Science.gov

Sample records for racial em perspectiva

  1. Racial Harmony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Wanda E.

    Issues of racial harmony in higher education are the subject of this address to participants at a college workshop on cultural diversity. Recently campuses across the country have seen an unparalleled explosion of racially-charged or motivated incidents sparking dialogue among students, staff, faculty and administrators. In addition, accrediting…

  2. "Racializing" Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatt-Echeverria, Beth; Urrieta, Luis, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to explore how racial and class oppressions intersect, the authors use their autobiographical narratives to depict cultural and experiential continuity and discontinuity in growing up white working class versus Chicano working class. They specifically focus on "racializing class" due to the ways class is often used as a copout by…

  3. Racial equity or racial equality.

    PubMed

    Daymont, T N

    1980-11-01

    This study examines the relationship between racial equity in labor market processes and racial equality in future labor market rewards. In particular, a regression standardization procedure is used to project the degree of racial inequality in earnings that would exist among men at various future points in time based on three different sets of assumptions about attainment processes in labor market and educational institutions. The most important results suggest that even if racial discrimination were eliminated immediately in labor market and educational institutions, it would take almost 50 years for the black-white earnings ratio to reach .95. This incompatibility between equity and equality needs to be considered more explicitly both by those who advocate a color-blind labor market and those who advocate preferential treatment for blacks.

  4. Scandinavia: A Racial Utopia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbord, Robert G.

    1972-01-01

    Isolated personal observations have shaped the racial image of the Nordic countries--that Scandinavia is a racial paradise; this image is, however, simplistic, superficial, and one-dimensional. There is no gainsaying that prejudice against certain ethnic groups exists in Scandinavia. (Author)

  5. Racial resentment and smoking.

    PubMed

    Samson, Frank L

    2015-02-01

    Racial resentment (also known as symbolic racism) is among the most widely tested measures of contemporary prejudice in political science and social psychological research over the past thirty years. Proponents argue that racial resentment reflects anti-black emotion obtained through pre-adult socialization. In light of affect-based models of substance use, this paper examined the association between racial resentment and smoking in a national sample of non-Hispanic white, black, and Hispanic respondents. Data come from the 2012 American National Election Study, which contained two measures of smoking. The results of ordinal logistic regression models indicate a positive association between racial resentment and smoking among non-Hispanic whites (N = 2133) that is not present among blacks (N = 693) or Hispanics (N = 660). Models controlled for age, education, income, gender, political ideology, region, and mode of interview. Furthermore, analyses indicated that a measure of race-related affect, admiration and sympathy towards blacks, partially mediated the association between racial resentment and smoking. For non-Hispanic whites, racial resentment appears to constitute a risk factor for smoking. Future studies should further specify the conditions linking substance use to the race-related affective component of racial resentment.

  6. Racial resentment and smoking.

    PubMed

    Samson, Frank L

    2015-02-01

    Racial resentment (also known as symbolic racism) is among the most widely tested measures of contemporary prejudice in political science and social psychological research over the past thirty years. Proponents argue that racial resentment reflects anti-black emotion obtained through pre-adult socialization. In light of affect-based models of substance use, this paper examined the association between racial resentment and smoking in a national sample of non-Hispanic white, black, and Hispanic respondents. Data come from the 2012 American National Election Study, which contained two measures of smoking. The results of ordinal logistic regression models indicate a positive association between racial resentment and smoking among non-Hispanic whites (N = 2133) that is not present among blacks (N = 693) or Hispanics (N = 660). Models controlled for age, education, income, gender, political ideology, region, and mode of interview. Furthermore, analyses indicated that a measure of race-related affect, admiration and sympathy towards blacks, partially mediated the association between racial resentment and smoking. For non-Hispanic whites, racial resentment appears to constitute a risk factor for smoking. Future studies should further specify the conditions linking substance use to the race-related affective component of racial resentment. PMID:25562312

  7. Racial Differences in Youth Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardecki, Rosella M.

    2001-01-01

    Work experience at an early age has a positive impact on labor force attachment of different racial groups. However, racial gaps in employment that are present in the early teen years seem to continue into adulthood. (Author/SK)

  8. Fall 1972 University Racial Census.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Glenwood C., Jr.; Sedlacek, William E.

    This document reports the results of the fall 1972 racial census at the University of Maryland. Only new freshmen, transfer students, and readmitted students filled out the racial census cards. All returning students constituted the data base of the student body. By adding new and deleting old racial census cards, counts could be made. Results of…

  9. Interaction Effects of Campus Racial Composition and Student Racial Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Ghazaleh, Nabil; Hoffman, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 13,025 students who attended the nine majority minority colleges of the Los Angeles Community College District, this study examined the interaction effects of the racial composition of the colleges on student persistence. Special attention was given to variables that paired students' race to the racial demography of the…

  10. When Parties become Racialized: Deconstructing Racially Themed Parties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Gina A.; Johnston, Marc P.; Garibay, Juan C.; Herrera, Felisha A.; Giraldo, Luis G.

    2011-01-01

    Racially themed parties are all-too-common occurrences on college campuses. Using critical race theory as a lens, this article provides a contemporary overview of these events and deconstructs these incidents as examples of overt forms of racism often emanating from subtle, everyday occurrences of covert racism or racial microaggressions.…

  11. Exploring Teachers' Racial Attitudes in a Racially Transitioning Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberg, Erica

    2012-01-01

    The growing diversity of America's public school enrollment makes it essential that all teachers be prepared for teaching students from diverse backgrounds. This paper explores the racial attitudes of teachers, specifically probing whether, and if so how, they may differ across schools of different student racial contexts. In particular, this…

  12. Facilitating Dialogues about Racial Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quaye, Stephen John

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Facilitating dialogues about racial issues in higher education classroom settings continues to be a vexing problem facing postsecondary educators. In order for students to discuss race with their peers, they need skilled facilitators who are knowledgeable about racial issues and able to support students in these difficult…

  13. A Longitudinal Examination of Racial Identity and Racial Discrimination among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany; Sellers, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the longitudinal association between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity among a sample of 219 African American adolescents, aged 14 to 18. Structural equation modeling was used to test relations between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity dimensions, namely, racial centrality, private…

  14. Racial Prejudice, Interracial Contact, and Personality Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J. William; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of childrens' racial prejudice to child's race, interracial contact, grade, sex, intelligence, locus of control, anxiety, and self-concept. Five facets of racial prejudice were examined: a total index of racial prejudice, dating and marriage, school, social relationships, and racial interactions in restaurants.…

  15. Essentializing race: its implications on racial categorization.

    PubMed

    Chao, Melody Manchi; Hong, Ying-yi; Chiu, Chi-yue

    2013-04-01

    Racial classification has drawn increasing attention in public discourse; it intertwines with issues related to racialized perceptions. However, few social psychological studies have systematically examined racial categorization processes and their implications for interracial relations. In 5 studies, we investigated the role of racial essentialism in influencing several important psychological aspects of racial categorization. Results linked the belief in racial essentialism to an increased tendency to engage in race-based categorization (Studies 1-3) and greater sensitivity in discerning racial group membership (Studies 4-5). These results are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding and managing interracial relations in the United States.

  16. Racial Identity and Racial Treatment of Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Vilma; Telles, Edward

    2012-04-01

    How racial barriers play in the experiences of Mexican Americans has been hotly debated. Some consider Mexican Americans similar to European Americans of a century ago that arrived in the United States with modest backgrounds but were eventually able to participate fully in society. In contrast, others argue that Mexican Americans have been racialized throughout U.S. history and this limits their participation in society. The evidence of persistent educational disadvantages across generations and frequent reports of discrimination and stereotyping support the racialization argument. In this paper, we explore the ways in which race plays a role in the lives of Mexican Americans by examining how education, racial characteristics, social interactions, relate to racial outcomes. We use the Mexican American Study Project, a unique data set based on a 1965 survey of Mexican Americans in Los Angeles and San Antonio combined with surveys of the same respondents and their adult children in 2000, thereby creating a longitudinal and intergenerational data set. First, we found that darker Mexican Americans, therefore appearing more stereotypically Mexican, report more experiences of discrimination. Second, darker men report much more discrimination than lighter men and than women overall. Third, more educated Mexican Americans experience more stereotyping and discrimination than their less-educated counterparts, which is partly due to their greater contact with Whites. Lastly, having greater contact with Whites leads to experiencing more stereotyping and discrimination. Our results are indicative of the ways in which Mexican Americans are racialized in the United States.

  17. Racial Discrimination in College Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Jones A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a research study investigating racial discrimination in college football. In particular, the study focuses on the concept of stacking, which is the disproportional allocation of players to central and noncentral team positions based on race or ethnicity. (RKM)

  18. Racial identity and reflected appraisals as influences on Asian Americans' racial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, A N; Helms, J E

    2001-08-01

    J. E. Helms's (1990) racial identity psychodiagnostic model was used to examine the contribution of racial identity schemas and reflected appraisals to the development of healthy racial adjustment of Asian American university students (N = 188). Racial adjustment was operationally defined as collective self-esteem and awareness of anti-Asian racism. Multiple regression analyses suggested that racial identity schemas and reflected appraisals were significantly predictive of Asian Americans' racial adjustment. Implications for counseling and future research are discussed.

  19. The limits of racial prejudice.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kevin

    2013-11-19

    The racial segregation of romantic networks has been documented by social scientists for generations. However, because of limitations in available data, we still have a surprisingly basic idea of the extent to which this pattern is generated by actual interpersonal prejudice as opposed to structural constraints on meeting opportunities, how severe this prejudice is, and the circumstances under which it can be reduced. I analyzed a network of messages sent and received among 126,134 users of a popular online dating site over a 2.5-mo period. As in face-to-face interaction, online exchanges are structured heavily by race. Even when controlling for regional differences in meeting opportunities, site users-especially minority site users-disproportionately message other users from the same racial background. However, this high degree of self-segregation peaks at the first stage of contact. First, users from all racial backgrounds are equally likely or more likely to cross a racial boundary when reciprocating than when initiating romantic interest. Second, users who receive a cross-race message initiate more new interracial exchanges in the future than they would have otherwise. This effect varies by gender, racial background, and site experience; is specific to the racial background of the original sender; requires that the recipient replied to the original message; and diminishes after a week. In contrast to prior research on relationship outcomes, these findings shed light on the complex interactional dynamics that-under certain circumstances-may amplify the effects of racial boundary crossing and foster greater interracial mixing.

