park, Chang G; Dieber, William; Block, Richard

    2012-01-01

    To (a) examine the relationships among objective and perceived indicators of neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, psychological distress, and gestational age at birth; (b) determine if neighborhood environment and racial discrimination predicted psychological distress; (c) determine if neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, and psychological distress predicted preterm birth; and (d) determine if psychological distress mediated the effects of neighborhood environment and racial discrimination on preterm birth. Descriptive correlational comparative. Postpartum unit of a medical center in Chicago. African American women (n(1)  = 33 with preterm birth; n(2)  = 39 with full-term birth). Women completed the instruments 24 to 72 hours after birth. Objective measures of the neighborhood were derived using geographic information systems (GIS). Women who reported higher levels of perceived social and physical disorder and perceived crime also reported higher levels of psychological distress. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also had higher levels of psychological distress. Objective social disorder and perceived crime predicted psychological distress. Objective physical disorder and psychological distress predicted preterm birth. Psychological distress mediated the effect of objective social disorder and perceived crime on preterm birth. Women's neighborhood environments and racial discrimination were related to psychological distress, and these factors may increase the risk for preterm birth. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  14. Capturing the cardiac effects of racial discrimination: Do the effects “keep going”?

    PubMed Central

    Hoggard, Lori S.; Hill, LaBarron K.; Gray, DeLeon L.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Racial discrimination negatively impacts cardiac functioning, but few studies examine the more distal cardiac effects of racial discrimination experiences. The present study examined the momentary and prolonged impact of lab-based intergroup and intragroup racial discrimination on heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate (HR) in a sample (N = 42) of African American (AA) women across two days. On day one, the women were exposed to simulated racial discrimination from either a European American (EA) or AA confederate in the lab. On day two, the women returned to the lab for additional physiological recording and debriefing. Women insulted by the EA confederate exhibited lower HRV on day one and marginally lower HRV on day two. These women also exhibited marginally higher HR on day two. The HRV and HR effects on day two were not mediated by differences in perseveration about the stressor. The findings indicate that racial discrimination – particularly intergroup racial discrimination – may have both momentary and prolonged effects on cardiac activity in AAs. PMID:25931114

  15. Longitudinal Associations Between Experienced Racial Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms in African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2015-01-01

    While recent evidence has indicated that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African American adolescents, most studies rely on cross-sectional and short-term longitudinal research designs. As a result, the direction and persistence of this association across time remains unclear. This article examines longitudinal associations between experienced racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among a community sample of African American adolescents (N = 504) from Grade 7 to Grade 10, while controlling for multiple alternative causal pathways. Sex was tested as a moderator of the link between experienced racial discrimination and later depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling revealed that experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with depressive symptoms 1 year later across all waves of measurement. The link between experienced racial discrimination at Grade 7 and depressive symptoms at Grade 8 was stronger for females than males. Findings highlight the role of experienced racial discrimination in the etiology of depressive symptoms for African Americans across early adolescence. PMID:24188037

  16. Longitudinal associations between experienced racial discrimination and depressive symptoms in African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2014-04-01

    While recent evidence has indicated that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African American adolescents, most studies rely on cross-sectional and short-term longitudinal research designs. As a result, the direction and persistence of this association across time remains unclear. This article examines longitudinal associations between experienced racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among a community sample of African American adolescents (N = 504) from Grade 7 to Grade 10, while controlling for multiple alternative causal pathways. Sex was tested as a moderator of the link between experienced racial discrimination and later depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling revealed that experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with depressive symptoms 1 year later across all waves of measurement. The link between experienced racial discrimination at Grade 7 and depressive symptoms at Grade 8 was stronger for females than males. Findings highlight the role of experienced racial discrimination in the etiology of depressive symptoms for African Americans across early adolescence. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Capturing the cardiac effects of racial discrimination: Do the effects "keep going"?

    PubMed

    Hoggard, Lori S; Hill, LaBarron K; Gray, DeLeon L; Sellers, Robert M

    2015-08-01

    Racial discrimination negatively impacts cardiac functioning, but few studies examine the more distal cardiac effects of racial discrimination experiences. The present study examined the momentary and prolonged impact of lab-based intergroup and intragroup racial discrimination on heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate (HR) in a sample (N = 42) of African American (AA) women across two days. On day one, the women were exposed to simulated racial discrimination from either a European American (EA) or AA confederate in the lab. On day two, the women returned to the lab for additional physiological recording and debriefing. Women insulted by the EA confederate exhibited lower HRV on day one and marginally lower HRV on day two. These women also exhibited marginally higher HR on day two. The HRV and HR effects on day two were not mediated by differences in perseveration about the stressor. The findings indicate that racial discrimination - particularly intergroup racial discrimination - may have both momentary and prolonged effects on cardiac activity in AAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Racial discrimination predicts greater systemic inflammation in pregnant African American women.

    PubMed

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Engeland, Christopher G; Templin, Thomas N; Zenk, Shannon N; Koenig, Mary Dawn; Garfield, Lindsey

    2016-11-01

    Chronic exposure to racial discrimination by pregnant African American women may lead to allostatic overload; thereby, predisposing women to systemic inflammation. Thus, the goal of this study was to examine if experiences of racial discrimination are related to systemic inflammation in pregnant African Americans. A sample of 96 African American women from Chicago completed questionnaires and had blood drawn during the second trimester of pregnancy (19.7±2.5 weeks). Experiences of racial discrimination were associated with higher cytokine levels of interleukin (IL)-4 (B=2.161, 95% CI = 1.02-3.30, p<.001) and IL-6 (B=1.859, 95% CI=.61-3.11, p=.004) when controlling for covariates. These findings suggest that experiences of racial discrimination may cause physiological wear and tear on the body leading to alteration of immune functions. Nurses should inquire about women's experiences of racial discrimination and make referrals for community or church support groups for women who report racial discrimination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Racial discrimination is associated with a measure of red blood cell oxidative stress: a potential pathway for racial health disparities.

    PubMed

    Szanton, Sarah L; Rifkind, Joseph M; Mohanty, Joy G; Miller, Edgar R; Thorpe, Roland J; Nagababu, Eneka; Epel, Elissa S; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K

    2012-12-01

    There are racial health disparities in many conditions for which oxidative stress is hypothesized to be a precursor. These include cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and premature aging. Small clinical studies suggest that psychological stress may increase oxidative stress. However, confirmation of this association in epidemiological studies has been limited by homogenous populations and unmeasured potential confounders. We tested the cross-sectional association between self-reported racial discrimination and red blood cell (RBC) oxidative stress in a biracial, socioeconomically heterogeneous population with well-measured confounders. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a consecutive series of 629 participants enrolled in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. Conducted by the National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, HANDLS is a prospective epidemiological study of a socioeconomically diverse cohort of 3,721 Whites and African Americans aged 30-64 years. Racial discrimination was based on self-report. RBC oxidative stress was measured by fluorescent heme degradation products. Potential confounders were age, smoking status, obesity, and C-reactive protein. Participants had a mean age of 49 years (SD = 9.27). In multivariable linear regression models, racial discrimination was significantly associated with RBC oxidative stress (Beta = 0.55, P < 0.05) after adjustment for age, smoking, C-reactive protein level, and obesity. When stratified by race, discrimination was not associated with RBC oxidative stress in Whites but was associated significantly for African Americans (Beta = 0.36, P < 0.05). These findings suggest that there may be identifiable cellular pathways by which racial discrimination amplifies cardiovascular and other age-related disease risks.

  20. The relationships between major lifetime discrimination, everyday discrimination, and mental health in three racial and ethnic groups of older adults.

    PubMed

    Ayalon, Liat; Gum, Amber M

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the relationships between perceived exposure to major lifetime discrimination, everyday discrimination, and mental health in three racial/ethnic groups of older adults. The Health and Retirement Study is a nationally representative sample of individuals 50 years and older living in the United States. A total of 6455 Whites, 716 Latinos, and 1214 Blacks were eligible to complete a self-report psychosocial questionnaire in the year 2006. Whereas 30% of the general population reported at least one type of major lifetime discrimination, almost 45% of Black older adults reported such discrimination. Relative to the other two racial/ethnic groups (82% Whites, 82.6% Blacks), Latinos were significantly less likely to report any everyday discrimination (64.2%), whereas Blacks reported the greatest frequency of everyday discrimination. Whites reported the highest levels of life satisfaction and the lowest levels of depressive symptoms. Relative to major lifetime discrimination, everyday discrimination had a somewhat stronger correlation with mental health indicators. The relationships between discrimination and mental health outcomes were stronger for White compared to Black older adults, although everyday discrimination was still significantly associated with outcomes for Black older adults. Black older adults experience the greatest number of discriminative events, but weaker associated mental health outcomes. This could be because they have become accustomed to these experiences, benefit from social or cultural resources that serve as buffers, or selective survival, with the present sample capturing only the most resilient older adults who have learned to cope with the deleterious effects of discrimination.

  1. Racial Discrimination and Health Among Asian Americans: Evidence, Assessment, and Directions for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Gilbert C.; Ro, Annie; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Chae, David

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that racial discrimination is related to illness among diverse racial and ethnic populations. Studies of racial discrimination and health among Asian Americans, however, remain underdeveloped. In this paper, the authors review evidence on racial discrimination and health among Asian Americans, identify gaps in the literature, and provide suggestions for future research. They identified 62 empirical articles assessing the relation between discrimination and health among Asian Americans. The majority of articles focused on mental health problems, followed by physical and behavioral problems. Most studies find that discrimination was associated with poorer health, although the most consistent findings were for mental health problems. This review suggests that future studies should continue to investigate the following: 1) the measurement of discrimination among Asian Americans, whose experiences may be qualitatively different from those of other racial minority groups; 2) the heterogeneity among Asian Americans, including those factors that are particularly salient in this population, such as ethnic ancestry and immigration history; and 3) the health implications of discrimination at multiple ecologic levels, ranging from the individual level to the structural level. PMID:19805401

  2. Self-reported racial discrimination and endothelial reactivity to acute stress in women.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Julie A; Tennen, Howard; Finan, Patrick H; Ghuman, Nimrta; Burg, Matthew M

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of self-reported racial discrimination on endothelial responses to acute laboratory mental stress among post-menopausal women. One-hundred thirteen women (n = 94 self-identified as White and n = 19 self-identified as racial/ethnic minority), 43% with type 2 diabetes, reported lifetime experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination. Repeated assessments of flow-mediated dilation were performed at baseline, immediately after 5 min of mental arithmetic and at 20-min recovery. Both White and racial/ethnic minority women reported lifetime discrimination, with rates significantly higher among minorities. Self-reported lifetime discrimination was associated with attenuated flow-mediated dilation at recovery. Confounding variables, including clinical characteristics, mood, personality traits, other life stressors and general distress, did not better account for the effect of racial discrimination. Neither race/ethnicity nor diabetes status moderated the effect. The perceived stressfulness of the mental arithmetic was not associated with the endothelial response. In conclusion, self-reported lifetime discrimination is associated with attenuated endothelial recovery from acute mental stress. Elucidating the effects of discrimination and the biological mechanisms through which it affects the vasculature may suggest interventions to improve health. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Racial Discrimination during Adolescence Predicts Mental Health Deterioration in Adulthood: Gender Differences among Blacks.

    PubMed

    Assari, Shervin; Moazen-Zadeh, Ehsan; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2017-01-01

    Despite the existing knowledge regarding the negative mental health consequences of perceived racial discrimination, very few researchers have used a longitudinal design with long-term follow-up periods to explore gender differences in this association over time. The current longitudinal study aimed to investigate gender differences in predictive role of an increase in perceived racial discrimination during adolescence for mental health deterioration a decade later when they are transitioning to young adulthood. Current study followed 681 Black youths for 18 years from 1994 (mean age 15) to 2012 (mean age 32). All participants spent their adolescence and transition to young adulthood in an economically disadvantaged urban area in the Midwest of the United States. Independent variable was perceived racial discrimination measured in 1999 and 2002. Outcomes were psychological symptoms (anxiety and depression) measured in 1999 and at end of follow-up (2012). Covariates included sociodemographics (age, family structure, and parental employment) measured in 1994. Gender was used to define groups in a multigroup structural equation model to test moderating effects. Multigroup structural equation modeling showed that among male Black youth, an increase in perceived racial discrimination from age 20 to 23 was predictive for an increase in symptoms of anxiety and depression from age 20 to 32. Among female Black youth, change in perceived racial discrimination did not predict future change in depressive or anxiety symptoms. While racial discrimination is associated with negative mental health consequences for both genders, male and female Black youth differ in regard to long-term effects of an increase in perceived discrimination on deterioration of psychological symptoms. Black males seem to be more susceptible than Black females to the psychological effects of an increase in racial discrimination over time.

  4. A Transactional/Ecological Perspective on Ethnic-Racial Identity, Socialization, and Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Diane L; Watford, Jon Alexander; Del Toro, Juan

    We first review current literature on three ethnic-racial dynamics that are considered to be resources and stressors in the lives of ethnic-minority youth: ethnic-racial identity, socialization, and discrimination. Next, we propose that a more contextualized view of these ethnic-racial dynamics reveals that they are interdependent, inseparable, and mutually defining and that an ecological/transactional perspective on these ethnic-racial dynamics shifts researchers' gaze from studying them as individual-level processes to studying the features of settings that produce them. We describe what is known about how identity, socialization, and discrimination occur in four microsystems-families, peers, schools, and neighborhoods-and argue that focusing on specific characteristics of these microsystems in which particular types of identity, socialization, and discrimination processes cooccur would be informative. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pathways from Racial Discrimination to Multiple Sexual Partners Among Male African American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A; Pocock, Alexandra M; Brody, Gene H

    2015-04-01

    African American male adolescents' involvement with multiple sexual partners has important implications for public health as well as for their development of ideas regarding masculinity and sexuality. The purpose of this study was to test hypotheses regarding the pathways through which racial discrimination affects African American adolescents' involvement with multiple sexual partners. We hypothesized that racial discrimination would engender psychological distress, which would promote attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple sexual partnerships. The study also examined the protective influence of parenting practices in buffering the influence of contextual stressors. Participants were 221 African American male youth who provided data at ages 16 and 18; their parents provided data on family socioeconomic disadvantages. Of these young men, 18.5% reported having 3 or more sexual partners during the past 3 months. Structural equation models indicated that racial discrimination contributed to sexual activity with multiple partners by inducing psychological distress, which in turn affected attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple partners. The experience of protective parenting, which included racial socialization, closeness and harmony in parent-child relationships, and parental monitoring, buffered the influence of racial discrimination on psychological distress. These findings suggest targets for prevention programming and underscore the importance of efforts to reduce young men's experience with racial discrimination.

  6. Pathways from Racial Discrimination to Multiple Sexual Partners Among Male African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A.; Pocock, Alexandra M.; Brody, Gene H.

    2014-01-01

    African American male adolescents’ involvement with multiple sexual partners has important implications for public health as well as for their development of ideas regarding masculinity and sexuality. The purpose of this study was to test hypotheses regarding the pathways through which racial discrimination affects African American adolescents’ involvement with multiple sexual partners. We hypothesized that racial discrimination would engender psychological distress, which would promote attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple sexual partnerships. The study also examined the protective influence of parenting practices in buffering the influence of contextual stressors. Participants were 221 African American male youth who provided data at ages 16 and 18; their parents provided data on family socioeconomic disadvantages. Of these young men, 18.5% reported having 3 or more sexual partners during the past 3 months. Structural equation models indicated that racial discrimination contributed to sexual activity with multiple partners by inducing psychological distress, which in turn affected attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple partners. The experience of protective parenting, which included racial socialization, closeness and harmony in parent-child relationships, and parental monitoring, buffered the influence of racial discrimination on psychological distress. These findings suggest targets for prevention programming and underscore the importance of efforts to reduce young men’s experience with racial discrimination. PMID:25937821

  7. Racial Discrimination and the Black-White Gap in Adverse Birth Outcomes: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Giurgescu, Carmen; McFarlin, Barbara L.; Lomax, Jeneen; Craddock, Cindy; Albrecht, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this integrative review was to evaluate what is known about the relationship between racial discrimination and adverse birth outcomes. Methods A search of the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO was conducted. The keywords used were: preterm birth, premature birth, preterm delivery, preterm labor, low birth weight, very low birth weight, racism, racial discrimination, and prejudice. Ten research studies were reviewed. All of the studies included African American women in their samples, were conducted in the United States, and were written in English. We did not limit the year of publication for the studies. Data were extracted based on the birth outcomes of preterm birth, low birth weight, or very low birth weight. Results A consistent positive relationship existed between perceptions of racial discrimination and preterm birth, low birth weight, and very low birth weight. No relationship was found between racial discrimination and gestational age at birth. Discussion Future research should explore the effects of racial discrimination as a chronic stressor contributing to the persistent gap in birth outcomes between racial groups. PMID:21733107

  8. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, smoking and alcohol consumption in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    Borrell, Luisa N; Diez Roux, Ana V; Jacobs, David R; Shea, Steven; Jackson, Sharon A; Shrager, Sandi; Blumenthal, Roger S

    2010-01-01

    To examine the association of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination with smoking and alcohol consumption in adults participating in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Data on 6680 black, Chinese, Hispanic and white adults aged 45 to 84 years of age recruited from Illinois, New York, Maryland, North Carolina, Minnesota and California during 2000 and 2002 were used for this analysis. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination with smoking status and alcohol consumption for each racial/ethnic group separately. Blacks were more likely to experience racial/ethnic discrimination (43%) than Hispanics (19%), Chinese participants (10%) or whites (4%, P<0.0001). In the fully-adjusted model, blacks reporting racial/ethnic discrimination had 34% and 51% greater odds of reporting smoking and drinking, respectively, than blacks who did not report racial/ethnic discrimination. Hispanics reporting racial/ethnic discrimination had 62% greater odds of heavy drinking. Whites reporting racial/ethnic discrimination had 88% greater odds of reporting being current smokers than whites who did not report racial/ethnic discrimination. Our findings suggest that the experience of discrimination is associated with greater prevalence of unhealthy behaviors. Specifically, the use of smoking and alcohol may be patterned by experience of discrimination. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Perceived Racial Discrimination and Mental Health in Low-income Urban-dwelling Whites

    PubMed Central

    Bower, Kelly M; Thorpe, Roland J.; LaVeist, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and the presence of anxiety and depression in a sample of low-income urban dwelling whites. Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional survey of low-income whites living in an inner-city neighborhood in the mid-Atlantic United States. Perceived racial discrimination was reported by 39 percent of participants. Rates of depression in the population exceed prevalence rates in the general U.S. population. Those who perceived racial discrimination and were bothered by it experienced significantly greater odds of being depressed (OR = 2.78, 95% CI: 1.60 – 4.82) and had higher anxiety scores (b=2.02, SE: 0.55, p=0.000) than those who did not perceive racial discrimination. Low-income urban white populations have been largely ignored in public health research. This study demonstrates that perceived racial discrimination is common in poor urban whites. Further, exposure to discrimination which is perceived as a stressor is associated with mental illness. PMID:23821905

  10. Perceived racial discrimination and mental health in low-income, urban-dwelling whites.

    PubMed

    Bower, Kelly M; Thorpe, Roland J; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and the presence of anxiety and depression in a sample of low-income, urban-dwelling whites. Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional survey of low-income whites living in an inner-city neighborhood in the mid-Atlantic United States. Perceived racial discrimination was reported by 39 percent of participants. Rates of depression in the population exceed prevalence rates in the general U.S. population. Those who perceived racial discrimination and were bothered by it experienced significantly greater odds of being depressed (OR = 2.78, 95% CI 1.60-4.82) and had higher anxiety scores (b = 2.02, SE 0.55, p = 0.000) than those who did not perceive racial discrimination. Low-income, urban white populations have been largely ignored in public health research. This study demonstrates that perceived racial discrimination is common in poor urban whites. Further, exposure to discrimination that is perceived as a stressor is associated with mental illness.

  11. The Impact of Racial Discrimination and Coping Strategies on Internalizing Symptoms in African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the impact of racial discrimination stress on internalizing symptoms and coping strategies in a sample of 268 African American early adolescents (mean age = 12.90; 56% female) from low-income communities. Information about discrimination stress, coping, and internalizing symptoms was obtained via adolescents'…

  12. Racial and gender discrimination, early life factors, and chronic physical health conditions in midlife.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Terry, Mary Beth; Tehranifar, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of perceived discrimination have been cross-sectional and focused primarily on mental rather than physical health conditions. We examined the associations of perceived racial and gender discrimination reported in adulthood with early life factors and self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic physical health conditions. We used data from a racially diverse birth cohort of U.S. women (n = 168; average age, 41 years) with prospectively collected early life data (e.g., parental socioeconomic factors) and adult reported data on perceived discrimination, physical health conditions, and relevant risk factors. We performed modified robust Poisson regression owing to the high prevalence of the outcomes. Fifty percent of participants reported racial and 39% reported gender discrimination. Early life factors did not have strong associations with perceived discrimination. In adjusted regression models, participants reporting at least three experiences of gender or racial discrimination had a 38% increased risk of having at least one physical health condition (relative risk, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.87). Using standardized regression coefficients, the magnitude of the association of having physical health condition(s) was larger for perceived discrimination than for being overweight or obese. Our results suggest a substantial chronic disease burden associated with perceived discrimination, which may exceed the impact of established risk factors for poor physical health. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Racial and Gender Discrimination, Early Life Factors, and Chronic Physical Health Conditions in Midlife

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jasmine A.; Terry, Mary Beth; Tehranifar, Parisa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Most studies of perceived discrimination have been cross-sectional and focused primarily on mental rather than physical health conditions. We examined the associations of perceived racial and gender discrimination reported in adulthood with early life factors and self-reported physician-diagnosis of chronic physical health conditions. Methods We used data from a racially diverse birth cohort of U.S. women (N=168, average age=41 years) with prospectively collected early life data (e.g., parental socioeconomic factors) and adult reported data on perceived discrimination, physical health conditions, and relevant risk factors. We performed modified robust Poisson regression due to the high prevalence of the outcomes. Results Fifty-percent of participants reported racial and 39% reported gender discrimination. Early life factors did not have strong associations with perceived discrimination. In adjusted regression models, participants reporting at least three experiences of gender or racial discrimination had a 38% increased risk of having at least one physical health conditions (RR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.01-1.87). Using standardized regression coefficients, the magnitude of the association of having physical health conditions was larger for perceived discrimination than for being overweight or obese. Conclusion Our results suggest a substantial chronic disease burden associated with perceived discrimination, which may exceed the impact of established risk factors for poor physical health. PMID:24345610

  14. The Impact of Racial Discrimination and Coping Strategies on Internalizing Symptoms in African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the impact of racial discrimination stress on internalizing symptoms and coping strategies in a sample of 268 African American early adolescents (mean age = 12.90; 56% female) from low-income communities. Information about discrimination stress, coping, and internalizing symptoms was obtained via adolescents'…

  15. From Racial Discrimination to Risky Sex: Prospective Relations Involving Peers and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Megan E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Murry, Velma M.; Simons, Leslie G.; Simons, Ronald L.; Lorenz, Frederick O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how early experience with racial discrimination affected the subsequent risky sexual behaviors of a diverse sample of African American youths (N = 745). The analyses focused on 3 risk-promoting factors thought to mediate the hypothesized discrimination--risky sex relation: negative affect, affiliation with deviant peers,…

  16. Relationship of Distress and Perceived Control to Coping With Perceived Racial Discrimination Among Black Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Jr., Lionel D.; House, Laura E.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the use of approach (e.g., seeking social support, problem solving) and avoidance (e.g., distancing, internalizing, externalizing) strategies for coping with perceived racial discrimination and their relationship to the subjective feelings of distress evoked by perceived experiences of discrimination and perceived control over…

  17. Beyond the barriers: racial discrimination and use of complementary and alternative medicine among Black Americans.

    PubMed

    Shippee, Tetyana Pylypiv; Schafer, Markus H; Ferraro, Kenneth F

    2012-04-01

    This article examines whether self-reported racial discrimination is associated with greater use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and assesses whether the effects of reported racial discrimination are specific to the setting in which the unfair treatment occurred (i.e., medical or nonmedical settings). Data were drawn from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) of Black adults aged 25 and older at baseline (N=201). Analyses account for multiple forms of discrimination: major lifetime discriminatory events and everyday discrimination (more commonplace negative occurrences). Using logistic and negative binomial regression, results reveal that racial discrimination was associated with a higher likelihood of using any type of CAM as well as using more modalities of CAM. Also, both discrimination in health care and discrimination in nonmedical contexts predicted greater use of CAM. The findings underscore the tenet that health care choices, while influenced by health status and availability of health care resources, are also shaped by perceived barriers. The experience of racial discrimination among Black people is associated with greater use of alternative means of health care, as a way to cope with the barriers they experience in institutional settings in the United States. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. From Racial Discrimination to Risky Sex: Prospective Relations Involving Peers and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Megan E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Murry, Velma M.; Simons, Leslie G.; Simons, Ronald L.; Lorenz, Frederick O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how early experience with racial discrimination affected the subsequent risky sexual behaviors of a diverse sample of African American youths (N = 745). The analyses focused on 3 risk-promoting factors thought to mediate the hypothesized discrimination--risky sex relation: negative affect, affiliation with deviant peers,…

  19. Race, life course socioeconomic position, racial discrimination, depressive symptoms and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Darrell L; Puterman, Eli; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Matthews, Karen A; Adler, Nancy E

    2013-11-01

    Greater levels of socioeconomic position (SEP) are generally associated with better health. However results from previous studies vary across race/ethnicity and health outcomes. Further, the majority of previous studies do not account for the effects of life course SEP on health nor the effects of racial discrimination, which could moderate the effects of SEP on health. Using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, we examined the relationship between a life course SEP measure on depressive symptoms and self-rated health. A life course SEP was constructed for each participant, using a framework that included parental education and occupation along with respondents' highest level of education and occupation. Interaction terms were created between life course SEP and racial discrimination to determine whether the association between SEP and health was moderated by experiences of racial discrimination. Analyses revealed that higher levels of life course SEP were inversely related to depressive symptoms. Greater life course SEP was positively associated with favorable self-rated health. Racial discrimination was associated with more depressive symptoms and poorer self-rated health. Analyses indicated a significant interaction between life course SEP and racial discrimination on depressive symptoms in the full sample. This suggested that for respondents with greater levels of SEP, racial discrimination was associated with reports of more depressive symptoms. Future research efforts should be made to examine whether individuals' perceptions and experiences of racial discrimination at the interpersonal and structural levels limits their ability to acquire human capital as well as their advancement in education and occupational status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardiovascular disease and perceived weight, racial, and gender discrimination in U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Udo, Tomoko; Grilo, Carlos M

    2017-09-01

    To date, most research on perceived discrimination and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has examined racial discrimination although other forms of discrimination may also impact physical and mental health. The current study investigated the relationship between three forms of discrimination (weight, race, and gender) and 3-year incidence of CVD in a large national sample of U.S. adults. 26,992 adults (55.5% women) who participated in the 2001-2002 and 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were included in this study. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for three forms of perceived discrimination (simultaneously included in equations after adjusting for relevant potential confounds) for predicting CVD incidence at Wave 2. Perceived weight and racial discrimination were associated with significantly greater likelihood of reporting myocardial infarction (OR=2.56 [95% CI=1.31-4.98], OR=1.84 [95% CI=1.19-2.84], respectively) and minor heart conditions (OR=1.48 [95% CI=1.11-1.98], OR=1.41 [95% CI=1.18-1.70], respectively). Perceived racial discrimination was also significantly associated with greater likelihood of reporting arteriosclerosis (OR=1.61 [95% CI=1.11-2.34]). Odds ratios for diagnoses of arteriosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and other minor heart disease were largest for individuals reporting multiple forms of discrimination. Adults who experience weight and racial discrimination, and especially multiple forms of discrimination, may be at heightened risk for CVD. Perceived discrimination may be important to consider during assessment of life stressors by health providers. Future research should address the mechanisms that link discrimination and CVD to assist public health and policy efforts to reduce discrimination. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Links between patterns of racial socialization and discrimination experiences and psychological adjustment: a cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Alex A; Syed, Moin

    2014-10-01

    This study used a person-oriented analytic approach to identify meaningful patterns of barriers-focused racial socialization and perceived racial discrimination experiences in a sample of 295 late adolescents. Using cluster analysis, three distinct groups were identified: Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination, High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination, and High Barrier Socialization-High Discrimination clusters. These groups were substantively unique in terms of the frequency of racial socialization messages about bias preparation and out-group mistrust its members received and their actual perceived discrimination experiences. Further, individuals in the High Barrier Socialization-High Discrimination cluster reported significantly higher depressive symptoms than those in the Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination and High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination clusters. However, no differences in adjustment were observed between the Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination and High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination clusters. Overall, the findings highlight important individual differences in how young people of color experience their race and how these differences have significant implications on psychological adjustment. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Implicit racial bias as a moderator of the association between racial discrimination and hypertension: a study of Midlife African American men.

    PubMed

    Chae, David H; Nuru-Jeter, Amani M; Adler, Nancy E

    2012-01-01

    Empirical findings on racial discrimination and hypertension risk have been inconsistent. Some studies have found no association between self-reported experiences of discrimination and cardiovascular health outcomes, whereas others have found moderated or curvilinear relationships. The current cross-sectional study examined whether the association between racial discrimination and hypertension is moderated by implicit racial bias among African American midlife men. This study examined the data on 91 African American men between 30 and 50 years of age. Primary variables were self-reported experiences of racial discrimination and unconscious racial bias as measured by the Black-White Implicit Association Test. Modified Poisson regression models were specified, examining hypertension, defined as a mean resting systolic level of at least 140 mm Hg or diastolic level of at least 90 mm Hg, or self-reported history of cardiovascular medication use with a physician diagnosis of hypertension. No main effects for discrimination or implicit racial bias were found, but the interaction of the two variables was significantly related to hypertension (χ(2)(1) = 4.89, p < .05). Among participants with an implicit antiblack bias, more frequent reports of discrimination were associated with a higher probability of hypertension, whereas among those with an implicit problack bias, it was associated with lower risk. The combination of experiencing racial discrimination and holding an antiblack bias may have particularly detrimental consequences on hypertension among African American midlife men, whereas holding an implicit problack bias may buffer the effects of racial discrimination. Efforts to address both internalized racial bias and racial discrimination may lower cardiovascular risk in this population.

  3. Perceived racial discrimination as a barrier to college enrollment for African Americans.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Ross E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Gerrard, Meg; Simons, Ronald L

    2012-01-01

    African Americans trail European Americans in terms of academic achievement, even when accounting for differences in socioeconomic status. One cause of this gap may be racial discrimination. In the current article the authors hypothesized that early perceived racial discrimination (by 5th grade) would predict college enrollment, mediated by changes from 7th grade to 10th grade in academic orientation, college aspirations and expectations, and deviance tolerance. Participants were 750 African Americans from the Family and Community Health Study. A structural equation model that controlled for socioeconomic status and earlier academic performance supported the hypothesis, with the exception that discrimination did not influence aspirations. The effect of discrimination on expectations, however, was moderated: Participants with high future orientation maintained high expectations in spite of discrimination. These results suggest that discrimination discourages some African Americans from pursuing higher education and that increasing future orientation may promote African Americans' college enrollment.

  4. A Moderated Mediation Model: Racial Discrimination, Coping Strategies, and Racial Identity among Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Upton, Rachel; Gilbert, Adrianne; Volpe, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a moderated mediation model among 314 Black adolescents aged 13-18. The model included general coping strategies (e.g., active, distracting, avoidant, and support-seeking strategies) as mediators and racial identity dimensions (racial centrality, private regard, public regard, minority, assimilationist, and humanist ideologies)…

  5. A Moderated Mediation Model: Racial Discrimination, Coping Strategies, and Racial Identity among Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Upton, Rachel; Gilbert, Adrianne; Volpe, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a moderated mediation model among 314 Black adolescents aged 13-18. The model included general coping strategies (e.g., active, distracting, avoidant, and support-seeking strategies) as mediators and racial identity dimensions (racial centrality, private regard, public regard, minority, assimilationist, and humanist ideologies)…

  6. When are Racial Disparities in Education the Result of Racial Discrimination? A Social Science Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin

    2003-01-01

    Synthesizes the social science research on racially correlated disparities in education, focusing on biological determinism (behavioral genetics); social structure (e.g., reproduction theory and resistance theory); school organization and opportunities to learn (e.g., resources, racial composition, and tracking); family background (financial,…

  7. Ethnic/Racial Discrimination Moderates the Effect of Sleep Quality on School Engagement Across High School.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Margaret; Mirpuri, Sheena; Yip, Tiffany

    2017-04-10

    Previous research has indicated that school engagement tends to decline across high school. At the same time, sleep problems and exposure to social stressors such as ethnic/racial discrimination increase. The current study uses a biopsychosocial perspective to examine the interactive and prospective effects of sleep and discrimination on trajectories of academic performance. Growth curve models were used to explore changes in 6 waves of academic outcomes in a sample of 310 ethnically and racially diverse adolescents (mean age = 14.47 years, SD = .78, and 64.1% female). Ethnic/racial discrimination was assessed at Time 1 in a single survey. Sleep quality and duration were also assessed at Time 1 with daily diary surveys. School engagement and grades were reported every 6 months for 3 years. Higher self-reported sleep quality in the ninth grade was associated with higher levels of academic engagement at the start of high school. Ethnic/racial discrimination moderated the relationship between sleep quality and engagement such that adolescents reporting low levels of discrimination reported a steeper increase in engagement over time, whereas their peers reporting poor sleep quality and high levels of discrimination reported the worse engagement in the ninth grade and throughout high school. The combination of poor sleep quality and high levels of discrimination in ninth grade has downstream consequences for adolescent academic outcomes. This study applies the biopsychosocial model to understand the development and daily experiences of diverse adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Use of Racial Identity Development Theory to Explore Cultural Competence among Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Heejeong Sophia; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Thomas, M. Shelley

    2011-01-01

    In order to explore early childhood educators' cultural competence through a lens of racial identity development theory, a case study was conducted with four White Kindergarten teachers. Participants were surveyed and interviewed to understand their racial identity development as well as perspectives of teaching culturally diverse early childhood…

  9. Racial discrimination: a continuum of violence exposure for children of color.

    PubMed

    Sanders-Phillips, Kathy

    2009-06-01

    This article reviews and examines findings on the impact of racial discrimination on the development and functioning of children of color in the US. Based on current definitions of violence and child maltreatment, exposure to racial discrimination should be considered as a form of violence that can significantly impact child outcomes and limit the ability of parents and communities to provide support that promotes resiliency and optimal child development. In this article, a conceptual model of the effects of racial discrimination in children of color is presented. The model posits that exposure to racial discrimination may be a chronic source of trauma in the lives of many children of color that negatively influences mental and physical outcomes as well as parent and community support and functioning. Concurrent exposure to other forms of violence, including domestic, interpersonal and/or community violence, may exacerbate these effects. The impact of a potential continuum of violence exposure for children of color in the US and the need for future research and theoretical models on children's exposure to violence that attend to the impact of racial discrimination on child outcomes are discussed.

  10. Ethnic and mainstream social connectedness, perceived racial discrimination, and posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wei, Meifen; Wang, Kenneth T; Heppner, Puncky Paul; Du, Yi

    2012-07-01

    Carter (2007) proposed the notion of race-based traumatic stress and argued that experiences of racial discrimination can be viewed as a type of trauma. In a sample of 383 Chinese international students at 2 predominantly White midwestern universities, the present results supported this notion and found that perceived racial discrimination predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms over and above perceived general stress. Furthermore, Berry (1997) proposed an acculturation framework and recommended that researchers advance the literature by examining the moderation effects on the association between racial discrimination and outcomes. The present results supported the moderation effect for Ethnic SC (i.e., social connectedness in the ethnic community), but not for Mainstream SC (i.e., social connectedness in mainstream society). A simple effects analysis indicated that a high Ethnic SC weakened the strength of the association between perceived racial discrimination and posttraumatic stress symptoms more than a low Ethnic SC. Moreover, although Mainstream SC failed to be a moderator, Mainstream SC was significantly associated with less perceived general stress, less perceived racial discrimination, and less posttraumatic stress symptoms.

  11. Perceived racial discrimination and negative-mood-related drinking among African American college students.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Ross E; Armeli, Stephen; Scott, Denise M; Covault, Jonathan; Tennen, Howard

    2015-03-01

    Research consistently shows a positive association between racial discrimination and problematic alcohol use among African Americans, but little is known about the micro-processes linking this pernicious form of stress to drinking. One possibility is that the cumulative effects of discrimination increase individuals' likelihood of negative-mood-related drinking. In the current study, we examined whether individual differences in lifetime perceived racial discrimination among African American college students moderate relations between daily negative moods and evening alcohol consumption in both social and nonsocial contexts. Data came from an online daily diary study of 441 African Americans (58% female) enrolled at a historically black college/university. Lifetime discrimination was measured at baseline. For 30 days, students reported the number of drinks they consumed the night before both socially and nonsocially, as well as their daytime level of negative mood. In support of the hypotheses, only men who reported higher (vs. lower) lifetime discrimination showed a positive association between daily negative mood and that evening's level of nonsocial drinking. Contrary to expectation, women who reported higher (vs. lower) discrimination showed a negative association between daily negative mood and nonsocial drinking. Neither daily negative mood nor lifetime discrimination predicted level of social drinking. These findings provide further evidence that the cumulative impact of racial discrimination may produce a vulnerability to negative-mood-related drinking--but only for African American men. Importantly, these effects emerged only for nonsocial drinking, which may further explain the robust association between discrimination and problematic alcohol use.

  12. Racial discrimination and health-promoting vs damaging behaviors among African-American adults.

    PubMed

    Corral, Irma; Landrine, Hope

    2012-11-01

    Studies have found relationships between racial discrimination and increased health-damaging behaviors among African-Americans, but have not examined possible concomitant decreased health-promoting behaviors. We explored the role of discrimination in two health-promoting behaviors, consuming ≥ 5 fruits/vegetables daily (FVC) and physical activity (PA), for the first time, and likewise examined discrimination's contribution to cigarette smoking, among a sample of N = 2118 African-American adults. Results revealed that discrimination contributed positively to smoking and to PA but was unrelated to FVC. These findings suggest that both adaptive and maladaptive health behaviors might be used to cope with the stress of discrimination.

  13. Faculty Self-reported Experience with Racial and Ethnic Discrimination in Academic Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Neeraja B; Friedman, Robert H; Ash, Arlene S; Franco, Shakira; Carr, Phyllis L

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite the need to recruit and retain minority faculty in academic medicine, little is known about the experiences of minority faculty, in particular their self-reported experience of racial and ethnic discrimination at their institutions. OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency of self-reported experience of racial/ethnic discrimination among faculty of U.S. medical schools, as well as associations with outcomes, such as career satisfaction, academic rank, and number of peer-reviewed publications. DESIGN A 177-item self-administered mailed survey of U.S. medical school faculty. SETTING Twenty-four randomly selected medical schools in the contiguous United States. PARTICIPANTS A random sample of 1,979 full-time faculty, stratified by medical school, specialty, graduation cohort, and gender. MEASUREMENTS Frequency of self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic bias and discrimination. RESULTS The response rate was 60%. Of 1,833 faculty eligible, 82% were non-Hispanic white, 10% underrepresented minority (URM), and 8% nonunderrepresented minority (NURM). URM and NURM faculty were substantially more likely than majority faculty to perceive racial/ethnic bias in their academic environment (odds ratio [OR], 5.4; P < .01 and OR, 2.6; P < .01, respectively). Nearly half (48%) of URM and 26% of NURM reported experiencing racial/ethnic discrimination by a superior or colleague. Faculty with such reported experiences had lower career satisfaction scores than other faculty (P < .01). However, they received comparable salaries, published comparable numbers of papers, and were similarly likely to have attained senior rank (full or associate professor). CONCLUSIONS Many minority faculty report experiencing racial/ethnic bias in academic medicine and have lower career satisfaction than other faculty. Despite this, minority faculty who reported experiencing racial/ethnic discrimination achieved academic productivity similar to that of other faculty. PMID:15009781

  14. Investigating the Relationship between Ethnic Consciousness, Racial Discrimination and Self-Rated Health in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James; Rameka, Ruruhira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine race/ethnic consciousness and its associations with experiences of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Racism is an important determinant of health and cause of ethnic inequities. However, conceptualising the mechanisms by which racism impacts on health requires racism to be contextualised within the broader social environment. Race/ethnic consciousness (how often people think about their race or ethnicity) is understood as part of a broader assessment of the ‘racial climate’. Higher race/ethnic consciousness has been demonstrated among non-dominant racial/ethnic groups and linked to adverse health outcomes in a limited number of studies. We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, a national population-based survey of New Zealand adults, to examine the distribution of ethnic consciousness by ethnicity, and its association with individual experiences of racial discrimination and self-rated health. Findings showed that European respondents were least likely to report thinking about their ethnicity, with people from non-European ethnic groupings all reporting relatively higher ethnic consciousness. Higher ethnic consciousness was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting experience of racial discrimination for all ethnic groupings and was also associated with fair/poor self-rated health after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. However, this difference in health was no longer evident after further adjustment for socioeconomic position and individual experience of racial discrimination. Our study suggests different experiences of racialised social environments by ethnicity in New Zealand and that, at an individual level, ethnic consciousness is related to experiences of racial discrimination. However, the relationship with health is less clear and needs further investigation with research to better understand the racialised social relations that create and maintain ethnic inequities in health in

  15. Investigating the relationship between ethnic consciousness, racial discrimination and self-rated health in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James; Rameka, Ruruhira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine race/ethnic consciousness and its associations with experiences of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Racism is an important determinant of health and cause of ethnic inequities. However, conceptualising the mechanisms by which racism impacts on health requires racism to be contextualised within the broader social environment. Race/ethnic consciousness (how often people think about their race or ethnicity) is understood as part of a broader assessment of the 'racial climate'. Higher race/ethnic consciousness has been demonstrated among non-dominant racial/ethnic groups and linked to adverse health outcomes in a limited number of studies. We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, a national population-based survey of New Zealand adults, to examine the distribution of ethnic consciousness by ethnicity, and its association with individual experiences of racial discrimination and self-rated health. Findings showed that European respondents were least likely to report thinking about their ethnicity, with people from non-European ethnic groupings all reporting relatively higher ethnic consciousness. Higher ethnic consciousness was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting experience of racial discrimination for all ethnic groupings and was also associated with fair/poor self-rated health after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. However, this difference in health was no longer evident after further adjustment for socioeconomic position and individual experience of racial discrimination. Our study suggests different experiences of racialised social environments by ethnicity in New Zealand and that, at an individual level, ethnic consciousness is related to experiences of racial discrimination. However, the relationship with health is less clear and needs further investigation with research to better understand the racialised social relations that create and maintain ethnic inequities in health in

  16. The State of Research on Racial/Ethnic Discrimination in The Receipt of Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Pebbles; Jones, Dionne; Klein, William M. P.; Boyington, Josephine; Moten, Carmen; Rorie, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted a review to examine current literature on the effects of interpersonal and institutional racism and discrimination occurring within health care settings on the health care received by racial/ethnic minority patients. Methods. We searched the PsychNet, PubMed, and Scopus databases for articles on US populations published between January 1, 2008 and November 1, 2011. We used various combinations of the following search terms: discrimination, perceived discrimination, race, ethnicity, racism, institutional racism, stereotype, prejudice or bias, and health or health care. Fifty-eight articles were reviewed. Results. Patient perception of discriminatory treatment and implicit provider biases were the most frequently examined topics in health care settings. Few studies examined the overall prevalence of racial/ethnic discrimination and none examined temporal trends. In general, measures used were insufficient for examining the impact of interpersonal discrimination or institutional racism within health care settings on racial/ethnic disparities in health care. Conclusions. Better instrumentation, innovative methodology, and strategies are needed for identifying and tracking racial/ethnic discrimination in health care settings. PMID:22494002

  17. Employment discrimination: the role of implicit attitudes, motivation, and a climate for racial bias.

    PubMed

    Ziegert, Jonathan C; Hanges, Paul J

    2005-05-01

    This study is an attempt to replicate and extend research on employment discrimination by A. P. Brief and colleagues (A. P. Brief, J. Dietz, R. R. Cohen, S. D. Pugh, & J. B. Vaslow, 2000). More specifically, the authors attempted (a) to constructively replicate the prior finding that an explicit measure of modern racism would interact with a corporate climate for racial bias to predict discrimination in a hiring context and (b) to extend this finding through the measurement of implicit racist attitudes and motivation to control prejudice. Although the authors were unable to replicate the earlier interaction, they did illustrate that implicit racist attitudes interacted with a climate for racial bias to predict discrimination. Further, results partially illustrate that motivation to control prejudice moderates the relationship between explicit and implicit attitudes. Taken together, the findings illustrate the differences between implicit and explicit racial attitudes in predicting discriminatory behavior.

  18. Perception of racial discrimination and psychopathology across three U.S. ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Chou, Tina; Asnaani, Anu; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between the perception of racial discrimination and the lifetime prevalence rates of psychological disorders in the three most common ethnic minorities in the United States, we analyzed data from a sample consisting of 793 Asian Americans, 951 Hispanic Americans, and 2,795 African Americans who received the Composite International Diagnostic Interview through the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies. The perception of racial discrimination was associated with the endorsement of major depressive disorder, panic disorder with agoraphobia, agoraphobia without history of panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders in varying degrees among the three minority groups, independent of the socioeconomic status, level of education, age, and gender of participants. The results suggest that the perception of racial discrimination is associated with psychopathology in the three most common U.S. minority groups.

  19. Perception of Racial Discrimination and Psychopathology Across Three U.S. Ethnic Minority Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Tina; Asnaani, Anu; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between the perception of racial discrimination and the lifetime prevalence rates of psychological disorders in the three most common ethnic minorities in the U.S., we analyzed data from a sample consisting of 793 Asian Americans, 951 Hispanic Americans, and 2,795 African Americans who received the Composite International Diagnostic Interview through the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies. The perception of racial discrimination was associated with the endorsement of major depressive disorder, panic disorder with agoraphobia, agoraphobia without history of panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders in varying degrees amongst the three minority groups, independent of the socioeconomic status, level of education, age, and gender of participants. The results suggest that the perception of racial discrimination is associated with psychopathology in the three most common U.S. minority groups. PMID:21967527

  20. Role of Identity Integration on the Relationship between Perceived Racial Discrimination and Psychological Adjustment of Multiracial People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Kelly F.; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Guevarra, Rudy, Jr.; Harrington, Blair A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations between perceived racial discrimination, multiracial identity integration (i.e., racial distance and racial conflict), and psychological adjustment (i.e., distress symptoms, positive affect, and negative affect) of 263 multiracial adults, using an online cross-sectional survey design. As hypothesized, higher levels of…

  1. Maternal experiences of racial discrimination and child weight status in the first 3 years of life.

    PubMed

    Dixon, B; Rifas-Shiman, S L; James-Todd, T; Ertel, K; Krieger, N; Kleinman, K P; Rich-Edwards, J W; Gillman, M W; Taveras, E M

    2012-12-01

    Among US racial/ethnic minority women, we examined associations between maternal experiences of racial discrimination and child growth in the first 3 years of life. We analyzed data from Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study. We restricted analyses to 539 mother-infant pairs; 294 were Black, 127 Hispanic, 110 Asian and 8 from additional racial/ethnic groups. During pregnancy, mothers completed the Experiences of Discrimination survey that measured lifetime experiences of racial discrimination in diverse domains. We categorized responses as 0, 1-2 or ≥3 domains. Main outcomes were birth weight for gestational age z-score; weight for age (WFA) z-score at 6 months of age; and at 3 years of age, body mass index (BMI) z-score. In multivariable analyses, we adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, nativity, education, age, pre-pregnancy BMI, household income and child sex and age. Among this cohort of mostly (58.2%) US-born and economically non-impoverished mothers, 33% reported 0 domains of discrimination, 33% reported discrimination in 1-2 domains and 35% reported discrimination in ≥3 domains. Compared with children whose mothers reported no discrimination, those whose mothers reported ≥3 domains had lower birth weight for gestational age z-score (β -0.25; 95% CI: -0.45, -0.04), lower 6 month WFA z-score (β -0.34; 95% CI: -0.65, -0.03) and lower 3-year BMI z-score (β -0.33; 95% CI: -0.66, 0.00). In conclusion, we found that among this cohort of US racial/ethnic minority women, mothers' report of experiencing lifetime discrimination in ⩾ 3 domains was associated with lower fetal growth, weight at 6 months and 3-year BMI among their offspring.

  2. “They Were Just Making Jokes”: Ethnic/Racial Teasing and Discrimination Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Douglass, Sara; Mirpuri, Sheena; English, Devin; Yip, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The effects of peer-based discrimination are especially harmful for adolescents given the heightened role of social feedback during this period. The current study aimed to understand the unique expressions of discrimination that adolescents experience between close peers and friends, as well as the daily influence of such experiences. Method Study 1 included semistructured interviews (10 interviews, 2 focus groups; Mage = 17.3) with an ethnic/racially diverse sample of adolescence. Study 2 (n = 79; Mage = 15.72) used a 21-day daily diary study with a different sample of ethnic/racially diverse adolescents. Results Study 1 found that, among close peers and friends, adolescents experienced “ethnic/racial teasing,” a unique form of discrimination characterized by humor. Additionally, adolescents consistently dismissed the negative messages as innocuous based on the supposedly humorous nature of such interactions. Study 2 found that when adolescents were targeted for ethnic/racial teasing, individuals who were already anxious experienced increased daily anxiety, and that increases in social anxiety persisted across days. Conclusions The current study suggests that among peers, ethnic/racial teasing is a common way that adolescents interact around ethnicity/race. Further, this study points to the complexity of these experiences; though they were largely considered normative and harmless, they also had negative psychological effects for some adolescents. Implications for our conceptual understanding of discrimination and teasing during adolescence are discussed. PMID:26009942

  3. "They were just making jokes": Ethnic/racial teasing and discrimination among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Douglass, Sara; Mirpuri, Sheena; English, Devin; Yip, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    The effects of peer-based discrimination are especially harmful for adolescents given the heightened role of social feedback during this period. The current study aimed to understand the unique expressions of discrimination that adolescents experience between close peers and friends, as well as the daily influence of such experiences. Study 1 included semistructured interviews (10 interviews, 2 focus groups; Mage = 17.3) with an ethnic/racially diverse sample of adolescence. Study 2 (n = 79; Mage = 15.72) used a 21-day daily diary study with a different sample of ethnic/racially diverse adolescents. Study 1 found that, among close peers and friends, adolescents experienced "ethnic/racial teasing," a unique form of discrimination characterized by humor. Additionally, adolescents consistently dismissed the negative messages as innocuous based on the supposedly humorous nature of such interactions. Study 2 found that when adolescents were targeted for ethnic/racial teasing, individuals who were already anxious experienced increased daily anxiety, and that increases in social anxiety persisted across days. The current study suggests that among peers, ethnic/racial teasing is a common way that adolescents interact around ethnicity/race. Further, this study points to the complexity of these experiences; though they were largely considered normative and harmless, they also had negative psychological effects for some adolescents. Implications for our conceptual understanding of discrimination and teasing during adolescence are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Racialized customer service in restaurants: a quantitative assessment of the statistical discrimination explanatory framework.

    PubMed

    Brewster, Zachary W

    2012-01-01

    Despite popular claims that racism and discrimination are no longer salient issues in contemporary society, racial minorities continue to experience disparate treatment in everyday public interactions. The context of full-service restaurants is one such public setting wherein racial minority patrons, African Americans in particular, encounter racial prejudices and discriminate treatment. To further understand the causes of such discriminate treatment within the restaurant context, this article analyzes primary survey data derived from a community sample of servers (N = 200) to assess the explanatory power of one posited explanation—statistical discrimination. Taken as a whole, findings suggest that while a statistical discrimination framework toward understanding variability in servers’ discriminatory behaviors should not be disregarded, the framework’s explanatory utility is limited. Servers’ inferences about the potential profitability of waiting on customers across racial groups explain little of the overall variation in subjects’ self-reported discriminatory behaviors, thus suggesting that other factors not explored in this research are clearly operating and should be the focus of future inquires.

  5. Critical Consciousness, Racial and Gender Discrimination, and HIV Disease Markers in African American Women with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Kelso, Gwendolyn A.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Weber, Kathleen M.; Dale, Sannisha K.; Cruise, Ruth C.; Brody, Leslie R.

    2014-01-01

    Critical consciousness, the awareness of social oppression, is important to investigate as a buffer against HIV disease progression in HIV-infected African American women in the context of experiences with discrimination. Critical consciousness comprises several dimensions, including social group identification, discontent with distribution of social power, rejection of social system legitimacy, and a collective action orientation. The current study investigated self-reported critical consciousness as a moderator of perceived gender and racial discrimination on HIV viral load and CD4+ cell count in 67 African American HIV-infected women. Higher critical consciousness was found to be related to higher likelihood of having CD4+ counts over 350 and lower likelihood of detectable viral load when perceived racial discrimination was high, as revealed by multiple logistic regressions that controlled for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) adherence. Multiple linear regressions showed that at higher levels of perceived gender and racial discrimination, women endorsing high critical consciousness had a larger positive difference between nadir CD4+ (lowest pre-HAART) and current CD4+ count than women endorsing low critical consciousness. These findings suggest that raising awareness of social oppression to promote joining with others to enact social change may be an important intervention strategy to improve HIV outcomes in African American HIV-infected women who report experiencing high levels of gender and racial discrimination. PMID:24077930

  6. Impostor phenomenon and mental health: The influence of racial discrimination and gender.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Donte L; Lige, Quiera M; Willis, Henry A; Sosoo, Effua E; Neblett, Enrique W

    2017-03-01

    The impostor phenomenon (IP), or feelings of intellectual incompetence, reflects a maladaptive set of cognitions, which pose a significant psychological risk for African American emerging adults. In light of recent evidence suggesting that personal and sociocultural factors may influence the association between IP and psychological adjustment, this study used 2 waves of data to examine the extent to which gender and racial discrimination moderated the association between IP and indices of mental health among 157 African American college students (69% women; mean age = 18.30) attending a predominantly White institution. Analyses revealed that young African American women reporting higher frequencies of racial discrimination and women reporting lower levels of distress resulting from racial discrimination were most vulnerable to negative mental health outcomes, particularly at higher levels of IP. These findings suggest that IP may interact with gender and racial discrimination experiences to influence mental health outcomes. We discuss how these findings can be utilized to inform treatment of African American emerging adults experiencing IP and the importance of considering how gender and discrimination may intersect to exacerbate feelings of intellectual incompetence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Racial discrimination, socioeconomic position, and illicit drug use among US Blacks.

    PubMed

    Carliner, Hannah; Delker, Erin; Fink, David S; Keyes, Katherine M; Hasin, Deborah S

    2016-04-01

    We assessed the relationship of self-reported racial discrimination with illicit drug use among US Blacks, and whether this differed by socioeconomic position (SEP). Among 6587 Black participants in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005), we used multiple logistic regression models to test the association between racial discrimination (measured on the 6-item Experiences of Discrimination scale) and past-year illicit drug use, and whether this differed by SEP. Racial discrimination was associated with past-year drug use [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.32; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.70, 3.16] and with frequent drug use (aOR 1.91; 95 % CI 1.22, 2.99). For frequent illicit drug use, this relationship was stronger among higher SEP participants (aOR 3.55; 95 % CI 2.09, 6.02; p interaction < 0.01). The stronger association between racial discrimination and frequent illicit drug use among higher SEP Blacks suggests a complex interplay between disadvantaged and privileged statuses that merits further investigation. The finding of a significant difference by SEP highlights the importance of considering differences within heterogeneous race/ethnic groups when investigating health disparities.

  8. Critical consciousness, racial and gender discrimination, and HIV disease markers in African American women with HIV.

    PubMed

    Kelso, Gwendolyn A; Cohen, Mardge H; Weber, Kathleen M; Dale, Sannisha K; Cruise, Ruth C; Brody, Leslie R

    2014-07-01

    Critical consciousness, the awareness of social oppression, is important to investigate as a buffer against HIV disease progression in HIV-infected African American women in the context of experiences with discrimination. Critical consciousness comprises several dimensions, including social group identification, discontent with distribution of social power, rejection of social system legitimacy, and a collective action orientation. The current study investigated self-reported critical consciousness as a moderator of perceived gender and racial discrimination on HIV viral load and CD4+ cell count in 67 African American HIV-infected women. Higher critical consciousness was found to be related to higher likelihood of having CD4+ counts over 350 and lower likelihood of detectable viral load when perceived racial discrimination was high, as revealed by multiple logistic regressions that controlled for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) adherence. Multiple linear regressions showed that at higher levels of perceived gender and racial discrimination, women endorsing high critical consciousness had a larger positive difference between nadir CD4+ (lowest pre-HAART) and current CD4+ count than women endorsing low critical consciousness. These findings suggest that raising awareness of social oppression to promote joining with others to enact social change may be an important intervention strategy to improve HIV outcomes in African American HIV-infected women who report experiencing high levels of gender and racial discrimination.

  9. Racial discrimination, socioeconomic position, and illicit drug use among US Blacks

    PubMed Central

    Carliner, Hannah; Delker, Erin; Fink, David S.; Keyes, Katherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We assessed the relationship of self-reported racial discrimination with illicit drug use among US Blacks, and whether this differed by socioeconomic position (SEP). Methods Among 6587 Black participants in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004–2005), we used multiple logistic regression models to test the association between racial discrimination (measured on the 6-item Experiences of Discrimination scale) and past-year illicit drug use, and whether this differed by SEP. Results Racial discrimination was associated with past-year drug use [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.32; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.70, 3.16] and with frequent drug use (aOR 1.91; 95 % CI 1.22, 2.99). For frequent illicit drug use, this relationship was stronger among higher SEP participants (aOR 3.55; 95 % CI 2.09, 6.02; pinteraction<0.001 Conclusions The stronger association between racial discrimination and frequent illicit drug use among higher SEP Blacks suggests a complex interplay between disadvantaged and privileged statuses that merits further investigation. The finding of a significant difference by SEP highlights the importance of considering differences within heterogeneous race/ethnic groups when investigating health disparities. PMID:26810670

  10. Racial discrimination mediates race differences in sleep problems: A longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Curtis, David S; El-Sheikh, Mona; Duke, Adrienne M; Ryff, Carol D; Zgierska, Aleksandra E

    2017-04-01

    To examine changes in sleep problems over a 1.5-year period among Black or African American (AA) and White or European American (EA) college students and to consider the role of racial discrimination as a mediator of race differences in sleep problems over time. Students attending a large, predominantly White university (N = 133, 41% AA, 57% female, mean age = 18.8, SD = .90) reported on habitual sleep characteristics and experiences of racial discrimination at baseline and follow-up assessments. A latent variable for sleep problems was assessed from reports of sleep latency, duration, efficiency, and quality. Longitudinal models were used to examine race differences in sleep problems over time and the mediating role of perceived discrimination. Covariates included age, gender, parent education, parent income, body mass index, self-rated physical health, and depressive symptoms. Each of the individual sleep measures was also examined separately, and sensitivity analyses were conducted using alternative formulations of the sleep problems measure. AAs had greater increases in sleep problems than EAs. Perceived discrimination was also associated with increases in sleep problems over time and mediated racial disparities in sleep. This pattern of findings was similar when each of the sleep indicators was considered separately and held with alternative sleep problems measures. The findings highlight the importance of racial disparities in sleep across the college years and suggest that experiences of discrimination contribute to group disparities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. School and Neighborhood Contexts, Perceptions of Racial Discrimination, and Psychological Well-Being among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined contextual influences on the relationship between racial discrimination (individual, cultural, and collective/institutional) and psychological well-being. Two hundred and fifty two African American adolescents (46% male and 54% female, average age = 16) completed measures of racial discrimination, self-esteem, depressive…

  12. The Influence of Cognitive Development and Perceived Racial Discrimination on the Psychological Well-Being of African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of cognitive development in the relationship between multiple types of racial discrimination and psychological well-being. A sample of 322 African American adolescents (53% female), aged 13-18, completed measures of cognitive development, racial discrimination, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Based on…

  13. Does Ethnic Identity Buffer or Exacerbate the Effects of Frequent Racial Discrimination on Situational Well-Being of Asian Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Lee, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    A quasi-experimental vignette study was conducted to test whether ethnic identity moderated the effects of frequent racial discrimination on situational positive and negative affect of Asian American college students. Results showed that imagining multiple incidents of racial discrimination was related to higher negative affect than imagining a…

  14. School and Neighborhood Contexts, Perceptions of Racial Discrimination, and Psychological Well-Being among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined contextual influences on the relationship between racial discrimination (individual, cultural, and collective/institutional) and psychological well-being. Two hundred and fifty two African American adolescents (46% male and 54% female, average age = 16) completed measures of racial discrimination, self-esteem, depressive…

  15. African American Adolescents' Discrimination Experiences and Academic Achievement: Racial Socialization as a Cultural Compensatory and Protective Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; Philip, Cheri L.; Cogburn, Courtney D.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the interrelationships among racial discrimination experiences, parent race socialization practices, and academic achievement outcomes in a sample of 548 African American adolescents. Adolescents' racial discrimination experiences were associated with a decrease in academic curiosity, persistence, and student self-reported…

  16. The Effects of Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination on Substance Use among Youths Living in the Cherokee Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Brady A.; Livingston, Bethany J.; Livingston, Melvin D.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2017-01-01

    We examined frequency and intensity of racial/ethnic discrimination and the longitudinal relationship to substance use. The sample included (N = 1,421) American Indian, American Indian and White, and White adolescents. A high frequency of perceived racial discrimination was associated with an increased risk for heavy alcohol use, prescription drug…

  17. African American Male Adolescents' Preferences in Responding to Racial Discrimination: Effects of Ethnic Identity and Situational Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, William D.; Hudley, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated male African American adolescents' thinking about responses to racial discrimination. Participants (N = 67) were recruited from an urban public high school in southern California. Students completed paper and pencil measures assessing their ethnic identity status and their preferred responses to racial discrimination.…

  18. Racial discrimination is associated with distressing subthreshold positive psychotic symptoms among US urban ethnic minority young adults.

    PubMed

    Anglin, Deidre M; Lighty, Quenesha; Greenspoon, Michelle; Ellman, Lauren M

    2014-10-01

    Racial discrimination is related to depression, anxiety, and severe psychological distress, and evidence drawn from studies emanating from the United Kingdom and The Netherlands suggest racial discrimination is also related to clinical psychosis and subthreshold psychotic symptoms in racial and ethnic minority (REM) populations. The present study sought to determine the association between racial discrimination experiences and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS) in a United States (US) urban, predominantly immigrant and REM young adult population. A cohort of 650 young adults was administered a self-report inventory for psychosis risk [i.e., Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ)], and the Experiences of Discrimination Questionnaire. The PQ allowed the dimensional assessment of APPS, as well as the categorical assessment of a potentially "high risk" group (i.e., 8 or more APPS endorsed as distressing), the latter of which was based on previous validation studies using the structured interview for prodromal syndromes. The relations between self-reported racial discrimination and APPS, and racial discrimination and "high" distressing positive PQ endorsement were determined, while accounting for anxiety and depression symptoms. Racial discrimination was significantly associated with APPS and with significantly higher odds of endorsing eight or more distressing APPS, even after adjusting for anxiety and depression symptoms. The present study provides preliminary evidence that racial discrimination among US ethnic minorities may be associated with APPS, as well as potentially higher risk for psychosis.

  19. The Influence of Cognitive Development and Perceived Racial Discrimination on the Psychological Well-Being of African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of cognitive development in the relationship between multiple types of racial discrimination and psychological well-being. A sample of 322 African American adolescents (53% female), aged 13-18, completed measures of cognitive development, racial discrimination, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Based on…

  20. Does Ethnic Identity Buffer or Exacerbate the Effects of Frequent Racial Discrimination on Situational Well-Being of Asian Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Lee, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    A quasi-experimental vignette study was conducted to test whether ethnic identity moderated the effects of frequent racial discrimination on situational positive and negative affect of Asian American college students. Results showed that imagining multiple incidents of racial discrimination was related to higher negative affect than imagining a…

  1. African American Adolescents' Discrimination Experiences and Academic Achievement: Racial Socialization as a Cultural Compensatory and Protective Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; Philip, Cheri L.; Cogburn, Courtney D.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the interrelationships among racial discrimination experiences, parent race socialization practices, and academic achievement outcomes in a sample of 548 African American adolescents. Adolescents' racial discrimination experiences were associated with a decrease in academic curiosity, persistence, and student self-reported…

  2. Race-based rejection sensitivity partially accounts for the relationship between racial discrimination and distressing attenuated positive psychotic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Anglin, Deidre M; Greenspoon, Michelle; Lighty, Quenesha; Ellman, Lauren M

    2016-10-01

    Self-reported experiences of racial discrimination have been associated with a continuum of psychotic experiences in racial and ethnic minority populations; however, the underlying mechanisms of this relationship are not yet clear. Race-based rejection sensitivity (RS-race) has been associated with thought intrusions about being the target of racial discrimination; therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether RS-race accounts for the relationship between racial discrimination and psychotic-like experiences in racial and ethnic minority populations. A sample of 644 young adults from a US urban, predominantly immigrant, and racial and ethnic minority population was administered a self-report inventory of psychosis risk (i.e. Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ) ), providing a dimensional assessment of the total number of attenuated positive psychotic symptoms experienced as distressing (APPS-distress). Participants also completed the Experiences of Discrimination Questionnaire and the Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire-Race. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that RS-race and racial discrimination were both significantly related to higher levels of APPS-distress. Bootstrapping analyses of indirect effects indicated that RS-race partially accounted for the relationship between racial discrimination and APPS-distress. Although the cross-sectional nature of the data limits conclusions about causal inference, our findings do suggest that racial discrimination and RS-race may both be important for understanding risk for distress in the psychotic spectrum among racial and ethnic minority young adults. Some individuals who report racial discrimination may be more vulnerable to APPS-distress in part because they are anxiously anticipating being racially slighted, and this should be explored further in prospective clinical high-risk studies. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Perceived discrimination among racial and ethnic minority drug users and the association with health care utilization.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Courtney; Shumway, Martha; Masson, Carmen L; Pouget, Enrique R; Jordan, Ashly E; Des Jarlais, Don C; Sorensen, James L; Perlman, David C

    2017-03-17

    People who use drugs (PWUDs) are at increased risk for several medical conditions, yet they delay seeking medical care and utilize emergency departments (EDs) as their primary source of care. Limited research regarding perceived discrimination and PWUDs' use of health care services exists. This study explores the association between interpersonal and institutional racial/ethnic and drug use discrimination in health care settings and health care utilization among respondents (N = 192) recruited from methadone maintenance treatment programs (36%), HIV primary care clinics (35%), and syringe exchange programs (29%) in New York City (n = 88) and San Francisco (n = 104). The Kaiser Family Foundation Survey of Race, Ethnicity, and Medical Care questionnaire was utilized to assess perceived institutional racial/ethnic and drug use discrimination. Perceived institutional discrimination was examined across race/ethnicity and by regular use of ERs, having a regular doctor, and consistent health insurance. Perceived interpersonal discrimination was examined by race/ethnicity. Perceived interpersonal drug use discrimination was the most common type of discrimination experienced in health care settings. Perceptions of institutional discrimination related to race/ethnicity and drug use among non-Hispanic Whites did not significantly differ from those among non-Hispanic Blacks or Hispanics. A perception of less frequent institutional racial/ethnic and drug use discrimination in health care settings was associated with increased odds of having a regular doctor. Awareness of perceived interpersonal and institutional discrimination in certain populations and the effect on health care service utilization should inform future intervention development to help reduce discrimination and improve health care utilization among PWUDs.

  4. School-Based Racial and Gender Discrimination among African American Adolescents: Exploring Gender Variation in Frequency and Implications for Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Chavous, Tabbye M.; Griffin, Tiffany M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined school-based racial and gender discrimination experiences among African American adolescents in Grade 8 (n = 204 girls; n = 209 boys). A primary goal was exploring gender variation in frequency of both types of discrimination and associations of discrimination with academic and psychological functioning among girls and boys. Girls and boys did not vary in reported racial discrimination frequency, but boys reported more gender discrimination experiences. Multiple regression analyses within gender groups indicated that among girls and boys, racial discrimination and gender discrimination predicted higher depressive symptoms and school importance and racial discrimination predicted self-esteem. Racial and gender discrimination were also negatively associated with grade point average among boys but were not significantly associated in girls’ analyses. Significant gender discrimination X racial discrimination interactions resulted in the girls’ models predicting psychological outcomes and in boys’ models predicting academic achievement. Taken together, findings suggest the importance of considering gender- and race-related experiences in understanding academic and psychological adjustment among African American adolescents. PMID:22837794

  5. Racial Discrimination and Alcohol Use: The Moderating Role of Religious Orientation.

    PubMed

    Parenteau, Stacy C; Waters, Kristen; Cox, Brittany; Patterson, Tarsha; Carr, Richard

    2017-01-02

    An outgrowth of research has established a relationship between racial discrimination and alcohol use, as well as factors that moderate this association. The main objective of this study was to determine if religious orientation moderates the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and alcohol use. This study utilized a cross-sectional data collection strategy to examine the relationship among discrimination, religious orientation, and alcohol use among undergraduate students (N = 349) at a midsize southeastern university. Data was collected in 2014. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire, the General Ethnic Discrimination Scale, the Extrinsic/Intrinsic Religious Orientation Scale-Revised and the Drinking and Drug Habits Questionnaire. Analyses using hierarchical linear regression indicate a significant interaction effect (lifetime discrimination × extrinsic religious orientation) on problem drinking. Additional moderation analyses reveal a significant interaction effect between lifetime discrimination and the extrinsic-personal religious orientation on problem drinking. Results suggest that an extrinsic religious orientation, and particularly, an extrinsic-personal religious orientation, moderates the relationship between lifetime discrimination and problem drinking, suggesting that turning to religion for comfort and protection, rather than for the superficial purpose of seeing/making friends at church, may buffer against the deleterious effects of discrimination-specifically, engaging in problem drinking to cope with the stress of discrimination. Limitations, directions for future research, and clinical implications are discussed.

  6. Racial discrimination, binge drinking, and negative drinking consequences among black college students: serial mediation by depressive symptoms and coping motives.

    PubMed

    Desalu, Jessica M; Kim, Jueun; Zaso, Michelle J; Corriders, Sydnee R; Loury, Jacoby A; Minter, Monique L; Park, Aesoon

    2017-09-21

    Experiences of racial discrimination have been associated with diverse negative health outcomes among racial minorities. However, extant findings of the association between racial discrimination and alcohol behaviors among Black college students are mixed. The current study examined mediating roles of depressive symptoms and coping drinking motives in the association of perceived racial discrimination with binge drinking and negative drinking consequences. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study of Black college students attending a predominantly White institution in the northeastern US (N = 251, 66% female, mean age = 20 years). Results from path analysis showed that, when potential mediators were not considered, perceived racial discrimination was positively associated with negative drinking consequences but not frequency of binge drinking. Serial multiple mediation analysis showed that depressive symptoms and in turn coping drinking motives partially mediated the associations of perceived racial discrimination with both binge drinking frequency and negative drinking consequences (after controlling for sex, age, and negative life events). Perceived racial discrimination is directly associated with experiences of alcohol-related problems, but not binge drinking behaviors among Black college students. Affective responses to perceived racial discrimination experiences and drinking to cope may serve as risk mechanisms for alcohol-related problems in this population. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts are discussed.

  7. Refugee Immigrants' Experiences of Racism and Racial Discrimination at Australian TAFE Institutes: A Transformative Psychosocial Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onsando, Gerald; Billett, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses experiences of racism and racial discrimination of seven refugee immigrants attending different courses at two Technical and Further Education (TAFE) institutes in South East Queensland, Australia. In doing so, the paper draws from two studies that focused on resettlement of refugee immigrants in Australia. A transformative…

  8. Making Sense of Divergent Perceptions of Racial-Ethnic Discrimination in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Carol Wing Sze; Lam, Beatrice Oi-yeung; Teng, Yue; Lee, Moosung

    2015-01-01

    Behind a veneer of cosmopolitanism in Hong Kong, racial-ethnic discrimination is pervasively experienced by ethnic minorities such as South and South East Asians (hereafter referred to as South/South East Asians). It is the aim of this study to examine why Hong Kong Chinese and South/South East Asians express what seem to be divergent perceptions…

  9. Longitudinal Associations between Experienced Racial Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    While recent evidence has indicated that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African American adolescents, most studies rely on cross-sectional and short-term longitudinal research designs. As a result, the direction and persistence of this association across time remains unclear. This article…

  10. African American College Students' Experience of Racial Discrimination and the Role of College Hassles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Kira Hudson

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines the relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. In particular, it investigated whether college hassles moderated or mediated the relationship. Participants included 194 African American students from a large, Midwestern, state university. Participants provided self-report of their experience of…

  11. Longitudinal Associations between Experienced Racial Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    While recent evidence has indicated that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African American adolescents, most studies rely on cross-sectional and short-term longitudinal research designs. As a result, the direction and persistence of this association across time remains unclear. This article…

  12. Buffers of Racial Discrimination: Links with Depression among Rural African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Erica C.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines racial discrimination as a predictor of depression in a sample of 414 rural, low-income African American mothers of young children. The potential moderating role of optimism and church-based social support was also examined. Mothers completed questionnaires when their child was 24 months old. Hierarchical regression…

  13. Effects of Racial Discrimination on High School Performance and College Admission in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Rubia da Rocha

    2013-01-01

    This research uses national survey data from the Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio (National Secondary Education Exam-ENEM) in Brazil to explore the impact of racial discrimination on high school students between 2004 and 2008. The analysis shows that being a victim of racism can reduce a student's ENEM scores, as well as diminish the perceived…

  14. Racial Discrimination-Induced Anger and Alcohol Use among Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Francis; Miller, Aletha R.; Foster, Kenneth; Watkins, C. Edward, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored whether a relationship exists between anger among Black adolescents that has been provoked by racial discrimination, and alcohol consumption. Participants consisted of 134 Black adolescents from 14 to 18 years of age, residing in northeast Texas. All participants were administered a questionnaire measuring whether and the…

  15. 5 CFR 4.2 - Prohibition against racial, political or religious discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prohibition against racial, political or religious discrimination. 4.2 Section 4.2 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... recommend any personnel action with respect to any person who is an employee in the competitive service or...

  16. Racial discrimination and psychological health among Polynesians in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Allen, G E Kawika; Conklin, Hokule'a; Kane, Davis K

    2017-07-01

    There is a dearth of research on the mental health of Polynesians residing in the United States. The aims of this study were to examine experiences of racial discrimination, self-esteem, trait anger, satisfaction with life, and psychological well-being among 628 Polynesians (e.g., Native Hawaiian, Tongan, Samoan, Fijian, Tahitian, Maori; 60% women (n = 378) and 40% men (n = 249); mean age = 28.7). Measures were administered through an online survey to 628 Polynesians residing in the United States. Comparison analyses between men and women, correlations, and path analyses were analyzed for this Polynesian sample. Polynesian women showed higher levels of self-esteem and lower levels of depression and anxiety. Racial discrimination was inversely correlated with self-esteem and satisfaction with life, and positively linked to trait anger, depression, anxiety, and stress. Self-esteem had an indirect effect on the relationship between racial discrimination and satisfaction with life. Mental health professionals need to be aware of racial discrimination on psychological health and incorporate the value of self-esteem in the psychological treatment of Polynesians. Additional results are provided and implications of these findings are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. African American College Students' Experience of Racial Discrimination and the Role of College Hassles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Kira Hudson

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines the relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. In particular, it investigated whether college hassles moderated or mediated the relationship. Participants included 194 African American students from a large, Midwestern, state university. Participants provided self-report of their experience of…

  18. Buffers of Racial Discrimination: Links with Depression among Rural African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Erica C.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines racial discrimination as a predictor of depression in a sample of 414 rural, low-income African American mothers of young children. The potential moderating role of optimism and church-based social support was also examined. Mothers completed questionnaires when their child was 24 months old. Hierarchical regression…

  19. Exposure to Racial Discrimination and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Women with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Julie; Tennen, Howard; Finan, Patrick; Feinn, Richard; Burg, Matthew M; Seawell, Asani; White, William B

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes is the only disorder in which women's risk for heart disease exceeds men's. Elevated blood pressure (BP) increases cardiovascular risk in people with type 2 diabetes. Racial discrimination and neuroticism are both associated with BP levels but have not been examined in concert. This study investigated self-reported racial discrimination, neuroticism and ambulatory BP in women with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-nine Black and 38 White women completed a race-neutral version of the Schedule of Racist Events; BP was evaluated using ambulatory monitoring devices. Actigraphy and diaries were used to document times of sleep and wakefulness. Racial discrimination interacted with neuroticism to predict systolic and diastolic BP both while awake and during sleep, after adjustment for covariates. For each, the influence of racist events was stronger at lower levels of neuroticism. Racial discrimination is associated with higher levels of 24-h BP in diabetic women who are low in neuroticism. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Effects of Racial Discrimination on High School Performance and College Admission in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Rubia da Rocha

    2013-01-01

    This research uses national survey data from the Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio (National Secondary Education Exam-ENEM) in Brazil to explore the impact of racial discrimination on high school students between 2004 and 2008. The analysis shows that being a victim of racism can reduce a student's ENEM scores, as well as diminish the perceived…

  1. Promoting Critical Racial Awareness in Teacher Education in Korea: Reflections on a Racial Discrimination Simulation Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanghe, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Though historically perceived as an ethnically homogenous country, rapid demographic changes in the Republic of Korea have resulted in increasing diversity. However, current multicultural education programs struggle to promote acceptance and appreciation of this diversity. This paper details one pedagogical activity, a racial discrimination…

  2. Promoting Critical Racial Awareness in Teacher Education in Korea: Reflections on a Racial Discrimination Simulation Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanghe, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Though historically perceived as an ethnically homogenous country, rapid demographic changes in the Republic of Korea have resulted in increasing diversity. However, current multicultural education programs struggle to promote acceptance and appreciation of this diversity. This paper details one pedagogical activity, a racial discrimination…

  3. Lifecourse Approach to Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Childhood Obesity123

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Brittany; Peña, Michelle-Marie; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2012-01-01

    Eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care is a national priority, and obesity is a prime target. During the last 30 y in the United States, the prevalence of obesity among children has dramatically increased, sparing no age group. Obesity in childhood is associated with adverse cardio-metabolic outcomes such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and type II diabetes and with other long-term adverse outcomes, including both physical and psychosocial consequences. By the preschool years, racial/ethnic disparities in obesity prevalence are already present, suggesting that disparities in childhood obesity prevalence have their origins in the earliest stages of life. Several risk factors during pregnancy are associated with increased risk of offspring obesity, including excessive maternal gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes, smoking during pregnancy, antenatal depression, and biological stress. During infancy and early childhood, rapid infant weight gain, infant feeding practices, sleep duration, child’s diet, physical activity, and sedentary practices are associated with the development of obesity. Studies have found substantial racial/ethnic differences in many of these early life risk factors for childhood obesity. It is possible that racial/ethnic differences in early life risk factors for obesity might contribute to the high prevalence of obesity among minority preschool-age children and beyond. Understanding these differences may help inform the design of clinical and public health interventions and policies to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity and eliminate disparities among racial/ethnic minority children. PMID:22332105

  4. Racism and health: the relationship between experience of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ricci; Tobias, Martin; Jeffreys, Mona; Waldegrave, Kiri; Karlsen, Saffron; Nazroo, James

    2006-09-01

    Accumulating research suggests that racism may be a major determinant of health. Here we report associations between self-reported experience of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Data from the 2002/2003 New Zealand Health Survey, a cross-sectional survey involving face-to-face interviews with 12,500 people, were analysed. Five items were included to capture racial discrimination in two dimensions: experience of ethnically motivated attack (physical or verbal), or unfair treatment because of ethnicity (by a health professional, in work or when gaining housing). Ethnicity was classified using self-identification to one of four ethnic groups: Māori, Pacific, Asian and European/Other peoples. Logistic regression, accounting for the survey design, age, sex, ethnicity and deprivation, was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Māori reported the highest prevalence of "ever" experiencing any of the forms of racial discrimination (34%), followed by similar levels among Asian (28%) and Pacific peoples (25%). Māori were almost 10 times more likely to experience multiple types of discrimination compared to European/Others (4.5% vs. 0.5%). Reported experience of racial discrimination was associated with each of the measures of health examined. Experience of any one of the five types of discrimination was significantly associated with poor or fair self-rated health; lower physical functioning; lower mental health; smoking; and cardiovascular disease. There was strong evidence of a dose-response relationship between the number of reported types of discrimination and each health measure. These results highlight the need for racism to be considered in efforts to eliminate ethnic inequalities in health.

  5. Development and Validation of a Racial Discrimination Measure for Cambodian American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sangalang, Cindy C.; Chen, Angela C. C.; Kulis, Stephen S.; Yabiku, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    To date, the majority of studies examining experiences of racial discrimination among youth use measures initially developed for African American and Latino adults or college students. Few studies have attended to the ways in which discrimination experiences may be unique for Asian American youth, particularly subgroups such as Southeast Asians. The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to describe the development of a racial discrimination measure using community-based participatory research with Cambodian American adolescents and (b) to psychometrically test the measure with respect to validity and reliability. This research used mixed-methods and comprised 3 phases. Phase 1 consisted of qualitative focus group research to assess community-identified needs. Phase 2 included quantitative survey development with community members and resulted in an 18-item measure assessing the frequency of ethnicity-based discrimination. Phase 3 involved psychometric testing of the measure’s validity and reliability (n = 423). Exploratory factor analysis procedures yielded a 3-factor structure describing peer, school, and police discrimination from all items, capturing 96% of the combined variance. Using confirmatory factor analysis, the data demonstrated good fit with the 3-factor structure (CFI = .98; RMSEA = .054), with factor loadings ranging from .59 to .96 and all estimates statistically significant at the p < .05 level. Correlational analyses of racial discrimination subfactors and depression supported concurrent validity. In sum, this measure can be used to examine the degree and sources of racial discrimination reported by Cambodian American adolescents and potentially other adolescents of Southeast Asian descent living in diverse urban communities. PMID:26388972

  6. Family support, self-esteem, and perceived racial discrimination among Asian American male college students.

    PubMed

    Wei, Meifen; Yeh, Christine Jean; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Carrera, Stephanie; Su, Jenny C

    2013-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine under what situation (i.e., when individuals used more or less family support) and for whom (i.e., those with high or low self-esteem) perceived racial discrimination would or would not have a significant positive association with psychological distress. A total of 95 Asian American male college students completed an online survey. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated a significant 3-way interaction of family support, self-esteem, and perceived racial discrimination in predicting psychological distress after controlling for perceived general stress. A simple effect analysis was used to explore the nature of the interaction. When Asian American male college students used more family support to cope with racial discrimination, the association between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress was not significant for those with high or low self-esteem. The result from the simple interaction indicated that, when more family support was used, the 2 slopes for high and low self-esteem were not significantly different from each other. Conversely, when they used less family support, the association between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress was not significant for those with high self-esteem, but was significantly positive for those with low self-esteem. The result from the simple interaction indicated that, when less family support was used, the slopes for high and low self-esteem were significantly different. The result suggested that low use of family support may put these male students with low self-esteem at risk for psychological distress. Limitations, future research directions, and clinical implications were discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Perceived Racial Discrimination and Negative-Mood–Related Drinking Among African American College Students

    PubMed Central

    O’hara, Ross E.; Armeli, Stephen; Scott, Denise M.; Covault, Jonathan; Tennen, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Research consistently shows a positive association between racial discrimination and problematic alcohol use among African Americans, but little is known about the micro-processes linking this pernicious form of stress to drinking. One possibility is that the cumulative effects of discrimination increase individuals’ likelihood of negative-mood–related drinking. In the current study, we examined whether individual differences in lifetime perceived racial discrimination among African American college students moderate relations between daily negative moods and evening alcohol consumption in both social and nonsocial contexts. Method: Data came from an online daily diary study of 441 African Americans (58% female) enrolled at a historically black college/university. Lifetime discrimination was measured at baseline. For 30 days, students reported the number of drinks they consumed the night before both socially and nonsocially, as well as their daytime level of negative mood. Results: In support of the hypotheses, only men who reported higher (vs. lower) lifetime discrimination showed a positive association between daily negative mood and that evening’s level of nonsocial drinking. Contrary to expectation, women who reported higher (vs. lower) discrimination showed a negative association between daily negative mood and nonsocial drinking. Neither daily negative mood nor lifetime discrimination predicted level of social drinking. Conclusions: These findings provide further evidence that the cumulative impact of racial discrimination may produce a vulnerability to negative-mood–related drinking—but only for African American men. Importantly, these effects emerged only for nonsocial drinking, which may further explain the robust association between discrimination and problematic alcohol use. PMID:25785798

  8. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Responses to the Everyday Discrimination Scale: A Differential Item Functioning Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Tené T.; Yang, Frances M.; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.; Fitchett, George

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the impact of race/ethnicity on responses to the Everyday Discrimination Scale, one of the most widely used discrimination scales in epidemiologic and public health research. Participants were 3,295 middle-aged US women (African-American, Caucasian, Chinese, Hispanic, and Japanese) from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) baseline examination (1996–1997). Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause models were used to examine differential item functioning (DIF) on the Everyday Discrimination Scale by race/ethnicity. After adjustment for age, education, and language of interview, meaningful DIF was observed for 3 (out of 10) items: “receiving poorer service in restaurants or stores,” “being treated as if you are dishonest,” and “being treated with less courtesy than other people” (all P's < 0.001). Consequently, the “profile” of everyday discrimination differed slightly for women of different racial/ethnic groups, with certain “public” experiences appearing to have more salience for African-American and Chinese women and “dishonesty” having more salience for racial/ethnic minority women overall. “Courtesy” appeared to have more salience for Hispanic women only in comparison with African-American women. Findings suggest that the Everyday Discrimination Scale could potentially be used across racial/ethnic groups as originally intended. However, researchers should use caution with items that demonstrated DIF. PMID:22306556

  9. Combining Explicit and Implicit Measures of Racial Discrimination in Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Dana; Lancaster, Katie; Waterman, Pamela D.; Kosheleva, Anna; Banaji, Mahzarin

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. To improve measurement of discrimination for health research, we sought to address the concern that explicit self-reports of racial discrimination may not capture unconscious cognition. Methods. We used 2 assessment tools in our Web-based study: a new application of the Implicit Association Test, a computer-based reaction-time test that measures the strength of association between an individual's self or group and being a victim or perpetrator of racial discrimination, and a validated explicit self-report measure of racial discrimination. Results. Among the 442 US-born non-Hispanic Black participants, the explicit and implicit measures, as hypothesized, were weakly correlated and tended to be independently associated with risk of hypertension among persons with less than a college degree. Adjustments for both measures eliminated the significantly greater risk for Blacks than for Whites (odds ratio = 1.4), reducing it to 1.1 (95% confidence interval = 0.7, 1.7). Conclusions. Our results suggest that the scientific rigor of research on racism and health will be improved by investigating how both unconscious and conscious mental awareness of having experienced discrimination matter for somatic and mental health. PMID:19965567

  10. Racial Discrimination and Stigma Consciousness Are Associated with Higher Blood Pressure and Hypertension in Minority Men.