  20. The limits of racial prejudice

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The racial segregation of romantic networks has been documented by social scientists for generations. However, because of limitations in available data, we still have a surprisingly basic idea of the extent to which this pattern is generated by actual interpersonal prejudice as opposed to structural constraints on meeting opportunities, how severe this prejudice is, and the circumstances under which it can be reduced. I analyzed a network of messages sent and received among 126,134 users of a popular online dating site over a 2.5-mo period. As in face-to-face interaction, online exchanges are structured heavily by race. Even when controlling for regional differences in meeting opportunities, site users—especially minority site users—disproportionately message other users from the same racial background. However, this high degree of self-segregation peaks at the first stage of contact. First, users from all racial backgrounds are equally likely or more likely to cross a racial boundary when reciprocating than when initiating romantic interest. Second, users who receive a cross-race message initiate more new interracial exchanges in the future than they would have otherwise. This effect varies by gender, racial background, and site experience; is specific to the racial background of the original sender; requires that the recipient replied to the original message; and diminishes after a week. In contrast to prior research on relationship outcomes, these findings shed light on the complex interactional dynamics that—under certain circumstances—may amplify the effects of racial boundary crossing and foster greater interracial mixing. PMID:24191008

  1. The limits of racial prejudice.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kevin

    2013-11-19

    The racial segregation of romantic networks has been documented by social scientists for generations. However, because of limitations in available data, we still have a surprisingly basic idea of the extent to which this pattern is generated by actual interpersonal prejudice as opposed to structural constraints on meeting opportunities, how severe this prejudice is, and the circumstances under which it can be reduced. I analyzed a network of messages sent and received among 126,134 users of a popular online dating site over a 2.5-mo period. As in face-to-face interaction, online exchanges are structured heavily by race. Even when controlling for regional differences in meeting opportunities, site users-especially minority site users-disproportionately message other users from the same racial background. However, this high degree of self-segregation peaks at the first stage of contact. First, users from all racial backgrounds are equally likely or more likely to cross a racial boundary when reciprocating than when initiating romantic interest. Second, users who receive a cross-race message initiate more new interracial exchanges in the future than they would have otherwise. This effect varies by gender, racial background, and site experience; is specific to the racial background of the original sender; requires that the recipient replied to the original message; and diminishes after a week. In contrast to prior research on relationship outcomes, these findings shed light on the complex interactional dynamics that-under certain circumstances-may amplify the effects of racial boundary crossing and foster greater interracial mixing. PMID:24191008

  2. Exploring Asian American racial identity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Grace A; Lephuoc, Paul; Guzmán, Michele R; Rude, Stephanie S; Dodd, Barbara G

    2006-07-01

    In this study the authors used cluster analysis to create racial identity profiles for a sample of Asian Americans using the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale (PCRIAS). A four-cluster solution was chosen: each cluster corresponded to one PCRIAS subscale and was named accordingly. Scores on the Asian American Racism-Related Stress Inventory and the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale were compared across clusters. As expected, the Dissonance and Immersion clusters were characterized by relatively high racism-related stress and low levels of color-blind attitudes; the Conformity cluster showed roughly the opposite pattern. Surprisingly, the Internalization cluster showed a pattern similar to that for Conformity and thus may reflect "pseudoindependence" as discussed by Helms.

  3. Racial/ethnic socialization mediates perceived racism and the racial identity of African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Howard C; Arrington, Edith G

    2009-04-01

    Racism and racial/ethnic socialization are proposed as interactive risk and resilience factors that promote the development of multiple dimensions of racial identity among African American youth are the focus of this study. One-hundred and eight African American students responded to questions about their racial identity and socialization. Controlling for demographic characteristics of ecological support (from family, friends, and neighbors), neighborhood racial composition, and gender, findings revealed that racism exposure significantly explained the variance of several racial identity components and ideologies but that racial/ethnic socialization mediated that influence. We discuss the implications for future study of racism experience on the racial identity development of African American youth.

  4. Emotions and White Racial Identity Status Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Matthew P.; Carter, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between emotional states and White racial identity status attitudes (Helms, 1984, 1990) were tested on a sample of 286 White students. The stimulus was a vignette in which one condition involved explicit racial information and one did not. Participants rated baseline and posttest emotions and completed the White Racial Identity…

  5. Cultural humility and racial microaggressions in counseling.

    PubMed

    Hook, Joshua N; Farrell, Jennifer E; Davis, Don E; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Utsey, Shawn O

    2016-04-01

    Racial microaggressions may contribute to poor counseling outcomes in racial/ethnic minority clients. The present study examined the occurrence of racial microaggressions in counseling using a large and diverse sample and explored the association between perceived cultural humility of the counselor and racial microaggressions. Racial/ethnic minority participants (N = 2,212) answered questions about the frequency and impact of racial microaggressions in counseling and the characteristics of their counselor. The majority of clients (81%) reported experiencing at least 1 racial microaggression in counseling. Participants most commonly reported racial microaggressions involving denial or lack of awareness of stereotypes and bias and avoidance of discussing cultural issues. There were few differences in racial microaggression frequency or impact based on client race/ethnicity and counselor race/ethnicity. Racially matched clients viewed racial microaggressions as more impactful than did clients who were not racially matched. Client-perceived cultural humility of the counselor was associated with fewer microaggressions experienced in counseling. We conclude by discussing limitations, areas for future research, and implications for counseling. PMID:27078198

  6. Profiling and Racial Profiling: An Interactive Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semple, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Racial Profiling has been recognized as a serious problem that affects many segments of our society and is especially notable in law enforcement. Governments and police services have pronounced that racial profiling is not acceptable and will not be tolerated. They have gone to great lengths in trying to eradicate racial profiling through…

  7. Racially Biased Policing: Determinants of Citizen Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzer, Ronald; Tuch, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    The current controversy surrounding racial profiling in America has focused renewed attention on the larger issue of racial bias by the police. Yet little is known about the extent of police racial bias and even less about public perceptions of the problem. This article analyzes recent national survey data on citizens' views of and reported…

  8. Decomposing School Resegregation: Social Closure, Racial Imbalance, and Racial Isolation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiel, Jeremy E.

    2013-01-01

    Today's typical minority student attends school with fewer whites than his counterpart in 1970. This apparent resegregation of U.S. schools has sparked outrage and debate. Some blame a rollback of desegregation policies designed to distribute students more evenly among schools; others blame the changing racial composition of the student…

  9. Using Students' Racial Memories to Teach about Racial Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macomber, Kris; Rusche, Sarah Nell

    2010-01-01

    As teachers, the authors' lessons about contemporary racial inequality are complicated and contradicted by the rhetoric of color-blindness--the belief that race no longer matters for determining life chances--entrenched in the culture. Students remain attracted to notions of racism as a problem of the "past" and often reject the idea that racism…

  10. The Racial Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Toneka M.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the racial academic achievement gap is a problem that must be solved in order for future society to properly function. Minorities including African-American and Latino students' standardized test scores are much lower than white students. By the end of fourth grade, African American, Latino, and poor students of all races are two years…

  11. Racial Differences in Neighborhood Dissatisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darden, Joe T.

    1987-01-01

    Examines racial differences in neighborhood dissatisfaction in metropolitan areas, central cities, and suburbs. Home ownership in the suburbs reduces the level of neighborhood dissatisfaction for Blacks and Whites. Blacks have higher levels of neighborhood dissatisfaction, probably because they reside in areas in worse condition and receiving…

  12. Racial Inequity in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losen, Daniel J., Ed.; Orfield, Gary, Ed.

    This collection of papers discusses issues related to the overidentification of minority students in special education. After a "Foreword" (Senator James M. Jeffords) and an introduction, "Racial Inequality in Special Education" (Daniel J. Losen and Gary Orfield), 11 chapters include: (1) "Community and School Predictors…

  13. Racial variations in obstetric practice.

    PubMed

    Cauchi, M N

    1986-05-01

    This study involves a retrospective analysis of 453 pregnant persons, with the aim of comparing certain disorders of pregnancy as well as infant and placental parameters in various racial groups within the same community. Significant variations were seen in the mean age of the patients, age at first pregnancy, frequency distribution of first pregnancy, infant weight as well as gravida: parity ratio. There was a 3-fold increase in incidence of preeclampsia in the Australian-born population compared to other racial groups. Mild anaemias (haemoglobin less than 11.5 g/dl) were found in up to 61% of the Australian-born population compared to 32% of the other racial groups; however, more significant degrees of anaemia were more commonly found in certain ethnic groups (e.g. Greek 16%, Italian 15%, Australian-born 6%). These studies emphasize that overall incidence studies in a polyglot population can have very limited meaning, and that greater attention must be paid to the actual racial variations within a population. PMID:3464247

  14. Confronting Racial and Religious Tensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessler, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    When a community's demographics change quickly in terms of racial, religious, or ethnic makeup, Wessler notes, tension surfaces. Schools are the likeliest place for these kinds of tensions to openly come to a head. Schools can't always avoid conflicts among students who feel mutual prejudice and suspicion. But schools can address simmering…

  15. Environmental Racial Inequality in Detroit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Liam

    2006-01-01

    This study uses industrial pollution data from the Environmental Protection Agency's Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and tract-level demographic data from the 2000 U.S. census to determine whether environmental racial inequality existed in the Detroit metropolitan area in the year 2000. This study differs from prior environmental inequality…

  16. Environmental Racial Inequality in Detroit.

    PubMed

    Downey, Liam

    2006-12-01

    This study uses industrial pollution data from the Environmental Protection Agency's Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and tract-level demographic data from the 2000 U.S. census to determine whether environmental racial inequality existed in the Detroit metropolitan area in the year 2000. This study differs from prior environmental inequality research in two important ways. First, it offers a positive rationale for using hazard proximity indicators. Second, it uses a distance decay modeling technique to estimate hazard proximity. This technique weights each hazard's estimated negative effect by distance such that the estimated negative effect declines continuously as distance from the hazard increases, thus providing more accurate estimates of proximity-based environmental risk than can be obtained using other variable construction techniques currently found in the literature. Using this technique, I find that Detroit's black neighborhoods were disproportionately burdened by TRI facility activity in 2000 and that neighborhood racial composition had a strong independent effect on neighborhood proximity to TRI activity.