    PubMed

    Orom, Heather; Sharma, Chaman; Homish, Gregory G; Underwood, Willie; Homish, D Lynn

    2016-10-31

    We examined whether lifetime racial discrimination and stigma consciousness (expecting to be stigmatized) are associated with blood pressure in minority and White middle-aged and older adult men. Participants were 1533 men (mean age = 63.2 [SD = 7.9, range = 37.4-89.2]; 12.4 % Black, 7.8 % Hispanic, 2.0 % other) diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer. We separately modeled associations between discrimination/stigma consciousness and blood pressure outcomes for minorities and Whites controlling for education, income, employment status, age, marital status, BMI, and recruitment site. Minorities reported more racial discrimination and stigma consciousness than Whites (ps < .001). For minorities, having experienced more racial discrimination was associated with having higher diastolic blood pressure (B = 0.15, p = .016) and having greater stigma consciousness was associated with greater odds of having hypertension (OR = 1.04, p = .047). Greater stigma consciousness was associated with lower systolic blood pressure in Whites (B = -0.24, p = .012). Discrimination and stigma consciousness are associated with common risk factors for chronic disease and premature death that disproportionately affect minorities. Findings for stigma consciousness suggest that anticipatory vigilance may be impacting minority health.

  11. Perceived Racial Discrimination in Health Care: A Comparison of Veterans Affairs and Other Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kwonho; Bost, James E.; Kressin, Nancy R.; Ibrahim, Said A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We compared rates of perceived racial discrimination in health care settings for veteran and nonveteran patients and for veterans who used the Veterans Affairs health care system and those who did not. Methods. Data were drawn from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We used logistic regression to examine whether perceived racial discrimination in health care was associated with veteran status or use of Veterans Affairs health care, after adjusting for patient characteristics. Results. In this sample of 35 902 people, rates of perceived discrimination were equal for veterans and nonveterans (3.4% and 3.5%, respectively; crude odds ratio [OR] = 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.77, 1.28; adjusted OR = 0.92; 95% CI = 0.66, 1.28). Among veterans (n = 3420), perceived discrimination was more prevalent among patients who used Veterans Affairs facilities than among those who did not (5.4% vs 2.7%; OR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.04, 4.18). However, this difference was not significant after adjustment for patient characteristics (OR = 1.30; 95% CI = 0.54, 3.13). Conclusions. Perceived racial discrimination in health care was equally prevalent among veterans and nonveterans and among veterans who used the Veterans Affairs health care system and those who did not. PMID:19443818

  12. Examining How Racial Discrimination Impacts Sleep Quality in African Americans: Is Perseveration the Answer?

    PubMed

    Hoggard, Lori S; Hill, LaBarron K

    2016-10-03

    African Americans experience more problematic and disordered sleep than White Americans. Racial discrimination has been implicated in this disparity. However, the mechanisms by which discrimination disrupts sleep are unclear. It has been theorized that Perseverative Cognition (PC), characterized by recurrent patterns of reflective (i.e., rumination) and anticipatory (i.e., worry) negative thinking about personally relevant stressors, may reflect the functional mechanism linking discrimination to sleep. The present study is the first to empirically examine the dual components of PC as a candidate functional mechanism in the association between racial discrimination and subjective sleep quality. Sixty-eight self-identified African American college students (55.9% female; Mage = 20.18, SD = 2.93) were recruited at a large predominantly white public university in the Midwest. The participants completed the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire (PEDQ), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), and Ruminative Responses Scale (RRS). After adjusting for age, gender, and social class, results revealed a significant indirect effect of racial discrimination (RD) on subjective sleep quality through rumination, 95% CI [.008, .125], but not worry. RD was positively associated with rumination, b =.50, SE =.16, p = .003, and rumination, in turn, was positively associated with poorer sleep quality, b = .09, SE = .04, p = .012. As both RD and poor sleep quality have been directly linked to heart disease, diabetes, depression, and a number of other maladies, our findings suggest that RD, sleep, and coping strategies (e.g., rumination) employed to manage RD experiences may be important targets for addressing racial disparities in health.

  13. Differential Effects of Personal-Level vs Group-Level Racial Discrimination on Health among Black Americans.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Nao; Alderson, Courtney J; Mezuk, Briana

    2016-07-21

    Racial/ethnic minorities in the United States not only experience discrimination personally but also witness or hear about fellow in-group members experiencing discrimination (ie, group-level discrimination). The objective of our study was to examine whether the effects of group-level discrimination on mental and physical health are different from those of personal-level discrimination among Black Americans by drawing upon social psychology research of the Personal/Group Discrimination Discrepancy. We conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data from a larger study. One hundred and twenty participants, who self-identified as Black/African Americans during the laboratory sessions (57.5% women, mean age = 48.97, standard deviation = 8.58) in the parent study, were included in our analyses. Perceived personal-level discrimination was assessed with five items that were taken from two existing measures, and group-level racial discrimination was assessed with three items. Self-reported physical and mental health were assessed with a modified version of SF-8. Perceived personal-level racial discrimination was associated with worse mental health. In contrast, perceived group-level racial discrimination was associated with better mental as well as physical health. Perceived group-level racial discrimination may serve as one of several health protective factors even when individuals perceive personal-level racial discrimination. The present findings demonstrate the importance of examining both personal- and group-level experiences of racial discrimination as they independently relate to health outcomes for Black Americans.

  14. Associations between racial discrimination, smoking during pregnancy and low birthweight among Roma.

    PubMed

    Janevic, Teresa; Osypuk, Theresa; Stojanovski, Kristefer; Jankovic, Janko; Gundersen, Daniel; Rogers, Maggie

    2017-06-01

    Racial discrimination may increase the risk of low birthweight (LBW), but has not been studied among Roma, the largest minority population in Europe. Moreover, few studies test both institutional and interpersonal forms of racial discrimination on health. Our objective was to examine associations between institutional and interpersonal racial discrimination with LBW, and to test potential mediation by smoking during pregnancy. In 2012-2013, Romani women interviewers surveyed 410 Romani women in Serbia and Macedonia. We measured institutional discrimination (neighborhood segregation, legal status of housing and neighborhood socioeconomic status), interpersonal discrimination [Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS)], birthweight and smoking by self-report or interviewer report. We estimated relative risks for discrimination on LBW and separately on smoking during pregnancy using log-binomial regression, adjusting for age, parity, years at residence and wealth. The indirect effect of high EDS via smoking on LBW was estimated using inverse odds weighting mediation. Living in a low SES neighborhood showed a 2-fold risk of LBW [adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.2, 5.0]; aRRs for segregation and illegal housing were weaker (aRR = 1.8, 95% CI = 0.7, 4.3; aRR = 1.3, 95% CI = 0.6, 2.6, respectively). Institutional measures were not associated with smoking. High EDS was associated with LBW (aRR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.1, 5.2) and smoking during pregnancy (aRR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.8); the indirect effect of EDS on LBW via smoking was not significant. Interpersonal discrimination and living in a low SES neighborhood were associated with LBW among Roma. Interventions to improve Romani health may benefit from a human rights approach.

  15. Racial Differences in Sleep Architecture: The Role of Ethnic Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Tomfohr, Lianne; Pung, Meredith A.; Edwards, Kate M.; Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2011-01-01

    African Americans have been consistently shown to have less deep (slow wave sleep; SWS) and more light (Stages 1 and 2) sleep than Caucasian Americans. This paper explored whether discrimination, a stressor that uniquely impacts certain ethnic groups, contributes to differences in sleep architecture. The sleep of 164 African and Caucasian Americans was examined with laboratory based polysomnography (PSG). Experiences of perceived discrimination (The Scale of Ethnic Experience) and sociodemographic factors were also assessed. After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking status, African Americans slept approximately 4.5% more total sleep time (TST) in Stage 2 sleep and 4.7% less TST in SWS than Caucasian Americans (ps< .05). Perceived discrimination was a partial mediator of ethnic differences in sleep architecture. Individuals who reported experiencing more discrimination slept more time in Stage 2 and less time in SWS (ps< .05). Results suggest that the impact of stress related to ethnic group membership plays a part in explaining differences in sleep architecture. PMID:21925567

  16. Racial differences in sleep architecture: the role of ethnic discrimination.

    PubMed

    Tomfohr, Lianne; Pung, Meredith A; Edwards, Kate M; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2012-01-01

    African Americans have been consistently shown to have less deep (slow wave sleep; SWS) and more light (Stages 1 and 2) sleep than Caucasian Americans. This paper explored whether discrimination, a stressor that uniquely impacts certain ethnic groups, contributes to differences in sleep architecture. The sleep of 164 African and Caucasian Americans was examined with laboratory based polysomnography (PSG). Experiences of perceived discrimination (The Scale of Ethnic Experience) and sociodemographic factors were also assessed. After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking status, African Americans slept approximately 4.5% more total sleep time (TST) in Stage 2 sleep and 4.7% less TST in SWS than Caucasian Americans (ps<.05). Perceived discrimination was a partial mediator of ethnic differences in sleep architecture. Individuals who reported experiencing more discrimination slept more time in Stage 2 and less time in SWS (ps<.05). Results suggest that the impact of stress related to ethnic group membership plays a part in explaining differences in sleep architecture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Perceived Racial Discrimination as an Independent Predictor of Sleep Disturbance And Daytime Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Grandner, Michael A.; Hale, Lauren; Jackson, Nicholas; Patel, Nirav P.; Gooneratne, Nalaka S.; Troxel, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    Perceived discrimination is a potential cause of racial and ethnic disparities in health. Disturbed sleep may serve as a mechanism linking perceived racism with health consequences. The current study investigates data from 7,148 adults from Michigan and Wisconsin who participated in the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses explored associations between perceived racial discrimination and self-reported sleep disturbance and daytime fatigue. Sleep Disturbance and Daytime Fatigue were reported in 19% and 21% of the sample, respectively. Black/African-American respondents (21%) report perceiving worse experience compared to people of other races when seeking health care at higher rates than Non-Hispanic White respondents (3%). Results from logistic regression models show that perceived racial discrimination is associated with increased risks of sleep disturbance (OR=2.62, p<.0001) and daytime fatigue (OR=2.07, p<.0001). After adjustment for all covariates, perceived discrimination remains a significant predictor of sleep disturbance (OR=1.60, p=.04). The interaction between perceived racism and race (Black/African-American vs. Non-Hispanic White) was non-significant. This population-based research adds to the growing body of data suggesting that perceived racism may impact health via its influence on sleep-wake behaviors. PMID:22946733

  18. Housing Discrimination, Residential Racial Segregation, and Colorectal Cancer Survival in Southeastern Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuhong; Bemanian, Amin; Beyer, Kirsten M M

    2017-04-01

    Background: Residential racial segregation is still neglected in contemporary examinations of racial health disparities, including studies of cancer. Even fewer studies examine the processes by which segregation occurs, such as through housing discrimination. This study aims to examine relationships among housing discrimination, segregation, and colorectal cancer survival in southeastern Wisconsin.Methods: Cancer incidence data were obtained from the Wisconsin Cancer Reporting System for two southeastern Wisconsin metropolitan areas. Two indices of mortgage discrimination were derived from Home Mortgage Disclosure Act data, and a measure of segregation (the location quotient) was calculated from U.S. census data; all predictors were specified at the ZIP Code Tabulation Area level. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine associations between mortgage discrimination, segregation, and colorectal cancer survival in southeastern Wisconsin.Results: For all-cause mortality, racial bias in mortgage lending was significantly associated with a greater hazard rate among blacks [HR = 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-1.76] and among black women (HR = 1.53; 95% CI, 1.06-2.21), but not black men in sex-specific models. No associations were identified for redlining or the location quotient. Additional work is needed to determine whether these findings can be replicated in other geographical settings.Conclusions: Our findings indicate that black women in particular experience poorer colorectal cancer survival in neighborhoods characterized by racial bias in mortgage lending, a measure of institutional racism. These findings are in line with previous studies of breast cancer survival.Impact: Housing discrimination and institutional racism may be important targets for policy change to reduce health disparities, including cancer disparities. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(4); 561-8. ©2017 AACRSee all the articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Geospatial

  19. Racial discrimination, post traumatic stress, and gambling problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada.

    PubMed

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul; Parlee, Brenda

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about risk factors for problem gambling (PG) within the rapidly growing urban Aboriginal population in North America. Racial discrimination may be an important risk factor for PG given documented associations between racism and other forms of addictive behaviour. This study examined associations between racial discrimination and problem gambling among urban Aboriginal adults, and the extent to which this link was mediated by post traumatic stress. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Results indicate more than 80 % of respondents experienced discrimination due to Aboriginal race in the past year, with the majority reporting high levels of racism in that time period. Past year racial discrimination was a risk factor for 12-month problem gambling, gambling to escape, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in bootstrapped regression models adjusted for confounders and other forms of social trauma. Elevated PTSD symptoms among those experiencing high levels of racism partially explained the association between racism and the use of gambling to escape in statistical models. These findings are the first to suggest racial discrimination may be an important social determinant of problem gambling for Aboriginal peoples. Gambling may be a coping response that some Aboriginal adults use to escape the negative emotions associated with racist experiences. Results support the development of policies to reduce racism directed at Aboriginal peoples in urban areas, and enhanced services to help Aboriginal peoples cope with racist events.

  20. Mental health impacts of racial discrimination in Australian culturally and linguistically diverse communities: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Kelaher, Margaret

    2015-04-18

    Racial discrimination denies those from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds access to rights such as the ability to participate equally and freely in community and public life, equitable service provision and freedom from violence. Our study was designed to examine how people from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds in four Australian localities experience and respond to racial discrimination, as well as associated health impacts. Data were collected from 1,139 Australians regarding types of racial discrimination experienced, settings for these incidents, response mechanisms and psychological distress as measured by the Kessler 6 (K6) Psychological Distress Scale. Age, education, religion, gender, visibility and rurality were all significantly associated with differences in the frequency of experiencing racial discrimination. Experiencing racial discrimination was associated with worse mental health. Mental health impacts were not associated with the type of discriminatory experience, but experiencing racial discrimination in shops and in employment and government settings was associated with being above the threshold for high or very high psychological distress. One out of twelve response mechanisms was found to be associated with lower stress following a discriminatory incident. Study results indicate that poorer mental health was associated with the volume of discrimination experienced, rather than the type of experience. However, the impact of experiencing discrimination in some settings was shown to be particularly associated with high or very high psychological distress. Our findings suggest that interventions designed to prevent the occurrence of racism have more potential to increase mental health in racial and ethnic minority communities than interventions that work with individuals in response to experiencing racism.

  1. Association Between Perceived Discrimination and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Problem Behaviors Among Preadolescent Youths

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Marc N.; Kanouse, David E.; Klein, David J.; Davies, Susan L.; Cuccaro, Paula M.; Banspach, Stephen W.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the contribution of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination to disparities in problem behaviors among preadolescent Black, Latino, and White youths. Methods. We used cross-sectional data from Healthy Passages, a 3-community study of 5119 fifth graders and their parents from August 2004 through September 2006 in Birmingham, Alabama; Los Angeles County, California; and Houston, Texas. We used multivariate regressions to examine the relationships of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and race/ethnicity to problem behaviors. We used values from these regressions to calculate the percentage of disparities in problem behaviors associated with the discrimination effect. Results. In multivariate models, perceived discrimination was associated with greater problem behaviors among Black and Latino youths. Compared with Whites, Blacks were significantly more likely to report problem behaviors, whereas Latinos were significantly less likely (a “reverse disparity”). When we set Blacks’ and Latinos’ discrimination experiences to zero, the adjusted disparity between Blacks and Whites was reduced by an estimated one third to two thirds; the reverse adjusted disparity favoring Latinos widened by about one fifth to one half. Conclusions. Eliminating discrimination could considerably reduce mental health issues, including problem behaviors, among Black and Latino youths. PMID:23597387

  2. Investigating customer racial discrimination in the secondary baseball card market.

    PubMed

    Primm, Eric; Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Piquero, Alex R; Regoli, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of literature in a variety of disciplines has appeared over the last 20 years examining customer racial bias in the secondary sports card market; however, consensus on the matter has yet to emerge. In this article, we explore the more subtle ways that a player's race/ethnicity may affect the value of his sports card including a player's skin tone (light- to dark-skinned). Data were obtained for 383 black, Latino, and white baseball players who had received at least one vote for induction into Major League Baseball's Hall of Fame including their career performance statistics, rookie card price, card availability, Hall of Fame status, and skin tone. Findings indicate that card availability is the primary determinant of card value while a player's skin tone has no direct effect. Subsequent analysis demonstrates that a player's race (white/non-white) rather than skin tone did have an effect as it interacts with Hall of Fame status to influence his rookie card price.

  3. Cumulative structural disadvantage and racial health disparities: the pathways of childhood socioeconomic influence.

    PubMed

    Pais, Jeremy

    2014-10-01

    Cumulative structural disadvantage theory posits two major sources of endogenous selection in shaping racial health disparities: a race-based version of the theory anticipates a racially distinct selection process, whereas a social class-based version anticipates a racially similar process. To operationalize cumulative structural disadvantage, this study uses data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth in a Latent Class Analysis that demographically profiles health impairment trajectories. This analysis is used to examine the nature of selection as it relates to racial differences in the development of health impairments that are significant enough to hinder one's ability to work. The results provide no direct support for the race-based version of cumulative structural disadvantage theory. Instead, two key findings support the social class-based version of cumulative disadvantage theory. First, the functional form of the different health trajectories are invariant for whites and blacks, suggesting more racial similarly in the developmental process than anticipated by the race-based version of the theory. The extent of the racial disparity in the prevalences across the health impairment trajectories is, however, significant and noteworthy: nearly one-third of blacks (28 %) in the United States experience some form of impairment during their prime working years compared with 18.8 % of whites. Second, racial differences in childhood background mediate this racial health disparity through the indirect pathway of occupational attainment and through the direct pathway of early-life exposure to health-adverse environments. Thus, the selection of individuals into different health trajectories, based largely on childhood socioeconomic background, helps explain racial disparities in the development of health impairments.

  4. Geographic Region Matters in the Relation Between Perceived Racial Discrimination and Psychiatric Disorders Among Black Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Giyeon; Parmelee, Patricia; Bryant, Ami N; Crowther, Martha R; Park, Soohyun; Parton, Jason M; Chae, David H

    2016-12-07

    This study examined whether the relation between perceived racial discrimination and psychiatric disorders varied by large geographic region among Black older adults in the United States. Black adults aged 55 or older who had experienced racial/ethnic-specific discrimination were drawn from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine main and interaction effects. Results show that there was a significant main effect of perceived racial discrimination, indicating that greater perceived discrimination was significantly associated with increased odds of having any past-year psychiatric disorder. The interaction of region by perceived racial discrimination was significant: The effect of perceived racial discrimination on any past-year psychiatric disorder was stronger among Blacks in the West than those in the South. Findings suggest that whereas, in general, perceived racial discrimination is a risk factor for poor mental health among older Blacks, this association may differ by geographic region. Additional research examining reasons for this variation is needed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Workplace discrimination predicting racial/ethnic socialization across African American, Latino, and Chinese families.

    PubMed

    Hagelskamp, Carolin; Hughes, Diane L

    2014-10-01

    Informed by Kohn and Schooler's (1969) occupational socialization framework, this study examined linkages between racial/ethnic minority mothers' perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination in the workplace and adolescents' accounts of racial/ethnic socialization in the home. Data were collected from 100 mother-early adolescent dyads who participated in a longitudinal study of urban adolescents' development in the Northeastern United States, including African American, Latino, and Chinese families. Mothers and adolescents completed surveys separately. We found that when mothers reported more frequent institutional discrimination at work, adolescents reported more frequent preparation for bias messages at home, across racial/ethnic groups. Mothers' experiences of interpersonal prejudice at work were associated with more frequent cultural socialization messages among African American and Latino families. Chinese youth reported fewer cultural socialization messages when mothers perceived more frequent interpersonal prejudice at work. Findings are discussed in the context of minority groups' distinct social histories and economic status in the United States. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Epstein-Barr virus reactivation during pregnancy and postpartum: Effects of race and racial discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Lisa M.; Iams, Jay D.; Porter, Kyle; Glaser, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Objective Adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm birth, are markedly higher among African-Americans versus Whites. Stress-induced immune dysregulation may contribute to these effects. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation provides a robust model for examining cellular immune competence. This study examined associations of EBV virus capsid antigen immunoglobulin G (VCA IgG) with gestational stage, race, and racial discrimination in women during pregnancy and postpartum. Methods Fifty-six women (38 African-American, 18 White) were included. African-Americans and Whites did not differ in age, education, income, parity, or body mass index (ps ≥.51). During the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimester and ~5 weeks postpartum, women completed measures of racial discrimination, perceived stress, anxiety, depressive symptoms and health behaviors. EBV VCA IgG antibody titers were measured via ELISA in serum collected at each visit. Results In the overall sample, EBV VCA IgG antibody titers were lower in the 3rd versus 1st trimester (p=.002). At every timepoint (1st, 2nd, 3rd trimester and postpartum), African-American women exhibited higher serum EBV VCA IgG antibody titers than Whites (ps<.001). This effect was most pronounced among African-Americans reporting greater racial discrimination [p=.03 (1st), .04 (2nd), .12 (3rd), .06 (postpartum)]. Associations of race and racial discrimination with EBV VCA IgG antibody titers were not accounted for by other measures of stress or health behaviors. Conclusions Compared to Whites, African-American women showed higher EBV VCA IgG antibody titers, indicative of impaired cellular immune competence, across pregnancy and postpartum. This effect was particularly pronounced among African-American women reporting greater racial discrimination, supporting a role for chronic stress in this association. In women overall, EBV antibody titers declined during late as compared to early pregnancy. This may be due to pregnancy-related changes in cell

  7. A Preliminary Analysis of Associations among Ethnic-Racial Socialization, Ethnic Discrimination, and Ethnic Identity among Urban Sixth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Hughes, Diane; Way, Niobe

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from cultural ecological models of adolescent development, the present research investigates how early adolescents received ethnic-racial socialization from parents as well as how experiences of ethnic and racial discrimination are associated with their ethnic identity (i.e., centrality, private regard, and public regard). Data for this…

  8. The Moderating Capacity of Racial Identity between Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-Being over Time among African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Neblett, Enrique W.; Upton, Rachel D.; Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Sellers, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the influence of racial identity in the longitudinal relation between perceptions of racial discrimination and psychological well-being for approximately 560 African American youth. Latent curve modeling (LCM) and parallel process multiple-indicator LCMs with latent moderators were used to assess whether perceptions of racial…

  9. A Preliminary Analysis of Associations among Ethnic-Racial Socialization, Ethnic Discrimination, and Ethnic Identity among Urban Sixth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Hughes, Diane; Way, Niobe

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from cultural ecological models of adolescent development, the present research investigates how early adolescents received ethnic-racial socialization from parents as well as how experiences of ethnic and racial discrimination are associated with their ethnic identity (i.e., centrality, private regard, and public regard). Data for this…

  10. The Moderating Capacity of Racial Identity between Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-Being over Time among African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Neblett, Enrique W.; Upton, Rachel D.; Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Sellers, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the influence of racial identity in the longitudinal relation between perceptions of racial discrimination and psychological well-being for approximately 560 African American youth. Latent curve modeling (LCM) and parallel process multiple-indicator LCMs with latent moderators were used to assess whether perceptions of racial…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Racial Discrimination and Risk for Death Ideation in African American Youth.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rheeda; Francis, David; Brody, Gene; Simons, Ronald; Cutrona, Carolyn; Gibbons, Frederick

    2017-02-01

    Although multiple studies have found that African Americans commonly experience racial discrimination, available studies have yet to examine how perceived racism might be related to suicide vulnerability in African American youth. The purpose of this study was to examine a framework for how perceived racial discrimination contributes to symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as subsequent suicide ideation and morbid ideation. Data were obtained from 722 African American youth at mean age 10.56 years (SD = 0.64); a second wave of data was obtained 2 years later. Results revealed both a direct effect and mediated effects of perceived racism on later suicide and morbid ideation. For boys and girls, the effect of perceived racism was mediated by symptoms of depression. However, the association was mediated by anxiety for girls, but not for boys in the current sample. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  12. Coping with Racial Discrimination: Assessing the Vulnerability of African Americans and the Mediated Moderation of Psychosocial Resources

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Byron; Rote, Sunshine M.; Keith, Verna M.

    2014-01-01

    Research demonstrates that the mental health of African Americans is negatively affected by discrimination, but few studies have investigated the effects of racial discrimination specifically and whether these effects vary by poverty and education levels. Using a sample of 3,372 African Americans from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), we find a positive relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms, with both lifetime and daily racial discrimination being more salient for depressive symptoms among impoverished African Americans than those living above 200% of the poverty line. Evaluating mediated moderation models, we also find that the conditional effects of socioeconomic status are mediated by poor African Americans’ having fewer psychosocial resources. Namely, lower levels of mastery are influential in accounting for poor African Americans’ greater vulnerability to both daily and lifetime discrimination. The findings highlight the importance of examining specific reasons for discrimination as well as mediated moderation in future research. PMID:25419483

  13. The Moderating Capacity of Racial Identity Between Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-being Over Time among African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Upton, Rachel D.; Sellers, Robert M.; Neblett, Enrique W.; Hammond, Wizdom Powell

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of racial identity in the longitudinal relationship between perceptions of racial discrimination and psychological well-being for approximately 560 African American youth. Latent curve modeling (LCM) and parallel process multiple-indicator LCMs with latent moderators were used to assess whether perceptions of racial discrimination predicted the intercept (initial levels) and the slope (rate of change) of psychological well-being over time, and whether racial identity moderates these relationships. The results indicated that African American adolescents who reported higher psychological responses to discrimination frequency levels at the first time point had lower initial levels of well-being. Regressing the slope factor for psychological well-being on frequency of discrimination also revealed a non-significant result for subsequent well-being levels. PMID:21954919

  14. Supportive Family Environments Ameliorate the Link Between Racial Discrimination and Epigenetic Aging: A Replication Across Two Longitudinal Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Brody, Gene H; Miller, Gregory E; Yu, Tianyi; Beach, Steven R H; Chen, Edith

    2016-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that supportive family environments during adolescence buffer exposure to racial discrimination, reducing its impact on biological weathering and its manifestation in cellular aging. Perceived racial discrimination, support in the family environment, and confounder variables were assessed for 3 consecutive years across adolescence in two independent cohorts of African American youth from rural Georgia. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected during young adulthood. Patterns of methylation were used to index the epigenetic ages of these cells and the extent to which they differed from participants' chronological ages. Among youth in supportive family environments, exposure to higher levels of racial discrimination did not forecast greater epigenetic aging. Among youth in less supportive family environments, exposure to higher levels of racial discrimination did forecast greater epigenetic aging. The associations emerged independently of confounder variables, and the results were replicated across the two cohorts. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Supportive Family Environments Ameliorate the Link Between Racial Discrimination and Epigenetic Aging: A Replication Across Two Longitudinal Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Miller, Gregory E.; Yu, Tianyi; Beach, Steven R. H.; Chen, Edith

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that supportive family environments during adolescence will buffer exposure to racial discrimination, reducing its impact on biological weathering and its manifestation in cellular aging. Indicators of racial discrimination, supportive family environments, and covariates were collected for 3 consecutive years across adolescence from 2 independent cohorts of African American youth from rural Georgia. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected during young adulthood. Patterns of methylation were used to index epigenetic ages of these cells and the extent to which they differed from participants’ chronological ages. Among youth in supportive family environments, exposure to high levels of racial discrimination did not forecast epigenetic aging. Among youth in less supportive family environments, exposure to high levels of racial discrimination forecast faster epigenetic aging. The results did not change when confounder variables were included in the data analyses, and the results were replicated across cohorts. PMID:26917213

  16. Racialization in Early Childhood: A Critical Analysis of Discourses in Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacini-Ketchabaw, Veronica; White, Jan; de Almeida, Ana-Elisa Armstrong

    2006-01-01

    A large portion of the early childhood literature in the area of cultural, racial, and linguistic diversity addresses the practices of institutions for young children, immigrant/refugee parents' understandings of their situation, and provides recommendations for more inclusive practices. This body of literature has proved very useful in bringing…

  17. Early Childhood Care and Education: Effects on Ethnic and Racial Gaps in School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Katherine A.; Waldfogel, Jane

    2005-01-01

    The authors examine black, white, and Hispanic children's differing experiences in early childhood care and education and explore links between these experiences and racial and ethnic gaps in school readiness. Children who attend center care or preschool programs enter school more ready to learn, but both the share of children enrolled in these…

  18. School Context Matters: The Impacts of Concentrated Poverty and Racial Segregation on Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piontak, Joy Rayanne; Schulman, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Schools are important sites for interventions to prevent childhood obesity. This study examines how variables measuring the socioeconomic and racial composition of schools and counties affect the likelihood of obesity among third to fifth grade children. Methods: Body mass index data were collected from third to fifth grade public…

  19. Racial and Ethnic Inequality in Childhood Exposure to Neighborhood Poverty and Affluence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timberlake, Jeffrey, M.

    Despite recent scholarly concern with "neighborhood effects" on children, no study to date has measured the cumulative exposure of children to poor and affluent neighborhoods. This study constructed multi-state life tables to estimate racial and ethnic differences in "childhood expectancy" in five neighborhood types, ranging from affluent to…

  20. Early Childhood Reform: Innovative Approaches to Cultural and Racial Diversity among Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Carol Brunson

    Noting that the cultural and racial make-up of the American family population has changed, this paper characterizes the early childhood community's responses to diversity among families on the basis of position statements, program policies, and innovative local initiatives. The paper argues that to assure equitable treatment of culturally diverse…

  1. School Context Matters: The Impacts of Concentrated Poverty and Racial Segregation on Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piontak, Joy Rayanne; Schulman, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Schools are important sites for interventions to prevent childhood obesity. This study examines how variables measuring the socioeconomic and racial composition of schools and counties affect the likelihood of obesity among third to fifth grade children. Methods: Body mass index data were collected from third to fifth grade public…

  2. Virtual Environments, Online Racial Discrimination, and Adjustment among a Diverse, School-Based Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tynes, Brendesha M.; Rose, Chad A.; Hiss, Sophia; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Mitchell, Kimberly; Williams, David

    2015-01-01

    Given the recent rise in online hate activity and the increased amount of time adolescents spend with media, more research is needed on their experiences with racial discrimination in virtual environments. This cross-sectional study examines the association between amount of time spent online, traditional and online racial discrimination and adolescent adjustment, including depressive symptoms, anxiety and externalizing behaviors. The study also explores the role that social identities, including race and gender, play in these associations. Online surveys were administered to 627 sixth through twelfth graders in K-8, middle and high schools. Multiple regression results revealed that discrimination online was associated with all three outcome variables. Additionally, a significant interaction between online discrimination by time online was found for externalizing behaviors indicating that increased time online and higher levels of online discrimination are associated with more problem behavior. This study highlights the need for clinicians, educational professionals and researchers to attend to race-related experiences online as well as in traditional environments. PMID:27134698

  3. Virtual Environments, Online Racial Discrimination, and Adjustment among a Diverse, School-Based Sample of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tynes, Brendesha M; Rose, Chad A; Hiss, Sophia; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Mitchell, Kimberly; Williams, David

    Given the recent rise in online hate activity and the increased amount of time adolescents spend with media, more research is needed on their experiences with racial discrimination in virtual environments. This cross-sectional study examines the association between amount of time spent online, traditional and online racial discrimination and adolescent adjustment, including depressive symptoms, anxiety and externalizing behaviors. The study also explores the role that social identities, including race and gender, play in these associations. Online surveys were administered to 627 sixth through twelfth graders in K-8, middle and high schools. Multiple regression results revealed that discrimination online was associated with all three outcome variables. Additionally, a significant interaction between online discrimination by time online was found for externalizing behaviors indicating that increased time online and higher levels of online discrimination are associated with more problem behavior. This study highlights the need for clinicians, educational professionals and researchers to attend to race-related experiences online as well as in traditional environments.

  4. Lifetime racial/ethnic discrimination and ambulatory blood pressure: The moderating effect of age

    PubMed Central

    Moody, Danielle L. Beatty; Waldstein, Shari R.; Tobin, Jonathan; Cassels, Andrea; Schwartz, Joseph C.; Brondolo, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine if the relationships of lifetime discrimination to ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) varied as a function of age in a sample of Black and Latino(a) adults ages 19 – 65. Methods Participants were 607 Black (n = 318) and Latino(a) (n = 289) adults (49% female) who completed the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire-Community Version (PEDQ-CV), which assesses lifetime exposure to racism/ethnic discrimination. They were outfitted with an ABP monitor to assess systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) across a 24-hour period. Mixed-level modeling was conducted to examine potential interactive effects of lifetime discrimination and age to 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime ABP after adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, personality and life stress characteristics, and substance consumption covariates (e.g., smoking, alcohol). Results There were significant interactions of Age × Lifetime Discrimination on 24-hour and daytime DBP (ps ≤ .04), and in particular significant interactions for the Social Exclusion component of Lifetime Discrimination. Post-hoc probing of the interactions revealed the effects of Lifetime Discrimination on DBP were seen for older, but not younger participants. Lifetime discrimination was significantly positively associated with nocturnal SBP, and these effects were not moderated by age. All associations of Lifetime Discrimination to ABP remained significant controlling for recent exposure to discrimination as well as all other covariates. Conclusions Exposure to racial/ethnic discrimination across the life course is associated with elevated ABP in middle to older aged Black and Latino(a) adults. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms linking discrimination to ABP over the life course. PMID:27018724

  5. Lifetime racial/ethnic discrimination and ambulatory blood pressure: The moderating effect of age.

    PubMed

    Beatty Moody, Danielle L; Waldstein, Shari R; Tobin, Jonathan N; Cassells, Andrea; Schwartz, Joseph C; Brondolo, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    To determine whether the relationships of lifetime discrimination to ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) varied as a function of age in a sample of Black and Latino(a) adults ages 19 - 65. Participants were 607 Black (n = 318) and Latino(a) (n = 289) adults (49% female) who completed the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire-Community Version (PEDQ-CV), which assesses lifetime exposure to racism/ethnic discrimination. They were outfitted with an ABP monitor to assess systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) across a 24-hr period. Mixed-level modeling was conducted to examine potential interactive effects of lifetime discrimination and age to 24-hr, daytime, and nighttime ABP after adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, personality and life stress characteristics, and substance consumption covariates (e.g., smoking, alcohol). There were significant interactions of Age × Lifetime Discrimination on 24-hr and daytime DBP (ps ≤ .04), and in particular significant interactions for the Social Exclusion component of Lifetime Discrimination. Post hoc probing of the interactions revealed the effects of Lifetime Discrimination on DBP were seen for older, but not younger participants. Lifetime discrimination was significantly positively associated with nocturnal SBP, and these effects were not moderated by age. All associations of Lifetime Discrimination to ABP remained significant controlling for recent exposure to discrimination as well as all other covariates. Exposure to racial/ethnic discrimination across the life course is associated with elevated ABP in middle to older aged Black and Latino(a) adults. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms linking discrimination to ABP over the life course. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Racial discrimination, response to unfair treatment, and depressive symptoms among pregnant black and African American women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Ertel, Karen A.; James-Todd, Tamarra; Kleinman, Kenneth; Krieger, Nancy; Gillman, Matthew W.; Wright, Rosalind; Rich-Edwards, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the association between self-reported racial discrimination and prenatal depressive symptoms among black women. Methods Our study population consisted of two cohorts of pregnant women: the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress project (ACCESS) and Project Viva. We measured self-reported racial discrimination among black women using a modified Experiences of Discrimination scale (score 0–8). We assessed elevated depressive symptoms (EDS) with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (≥13 on a 0–30 scale). Results Fifty-four percent of ACCESS and 78% of Viva participants reported experiencing racial discrimination. After adjusting for age, marital status, income, education, and nativity, a 1-U increment in Experiences of Discrimination score was associated with 48% increased odds of EDS (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.24–1.76) for ACCESS participants but was not significantly associated among Viva participants (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.92–1.37). In both cohorts, responding to unfair treatment by talking to others was associated with the lowest odds of EDS. Conclusions Our findings suggest that higher levels of perceived racial discrimination may increase depressive symptoms during pregnancy among U.S. black women. Interventions involving talking to others may aid in reducing the risk of depressive symptoms among black women experiencing higher levels of racial discrimination. PMID:23123506

  7. Racial discrimination, response to unfair treatment, and depressive symptoms among pregnant black and African American women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ertel, Karen A; James-Todd, Tamarra; Kleinman, Kenneth; Krieger, Nancy; Gillman, Matthew; Wright, Rosalind; Rich-Edwards, Janet

    2012-12-01

    To assess the association between self-reported racial discrimination and prenatal depressive symptoms among black women. Our study population consisted of two cohorts of pregnant women: the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress project (ACCESS) and Project Viva. We measured self-reported racial discrimination among black women using a modified Experiences of Discrimination scale (score 0-8). We assessed elevated depressive symptoms (EDS) with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (≥13 on a 0-30 scale). Fifty-four percent of ACCESS and 78% of Viva participants reported experiencing racial discrimination. After adjusting for age, marital status, income, education, and nativity, a 1-U increment in Experiences of Discrimination score was associated with 48% increased odds of EDS (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-1.76) for ACCESS participants but was not significantly associated among Viva participants (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.37). In both cohorts, responding to unfair treatment by talking to others was associated with the lowest odds of EDS. Our findings suggest that higher levels of perceived racial discrimination may increase depressive symptoms during pregnancy among U.S. black women. Interventions involving talking to others may aid in reducing the risk of depressive symptoms among black women experiencing higher levels of racial discrimination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Transdiagnostic Factors and Mediation of the Relationship Between Perceived Racial Discrimination and Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Seijas, Craig; Stohl, Malki; Hasin, Deborah S; Eaton, Nicholas R

    2015-07-01

    Multivariable comorbidity research indicates that many common mental disorders are manifestations of 2 latent transdiagnostic factors, internalizing and externalizing. Environmental stressors are known to increase the risk for experiencing particular mental disorders, but their relationships with transdiagnostic disorder constructs are unknown. The present study investigated one such stressor, perceived racial discrimination, which is robustly associated with a variety of mental disorders. To examine the direct and indirect associations between perceived racial discrimination and common forms of psychopathology. Quantitative analysis of 12 common diagnoses that were previously assessed in a nationally representative sample (N = 5191) of African American and Afro-Caribbean adults in the United States, taken from the National Survey of American Life, and used to test the possibility that transdiagnostic factors mediate the effects of discrimination on disorders. The data were obtained from February 2001 to March 2003. Latent variable measurement models, including factor analysis, and indirect effect models were used in the study. Mental health diagnoses from reliable and valid structured interviews and perceived race-based discrimination. While perceived discrimination was positively associated with all examined forms of psychopathology and substance use disorders, latent variable indirect effects modeling revealed that almost all of these associations were significantly mediated by the transdiagnostic factors. For social anxiety disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, complete mediation was found. The pathways linking perceived discrimination to psychiatric disorders were not direct but indirect (via transdiagnostic factors). Therefore, perceived discrimination may be associated with risk for myriad psychiatric disorders due to its association with transdiagnostic factors.

  9. Racial/ethnic workplace discrimination: association with tobacco and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Laura J; Ornelas, India J; Lyles, Courtney R; Williams, Emily C

    2015-01-01

    Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004-2010). Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (p<0.001). In the total sample, discrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention, given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Perceived racial, socioeconomic and gender discrimination and its impact on contraceptive choice.

    PubMed

    Kossler, Karla; Kuroki, Lindsay M; Allsworth, Jenifer E; Secura, Gina M; Roehl, Kimberly A; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2011-09-01

    The study was conducted to determine whether perceived racial, economic and gender discrimination has an impact on contraception use and choice of method. We analyzed the first 2,500 women aged 14-45 years enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project, a prospective cohort study aimed to reduce barriers to obtaining long-acting reversible contraception. Items from the "Experiences of Discrimination" (EOD) scale measured experienced race-, gender- and economic-based discrimination. Overall, 57% of women reported a history of discrimination. Thirty-three percent reported gender- or race-based discrimination, and 24% reported discrimination attributed to socioeconomic status (SES). Prior to study enrollment, women reporting discrimination were more likely to report any contraception use (61% vs. 52%, p<.001) but were more likely to use less effective methods (e.g., barrier methods, natural family planning or withdrawal; 41% vs. 32%, p<.001). In adjusted analyses, gender-, race- or SES-based discrimination were associated with increased current use of less effective methods [adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.41; aRR 1.25, CI 1.08-1.45; aRR 1.23, CI 1.06-1.43, respectively]. After enrollment, 66% of women with a history of experience of discrimination chose a long-acting reversible contraceptive method (intrauterine device or implantable) and 35% chose a depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate or contraceptive pill, patch or ring. Discrimination negatively impacts a woman's use of contraception. However, after financial and structural barriers to contraceptive use were eliminated, women with EOD overwhelmingly selected effective methods of contraception. Future interventions to improve access and utilization of contraception should focus on eliminating barriers and targeting interventions that encompass race-, gender- and economic-based discrimination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploring the Link between Racial Discrimination and Substance Use: What Mediates? What Buffers?