  17. The Importance of History in the Racial Inequality and Racial Inequity in Education: New Orleans as a Case Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Eileen Carlton; Turner, Kea

    2014-01-01

    Racial equality and racial equity in U.S. education has been elusive although decades of education reform have them as goals. Current discourse advocate colorblind and post-racial solutions to racial inequality and racial inequity in education; these solutions implicate presentism, a view that exclusively circumscribes the existence of present-day…

  18. Racial Socialization and Racial Identity: African American Parents' Messages about Race as Precursors to Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; Smalls, Ciara P.; Ford, Kahlil R.; Nguyen, Hoa X.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses two waves of data to examine the relationships among patterns of racial socialization experiences and racial identity in a sample of 358 African American adolescents (60% female and 40% male). Using latent class analyses, we identified three patterns of adolescent-reported racial socialization experiences: High Positive, Moderate…

  19. Unpacking Racial Socialization: Considering Female African American Primary Caregivers' Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scottham, Krista Maywalt; Smalls, Ciara P.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between female African American primary caregivers' racial identity and their racial socialization emphases was examined. Three components of racial identity were evaluated: (1) the importance of race to the self-concept (centrality), (2) affective feelings toward group membership (private regard), and (3) perceptions of how group…

  20. A Post-Racial Era? The Campus Racial Climate for Multiracial Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillermo-Wann, Chelsea

    2010-01-01

    Multiracial undergraduates are coming of age when assertions of a post-racial era claim the post-civil rights multiracial population as its proof, which is part of the socio-historical context of the campus racial climate. Given that campus racial climate research has been silent about multiracial students, the purpose of this study is to explore…

  1. Racial Identity and Reflected Appraisals as Influences on Asian Americans' Racial Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Alvin N.; Helms, Janet E.

    2001-01-01

    The racial adjustment of Asian American university students (N=188) was assessed to examine the importance of race in their lives. Both racial identity status and reflected appraisals were significantly related to collective self-esteem as one measure of Asian American racial adjustment. Discusses the importance of the counselor's awareness of…

  2. The Influence of Racial Identity Profiles on the Relationship between Racial Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Kira Hudson; Kohn-Wood, Laura P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the association between racial identity profiles, discrimination, and mental health outcomes. African American college students (N = 194) completed measures of racial discrimination, racial identity, college hassles, and depressive symptoms. Four meaningful profiles emerged through a cluster analysis of seven dimensions of…

  3. Conquering racial disparities in perinatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Willis, Earnestine; McManus, Patricia; Magallanes, Norma; Johnson, Sheri; Majnik, Amber

    2014-12-01

    Infant mortality rate (IMR) is a reference indicator for societal health status. Trend analysis of IMR highlights 2 challenges to overcome in the United States: (1) US IMR is higher than most industrialized countries and (2) there are persistent racial/ethnic disparities in birth outcomes, especially for blacks. Racial/ethnic infant mortality disparities result from the complex interplay of adverse social, economic, and environmental exposures. In this article, racial/ethnic disparities are discussed, highlighting trends, the role of epigenetics in understanding mechanisms, key domains of community action planning, and programs and policies addressing the racial gaps in adverse birth outcomes. PMID:25459778

  4. Conquering racial disparities in perinatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Willis, Earnestine; McManus, Patricia; Magallanes, Norma; Johnson, Sheri; Majnik, Amber

    2014-12-01

    Infant mortality rate (IMR) is a reference indicator for societal health status. Trend analysis of IMR highlights 2 challenges to overcome in the United States: (1) US IMR is higher than most industrialized countries and (2) there are persistent racial/ethnic disparities in birth outcomes, especially for blacks. Racial/ethnic infant mortality disparities result from the complex interplay of adverse social, economic, and environmental exposures. In this article, racial/ethnic disparities are discussed, highlighting trends, the role of epigenetics in understanding mechanisms, key domains of community action planning, and programs and policies addressing the racial gaps in adverse birth outcomes.

  5. Population density and racial differences in the performance of emergency medical services.

    PubMed

    David, Guy; Harrington, Scott E

    2010-07-01

    This paper analyzes the existence and scope of possible racial differences/disparities in the provision of emergency medical services (EMS) response capability (time from dispatch to arrival at the scene and level of training of the responding team) using data on approximately 120,000 cardiac incidents in the state of Mississippi during 1995-2004. The conceptual framework and empirical analysis focus on the likely effects of population density on the efficient production of EMS as a local public good subject to congestion, and on the need to control adequately for population density to avoid bias in testing for racial differences. Models that control for aggregate population density at the county-level indicate "reverse" disparities: faster estimated response times for African-Americans than for whites. When a refined county-level measure of population density is used that incorporates differences in African-American and white population density by Census tract, the reverse disparity in response times disappears. There also is little or no evidence of race-related differences in the certification level of EMS responders. However, there is evidence that, controlling for response time, African-Americans on average were significantly more likely to be deceased than whites upon EMS arrival at the scene. The overall results are germane to the debate over the scope of conditioning variables that should be included when testing for racial disparities in health care.

  6. Racial identity and depressive symptoms among Black emerging adults: the moderating effects of neighborhood racial composition.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Noelle M; Sellers, Robert M; Cogburn, Courtney D; Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2013-05-01

    In the current study, we explored patterns of change in Black emerging adults' racial identity beliefs during the transition to adulthood, assessed neighborhood racial composition effects on Black emerging adults' racial identity beliefs, and tested the moderating effects of neighborhood racial composition on the associations between Black emerging adults' racial identity beliefs and depressive symptoms over time. Participants in the current study included 570 Black adolescents (52% female) who were transitioning into adulthood (senior year of high school through 5 years post- high school). We did not find average patterns of change in Black emerging adults' racial identity beliefs over time. Further, neighborhood racial composition did not predict participants' beginning status or growth in racial identity beliefs over time. We, however, found evidence that neighborhood racial composition may moderate the associations between Black emerging adults' racial identity beliefs and symptoms of depression over time. Findings from the current study underscore the importance of considering how the larger social context may interact with individuals' racial identity beliefs to influence Black emerging adults' psychological health.

  7. Direct-to-Consumer Racial Admixture Tests and Beliefs About Essential Racial Differences

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Jo C.; Link, Bruce G.; Zelner, Sarah; Yang, Lawrence H.

    2015-01-01

    Although at first relatively disinterested in race, modern genomic research has increasingly turned attention to racial variations. We examine a prominent example of this focus—direct-to-consumer racial admixture tests—and ask how information about the methods and results of these tests in news media may affect beliefs in racial differences. The reification hypothesis proposes that by emphasizing a genetic basis for race, thereby reifying race as a biological reality, the tests increase beliefs that whites and blacks are essentially different. The challenge hypothesis suggests that by describing differences between racial groups as continua rather than sharp demarcations, the results produced by admixture tests break down racial categories and reduce beliefs in racial differences. A nationally representative survey experiment (N = 526) provided clear support for the reification hypothesis. The results suggest that an unintended consequence of the genomic revolution may be to reinvigorate age-old beliefs in essential racial differences. PMID:25870464

  8. Racial Equality. To Protect These Rights Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Laughlin

    A historical review of racial discrimination against Negroes is the scope of this volume, part of a series of six volumes which explore the basic American rights. These include due process of law, freedom of speech and religious freedom. This volume traces the development of racial equality in the legal system, explores the controversies and…

  9. Transgressive and Negotiated White Racial Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Ryan M.

    2016-01-01

    This critical case study investigated the experiences of six White preservice teachers as they learned about race and racism during the first semester of an urban-focused teacher preparation program. The author identified two broad themes of "transgressive White racial knowledge" and "negotiated White racial knowledge" to…

  10. Examining Racial Microaggressions in Rehabilitation Counselor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Brenda Y.; Washington, Robin D.; McConnell, L. Robert

    2009-01-01

    This research extends the Constantine et al. (2008) study which identified racial microaggressions against Black faculty working in counseling and counseling psychology programs. Semi-structured interviews and qualitative analyses were used to: (1) ascertain the existence of racial microaggressions among African American faculty employed in…

  11. English Teachers' Racial Literacy Knowledge and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skerrett, Allison

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how secondary English teachers in two racially diverse schools--one in Massachusetts, USA, the other in Ontario, Canada--described their knowledge of and practices for teaching about race and racism. The extent and quality of teachers' racial literacy knowledge and practice were considered in light of the literature on racial…

  12. Racial Disparity in Minnesota's Child Protection System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erik P.; Clark, Sonja; Donald, Matthew; Pedersen, Rachel; Pichotta, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Minnesota has been recognized by several studies as a state with a significant amount of racial disparity in its child protection system. This study, using 2001 data from Minnesota's Social Services Information Service, was conducted to determine at which of the six decision points in Minnesota's child welfare system racial disparities are…

  13. Racial Harassment in Vermont Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pentino, Marc D.

    This report presents information from a 1997 community forum of the Vermont Advisory Committee on racial harassment in Vermont public schools. Parents, students, teachers, administrators and community and advocacy group representatives offered their views on racial harassment in the public schools, describing them as hostile and unfriendly places…

  14. Racial Issues in Education: Real or Imagined?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutte, Gloria S.; McCoy, Barbara

    Multicultural growth in teachers is measured through their level of cultural self-awareness, their emotional response to difference, their mode of cultural interaction, and whether their teaching approach is ethnocentric or multicultural. Overt racial issues in education include racial differences in standardized testing, gifted and remedial…

  15. Suburban Racial Segregation as a Nonecological Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, John R.; Stearns, Linda Brewster

    1981-01-01

    Examines the relationships between class, ethnicity, and the natural community life cycle and determines how these factors bear on the racial composition of suburban communities. Suggests that the variables associated with the ecological life cycle model are not significant predictors of change in suburban racial composition. (Author/APM)

  16. Understanding Curriculum as a Racial Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinar, William F.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses curriculum as a racial text, focusing on European Americans as a major part of the racial dilemma. The Eurocentric curriculum denies nonwhite students role models and denies white students self-understanding. African Americans' presence informs every element of U.S. life, and the absence of African-American knowledge in curriculum…

  17. Measuring Racial Balance. Research Memorandum No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Ben; D'Esopo, Tony

    The purpose of this research memorandum is to describe a means of measuring racial balance and to apply the measure to the distribution of public school population in San Francisco. The measure is derived from the definition that full integration would be achieved if each school had exactly the citywide racial mixture of students. The racial…

  18. Educational Strategies to Increase Racial Tolerance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchignani, Norman

    This paper reviews the effectiveness and practicality of various educational approaches for increasing racial tolerance and calls for developing strategies that have been formally evaluated to avoid the waste of time and limited resources. The first section discusses the racial inadequacies of most programs which purport to affect racial…

  19. Measuring Puerto Ricans' Perceptions of Racial Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginorio, Angela B.; Berry, Paul C.

    To measure how Puerto Ricans classify each other into racial groups by physical appearance, a stimulus set of 60 color slides was prepared. Two hundred and fifty secondary students sorted these portraits into four, three, and finally two groups. Although subjects placed both the pictures and themselves in a color continuum of racial types with…

  20. Neighborhood Racial Isolation, Disorder and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Virginia W.; Hillier, Amy E.; Mehta, Neil K.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that racial residential segregation may be detrimental to health. This study investigates the influence of neighborhood racial isolation on obesity and considers the role of neighborhood disorder as a mediator in this relationship. For the city of Philadelphia, we find that residence in a neighborhood with high black…

  1. The Racial Context of the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Sybil

    1991-01-01

    Documents the systematic extermination of Jews, Gypsies, Blacks, and the handicapped by the Nazis between 1933 and 1945. Notes eugenic and racial measures such as forced sterilization of mulatto and handicapped children were used. Discusses Nazi policies of deportations and mass murder. Identifies need for research to explain the racial context of…

  2. Racialized Subjects in a Colour Blind School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagermann, Laila Colding

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I examine processes of racialization in a school in Copenhagen, Denmark. On the basis of the data produced in 2009, which is part of a larger study, I investigate themes of race as a difference-making and constituting category for subjective (human) becoming and racialization as contingent and negotiated processes (Butler, 1997). As…

  3. Racial and Ethnic Identities in American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.

    The investigation of race relations, of social problems related to race and ethnicity, and of different racial and social groups, all presume prior information about the definition of racial or ethnic group identity, about the formation, maintenance, and dissolution of such identities, and about the importance of such identities in American…

  4. Assessing Racial Attitudes in Jury Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Clara; Bromley, Stephanie

    This paper examines the current state of voir dire procedures (the process in which prospective jurors are questioned about possible prejudgment or bias) used to detect racial attitudes in court cases involving black defendants and compares voir dire questions allowed and disallowed by the court. Data based upon an assessment of racial attitudes…

  5. Associations of racial discrimination and parental discrimination coping messages with African American adolescent racial identity.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M

    2015-06-01

    Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization.

  6. Associations of racial discrimination and parental discrimination coping messages with African American adolescent racial identity.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M

    2015-06-01

    Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization. PMID:25300508

  7. Racial disparities in pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Ramnitz, Mary Scott; Lodish, Maya B

    2013-09-01

    The question of whether or not children, particularly girls, are entering puberty earlier than they did in the past has been a concern in both the medical community and the general population. A secular trend analysis of the current data on pubertal timing in boys and girls is limited by variations in the study design, the population assessed, and the methods used to determine pubertal development. These differences present a challenge when interpreting the available data, especially when comparing multiple studies. The influence of race on pubertal timing and development had not been assessed before the 1970s. The purpose of this article is to review the reported variations in pubertal timing among different racial/ethnic groups. Data suggest African American girls enter puberty earlier and reach menarche earlier than Caucasian and Hispanic girls. In addition, the trend toward earlier timing of puberty seems to be occurring faster in African American girls compared with Caucasian girls over the past 25 years. While the mechanism and understanding of the cause of racial disparities in pubertal development remain to be discerned, genetic and/or environmental factors may play a role and require further investigation.

  8. SPATIAL MISMATCH OR RACIAL MISMATCH?*

    PubMed Central

    Hellerstein, Judith K.; Neumark, David; McInerney, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    We contrast the spatial mismatch hypothesis with what we term the racial mismatch hypothesis – that the problem is not a lack of jobs, per se, where blacks live, but a lack of jobs where blacks live into which blacks are hired. We first report new evidence on the spatial mismatch hypothesis, using data from Census Long-Form respondents. We construct direct measures of the presence of jobs in detailed geographic areas, and find that these job density measures are related to employment of black male residents in ways that would be predicted by the spatial mismatch hypothesis – in particular that spatial mismatch is primarily an issue for low-skilled black male workers. We then look at mismatch along not only spatial lines but racial lines as well, by estimating the effects of job density measures that are disaggregated by race. We find that it is primarily black job density that influences black male employment, whereas white job density has little if any influence on their employment. The evidence implies that space alone plays a relatively minor role in low black male employment rates. PMID:19727422

  9. Moisturizing Different Racial Skin Types

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Victor W.; Longaker, Michael T.; Yang, George P.

    2014-01-01

    The skin is a complex organ involved in thermoregulation, gas exchange, protection against pathogens, and barrier function to maintain proper hydration. When dry, the ability for skin to execute these tasks becomes impaired. Dry skin affects almost everyone as we age, but it is also dependent on external factors, such as dry climate, colder temperatures, and repeated washing. In addition, increasing evidence has shown racial variability in the physiological properties of skin, which directly impacts water content of the stratum corneum and sensitivity to exogenously applied agents. A multitude of products have been developed to treat dry skin, and as a group, moisturizers have been designed to either impart or restore hydration in the stratum corneum. Given the large number of moisturizers presently available, depending on individual components, several different mechanisms may be employed to promote skin hydration. As there exists dramatic racial variability in skin properties, certain moisturizers may thus be more effective in some and less effective in others to treat the common condition of dry skin. PMID:25013536

  10. Neighborhood racial composition, racial discrimination, and depressive symptoms in African Americans.

    PubMed

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2014-12-01

    While evidence indicates that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African Americans, there is little research investigating predictors of experienced racial discrimination. This paper examines neighborhood racial composition and sociodemographic factors as antecedents to experienced racial discrimination and resultant levels of depressive symptoms among African American adults. The sample included 505 socioeconomically-diverse African American adults from Baltimore, MD. Study data were obtained via self-report and geocoding of participant addresses based on 2010 census data. Study hypotheses were tested using multiple pathways within a longitudinal Structural Equation Model. Experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with age and sex such that older individuals and males experienced increased levels of racial discrimination. In addition, the percentage of White individuals residing in a neighborhood was positively associated with levels of experienced racial discrimination for African American neighborhood residents. Experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with later depressive symptoms. Neighborhood-level contextual factors such as neighborhood racial composition and individual differences in sociodemographic characteristics appear to play an important role in the experience of racial discrimination and the etiology of depression in African American adults.

  11. Neighborhood Racial Composition, Racial Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Sharon F.; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2015-01-01

    While evidence indicates that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African Americans, there is little research investigating predictors of experienced racial discrimination. This paper examines neighborhood racial composition and sociodemographic factors as antecedents to experienced racial discrimination and resultant levels of depressive symptoms among African American adults. The sample included 505 socioeconomically-diverse African American adults from Baltimore, MD. Study data were obtained via self-report and geocoding of participant addresses based on 2010 census data. Study hypotheses were tested using multiple pathways within a longitudinal Structural Equation Model. Experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with age and sex such that older individuals and males experienced increased levels of racial discrimination. In addition, the percentage of White individuals residing in a neighborhood was positively associated with levels of experienced racial discrimination for African American neighborhood residents. Experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with later depressive symptoms. Neighborhood-level contextual factors such as neighborhood racial composition and individual differences in sociodemographic characteristics appear to play an important role in the experience of racial discrimination and the etiology of depression in African American adults. PMID:24969707

  12. The Effect of Post-Racial Theory on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of post-racial theory (PRT) in both social and political spheres of dominant American hegemony has illustrated a desire among academic circles to move past race and racial categories in social analysis. However, absent within post-racial rhetoric is critical language on how to abolish racism and racial inequality. (Samad 2009) It…

  13. Teaching the Psychosocial Subject: White Students and Racial Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrosio, John

    2014-01-01

    This inquiry poses the question: How can white college students be induced or incited into recognizing themselves as racially marked and privileged people? The author examines white resistance to racial self-understanding by analyzing the relation between white racial identity development theory, appeals to racial discourses and themes, and the…

  14. Black Child, White Child: The Development of Racial Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Judith D. R.

    In Part One of this study of both racial attitudes in and the influence of race on social interaction between preschool children, "The Acquisition of Racial Attitudes," there is a discussion of mechanisms of racial attitude transmission, and a review of other studies. Part Two, "Sociological Correlates of Racial Attitude Formation," describes the…

  15. Predictors of Racial Prejudice in White American Counseling Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Linda G.; Conoley, Collie W.; King, Jennifer; Rollins, Dahl; Rivera, Saori; Veve, Mia

    2006-01-01

    This study extends the research on racial prejudice by combining previously identified predictors into 1 study to determine their relative importance in contributing to racial prejudice. Results revealed that White racial identity significantly predicted racial prejudice when demographic variables were controlled. Implications of reducing racial…

  16. Racial Prejudice in College Students: A Cross-Sectional Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassner, Breanna; McGuigan, William

    2014-01-01

    Racial prejudice is based upon negative preconceived notions of select racial groups with the assumption that all members of a particular racial group can be categorized with the same negative characteristics. Social categorization allows for quick sorting of individuals into racial groups saturated with a common flavor. Allport's Principle…

  17. Challenging a culture of racial equivalence.

    PubMed

    Song, Miri

    2014-03-01

    We live at a time when our understandings and conceptualizations of 'racism' are often highly imprecise, broad, and used to describe a wide range of racialized phenomena. In this article, I raise some important questions about how the term racism is used and understood in contemporary British society by drawing on some recent cases of alleged racism in football and politics, many of which have been played out via new media technologies. A broader understanding of racism, through the use of the term 'racialization', has been helpful in articulating a more nuanced and complex understanding of racial incidents, especially of people's (often ambivalent) beliefs and behaviours. However, the growing emphasis upon 'racialization' has led to a conceptualization of racism which increasingly involves multiple perpetrators, victims, and practices without enough consideration of how and why particular interactions and practices constitute racism as such. The trend toward a growing culture of racial equivalence is worrying, as it denudes the idea of racism of its historical basis, severity and power. These frequent and commonplace assertions of racism in the public sphere paradoxically end up trivializing and homogenizing quite different forms of racialized interactions. I conclude that we need to retain the term 'racism', but we need to differentiate more clearly between 'racism' (as an historical and structured system of domination) from the broader notion of 'racialization'.