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Frederick X.; Etcheverry, Paul E.; Stock, Michelle L.; Gerrard, Meg; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Kiviniemi, Marc; O'Hara, Ross

    2012-01-01

    The relation between perceived racial discrimination and substance use was examined in two studies that were based on the prototype – willingness model (Gibbons, Gerrard & Lane, 2003). Study 1, using structural equation modeling, revealed prospective relations between discrimination and use five years later in a panel of African American adolescents (M age 10.5 at T1) and their parents. For both groups, the relation was mediated by anger/hostility. For the adolescents, it was also mediated by behavioral willingness, and it was moderated by supportive parenting. Study 2 was a lab experiment in which a subset of the Study 1 adolescents (M age = 18.5) was asked to imagine a discriminatory experience, and then their affect and drug willingness were assessed. As in the survey study, discrimination was associated with more drug willingness and that relation was again mediated by anger and moderated by supportive parenting. Implications of the results for research and interventions involving reactions to racial discrimination are discussed. PMID:20677890

  12. Exploring the link between racial discrimination and substance use: what mediates? What buffers?

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Frederick X; Etcheverry, Paul E; Stock, Michelle L; Gerrard, Meg; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Kiviniemi, Marc; O'Hara, Ross E

    2010-11-01

    The relation between perceived racial discrimination and substance use was examined in 2 studies that were based on the prototype-willingness model (Gibbons, Gerrard, & Lane, 2003). Study 1, using structural equation modeling, revealed prospective relations between discrimination and use 5 years later in a panel of African American adolescents (M age 10.5 years at Time 1 [T1]) and their parents. For both groups, the relation was mediated by anger and/or hostility. For the adolescents, it was also mediated by behavioral willingness, and it was moderated by supportive parenting. Study 2 was a lab experiment in which a subset of the Study 1 adolescents (M age = 18.5 years) was asked to imagine a discriminatory experience, and then their affect and drug willingness were assessed. As in the survey study, discrimination was associated with more drug willingness, and that relation was again mediated by anger and moderated by supportive parenting. Implications of the results for research and interventions involving reactions to racial discrimination are discussed.

  13. Pathways to Pain: Racial Discrimination and Relations Between Parental Functioning and Child Psychosocial Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Riana E.; Hussain, Saida B.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Williams, Joanna Lee

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between racial discrimination, parental functioning, and child adjustment is not well understood. The goal of the present study was to assess parental reports of discrimination in relation to depression and parenting practices, as well as on subsequent child internalizing and externalizing problems in low-income Black families. Data include a subsample of the Early Steps project, a multisite longitudinal study of financial and behaviorally at-risk families. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze our hypothesized model. Excellent model fit was established after removing externalizing problems from the model. As predicted, indirect associations were found from discrimination to parental depression, parenting, and child internalizing problems; and direct associations were found from discrimination to child internalizing problems. The results are consistent with findings suggesting that discrimination is negatively associated with adult well-being; moreover, contribute to the sparse literature on the effects of discrimination beyond the direct recipient. Finally, that parent discrimination was directly associated with child emotional problems suggests the continued need to address and treat discriminatory practices more generally. PMID:26594069

  14. A mediational model of racial discrimination and alcohol-related problems among african american college students.

    PubMed

    Boynton, Marcella H; O'Hara, Ross E; Covault, Jonathan; Scott, Denise; Tennen, Howard

    2014-03-01

    Racial discrimination has been identified as an important predictor of alcohol-related outcomes for African Americans. The goal of the current study was to extend previously found links between lifetime discrimination, alcohol use, and alcohol problems as well as to elucidate the affective mechanisms underlying these associations, as moderated by gender. A multiple-groups structural equation model was computed using survey data collected from 619 students from a historically Black college/university. The final model provided excellent fit to the data, explaining 6% of the variance in alcohol consumption and 37% of the variance in alcohol problems. Discrimination was a significant predictor of alcohol-related problems but not, by and large, level of use. For men, anger-but not discrimination-specific anger-was a significant partial mediator of the link between discrimination and both alcohol use and alcohol problems. Depression partially mediated the link between discrimination and alcohol problems for both men and women. The results suggest that, for African Americans whose drinking leads to drinking-related problems, discrimination and poor affective self-regulation are highly relevant and predictive factors, especially for men.

  15. Racial/ethnic harassment and discrimination, its antecedents, and its effect on job-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Mindy E; Palmieri, Patrick A; Drasgow, Fritz; Ormerod, Alayne J

    2012-01-01

    A general model of workplace prejudice acts, their antecedents, and their consequences is proposed and examined in the context of racial/ethnic harassment and discrimination (REHD). Antecedents proposed and tested here include context and climate, whereas consequences proposed and tested here include work, supervisor, and opportunity satisfaction and turnover intentions. The theoretical model is first tested and cross-validated in two ethnically diverse subsamples (approximately 2,000 each). Then, hierarchical multigroup modeling was conducted to determine whether the relationships among REHD, its antecedents, and its outcomes are equivalent across five racial/ethnic groups (N = 1,000 per group) in the U.S. military. This addresses the issue of differential exposure (i.e., varying amounts of stressors across groups) versus differential vulnerability (i.e., discrepant impact of a stressor on outcomes across groups) across racial/ethnic groups. Consistent with expectations, results suggest that although racial/ethnic groups differ in their mean exposure to REHD, the relationships among REHD and its outcomes are the same across race/ethnicity, supporting the differential exposure view. In addition, the results show some differences between antecedents and REHD across race/ethnicity.

  16. Racial discrimination, post-traumatic stress and prescription drug problems among Aboriginal Canadians.

    PubMed

    Currie, Cheryl; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald; Laing, Lory

    2015-06-24

    1) To examine associations between racial discrimination and drug problems among urban-based Aboriginal adults; and 2) to determine whether these associations are best explained by symptoms of psychological stress, distress or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data were collected through in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults (N = 372) living in a mid-sized city in western Canada in 2010. Associations were examined using bootstrapped linear regression models adjusted for confounders, with continuous prescription and illicit drug problem scores as outcomes. Mediation was examined using the cross-products of coefficients method. More than 80% of Aboriginal adults had experienced racial discrimination in the past year, with the majority reporting high levels in that period. Past-year discrimination was a risk factor for PTSD symptoms and prescription drug problems in models adjusted for confounders and other forms of psychological trauma. In mediation models, PTSD symptoms explained the association between discrimination and prescription drug problems; psychological stress and distress did not. PTSD symptoms also explained this association when the covariance between mediators was controlled. The results also indicate that participation in Aboriginal cultural traditions was associated with increased discrimination. Most efforts to address Aboriginal health inequities in Canada have focused on the role Aboriginal people play in these disparities. The current findings combine with others to call for an expanded focus. Non-Aboriginal Canadians may also play a role in the health inequities observed. The findings of this study suggest efforts to reduce discrimination experienced by Aboriginal adults in cities may reduce PTSD symptomology and prescription drug problems in these populations.

  17. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and psychological outcomes among adult international adoptees in Finland: Moderating effects of social support and sense of coherence.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Maarit; Elovainio, Marko; Raaska, Hanna; Sinkkonen, Jari; Matomäki, Jaakko; Lapinleimu, Helena

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative literature on international adoptees and racial/ethnic discrimination is lacking despite results in qualitative studies from Europe and the United States that have consistently indicated how racism constantly complicates adoptees' everyday lives. To advance the literature, the present study examined the prevalence of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination among 213 adult international adoptees in Finland (59.6% women and 40.4% men, mean age 24.1 years), and the association between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and psychological well-being indicators, including psychological distress and sleeping problems. In addition, we examined social support and sense of coherence as moderators of the association between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and psychological well-being. Our results showed that, on average, adult international adoptees perceived racial/ethnic discrimination occasionally. Hierarchical linear regression analyses indicated a significant association between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and psychological distress and sleeping problems. Additionally, a significant 2-way interaction of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and social support indicated that the availability of social support may moderate the association between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and psychological distress such that adoptees with high levels of social support may be protected from the harmful effects of discrimination. These results highlight the potential significance of social support in reducing the harmful effects of racial/ethnic discrimination on international adoptees. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Racial discrimination's influence on smoking rates among American Indian Alaska Native two-spirit individuals: does pain play a role?

    PubMed

    Johnson-Jennings, Michelle D; Belcourt, Annie; Town, Matthew; Walls, Melissa L; Walters, Karina L

    2014-11-01

    High rates of racial discrimination and non-ceremonial tobacco smoking exist among American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) Two-Spirit/LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender) populations. The authors examined whether or not pain mediates between racial discrimination and smoking among Two-Spirits. Two-Spirit adults (n=447) from seven urban U.S. locations were surveyed during the HONOR project. The Indigenist stress coping model was used as framework in which to conduct descriptive, bivariate and regression analyses. A majority of the participants reported smoking (45.2%) and pain (57%). Pain was found to mediate the association between racial discrimination and smoking. Racial discrimination appears to be a significant factor influencing tobacco smoking and health behaviors within Two-Spirit populations. Effective tobacco cessation and/or prevention planning for Two-Spirits and others who experience frequent racial discrimination, stress, and trauma should also consider the influence of pain. Pain may serve as the embodiment of discrimination, and this possibility requires future research

  19. Perceived discrimination in U.S. healthcare: Charting the effects of key social characteristics within and across racial groups.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Corey M; Hashemi, Manata; Sánchez-Jankowski, Martín

    2015-01-01

    This article employs an original empirical analysis to contribute to scientific understandings of the relationship between social characteristics and perceptions of discrimination in healthcare encounters within and across racial categories in the U.S. Our analysis focuses on a diverse sample of 43,020 adults aged 18 to 85 drawn from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). We use a series of weighted descriptive statistics and logistic regression models to parse out factors associated with perceived discrimination and chart how they vary by race and ethnicity. Members of racial minorities were more likely to report perceptions of discrimination, and while the effect was somewhat mitigated by introducing patient and health-care system factors into our models, the race effects remained both statistically significant and of substantial magnitude (particularly for African Americans and Native Americans). Poor self-reported health and communication difficulties in the clinical encounter were associated with increased perceptions of discrimination across all groups. Further, among non-whites, increased education was associated with increased perceptions of discrimination net of other factors. These findings suggest efforts to reduce disparities in medical care should continue to focus on expanding the depth and quality of patient-provider interactions for disadvantaged racial groups, while also being attentive to other factors that affect perceived racial discrimination in healthcare encounters within and across racial groups.

  20. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Adjustment among Ethnically Diverse College Students: Family and Peer Support as Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda; Ittel, Angela; Hoferichter, Frances; Gallarin, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a risk and resilience perspective, the current study examined whether family cohesion and peer support functioned as protective factors against the negative effects of racial/ethnic discrimination by peers. The sample included 142 ethnically diverse college students. The results showed that while greater perceived discrimination was…

  1. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Adjustment among Ethnically Diverse College Students: Family and Peer Support as Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda; Ittel, Angela; Hoferichter, Frances; Gallarin, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a risk and resilience perspective, the current study examined whether family cohesion and peer support functioned as protective factors against the negative effects of racial/ethnic discrimination by peers. The sample included 142 ethnically diverse college students. The results showed that while greater perceived discrimination was…

  2. Racial Discrimination and HIV-related Risk Behaviors in Southeast Louisiana

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Kathryn C.; Hormes, Julia M.; Wallace, Maeve; Rountree, Michele; Theall, Katherine P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We examined the relationship between cumulative experiences of racial discrimination and HIV-related risk taking, and whether these relationships are mediated through alcohol use among African Americans in semi-rural southeast Louisiana. Methods Participants (N = 214) reported on experiences of discrimination, HIV sexual risk-taking, history of sexually transmitted infection (STI), and health behaviors including alcohol use in the previous 90 days. Experiences of discrimination (scaled both by frequency of occurrence and situational counts) as a predictor of a sexual risk composite score as well as a history of STI was assessed using multivariate linear and logistic regression, respectively, including tests for mediation by alcohol use. Results Discrimination was common in this cohort, with respondents confirming their experience on average 7 of the 9 potential situations and on more than 34 separate occasions. After adjustment, discrimination was significantly associated with increasing sexual risk-taking and lifetime history of STI when measured either by frequency of occurrence or number of situations, although there was no evidence that these relationships were mediated through alcohol use. Conclusions Cumulative experiences of discrimination may play a significant role in sexual risk behavior and consequently increase vulnerability to HIV and other STIs. PMID:26685822

  3. Race, Racial Discrimination, and the Risk of Work-Related Illness, Injury or Assault: Findings from a National Study

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Candice A.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.; Minich, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examines whether workplace racial harassment/discrimination mediates the relationship between race/ethnicity and work-related illness, injury or assault across time. Methods: A national random-digit dial phone survey was conducted at two points in time (W1: 2003-2004; W2: 2004-2005) among a sample of Black, Hispanic and non-Hispanic white workers. As part of the survey, respondents indicated their experiences with racial harassment or discrimination, and occupational illness, injury, or assault in the past 12 months. Results: Hispanic respondents were more likely than whites to experience work-related illness, injury or assault, and these associations were mediated by experiences of racial harassment/discrimination. Conclusions: Interventions to reduce workplace harassment and discrimination may help decrease risk for work-related illness, injury, or assault among Hispanic workers. PMID:19339900

  4. From Racial Discrimination to Risky Sex: Prospective Relations Involving Peers and Parents

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Megan E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Murry, Velma M.; Simons, Leslie G.; Simons, Ronald L.; Lorenz, Frederick O.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how early experience with racial discrimination affected the subsequent risky sexual behaviors of a diverse sample of African American youths (N = 745). The analyses focused on 3 risk-promoting factors thought to mediate the hypothesized discrimination → risky sex relation: negative affect, affiliation with deviant peers, and favorable attitudes toward risky sex. In addition, attentive parenting was examined as a protective factor. Analyses using structural equation modeling revealed that youths who perceived more racial discrimination at age 10 or 11 were engaging in more sexual risk taking at age 18 or 19. This relation was mediated by the hypothesized risk-promoting factors via pathways that were consistent with our conceptual model. Results also indicated a prospective reciprocal relation between parenting and children’s deviant affiliations: deviant peer affiliations at age 10 or 11 predicted more attentive parenting behaviors by the parents; this response from the parents, in turn, predicted relatively fewer deviant affiliations when the youths were 15 or 16. Study findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to the disproportionately high rates of sexually transmitted infections among African Americans. PMID:21942666

  5. Patterns and correlates of self-reported racial discrimination among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults, 2008-09: analysis of national survey data.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Joan; Paradies, Yin C

    2013-07-01

    There is now considerable evidence that racism is a pernicious and enduring social problem with a wide range of detrimental outcomes for individuals, communities and societies. Although indigenous people worldwide are subjected to high levels of racism, there is a paucity of population-based, quantitative data about the factors associated with their reporting of racial discrimination, about the settings in which such discrimination takes place, and about the frequency with which it is experienced. Such information is essential in efforts to reduce both exposure to racism among indigenous people and the harms associated with such exposure. Weighted data on self-reported racial discrimination from over 7,000 Indigenous Australian adults participating in the 2008-09 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Survey, a nationally representative survey conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, were analysed by socioeconomic, demographic and cultural factors. More than one in four respondents (27%) reported experiencing racial discrimination in the past year. Racial discrimination was most commonly reported in public (41% of those reporting any racial discrimination), legal (40%) and work (30%) settings. Among those reporting any racial discrimination, about 40% experienced this discrimination most or all of the time (as opposed to a little or some of the time) in at least one setting. Reporting of racial discrimination peaked in the 35-44 year age group and then declined. Higher reporting of racial discrimination was associated with removal from family, low trust, unemployment, having a university degree, and indicators of cultural identity and participation. Lower reporting of racial discrimination was associated with home ownership, remote residence and having relatively few Indigenous friends. These data indicate that racial discrimination is commonly experienced across a wide variety of settings, with public, legal and work settings identified as

  6. Racial discrimination, psychological distress, and self-rated health among US-born and foreign-born Black Americans.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D; Chen, Jarvis T; Koenen, Karestan

    2011-09-01

    We investigated associations among racial discrimination, psychological distress, and self-rated health among US-born and immigrant Black Americans. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a cohort of employed working-class Black Americans (193 US-born, 275 foreign-born). Both US-born and foreign-born Black participants had high levels of exposure to poverty (51% and 57%, respectively) and racial discrimination (76% and 60%) and reported high levels of severe psychological distress (14% and 16% had a Kessler 6 [K6] score of 13 or greater); 17% and 7% reported fair or poor health. After controlling for relevant covariates, their risk parameters for racial discrimination (high vs no exposure) were 4.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3, 5.6) and 3.3 (95% CI = 2.1, 4.5), respectively, for continuous K6 score; corresponding odds ratios for severe psychological distress were 6.9 (95% CI = 1.4, 35.7) and 6.8 (95% CI = 2.5, 18.3). No associations existed between racial discrimination and self-reported health, suggesting that an underlying propensity to report adversity does not account for our psychological distress findings. Our results attest to the salience of racial discrimination, nativity, and socioeconomic position in understanding the experiences and psychological health of Black Americans.

  7. The role of socially prescribed perfectionism in the link between perceived racial discrimination and African American adolescents’ depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Sharon F.; Robinson, W. LaVome; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Research examining the social origins of perfectionism has focused on negative evaluative experiences in the family, with less attention to negative social evaluations in other contexts and situations relevant for African American adolescents. The experience of racial discrimination is common for African American youth, and may trigger maladaptive perfectionistic beliefs if the youth perceive that they do not meet others’ standards (socially prescribed perfectionism) or internalize discriminatory messages. Thus, the present study examined longitudinal associations among racial discrimination, socially prescribed perfectionism, and depressive symptoms among a community sample of urban and predominantly low income African American adolescents (n = 492; 46.7% female). In each of grades 7, 8 and 9, participants reported their experiences with racial discrimination, perfectionistic beliefs, and depressive symptoms. Analyses revealed that experiences with racial discrimination in grade 7 were associated with socially prescribed perfectionism in grade 8 which, in turn, was linked with depressive symptoms in grade 9. Results suggest that prospective associations between the experience of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms are due, in part, to increased socially prescribed perfectionism. Implications for interventions targeting depression in African American are discussed. PMID:24150863

  8. The role of socially prescribed perfectionism in the link between perceived racial discrimination and African American adolescents' depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Sharon F; Robinson, W LaVome; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2014-05-01

    Research examining the social origins of perfectionism has focused on negative evaluative experiences in the family, with less attention to negative social evaluations in other contexts and situations relevant for African American adolescents. The experience of racial discrimination is common for African American youth, and may trigger maladaptive perfectionistic beliefs if the youth perceive that they do not meet others' standards (socially prescribed perfectionism) or internalize discriminatory messages. Thus, the present study examined longitudinal associations among racial discrimination, socially prescribed perfectionism, and depressive symptoms among a community sample of urban and predominantly low income African American adolescents (n = 492; 46.7 % female). In each of grades 7, 8 and 9, participants reported their experiences with racial discrimination, perfectionistic beliefs, and depressive symptoms. Analyses revealed that experiences with racial discrimination in grade 7 were associated with socially prescribed perfectionism in grade 8 which, in turn, was linked with depressive symptoms in grade 9. Results suggest that prospective associations between the experience of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms are due, in part, to increased socially prescribed perfectionism. Implications for interventions targeting depression in African American are discussed.

  9. Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Adolescents' Well-Being: The Role of Cross-Ethnic Friendships and Friends' Experiences of Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Benner, Aprile D; Wang, Yijie

    2017-03-01

    There is an extensive body of work documenting the negative socioemotional and academic consequences of perceiving racial/ethnic discrimination during adolescence, but little is known about how the larger peer context conditions such effects. Using peer network data from 252 eighth graders (85% Latino, 11% African American, 5% other race/ethnicity), the present study examined the moderating role of cross-ethnic friendships and close friends' experiences of discrimination in the link between adolescents' perceptions of discrimination and well-being. Cross-ethnic friendships and friends' experiences of discrimination generally served a protective role, buffering the negative effects of discrimination on both socioemotional well-being and school outcomes. Overall, results highlight the importance of considering racial/ethnic-related aspects of adolescents' friendships when studying interpersonal processes closely tied to race/ethnicity. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Information about the US racial demographic shift triggers concerns about anti-White discrimination among the prospective White “minority”

    PubMed Central

    Richeson, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    The United States is undergoing a demographic shift in which White Americans are predicted to comprise less than 50% of the US population by mid-century. The present research examines how exposure to information about this racial shift affects perceptions of the extent to which different racial groups face discrimination. In four experiments, making the growing national racial diversity salient led White Americans to predict that Whites will face increasing discrimination in the future, compared with control information. Conversely, regardless of experimental condition, Whites estimated that discrimination against various racial minority groups will decline. Explorations of several psychological mechanisms potentially underlying the effect of the racial shift information on perceived anti-White discrimination suggested a mediating role of concerns about American culture fundamentally changing. Taken together, these findings suggest that reports about the changing national demographics enhance concerns among Whites that they will be the victims of racial discrimination in the future. PMID:28953971

  11. Self-reported health, perceived racial discrimination, and skin color in African Americans in the CARDIA study.

    PubMed

    Borrell, Luisa N; Kiefe, Catarina I; Williams, David R; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2006-09-01

    This study investigates the association between self-reported physical and mental health and both perceived racial discrimination and skin color in African American men and women. We used data from the longitudinal coronary artery risk development in young adults study (CARDIA) in African American men and women (n=1722) in the USA. We assessed self-reported mental and physical health status and depressive symptoms at the Year 15 (2000-2001) follow-up examination using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-12) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Skin color was measured at the Year 7 examination (1992-1993). To assess racial discrimination, we used a summary score (range 0-21) for 7 questions on experiencing racial discrimination: at school, getting a job, getting housing, at work, at home, getting medical care, on the street or in a public setting. Self-reported racial discrimination was more common in men than in women (78.1% versus 73.0%, p<0.05) and in those with higher educational attainment, independent of gender. Discrimination was statistically significantly associated with worse physical and mental health in both men and women, before and after adjustment for age, education, income, and skin color. For example, mental health (0-100 scale) decreased an average of 0.29 units per unit increase in racial discrimination score in men; this became 0.32 units after adjustment. There was no association between self-reported physical and mental health and skin color. Further studies of the health consequences of discrimination will require investigation of both the upstream determinants of discrimination and the downstream mechanisms by which perceived discrimination affects health outcomes.

  12. Childhood Adversity and Men’s Relationships in Adulthood: Life Course Processes and Racial Disadvantage

    PubMed Central

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Williams, Kristi; Thomas, Patricia A.; Liu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Prior U.S. population studies have found that childhood adversity influences the quality of relationships in adulthood, with emerging research suggesting that this association might be especially strong for black men. We theorize psychosocial and behavioral coping responses to early life adversity and how these responses may link early life adversity to strain in men’s relationships with their indeterminate partners and children across the life course, with attention to possible racial variation in these experiences and implications for later life well-being. Method: We analyze in-depth interviews with 15 black men and 15 white men. We use qualitative analysis techniques to connect childhood experiences to psychosocial processes in childhood and behavioral coping strategies associated with relationship experiences throughout adulthood. Results: Black men describe much stronger and more persistent childhood adversity than do white men. Findings further suggest that childhood adversity contributes to psychosocial processes (e.g., diminished sense of mastery) that may lead to ways of coping with adversity (e.g., self-medication) that are likely to contribute to relationship difficulties throughout the life span. Discussion: A life course perspective directs attention to the early life origins of cumulative patterns of social disadvantage, patterns that extend to later life. Our findings suggest psychosocial and behavioral pathways through which early life adversity may constrain and strain men’s relationships, possibly contributing to racial inequality in family relationships across the life span. PMID:26589348

  13. Male Asian international students' perceived racial discrimination, masculine identity, and subjective masculinity stress: a moderated mediation model.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y Joel; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Liu, Tao; Zhu, Qingqing; Wei, Meifen

    2014-10-01

    This study examined male Asian international college students' perceptions of racial discrimination, subjective masculinity stress, centrality of masculine identity, and psychological distress by testing a moderated mediation model. Participants were 160 male Asian international college students from 2 large public universities. Participants' perceived racial discrimination was positively related to their subjective masculinity stress only at high (but not low) levels of masculine identity centrality. Additionally, subjective masculinity stress was positively related to psychological distress, although this association was stronger among those who reported high levels of masculine identity centrality. The authors also detected a moderated mediation effect in which subjective masculinity stress mediated the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress only at high (but not low) levels of masculine identity centrality. These findings contribute to the counseling psychology literature by highlighting the connections between race- and gender-related stressors as well as the relevance of masculine identity to an understanding of men's mental health.

  14. Adding to the Education Debt: Depressive Symptoms Mediate the Association between Racial Discrimination and Academic Performance in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2015-01-01

    Although the United States faces a seemingly intractable divide between white and African American academic performance, there remains a dearth of longitudinal research investigating factors that work to maintain this gap. The present study examined whether racial discrimination predicted the academic performance of African American students through its effect on depressive symptoms. Participants were a community sample of African American adolescents (N = 495) attending urban public schools from grade 7 to grade 9 (Mage = 12.5). Structural equation modeling revealed that experienced racial discrimination predicted increases in depressive symptoms 1 year later, which, in turn, predicted decreases in academic performance the following year. These results suggest that racial discrimination continues to play a critical role in the academic performance of African American students and, as such, contributes to the maintenance of the race-based academic achievement gap in the United States. PMID:27425564

  15. Adding to the Education Debt: Depressive Symptoms Mediate the Association between Racial Discrimination and Academic Performance in African Americans.

    PubMed

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2016-08-01

    Although the United States faces a seemingly intractable divide between white and African American academic performance, there remains a dearth of longitudinal research investigating factors that work to maintain this gap. The present study examined whether racial discrimination predicted the academic performance of African American students through its effect on depressive symptoms. Participants were a community sample of African American adolescents (N=495) attending urban public schools from grade 7 to grade 9 (Mage=12.5). Structural equation modeling revealed that experienced racial discrimination predicted increases in depressive symptoms 1year later, which, in turn, predicted decreases in academic performance the following year. These results suggest that racial discrimination continues to play a critical role in the academic performance of African American students and, as such, contributes to the maintenance of the race-based academic achievement gap in the United States. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Online racial discrimination and the protective function of ethnic identity and self-esteem for African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tynes, Brendesha M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Rose, Chad A; Lin, Johnny; Anderson, Carolyn J

    2012-03-01

    A growing body of literature has shown that being victimized online is associated with poor mental health. Little is known about the factors that protect youth from the negative outcomes that may result from these victimization experiences, particularly those related to race. Using a risk and resilience framework, this study examined the protective function of ethnic identity and self-esteem among African Americans who experience online racial discrimination. For the sample of 125 adolescents, hierarchical regression results revealed that higher levels of ethnic identity and self-esteem significantly moderated the negative impact of online racial discrimination on anxiety levels. These findings show that ethnic identity and self-esteem can buffer the negative mental health outcomes associated with online racial discrimination, at least with respect to adolescents' anxiety. Findings from the current study have significant implications for adolescent adjustment given the increased time youth spend doing online activities.

  17. Effects of racial discrimination and health behaviors on mental and physical health of middle-class African American men.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Sherrill L; Bonham, Vence; Neighbors, Harold W; Amell, James W

    2009-02-01

    This research is an examination of the effects of racial discrimination and health-promoting behaviors on the physical and mental health of a sample of 399 well-educated African American men. One would think that the attainment of higher education would increase health-promoting behaviors and might decrease discriminatory experiences that impact health. However, regression analysis indicated a more complex picture. Health-promoting behaviors were positively related to mental health, whereas experiences of racial discrimination contributed to poorer mental health. Relationships between health-promoting behaviors and that of racial discrimination to physical health were found to be nonsignificant. In conclusion, the authors discuss the importance of culturally appropriate health-promotion efforts.

  18. "Say It Loud--I'm Black and I'm Proud": Parents' Messages about Racial Discrimination, and Academic Achievement in African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; Chavous, Tabbye M.; Nguyen, Hoa X.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses two waves of data to examine the relationships among racial socialization, racial discrimination, and academic achievement outcomes in a sample of 144 African American male adolescents. Using latent class analyses, the authors identified four patterns of adolescent-reported racial socialization experiences: Positive Socialization,…

  19. "Say It Loud--I'm Black and I'm Proud": Parents' Messages about Racial Discrimination, and Academic Achievement in African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; Chavous, Tabbye M.; Nguyen, Hoa X.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses two waves of data to examine the relationships among racial socialization, racial discrimination, and academic achievement outcomes in a sample of 144 African American male adolescents. Using latent class analyses, the authors identified four patterns of adolescent-reported racial socialization experiences: Positive Socialization,…

  20. African American male adolescents' preferences in responding to racial discrimination: effects of ethnic identity and situational influences.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, William D; Hudley, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated male African American adolescents' thinking about responses to racial discrimination. Participants (N=67) were recruited from an urban public high school in southern California. Students completed paper and pencil measures assessing their ethnic identity status and their preferred responses to racial discrimination. African American male adolescents whose scores fell into the unexamined ethnic identity or exploration ethnic identity range more strongly endorsed passive responses than individuals whose scores fell into the achieved ethnic identity range. However, a variety of situational factors moderated participants' responses, including the status of the perpetrator of discrimination and the circumstances in which the discrimination occurred. Results were discussed in terms of the social cognitive variables of self-presentation and perceptions of discrimination.

  1. Using the IAT to predict ethnic and racial discrimination: small effect sizes of unknown societal significance.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Frederick L; Mitchell, Gregory; Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James; Tetlock, Philip E

    2015-04-01

    Greenwald, Banaji, and Nosek (2015) present a reanalysis of the meta-analysis by Oswald, Mitchell, Blanton, Jaccard, and Tetlock (2013) that examined the effect sizes of Implicit Association Tests (IATs) designed to predict racial and ethnic discrimination. We discuss points of agreement and disagreement with respect to methods used to synthesize the IAT studies, and we correct an error by Greenwald et al. that obscures a key contribution of our meta-analysis. In the end, all of the meta-analyses converge on the conclusion that, across diverse methods of coding and analyzing the data, IAT scores are not good predictors of ethnic or racial discrimination, and explain, at most, small fractions of the variance in discriminatory behavior in controlled laboratory settings. The thought experiments presented by Greenwald et al. go well beyond the lab to claim systematic IAT effects in noisy real-world settings, but these hypothetical exercises depend crucially on untested and, arguably, untenable assumptions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Depression in Racial and Ethnic Minorities: the Impact of Nativity and Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Budhwani, Henna; Hearld, Kristine Ria; Chavez-Yenter, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    This research examines factors associated with lifetime major depressive disorder in racial and ethnic minorities residing in the USA, with an emphasis on the impact of nativity, discrimination, and health lifestyle behaviors. The Healthy Migrant Effect and Health Lifestyle Theory were used to inform the design of this project. The use of these frameworks not only provides insightful results but also expands their application in mental health disparities research. Logistic regression models were implemented to examine risk factors associated with lifetime major depressive disorder, comparing immigrants to their American-born counterparts as well as to American-born Whites. Data were derived from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (n = 17,249). Support was found for the hypothesis that certain immigrants, specifically Asian and Afro-Caribbean, have lower odds of depression as compared their non-immigrant counterparts. Although, Hispanic immigrants directionally had lower odds of depression, this finding was not statistically significant. Furthermore, engaging in excessive alcohol consumption was associated with higher rates of depression (odds ratio (OR) = 2.09, p < 0.001), and the effect of discrimination on depression was found to be significant, even when controlling for demographics. Of all racial and ethnic groups, foreign-born Afro-Caribbeans had the lowest rate of depression at 7 % followed by foreign-born Asians at 8 %.

  3. Associations Between Self-Reported Discrimination and Diurnal Cortisol Rhythms Among Young Adults: The Moderating Role of Racial-Ethnic Minority Status

    PubMed Central

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Hoyt, Lindsay T.; Adam, Emma K.

    2014-01-01

    Discrimination is theorized to set in motion a neuroendocrine response, which includes cortisol secretion from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Repeated exposure to perceived discrimination is thought to contribute to alterations in diurnal cortisol rhythms and to have implications for health. Discrimination may have particularly strong effects on racial/ethnic minority individuals, based on histories of past exposure and/or greater perceived implications of discriminatory events. Utilizing an ethnically and racially diverse sample of young adults (N = 140; Mage = 22.8 years) and a multiple-day naturalistic cortisol protocol, the present study examined associations between self-reported discrimination and cortisol diurnal rhythms, and whether this relation was moderated by racial/ethnic minority status. Results revealed that self-reported discrimination predicted flatter diurnal cortisol slopes for racial/ethnic minority individuals only. These findings align with theory suggesting that discrimination experiences are important among racial/ethnic minorities. PMID:25262035

  4. Associations between HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, gender discrimination, and depression among HIV-positive African, Caribbean, and Black women in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Logie, Carmen; James, Llana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona

    2013-02-01

    Abstract African, Caribbean, and Black (ACB) women are greatly overrepresented in new HIV infections in comparison with Canada's general population. Social and structural factors such as HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, and racial discrimination converge to increase vulnerability to HIV infection among ACB women by reducing access to HIV prevention services. Stigma and discrimination also present barriers to treatment, care, and support and may contribute to mental health problems. We administered a cross-sectional survey to HIV-positive ACB women (n=173) across Ontario in order to examine the relationships between HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, racial discrimination, and depression. One-third of participants reported moderate/severe depression scores using the Beck Depression Inventory Fast-Screen guidelines. Hierarchical block regression, moderation, and mediation analyses were conducted to measure associations between independent (HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, racial discrimination), moderator/mediator (social support, resilient coping), and dependent (depression) variables. Findings included: (1) HIV-related stigma was associated with increased depression; (2) resilient coping was associated with reduced depression but did not moderate the influence of HIV-related stigma on depression; and (3) the effects of HIV-related stigma on depression were partially mediated through resilient coping. HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, and racial discrimination were significantly correlated with one another and with depression, highlighting the salience of examining multiple intersecting forms of stigma. Generalizability of findings may be limited due to nonrandom sampling. Findings emphasize the importance of multi-component interventions, including building resilient coping skills, mental health promotion and assessment, and stigma reduction programs.

  5. Development of Ethnic, Racial, and National Prejudice in Childhood and Adolescence: A Multinational Meta-Analysis of Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raabe, Tobias; Beelmann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis summarizes 113 research reports worldwide (121 cross-sectional and 7 longitudinal studies) on age differences in ethnic, racial, or national prejudice among children and adolescents. Overall, results indicated a peak in prejudice in middle childhood (5-7 years) followed by a slight decrease until late childhood (8-10 years). In…

  6. The pervasive effects of racism: experiences of racial discrimination in New Zealand over time and associations with multiple health domains.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Tobias, Martin; Yeh, Li-Chia; Talamaivao, Natalie; Minster, Joanna; Timutimu, Roimata

    2012-02-01

    Self-reported experience of racial discrimination has been linked to a range of health outcomes in various countries and for different ethnic groups. This study builds on previous work in New Zealand to further investigate the prevalence of self-reported experience of racial discrimination by ethnicity, changes over time and associations with multiple health measures. The study uses data from the 2002/03 (n=12,500) and 2006/07 (n=12,488) New Zealand Health Surveys, nationally representative population-based surveys of adults (15+ years). Reported experience of racial discrimination was measured in both surveys and covered 5 items: experience of an ethnically motivated physical or verbal attack; and unfair treatment because of ethnicity by a health professional, in work, or when gaining housing. Ethnicity was classified as Maori, Pacific, Asian or European. Health indicators included measures of: mental health (SF36 mental health scale, psychological distress, doctor diagnosed mental health condition); physical health (self-rated health, SF36 physical functioning scale, cardiovascular disease); and health risk (smoking, hazardous drinking, excess body fat). Logistic regression was used to examine changes in prevalence of reported experience of racial discrimination over time and associations with health. Reported experience of racial discrimination increased between 2002/03 (28.1% ever) and 2006/07 (35.0% ever) among Asian peoples but remained largely unchanged for other ethnic groupings (Maori 29.5%, Pacific 23.0%, European 13.5%). Experience of racial discrimination was associated with all negative health measures except excess body fat. Where there were significant associations, a dose-response relationship was also evident. We conclude that racial discrimination experienced across a range of settings has the potential to impact on a wide range of health outcomes and risk factors. While ongoing research is needed to understand the multifarious nature of racism

  7. A mixed-methods approach to developing a self-reported racial/ethnic discrimination measure for use in multiethnic health surveys.

    PubMed

    Shariff-Marco, Salma; Gee, Gilbert C; Breen, Nancy; Willis, Gordon; Reeve, Bryce B; Grant, David; Ponce, Ninez A; Krieger, Nancy; Landrine, Hope; Williams, David R; Alegria, Margarita; Mays, Vickie M; Johnson, Timothy P; Brown, E Richard

    2009-01-01

    The development of measures of self-reported racial/ethnic discrimination is an active area of research, but few measures have been validated across multiple racial/ethnic and language groups. Our goal is to develop and evaluate a discrimination measure that is appropriate for use in surveys of racially and ethnically diverse populations. To develop our measure, we employ a mixed-methods approach for survey research, drawing from both qualitative and quantitative traditions, including literature review, cognitive testing, psychometric analyses, behavior coding as well as two rounds of field testing using a split-sample design. We tested our new measure using two different approaches to elicit self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination. Our new measure captures four dimensions of racial/ethnic discrimination: 1) frequency of encounters with discrimination across several domains (eg, medical care, school, work, street and other public places); 2) timing of exposure (eg recent, lifetime); 3) appraisal of discrimination as stressful; and 4) responses to discrimination. Because of the growing interest in measurement of racial/ethnic discrimination in health surveys, we think this report on the methods informing the development and testing of the discrimination module that will be used on the California Health Interview Survey would be useful to other researchers. The application of mixed methods to rigorously test the validity and reliability of our instrument proves to be a good roadmap for measuring racial/ethnic discrimination in multicultural and multilingual populations.

  8. The Effects of General Social Support and Social Support for Racial Discrimination on African American Women's Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Seawell, Asani H; Cutrona, Carolyn E; Russell, Daniel W

    2014-02-01

    The present longitudinal study examined the role of general and tailored social support in mitigating the deleterious impact of racial discrimination on depressive symptoms and optimism in a large sample of African American women. Participants were 590 African American women who completed measures assessing racial discrimination, general social support, tailored social support for racial discrimination, depressive symptoms, and optimism at two time points (2001-2002 and 2003-2004). Our results indicated that higher levels of general and tailored social support predicted optimism one year later; changes in both types of support also predicted changes in optimism over time. Although initial levels of neither measure of social support predicted depressive symptoms over time, changes in tailored support predicted changes in depressive symptoms. We also sought to determine whether general and tailored social support "buffer" or diminish the negative effects of racial discrimination on depressive symptoms and optimism. Our results revealed a classic buffering effect of tailored social support, but not general support on depressive symptoms for women experiencing high levels of discrimination.

  9. Does Attending Worship Mitigate Racial/Ethnic Discrimination in Influencing Health Behaviors? Results from an Analysis of the California Health Interview Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Julia T.; Takahashi, Lois M.

    2014-01-01

    Existing research suggests that religious institutions play a significant role in improving the health of communities, particularly those coping with racial and ethnic discrimination. Using the California Health Interview Survey, this article examines the relationship of self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination, worship…

  10. Does Attending Worship Mitigate Racial/Ethnic Discrimination in Influencing Health Behaviors? Results from an Analysis of the California Health Interview Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Julia T.; Takahashi, Lois M.

    2014-01-01

    Existing research suggests that religious institutions play a significant role in improving the health of communities, particularly those coping with racial and ethnic discrimination. Using the California Health Interview Survey, this article examines the relationship of self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination, worship…

  11. Racial/ethnic preferences, sex preferences, and perceived discrimination related to end-of-life care.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Sonia A; Jackson, Frances C; Schim, Stephanie M; Ronis, David L; Fowler, Karen E

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated racial/ethnic preferences, sex preferences, and perceived discrimination related to end-of-life care. Ten focus groups and a follow-up survey were conducted to obtain in-depth information on end-of-life preferences across five racial/ethnic groups in Michigan stratified by sex. There were 73 focus group participants, including Arab Muslims, Arab Christians, Hispanics, blacks, and whites. The mean age+/-standard deviation was 67+/-8.5 (range 50-83). A focus group screener was used to recruit participants. A moderator discussion guide was used to guide the focus groups. A take-home questionnaire asked about demographic information and end-of-life issues. Arab Americans were in favor of making peace on earth and were against assisted suicide, extending life artificially, nursing homes, and telling the patient "bad news." Hispanic and black women were against assisted suicide and in favor of extending life, whereas the men in these groups felt the opposite. Hispanic women spoke of not wanting a feeding tube and would consider alternative medicine. Blacks were least opposed to nursing homes. For whites, it was important to have choices. When asked about discrimination related to end-of-life care, Muslim women spoke of cultural barriers, blacks spoke of inequities in the past, and whites spoke of age discrimination and abandonment when dying. As the population becomes more diverse and continues to age, it will be important to provide culturally and sex-sensitive end-of-life interventions to increase patient/family satisfaction and allocate resources appropriately.

  12. Effects over time of self-reported direct and vicarious racial discrimination on depressive symptoms and loneliness among Australian school students.

    PubMed

    Priest, Naomi; Perry, Ryan; Ferdinand, Angeline; Kelaher, Margaret; Paradies, Yin

    2017-02-03

    Racism and racial discrimination are increasingly acknowledged as a critical determinant of health and health inequalities. However, patterns and impacts of racial discrimination among children and adolescents remain under-investigated, including how different experiences of racial discrimination co-occur and influence health and development over time. This study examines associations between self-reported direct and vicarious racial discrimination experiences and loneliness and depressive symptoms over time among Australian school students. Across seven schools, 142 students (54.2% female), age at T1 from 8 to 15 years old (M = 11.14, SD = 2.2), and from diverse racial/ethnic and migration backgrounds (37.3% born in English-speaking countries as were one or both parents) self-reported racial discrimination experiences (direct and vicarious) and mental health (depressive symptoms and loneliness) at baseline and 9 months later at follow up. A full cross-lagged panel design was modelled using MPLUS v.7 with all variables included at both time points. A cross-lagged effect of perceived direct racial discrimination on later depressive symptoms and on later loneliness was found. As expected, the effect of direct discrimination on both health outcomes was unidirectional as mental health did not reciprocally influence reported racism. There was no evidence that vicarious racial discrimination influenced either depressive symptoms or loneliness beyond the effect of direct racial discrimination. Findings suggest direct racial discrimination has a persistent effect on depressive symptoms and loneliness among school students over time. Future work to explore associations between direct and vicarious discrimination is required.

  13. The prevalence of discrimination across racial groups in contemporary America: Results from a nationally representative sample of adults.

    PubMed

    Boutwell, Brian B; Nedelec, Joseph L; Winegard, Bo; Shackelford, Todd; Beaver, Kevin M; Vaughn, Michael; Barnes, J C; Wright, John P

    2017-01-01

    A large body of social science research is devoted to understanding the causes and correlates of discrimination. Comparatively less effort has been aimed at providing a general prevalence estimate of discrimination using a nationally representative sample. The current study is intended to offer such an estimate using a large sample of American respondents (N = 14,793) while also exploring perceptions regarding why respondents felt they were discriminated against. The results provide a broad estimate of self-reported discrimination experiences-an event that was only reported by about one-quarter of all sample members-across racial and ethnic categories.

  14. The prevalence of discrimination across racial groups in contemporary America: Results from a nationally representative sample of adults

    PubMed Central

    Nedelec, Joseph L.; Winegard, Bo; Shackelford, Todd; Beaver, Kevin M.; Vaughn, Michael; Barnes, J. C.; Wright, John P.