  18. A moderated mediation model: racial discrimination, coping strategies, and racial identity among Black adolescents.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Eleanor K; Upton, Rachel; Gilbert, Adrianne; Volpe, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a moderated mediation model among 314 Black adolescents aged 13-18. The model included general coping strategies (e.g., active, distracting, avoidant, and support-seeking strategies) as mediators and racial identity dimensions (racial centrality, private regard, public regard, minority, assimilationist, and humanist ideologies) as moderators of the relation between perceived racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Moderated mediation examined if the relation between perceived racial discrimination and depressive symptoms varied by the mediators and moderators. Results revealed that avoidant coping strategies mediated the relation between perceptions of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. The results indicated that avoidant coping strategies mediated the relation between perceived racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among youth with high levels of the minority/oppressive ideology.

  19. Racial Disparity in Police Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Crutchfield, Robert D.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; McGlynn, Anne; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Criminologists agree the race disparity in arrests cannot be fully explained by differences in criminal behavior. We examine social environment factors that may lead to racial differences in police contact in early adolescence, including family, peers, school, and community. Data are from 331 8th-grade students. Blacks were almost twice as likely as Whites to report a police contact. Blacks reported more property crime but not more violent crime than Whites. Police contacts were increased by having a parent who had been arrested, a sibling involved in criminal activity, higher observed reward for negative behavior, having school disciplinary actions, and knowing adults who engaged in substance abuse or criminal behavior. Race differences in police contacts were partially attributable to more school discipline. PMID:24363956

  20. Racial differences in alcohol sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Chan, A W

    1986-01-01

    The existence of racial differences in alcohol sensitivity between Oriental and Caucasian populations has been well documented. The primary manifestation is a highly visible facial flushing (47-85% in Orientals vs 3-29% in Caucasians) accompanied by other objective and subjective symptoms of discomfort. Even among different Oriental groups, subtle differences in the flushing response and alcohol consumption can exist. North and South American Indian populations differ in phenotypes for alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, but systematic studies comparing degree of flushing, alcohol elimination rates and blood acetaldehyde levels in these populations are lacking. Although flushing does not automatically 'immunize' an individual against alcohol use, those susceptible tend to consume less alcohol, at least in Orientals. However, the flushing phenomenon cannot be the sole explanation for differences in incidences of alcoholism among different racial groups. Socio-cultural, environmental and genetic factors also have to be considered. An increased incidence of flushing has been found to associate with a familial risk of development of future alcoholism in a Caucasian population. It remains to be determined whether the same is true in Orientals. Most biochemical investigations of the flushing phenomenon have focused on aspects of alcohol metabolism. Based on recent findings, a convincing mechanism is the higher accumulation of acetaldehyde in flushing subjects because they have an unusual, less-active liver aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme (ALDHI). The possibility that an 'atypical' alcohol dehydrogenase, which is present in 85-90% of Oriental subjects, can contribute to increased blood acetaldehyde levels in flushing subjects cannot be ruled out. Based on results of a small number of pedigree studies which demonstrated familial resemblances in flushing, a pharmacogenetic defect in ALDHI has been proposed to be responsible for flushing. Other possible

  1. The lagged effects of racial discrimination on depressive symptomology and interactions with racial identity.

    PubMed

    Hoggard, Lori S; Byrd, Christy M; Sellers, Robert M

    2015-04-01

    Scholars agree on the negative impacts of racial discrimination on the mental health of African Americans (Brondolo et al., 2008). Yet research is needed to explore the impacts of everyday discrimination over time, especially compared to nonracial daily hassles, in an ecologically valid manner. It is also widely accepted that racial identity can moderate the impact of racial hassles (Sellers, Copeland-Linder, Martin, & Lewis 2006), but few studies have examined this moderating effect over time. The current study addresses gaps in the current literature by analyzing the relationship between reported racial and nonracial stressors over the course of four days. Participants were 225 college students at three institutions who participated in a 20-day daily diary study. Each day, participants reported whether they had experienced a stressful event and their depressive symptoms. We compared reports of depressive symptoms the day an event occurred and two days after for racial and nonracial stressors and examined whether racial identity served as a moderator. The results showed that individuals experienced similar increases for racial and nonracial stressors when events occur and similar decreases in the following two days. Additionally, symptom trajectories varied by racial identity. Implications for the understanding of racial discrimination's role in the well-being of African Americans are discussed.

  2. The lagged effects of racial discrimination on depressive symptomology and interactions with racial identity.

    PubMed

    Hoggard, Lori S; Byrd, Christy M; Sellers, Robert M

    2015-04-01

    Scholars agree on the negative impacts of racial discrimination on the mental health of African Americans (Brondolo et al., 2008). Yet research is needed to explore the impacts of everyday discrimination over time, especially compared to nonracial daily hassles, in an ecologically valid manner. It is also widely accepted that racial identity can moderate the impact of racial hassles (Sellers, Copeland-Linder, Martin, & Lewis 2006), but few studies have examined this moderating effect over time. The current study addresses gaps in the current literature by analyzing the relationship between reported racial and nonracial stressors over the course of four days. Participants were 225 college students at three institutions who participated in a 20-day daily diary study. Each day, participants reported whether they had experienced a stressful event and their depressive symptoms. We compared reports of depressive symptoms the day an event occurred and two days after for racial and nonracial stressors and examined whether racial identity served as a moderator. The results showed that individuals experienced similar increases for racial and nonracial stressors when events occur and similar decreases in the following two days. Additionally, symptom trajectories varied by racial identity. Implications for the understanding of racial discrimination's role in the well-being of African Americans are discussed. PMID:25867694

  3. Race talk: the psychology of racial dialogues.

    PubMed

    Sue, Derald Wing

    2013-11-01

    Constructive dialogues on race have been proposed as a means to heal racial and ethnic divides, reduce prejudice and misinformation, increase racial literacy, and foster improved race relations. Studies on the psychology of racial dialogues indicate social and academic norms that dictate against race talk between White Americans and persons of color: (a) the politeness protocol, (b) the academic protocol, and (c) the color-blind protocol. These protocols discourage race talk and allow society to enter into a conspiracy of silence regarding the detrimental impact oppression plays on persons of color. Facilitating difficult dialogues on race requires educators to recognize what makes such discussions difficult. For people of color, engaging in race talk exposes them to microaggressions that invalidate and assail their racial/ethnic identities. For Whites, honest discussions are impeded by fears of appearing racist, of realizing their racism, of acknowledging White privilege, and of taking responsibility to combat racism. PMID:24320648

  4. Race talk: the psychology of racial dialogues.

    PubMed

    Sue, Derald Wing

    2013-11-01

    Constructive dialogues on race have been proposed as a means to heal racial and ethnic divides, reduce prejudice and misinformation, increase racial literacy, and foster improved race relations. Studies on the psychology of racial dialogues indicate social and academic norms that dictate against race talk between White Americans and persons of color: (a) the politeness protocol, (b) the academic protocol, and (c) the color-blind protocol. These protocols discourage race talk and allow society to enter into a conspiracy of silence regarding the detrimental impact oppression plays on persons of color. Facilitating difficult dialogues on race requires educators to recognize what makes such discussions difficult. For people of color, engaging in race talk exposes them to microaggressions that invalidate and assail their racial/ethnic identities. For Whites, honest discussions are impeded by fears of appearing racist, of realizing their racism, of acknowledging White privilege, and of taking responsibility to combat racism.

  5. Racial disparities in hate crime reporting.

    PubMed

    Zaykowski, Heather

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the influence of the victim's race in reporting hate crimes to the police. Data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) concentrated incident-level files (1992-2005) were used to (a) analyze how the victim's race influences the likelihood of reporting and (b) explore differences between reporting racial hate crimes and non-racial hate crimes. Controlling for other demographic and incident characteristics, the results indicate that minority victimizations are less likely to be reported for both racial and nonracial hate crimes; however, the magnitude of this effect was greater for racial hate crimes. Failure to report to the police has serious consequences for the victim and the criminal justice system. Implications and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  6. Neighborhood Racial Isolation, Disorder and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Virginia W.; Hillier, Amy E.; Mehta, Neil K.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research suggests that racial residential segregation may be detrimental to health. This study investigates the influence of neighborhood racial isolation on obesity and considers the role of neighborhood disorder as a mediator in this relationship. For the city of Philadelphia, we find that residence in a neighborhood with high black racial isolation is associated with a higher body mass index and higher odds of obesity among women, but not men, highlighting important sex differences in the influence of neighborhood structure on health. Furthermore, the influence of high racial isolation on women’s weight status is mediated, in part, by the physically disordered nature of such neighborhoods. Disorder of a more social nature (as measured by incident crime) is not associated with weight status. PMID:20179775

  7. Racial and socioeconomic factors in glomerular disease.

    PubMed

    Halevy, D; Radhakrishnan, J; Appel, G B

    2001-07-01

    The influence of racial and socioeconomic factors on the incidence, prognosis, and response to therapy of many diseases has long been noted. Although glomerular diseases comprise 10% to over 16% of the dialysis and renal transplant populations, respectively, only recently have racial and socioeconomic factors been evaluated. Several glomerular diseases are associated with a striking African-American predominance. These include idiopathic focal sclerosis, and especially its collapsing variant, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy, and severe lupus nephritis. In many of these entities the renal disease is also more aggressive and rapidly progressive than in other populations. Recent data points to genetic-biologic as well as social and economic factors that may be responsible for these findings. Studies dealing with the therapy of glomerular lesions must be stratified for racial and social background differences to avoid bias in outcome. Whether racial and socioeconomic data should be used in treating individual patients, and how, remains an area of controversy.

  8. RACIAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...

  9. The Impact of African American Parents' Racial Discrimination Experiences and Perceived Neighborhood Cohesion on their Racial Socialization Practices.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Farzana T; English, Devin; Busby, Danielle R; Lambert, Sharon F; Harrison, Aubrey; Stock, Michelle L; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2016-07-01

    Parental racial socialization is a parenting tool used to prepare African American adolescents for managing racial stressors. While it is known that parents' racial discrimination experiences affect the racial socialization messages they provide, little is known about the influence of factors that promote supportive and communal parenting, such as perceived neighborhood cohesion. In cohesive neighborhoods, neighbors may help parents address racial discrimination by monitoring youth and conveying racial socialization messages; additionally, the effect of neighborhood cohesion on parents' racial socialization may differ for boys and girls because parents socialize adolescents about race differently based on expected encounters with racial discrimination. Therefore, the current study examines how parents' perception of neighborhood cohesion and adolescents' gender moderate associations between parents' racial discrimination experiences and the racial socialization messages they deliver to their adolescents. Participants were a community sample of 608 African American adolescents (54 % girls; mean age = 15.5) and their primary caregivers (86 % biological mothers; mean age = 42.0). Structural equation modeling indicated that parental racial discrimination was associated with more promotion of mistrust messages for boys and girls in communities with low neighborhood cohesion. In addition, parental racial discrimination was associated with more cultural socialization messages about racial pride and history for boys in neighborhoods with low neighborhood cohesion. The findings suggest that parents' racial socialization messages are influenced by their own racial discrimination experiences and the cohesiveness of the neighborhood; furthermore, the content of parental messages delivered varies based on adolescents' gender. PMID:27189721

  10. Racial bias shapes social reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Björn; Selbing, Ida; Molapour, Tanaz; Olsson, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Both emotional facial expressions and markers of racial-group belonging are ubiquitous signals in social interaction, but little is known about how these signals together affect future behavior through learning. To address this issue, we investigated how emotional (threatening or friendly) in-group and out-group faces reinforced behavior in a reinforcement-learning task. We asked whether reinforcement learning would be modulated by intergroup attitudes (i.e., racial bias). The results showed that individual differences in racial bias critically modulated reinforcement learning. As predicted, racial bias was associated with more efficiently learned avoidance of threatening out-group individuals. We used computational modeling analysis to quantitatively delimit the underlying processes affected by social reinforcement. These analyses showed that racial bias modulates the rate at which exposure to threatening out-group individuals is transformed into future avoidance behavior. In concert, these results shed new light on the learning processes underlying social interaction with racial-in-group and out-group individuals.

  11. Campus Racial Climate Perceptions and Overall Sense of Belonging among Racially Diverse Women in STEM Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dawn R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of campus racial climate perceptions and other college environments to overall sense of belonging among racially diverse women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. The sample included 1,722 women from the 2004 National Study of Living-Learning Programs. Using a conceptual…

  12. White Racial Identity and White Racial Consciousness: Similarities, Differences, and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Mark M.; Behrens, John T.; LaFleur, N. Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    To dispel confusion, White racial identity and White racial consciousness are described and contrasted in terms of theoretical conceptualization and measures used. It is recommended that priority be given to the validation of existing or new measurement instruments to provide a sound basis for future findings. (Author)

  13. Critical Race Theory, Racial Microaggressions, and Campus Racial Climate for Latina/o Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yosso, Tara J.; Smith, William A.; Ceja, Miguel; Solorzano, Daniel G.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, Tara Yosso, William Smith, Miguel Ceja, and Daniel Solorzano expand on their previous work by employing critical race theory to explore and understand incidents of racial microaggressions as experienced by Latina/o students at three selective universities. The authors explore three types of racial microaggressions--interpersonal…

  14. An Exploration of the Relationship between Racial Identity Attitudes and the Perception of Racial Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Stephen D.; Caldwell, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Explored the relationship between specific theories of racial identity attitudes and the asymmetry hypothesis. Surveys of African American college students indicated that people who strongly endorsed an Africentric perspective attributed more racial bias to white than to African American characters described as discriminating against others not of…

  15. A Moderated Mediation Model: Racial Discrimination, Coping Strategies, and Racial Identity among Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Upton, Rachel; Gilbert, Adrianne; Volpe, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a moderated mediation model among 314 Black adolescents aged 13-18. The model included general coping strategies (e.g., active, distracting, avoidant, and support-seeking strategies) as mediators and racial identity dimensions (racial centrality, private regard, public regard, minority, assimilationist, and humanist ideologies)…

  16. Dimensions of Verbal Racial Attitudes: Interracial Marriages and Approaches to Racial Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham, John C.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The study reported here applies an empirical approach to the analysis of the components of whites' racial attitudes. It was designed to see whether items addressing two approaches to achieving racial equality--changing the community versus improving the black--would cluster separately or whether they would cluster with items of similar type…

  17. When are Racial Disparities in Education the Result of Racial Discrimination? A Social Science Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin

    2003-01-01

    Synthesizes the social science research on racially correlated disparities in education, focusing on biological determinism (behavioral genetics); social structure (e.g., reproduction theory and resistance theory); school organization and opportunities to learn (e.g., resources, racial composition, and tracking); family background (financial,…

  18. Examination of the Link between Parental Racial Socialization Messages and Racial Ideology among Black College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Simone C.; Neville, Helen A.

    2008-01-01

    The relations between racial socialization and color-blind racial beliefs (i.e., the denial, distortion, or minimization of racism) among 153 Black American college students, including 34 college student-parent dyads, were examined. Findings from open-ended data indicate that participants identified receiving both protective (i.e., messages about…

  19. Racial differences in melanoma incidence.

    PubMed Central

    Crombie, I. K.

    1979-01-01

    The incidences of malignant melanoma recorded by 59 population-based cancer registries were investigated to determine the effects of racial and skin-colour differences. White populations exhibited a wide range of melanoma incidences and females commonly, though not invariably, had a higher incidence than males. Non-white populations experienced in general a much lower incidence of melanoma although there was some overlap of white and non-white rates. No predominant sex difference emerged among non-whites. Populations of African descent were found to have a higher incidence than those of Asiatic origin, but it was concluded that this was due largely to the high frequency of tumours among Africans on the sole of the foot. A clear negative correlation between degree of skin pigmentation and melanoma incidence emerged for the exposed body sites. These data provide strong support for the hypotheses that UV radiation is a major cause of malignant melanoma and that melanin pigmentation protects against it. Further research is required to elucidate the aetiology of melanoma of the sole of the foot. PMID:475965

  20. Racial residential segregation: a fundamental cause of racial disparities in health.

    PubMed

    Williams, D R; Collins, C

    2001-01-01

    Racial residential segregation is a fundamental cause of racial disparities in health. The physical separation of the races by enforced residence in certain areas is an institutional mechanism of racism that was designed to protect whites from social interaction with blacks. Despite the absence of supportive legal statutes, the degree of residential segregation remains extremely high for most African Americans in the United States. The authors review evidence that suggests that segregation is a primary cause of racial differences in socioeconomic status (SES) by determining access to education and employment opportunities. SES in turn remains a fundamental cause of racial differences in health. Segregation also creates conditions inimical to health in the social and physical environment. The authors conclude that effective efforts to eliminate racial disparities in health must seriously confront segregation and its pervasive consequences.

  1. Racial residential segregation: a fundamental cause of racial disparities in health.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D. R.; Collins, C.

    2001-01-01

    Racial residential segregation is a fundamental cause of racial disparities in health. The physical separation of the races by enforced residence in certain areas is an institutional mechanism of racism that was designed to protect whites from social interaction with blacks. Despite the absence of supportive legal statutes, the degree of residential segregation remains extremely high for most African Americans in the United States. The authors review evidence that suggests that segregation is a primary cause of racial differences in socioeconomic status (SES) by determining access to education and employment opportunities. SES in turn remains a fundamental cause of racial differences in health. Segregation also creates conditions inimical to health in the social and physical environment. The authors conclude that effective efforts to eliminate racial disparities in health must seriously confront segregation and its pervasive consequences. PMID:12042604

  2. Strategies for managing impressions of racial identity in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Laura Morgan; Cha, Sandra E; Kim, Sung Soo

    2014-10-01

    This article deepens understanding of the workplace experiences of racial minorities by investigating racial identity-based impression management (RIM) by Asian American journalists. Racial centrality, directly or indirectly, predicted the use of 4 RIM strategies (avoidance, enhancement, affiliation, and racial humor). Professional centrality also predicted strategy use, which was related to life satisfaction and perceived career success. By shedding light on proactive strategies that individuals use to influence colleagues' impressions of their racial identity, we contribute to research on diversity in organizations, impression management, and racial identity.

  3. Strategies for managing impressions of racial identity in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Laura Morgan; Cha, Sandra E; Kim, Sung Soo

    2014-10-01

    This article deepens understanding of the workplace experiences of racial minorities by investigating racial identity-based impression management (RIM) by Asian American journalists. Racial centrality, directly or indirectly, predicted the use of 4 RIM strategies (avoidance, enhancement, affiliation, and racial humor). Professional centrality also predicted strategy use, which was related to life satisfaction and perceived career success. By shedding light on proactive strategies that individuals use to influence colleagues' impressions of their racial identity, we contribute to research on diversity in organizations, impression management, and racial identity. PMID:25090148

  4. The Geographic Scale of Metropolitan Racial Segregation

    PubMed Central

    REARDON, SEAN F.; MATTHEWS, STEPHEN A.; O’SULLIVAN, DAVID; LEE, BARRETT A.; FIREBAUGH, GLENN; FARRELL, CHAD R.; BISCHOFF, KENDRA

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses an aspect of racial residential segregation that has been largely ignored in prior work: the issue of geographic scale. In some metropolitan areas, racial groups are segregated over large regions, with predominately white regions, predominately black regions, and so on, whereas in other areas, the separation of racial groups occurs over much shorter distances. Here we develop an approach—featuring the segregation profile and the corresponding macro/micro segregation ratio—that offers a scale-sensitive alternative to standard methodological practice for describing segregation. Using this approach, we measure and describe the geographic scale of racial segregation in the 40 largest U.S. metropolitan areas in 2000. We find considerable heterogeneity in the geographic scale of segregation patterns across both metropolitan areas and racial groups, a heterogeneity that is not evident using conventional “aspatial” segregation measures. Moreover, because the geographic scale of segregation is only modestly correlated with the level of segregation in our sample, we argue that geographic scale represents a distinct dimension of residential segregation. We conclude with a brief discussion of the implications of our findings for investigating the patterns, causes, and consequences of residential segregation at different geographic scales. PMID:18939658