    2017-01-01

    A large body of social science research is devoted to understanding the causes and correlates of discrimination. Comparatively less effort has been aimed at providing a general prevalence estimate of discrimination using a nationally representative sample. The current study is intended to offer such an estimate using a large sample of American respondents (N = 14,793) while also exploring perceptions regarding why respondents felt they were discriminated against. The results provide a broad estimate of self-reported discrimination experiences—an event that was only reported by about one-quarter of all sample members—across racial and ethnic categories. PMID:28837680

  15. Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Adolescents' Well-Being: The Role of Cross-Ethnic Friendships and Friends' Experiences of Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Aprile D.; Wang, Yijie

    2017-01-01

    There is an extensive body of work documenting the negative socioemotional and academic consequences of perceiving racial/ethnic discrimination during adolescence, but little is known about how the larger peer context conditions such effects. Using peer network data from 252 eighth graders (85% Latino, 11% African American, 5% other…

  16. The Effects of Ethnic/Racial Discrimination and Sleep Quality on Depressive Symptoms and Self-Esteem Trajectories Among Diverse Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic/racial discrimination has persistent negative implications for both physical and mental health. The current study employs a risk and resilience framework to explore the joint effects of ethnic/racial discrimination and sleep disturbance on psychosocial outcomes among adolescents. In a sample of 146 minority and White adolescents (70 % female), changes in depressive symptoms, anxiety, and self-esteem over 3 years are explored using growth curve models. Regardless of ethnic background, adolescents reporting high levels of ethnic/racial discrimination and poor sleep also reported a corresponding increase in depressive symptoms and lower levels of self-esteem over time. Adolescents reporting all other combinations of sleep quality and ethnic/racial discrimination reported more positive adjustment over time. The joint effects of sleep and ethnic/racial discrimination on adolescent psychosocial development are discussed. PMID:24682960

  17. The effects of ethnic/racial discrimination and sleep quality on depressive symptoms and self-esteem trajectories among diverse adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yip, Tiffany

    2015-02-01

    Ethnic/racial discrimination has persistent negative implications for both physical and mental health. The current study employs a risk and resilience framework to explore the joint effects of ethnic/racial discrimination and sleep disturbance on psychosocial outcomes among adolescents. In a sample of 146 minority and White adolescents (70% female), changes in depressive symptoms, anxiety, and self-esteem over 3 years are explored using growth curve models. Regardless of ethnic background, adolescents reporting high levels of ethnic/racial discrimination and poor sleep also reported a corresponding increase in depressive symptoms and lower levels of self-esteem over time. Adolescents reporting all other combinations of sleep quality and ethnic/racial discrimination reported more positive adjustment over time. The joint effects of sleep and ethnic/racial discrimination on adolescent psychosocial development are discussed.

  18. The impact of perceived racial discrimination on the mental health of Asian American and Latino college students.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Wei-Chin; Goto, Sharon

    2008-10-01

    The authors examined the impact of perceived racial discrimination on various mental health outcomes for Asian American and Latino college students within an emic and etic framework. Results indicate that Asian American and Latino college students experienced similar exposure and reactions to various kinds of discrimination. However, Latino students were more likely than Asian American students to have been accused of doing something wrong, such as cheating and breaking the law, and more likely to appraise these experiences as stressful. Asian Americans evidenced higher risk for trait anxiety. Regardless of ethnicity, perceived racial discrimination was associated with several negative mental health outcomes, including higher psychological distress, suicidal ideation, state anxiety, trait anxiety, and depression. Findings highlight the need to address discrimination across multiple social and professional settings and to understand the broad array of mental health outcomes.

  19. Discrimination, attribution, and racial group identification: implications for psychological distress among Black Americans in the National Survey of American Life (2001-2003).

    PubMed

    Chae, David H; Lincoln, Karen D; Jackson, James S

    2011-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that experiencing discrimination may contribute to poor mental health among Black Americans. However, few studies have distinguished between discrimination attributed to race versus other forms of discrimination or have compared differences in their psychological implications. Using nationally representative data on 5,191 Black Americans in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL; 2001-2003), this study examined serious psychological distress (SPD) in relation to discrimination attributed to racial versus nonracial causes and also investigated whether racial group identification may be a buffer. We found that discrimination was associated with greater odds of SPD, regardless of attribution. Racial attributions were associated with higher odds of SPD compared with attributions to nonracial causes for each level of discrimination. High racial group identification buffered the negative effect of moderate levels of both racially and nonracially attributed discrimination. Our results provide evidence for the negative influence of discrimination on SPD among Black Americans and indicate that high racial group identification may somewhat mitigate their negative mental health effects. Our study suggests that discrimination and racial group identification should be addressed to protect against psychological distress among Black Americans. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  20. The costs of racism for marriage: how racial discrimination hurts, and ethnic identity protects, newlywed marriages among Latinos.

    PubMed

    Trail, Thomas E; Goff, Phillip Atiba; Bradbury, Thomas N; Karney, Benjamin R

    2012-04-01

    The experience of racial or ethnic discrimination is a salient and severe stressor that has been linked to numerous disparities in important outcomes. Yet, the link between perceived discrimination and marital outcomes has been overlooked by research on relationship stressors. The current study examined this link and tested whether ethnic identity buffered the relation between discrimination and ratings of marital quality and verbal aggression. A sample of 330 Latino newlyweds completed measures of perceived discrimination, ethnic identity, spouse's verbal aggression, and marital quality. Each spouse's interviewer also independently rated marital quality. Dyadic analyses revealed that husbands' experience of discrimination negatively predicted wives' marital quality, but only for husbands with weak ethnic identity. Wives whose husbands had strong ethnic identity were buffered from this effect. Identity also buffered the relation between husbands' discrimination and verbal aggression toward their wives, and this effect mediated the association between discrimination, identity, and marital quality.

  1. Racial/ethnic disparities in timing of death during childhood among children with congenital heart defects.

    PubMed

    Nembhard, Wendy N; Xu, Ping; Ethen, Mary K; Fixler, David E; Salemi, Jason L; Canfield, Mark A

    2013-10-01

    Infants with congenital heart defects (CHD) have increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in timing of death during childhood. Our intent was to investigate racial/ethnic differences in mortality for CHDs during specific time periods in childhood. Texas Birth Defect Registry data were used for a retrospective cohort study with 30,015 singleton infants with a CHD, born January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2007, to non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH-black, or Hispanic women. Texas Birth Defect Registry data were linked to Texas death records to ascertain death. Kaplan-Meier survival probabilities and multivariable Cox-proportional hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. NH-blacks and Hispanics with specific CHDs had increased mortality during the postneonatal period and early childhood. NH-blacks had increased postneonatal mortality compared with NH-whites for transposition of the great arteries (HR = 2.4; 95% CI, 1.5-4.0), pulmonary valve atresia without ventricular septal defect (HR = 4.1; 95% CI, 1.7-9.7), Ebstein's anomaly (HR = 8.6; 95 CI, 1.2-61.1), hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2-3.7), coarctation of the aorta (HR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2-3.5), ventricular septal defect (HR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.6-2.8), and atrial septal defect (HR = 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.8). Hispanics had increased postneonatal mortality risk for tetralogy of Fallot (HR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.5). Racial/ethnic increases in mortality risk were also observed during infancy and childhood. Racial/ethnic differences in mortality were most notably observed during the postneonatal period and early childhood. Future studies should assess factors associated with this disparity in mortality risk for infants with CHDs. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Reducing racial/ethnic disparities in childhood obesity: the role of early life risk factors.

    PubMed

    Taveras, Elsie M; Gillman, Matthew W; Kleinman, Ken P; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L

    2013-08-01

    IMPORTANCE Many early life risk factors for childhood obesity are more prevalent among blacks and Hispanics than among whites and may explain the higher prevalence of obesity among racial/ethnic minority children. OBJECTIVE To examine the extent to which racial/ethnic disparities in adiposity and overweight are explained by differences in risk factors during pregnancy (gestational diabetes and depression), infancy (rapid infant weight gain, feeding other than exclusive breastfeeding, and early introduction of solid foods), and early childhood (sleeping <12 h/d, presence of a television set in the room where the child sleeps, and any intake of sugar-sweetened beverages or fast food). DESIGN Prospective prebirth cohort study. SETTING Multisite group practice in Massachusetts. PARTICIPANTS Participants included 1116 mother-child pairs (63% white, 17% black, and 4% Hispanic) EXPOSURE Mother's report of child's race/ethnicity. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z score, total fat mass index from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and overweight or obesity, defined as a BMI in the 85th percentile or higher at age 7 years. RESULTS Black (0.48 U [95% CI, 0.31 to 0.64]) and Hispanic (0.43 [0.12 to 0.74]) children had higher BMI z scores, as well as higher total fat mass index and overweight/obesity prevalence, than white children. After adjustment for socioeconomic confounders and parental BMI, differences in BMI z score were attenuated for black and Hispanic children (0.22 U [0.05 to 0.40] and 0.22 U [-0.08 to 0.52], respectively). Adjustment for pregnancy risk factors did not substantially change these estimates. However, after further adjustment for infancy and childhood risk factors, we observed only minimal differences in BMI z scores between whites, blacks (0.07 U [-0.11 to 0.26]), and Hispanics (0.04 U [-0.27 to 0.35]). We observed similar attenuation of racial/ethnic differences in adiposity and prevalence of overweight or

  3. Reducing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Childhood Obesity: The Role of Early Life Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Taveras, Elsie M.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Kleinman, Ken P.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.

    2013-01-01

    Importance Many early life risk factors for childhood obesity are more prevalent among blacks and Hispanics than among whites and may explain the higher prevalence of obesity among racial/ethnic minority children. Objective To examine the extent to which racial/ethnic disparities in adiposity and overweight are explained by differences in pregnancy (gestational diabetes and depression), infancy (rapid infant weight gain, non-exclusive breastfeeding, early introduction of solid foods) and early childhood (sleeping less than 12 hours/day, presence of a television in the bedroom, any intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, and any intake of fast food) risk factors. Design Prospective, pre-birth cohort study. Setting Multi-site group practice in Massachusetts. Participants 1116 (63% white, 17% black, and 4% Hispanic) mother-child pairs. Main Exposure Mother’s report of child’s race/ethnicity. Main Outcome Measures Age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score, total fat mass index (FMI) from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and overweight/obesity defined as a BMI ≥ 85th percentile at age 7. Results Black (0.48 units [95% CI: 0.31, 0.64]) and Hispanic (0.43 [0.12, 0.74]) children had higher BMI z-scores, as well as higher total FMI and overweight/obesity prevalence, than white children. After adjusting for socioeconomic confounders and parental BMI, differences in BMI z-score were attenuated for blacks (0.22 [0.05, 0.40]) and Hispanics (0.22 [−0.08, 0.52]). Adjustment for pregnancy risk factors did not substantially change these estimates. However, after further adjustment for infancy and childhood risk factors, we observed only minimal differences in BMI z-score for whites, blacks (0.07 [−0.11, 0.26]) and Hispanics (0.04 [−0.27, 0.35]). We observed similar attenuation of racial/ethnic differences in adiposity and overweight/obesity prevalence. Conclusions and Relevance Racial/ethnic disparities in childhood adiposity and obesity are determined by

  4. Perceived racial discrimination, but not mistrust of medical researchers, predicts the heat pain tolerance of African Americans with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Goodin, Burel R; Pham, Quyen T; Glover, Toni L; Sotolongo, Adriana; King, Christopher D; Sibille, Kimberly T; Herbert, Matthew S; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Sanden, Shelley H; Staud, Roland; Redden, David T; Bradley, Laurence A; Fillingim, Roger B

    2013-11-01

    Studies have shown that perceived racial discrimination is a significant predictor of clinical pain severity among African Americans. It remains unknown whether perceived racial discrimination also alters the nociceptive processing of painful stimuli, which, in turn, could influence clinical pain severity. This study examined associations between perceived racial discrimination and responses to noxious thermal stimuli among African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. Mistrust of medical researchers was also assessed given its potential to affect responses to the noxious stimuli. One-hundred and 30 (52% African American, 48% non-Hispanic White) community-dwelling older adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis completed two study sessions. In session one, individuals provided demographic, socioeconomic, physical and mental health information. They completed questionnaires related to perceived lifetime frequency of racial discrimination and mistrust of medical researchers. In session two, individuals underwent a series of controlled thermal stimulation procedures to assess heat pain sensitivity, particularly heat pain tolerance. African Americans were more sensitive to heat pain and reported greater perceived racial discrimination as well as greater mistrust of medical researchers compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Greater perceived racial discrimination significantly predicted lower heat pain tolerance for African Americans but not non-Hispanic Whites. Mistrust of medical researchers did not significantly predict heat pain tolerance for either racial group. These results lend support to the idea that perceived racial discrimination may influence the clinical pain severity of African Americans via the nociceptive processing of painful stimuli.

  5. Perceived racial discrimination, but not mistrust of medical researchers, predicts the heat pain tolerance of African Americans with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Quyen T.; Glover, Toni L.; Sotolongo, Adriana; King, Christopher D.; Sibille, Kimberly T.; Herbert, Matthew S.; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Sanden, Shelley H.; Staud, Roland; Redden, David T.; Bradley, Laurence A.; Fillingim, Roger B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Studies have shown that perceived racial discrimination is a significant predictor of clinical pain severity among African Americans. It remains unknown whether perceived racial discrimination also alters the nociceptive processing of painful stimuli, which, in turn, could influence clinical pain severity. This study examined associations between perceived racial discrimination and responses to noxious thermal stimuli among African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Mistrust of medical researchers was also assessed given its potential to affect responses to the noxious stimuli. Method One hundred and thirty (52% African American, 48% non-Hispanic white) community-dwelling older adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis completed two study sessions. In session one, individuals provided demographic, socioeconomic, physical and mental health information. They completed questionnaires related to perceived lifetime frequency of racial discrimination and mistrust of medical researchers. In session two, individuals underwent a series of controlled thermal stimulation procedures to assess heat pain sensitivity, particularly heat pain tolerance. Results African Americans were more sensitive to heat pain and reported greater perceived racial discrimination as well as greater mistrust of medical researchers compared to non-Hispanic whites. Greater perceived racial discrimination significantly predicted lower heat pain tolerance for African Americans but not non-Hispanic whites. Mistrust of medical researchers did not significantly predict heat pain tolerance for either racial group Conclusion These results lend support to the idea that perceived racial discrimination may influence the clinical pain severity of African Americans via the nociceptive processing of painful stimuli. PMID:24219416

  6. Race and General Strain Theory: Examining the Impact of Racial Discrimination and Fear on Adolescent Marijuana and Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    Steele, Jennifer L

    2016-10-14

    To extend our knowledge of general strain theory by exploring how under-researched strains such as racial discrimination, witnessing violence, physical victimization and verbal bullying affect adolescent substance use while considering differences according to racial identification. This research utilized data from wave three of the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Statistical analysis was primarily composed of path analysis using full information maximum likelihood parameter estimates. The findings reveal that reporting fear decreased alcohol and marijuana use among adolescents and that racial discrimination, witnessing violence, and being the victim of verbal bullying indirectly affected marijuana and alcohol use through fear. No support was found for depression as a mediating variable. Physical victimization was the only social strain that had a direct positive effect on marijuana and alcohol use but only for Hispanics and African Americans. The results suggest that strains may be operating differently and there may be differential levels of exposure to certain strains according to one's race.

  7. Does perceived racial discrimination predict changes in psychological distress and substance use over time? An examination among Black emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Noelle M; Varner, Fatima A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2014-07-01

    We assessed whether perceived discrimination predicted changes in psychological distress and substance use over time and whether psychological distress and substance use predicted change in perceived discrimination over time. We also assessed whether associations between these constructs varied by gender. Our sample included 607 Black emerging adults (53% female) followed for 4 years. Participants reported the frequency with which they had experienced racial hassles during the past year, symptoms of anxiety and depression during the past week, and cigarette and alcohol use during the past 30 days. We estimated a series of latent growth models to test our study hypotheses. We found that the intercept of perceived discrimination predicted the linear slopes of anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use. We did not find any associations between the intercept factors of our mental health or substance use variables and the perceived discrimination linear slope factor. We found limited differences across paths by gender. Our findings suggest a temporal ordering in the associations among perceived racial discrimination, psychological distress, and alcohol use over time among emerging adults. Further, our findings suggest that perceived racial discrimination may be similarly harmful among men and women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Racial and Gender Discrimination in the Stress Process: Implications for African American Women's Health and Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Brea L.; Harp, Kathi L. H.; Oser, Carrie B.

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, sociologists have increasingly adopted an intersectionality framework to explore and explain the complex and interconnected nature of inequalities in the areas of race, class, and gender. Using an inclusion-centered approach and a sample of 204 low-socioeconomic-status (SES) African American women, the authors theorize and explore the role of racial and gender discrimination in the stress process. Analyses examine relationships between social stressors (racial and gender discrimination) and individual stressors occurring in each of six distinct social contexts. Furthermore, the authors evaluate the effects of racial and gender discrimination as compared to individual stressors on three indicators of mental health and well-being. Findings suggest that racial and gender discrimination increases risk for poor health and low well-being, working both directly and indirectly through increased vulnerability to individual stressors. This research demonstrates the value of a more comprehensive study of stressors that influence the health of low-SES African American women and other multiply disadvantaged groups. PMID:24077024

  9. Racial Inequality in the 21st Century: The Declining Significance of Discrimination. NBER Working Paper No. 16256

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryer, Roland G., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    There are large and important differences between blacks and whites in nearly every facet of life--earnings, unemployment, incarceration, health, and so on. This chapter contains three themes. First, relative to the 20th century, the significance of discrimination as an explanation for racial inequality across economic and social indicators has…

  10. Skin-Color Prejudice and Within-Group Racial Discrimination: Historical and Current Impact on Latino/a Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez-Dueñas, Nayeli Y.; Adames, Hector Y.; Organista, Kurt C.

    2014-01-01

    The psychological literature on colorism, a form of within-group racial discrimination, is sparse. In an effort to contribute to this understudied area and highlight its significance, a concise and selective review of the history of colorism in Latin America is provided. Specifically, three historical eras (i.e., conquest, colonization, and…

  11. Skin-Color Prejudice and Within-Group Racial Discrimination: Historical and Current Impact on Latino/a Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez-Dueñas, Nayeli Y.; Adames, Hector Y.; Organista, Kurt C.

    2014-01-01

    The psychological literature on colorism, a form of within-group racial discrimination, is sparse. In an effort to contribute to this understudied area and highlight its significance, a concise and selective review of the history of colorism in Latin America is provided. Specifically, three historical eras (i.e., conquest, colonization, and…

  12. Economic Incentives, Institutions, and Racial Discrimination: The Case of Real Estate Brokers. Discussion Paper D78-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yinger, John

    This paper examines the economic incentives and institutions that support racial discrimination by real estate brokers. The economic incentives are derived from a search model of broker behavior in which a broker searches for buyers and listings (i.e., sellers who will sell through him) and then attempts to match buyers with his listings. This…

  13. Individualistic and Collectivistic Worldviews: Implications for Understanding Perceptions of Racial Discrimination in African Americans and British Caribbean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Carla D.

    2008-01-01

    Cultural worldviews and perceived racial discrimination were examined among Americans (n = 106) and British Caribbean Americans (n = 95), both of African descent, who were recruited through university student organizations, community organizations, and snowball sampling. Consistent with public perceptions of differences in the experience of race…

  14. Effects of Racial Discrimination and Health Behaviors on Mental and Physical Health of Middle-Class African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Sherrill L.; Bonham, Vence; Neighbors, Harold W.; Amell, James W.

    2009-01-01

    This research is an examination of the effects of racial discrimination and health-promoting behaviors on the physical and mental health of a sample of 399 well-educated African American men. One would think that the attainment of higher education would increase health-promoting behaviors and might decrease discriminatory experiences that impact…

  15. The effects of racial discrimination on the HIV-risk cognitions and behaviors of Black adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg

    2013-05-01

    Two studies examined the impact of racial discrimination on HIV-risk (substance use and risky sex) behaviors (Study 1) and cognitions (Study 2) among African Americans. Study 1 examined longer-term effects of cumulative discrimination on HIV-risk behaviors among 833 adolescents. In Study 2, Black young adults were excluded or included in an online game (Cyberball) by White peers. Study 1 revealed that discrimination was associated with greater HIV-risk behaviors contemporaneously, and with an increase in these behaviors over a 3-year period. In Study 2, excluded participants tended to attribute their exclusion to racial discrimination and reported greater risky sex and substance use willingness. In Study 1, the relation between discrimination and risky sex was mediated by substance use behavior. In Study 2, substance use willingness mediated the relation between perceived discrimination and risky sex willingness. Findings highlight the importance of examining the effects of discrimination on HIV risk among Black youth. The studies also demonstrate the utility of assessing social-psychological processes when examining the effects of discrimination on HIV-risk cognitions and behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Theory-Guided Selection of Discrimination Measures for Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities Research among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, Angela D.; Clay, Olivio J.; Ford, Chandra L.; Stewart, Anita L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Discrimination may contribute to health disparities among older adults. Existing measures of perceived discrimination have provided important insights but may have limitations when used in studies of older adults. This paper illustrates the process of assessing the appropriateness of existing measures for theory-based research on perceived discrimination and health. Methods First we describe three theoretical frameworks that are relevant to the study of perceived discrimination and health – stress-process models, life course models, and the Public Health Critical Race praxis. We then review four widely-used measures of discrimination, comparing their content and describing how well they address key aspects of each theory, and discussing potential areas of modification. Discussion Using theory to guide measure selection can help improve understanding of how perceived discrimination may contribute to racial/ethnic health disparities among older adults. PMID:22451527

  17. Does spousal support moderate the association between perceived racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among African American couples?

    PubMed

    McNeil, Sharde' N; Fincham, Frank D; Beach, Steven R H

    2014-03-01

    Social stress theory proposes that stress resulting from one's social position in society leads to fewer coping resources, and subsequently causes an increase in mental health problems. Guided by this framework, we investigated whether the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms was moderated by spousal social support in a sample of 487 African American heterosexual couples. Using the actor-partner interdependence model, findings suggested that female partner's perceived racial discrimination was predictive of her depressive symptomology irrespective of spousal support and male partner's perceived racial discrimination was predictive of depressive symptomology only among men with low levels of spousal support. No partner effects were present. The results demonstrate the need to examine variability in social stress and mental health outcomes for those in close relationships.

  18. The association between maternal and partner experienced racial discrimination and prenatal perceived stress, prenatal and postnatal depression: findings from the growing up in New Zealand cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bécares, Laia; Atatoa-Carr, Polly

    2016-09-22

    A growing number of studies document the association between maternal experiences of racial discrimination and adverse children's outcomes, but our understanding of how experiences of racial discrimination are associated with pre- and post-natal maternal mental health, is limited. In addition, existent literature rarely takes into consideration racial discrimination experienced by the partner. We analysed data from the Growing Up in New Zealand study to examine the burden of lifetime and past year experiences of racial discrimination on prenatal and postnatal mental health among Māori, Pacific, and Asian women in New Zealand (NZ), and to study the individual and joint contribution of mother's and partner's experiences of lifetime and past year racial discrimination to women's prenatal and postnatal mental health. Our findings show strong associations between lifetime and past year experiences of ethnically-motivated interpersonal attacks and unfair treatment on mother's mental health. Māori, Pacific, and Asian women who had experienced unfair treatment by a health professional in their lifetime were 66 % more likely to suffer from postnatal depression, compared to women who did not report these experiences. We found a cumulative effect of lifetime experiences of ethnically-motivated personal attacks on poor maternal mental health if both the mother and the partner had experienced a racist attack. Experiences of racial discrimination have severe direct consequences for the mother's mental health. Given the importance of mother's mental health for the basic human needs of a healthy child, racism and racial discrimination should be addressed.

  19. INSTRUMENTS MEASURING PERCEIVED RACISM/RACIAL DISCRIMINATION: REVIEW AND CRITIQUE OF FACTOR ANALYTIC TECHNIQUES

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Rahshida

    2015-01-01

    Several compendiums of instruments that measure perceived racism and/or discrimination are present in the literature. Other works have reviewed the psychometric properties of these instruments in terms of validity and reliability and have indicated if the instrument was factor analyzed. However, little attention has been given to the quality of the factor analysis performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exploratory factor analyses done on instruments measuring perceived racism/racial discrimination using guidelines from experts in psychometric theory. The techniques used for factor analysis were reviewed and critiqued and the adequacy of reporting was evaluated. Internet search engines and four electronic abstract databases were used to identify 16 relevant instruments that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Principal component analysis was the most frequent method of extraction (81%). Sample sizes were adequate for factor analysis in 81 percent of studies. The majority of studies reported appropriate criteria for the acceptance of un-rotated factors (81%) and justified the rotation method (75%). Exactly 94 percent of studies reported partially acceptable criteria for the acceptance of rotated factors. The majority of articles (69%) reported adequate coefficient alphas for the resultant subscales. In 81 percent of the studies, the conceptualized dimensions were supported by factor analysis. PMID:25626225

  20. Instruments measuring perceived racism/racial discrimination: review and critique of factor analytic techniques.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Rahshida

    2014-01-01

    Several compendiums of instruments that measure perceived racism and/or discrimination are present in the literature. Other works have reviewed the psychometric properties of these instruments in terms of validity and reliability and have indicated if the instrument was factor analyzed. However, little attention has been given to the quality of the factor analysis performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exploratory factor analyses done on instruments measuring perceived racism/racial discrimination using guidelines from experts in psychometric theory. The techniques used for factor analysis were reviewed and critiqued and the adequacy of reporting was evaluated. Internet search engines and four electronic abstract databases were used to identify 16 relevant instruments that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Principal component analysis was the most frequent method of extraction (81%). Sample sizes were adequate for factor analysis in 81 percent of studies. The majority of studies reported appropriate criteria for the acceptance of un-rotated factors (81%) and justified the rotation method (75%). Exactly 94 percent of studies reported partially acceptable criteria for the acceptance of rotated factors. The majority of articles (69%) reported adequate coefficient alphas for the resultant subscales. In 81 percent of the studies, the conceptualized dimensions were supported by factor analysis.

  1. Genetic sensitivity to emotional cues, racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among African–American adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Swartzendruber, Andrea L.; Smearman, Erica L.; Brody, Gene H.; DiClemente, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial stress, including stress resulting from racial discrimination (RD), has been associated with elevated depressive symptoms. However, individuals vary in their reactivity to stress, with some variability resulting from genetic differences. Specifically, genetic variation within the linked promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) is related to heightened reactivity to emotional environmental cues. Likewise, variations within this region may interact with stressful life events (e.g., discrimination) to influence depressive symptoms, but this has not been empirically examined in prior studies. The objective of this study was to examine whether variation in the 5-HTTLPR gene interacts with RD to predict depressive symptoms among a sample of African–American adolescent females. Participants were 304 African–American adolescent females enrolled in a sexually transmitted disease prevention trial. Participants completed a baseline survey assessing psychosocial factors including RD (low vs. high) and depressive symptomatology (low vs. high) and provided a saliva sample for genotyping the risk polymorphism 5-HTTLPR (s allele present vs. not present). In a logistic regression model adjusting for psychosocial correlates of depressive symptoms, an interaction between RD and 5-HTTLPR group was significantly associated with depressive symptomatology (AOR = 3.79, 95% CI: 1.20–11.98, p = 0.02). Follow-up tests found that high RD was significantly associated with greater odds of high depressive symptoms only for participants with the s allele. RD and 5-HTTLPR status interact to differentially impact depressive symptoms among African–American adolescent females. Efforts to decrease depression among minority youth should include interventions which address RD and strengthen factors (e.g., coping, emotion regulation, building support systems) which protect youth from the psychological costs of discrimination. PMID:26157407

  2. Racial and ethnic differences in the management of childhood asthma in the United States.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Marla K; Waldfogel, Jane

    2012-10-01

    We examined racial and ethnic differences in the management of childhood asthma in the United States and the extent that care conformed to clinical best practices. Two years of pooled data from the National Health Interview Survey were analyzed using logistic regression. The sample included all children between ages 2 and 17 years who had asthma currently and had been diagnosed with asthma by a doctor or health professional (n = 1757; 465 African-American, 212 Mexican-American, 190 Puerto Rican and other Hispanic, 806 white, non-Hispanic, and 84 children of other and multiple races and ethnicities). African-American children with asthma were significantly less likely than white, non-Hispanic children to have taken preventive asthma medication, but more likely to have had an asthma management plan. Mexican-American and Puerto Rican and other Hispanic children did not differ significantly from white, non-Hispanic children in either receiving preventive asthma medication or having an asthma management plan. Caregivers of African-American and Puerto Rican and other Hispanic children were more likely to report that they or their child had taken a course or class on how to manage their child's asthma. We did not find racial or ethnic differences in the extent children used quick-relief asthma medication or received advice about reducing asthma triggers in their home, school, or work environments. This work highlights a need for more research on racial and ethnic differences in asthma management. Implications for public health responses and racial and ethnic disparities in asthma morbidity are discussed.

  3. Patterns and correlates of self-reported racial discrimination among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults, 2008–09: analysis of national survey data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is now considerable evidence that racism is a pernicious and enduring social problem with a wide range of detrimental outcomes for individuals, communities and societies. Although indigenous people worldwide are subjected to high levels of racism, there is a paucity of population-based, quantitative data about the factors associated with their reporting of racial discrimination, about the settings in which such discrimination takes place, and about the frequency with which it is experienced. Such information is essential in efforts to reduce both exposure to racism among indigenous people and the harms associated with such exposure. Methods Weighted data on self-reported racial discrimination from over 7,000 Indigenous Australian adults participating in the 2008–09 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Survey, a nationally representative survey conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, were analysed by socioeconomic, demographic and cultural factors. Results More than one in four respondents (27%) reported experiencing racial discrimination in the past year. Racial discrimination was most commonly reported in public (41% of those reporting any racial discrimination), legal (40%) and work (30%) settings. Among those reporting any racial discrimination, about 40% experienced this discrimination most or all of the time (as opposed to a little or some of the time) in at least one setting. Reporting of racial discrimination peaked in the 35–44 year age group and then declined. Higher reporting of racial discrimination was associated with removal from family, low trust, unemployment, having a university degree, and indicators of cultural identity and participation. Lower reporting of racial discrimination was associated with home ownership, remote residence and having relatively few Indigenous friends. Conclusions These data indicate that racial discrimination is commonly experienced across a wide variety of settings, with public

  4. Reported Racial Discrimination, Trust in Physicians, and Medication Adherence Among Inner-City African Americans With Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hargraves, J. Lee; Rosal, Milagros; Briesacher, Becky A.; Schoenthaler, Antoinette; Person, Sharina; Hullett, Sandral; Allison, Jeroan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine if reported racial discrimination was associated with medication nonadherence among African Americans with hypertension and if distrust of physicians was a contributing factor. Methods. Data were obtained from the TRUST project conducted in Birmingham, Alabama, 2006 to 2008. All participants were African Americans diagnosed with hypertension and receiving care at an inner city, safety net setting. Three categories of increasing adherence were defined based on the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Trust in physicians was measured with the Hall General Trust Scale, and discrimination was measured with the Experiences of Discrimination Scale. Associations were quantified by ordinal logistic regression, adjusting for gender, age, education, and income. Results. The analytic sample consisted of 227 African American men and 553 African American women, with a mean age of 53.7 ±9.9 years. Mean discrimination scores decreased monotonically across increasing category of medication adherence (4.1, 3.6, 2.9; P = .025), though the opposite was found for trust scores (36.5, 38.5, 40.8; P < .001). Trust mediated 39% (95% confidence interval = 17%, 100%) of the association between discrimination and medication adherence. Conclusions. Within our sample of inner city African Americans with hypertension, racial discrimination was associated with lower medication adherence, and this association was partially mediated by trust in physicians. Patient, physician and system approaches to increase “earned” trust may enhance existing interventions for promoting medication adherence. PMID:24028222

  5. The association between self-reported racial discrimination and 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders among Asian Americans nationwide

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael; Chen, Juan; Yip, Tiffany; Takeuchi, David T.

    2007-01-01

    Growing research finds that reports of discrimination are associated with mental health. However, many US studies are focused on regional samples and do not control for important confounders such as other stressors and health conditions. The present study examines the association between self-reported racial discrimination and DSM-IV defined mental disorders among Asian respondents to the 2002–2003 US National Latino and Asian American Study (n=2,047). Logistic regression analyses indicated that self-reported racial discrimination was associated with greater odds of having any DSM-IV disorder, depressive disorder, or anxiety disorder within the past 12 months -- controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, acculturative stress, family cohesion, poverty, self-rated health, chronic physical conditions, and social desirability. Further, multinomial logistic regression found that individuals who reported discrimination were at a twofold greater risk of having one disorder within the past 12 months, and a threefold greater risk of having two or more disorders. Thus, self-reported discrimination was associated with increased risk of mental disorders among Asian Americans across the United States and this relationship was not explained by social desirability, physical health, other stressors, and sociodemographic factors. Should these associations ultimately be shown enduring and causal, they suggest that policies designed to reduce discrimination may help improve mental health. PMID:17374553

  6. Severity of household food insecurity and lifetime racial discrimination among African-American households in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michael P; Jones, Sonya J; Frongillo, Edward A; Fram, Maryah S; Blake, Christine E; Freedman, Darcy A

    2016-12-01

    In 2014, 30% of African-American households with children had low or very low food security, a rate double that of white households with children. A household has low food security if its members experience food shortages and reductions in food quality attributable to a lack of household resources or access and very low food security if its members also experience reductions in food intake and disrupted eating patterns. Households that are either low or very low food secure are known collectively as food insecure. We examined the association between the severity of household food insecurity and reports of lifetime racial discrimination among a sample of food-insecure African-American households in South Carolina. Data were collected from 154 African-American respondents. Food insecurity was measured using the US Department of Agriculture's Household Food Security Survey Module. Lifetime racial discrimination was measured using the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire-Community Version (PEDQ-CV). We used logistic regression to test the association between severity of food insecurity (low vs. very low food secure), PEDQ-CV score and PEDQ-CV subscales. All models were adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic variables. A one-unit increase in the frequency of lifetime racial discrimination was associated with a 5% increase in the odds of being very low food secure (odds ratio (OR) 1.05, P < .05). More reports of discrimination that were stigmatizing or devaluing (OR 1.16, P < .05), took place at a workplace or school (OR 1.15, P < .05) or were threatening or aggressive (OR 1.39, P < .05) increased the odds of being very low food secure. More reports of racial discrimination that were excluding or rejecting did not significantly increase the odds of being very low food secure (OR 1.07, P > .05). Severity of household food insecurity is associated with lifetime racial discrimination among African-American households in South Carolina.

  7. A Longitudinal Examination of Perceived Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms in Ethnic Minority Youth: The Roles of Attributional Style, Positive Ethnic/Racial Affect, and Emotional Reactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Huq, Nadia; Dunbar, Angel S.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    Although perceived ethnic/racial discrimination is well established as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in ethnic minority youth, few studies have examined their longitudinal relationship over time. This study examined whether a negative attributional style, positive ethnic/racial affect, and emotional reactivity moderated the longitudinal…

  8. A Longitudinal Examination of Perceived Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms in Ethnic Minority Youth: The Roles of Attributional Style, Positive Ethnic/Racial Affect, and Emotional Reactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Huq, Nadia; Dunbar, Angel S.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    Although perceived ethnic/racial discrimination is well established as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in ethnic minority youth, few studies have examined their longitudinal relationship over time. This study examined whether a negative attributional style, positive ethnic/racial affect, and emotional reactivity moderated the longitudinal…

  9. Promoting Academic Achievement: The Role of Racial Identity in Buffering Perceptions of Teacher Discrimination on Academic Achievement among African American and Caribbean Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Oseela N.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Faison, Nkesha; Jackson, James S.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the moderating effects of different dimensions racial identity (i.e., racial centrality and public regard) on perceptions of teacher discrimination and academic achievement among a nationally represented sample of African American and Caribbean Black adolescents. The findings revealed that perceived teacher…

  10. The Roles of Racial Discrimination, Cultural Mistrust, and Gender in Latina/o Youth's School Attitudes and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Adina C; Sánchez, Bernadette

    2016-12-01

    Gender gaps in achievement are particularly pronounced among Latina/os, who are among the population most affected by the academic achievement gap. This study examined the roles of racial discrimination, cultural mistrust, and economic value of education in the academic achievement of urban, low-income Latina/o adolescents. Participants were 346 high school students. Structural equation modeling revealed that the model of associations was a better fit for male students than for female students. Cultural mistrust mediated the relationship between racial discrimination and values of education, and perceived limitations of education predicted lower attendance rates for male students but not for female students. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  11. A multi-group path analysis of the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and self-rated stress: how does it vary across racial/ethnic groups?

    PubMed

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Chen, Danhong

    2016-11-16

    The objective of this study was to answer three questions: (1) Is perceived discrimination adversely related to self-rated stress via the social capital and health care system distrust pathways? (2) Does the relationship between perceived discrimination and self-rated stress vary across race/ethnicity groups? and (3) Do the two pathways differ by one's race/ethnicity background? Using the Philadelphia Health Management Corporation's Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Survey, we classified 9831 respondents into 4 race/ethnicity groups: non-Hispanic White (n = 6621), non-Hispanic Black (n = 2359), Hispanic (n = 505), and non-Hispanic other races (n = 346). Structural equation modeling was employed to simultaneously estimate five sets of equations, including the confirmatory factor analysis for both social capital and health care distrust and both direct and indirect effects from perceived discrimination to self-rated stress. The key findings drawn from the analysis include the following: (1) in general, people who experienced racial discrimination have higher distrust and weaker social capital than those without perceived discrimination and both distrust and social capital are ultimately related to self-rated stress. (2) The direct relationship between perceived discrimination and self-rated stress is found for all race/ethnicity groups (except non-Hispanic other races) and it does not vary across groups. (3) The two pathways can be applied to non-Hispanic White and Black, but for Hispanic and non-Hispanic other races, we found little evidence for the social capital pathway. For non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic, perceived discrimination is negatively related to self-rated stress. This finding highlights the importance of reducing interpersonal discriminatory behavior even for non-Hispanic White. The health care system distrust pathway can be used to address the racial health disparity in stress as it holds true for all four race

  12. Ethnic density and area deprivation: neighbourhood effects on Māori health and racial discrimination in Aotearoa/New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Bécares, Laia; Cormack, Donna; Harris, Ricci

    2013-07-01

    Some studies suggest that ethnic minority people are healthier when they live in areas with a higher concentration of people from their own ethnic group, a so-called ethnic density effect. To date, no studies have examined the ethnic density effect among indigenous peoples, for whom connections to land, patterns of settlement, and drivers of residential location may differ from ethnic minority populations. The present study analysed the Māori sample from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey to examine the association between increased Māori ethnic density, area deprivation, health, and experiences of racial discrimination. Results of multilevel regressions showed that an increase in Māori ethnic density was associated with decreased odds of reporting poor self-rated health, doctor-diagnosed common mental disorders, and experienced racial discrimination. These associations were strengthened after adjusting for area deprivation, which was consistently associated with increased odds of reporting poor health and reports of racial discrimination. Our findings show that whereas ethnic density is protective of the health and exposure to racial discrimination of Māori, this effect is concealed by the detrimental effect of area deprivation, signalling that the benefits of ethnic density must be interpreted within the current socio-political context. This includes the institutional structures and racist practices that have created existing health and socioeconomic inequities in the first place, and maintain the unequal distribution of concentrated poverty in areas of high Māori density. Addressing poverty and the inequitable distribution of socioeconomic resources by ethnicity and place in New Zealand is vital to improving health and reducing inequalities. Given the racialised nature of access to goods, services, and opportunities within New Zealand society, this also requires a strong commitment to eliminating racism. Such commitment and action will allow the benefits

  13. Ethnic density and area deprivation: Neighbourhood effects on Māori health and racial discrimination in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Bécares, Laia; Cormack, Donna; Harris, Ricci

    2013-01-01

    Some studies suggest that ethnic minority people are healthier when they live in areas with a higher concentration of people from their own ethnic group, a so-called ethnic density effect. To date, no studies have examined the ethnic density effect among indigenous peoples, for whom connections to land, patterns of settlement, and drivers of residential location may differ from ethnic minority populations. The present study analysed the Māori sample from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey to examine the association between increased Māori ethnic density, area deprivation, health, and experiences of racial discrimination. Results of multilevel regressions showed that an increase in Māori ethnic density was associated with decreased odds of reporting poor self-rated health, doctor-diagnosed common mental disorders, and experienced racial discrimination. These associations were strengthened after adjusting for area deprivation, which was consistently associated with increased odds of reporting poor health and reports of racial discrimination. Our findings show that whereas ethnic density is protective of the health and exposure to racial discrimination of Māori, this effect is concealed by the detrimental effect of area deprivation, signalling that the benefits of ethnic density must be interpreted within the current socio-political context. This includes the institutional structures and racist practices that have created existing health and socioeconomic inequities in the first place, and maintain the unequal distribution of concentrated poverty in areas of high Māori density. Addressing poverty and the inequitable distribution of socioeconomic resources by ethnicity and place in New Zealand is vital to improving health and reducing inequalities. Given the racialised nature of access to goods, services, and opportunities within New Zealand society, this also requires a strong commitment to eliminating racism. Such commitment and action will allow the benefits

  14. Racial Discrimination in Health Care Is Associated with Worse Glycemic Control among Black Men but Not Black Women with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Assari, Shervin; Lee, Daniel B; Nicklett, Emily Joy; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Piette, John D; Aikens, James E

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that racial discrimination may affect the health of Black men and Black women differently. This study examined Black patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in order to test gender differences in (1) levels of perceived racial discrimination in health care and (2) how perceived discrimination relates to glycemic control. A total of 163 Black patients with type 2 DM (78 women and 85 men) provided data on demographics (age and gender), socioeconomic status, perceived racial discrimination in health care, self-rated health, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Data were analyzed using linear regression. Black men reported more racial discrimination in health care than Black women. Although racial discrimination in health care was not significantly associated with HbA1c in the pooled sample (b = 0.20, 95% CI = -0.41 -0.80), gender-stratified analysis indicated an association between perceived discrimination and higher HbA1c levels for Black men (b = 0.86, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.01-1.73) but not Black women (b = -0.31, 95% CI = -1.17 to -0.54). Perceived racial discrimination in diabetes care may be more salient for glycemic control of Black men than Black women. Scholars and clinicians should take gender into account when considering the impacts of race-related discrimination experiences on health outcomes. Policies should reduce racial discrimination in the health care.

  15. Racial/Ethnic and Socio-Contextual Correlates of Chronic Sleep Curtailment in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Michelle-Marie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Redline, Susan; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the association between race/ethnicity and sleep curtailment from infancy to mid-childhood, and to determine the extent to which socioeconomic and contextual factors both explain racial/ethnic differences and are independently associated with sleep curtailment. Methods: We studied 1,288 children longitudinally in Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study, from 6 months to 7 years of age. The main exposure was the child's race/ethnicity. The main outcome was a sleep curtailment score from 6 months to 7 years. The score ranged from 0–13, where 0 indicated maximal sleep curtailment and 13 indicated never having curtailed sleep. Results: The mean (standard deviation) sleep curtailment score was 10.2 (2.7) points. In adjusted models (β [95% CI]), black (−1.92, [−2.39, −1.45] points), Hispanic (−1.58, [−2.43, −0.72] points), and Asian (−1.71, [−2.55, −0.86] points) children had lower sleep scores than white children. Adjustment for sociodemographic covariates attenuated racial/ethnic differences in sleep scores for black (by 24%) and Hispanic children (by 32%) but strengthened the differences for Asian children by 14%. Further adjustment for environmental and behavioral variables did not substantially change these differences. Independently, low maternal education, living in households with incomes < $70,000, viewing more TV, and having a TV in the child's bedroom were associated with lower sleep scores. Conclusions: Chronic sleep curtailment from infancy to mid-childhood was more prevalent among black, Hispanic, and Asian children. These differences were partially but not entirely explained by socio-contextual variables. Independently, children from lower socioeconomic status and those with greater exposures to TV also had greater sleep curtailment. Citation: Peña MM, Rifas-Shiman SL, Gillman MW, Redline S, Taveras EM. Racial/ethnic and socio-contextual correlates of chronic sleep curtailment in childhood. SLEEP 2016

  16. Early Experience with Racial Discrimination and Conduct Disorder as Predictors of Subsequent Drug Use: A Critical Period Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Frederick X.; Yeh, Hsiu-Chen; Gerrard, Meg; Cleveland, Michael J.; Cutrona, Carolyn; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.

    2007-01-01

    A critical period hypothesis linking early experiences with both racial discrimination and conduct disorder (CD) with subsequent drug use was examined in a panel of 889 African American adolescents (age 10.5 at Time 1) and their parents. Analyses indicated that these early experiences did predict use by the adolescents at Time 3--five years later. These relations were both direct and indirect, being mediated by an increase in affiliation with friends who were using drugs. The relations existed controlling for parents’ reports of their use, discrimination experiences, and their socioeconomic status (SES). The impact of these early experiences on African American families is discussed. PMID:17275213

  17. Trajectories of ethnic-racial discrimination among ethnically diverse early adolescents: associations with psychological and social adjustment.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Erika Y; Way, Niobe; Hughes, Diane L

    2014-01-01

    Using longitudinal data, the authors assessed 585 Dominican, Chinese, and African American adolescents (Grades 6-8, M(age) at W1 = 11.83) to determine patterns over time of perceived ethnic-racial discrimination from adults and peers; if these patterns varied by gender, ethnicity, and immigrant status; and whether they are associated with psychological (self-esteem, depressive symptoms) and social (friend and teacher relationship quality, school belonging) adjustment. Two longitudinal patterns for adult discrimination and three longitudinal patterns for peer discrimination were identified using a semiparametric mixture model. These trajectories were distinct with regard to the initial level, shape, and changes in discrimination. Trajectories varied by gender and ethnicity and were significantly linked to psychological and social adjustment. Directions for future research and practice are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. Everyday Discrimination Prospectively Predicts Inflammation Across 7-Years in Racially Diverse Midlife Women: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Danielle L.; Matthews, Karen A.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Brown, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Self-reported discrimination has emerged as a predictor of negative psychological and physical health outcomes across racial/ethnic groups. The goals of this study were to determine whether C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation and risk factor for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) was independently predicted by everyday discrimination or whether race or body mass index (BMI) modified this association over a 7-year period among 2,490 women from racially diverse backgrounds. At baseline, the 10-item Williams' measure of everyday discrimination was administered. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess these associations. Descriptive results showed that Black and Chinese women reported greater discrimination than White, Japanese, and Hispanic women, while Black and Hispanic women had the highest levels of CRP over the 7-year period. There was no main effect of everyday discrimination (B = .003, SE = .005, p = .58) and this association did not differ as a function of race (p's > .05). The everyday discrimination × BMI interaction term significantly predicted higher CRP levels over time in the full sample of women (p = .03). Specifically, in non-obese women (BMI less than 30), higher perceived everyday discrimination was associated with higher CRP levels over the 7-year period. These findings were independent of demographic, negative affect, biomedical, and behavioral factors. The results demonstrate that greater everyday discrimination is associated with increased inflammation over time in non-obese women. These findings highlight the implications of interpersonal sources of social stress for long-term physical health via their impact on intermediary biological pathways, specifically inflammation. Greater emphasis on such linkages is warranted as we work towards ameliorating health disparities exacerbated by individual-level factors. PMID:25342861

  19. The Role of Racial Discrimination in the Economic Value of Education Among Urban, Low-Income Latina/o Youth: Ethnic Identity and Gender as Moderators.

    PubMed

    Mroczkowski, Alison L; Sánchez, Bernadette

    2015-09-01

    The present study used resilience theory to explore relationships among perceived racial discrimination, ethnic identity, gender, and economic value of education (EVE) among urban, low-income, Latina/o youth. It was expected that racial discrimination would predict poorer perceptions of the EVE among Latina/o adolescents. Ethnic identity was hypothesized to buffer the negative effect of racial discrimination on Latina/o students' EVE. The participants in this study were 396 urban, low-income Latina/o high school students from a large, Midwestern city who completed surveys in both 9th- and 10th-grade. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships among racial discrimination, ethnic identity, and EVE. Results supported a protective model of resilience. Specifically, ethnic identity served as a protective factor by buffering the negative effect of perceived racial discrimination on EVE for male participants. The present study is the first to examine ethnic identity as a buffer of racial discrimination on EVE among Latina/o high school students. Future directions and implications are discussed.

  20. Self-Reported Experience of Racial Discrimination and Health Care Use in New Zealand: Results From the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cormack, Donna; Tobias, Martin; Yeh, Li-Chia; Talamaivao, Natalie; Minster, Joanna; Timutimu, Roimata

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether reported experience of racial discrimination in health care and in other domains was associated with cancer screening and negative health care experiences. Methods. We used 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey data (n = 12 488 adults). We used logistic regression to examine the relationship of reported experience of racial discrimination in health care (unfair treatment by a health professional) and in other domains (personal attack, unfair treatment in work and when gaining housing) to breast and cervical cancer screening and negative patient experiences adjusted for other variables. Results. Racial discrimination by a health professional was associated with lower odds of breast (odds ratio [OR] = 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.14, 0.996) and cervical cancer (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.30, 0.87) screening among Maori women. Racial discrimination by a health professional (OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.15, 2.14) and racial discrimination more widely (OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.35, 1.79) were associated with negative patient experiences for all participants. Conclusions. Experience of racial discrimination in both health care and other settings may influence health care use and experiences of care and is a potential pathway to poor health. PMID:22420811

  1. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Early Childhood Obesity: Growth Trajectories in Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Alma D.; Mao, Cherry; Fuller, Bruce; Bridges, Margaret; Franke, Todd; Kuo, Alice A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study are to describe growth trajectories in the body mass index (BMI) among the major racial and ethnic groups of US children and to identify predictors of children's BMI trajectories. Methods The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) was used to identify predictors of BMI growth trajectories, including child characteristics, maternal attributes, home practices related to diet and social behaviors, and family sociodemographic factors. Growth models, spanning 48 to 72 months of age, were estimated with hierarchical linear modeling via STATA/Xtmixed methods. Results Approximately one-third of 4-year-old females and males were overweight and/or obese. African-American and Latino children displayed higher predicted mean BMI scores and differing mean BMI trajectories, compared with White children, adjusting for time-independent and time-dependent predictors. Several factors were significantly associated with lower mean BMI trajectories, including very low birth weight, higher maternal education level, residing in a two-parent household, and breastfeeding during infancy. Greater consumption of soda and fast food was associated with higher mean BMI growth. Soda consumption was a particularly strong predictor of mean BMI growth trajectory for young Black children. Neither the child's inactivity linked to television viewing nor fruit nor vegetable consumption was predictive of BMI growth for any racial/ethnic group. Conclusion Significant racial and ethnic differences are discernible in BMI trajectories among young children. Raising parents’ and health practitioners’ awareness of how fast food and sweetened-beverage consumption contributes to early obesity and growth in BMI—especially for Blacks and Latinos—could improve the health status of young children. PMID:26896112

  2. A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech from Speech Delay: Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Strand, Edythe A.; Fourakis, Marios; Jakielski, Kathy J.; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Mabie, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to introduce the pause marker (PM), a single-sign diagnostic marker proposed to discriminate early or persistent childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) from speech delay.

  3. What can parents do? Examining the role of parental support on the negative relationship between racial discrimination, depression, and drug use among African American youth.

    PubMed

    Zapolski, Tamika C B; Fisher, Sycarah; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Barnes, Jessica

    2016-07-01

    African American youth who experience racial discrimination are at heightened risk to use drugs as a coping response to distress. Based on the buffer-stress hypothesis, we proposed that parental support would attenuate this effect. Participants were 1,521 African American youth between 4(th) and 12(th) grade. As hypothesized, a mediation pathway was observed between racial discrimination, depression symptoms, and drug use. This effect was observed for both genders, although the pathway was partially mediated for males. Additionally, as hypothesized, parental support buffered the negative effect of depression symptomatology on drug use as a consequence of discrimination. Our findings highlight the impact racial discrimination has on health outcomes for African American youth and the importance of managing youth's emotional responses to discrimination. Moreover, findings illuminate the protective role of supportive parenting within the risk model and should thus be considered as an important component within prevention programming for this population of youth.

  4. What can parents do? Examining the role of parental support on the negative relationship between racial discrimination, depression, and drug use among African American youth

    PubMed Central

    Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Fisher, Sycarah; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Barnes, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    African American youth who experience racial discrimination are at heightened risk to use drugs as a coping response to distress. Based on the buffer-stress hypothesis, we proposed that parental support would attenuate this effect. Participants were 1,521 African American youth between 4th and 12th grade. As hypothesized, a mediation pathway was observed between racial discrimination, depression symptoms, and drug use. This effect was observed for both genders, although the pathway was partially mediated for males. Additionally, as hypothesized, parental support buffered the negative effect of depression symptomatology on drug use as a consequence of discrimination. Our findings highlight the impact racial discrimination has on health outcomes for African American youth and the importance of managing youth's emotional responses to discrimination. Moreover, findings illuminate the protective role of supportive parenting within the risk model and should thus be considered as an important component within prevention programming for this population of youth. PMID:27747140

  5. Perceived Discrimination, Racial Identity, and Multisystem Stress Response to Social Evaluative Threat Among African American Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Todd; Wegner, Rhiana; Pierce, Jennifer; Lumley, Mark A; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Granger, Douglas A

    2017-04-01

    Understanding individual differences in the psychobiology of the stress response is critical to grasping how psychosocial factors contribute to racial and ethnic health disparities. However, the ways in which environmentally sensitive biological systems coordinate in response to acute stress is not well understood. We used a social-evaluative stress task to investigate coordination among the autonomic nervous system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and immune/inflammatory system in a community sample of 85 healthy African American men and women. Six saliva samples, 2 at each of baseline, event, and recovery phases of the stressor task, were assayed for cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, salivary alpha-amylase, and salivary C-reactive protein. Individual differences in perceived discrimination and racial identity were also measured. Factor analysis demonstrated that stress systems were largely dissociated before stressor exposure but became aligned during event and recovery phases into functional biological stress responses (factor loadings ≥ .58). Coordinated responses were related to interactions of perceived discrimination and racial identity: when racial identity was strong, highly perceived discrimination was associated with low hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity at baseline (B's = .68-.72, p < .001), low stress mobilization during the task (B's = .46-.62, p < .049), and a robust inflammatory response (salivary C-reactive protein) during recovery (B's = .72-.94, p < .002). Culturally relevant social perceptions may be linked to a specific pattern of changing alignment in biological components of the stress response. Better understanding these links may significantly advance understanding of stress-related illnesses and disparities.

  6. Racial/ethnic discrimination, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol problems in a longitudinal study of Hispanic/Latino college students.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Mallinckrodt, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Racial/ethnic discrimination has been identified as a risk factor in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in persons of color (Carter, 2007). Many persons, regardless of race/ethnicity, with PTSD symptoms resulting from combat, violent crimes, sexual assault, or natural disasters use alcohol in an attempt to cope. This longitudinal study surveyed 203 Hispanic/Latino students twice at approximately a 1-year interval, and used a cross-lagged design to compare Time 1 links from alcohol use and experiences of discrimination with the same variables at Time 2, plus symptoms of PTSD. Each survey included the General Ethnic Discrimination scale and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Only Time 2 packets contained the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian. Cross-lagged analyses conducted by comparing nested structural equation models found that fixing the causal paths to zero from Time 1 experiences of discrimination to Time 2 alcohol problems and PTSD resulted in a significantly worse fit of the data. However, fixing the paths to zero from Time 1 maladaptive alcohol use to Time 2 PTSD and experiences of discrimination resulted in no significant difference in model fit. Thus, this pattern of findings is consistent with an inference that Hispanic/Latino college students who experience racial/ethnic discrimination are at risk for developing symptoms of posttraumatic stress and increased maladaptive alcohol use; conversely, maladaptive alcohol use does not appear to be a risk factor for later experiences of discrimination or PTSD symptoms. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Perceived racial, sexual identity, and homeless status-related discrimination among Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness: Relations with depressive symptoms and suicidality.

    PubMed

    Gattis, Maurice N; Larson, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical evidence that addresses how racial minority, sexual minority, and homeless statuses, with their accompanying experiences of stigma and discrimination, are related to mental health in adolescent and young adult populations. The current study addresses this gap by examining the associations between multiple forms of discrimination, depressive symptoms, and suicidality in a sample of 89 Black adolescents and young adults (52% female; 47% nonheterosexual, ages 16-24) experiencing homelessness. Results from a series of ordinary least squares and logistic regressions suggested that perceived homelessness stigma and racial discrimination were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, controlling for gender, age, and other types of discrimination, while perceived sexual identity discrimination showed no association. Having ever spent a homeless night on the street, an indicator of homelessness severity, accounted for a substantial amount of the association between homelessness stigma and depressive symptoms. In contrast, suicidality was not significantly associated with any measure of discrimination, homelessness severity, or personal characteristics. We also found no indication that the associations between perceived discrimination targeted at racial and homelessness statuses and mental health differed by sexual minority status. Our results suggest that depressive symptoms and suicidality are prevalent among Black homeless youth, and that depressive symptoms are particularly associated with racial discrimination and indicators of homelessness. The roles of discrimination and a lack of safe housing may be taken into account when designing programs and policies that address the mental health of Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness.

  8. Using Mathematical Analyses Activities to Improve Manipulative Discrimination in Early Childhood Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertle, Barbrina B.

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of manipulative analyses performed by preservice and in-service teachers in an early childhood teacher education program mathematics methods course. The activities are intended to model and promote mathematical analyses for better discrimination between mathematics manipulatives by early childhood teachers.…

  9. Racial and Ethnic Tensions in American Communities: Poverty, Inequality, and Discrimination. Volume III: The Chicago Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudert, Eileen; And Others

    In February 1991 the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights began a long-term study of the factors contributing to increased racial and ethnic tensions in the United States. This document is a report on one aspect of this study, a hearing held to consider the factors underlying increased racial and ethnic tension in Chicago (Illinois). This hearing was…

  10. Buried Hatchets, Marked Locations: Forgiveness, Everyday Racial Discrimination, and African American Men's Depressive Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Powell, Wizdom; Banks, Kira Hudson; Mattis, Jacqueline S

    2016-10-27

    Everyday racial discrimination (ERD) is linked to pronounced depressive symptomatology among African American men. Yet, many African American men do not experience depressive symptoms following ERD exposure often because they use positive coping strategies that offset its effects. Granting forgiveness is 1 coping strategy associated with less depression. However, extant findings about the mental health benefits of forgiveness are somewhat mixed and pay scarce attention to offenses which are fleeting, historically rooted, and committed outside of close personal relationships. Evidence further suggest age-related differences in forgiveness, ERD exposure, and depressive symptoms. We explore the extent to which 3 strategies of granting forgiveness of ERD-letting go of negative emotion (negative release), embracing positive emotion (positive embrace), or combining both (combined)-are associated with less depressive symptomatology in 674 African American men (ages 18 through 79). Building on past findings, we also test whether these forgiveness strategies moderate the ERD-depressive symptoms relationship for men in different age groups (18 through 25, 26 through 39, and 40). Higher combined and negative release forgiveness were directly related to lower depressive symptoms among 18 through 25 year olds. We also detected a less pronounced positive relationship between ERD and depressive symptoms among men reporting high levels of combined (18 through 25 and 26 through 39 groups) and negative release (26 through 39 and 40+ groups) forgiveness. We observed a more pronounced positive ERD-depressive symptoms relationship among 18 through 25 and 26 through 39 year olds reporting lower forgiveness. When faced with frequent ERD, younger African American men may have the most difficult time burying hatchets without marking their location but experience more positive mental health benefits when they do. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Racial Differences in the Consequences of Childhood Maltreatment for Adolescent and Young Adult Depression, Heavy Drinking, and Violence

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chioun; Cronley, Courtney; White, Helene Raskin; Mun, Eun-Young; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study examined racial differences in the consequences of childhood maltreatment for depression, heavy drinking, and violence during adolescence and young adulthood among Black and White young men. Methods Data came from the Pittsburgh Youth Study, a prospective longitudinal study of urban males (N = 971, 56% Black). Childhood maltreatment was defined as substantiated physical or sexual abuse, physical neglect, emotional maltreatment, or moral/legal/educational maltreatment with the first referral before age 12. Self reports of depressive symptoms and heavy drinking (consuming 6+ drinks on a single occasion) and official, parent, and self reports of violent offending were assessed between ages 12–17 (adolescence) and at age 24/25 (young adulthood). Regression analyses were conducted to examine childhood maltreatment and race, as well as maltreatment-by-race interactions, as predictors of the three outcomes. Results Prevalence of childhood maltreatment was higher for Black than White boys; however, there were no racial differences in timing, type, severity, and chronicity of maltreatment. When SES and cohort were controlled, childhood maltreatment significantly predicted depressive symptoms and violence in adolescence but none of the outcomes in young adulthood. Race was a significant predictor of heavy drinking and violence during adolescence and of all three outcomes in young adulthood. No significant race-by-maltreatment interaction effects were found. Conclusions Childhood maltreatment has similar negative consequences for Black and White male youth during adolescence. Extending intervention efforts through adolescence is important to alleviate these problems among victims. PMID:22525106

  12. Association of perceived racial discrimination with eating behaviors and obesity among participants of the SisterTalk study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Portia; Risica, Patricia Markham; Gans, Kim M; Kirtania, Usree; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association of perceived racial discrimination with emotional eating behaviors, weight status, and stress levels among obese African-American women, who volunteered to enter a weight control study (SisterTalk) in the New England region of the United States. The sample of women was taken from the baseline data of participants in SisterTalk, a randomized, controlled trial of a cable TV-delivered weight control program. Using the Krieger instrument, telephone and in-person surveys were used to assess perceived discrimination, emotional eating behaviors, and stress. Height and weight were measured to calculate BMI in order to assess weight status. ANOVA models were constructed to assess the association of discrimination with demographics. Correlations were calculated for discrimination, stress, emotional eating, and weight variables. ANOVA models were also constructed to assess discrimination with emotional eating, after adjusting for appropriate demographic variables. Perceived discrimination was associated with education and stress levels but was not associated with weight status (BMI). The frequency of eating when depressed or sad, and eating to manage stress, were both significantly higher among women who reported higher perceived discrimination and higher stress levels. Discrimination may contribute to stress that leads to eating for reasons other than hunger among African-American women, although the causal direction of associations cannot be determined with cross sectional data. Associations of discrimination with weight status were not found, although it is likely that emotional eating behaviors related to perceived discrimination are unhealthy. Future research should examine these relationships more closely in longitudinal studies.

  13. Mentoring as a Mediator or Moderator of the Association between Racial Discrimination and Coping Efficacy in Urban, Low-Income Latina/o Youth.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Bernadette; Mroczkowski, Alison L; Liao, Lynn C; Cooper, Adina C; Rivera, Claudio; DuBois, David L

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations among mentoring relationship quality (i.e., relational and instrumental quality), racial discrimination and coping efficacy with racial discrimination. Three social support models were tested, including the stress buffering, support mobilization, and support deterioration models. Participants were 257 urban, low-income Latina/o high school students, who completed surveys in both 9th and 10th grades. While controlling for gender and coping efficacy with discrimination in 9th grade, results supported the social support deterioration model. Specifically, there was a significant indirect effect of racial discrimination in 9th grade on coping efficacy in 10th grade through instrumental mentoring quality. As racial discrimination increased, mentoring quality decreased and then coping efficacy decreased. We also found that more racial discrimination in 9th grade was significantly associated with lower coping efficacy in 10th grade, and higher instrumental mentoring quality in 9th grade was significantly associated with higher coping efficacy in 10th grade, while controlling for gender and coping efficacy in 9th grade. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  14. The Schedule of Racist Events: A Measure of Racial Discrimination and a Study of Its Negative Physical and Mental Health Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrine, Hope; Klonoff, Elizabeth A.

    1996-01-01

    Presents Schedule of Racist Events (SRE), questionnaire for assessing frequency of racial discrimination in lives of blacks. SRE, an 18-item self-report inventory, assesses frequency of specific racist events in past year and in one's entire life, and measures to what extent this discrimination was stressful. Responses (n=153) reveal racism is…

  15. Comparison of racial differences in childhood cancer risk in case-control studies and population-based cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Slusky, Danna A; Mezei, Gabor; Metayer, Catherine; Selvin, Steve; Von Behren, Julie; Buffler, Patricia A

    2012-02-01

    Although selection bias in case-control studies has been studied extensively, little is known about selection of cases and controls among various ethnic groups. This study compares racial differences in childhood cancer rates as estimated by case-control studies with various design features. It also compares estimates of racial distribution among cases as reported by case-control studies to those observed for an ideal case series with complete ascertainment of cases for these studies or in population-based cancer registries in corresponding geographic regions and calendar periods. Peer-reviewed publications on childhood leukemia and brain tumors from North America, published between 1980 and 2007, were reviewed. Incidence data by race/ethnicity were compiled from research publications, federal cancer statistics, and cancer registries. Meta-analysis was conducted to assess racial/ethnic differences by study characteristics. Racial distributions of cases from published case-control studies were compared to those of a presumably noncensored case distribution (i.e. include both participating and non-participating cases in a case-control study) or cases recorded by cancer registries. In interview-based case-control studies of childhood cancer, the proportion of Whites compared to non-Whites tended to be higher among controls than among cases; however, the opposite was true for record-based case-control studies. Additionally, the proportion of Whites tended to be higher among the participating cases in the published case-control studies compared to the proportion of Whites among the non-participating cases or in cancer registries. Investigators need to consider differential participation by racial group as a potential source of bias in the interpretation of case-control study results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Racial disparities in health among nonpoor African Americans and Hispanics: The role of acute and chronic discrimination.

    PubMed

    Colen, Cynthia G; Ramey, David M; Cooksey, Elizabeth C; Williams, David R

    2017-05-06

    Racial disparities in health tend to be more pronounced at the upper ends of the socioeconomic (SES) spectrum. Despite having access to above average social and economic resources, nonpoor African Americans and Latinos report significantly worse health compared to nonpoor Whites. We combine data from the parents and children of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) to address two specific research aims. First, we generate longitudinal SES trajectories over a 33-year period to estimate the extent to which socioeconomic mobility is associated with exposure to discrimination (acute and chronic) across different racial/ethnic groups (nonHispanic Whites, nonHispanic Blacks, and Hispanics). Then we determine if the disparate relationship between SES and self-rated health across these groups can be accounted for by more frequent exposure to unfair treatment. For Whites, moderate income gains over time result in significantly less exposure to both acute and chronic discrimination. Upwardly mobile African Americans and Hispanics, however, were significantly more likely to experience acute and chronic discrimination, respectively, than their socioeconomically stable counterparts. We also find that differential exposure to unfair treatment explains a substantial proportion of the Black/White, but not the Hispanic/White, gap in self-rated health among this nationally representative sample of upwardly mobile young adults. The current study adds to the debate that the shape of the SES/health gradient differs, in important ways, across race and provides empirical support for the diminishing health returns hypothesis for racial/ethnic minorities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Impact of Everyday Discrimination and Racial Identity Centrality on African American Medical Student Well-Being: a Report from the Medical Student CHANGE Study.

    PubMed

    Perry, Sylvia P; Hardeman, Rachel; Burke, Sara E; Cunningham, Brooke; Burgess, Diana J; van Ryn, Michelle

    2016-09-01

    Positive psychological well-being is an important predictor of and contributor to medical student success. Previous work showed that first-year African American medical students whose self-concept was highly linked to their race (high racial identity centrality) were at greater risk for poor well-being. The current study extends this work by examining (a) whether the psychological impact of racial discrimination on well-being depends on African American medical students' racial identity centrality and (b) whether this process is explained by how accepted students feel in medical school. This study used baseline data from the Medical Student Cognitive Habits and Growth Evaluation (CHANGE) Study, a large national longitudinal cohort study of 4732 medical students at 49 medical schools in the USA (n = 243). Regression analyses were conducted to test whether medical student acceptance mediated an interactive effect of discrimination and racial identity centrality on self-esteem and well-being. Both racial identity centrality and everyday discrimination were associated with negative outcomes for first-year African American medical students. Among participants who experienced higher, but not lower, levels of everyday discrimination, racial identity centrality was associated with negative outcomes. When everyday discrimination was high, but not low, racial identity was negatively related to perceived acceptance in medical school, and this in turn was related to increased negative outcomes. Our results suggest that discrimination may be particularly harmful for African American students who perceive their race to be central to their personal identity. Additionally, our findings speak to the need for institutional change that includes commitment and action towards inclusivity and the elimination of structural racism.

  18. The Impact of Everyday Discrimination and Racial Identity Centrality on African American Medical Student Well-Being: a Report from the Medical Student CHANGE Study

    PubMed Central

    Hardeman, Rachel; Burke, Sara E.; Cunningham, Brooke; Burgess, Diana J.; van Ryn, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Positive psychological well-being is an important predictor of and contributor to medical student success. Previous work showed that first-year African American medical students whose self-concept was highly linked to their race (high racial identity centrality) were at greater risk for poor well-being. The current study extends this work by examining (a) whether the psychological impact of racial discrimination on well-being depends on African American medical students' racial identity centrality and (b) whether this process is explained by how accepted students feel in medical school. This study used baseline data from the Medical Student Cognitive Habits and Growth Evaluation (CHANGE) Study, a large national longitudinal cohort study of 4732 medical students at 49 medical schools in the USA (n = 243). Regression analyses were conducted to test whether medical student acceptance mediated an interactive effect of discrimination and racial identity centrality on self-esteem and well-being. Both racial identity centrality and everyday discrimination were associated with negative outcomes for first-year African American medical students. Among participants who experienced higher, but not lower, levels of everyday discrimination, racial identity centrality was associated with negative outcomes. When everyday discrimination was high, but not low, racial identity was negatively related to perceived acceptance in medical school, and this in turn was related to increased negative outcomes. Our results suggest that discrimination may be particularly harmful for African American students who perceive their race to be central to their personal identity. Additionally, our findings speak to the need for institutional change that includes commitment and action towards inclusivity and the elimination of structural racism. PMID:27294743

  19. A longitudinal examination of perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms in ethnic minority youth: The roles of attributional style, positive ethnic/racial affect, and emotional reactivity.

    PubMed

    Stein, Gabriela L; Supple, Andrew J; Huq, Nadia; Dunbar, Angel S; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2016-02-01

    Although perceived ethnic/racial discrimination is well established as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in ethnic minority youth, few studies have examined their longitudinal relationship over time. This study examined whether a negative attributional style, positive ethnic/racial affect, and emotional reactivity moderated the longitudinal relationship of perceived peer or adult discrimination and depressive symptoms in a sample of African American and Latino high school students (n = 155). African American and Latino youth who experienced increases in perceived peer discrimination also reported greater depressive symptoms over time, but positive ethnic/racial affect buffered the longitudinal association. Emotional reactivity also served as a significant moderator but only of the baseline association between perceived peer discrimination and depressive symptoms. Thus, perceived ethnic/racial discrimination appears to play a significant role in the development of depressive symptoms for ethnic minority youth, especially those who start high school with lower levels of positive ethnic/racial affect. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Racial discrimination and alcohol-related behavior in urban transit operators: findings from the San Francisco Muni Health and Safety Study.

    PubMed Central

    Yen, I H; Ragland, D R; Greiner, B A; Fisher, J M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A growing body of literature is documenting the health effects of racial discrimination. The authors investigated the association between racial discrimination and alcohol-related behavior in a sample of urban transit operators. METHODS: Using data from a 1993-1995 cross-sectional study of transit operators in San Francisco, California, the authors analyzed responses to two sets of questions about racial discrimination; the first set focused on reaction to unfair treatment and the second on arenas, or domains, of discrimination. Alcohol-related variables were: number of drinks per month, heavy drinking, alcohol dependence, and negative consequences of alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Operators who reported five or more domains of discrimination drank an average of 13.4 more drinks per month than those who reported no domains of discrimination (P = 0.01). Similarly, they were more likely to be heavy drinkers (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14, 4.09) and dependent on alcohol (adjusted OR = 2.02; 95% CI 1.08, 3.79) than operators who reported no domains of discrimination. The number of domains in which operators reported having experienced discrimination was not related to sex, age, household income, job seniority, or marital status, but varied significantly by educational level and race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Data from a sample of urban transit operators showed an association between the number of domains of discrimination and some alcohol-related outcomes, but not others. PMID:10590767

  1. Are racist attitudes related to experiences of racial discrimination? Within sample testing utilising nationally representative survey data.

    PubMed

    Habtegiorgis, Amanuel E; Paradies, Yin C; Dunn, Kevin M

    2014-09-01

    Although the relationship between an individual's racist attitudes and discriminatory behaviours has been widely studied, the association between racist attitudes among perpetrators and experiences of racism among targets has been under-examined. Based on data from the 2001-8 Australian Challenging Racism Project survey, this paper details a novel method to investigate the link between racist attitudes and experiences of discrimination utilising two separate models linked by nomination of cultural or ethnic groups who do not fit into Australian society (i.e., out-groups). Those identified as out-groups were more likely to report experiences of discrimination than those who were not nominated as out-groups. Overall, out-group nomination by those with racist attitudes strongly predict experiences of discrimination among these same target out-groups, OR=2.2, F(6, 12,348)=78.61, p<.001. Racist attitudes are related to racist behaviours among perpetrators that are, in turn, related to experiences of racial discrimination among targets. This study demonstrates that attitudes not only affect majority group behaviour but also drive the resulting experiences of discrimination for minority group members.

  2. Racial discrimination & cardiovascular disease risk: my body my story study of 1005 US-born black and white community health center participants (US).

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy; Waterman, Pamela D; Kosheleva, Anna; Chen, Jarvis T; Smith, Kevin W; Carney, Dana R; Bennett, Gary G; Williams, David R; Thornhill, Gisele; Freeman, Elmer R

    2013-01-01

    To date, limited and inconsistent evidence exists regarding racial discrimination and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cross-sectional observational study of 1005 US-born non-Hispanic black (n = 504) and white (n = 501) participants age 35-64 randomly selected from community health centers in Boston, MA (2008-2010; 82.4% response rate), using 3 racial discrimination measures: explicit self-report; implicit association test (IAT, a time reaction test for self and group as target vs. perpetrator of discrimination); and structural (Jim Crow status of state of birth, i.e. legal racial discrimination prior 1964). Black and white participants both had adverse cardiovascular and socioeconomic profiles, with black participants most highly exposed to racial discrimination. Positive crude associations among black participants occurred for Jim Crow birthplace and hypertension (odds ratio (OR) 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28, 2.89) and for explicit self-report and the Framingham 10 year CVD risk score (beta = 0.04; 95% CI 0.01, 0.07); among white participants, only negative crude associations existed (for IAT for self, for lower systolic blood pressure (SBP; beta = -4.86; 95% CI -9.08, -0.64) and lower Framingham CVD score (beta = -0.36, 95% CI -0.63, -0.08)). All of these associations were attenuated and all but the white IAT-Framingham risk score association were rendered null in analyses that controlled for lifetime socioeconomic position and additional covariates. Controlling for racial discrimination, socioeconomic position, and other covariates did not attenuate the crude black excess risk for SBP and hypertension and left unaffected the null excess risk for the Framingham CVD score. Despite worse exposures among the black participants, racial discrimination and socioeconomic position were not associated, in multivariable analyses, with risk of CVD. We interpret results in relation to constrained variability of exposures and outcomes and discuss implications

  3. Racial Identity, Social Context, and Race-Related Social Cognition in African Americans during Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Stephanie J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Zeisel, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of changes in racial identity, cross-race friendships, same-race friendships, and classroom racial composition on changes in race-related social cognition from 3rd to 5th grade for 73 African American children. The goal of the study was to determine the extent to which preadolescent racial identity and social context…

  4. Distribution of gene frequencies and discrimination probabilities for 22 human blood genetic systems in four racial groups.

    PubMed

    Grunbaum, B W; Selvin, S; Myhre, B A; Pace, N

    1980-04-01

    Gene frequencies were computed in four racial categories from 5956 blood donors from California, Hawaii, Mexico City, and Texas. Calculations were based on the phenotypic distribution of 22 blood genetic systems including 7 blood groups and 15 genetically controlled polymorphic proteins and enzymes. Matching probabilities for 20 systems were approximately 1 in 100 000 Asians, 1 in 200 000 blacks, 1 in 330 000 Mexicans, and 1 in 1 000 000 whites. The complementary discrimination probability, which measures the likelihood that two random individuals do not match, was, for practical purposes, unity. The combined new technology for blood grouping and electrophoresis using cellulose acetate membranes provides a powerful individualizing and discriminating tool for forensic science investigation.

  5. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and antisocial behaviors among Asian American college students: testing the moderating roles of ethnic and American identity.

    PubMed

    Park, Irene J K; Schwartz, Seth J; Lee, Richard M; Kim, May; Rodriguez, Liliana

    2013-04-01

    The present study tested the moderating roles of ethnic identity and American identity on the association between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and antisocial behaviors among Asian American college students. Using data from the Multi-Site University Study of Identity and Culture (MUSIC) collaborative, the sample included 1,362 East Asian and South Asian American college students. Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with antisocial behaviors for both East Asians and South Asians. Ethnic identity was not a significant moderator of the discrimination-antisocial behavior link, but American identity exacerbated the association between perceived discrimination and antisocial behaviors for both East Asians and South Asians. Interestingly, the explanatory power of the regression model was greater for South Asians than for East Asians in predicting antisocial behaviors. The importance of attending to American identity as a potential source of risk for Asian American college students exposed to racial/ethnic discrimination is discussed.

  6. Impact of perceived racial discrimination on health screening in black women.

    PubMed

    Mouton, Charles P; Carter-Nolan, Pamela L; Makambi, Kepher H; Taylor, Teletia R; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2010-02-01

    Perceived discrimination has been shown to be related to health screening behavior. The present study examines the effect of discrimination on cancer screening among women in the Black Women's Health Study. Five self-report items measured discrimination in everyday life and three items measured experiences of major discrimination. Logistic regression was used to test associations of discrimination with Pap smear, mammography, or colonoscopy utilization. At the start of follow-up, 88.8% had a Pap smear in the previous year, 52.7% had a mammogram, and 20.0% had received a colonoscopy. Both everyday and major discrimination were associated with not having received a Pap smear, even after adjusting for other variables. Discrimination was not associated with mammography or colonoscopy utilization. In conclusion, perceived everyday and major discrimination is associated with poorer utilization of Pap smears for cervical cancer screening among Black women.

  7. Profiles of African American College Students’ Alcohol Use and Sexual Behaviors: Associations With Stress, Racial Discrimination, and Social Support

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Isha W.; Cooper, Shauna M.; Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Onyeuku, Chisom; Griffin, Charity Brown

    2017-01-01

    Though studies show that alcohol use and sexual activity increase during emerging adulthood, few studies examine within–ethnic group differences, particularly among African American college students. This investigation utilized a latent class analytic methodology to identify risk behavior profiles of alcohol use (frequency and amount of alcohol consumed), sexual activity (number of intimate partners), and co-occurring risk behaviors (drinking before sexual intercourse) among 228 African American college students. This investigation also examined whether identified risk behavior profiles were associated with stress (interpersonal, intraperso-nal, academic, and environmental), experiences of racial discrimination, and social support (from family, friends, and the college community). Results identified five distinct profiles within this sample: (a) High Sexual Risk—above-average sexual activity; (b) Abstainers—below-average alcohol use and sexual activity; (c) Low Risk—average alcohol use and sexual activity; (d) Alcohol Risk—above-average alcohol use and below-average sexual activity; and (e) Co-Occurring Risk—above-average alcohol use and sexual activity. Identified profiles differed across interpersonal and environmental stress, and self-reported frequency of experiences with racial discrimination. Implications for prevention programs and interventions aimed at reducing alcohol and sexual activity for African American college students are discussed. PMID:27215314

  8. Profiles of African American College Students' Alcohol Use and Sexual Behaviors: Associations With Stress, Racial Discrimination, and Social Support.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Isha W; Cooper, Shauna M; Ritchwood, Tiarney D; Onyeuku, Chisom; Griffin, Charity Brown

    2017-01-01

    Though studies show that alcohol use and sexual activity increase during emerging adulthood, few studies examine within-ethnic group differences, particularly among African American college students. This investigation utilized a latent class analytic methodology to identify risk behavior profiles of alcohol use (frequency and amount of alcohol consumed), sexual activity (number of intimate partners), and co-occurring risk behaviors (drinking before sexual intercourse) among 228 African American college students. This investigation also examined whether identified risk behavior profiles were associated with stress (interpersonal, intrapersonal, academic, and environmental), experiences of racial discrimination, and social support (from family, friends, and the college community). Results identified five distinct profiles within this sample: (a) High Sexual Risk-above-average sexual activity; (b) Abstainers-below-average alcohol use and sexual activity; (c) Low Risk-average alcohol use and sexual activity; (d) Alcohol Risk-above-average alcohol use and below-average sexual activity; and (e) Co-Occurring Risk-above-average alcohol use and sexual activity. Identified profiles differed across interpersonal and environmental stress, and self-reported frequency of experiences with racial discrimination. Implications for prevention programs and interventions aimed at reducing alcohol and sexual activity for African American college students are discussed.

  9. Changes in waist circumference and body mass index in the US CARDIA cohort: fixed-effects associations with self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Berkman, Lisa F; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jacobs, David R; Seeman, Teresa E; Kiefe, Catarina I; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2013-03-01

    Prior studies examining the association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and obesity have had mixed results and primarily been cross-sectional. This study tests the hypothesis that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts gains in waist circumference and body mass index in Black and White women and men over eight years. In race/ethnicity- and gender-stratified models, this study examined whether change in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts changes in waist circumference and body mass index over time using a fixed-effects regression approach in SAS statistical software, providing control for both measured and unmeasured time-invariant covariates. Between 1992-93 and 2000-01, self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination decreased among 843 Black women (75% to 73%), 601 Black men (80% to 77%), 893 White women (30% to 23%) and 856 White men (28% to 23%). In fixed-effects regression models, controlling for all time-invariant covariates, social desirability bias, and changes in education and parity (women only) over time, an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination over time was significantly associated with an increase in waist circumference (β=1.09, 95% CI: 0.00-2.19, p=0.05) and an increase in body mass index (β=0.67, 95% CI: 0.19-1.16, p=0.007) among Black women. No associations were observed among Black men and White women and men. These findings suggest that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination may be associated with increases in waist circumference and body mass index among Black women over time.

  10. Development of ethnic, racial, and national prejudice in childhood and adolescence: a multinational meta-analysis of age differences.

    PubMed

    Raabe, Tobias; Beelmann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis summarizes 113 research reports worldwide (121 cross-sectional and 7 longitudinal studies) on age differences in ethnic, racial, or national prejudice among children and adolescents. Overall, results indicated a peak in prejudice in middle childhood (5-7 years) followed by a slight decrease until late childhood (8-10 years). In addition to differences for the various operationalizations of prejudice, detailed findings revealed different age-related changes in prejudice toward higher versus lower status out-groups and positive effects of contact opportunities with the out-group on prejudice development. Results confirm that prejudice changes systematically with age during childhood but that no developmental trend is found in adolescence, indicating the stronger influence of the social context on prejudice with increasing age.

  11. The impact of racial discrimination on the health of Australian Indigenous children aged 5-10 years: analysis of national longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Carrington C J; Li, Jianghong; Cooper, Matthew N; Hopkins, Katrina D; Farrant, Brad M

    2017-07-03

    A growing body of literature highlights that racial discrimination has negative impacts on child health, although most studies have been limited to an examination of direct forms of racism using cross-sectional data. We aim to provide further insights on the impact of early exposure to racism on child health using longitudinal data among Indigenous children in Australia and multiple indicators of racial discrimination. We used data on 1239 Indigenous children aged 5-10 years from Waves 1-6 (2008-2013) of Footprints in Time, a longitudinal study of Indigenous children across Australia. We examined associations between three dimensions of carer-reported racial discrimination (measuring the direct experiences of children and vicarious exposure by their primary carer and family) and a range of physical and mental health outcomes. Analysis was conducted using multivariate logistic regression within a multilevel framework. Two-fifths (40%) of primary carers, 45% of families and 14% of Indigenous children aged 5-10 years were reported to have experienced racial discrimination at some point in time, with 28-40% of these experiencing it persistently (reported at multiple time points). Primary carer and child experiences of racial discrimination were each associated with poor child mental health status (high risk of clinically significant emotional or behavioural difficulties), sleep difficulties, obesity and asthma, but not with child general health or injury. Children exposed to persistent vicarious racial discrimination were more likely to have sleep difficulties and asthma in multivariate models than those with a time-limited exposure. The findings indicate that direct and persistent vicarious racial discrimination are detrimental to the physical and mental health of Indigenous children in Australia, and suggest that prolonged and more frequent exposure to racial discrimination that starts in the early lifecourse can impact on multiple domains of health in later life

  12. The Judicial Role in Attacking Racial Discrimination in Tax-exempt Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Law Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Examines the role of the courts in requiring the Internal Revenue Service to fulfill its statutory and constitutional obligations to identify racially discriminatory private schools and to revoke their tax exempt status as charitable organizations. Available from Harvard Law Review Association, Gannett House, Cambridge, MA 02138; sc $5.95. (Author)

  13. Keeping on Keeping on: OCR and Complaints of Racial Discrimination 50 Years after "Brown"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Mica

    2005-01-01

    This article, written by a former civil rights investigator in the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights (OCR), contends that ordinary Americans advocating for equal educational opportunity for students of color might enlist OCR more actively and knowingly to help secure racial equality of opportunity 50 years after "Brown." Now a…

  14. Keeping on Keeping on: OCR and Complaints of Racial Discrimination 50 Years after "Brown"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Mica

    2005-01-01

    This article, written by a former civil rights investigator in the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights (OCR), contends that ordinary Americans advocating for equal educational opportunity for students of color might enlist OCR more actively and knowingly to help secure racial equality of opportunity 50 years after "Brown." Now a…

  15. Extending Campus Life to the Internet: Social Media, Discrimination, and Perceptions of Racial Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynes, Brendesha M.; Rose, Chad A.; Markoe, Suzanne L.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that more college student interaction now takes place online, researchers have yet to examine the role the Internet plays in perceptions of campus racial climate. Using an online survey of a sample of 217 African American and European American college students, this study explored online factors including intergroup interaction as…

  16. Experiences of racial discrimination and relation to sexual risk for HIV among a sample of urban black and African American men.