  5. Racial Healthcare Disparities: A Social Psychological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Penner, Louis A.; Hagiwara, Nao; Eggly, Susan; Gaertner, Samuel L.; Albrecht, Terrance L.; Dovidio, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Around the world, members of racial/ethnic minority groups typically experience poorer health than members of racial/ethnic majority groups. The core premise of this article is that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors related to race and ethnicity play a critical role in healthcare disparities. Social psychological theories of the origins and consequences of these thoughts, feelings, and behaviors offer critical insights into the processes responsible for these disparities and suggest interventions to address them. We present a multilevel model that explains how societal, intrapersonal, and interpersonal factors can influence ethnic/racial health disparities. We focus our literature review, including our own research, and conceptual analysis at the intrapersonal (the race-related thoughts and feelings of minority patients and non-minority physicians) and interpersonal levels (intergroup processes that affect medical interactions between minority patients and non-minority physicians). At both levels of analysis, we use theories of social categorization, social identity, contemporary forms of racial bias, stereotype activation, stigma, and other social psychological processes to identify and understand potential causes and processes of health and healthcare disparities. In the final section, we identify theory-based interventions that might reduce ethnic/racial disparities in health and healthcare. PMID:25197206

  6. Racial disparities in participation in biomedical research.

    PubMed Central

    Kressin, N. R.; Meterko, M.; Wilson, N. J.

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether minority patients were less likely to participate in biomedical research, perceive positive benefits from such participation, or to recommend research participation to other patients, an observational study was conducted. Sociodemographic and survey data were collected from 5436 users of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Ambulatory Care, which included questions about veterans' research participation and related attitudes. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine if there were racial differences in the outcomes of interest, controlling for relevant sociodemographic factors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses indicated that there were no racial differences in self-reported research participation, but minority veterans were more likely to perceive a positive effect of research and less likely to recommend research to other veterans. However, subgroup analyses indicated that, of those veterans having negative attitudes about research, minority and less educated veterans were disproportionately represented. In the VA system, racial differences in research participation may dissipate because many sociodemographic factors are controlled. Although we did not observe consistent racial differences in research participation or attitudes, the fact that minority veterans were disproportionately represented among the group with the most negative attitudes about research suggests that further research is necessary to fully understand the racial dynamics of research participation in the VA. PMID:10800293

  7. Racial Healthcare Disparities: A Social Psychological Analysis.

    PubMed

    Penner, Louis A; Hagiwara, Nao; Eggly, Susan; Gaertner, Samuel L; Albrecht, Terrance L; Dovidio, John F

    2013-01-01

    Around the world, members of racial/ethnic minority groups typically experience poorer health than members of racial/ethnic majority groups. The core premise of this article is that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors related to race and ethnicity play a critical role in healthcare disparities. Social psychological theories of the origins and consequences of these thoughts, feelings, and behaviors offer critical insights into the processes responsible for these disparities and suggest interventions to address them. We present a multilevel model that explains how societal, intrapersonal, and interpersonal factors can influence ethnic/racial health disparities. We focus our literature review, including our own research, and conceptual analysis at the intrapersonal (the race-related thoughts and feelings of minority patients and non-minority physicians) and interpersonal levels (intergroup processes that affect medical interactions between minority patients and non-minority physicians). At both levels of analysis, we use theories of social categorization, social identity, contemporary forms of racial bias, stereotype activation, stigma, and other social psychological processes to identify and understand potential causes and processes of health and healthcare disparities. In the final section, we identify theory-based interventions that might reduce ethnic/racial disparities in health and healthcare. PMID:25197206

  8. Racial/Ethnic Workplace Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (p<0.001). In the total sample, discrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232

  9. Examining Post-Racial Ideology in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baber, Lorenzo DuBois

    2015-01-01

    Despite traditional notions of meritocracy, higher education has a long history of exclusionary practices. This chapter explores connections between such practices and racial ideology in the United States, including the recent concept of "post-racialism."

  10. Segregation, racial structure, and neighborhood violent crime.

    PubMed

    Krivo, Lauren J; Peterson, Ruth D; Kuhl, Danielle C

    2009-05-01

    Drawing on structural racism and urban disadvantage approaches, this article posits a broad influence of citywide racial residential segregation on levels of violent crime across all urban neighborhoods regardless of their racial/ethnic composition. Multilevel models based on data from the National Neighborhood Crime Study for 7,622 neighborhoods in 79 cities throughout the United States reveal that segregation is positively associated with violent crime for white and various types of nonwhite neighborhoods. Nonetheless, there is a lack of parity in violence across these types of communities reflecting the larger racialized social system in which whites are able to use their privileged position to reside in the most advantaged neighborhoods, while African-Americans and Latinos live in the most disadvantaged urban communities and therefore bear the brunt of urban criminal violence.

  11. Racial Socialization, Racial Identity, and Academic Attitudes Among African American Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Influence of Parent-Adolescent Communication.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sandra; McLoyd, Vonnie C; Hallman, Samantha K

    2016-06-01

    A significant gap remains in our understanding of the conditions under which parents' racial socialization has consequences for adolescents' functioning. The present study used longitudinal data to examine whether the frequency of communication between African American parents and adolescents (N = 504; 49 % female) moderates the association between parent reports of racial socialization (i.e., cultural socialization and preparation for bias) at 8th grade and adolescent reports of racial identity (perceived structural discrimination, negative public regard, success-oriented centrality) at 11th grade, and in turn, academic attitudes and perceptions. Parents' racial socialization practices were significant predictors of multiple aspects of adolescents' racial identity in families with high levels of communication, but they did not predict any aspects of adolescents' racial identity in families with low levels of communication. Results highlight the importance of including family processes when examining the relations between parents' racial socialization and adolescents' racial identity and academic attitudes and perceptions.

  12. Racial Socialization, Racial Identity, and Academic Attitudes Among African American Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Influence of Parent-Adolescent Communication.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sandra; McLoyd, Vonnie C; Hallman, Samantha K

    2016-06-01

    A significant gap remains in our understanding of the conditions under which parents' racial socialization has consequences for adolescents' functioning. The present study used longitudinal data to examine whether the frequency of communication between African American parents and adolescents (N = 504; 49 % female) moderates the association between parent reports of racial socialization (i.e., cultural socialization and preparation for bias) at 8th grade and adolescent reports of racial identity (perceived structural discrimination, negative public regard, success-oriented centrality) at 11th grade, and in turn, academic attitudes and perceptions. Parents' racial socialization practices were significant predictors of multiple aspects of adolescents' racial identity in families with high levels of communication, but they did not predict any aspects of adolescents' racial identity in families with low levels of communication. Results highlight the importance of including family processes when examining the relations between parents' racial socialization and adolescents' racial identity and academic attitudes and perceptions. PMID:26369349

  13. Of Jewel Heritage: racial socialization and racial identity attitudes amongst adolescents of mixed African-Caribbean/White parentage.

    PubMed

    Fatimilehin, I A

    1999-06-01

    Mixed parentage adolescents form an increasing proportion of ethnic minority adolescents in Britain. Few studies have investigated their views and perceptions of their racial identity in terms of their Black heritage. This exploratory study investigated their attitudes towards Blackness, and examined the relationship that this might have with their reported experiences of racial socialization as well as with their self-esteem. Older adolescents were more likely to have positive racial identity attitudes, and a positive relationship was found between racial identity attitudes and self-esteem. Reported frequency of certain types of racial socialization messages increased with age. This was especially pronounced with messages relating to the development of racial pride and messages relating to issues around racism. Those adolescents who lived with both parents reported receiving more proactive racial socialization messages. Tentative conclusions include the possibility that dual identification and multicultural environments are associated with a positive sense of racial identity. These issues need to be investigated further.

  14. Promise and Dilemma: Perspectives on Racial Diversity and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Eugene Y., Jr., Ed.

    The essays and commentaries in this volume on racial diversity and higher education are grouped into three parts. The first offers a broad perspective and an historical review of the complex history of the United States' effort to achieve racial diversity; the second notes empirical studies of the extent of racial disparities in academic…

  15. Contradictions of Identity: Education and the Problem of Racial Absolutism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Cameron

    1995-01-01

    Critiques tendencies toward dogmatism and essentialism in current educational theories of racial inequality. Argues that different gender, class, and ethnic interests intersect with racial coordination and affiliation, and that to reduce racial antagonism or ameliorate educational inequities educators must consider the powerful role of nuance,…

  16. Percent Black and Racial Hostility: An Old Assumption Reexamined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Michael W.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the theory that a high concentration of Black people in a given population will create negative racial attitudes within that population. A research study finds that this relationship holds only for southern respondents. Outside the South, racial attitudes appear to be largely insensitive to racial concentration. (Author/AV)

  17. The Neoliberal Racial Project: The Tiger Mother and Governmentality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Jeong-eun

    2013-01-01

    Combining the conceptual approach of racial formation and racial projects with the Foucauldian concept of governmentality, Jeong-eun Rhee theorizes the "neoliberal racial project" (NRP) and examines contemporary meanings and operations of race and racism in relation to neoliberalism. She analyzes Amy Chua's popular parenting memoir,…

  18. Urbanism and Racial Attitudes: A Test of Some Urban Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Thomas C.

    1984-01-01

    National survey data are used to test the relationship between urbanism and racial attitudes among Whites, and a liberalizing effect of urbanism is found. It appears that urbanism liberalizes racial attitudes by increasing equal-status, cooperative, and relatively personal contact between members of racial subcultures. (Author/RDN)

  19. Schools as Racial Spaces: Understanding and Resisting Structural Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaisdell, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing schools as racial spaces can help researchers examine the role of teachers in the perpetuation of structural racism in schools. Based on ethnographic and autoethnographic work, this article offers examples of schools as racial spaces, spaces where whiteness controlled access. It also highlights four teachers who pursued racial equity in…