    PubMed

    Reed, E; Santana, M C; Bowleg, L; Welles, S L; Horsburgh, C R; Raj, A

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to examine racial discrimination and relation to sexual risk for HIV among a sample of urban black and African American men. Participants of this cross-sectional study were black and African American men (N = 703) between the ages of 18 and 65 years, recruited from four urban clinical sites in the northeast. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the relation of reported racial discrimination to the following: (1) sex trade involvement, (2) recent unprotected sex, and (3) reporting a number of sex partners in the past 12 months greater than the sample average. The majority of the sample (96%) reported racial discrimination. In adjusted analyses, men reporting high levels of discrimination were significantly more likely to report recent sex trade involvement (buying and/or selling) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) range = 1.7-2.3), having recent unprotected vaginal sex with a female partner (AOR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-2.0), and reporting more than four sex partners in the past year (AOR = 1.4, 95% CI, 1.1-1.9). Findings highlight the link between experiences of racial discrimination and men's sexual risk for HIV.

  17. Does Attending Worship Mitigate Racial/Ethnic Discrimination in Influencing Health Behaviors? Results From an Analysis of the California Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Julia T; Takahashi, Lois M

    2014-08-01

    Existing research suggests that religious institutions play a significant role in improving the health of communities, particularly those coping with racial and ethnic discrimination. Using the California Health Interview Survey, this article examines the relationship of self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination, worship attendance, and several health behaviors. Supporting existing research, higher self-reported racial/ethnic discrimination is associated with worse health behaviors. Logistic regression models indicate that the odds of engaging in healthy lifestyle behaviors significantly increase for those who report attending worship, compared with those who do not attend worship, with variations by race/ethnicity. Worship attendance moderates the association between discrimination and binge drinking, but does not moderate the association for smoking, walking, or being obese. Findings suggest that religious attendance plays an important role in the health and well-being of all population groups. More research is needed to ascertain the reasons why attending worship may have the ability to mitigate the relationship between racial/ethnic discrimination and health. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  18. A study of perceived racial discrimination in Black men who have sex with men (MSM) and its association with healthcare utilization and HIV testing.

    PubMed

    Irvin, R; Wilton, L; Scott, H; Beauchamp, G; Wang, L; Betancourt, J; Lubensky, M; Wallace, J; Buchbinder, S

    2014-07-01

    In HPTN 061, a study of Black men who have sex with men (MSM), we evaluated the association of healthcare-specific racial discrimination with healthcare utilization and HIV testing among 1167 HIV-negative participants. Median age was 38 years, 41 % were uninsured, and 38 % had an annual household income <$10,000. Overall, 19 % reported healthcare-specific racial discrimination directed toward family, friend, or self; 61 % saw a healthcare provider in the previous 6 months and 81 % HIV tested within the past year. Healthcare-specific racial discrimination was positively associated with seeing a provider [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.4 (1.0, 2.0)] and HIV testing [AOR = 1.6 (1.1, 2.4)] suggesting that barriers other than racial discrimination may be driving health disparities related to access to medical care and HIV testing among Black MSM. These results contrast with previous studies, possibly due to measurement or cohort differences, strategies to overcome discrimination, or because of greater exposure to healthcare.

  19. The Effects of General Social Support and Social Support for Racial Discrimination on African American Women’s Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Seawell, Asani H.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Russell, Daniel W.

    2012-01-01

    The present longitudinal study examined the role of general and tailored social support in mitigating the deleterious impact of racial discrimination on depressive symptoms and optimism in a large sample of African American women. Participants were 590 African American women who completed measures assessing racial discrimination, general social support, tailored social support for racial discrimination, depressive symptoms, and optimism at two time points (2001–2002 and 2003–2004). Our results indicated that higher levels of general and tailored social support predicted optimism one year later; changes in both types of support also predicted changes in optimism over time. Although initial levels of neither measure of social support predicted depressive symptoms over time, changes in tailored support predicted changes in depressive symptoms. We also sought to determine whether general and tailored social support “buffer” or diminish the negative effects of racial discrimination on depressive symptoms and optimism. Our results revealed a classic buffering effect of tailored social support, but not general support on depressive symptoms for women experiencing high levels of discrimination. PMID:24443614

  20. The Antecedents and Consequences of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination during Adolescence: Does the Source of Discrimination Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Aprile D.; Graham, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the precursors and consequences of discrimination for 876 Latino, African American, and Asian American adolescents (M[subscript age] = 16.9 years, SD = 0.43). The race/ethnic characteristics of schools and neighborhoods influenced adolescents' perceptions of the race/ethnic climates of these contexts. In turn,…

  1. The Antecedents and Consequences of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination during Adolescence: Does the Source of Discrimination Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Aprile D.; Graham, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the precursors and consequences of discrimination for 876 Latino, African American, and Asian American adolescents (M[subscript age] = 16.9 years, SD = 0.43). The race/ethnic characteristics of schools and neighborhoods influenced adolescents' perceptions of the race/ethnic climates of these contexts. In turn,…

  2. Racial/ethnic and gender differences in the association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and inflammation in the CARDIA cohort of 4 US communities.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Seeman, Teresa E; Kawachi, Ichiro; Gortmaker, Steven L; Jacobs, David R; Kiefe, Catarina I; Berkman, Lisa F

    2012-09-01

    Inflammation is etiologically implicated in cardiometabolic diseases for which there are known racial/ethnic disparities. Prior studies suggest there may be an association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and inflammation, particularly C-reactive protein (CRP). It is not known whether that association is influenced by race/ethnicity and gender. In separate hierarchical linear models with time-varying covariates, we examined that association among 901 Black women, 614 Black men, 958 White women, and 863 White men in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study in four US communities. Self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination were ascertained in 1992-93 and 2000-01. Inflammation was measured as log-transformed CRP in those years and 2005-06. All analyses were adjusted for blood pressure, plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), age, education, and community. Our findings extend prior research by suggesting that, broadly speaking, self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination are associated with inflammation; however, this association is complex and varies for Black and White women and men. Black women reporting 1 or 2 experiences of discrimination had higher levels of CRP compared to Black women reporting no experiences of discrimination (β = 0.141, SE = 0.062, P < 0.05). This association was not statistically significant among Black women reporting 3 or more experiences of discrimination and not independent of modifiable risks (smoking and obesity) in the final model. White women reporting 3 or more experiences of discrimination had significantly higher levels of CRP compared to White women reporting no experiences of discrimination independent of modifiable risks in the final model (β = 0.300, SE = 0.113, P < 0.01). The association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and CRP was not

  3. Childhood hair product use and earlier age at menarche in a racially diverse study population: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    James-Todd, Tamarra; Terry, Mary Beth; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Deierlein, Andrea; Senie, Ruby

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that hair products containing endocrine disrupting chemicals could alter puberty. We evaluated the association between childhood hair product use and age at menarche in a racially diverse study population. We recruited 300 African-American, African-Caribbean, Hispanic, and white women from the New York City metropolitan area who were between 18-77 years of age. Data were collected retrospectively on hair oil, lotion, leave-in conditioner, perm, and other types of hair products used before age 13. Recalled age at menarche ranged from 8 to 19 years. We used multivariable binomial regression to evaluate the association between hair product use and age at menarche (<12 vs. ≥12), adjusting for potential confounders. African-Americans were more likely to use hair products and reached menarche earlier than other racial/ethnic groups. Women reporting childhood hair oil use had a risk ratio of 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-1.9) for earlier menarche, adjusting for race/ethnicity and year of birth. Hair perm users had an increased risk for earlier menarche (adjusted risk ratio = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.8). Other types of hair products assessed in this study were not associated with earlier menarche. Childhood hair oil and perm use were associated with earlier menarche. If replicated, these results suggest that hair product use may be important to measure in evaluating earlier age at menarche. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Perception of insecurity in French poor neighbourhoods: racial proxy or pure discrimination hypotheses?

    PubMed

    Pan Ké Shon, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    Many poor neighbourhoods, home to both socially disadvantaged populations and to foreigners, are characterised by a strong perception of insecurity. The purpose of this article is determine the origin of this perception. To do so, two possible causes are dissociated: racial prejudice and racial proxy (the ethnic minorities are perceived in terms of the negative social characteristics that are often associated with them). More specifically, it is shown that the ‘ethnic’ variable captures the effects of an overconcentration of poverty, approximated here by the concentration of unemployment, but that these two variables act separately. This result should be taken into account in the policies implemented by public authorities and local actors. In this study, an original methodology is applied based simultaneously on individual geocoded data, the proportion of foreigners, the unemployment rate at the neighbourhood level and an indirect indicator of perceived insecurity.

  5. Measuring Racial Discrimination in the Housing Market: Direct and Indirect Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, William A. V.

    1993-01-01

    Reevaluates statistical studies by G. Galster (1986, 1987, 1988) and Galster and W. Keeney (1988) of segregation in housing, reanalyzing one of four model equations. The effects of discrimination are smaller than postulated previously. Direct estimates from housing discrimination surveys provide a rationale for these smaller effects. (SLD)

  6. The strangest of all encounters: racial and ethnic discrimination in US health care.

    PubMed

    James, Sherman A

    2017-05-08

    In 2003, a Committee of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences summarized hundreds of studies documenting that US racial minorities, especially African Americans, receive poorer quality health care for a wide variety of conditions than their White counterparts. These racial differences in health care persist after controlling for sociodemographic factors and patients' ability to pay for care. The Committee concluded that physicians' unconscious negative stereotypes of African Americans, and perhaps other people of color, likely contribute to these health care disparities. This paper selectively reviews studies published after 2003 on the likely contribution of physicians' unconscious bias to US health care disparities. All studies used the Implicit Association Test which quantifies the relative speed with which individuals associate positive attributes like "intelligent" with Whites compared to Blacks or Latino/as. In addition to assessing physicians' unconscious attitudes toward patients, some studies focused on the behavioral and affective dimensions of doctor-patient communication, such as physicians' "verbal dominance" and whether patients felt respected. Studies reviewed found a "pro-white" unconscious bias in physicians' attitudes toward and interactions with patients, though some evidence suggests that Black and female physicians may be less prone to such bias. Limited social contact between White physicians and racial/ethnic minorities outside of medical settings, plus severe time pressures physicians often face during encounters with patients who have complex health problems could heighten their susceptibility to unconscious bias.

  7. Perceived racial discrimination in health care, completion of standard diabetes services, and diabetes control among a sample of American Indian women.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Kelly L; Lambert, William E; Fu, Rongwei; Jacob, Michelle; Harding, Anna K

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine perceived experiences of racial discrimination (perceived discrimination) in health care and its associations with completing standards of care for diabetes management and diabetes control. This cross-sectional study included 200 adult American Indian (AI) women with type 2 diabetes from 4 health care facilities located on tribal reservations in the Pacific Northwest. Participants completed a survey, and medical records were abstracted. Logistic regression was completed to assess associations. Sixty-seven percent of AI women reported discrimination during their lifetime of health care. After adjusting for patient characteristics, perceived discrimination was significantly associated with lower rates of dental exam; checks for blood pressure, creatinine, and total cholesterol; and pneumococcal vaccination. The association between perceived discrimination and total number of diabetes services completed was not statistically significant. Perceived discrimination was associated with having A1C values above target levels for diabetes control in unadjusted and adjusted models, but no association was observed for blood pressure or total cholesterol. In our sample of AI women with diabetes, two-thirds reported experiencing racial discrimination in their health care experience. Those reporting perceived discrimination completed fewer diabetes services and therefore may be at increased risk for comorbidities of diabetes. This finding supports the continued need for culturally responsive health care and programs of diabetes education to recognize perceived discrimination and its potential to impact success in self-management and services utilization. © 2014 The Author(s).

  8. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M; Dimas, Juanita M; Pasch, Lauri A; de Groat, Cynthia L

    2010-07-01

    Utilizing the concept of race-based traumatic stress, this study tested whether posttraumatic stress symptoms explain the process by which perceived discrimination is related to health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents. One hundred ten participants were recruited from a large health maintenance organization in Northern California. Mediational analyses indicated that adolescents who perceived more discrimination reported worse posttraumatic stress symptoms, controlling for covariates. In turn, adolescents who experienced heightened posttraumatic stress symptoms reported more alcohol use, more other drug use, involvement in more fights, and more sexual partners. Perceived discrimination was also directly related to involvement in more fights. Results provide support for the notion of race-based traumatic stress, specifically, that perceived discrimination may be traumatizing for Mexican American adolescents. Counseling psychologists and counselors in schools and community settings should assess Mexican American adolescents for the effects of discrimination and provide appropriate interventions to reduce its negative emotional impact.

  9. Perceived weight discrimination, childhood maltreatment, and weight gain in U.S. adults with overweight/obesity.

    PubMed

    Udo, Tomoko; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-06-01

    Perceived weight discrimination and childhood maltreatment have been independently associated with physical and mental health issues, as well as weight gain. It is not known, however, whether childhood maltreatment modifies the relationship between perceived weight discrimination and weight changes. This study examined the relationship between perceived weight discrimination, childhood maltreatment, and changes in body mass index (BMI) over 3 years in 21,357 men and women with overweight and obesity from Wave 1 and Wave 2 surveys of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Reporting childhood maltreatment, regardless of the specific form of maltreatment, was associated with a significantly greater likelihood of perceived weight discrimination in women. Perceived weight discrimination was associated with a significantly greater increase in BMI in both genders. Among all women with perceived weight discrimination, those who also reported having experienced childhood maltreatment had significantly less BMI increase compared to those reporting not having experienced childhood maltreatment. Perceived weight discrimination may foster weight gain rather than encouraging weight loss in individuals with overweight/obesity and should be addressed in prevention efforts and clinical settings. Childhood maltreatment may perhaps sensitize individuals to subsequent stressors and increase vulnerability to perceived weight discrimination, particularly in women. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  10. "It'll Never Be the White Kids, It'll Always Be Us": Black High School Students' Evolving Critical Analysis of Racial Discrimination and Inequity in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Elan C.; Skoog, Alexandra B.; Jagers, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    We examine how Black high school students, participants in a Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) program, understand issues of racial discrimination and inequality in their schools. Through semi-structured individual interviews conducted early in the program, eight students (six boys and two girls) recount experiences of racial…

  11. "It'll Never Be the White Kids, It'll Always Be Us": Black High School Students' Evolving Critical Analysis of Racial Discrimination and Inequity in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Elan C.; Skoog, Alexandra B.; Jagers, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    We examine how Black high school students, participants in a Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) program, understand issues of racial discrimination and inequality in their schools. Through semi-structured individual interviews conducted early in the program, eight students (six boys and two girls) recount experiences of racial…

  12. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Influenza Vaccination of Chronically Ill US Adults: The Mediating Role of Perceived Discrimination in Health Care.

    PubMed

    Bleser, William K; Miranda, Patricia Y; Jean-Jacques, Muriel

    2016-06-01

    Despite well-established programs, influenza vaccination rates in US adults are well below federal benchmarks and exhibit well-documented, persistent racial and ethnic disparities. The causes of these disparities are multifactorial and complex, though perceived racial/ethnic discrimination in health care is 1 hypothesized mechanism. To assess the role of perceived discrimination in health care in mediating influenza vaccination RACIAL/ETHNIC disparities in chronically ill US adults (at high risk for influenza-related complications). We utilized 2011-2012 data from the Aligning Forces for Quality Consumer Survey on health and health care (n=8127), nationally representative of chronically ill US adults. Logistic regression marginal effects examined the relationship between race/ethnicity and influenza vaccination, both unadjusted and in multivariate models adjusted for determinants of health service use. We then used binary mediation analysis to calculate and test the significance of the percentage of this relationship mediated by perceived discrimination in health care. Respondents reporting perceived discrimination in health care had half the uptake as those without discrimination (32% vs. 60%, P=0.009). The change in predicted probability of vaccination given perceived discrimination experiences (vs. none) was large but not significant in the fully adjusted model (-0.185; 95% CI, -0.385, 0.014). Perceived discrimination significantly mediated 16% of the unadjusted association between race/ethnicity and influenza vaccination, though this dropped to 6% and lost statistical significance in multivariate models. The causes of persistent racial/ethnic disparities are complex and a single explanation is unlikely to be sufficient. We suggest reevaluation in a larger cohort as well as potential directions for future research.

  13. The psychological costs of painless but recurring experiences of racial discrimination.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; Dunbar, Cheyenne M

    2012-01-01

    When studying discrimination, it is important to examine both perceived frequency and stress associated with these experiences, as well as the interplay between these two dimensions. Using data from Latino/a participants (N = 168), we found an interaction effect of the reported frequency and reported stressfulness of discrimination on psychological distress (depression and anxiety), such that frequency predicted greater psychological distress for low-stress events, but high-stress events were associated with greater distress regardless of frequency. In addition, using the constructs of "stated" and "derived" stressfulness, we found that the frequency of experiences of discrimination that were rated as less stressful were, in fact, correlated with greater psychological distress. Discrimination events not experienced as stressful nonetheless may have negative implications for the target, especially if they occur frequently.

  14. Meta-analysis of field experiments shows no change in racial discrimination in hiring over time.

    PubMed

    Quillian, Lincoln; Pager, Devah; Hexel, Ole; Midtbøen, Arnfinn H

    2017-09-12

    This study investigates change over time in the level of hiring discrimination in US labor markets. We perform a meta-analysis of every available field experiment of hiring discrimination against African Americans or Latinos (n = 28). Together, these studies represent 55,842 applications submitted for 26,326 positions. We focus on trends since 1989 (n = 24 studies), when field experiments became more common and improved methodologically. Since 1989, whites receive on average 36% more callbacks than African Americans, and 24% more callbacks than Latinos. We observe no change in the level of hiring discrimination against African Americans over the past 25 years, although we find modest evidence of a decline in discrimination against Latinos. Accounting for applicant education, applicant gender, study method, occupational groups, and local labor market conditions does little to alter this result. Contrary to claims of declining discrimination in American society, our estimates suggest that levels of discrimination remain largely unchanged, at least at the point of hire.

  15. Exposing Racial Discrimination: Implicit & Explicit Measures–The My Body, My Story Study of 1005 US-Born Black & White Community Health Center Members

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Nancy; Waterman, Pamela D.; Kosheleva, Anna; Chen, Jarvis T.; Carney, Dana R.; Smith, Kevin W.; Bennett, Gary G.; Williams, David R.; Freeman, Elmer; Russell, Beverley; Thornhill, Gisele; Mikolowsky, Kristin; Rifkin, Rachel; Samuel, Latrice

    2011-01-01

    Background To date, research on racial discrimination and health typically has employed explicit self-report measures, despite their potentially being affected by what people are able and willing to say. We accordingly employed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) for racial discrimination, first developed and used in two recent published studies, and measured associations of the explicit and implicit discrimination measures with each other, socioeconomic and psychosocial variables, and smoking. Methodology/Principal Findings Among the 504 black and 501 white US-born participants, age 35–64, randomly recruited in 2008–2010 from 4 community health centers in Boston, MA, black participants were over 1.5 times more likely (p<0.05) to be worse off economically (e.g., for poverty and low education) and have higher social desirability scores (43.8 vs. 28.2); their explicit discrimination exposure was also 2.5 to 3.7 times higher (p<0.05) depending on the measure used, with over 60% reporting exposure in 3 or more domains and within the last year. Higher IAT scores for target vs. perpetrator of discrimination occurred for the black versus white participants: for “black person vs. white person”: 0.26 vs. 0.13; and for “me vs. them”: 0.24 vs. 0.19. In both groups, only low non-significant correlations existed between the implicit and explicit discrimination measures; social desirability was significantly associated with the explicit but not implicit measures. Although neither the explicit nor implicit discrimination measures were associated with odds of being a current smoker, the excess risk for black participants (controlling for age and gender) rose in models that also controlled for the racial discrimination and psychosocial variables; additional control for socioeconomic position sharply reduced and rendered the association null. Conclusions Implicit and explicit measures of racial discrimination are not equivalent and both warrant use in research on racial

  16. Perceived racial and ethnic prejudice and discrimination experiences of minority migrant nurses: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Tuttas, Carol A

    2015-11-01

    Every day minority migrant nurses (MMNs) work shoulder to shoulder with domestic nurses in health care settings worldwide. Published studies offer reports of research where work-life experiences of MMNs have been explored. The following literature review focuses on experiences of perceived prejudice and discrimination as described by MMNs. Background and significance of the topic are described and the purpose of the review is presented, followed by definitions of relevant terms, search strategy, and theoretical considerations. Feagin and Eckberg's discrimination typology is the framework used to organize MMNs' reported experiences of perceived prejudice and discrimination. A theory-linked summary, including policy, practice, and research implications, concludes the article. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Racial Discrimination & Cardiovascular Disease Risk: My Body My Story Study of 1005 US-Born Black and White Community Health Center Participants (US)

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Nancy; Waterman, Pamela D.; Kosheleva, Anna; Chen, Jarvis T.; Smith, Kevin W.; Carney, Dana R.; Bennett, Gary G.; Williams, David R.; Thornhill, Gisele; Freeman, Elmer R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To date, limited and inconsistent evidence exists regarding racial discrimination and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods Cross-sectional observational study of 1005 US-born non-Hispanic black (n = 504) and white (n = 501) participants age 35–64 randomly selected from community health centers in Boston, MA (2008–2010; 82.4% response rate), using 3 racial discrimination measures: explicit self-report; implicit association test (IAT, a time reaction test for self and group as target vs. perpetrator of discrimination); and structural (Jim Crow status of state of birth, i.e. legal racial discrimination prior 1964). Results Black and white participants both had adverse cardiovascular and socioeconomic profiles, with black participants most highly exposed to racial discrimination. Positive crude associations among black participants occurred for Jim Crow birthplace and hypertension (odds ratio (OR) 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28, 2.89) and for explicit self-report and the Framingham 10 year CVD risk score (beta  = 0.04; 95% CI 0.01, 0.07); among white participants, only negative crude associations existed (for IAT for self, for lower systolic blood pressure (SBP; beta  = −4.86; 95% CI −9.08, −0.64) and lower Framingham CVD score (beta  = −0.36, 95% CI −0.63, −0.08)). All of these associations were attenuated and all but the white IAT-Framingham risk score association were rendered null in analyses that controlled for lifetime socioeconomic position and additional covariates. Controlling for racial discrimination, socioeconomic position, and other covariates did not attenuate the crude black excess risk for SBP and hypertension and left unaffected the null excess risk for the Framingham CVD score. Conclusion Despite worse exposures among the black participants, racial discrimination and socioeconomic position were not associated, in multivariable analyses, with risk of CVD. We interpret results in relation

  18. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Health Risk Behaviors among Mexican American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing the concept of race-based traumatic stress, this study tested whether posttraumatic stress symptoms explain the process by which perceived discrimination is related to health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents. One hundred ten participants were recruited from a large health maintenance organization in Northern California.…

  19. 5 CFR 4.2 - Prohibition against racial, political or religious discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the race, political affiliation, or religious beliefs of any such employee, eligible, or applicant... position in the competitive service because of his race, political affiliation, or religious beliefs... religious discrimination. 4.2 Section 4.2 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT...

  20. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Health Risk Behaviors among Mexican American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Elena; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Dimas, Juanita M.; Pasch, Lauri A.; de Groat, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing the concept of race-based traumatic stress, this study tested whether posttraumatic stress symptoms explain the process by which perceived discrimination is related to health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents. One hundred ten participants were recruited from a large health maintenance organization in Northern California.…

  1. Perceived Racial Discrimination, Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Mosher, Catherine E.; Bowman, Marvella A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine three competing models of the relations among perceived discrimination, social support, and indicators of psychological adjustment in a sample of 135 African American college students. The three competing models, social support buffering, social support mobilization, and social support deterioration, were…

  2. The Influence of Hope on the Relationship between Racial Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Kira Hudson; Singleton, Jennifer L.; Kohn-Wood, Laura P.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated how hope influences the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms. Results from participants' (N = 318) responses suggest that increased levels of hope were directly related to decreased levels of depressive symptoms. However, increased levels of hope were also related to a stronger relationship between…

  3. A Pilot Study To Explore How Low-Income Mothers of Different Ethnic/Racial Backgrounds Perceive and Implement Recommended Childhood Obesity Prevention Messages

    PubMed Central

    Vollmer, Rachel L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Mothers often serve as the “gatekeepers” of food and the eating experience for young children in the home. Children of different ethnic/racial groups have different obesity prevalence rates, but little is known about how mothers of these groups interpret or implement common childhood obesity prevention messages. The purpose of this mixed methods pilot study was to explore comprehension and implementation of common childhood obesity prevention messages and to identify feeding styles among low-income mothers of young children. Methods White, black, and Hispanic low-income mothers (n=30) of children ages 3–10 were recruited from Indiana. Mothers were interviewed individually regarding the perception and implementation of eight commonly used nutrition and/or physical activity messages. Other outcomes included the results of the Caregiver Feeding Styles Questionnaire and self-reported weight of mothers and child(ren). Interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis to find common themes among the different ethnic/racial groups. Results Childhood obesity prevention messages were often interpreted or implemented differently among the different ethnic/racial groups. For example, white mothers cited control as a means to manage a child's weight more often compared to the other racial/ethnic groups, whereas black and Hispanic mothers reported catering to a child's preference more frequently compared to white mothers. Conclusion The pilot study provides evidence that it may be prudent to tailor nutrition messages to mothers of different ethnic/racial backgrounds during nutrition education. PMID:23679199

  4. A pilot study to explore how low-income mothers of different ethnic/racial backgrounds perceive and implement recommended childhood obesity prevention messages.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-06-01

    Mothers often serve as the "gatekeepers" of food and the eating experience for young children in the home. Children of different ethnic/racial groups have different obesity prevalence rates, but little is known about how mothers of these groups interpret or implement common childhood obesity prevention messages. The purpose of this mixed methods pilot study was to explore comprehension and implementation of common childhood obesity prevention messages and to identify feeding styles among low-income mothers of young children. White, black, and Hispanic low-income mothers (n=30) of children ages 3-10 were recruited from Indiana. Mothers were interviewed individually regarding the perception and implementation of eight commonly used nutrition and/or physical activity messages. Other outcomes included the results of the Caregiver Feeding Styles Questionnaire and self-reported weight of mothers and child(ren). Interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis to find common themes among the different ethnic/racial groups. Childhood obesity prevention messages were often interpreted or implemented differently among the different ethnic/racial groups. For example, white mothers cited control as a means to manage a child's weight more often compared to the other racial/ethnic groups, whereas black and Hispanic mothers reported catering to a child's preference more frequently compared to white mothers. The pilot study provides evidence that it may be prudent to tailor nutrition messages to mothers of different ethnic/racial backgrounds during nutrition education.

  5. A structural model of racial discrimination, acculturative stress, and cultural resources among Arab American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sawssan R; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Tsai, Katherine H

    2011-12-01

    Despite evidence towards the risk for discrimination and acculturative stress that Arab American adolescents may face, the link between socio-cultural adversities and psychological well-being in this population has not been established. This study examined the role of socio-cultural adversities (discrimination and acculturative stress) and cultural resources (ethnic identity, religious support and religious coping) in terms of their direct impact on psychological distress. Using structural equation modeling, the proposed model was tested with 240 Arab American adolescents. The results indicated a strong positive relationship between socio-cultural adversities and psychological distress. Furthermore, this study supported a promotive model of cultural resources, where a negative association between cultural resources and psychological distress was found. Understanding the manner in which socio-cultural adversities and resources are linked to psychological distress can inform the development of culturally appropriate interventions that can effectively mitigate mental health concerns for understudied and vulnerable populations.

  6. Prejudice & policy: racial discrimination in the Union Army disability pension system, 1865-1906.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sven E

    2010-04-01

    The Union Army disability pension was an early experiment in colorblind social policy. However, it shortchanged Blacks in 2 ways. First, the law was unable to account for the challenges Blacks faced in proving their eligibility because of the legacy of slavery and discrimination against Black troops during the Civil War. Second, the increasing leniency accorded White soldiers by the Pension Bureau was not extended in the same measure to Blacks. Active discrimination against Blacks resulted in part from local discretion, evidenced by the significantly lower approval rates for both White and Black veterans in the South. Furthermore, when Whites and Blacks claimed disabilities that were easily verifiable, outcomes were similar, but when verification required a degree of trust, Blacks fared considerably worse than Whites.

  7. PREJUDICE & POLICY Racial Discrimination in the Union Army Disability Pension System, 1865-1906

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The Union Army disability pension was an early experiment in colorblind social policy. However, it shortchanged Blacks in 2 ways. First, the law was unable to account for the challenges Blacks faced in proving their eligibility because of the legacy of slavery and discrimination against Black troops during the Civil War. Second, the increasing leniency accorded White soldiers by the Pension Bureau was not extended in the same measure to Blacks. Active discrimination against Blacks resulted in part from local discretion, evidenced by the significantly lower approval rates for both White and Black veterans in the South. Furthermore, when Whites and Blacks claimed disabilities that were easily verifiable, outcomes were similar, but when verification required a degree of trust, Blacks fared considerably worse than Whites. PMID:20147675

  8. Discrimination and instructional comprehension: guided discretion, racial bias, and the death penalty.

    PubMed

    Lynch, M; Haney, C

    2000-06-01

    This study links two previously unrelated lines of research: the lack of comprehension of capital penalty-phase jury instructions and discriminatory death sentencing. Jury-eligible subjects were randomly assigned to view one of four versions of a simulated capital penalty trial in which the race of defendant (Black or White) and the race of victim (Black or White) were varied orthogonally. Dependent measures included a sentencing verdict (life without the possibility of parole or the death penalty), ratings of penalty phase evidence, and a test of instructional comprehension. Results indicated that instructional comprehension was poor overall and that, although Black defendants were treated only slightly more punitively than White defendants in general, discriminatory effects were concentrated among participants whose comprehension was poorest. In addition, the use of penalty phase evidence differed as a function of race of defendant and whether the participant sentenced the defendant to life or death. The study suggest that racially biased and capricious death sentencing may be in part caused or exacerbated by the inability to comprehend penalty phase instructions.

  9. The effects of contact with Asians and Asian Americans on White American college students: attitudes, awareness of racial discrimination, and psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Khanh T; Weinstein, Traci L; Nemon, Melissa; Rondeau, Sara

    2008-12-01

    On the basis of acculturation theory, explicating mutual influences between different cultural or ethnic groups coming into contact, this study focused "on the other side of acculturation" theory by examining the effects of intercultural contact with Asians and Asian Americans on the psychosocial experiences of White American college students. Participants (N = 315), undergraduates attending a public university located within the state of Massachusetts, completed a survey that assessed demographic and personal characteristics, acculturation (extent of intercultural contact with Asian people and Asian cultures), attitudes towards Asians and Asian Americans, awareness of institutional discrimination and blatant racial issues, and psychological distress. Results indicated that White American students' intercultural contact with Asians and Asian Americans contributed significant variance to the prediction of their attitudes towards this ethnic group and awareness of discrimination and racial issues, but not to psychological distress. This study provides implications for understanding mutual acculturative influences between different ethnic groups in the United States.

  10. The Erosive Effects of Racism: Reduced Self-control Mediates the Relation between Perceived Racial Discrimination and Substance Use in African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Frederick X.; O'Hara, Ross E.; Stock, Michelle L.; Gerrard, Meg; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Wills, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Perceived racial discrimination, self-control, anger, and either substance use or use cognitions were assessed in two studies conducted with samples of African American adolescents. The primary goal was to examine the relation between discrimination and self-control over time; a second goal was to determine if that relation mediates the link between discrimination and substance use found in previous research. Study 1, which included a latent growth curve analysis with three waves of data, indicated that experience with discrimination (from age 10 to age 18) was associated with reduced self-control, which then predicted increased substance use. Additional analyses indicated anger was also a mediator of this discrimination to use relation. Study 2, which was experimental, showed that envisioning an experience involving discrimination was associated with an increase in substance-related responses to double entendre words (e.g., “pot,” “roach”) in a word association task, especially for participants who were low in dispositional self-control. The effect was again mediated by reports of anger. Thus, the “double mediation” pattern was: discrimination → more anger and reduced self-control → increased substance use and/or substance cognitions. Results are discussed in terms of the long-term impact of discrimination on self-control and health behavior. Implications for interventions aimed at ameliorating the negative effects of discrimination and low self-control on health are also discussed. PMID:22390225

  11. Measurement Equivalence across Racial/Ethnic Groups of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire for Childhood Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banh, My K.; Crane, Paul K.; Rhew, Isaac; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Stoep, Ann Vander; Lyon, Aaron; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    As research continues to document differences in the prevalence of mental health problems such as depression across racial/ethnic groups, the issue of measurement equivalence becomes increasingly important to address. The Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ) is a widely used screening tool for child and adolescent depression. This study applied a…

  12. "You Are a Racist": An Early Childhood Educator's Racialized Awakening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    This article details my racialized awakenings as a White kindergarten teacher after being called a racist by a parent of one of my students. I chronicle critical reflections of myself and my school in terms of latent institutional racism and actions. I share the actions that I have begun in my efforts to counter racism and move toward teaching for…

  13. Early Childhood Racial Identity--The Potential Powerful Role for Museum Programing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindley, Anna Forgerson; Olsen Edwards, Julie

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how the National Museum of African American History and Culture (NMAAHC) approaches conversations on race with young children and their families and teachers. Based on our current understanding of the development of racial identity and race in children between birth and age eight, NMAAHC has developed an Early Childhood…

  14. Early Childhood Racial Identity--The Potential Powerful Role for Museum Programing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindley, Anna Forgerson; Olsen Edwards, Julie

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how the National Museum of African American History and Culture (NMAAHC) approaches conversations on race with young children and their families and teachers. Based on our current understanding of the development of racial identity and race in children between birth and age eight, NMAAHC has developed an Early Childhood…

  15. Is it who you are or where you live? Residential segregation and racial gaps in childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Diane; Currie, Janet

    2017-09-01

    Higher asthma rates are one of the more obvious ways that health inequalities between African American and other children are manifested beginning in early childhood. In 2010, black asthma rates were double non-black rates. Some but not all of this difference can be explained by factors such as a higher incidence of low birth weight (LBW) among blacks; however, even conditional on LBW, blacks have a higher incidence of asthma than others. Using a unique data set based on the health records of all children born in New Jersey between 2006 and 2010, we show that when we split the data by whether or not children live in a "black" zip code, this racial difference in the incidence of asthma among LBW children entirely disappears. All LBW children in these zip codes, regardless of race, have a higher incidence of asthma. Our results point to the importance of residential segregation and neighborhoods in explaining persistent racial health disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Relation Between Racial Discrimination, Social Class, and Health Among Ethnic Minority Groups

    PubMed Central

    Karlsen, Saffron; Nazroo, James Y.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study explored associations between racism, social class, and health among ethnic minority people in England and Wales. Methods. We conducted a series of regression analyses on cross-sectional data from the Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities to explore the relation between different indicators of racism and health and household occupational class. Results. Marked independent associations existed between reported experience of racism and perceptions of Britain as a “racist society,” household social class, age, sex, and various mental and physical health indicators. These associations showed reasonable consistency across the different ethnic groups. Conclusions. The different ways in which racism may manifest itself (as interpersonal violence, institutional discrimination, or socioeconomic disadvantage) all have independent detrimental effects on health, regardless of the health indicator used. PMID:11919063

  17. ARID5B Genetic Polymorphisms Contribute to Racial Disparities in the Incidence and Treatment Outcome of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Heng; Cheng, Cheng; Devidas, Meenakshi; Pei, Deqing; Fan, Yiping; Yang, Wenjian; Neale, Geoff; Scheet, Paul; Burchard, Esteban G.; Torgerson, Dara G.; Eng, Celeste; Dean, Michael; Antillon, Frederico; Winick, Naomi J.; Martin, Paul L.; Willman, Cheryl L.; Camitta, Bruce M.; Reaman, Gregory H.; Carroll, William L.; Loh, Mignon; Evans, William E.; Pui, Ching-Hon; Hunger, Stephen P.; Relling, Mary V.; Yang, Jun J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Recent genome-wide screens have identified genetic variations in ARID5B associated with susceptibility to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We sought to determine the contribution of ARID5B single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to racial disparities in ALL susceptibility and treatment outcome. Patients and Methods We compared the association between ARID5B SNP genotype and ALL susceptibility in whites (> 95% European genetic ancestry; 978 cases and 1,046 controls) versus in Hispanics (> 10% Native American ancestry; 330 cases and 541 controls). We determined the relationships between ARID5B SNP genotype and ALL relapse risk in 1,605 children treated on the Children's Oncology Group (COG) P9904/9905 clinical trials. Results Among 49 ARID5B SNPs interrogated, 10 were significantly associated with ALL susceptibility in both whites and Hispanics (P < .05), with risk alleles consistently more frequent in Hispanics than in whites. rs10821936 exhibited the most significant association in both races (P = 8.4 × 10−20 in whites; P = 1 × 10−6 in Hispanics), and genotype at this SNP was highly correlated with local Native American genetic ancestry (P = 1.8 × 10−8). Multivariate analyses in Hispanics identified an additional SNP associated with ALL susceptibility independent of rs10821936. Eight ARID5B SNPs were associated with both ALL susceptibility and relapse hazard; the alleles related to higher ALL incidence were always linked to poorer treatment outcome and were more frequent in Hispanics. Conclusion ARID5B polymorphisms are important determinants of childhood ALL susceptibility and treatment outcome, and they contribute to racial disparities in this disease. PMID:22291082

  18. Impostor feelings as a moderator and mediator of the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health among racial/ethnic minority college students.

    PubMed

    Cokley, Kevin; Smith, Leann; Bernard, Donte; Hurst, Ashley; Jackson, Stacey; Stone, Steven; Awosogba, Olufunke; Saucer, Chastity; Bailey, Marlon; Roberts, Davia

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated whether impostor feelings would both moderate and mediate the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health in a sample of diverse ethnic minority college students (106 African Americans, 102 Asian Americans, 108 Latino/a Americans) at an urban public university. African American students reported higher perceived discrimination than Asian American and Latino/a American students, while no racial/ethnic group differences were reported for impostor feelings. Analyses revealed that among African American students, high levels of impostor feelings moderated the perceived discrimination and depression relationship and mediated the perceived discrimination and anxiety relationship. Among Asian American students, impostor feelings mediated the relationship between perceived discrimination and both depression and anxiety. Among Latino/a American students low levels of impostor feelings moderated the relationship between perceived discrimination and both depression and anxiety, and partially mediated the relationship between perceived discrimination and anxiety. Multigroup path analyses revealed a significantly stronger impact of impostor feelings on depression among African American students and a stronger impact of perceived discrimination on impostor feelings among African American and Latino/a American students. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Discrimination, other psychosocial stressors, and self-reported sleep duration and difficulties.

    PubMed

    Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R

    2014-01-01

    To advance understanding of the relationship between discrimination and sleep duration and difficulties, with consideration of multiple dimensions of discrimination, and attention to concurrent stressors; and to examine the contribution of discrimination and other stressors to racial/ ethnic differences in these outcomes. Cross-sectional probability sample. Chicago, IL. There were 2,983 black, Hispanic, and white adults. Outcomes included self-reported sleep duration and difficulties. Discrimination, including racial and nonracial everyday and major experiences of discrimination, workplace harassment and incivilities, and other stressors were assessed via questionnaire. In models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, greater exposure to racial (β = -0.14)) and nonracial (β = -0.08) everyday discrimination, major experiences of discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity (β = -0.17), and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = -0.14) were associated with shorter sleep (P < 0.05). The association between major experiences of discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity and sleep duration (β = -0.09, P < 0.05) was independent of concurrent stressors (i.e., acute events, childhood adversity, and financial, community, employment, and relationship stressors). Racial (β = 0.04) and non-racial (β = 0.05) everyday discrimination and racial (β = 0.04) and nonracial (β = 0.04) major experiences of discrimination, and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = 0.04) were also associated with more (log) sleep difficulties, and associations between racial and nonracial everyday discrimination and sleep difficulties remained after adjustment for other stressors (P < 0.05). Racial/ethnic differences in sleep duration and difficulties were not significant after adjustment for discrimination (P > 0.05). Discrimination was associated with shorter sleep and more sleep difficulties, independent of socioeconomic status and other stressors, and may account for some

  20. Effect of perceived racial discrimination on self-care behaviors, glycemic control, and quality of life in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Aprill Z; Walker, Rebekah J; Campbell, Jennifer A; Egede, Leonard E

    2015-06-01

    This study used a large sample size of black and white patients with type 2 diabetes to investigate the influence of perceived racial discrimination on biologic measures (glycemic control, blood pressure, and LDL cholesterol), the mental component of quality of life (MCS), and health behaviors known to improve diabetes outcomes. 602 patients were recruited from two adult primary care clinics in the southeastern United States. Linear regression models were used to assess the associations between perceived racial discrimination, self-care, clinical outcomes, MCS, adjusting for relevant covariates. Race-stratified models were conducted to examine differential associations by race. The mean age was 61 years, with 64.9 % non-Hispanic black, and 41.6 % earning less than $20,000 annually. Perceived discrimination was significantly negatively associated with MCS (β = -0.56, 95 % CI -0.90, 0.23), general diet (β = -0.37, CI -0.65, -0.08), and specific diet (β = -0.25, CI -0.47, -0.03). In African Americans, perceived discrimination was significantly associated with higher systolic blood pressure (β = 10.17, CI 1.13, -19.22). In Whites, perceived discrimination was significantly associated with lower MCS (β = -0.51, CI -0.89, -0.14), general diet (β = -0.40, CI -0.69, -0.99), specific diet (β = -0.25, CI -0.47, -0.03), and blood glucose testing (β = -0.43, CI -0.80, -0.06). While no association was found with biologic measures, perceived discrimination was associated with health behaviors and the MCS. In addition, results showed a difference in influence of perceived discrimination by race.

  1. Effects of self-reported racial discrimination and deprivation on Māori health and inequalities in New Zealand: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ricci; Tobias, Martin; Jeffreys, Mona; Waldegrave, Kiri; Karlsen, Saffron; Nazroo, James

    2006-06-17

    Inequalities in health between different ethnic groups in New Zealand are most pronounced between Māori and Europeans. Our aim was to assess the effect of self-reported racial discrimination and deprivation on health inequalities in these two ethnic groups. We used data from the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey to assess prevalence of experiences of self-reported racial discrimination in Māori (n=4108) and Europeans (n=6269) by analysing the responses to five questions about: verbal attacks, physical attacks, and unfair treatment by a health professional, at work, or when buying or renting housing. We did logistic regression analyses to assess the effect of adjustment for experience of racial discrimination and deprivation on ethnic inequalities for various health outcomes. Māori were more likely to report experiences of self-reported racial discrimination in all instances assessed, and were almost ten times more likely to experience discrimination in three or more settings than were Europeans (4.5% [95% CI 3.2-5.8] vs 0.5% [0.3-0.7]). After adjustment for discrimination and deprivation, odds ratios (95% CI) comparing Māori and European ethnic groups were reduced from 1.67 (1.35-2.08) to 1.18 (0.92-1.50) for poor or fair self-rated health, 1.70 (1.42-2.02) to 1.21 (1.00-1.47) for low physical functioning, 1.30 (1.11-1.54) to 1.02 (0.85-1.22) for low mental health, and 1.46 (1.12-1.91) to 1.11 (0.82-1.51) for cardiovascular disease. Racism, both interpersonal and institutional, contributes to Māori health losses and leads to inequalities in health between Māori and Europeans in New Zealand. Interventions and policies to improve Māori health and address these inequalities should take into account the health effects of racism.

  2. Racial and Ethnic Tensions in American Communities: Poverty, Inequality, and Discrimination. Volume VII: The Mississippi Delta Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    This report examines underlying causes of racial and ethnic tensions in the Mississippi Delta. It is based on sworn testimony from a public hearing, subpoenaed documents received by the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, and legal research. Data are provided on: equality of economic opportunity (racial factors and economic opportunity, agriculture,…

  3. A Structural Equation Model of HIV-Related Stigma, Racial Discrimination, Housing Insecurity and Wellbeing among African and Caribbean Black Women Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Logie, Carmen H; Jenkinson, Jesse I R; Earnshaw, Valerie; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R

    African and Caribbean Black women in Canada have new HIV infection rates 7 times higher than their white counterparts. This overrepresentation is situated in structural contexts of inequities that result in social, economic and health disparities among African and Caribbean Black populations. Economic insecurity is a distal driver of HIV vulnerability, reducing access to HIV testing, prevention and care. Less is known about how economic insecurity indicators, such as housing security, continue to influence the lives of women living with HIV following HIV-positive diagnoses. The aim of this study was to test a conceptual model of the pathways linking HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, housing insecurity, and wellbeing (depression, social support, self-rated health). We implemented a cross-sectional survey with African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV in 5 Ontario cities, and included 157 participants with complete data in the analyses. We conducted structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation to evaluate the hypothesized conceptual model. One-fifth (22.5%; n = 39) of participants reported housing insecurity. As hypothesized, racial discrimination had significant direct effects on: HIV-related stigma, depression and social support, and an indirect effect on self-rated health via HIV-related stigma. HIV-related stigma and housing insecurity had direct effects on depression and social support, and HIV-related stigma had a direct effect on self-rated health. The model fit the data well: χ2 (45, n = 154) = 54.28, p = 0.387; CFI = 0.997; TLI = 0.996; RMSEA = 0.016. Findings highlight the need to address housing insecurity and intersecting forms of stigma and discrimination among African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV. Understanding the complex relationships between housing insecurity, HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, and wellbeing can inform multi-level interventions to reduce stigma and enhance health.

  4. A Structural Equation Model of HIV-Related Stigma, Racial Discrimination, Housing Insecurity and Wellbeing among African and Caribbean Black Women Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Logie, Carmen H.; Jenkinson, Jesse I. R.; Earnshaw, Valerie; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R.

    2016-01-01

    African and Caribbean Black women in Canada have new HIV infection rates 7 times higher than their white counterparts. This overrepresentation is situated in structural contexts of inequities that result in social, economic and health disparities among African and Caribbean Black populations. Economic insecurity is a distal driver of HIV vulnerability, reducing access to HIV testing, prevention and care. Less is known about how economic insecurity indicators, such as housing security, continue to influence the lives of women living with HIV following HIV-positive diagnoses. The aim of this study was to test a conceptual model of the pathways linking HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, housing insecurity, and wellbeing (depression, social support, self-rated health). We implemented a cross-sectional survey with African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV in 5 Ontario cities, and included 157 participants with complete data in the analyses. We conducted structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation to evaluate the hypothesized conceptual model. One-fifth (22.5%; n = 39) of participants reported housing insecurity. As hypothesized, racial discrimination had significant direct effects on: HIV-related stigma, depression and social support, and an indirect effect on self-rated health via HIV-related stigma. HIV-related stigma and housing insecurity had direct effects on depression and social support, and HIV-related stigma had a direct effect on self-rated health. The model fit the data well: χ2 (45, n = 154) = 54.28, p = 0.387; CFI = 0.997; TLI = 0.996; RMSEA = 0.016. Findings highlight the need to address housing insecurity and intersecting forms of stigma and discrimination among African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV. Understanding the complex relationships between housing insecurity, HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, and wellbeing can inform multi-level interventions to reduce stigma and enhance health. PMID

  5. Minority Parents' Perspectives on Racial Socialization and School Readiness in the Early Childhood Period.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ashaunta T; Jackson, Aurora; Jones, Loretta; Kennedy, David P; Wells, Kenneth; Chung, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    To describe how minority parents help their young children navigate issues of race and racism and discuss implications this racial socialization may have for school readiness. Sixteen focus groups were conducted among 114 African American, English language-primary Latino, Spanish language-primary Latino, and Korean language-primary Korean parents of children ages 0 to 4 years old. Transcripts were coded for major themes and subsequently compared across the 4 language-ethnicity groups. Parents also shared demographic and parenting data by survey, from which group-specific proportions provide context for identified themes. In this sample, nearly half of surveyed parents had already talked to their young child about unfair treatment due to race. The proportion of such conversations ranged from one-fifth of Korean parents to two-thirds of Spanish language-primary parents. In focus groups, Korean parents reported fewer experiences with racism than African American and Latino parents. Within each language-ethnicity group, fewer fathers than mothers reported addressing race issues with their young children. All focus groups endorsed messages of cultural pride, preparation for bias, and a strong focus on the individual. The majority of parents viewed racial socialization as an important part of school readiness. Racial socialization was believed to be salient for school readiness, primarily practiced by mothers, and focused at the individual level. The smaller role of fathers and systems-based approaches represent opportunities for intervention. These results may inform the development of culturally tailored parenting interventions designed to decrease the race-based achievement gap and associated health disparities. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Childhood Blood Lead Levels Among Children <72 Months of Age in the United States: a Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    White, Brandi M; Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Ellis, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Childhood lead poisoning is a serious public health problem with long-term adverse effects. Healthy People 2020's environmental health objective aims to reduce childhood blood lead levels; however, efforts may be hindered by potential racial/ethnic differences. Recent recommendations have lowered the blood lead reference level. This review examined racial/ethnic differences in blood lead levels among children under 6 years of age. We completed a search of PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases for published works from 2002 to 2012. We identified studies that reported blood lead levels and the race/ethnicity of at least two groups. Ten studies met inclusion criteria for the review. Blood lead levels were most frequently reported for black, white, and Hispanic children. Six studies examined levels between blacks, whites, and Hispanics and two between blacks and whites. Studies reporting mean lead levels among black, whites, and Hispanics found that blacks had the highest mean blood lead level. Additionally, studies reporting blood lead ranges found that black children were more likely to have elevated levels. Studies suggest that black children have higher blood lead levels compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Future studies are warranted to obtain ample sample sizes for several racial/ethnic groups to further examine differences in lead levels.

  7. Measurement equivalence across racial/ethnic groups of the mood and feelings questionnaire for childhood depression.

    PubMed

    Banh, My K; Crane, Paul K; Rhew, Isaac; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Stoep, Ann Vander; Lyon, Aaron; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2012-04-01

    As research continues to document differences in the prevalence of mental health problems such as depression across racial/ethnic groups, the issue of measurement equivalence becomes increasingly important to address. The Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ) is a widely used screening tool for child and adolescent depression. This study applied a differential item functioning (DIF) framework to data from a sample of 6th and 8th grade students in the Seattle Public School District (N = 3,593) to investigate the measurement equivalence of the MFQ. Several items in the MFQ were found to have DIF, but this DIF was associated with negligible individual- or group-level impact. These results suggest that differences in MFQ scores across groups are unlikely to be caused by measurement non-equivalence.

  8. Developmental histories of perceived racial discrimination and diurnal cortisol profiles in adulthood: A 20-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Emma K.; Heissel, Jennifer A.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Richeson, Jennifer A.; Ross, Emily C.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Levy, Dorainne J.; Kemeny, Margaret; Brodish, Amanda B.; Malanchuk, Oksana; Peck, Stephen C.; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived racial discrimination (PRD) has been associated with altered diurnal cortisol rhythms in past cross-sectional research. We investigate whether developmental histories of PRD, assessed prospectively, are associated with adult diurnal cortisol profiles. One-hundred and twelve (N = 50 Black, N = 62 White) adults from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study provided saliva samples in adulthood (at approximately age 32 years) at waking, 30 min after waking, and at bedtime for 7 days. Diurnal cortisol measures were calculated, including waking cortisol levels, diurnal cortisol slopes, the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and average daily cortisol (AUC). These cortisol outcomes were predicted from measures of PRD obtained over a 20-year period beginning when individuals were in 7th grade (approximately age 12). Greater average PRD measured across the 20-year period predicted flatter adult diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults, and a lower CAR. Greater average PRD also predicted lower waking cortisol for Black, but not White adults. PRD experiences in adolescence accounted for many of these effects. When adolescent and young adult PRD are entered together predicting cortisol outcomes, PRD experiences in adolescence (but not young adulthood) significantly predicted flatter diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults. Adolescent, but not young adult PRD, also significantly predicted lower waking and lower average cortisol for Black adults. Young adult PRD was, however, a stronger predictor of the CAR, predicting a marginally lower CAR for Whites, and a significantly larger CAR for Blacks. Effects were robust to controlling for covariates including health behaviors, depression, income and parent education levels. PRD experiences interacted with parent education and income to predict aspects of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Although these results suggest PRD influences on cortisol for both Blacks and Whites, the key

  9. Developmental histories of perceived racial discrimination and diurnal cortisol profiles in adulthood: A 20-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Adam, Emma K; Heissel, Jennifer A; Zeiders, Katharine H; Richeson, Jennifer A; Ross, Emily C; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Levy, Dorainne J; Kemeny, Margaret; Brodish, Amanda B; Malanchuk, Oksana; Peck, Stephen C; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2015-12-01

    Perceived racial discrimination (PRD) has been associated with altered diurnal cortisol rhythms in past cross-sectional research. We investigate whether developmental histories of PRD, assessed prospectively, are associated with adult diurnal cortisol profiles. One-hundred and twelve (N=50 Black, N=62 White) adults from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study provided saliva samples in adulthood (at approximately age 32 years) at waking, 30min after waking, and at bedtime for 7 days. Diurnal cortisol measures were calculated, including waking cortisol levels, diurnal cortisol slopes, the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and average daily cortisol (AUC). These cortisol outcomes were predicted from measures of PRD obtained over a 20-year period beginning when individuals were in 7th grade (approximately age 12). Greater average PRD measured across the 20-year period predicted flatter adult diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults, and a lower CAR. Greater average PRD also predicted lower waking cortisol for Black, but not White adults. PRD experiences in adolescence accounted for many of these effects. When adolescent and young adult PRD are entered together predicting cortisol outcomes, PRD experiences in adolescence (but not young adulthood) significantly predicted flatter diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults. Adolescent, but not young adult PRD, also significantly predicted lower waking and lower average cortisol for Black adults. Young adult PRD was, however, a stronger predictor of the CAR, predicting a marginally lower CAR for Whites, and a significantly larger CAR for Blacks. Effects were robust to controlling for covariates including health behaviors, depression, income and parent education levels. PRD experiences interacted with parent education and income to predict aspects of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Although these results suggest PRD influences on cortisol for both Blacks and Whites, the key findings

  10. Predictors of severity in childhood pancreatitis: correlation with nutritional status and racial demographics.

    PubMed

    Vasilescu, Alexandra; Cuffari, Carmen; Santo Domingo, Lisa; Scheimann, Ann O

    2015-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis is one of the leading causes of rising pediatric hospitalizations in North America. The aim of this study was to assess the role of nutritional status and racial influences on the severity of acute pancreatitis in children. The institutional review board approved this retrospective chart review of children with the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis between the ages of 0 and 18 years hospitalized at the Johns Hopkins Hospital between 1998 and 2008. Parameters studied included biochemical markers associated with pancreatitis, review of severity of illness reflected through the length of stay, and pediatric intensive care unit admission. The length of in-patient hospitalization was longer for children with imaging findings of pseudocyst or pancreatic necrosis (23.1 ± 26.4 days vs 4.4 ± 10.6 days; P = 0.0074) and malnourished children versus normal weight and obese children (16.5 days for malnourished vs 10.6 days for normal weight vs 10.7 days for obese; P = 0.04). There was also a significant difference in the need for pediatric intensive care unit admission across ethnic groups (18% African American vs 7% white) (P = 0.04). Ethnicity and nutritional status may influence the severity and duration of hospitalization among children with pancreatitis.

  11. A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech from Speech Delay: I. Development and Description of the Pause Marker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Strand, Edythe A.; Fourakis, Marios; Jakielski, Kathy J.; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Mabie, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article (PM I) is to describe the rationale for and development of the Pause Marker (PM), a single-sign diagnostic marker proposed to discriminate early or persistent childhood apraxia of speech from speech delay. Method: The authors describe and prioritize 7 criteria with which to evaluate the research and clinical…

  12. The inverse hazard law: blood pressure, sexual harassment, racial discrimination, workplace abuse and occupational exposures in US low-income black, white and Latino workers.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy; Chen, Jarvis T; Waterman, Pamela D; Hartman, Cathy; Stoddard, Anne M; Quinn, Margaret M; Sorensen, Glorian; Barbeau, Elizabeth M

    2008-12-01

    Research on societal determinants of health suggests the existence of an "inverse hazard law," which we define as: "The accumulation of health hazards tends to vary inversely with the power and resources of the populations affected." Yet, little empirical research has systematically investigated this topic, including in relation to workplace exposures. We accordingly designed the United for Health study (Greater Boston Area, Massachusetts, 2003-2004) to investigate the joint distribution and health implications of workplace occupational hazards (dust, fumes, chemical, noise, ergonomic strain) and social hazards (racial discrimination, sexual harassment, workplace abuse). Focusing on blood pressure as our health outcome, we found that among the 1202 low-income multi-racial/ethnic working class participants in our cohort - of whom 40% lived below the US poverty line - 79% reported exposure to at least one social hazard and 82% to at least one high-exposure occupational hazard. Only sexual harassment, the least common social hazard, was associated with elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) among the women workers. By contrast, no statistically significant associations were detectable between the other additional highly prevalent social and occupational hazards and SBP; we did, however, find suggestive evidence of an association between SBP and response to unfair treatment, implying that in a context of high exposure, differential susceptibility to the exposure matters. These results interestingly contrast to our prior findings for this same cohort, in which we found associations between self-reported experiences of racial discrimination and two other health outcomes: psychological distress and cigarette smoking. Likely explanations for these contrasting findings include: (a) the differential etiologic periods and pathways involving somatic health, mental health, and health behaviors, and (b) the high prevalence of adverse exposures, limiting the ability to detect

  13. Racial Discrimination and Psychological Distress: The Impact of Ethnic Identity and Age Among Immigrant and United States–Born Asian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Tiffany; Gee, Gilbert C.; Takeuchi, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The association between racial and ethnic discrimination and psychological distress was examined among 2,047 Asians (18 to 75 years of age) in the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first-ever nationally representative study of mental health among Asians living in the United States. Stratifying the sample by age in years (i.e., 18 to 30, 31 to 40, 41 to 50, 51 to 75) and nativity status (i.e., immigrant vs. U.S.-born), ethnic identity was tested as either a protective or exacerbating factor. Analyses showed that ethnic identity buffered the association between discrimination and mental health for U.S.-born individuals 41 to 50 years of age. For U.S.-born individuals 31 to 40 years of age and 51 to 75 years of age, ethnic identity exacerbated the negative effects of discrimination on mental health. The importance of age and immigrant status for the association between ethnic identity, discrimination, and well-being among Asians in the United States is discussed. PMID:18473644

  14. Everyday Discrimination and Metabolic Syndrome Incidence in a Racially/Ethnically Diverse Sample: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    PubMed

    Beatty Moody, Danielle L; Chang, Yue Fang; Brown, Charlotte; Bromberger, Joyce T; Matthews, Karen A

    2017-08-05

    Everyday discrimination may contribute to incident metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the U.S. and related racial/ethnic differences in MetS. This study investigated whether ED predicted MetS in a diverse sample. Longitudinal, cohort study of 2,132 women (mean [SD] 45.8 [2.7] years) who self-reported as Black (n = 523), White (n = 1065), Chinese (n = 194), Japanese (n = 227), or Hispanic (n = 123) at baseline, drawn from seven cities across the U.S. MetS was defined in accordance with the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The Everyday Discrimination scale was used to assess exposure to and level of everyday discrimination. Everyday discrimination exposure at baseline predicted a 33% greater incidence of MetS over the 13.89 year (SD = 3.83; HR, 1.33; 95% CI [1.11-1.64], p = .001) follow-up in the full sample, and was most pronounced in Black, Hispanic, and Japanese women. Each 1-point increase in the continuous everyday discrimination score (HR, 1.03; 95% CI [1.01-1.05], p = .001) predicted a 3% greater incidence of MetS and specifically, blood pressure (HR, 1.01; 95% CI [1.00-1.03], p = .04), waist circumference (HR, 1.05; 95% CI [1.03-1.06], p < .001), and triglyceride level (HR, 1.02; 95% CI [1.00-1.04], p = .01). These associations were independent of risk factors including physical activity, socioeconomic status, smoking and alcohol consumption. Everyday discrimination contributes to poorer metabolic health in midlife women in the U.S. These findings have clinical implications for the development of MetS, and ultimately cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and intervention strategies to reduce these outcomes.

  15. Racial/ethnic and immigrant differences in early childhood diet quality.

    PubMed

    de Hoog, Marieke L A; Kleinman, Ken P; Gillman, Matthew W; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; van Eijsden, Manon; Taveras, Elsie M

    2014-06-01

    To assess racial/ethnic differences in the diet in young children and the explanatory role of maternal BMI, immigrant status and perception of child's weight. Among white, black and Hispanic 3-year-olds, we used negative binomial and linear regression to examine associations of race/ethnicity with foods and nutrients assessed by a validated FFQ. Project Viva, Boston (MA), USA. Children aged 3 years (n 898). Mean age was 38·3 (sd 2·8) months; 464 (52 %) were boys and 127 mothers (14 %) were immigrants. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, black and Hispanic children (v. white) had a higher intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (rate ratio (RR) = 2·59 (95 % CI 1·95, 3·48) and RR = 1·59 (95 % CI 1·07, 2·47), respectively) and lower intakes of skimmed/1 % milk (RR = 0·42 (95 % CI 0·33, 0·53) and RR = 0·43 (95 % CI 0·31, 0·61), respectively) and trans-fat (-0·10 (95 % CI -0·18, -0·03) % of energy and -0·15 (95 % CI -0·26, -0·04) % of energy, respectively). Among Hispanics only, a lower intake of snack food (RR = 0·83 (95 % CI 0·72, 0·98)) was found and among blacks only, a higher intake of fast food (RR = 1·28 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·55)) and lower intakes of saturated fat (-0·86 (95 % CI -1·48, -0·23) % of energy), dietary fibre (0·85 (95 % CI 0·08, 1·62) g/d) and Ca (-120 (95 % CI -175, -65) mg/d) were found. Being born outside the USA was associated with more healthful nutrient intakes and less fast food. Three-year-old black and Hispanic (v. white) children ate more sugar-sweetened beverages and less low-fat dairy. Total energy intake was substantially higher in Hispanic children. Snack food (Hispanic children) and fat intakes (black children) tended to be lower. Children of immigrants ate less fast food and bad fats and more fibre.

  16. Comparing measures of racial/ethnic discrimination, coping, and associations with health-related outcomes in a diverse sample.

    PubMed

    Benjamins, Maureen R

    2013-10-01

    Discrimination is detrimental to health behaviors and outcomes, but little is known about which measures of discrimination are most strongly related to health, if relationships with health outcomes vary by race/ethnicity, and if coping responses moderate these associations. To explore these issues, the current study assessed race/ethnic differences in five measures of race/ethnic discrimination, as well as emotional and behavioral coping responses, within a population-based sample of Whites, African Americans, Mexicans, and Puerto Ricans (n = 1,699). Stratified adjusted logistic regression models were run to examine associations between the discrimination measures and mental, physical, and health behavior outcomes and to test the role of coping. Overall, 86 % of the sample reported discrimination. Puerto Ricans were more likely than Mexicans and Whites to report most types of discrimination but less likely than Blacks. Discrimination was most strongly related to depression and was less consistently (or not) associated with physical health and health behaviors. Differences by measure of discrimination and respondent race/ethnicity were apparent. No support was found to suggest that coping responses moderate the association between discrimination and health. More work is needed to understand the health effects of this widespread social problem. In addition, interventions attempting to reduce health disparities need to take into account the influence of discrimination.

  17. Mexican Origin Youths’ Trajectories of Perceived Peer Discrimination from Middle Childhood to Adolescence: Variation by Neighborhood Ethnic Concentration

    PubMed Central

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Knight, George P.; Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Developmentally salient research on perceived peer discrimination among minority youths is limited. Little is known about trajectories of perceived peer discrimination across the developmental period ranging from middle childhood to adolescence. Ethically concentrated neighborhoods are hypothesized to protect minority youths from discrimination, but strong empirical tests are lacking. The first aim of the current study was to estimate trajectories of perceived peer discrimination from middle childhood to adolescence, as youths transitioned from elementary to middle and to high school. The second aim was to examine the relationship between neighborhood ethnic concentration and perceived peer discrimination over time. Using a diverse sample of 749 Mexican origin youths (48.9% female), a series of growth models revealed that youths born in Mexico, relative to those born in the U.S., perceived higher discrimination in the 5th grade and decreases across time. Youths who had higher averages on neighborhood ethnic concentration (across the developmental period) experienced decreases in perceived peer discrimination over time; those that had lower average neighborhood ethnic concentration levels showed evidence of increasing trajectories. Further, when individuals experienced increases in their own neighborhood ethnic concentration levels (relative to their own cross-time averages), they reported lower levels of perceived peer discrimination. Neighborhood ethnic concentration findings were not explained by the concurrent changes youths were experiencing in school ethnic concentrations. The results support a culturally-informed developmental view of perceived peer discrimination that recognizes variability in co-ethnic neighborhood contexts. The results advance a view of ethnic enclaves as protective from mainstream threats. PMID:24488094

  18. Mexican origin youths' trajectories of perceived peer discrimination from middle childhood to adolescence: variation by neighborhood ethnic concentration.

    PubMed

    White, Rebecca M B; Zeiders, Katharine H; Knight, George P; Roosa, Mark W; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2014-10-01

    Developmentally salient research on perceived peer discrimination among minority youths is limited. Little is known about trajectories of perceived peer discrimination across the developmental period ranging from middle childhood to adolescence. Ethically concentrated neighborhoods are hypothesized to protect minority youths from discrimination, but strong empirical tests are lacking. The first aim of the current study was to estimate trajectories of perceived peer discrimination from middle childhood to adolescence, as youths transitioned from elementary to middle and to high school. The second aim was to examine the relationship between neighborhood ethnic concentration and perceived peer discrimination over time. Using a diverse sample of 749 Mexican origin youths (48.9% female), a series of growth models revealed that youths born in Mexico, relative to those born in the U.S., perceived higher discrimination in the 5th grade and decreases across time. Youths who had higher averages on neighborhood ethnic concentration (across the developmental period) experienced decreases in perceived peer discrimination over time; those that had lower average neighborhood ethnic concentration levels showed evidence of increasing trajectories. Further, when individuals experienced increases in their own neighborhood ethnic concentration levels (relative to their own cross-time averages), they reported lower levels of perceived peer discrimination. Neighborhood ethnic concentration findings were not explained by the concurrent changes youths were experiencing in school ethnic concentrations. The results support a culturally-informed developmental view of perceived peer discrimination that recognizes variability in co-ethnic neighborhood contexts. The results advance a view of ethnic enclaves as protective from mainstream threats.

  19. Does Perceived Racial Discrimination Predict Changes in Psychological Distress and Substance Use over Time? An Examination among Black Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed whether perceived discrimination predicted changes in psychological distress and substance use over time and whether psychological distress and substance use predicted change in perceived discrimination over time. We also assessed whether associations between these constructs varied by gender. Our sample included 607 Black emerging…

  20. Does Perceived Racial Discrimination Predict Changes in Psychological Distress and Substance Use over Time? An Examination among Black Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed whether perceived discrimination predicted changes in psychological distress and substance use over time and whether psychological distress and substance use predicted change in perceived discrimination over time. We also assessed whether associations between these constructs varied by gender. Our sample included 607 Black emerging…

  1. Sharing stories of discrimination with parents.

    PubMed

    Juang, Linda P; Syed, Moin

    2014-04-01

    In this study we examined whether experiences of discrimination during childhood and adolescence were told to parents, the reasons for not telling, and whether telling was associated with adolescent characteristics and aspects of the current parent-child relationship. The sample included 200 ethnically diverse college students. Results supported a transactional view of socialization whereby youth who had not shared their discrimination stories expected negative parental reactions or were concerned for their parents' well-being. The likelihood of telling was not directly associated with ethnicity, gender, or parent-child communication. Rather, those who rated the discrimination event as more important and reported greater current parental cultural and racial socialization were more likely to have disclosed their story of discrimination, depending on ethnicity. Understanding disclosure of discrimination experiences is important. When adolescents choose not to share experiences of discrimination with their parents, there may be lost opportunities for a greater understanding of these challenging experiences.

  2. A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech From Speech Delay: I. Development and Description of the Pause Marker.

    PubMed

    Shriberg, Lawrence D; Strand, Edythe A; Fourakis, Marios; Jakielski, Kathy J; Hall, Sheryl D; Karlsson, Heather B; Mabie, Heather L; McSweeny, Jane L; Tilkens, Christie M; Wilson, David L

    2017-04-14

    The goal of this article (PM I) is to describe the rationale for and development of the Pause Marker (PM), a single-sign diagnostic marker proposed to discriminate early or persistent childhood apraxia of speech from speech delay. The authors describe and prioritize 7 criteria with which to evaluate the research and clinical utility of a diagnostic marker for childhood apraxia of speech, including evaluation of the present proposal. An overview is given of the Speech Disorders Classification System, including extensions completed in the same approximately 3-year period in which the PM was developed. The finalized Speech Disorders Classification System includes a nosology and cross-classification procedures for childhood and persistent speech disorders and motor speech disorders (Shriberg, Strand, & Mabie, 2017). A PM is developed that provides procedural and scoring information, and citations to papers and technical reports that include audio exemplars of the PM and reference data used to standardize PM scores are provided. The PM described here is an acoustic-aided perceptual sign that quantifies one aspect of speech precision in the linguistic domain of phrasing. This diagnostic marker can be used to discriminate early or persistent childhood apraxia of speech from speech delay.

  3. Racial disparities in the cognition-health relationship.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Owen

    2011-03-01

    This paper investigates how the association between cognitive achievement and self-rated health in middle age differs by race, and attempts to explain these differences. The role of cognition in health determination has received only limited empirical attention, and even less is known about how race may affect this relationship. Using data from the NLSY, I find that while Whites with higher cognitive achievement scores tend to report substantially better general health, this relationship is far weaker or wholly absent among Blacks. Further tests suggest that about 35% of this racial difference can be explained by behavioral decisions during adulthood, and that another portion of the disparity may trace back to prenatal and early childhood experiences. The paper closes by noting that its results are broadly consistent with explanations of the racial health gap that emphasize entrenched forms of racial discrimination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Natural Mentors, Racial Pride, and Academic Engagement among Black Adolescents: Resilience in the Context of Perceived Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittrup, Audrey R.; Hussain, Saida B.; Albright, Jamie N.; Hurd, Noelle N.; Varner, Fatima A.; Mattis, Jacqueline S.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the potential of relational closeness in the natural mentoring relationships (NMRs) of Black students to counter and protect against the noxious effects of school-based discrimination on academic engagement. The study sample included 663 Black students between the ages of 12 and 19 (M = 14.96 years, SD = 1.81 years), all…

  5. Natural Mentors, Racial Pride, and Academic Engagement among Black Adolescents: Resilience in the Context of Perceived Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittrup, Audrey R.; Hussain, Saida B.; Albright, Jamie N.; Hurd, Noelle N.; Varner, Fatima A.; Mattis, Jacqueline S.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the potential of relational closeness in the natural mentoring relationships (NMRs) of Black students to counter and protect against the noxious effects of school-based discrimination on academic engagement. The study sample included 663 Black students between the ages of 12 and 19 (M = 14.96 years, SD = 1.81 years), all…

  6. Social hazards on the job: workplace abuse, sexual harassment, and racial discrimination--a study of Black, Latino, and White low-income women and men workers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy; Waterman, Pamela D; Hartman, Cathy; Bates, Lisa M; Stoddard, Anne M; Quinn, Margaret M; Sorensen, Glorian; Barbeau, Elizabeth M

    2006-01-01

    This study documents the prevalence of workplace abuse, sexual harassment at work, and lifetime experiences of racial discrimination among the United for Health cohort of 1,202 predominantly black, Latino, and white women and men low-income union workers in the Greater Boston area. Overall, 85 percent of the cohort reported exposure to at least one of these three social hazards; exposure to all three reached 20 to 30 percent among black women and women and men in racial/ethnic groups other than white, black, or Latino. Workplace abuse in the past year, reported by slightly more than half the workers, was most frequently reported by the white men (69%). Sexual harassment at work in the past year was reported by 26 percent of the women and 22 percent of the men, with values of 20 percent or more in all racial/ ethnic-gender groups other than Latinas and white men. High exposure to racial discrimination was reported by 37 percent of the workers of color, compared with 10 percent of the white workers, with black workers reporting the greatest exposure (44%). Together, these findings imply that the lived--and combined-experiences of class, race, and gender inequities and their attendant assaults on human dignity are highly germane to analyses of workers' health.

  7. Discrimination, Other Psychosocial Stressors, and Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To advance understanding of the relationship between discrimination and sleep duration and difficulties, with consideration of multiple dimensions of discrimination, and attention to concurrent stressors; and to examine the contribution of discrimination and other stressors to racial/ ethnic differences in these outcomes. Design: Cross-sectional probability sample. Setting: Chicago, IL. Participants: There were 2,983 black, Hispanic, and white adults. Measurements and Results: Outcomes included self-reported sleep duration and difficulties. Discrimination, including racial and nonracial everyday and major experiences of discrimination, workplace harassment and incivilities, and other stressors were assessed via questionnaire. In models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, greater exposure to racial (β = -0.14)) and nonracial (β = -0.08) everyday discrimination, major experiences of discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity (β = -0.17), and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = -0.14) were associated with shorter sleep (P < 0.05). The association between major experiences of discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity and sleep duration (β = -0.09, P < 0.05) was independent of concurrent stressors (i.e., acute events, childhood adversity, and financial, community, employment, and relationship stressors). Racial (β = 0.04) and non-racial (β = 0.05) everyday discrimination and racial (β = 0.04) and nonracial (β = 0.04) major experiences of discrimination, and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = 0.04) were also associated with more (log) sleep difficulties, and associations between racial and nonracial everyday discrimination and sleep difficulties remained after adjustment for other stressors (P < 0.05). Racial/ethnic differences in sleep duration and difficulties were not significant after adjustment for discrimination (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Discrimination was associated with shorter sleep and more sleep difficulties

  8. Racial, Ethnic, and Age Differences in the Incidence and Survival of Childhood Cancer in Oklahoma, 1997-2012

    PubMed Central

    Janitz, Amanda E.; Campbell, Janis E.; Pate, Anne; Anderson, Amber; McNall-Knapp, René

    2016-01-01

    While cancer is relatively rare in children under 20, it is the leading cause of disease-related death among children aged 5 to 14 years. We aimed to describe the incidence and survival of childhood cancer in Oklahoma from 1997-2012. We calculated age-adjusted incidence rates and five-year observed survival by cancer type using Oklahoma Central Cancer Registry and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program data among children diagnosed with cancer under the age of 20 from 1997-2012. The average annual age-adjusted incidence rate of childhood cancer was 168.9 per million for the US and 171.7 per million for Oklahoma. Overall, Oklahoma had lower survival from childhood cancer compared to the US (77.0% v. 80.6%). In recent years, research has been conducted on the epidemiology of childhood cancer. Little research has been done, however, on the incidence or survival of childhood cancer at state levels and none focused exclusively on Oklahoma. PMID:27885305

  9. Racial and ethnic differences in health care utilization for childhood eczema: An analysis of the 2001-2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Alexander H; Shin, Daniel B; Margolis, David J; Takeshita, Junko

    2017-09-27

    Eczema is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the skin. Studies suggest differences in disease prevalence and severity by race/ethnicity. Our knowledge of health care utilization for eczema among different racial/ethnic groups remains limited. To evaluate health care utilization for childhood eczema among different racial/ethnic groups in the United States. We performed a cohort study of non-Hispanic white (reference), non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic white individuals under the age of 18 years with caregiver-reported eczema (N = 2043) pooled from the 2-year longitudinal cohorts of the 2001-2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys. Health care utilization outcomes were evaluated over the 2-year follow-up period by race/ethnicity using multivariable regression. Among all children with eczema, non-Hispanic blacks were less likely than whites to report an ambulatory visit for eczema (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj] 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.92). Among those with ≥1 ambulatory visit for eczema, non-Hispanic blacks reported more visits (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRRadj] 1.68; 95% CI 1.10-2.55) and prescriptions (IRRadj 1.22; 95% CI 1.01-1.46) than whites and were more likely than whites to report a dermatology visit (ORadj 1.82; 95% CI 1.06-3.14) for eczema. We used caregiver- or self-reported data. Our findings suggest disparities in health care utilization for eczema among non-Hispanic black children despite utilization patterns suggestive of more severe disease. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Racial Gaps in Early Childhood: Socio-Emotional Health, Developmental, and Educational Outcomes among African-American Boys. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aratani, Yumiko; Wight, Vanessa R.; Cooper, Janice L.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (child-B) data, collected by the National Center for Education Statistics in the U.S. Department of Education. The EC LS-B is a nationally representative longitudinal study of approximately 11,000 children who were born in 2001. The children in the EC LS-B have been followed…

  11. Participation in Black Lives Matter and Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals: Modern Activism among Black and Latino College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Elan C.; Keels, Micere; Durkee, Myles I.

    2016-01-01

    Political activism is one way racially/ethnically marginalized youth can combat institutional discrimination and seek legislative change toward equality and justice. In the current study, we examine participation in #BlackLivesMatter (BLM) and advocacy for Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) as political activism popular among youth.…

  12. Participation in Black Lives Matter and Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals: Modern Activism among Black and Latino College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Elan C.; Keels, Micere; Durkee, Myles I.

    2016-01-01

    Political activism is one way racially/ethnically marginalized youth can combat institutional discrimination and seek legislative change toward equality and justice. In the current study, we examine participation in #BlackLivesMatter (BLM) and advocacy for Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) as political activism popular among youth.…

  13. Racial Differences in the Development of Impulsivity and Sensation Seeking from Childhood into Adolescence and Their Relation to Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Sarah L.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Donovan, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Pronounced differences in drinking behavior exist between African Americans and European Americans. Disinhibited personality characteristics are widely studied risk factors for alcohol use outcomes. Longitudinal studies of children have not examined racial differences in these characteristics, in their rates of change, or whether these changes differentially relate to adolescent alcohol use. Methods Latent growth curve modeling was performed on seven annual waves of data on 447 African American and European American 8- and 10-year-old children followed into adolescence as part of the Tween to Teen Project. Both mother and child data were examined. Results European Americans had higher initial levels of (β = 0.22, p < .001) and greater growth in sensation seeking (β = 0.16, p < .05) compared to African Americans. However, African American children had higher initial levels of impulsivity compared to European American children (βs = −0.27 and −0.16, p < .01). Higher initial levels of sensation seeking (β = 0.18, p < .01) and greater growth in both sensation seeking (β = 0.24, p < .01) and impulsivity (βs = 0.30 to 0.34, p < .01) related to subsequent frequency of alcohol use. The association between race and alcohol use was partially mediated by initial levels of sensation seeking (β = 0.04, p < .05; 95% CI: 0.004 – 0.078). Additionally, sharper increases in sensation seeking predicted greater levels of subsequent alcohol use for European Americans (B = 0.33, p < .001) but not for African Americans (B = −0.15, ns). Conclusions This study revealed different developmental courses and important racial differences for sensation seeking and impulsivity. Findings highlight the possibility that sensation seeking at least partly drives early alcohol use for European American but not for African American adolescents. PMID:22823230

  14. Racial/ethnic differences in the association of childhood adversities with depression and the role of resilience.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Nagy A; Belew, Daniel; Hao, Guang; Wang, Xiaoling; Treiber, Frank A; Stefanek, Michael; Yassa, Mark; Boswell, Elizabeth; McCall, W Vaughn; Su, Shaoyong

    2017-01-15

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) including childhood abuse and trauma increase depressive symptoms. The role of resilience and how it interacts with both ACEs and the potential development of depressive symptoms, including how race and ethnicity moderate these effects, are much less studied. The aims of this study were to examine: 1) whether there is a dose-response relationship between trauma and depressive symptoms; 2) whether early trauma affected European Americans (EA) and African Americans (AA) in a similar fashion; and 3) whether resilience mitigates the effect of trauma. The present study comprised a cross-sectional study of subjects from a longitudinal cohort. All subjects were 19 years or older with traumatic experiences prior to age 18. Subjects were assessed for depressive symptoms as well as resilience. In 413 subjects enrolled, ACEs were significantly associated with depression severity in a dose-response fashion (p<0.001). Notably, AAs had lower depression scores at low to moderate levels of ACEs than EAs, but reported comparable levels of depression with severe exposure to ACEs (pInteraction=0.05). In both EAs and AAs, young adults with high and medium levels of resilience showed less depressive symptoms compared to those with low resilience (p<0.05). to consider are the cross-sectional design, possibility of other confounders, and potential for recall bias of this study. While ACEs were significantly associated with severity of depression in a dose-response fashion, higher resilience mitigated the impact of childhood adversities on depressive symptoms in young adults. The results are encouraging, and guides research for therapeutics to boost resilience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Childhood anxiety and psychophysiological reactivity: hypnosis to build discrimination and self-regulation skills.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Pamela

    2014-04-01

    Clinically anxious, worried, and fearful children and teens need clinicians' assistance in reducing their exaggerated psychophysiological stress reactivity. Affective neuroscience finds that chronic activation of the body's emergency response system inhibits neurogenesis, disrupts neuronal plasticity, and is detrimental to physical and mental health. Patterns of faulty discrimination skills, for example, over-estimation of threat and danger and under-estimation of their coping capacity, fuel this over-arousal. Similarly, contributory patterns of reduced self-regulation skills are shown by "stuck" attention to and poor control of their exaggerated psychophysiological reactivity and somatization. This article considers the literature and focuses on cognitive hypnotherapy to enhance these under-developed capacities. A case illustration highlights various hypnotic phenomena and techniques, psychoeducation, and relaxation training that address the goals of interrupting these unproductive, interconnected patterns and fostering new patterns of more realistic and accurate discrimination capacities and sturdier psychophysiological self-regulation skills.

  16. Behavioral Assessment of Emotion Discrimination, Emotion Regulation, and Cognitive Control in Childhood, Adolescence, and Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Tottenham, Nim; Hare, Todd A.; Casey, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    Emotion discrimination, emotion regulation, and cognitive control are three related, yet separable processes that emerge over the course of development. The current study tested 100 children, adolescents, and adults on an Emotional Go/Nogo task, illustrating the ability of this paradigm to identify the unique developmental patterns for each of these three processes in the context of both positive (happy) and negative emotions (fear, sad, and anger), across three different age groups. Consistent with previous literature, our findings show that emotion discrimination and regulatory abilities (both cognitive control and emotion regulation) improve steadily for each age group, with each age group showing unique patterns of performance. The findings suggest that emotion regulation is constructed from basic cognition control and emotion discrimination skills. The patterns of behavior from the Emotional Go/Nogo task provide normative benchmark data across a wide range of emotions that can be used for future behavioral and neuroimaging studies that examine the developmental construction of emotion regulatory processes. PMID:21716604

  17. 59 FR- Hearing on Racial and Ethnic Tensions in American Communities: Poverty, Inequality, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-02-18

    ... Hearing on Racial and Ethnic Tensions in American Communities: Poverty, Inequality, and Discrimination... study and collect information concerning legal developments, with respect to discrimination or denials...

  18. Variables affecting racial-identity salience among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Thompson, V L

    1999-12-01

    The author clarified the African American racial-group identification process by addressing the issue of salience and its relationship to racial-group attitudes. A sample of 409 African American adults responded to surveys pertaining to their racial-group salience, racial-group attitudes, racial socialization, racial-group interaction, political activism, experiences of discrimination, and demographic data (e.g., sex, age, and income). The author tested 3 hypotheses: (a) Racial socialization and interaction with other African Americans are predictive of African American racial-identity salience; (b) discriminatory experiences are predictive of African American racial-identity salience; and (c) racial-identity salience is a stronger predictor of African American racial-group identification than are previously identified predictive variables (D. H. Demo & H. Hughes, 1990; V. L. Thompson Sanders, 1991, 1995). The results supported the 1st and 3rd hypotheses.

  19. Facing with Courage Racial and Linguistic Discrimination: The Narrative of an ELL Caribbean Immigrant Living in the U.S. Diaspora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orelus, Pierre Wilbert

    2012-01-01

    People immigrate to other countries for various reasons. Whereas some voluntarily move to a foreign land, others are forced to do so as a result of socioeconomic, racial, political, sexual, and religious oppressions. In light of these various factors causing the voluntary or forcible exodus of people, this article traces back the author's journey…

  20. Racial Discrimination and the Price of Ghetto Housing in City and Suburb: Some Recent Evidence. Discussion Paper D77-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Clifford R.; Moulton, George D.

    This study examines race and housing prices in three separate areas in New York City and its suburbs to determine the degree to which race affects housing prices differently in different parts of the metropolitan area. Special attention is paid to the issues of different racial behavior in the different neighborhoods and lags in adjustment to…

  1. Facing with Courage Racial and Linguistic Discrimination: The Narrative of an ELL Caribbean Immigrant Living in the U.S. Diaspora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orelus, Pierre Wilbert

    2012-01-01

    People immigrate to other countries for various reasons. Whereas some voluntarily move to a foreign land, others are forced to do so as a result of socioeconomic, racial, political, sexual, and religious oppressions. In light of these various factors causing the voluntary or forcible exodus of people, this article traces back the author's journey…

  2. Racial Discrimination and the Price of Ghetto Housing in City and Suburb: Some Recent Evidence. Discussion Paper D77-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Clifford R.; Moulton, George D.

    This study examines race and housing prices in three separate areas in N