  20. Tasseography: Reading Post-Racial Resistance to Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Akil

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on developing a progressive philosophy of praxis that challenges, what the author argues is, a post-racial resistance to teaching about racial injustice. Post-racial resistance to teaching can lead to forms of enlightened racism and sexism in the classroom. In this essay, the author develops and extends the use of the metaphor…

  1. The Serious Games of Racial Accounting in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Martha Irene

    2011-01-01

    Educational disparities are frequently framed in racial comparisons that are based on data generated by sorting and counting racial subgroups. Our reliance on these data, and the sorting and counting mechanisms entailed therein, is fundamental to debates about racial inequalities. What is largely ignored in achievement gap discourse is how racial…

  2. Reduction of Racial Prejudice in Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi-Pearson, Catherine; Castillo, Linda; Maples, Mary Finn

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the impact of gender, race, intergroup contact, and diversity training on racial prejudice of student affairs professionals. Diversity training and race of participants were statistically significant contributors to change in racial prejudice. Findings suggest that racial prejudice decreases as diversity training increases.…

  3. Social Equity Theory and Racial-Ethnic Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, racial-ethnic differences on tests of school readiness and academic achievement continue. A complete understanding of the origins of racial-ethnic achievement gaps is still lacking. This article describes social equity theory (SET), which proposes that racial-ethnic achievement gaps originate from two kinds of social process,…

  4. Racial and Ego Identity Development in Black Caribbean College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses among 255 Black Caribbean college students in the Northeast United States. Findings indicated that racial identity attitudes were predictive of ego identity statuses. Specifically, preencounter racial identity attitudes were predictive of lower scores…

  5. Racial Equity and Local School Council Elections. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, James H.

    A comparison of the racial composition of parent, community, and teacher representatives elected in autumn 1989 to Local School Councils (LSCs) in Chicago to the racial/ethnic mix of the populations they represent indicates significant racial disparity on a city-wide basis. Statistical data were analyzed from 503 of a total of 540 schools (about…

  6. Racialized Space: Framing Latino and Latina Experience in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barajas, Heidi Lasley; Ronnkvist, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Educational research shows differences in experience, access, and outcomes across racial groups with some groups advantaged and others disadvantaged. One of the concepts used to explain racial differences, racialization, is a taken-for-granted term that is yet to be fully defined in the context of the school. We differentiate the term…

  7. John Dewey's Racialized Visions of the Student and Classroom Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margonis, Frank

    2009-01-01

    John Dewey's willingness to endorse a remedial form of education for African American students offers us a rare glimpse of the racial assumptions underlying Dewey's educational philosophy. By considering a variety of clues--Dewey's silences on racial equality, his understanding of race and racial progress, and his respective prescriptions for…

  8. Addressing Racial Awareness and Color-Blindness in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diggles, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Racial awareness is a critical foundation to racial sensitivity, and it is a necessity for future professionals who want to be prepared to succeed in an increasingly diverse society. Several factors have been shown to influence racial awareness in professionals including their own race, their personal experience with racism, and the amount/quality…

  9. Perceived Racial Discrimination and Self-Esteem in African American Youth: Racial Socialization as a Protective Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris-Britt, April; Valrie, Cecelia R.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.

    2007-01-01

    Racial socialization was examined as a protective factor that might buffer African American youth from the negative effects of perceived racial discrimination. Two types of racial socialization were examined: messages about race pride and preparation for bias. One hundred twenty-eight eighth-grade African American students participated in the…

  10. Patterns of Racial Socialization and Psychological Adjustment: Can Parental Communications about Race Reduce the Impact of Racial Discrimination?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; White, Rhonda L.; Ford, Kahlil R.; Philip, Cheri L.; Nguye-N, Hoa X.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses two waves of data to examine the relations among racial discrimination experiences, patterns of racial socialization practices, and psychological adjustment in a sample of 361 African American adolescents. Using latent class analyses, we identified four patterns of child-reported racial socialization experiences: Moderate Positive,…

  11. Raising Ethnic-Racial Consciousness: The Relationship between Intergroup Dialogues and Adolescents' Ethnic-Racial Identity and Racism Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldana, Adriana; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Checkoway, Barry; Richards-Schuster, Katie

    2012-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows that intergroup dialogue programs promote changes in ethnic-racial identity and racism awareness among college students. Expanding on this research, this study examines the effects of intergroup dialogues on adolescents' racial consciousness. Self-reports of 147 adolescents (13-19 years old), of various racial and ethnic…

  12. The Significance of Post-Racial Ideology, Black Political Struggle, and Racial Literacy for Brazilian Anti-Racist Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Costa, Alexandre Emboaba

    2016-01-01

    This paper furthers current analysis of anti-racist, critical multicultural, and decolonial educational reforms in Brazil through a focus on the significant role played by post-racial ideology, black politics, and racial literacy in policy design and implementation. The paper first details the ways in which post-racial commonsense and anti-black…

  13. Racial Discrimination, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, and Crime: A Micro-Sociological Model of Risk and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Callie Harbin; Simons, Ronald L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2012-01-01

    Dominant theoretical explanations of racial disparities in criminal offending overlook a key risk factor associated with race: interpersonal racial discrimination. Building on recent studies that analyze race and crime at the micro-level, we specify a social psychological model linking personal experiences with racial discrimination to an…

  14. Even More Racially Isolated than before: Problematizing the Vision for "Diversity" in a Racially Mixed High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, Anjalé D.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: The term racial diversity is interchangeably used in the literature with other terms such as racially mixed, integration, and desegregation in reference to policies to design and practices to implement racially heterogeneous communities, districts, and schools. Scholarship that promotes the democratic potential of racially…

  15. Racial and ethnic socialization as moderators of racial discrimination and school adjustment of adopted and nonadopted Korean American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Seol, Kyoung Ok; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Lee, Richard M; Park, Ji Eun; Kyeong, Yena

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the roles of racial and ethnic socialization in the link between racial discrimination and school adjustment among a sample of 233 adopted Korean American adolescents from White adoptive families and 155 nonadopted Korean American adolescents from immigrant Korean families. Adopted Korean American adolescents reported lower levels of racial discrimination, racial socialization, and ethnic socialization than nonadopted Korean American adolescents. However, racial discrimination was negatively related to school belonging and school engagement, and ethnic socialization was positively related to school engagement for both groups. Racial socialization also had a curvilinear relationship with school engagement for both groups. A moderate level of racial socialization predicted positive school engagement, whereas low and high levels of racial socialization predicted negative school engagement. Finally, ethnic socialization moderated the link between racial discrimination and school belonging, which differed between groups. In particular, ethnic socialization exacerbated the relations between racial discrimination and school belonging for adopted Korean American adolescents, whereas ethnic socialization buffered this link for nonadopted Korean American adolescents. The findings illustrate the complex relationship between racial and ethnic socialization, racial discrimination, and school adjustment.

  16. Challenging Speculation about "Dewey's Racialized Visions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldridge, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this essay Michael Eldridge maintains that Frank Margonis has in a recent article ill-advisedly speculated about John Dewey's pedagogy, suggesting that his "racialized visions" of students and classroom communities involve a "false universalism" that is problematic for our multicultural society. Based on this understanding, Margonis concludes…

  17. Black Canadians' Coping Responses to Racial Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Justine; Kuo, Ben C. H.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of a cultural coping framework, the present study examined coping responses to racial discrimination among 190 Black Canadians. The study assessed the respondents' coping with both general (i.e., problem- and emotion-focused coping) and Africultural coping strategies (i.e., spiritual-centered, collective, and ritual-centered coping)…

  18. Validating the Cross Racial Identity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandiver, Beverly J.; Cross, William E., Jr.; Worrell, Frank C.; Fhagen-Smith, Peony E.

    2002-01-01

    Validation work on the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS; B. J. Vandiver et al., 2000) is described in 2 studies using African American college students. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis supported the presence of 6 CRIS subscales. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis provided support for a 2-factor higher order model of the 6 CRIS…

  19. The Racial Crisis in American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G., Ed.; Lomotey, Kofi, Ed.

    This collection of essays addresses the need for continued research in race-related issues on college campuses. The book examines the causes and the impact of campus racial tensions by studying some key university case studies and by investigating some of the underlying elements of the crisis. Essays and their authors are as follows: "The Racial…

  20. The Constitutionality of Reverse Racial Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, John Hart

    1974-01-01

    In discussing the Defunis v. Odegaard case and the busing issue in reference to reverse race discrimination, the author concludes that measures that favor racial minorities pose a difficult moral question that should be left to the states. (Author/PG)

  1. Breaking Racial Stereotypes by Reconstructing Multicultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pullen, Pete

    2000-01-01

    Racial stereotypes and discrimination have destroyed many bright futures by limiting the possibilities of people of color in America. Describes two initiatives that can be implemented in schools in order to help destroy negative images of race and reconstruct a more healthy foundation to build on: multiculturalism across the curriculum and…

  2. A Cultural Program for Changing Racial Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ijaz, M. Ahmed; Ijaz, I. Helene

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties in changing negative racial attitudes in students and describes a Canadian, elementary-level cultural program which succeeded in improving them. The program used folk dances, music, crafts and role playing to show how cultural differences in East Indian, Canadian and other cultures were manifestations of essentially…

  3. "Dealing with Racial Conflicts in Schools."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Ben

    In dealing with racial tension and conflict, the principal is not limited to a wing and a prayer and benign neglect. The roots of conflict can be identified. Conflict can be planned for and utilized constructively. For 10 years, in approximately 2,000 instances, conciliators and mediators of the Community Relations Service have stood side-by-side…

  4. Uncovering Racial Bias in Nursing Fundamentals Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Michelle M.

    2001-01-01

    The portrayal of African Americans in nursing fundamentals textbooks was analyzed, resulting in 11 themes in the areas of history, culture, and physical assessment. Few African American leaders were included, and racial bias and stereotyping were apparent. Differences were often discussed using Eurocentric norms, and language tended to minimize…

  5. Revising the White Racial Consciousness Development Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Min; Puig, Ana; Pasquarella-Daley, Lauren; Denny, George; Rai, Ann Allen; Dallape, Aprille; Parker, Woodrow Max

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the revision of the White Racial Consciousness Development Scale (D. Claney & W. M. Parker, 1989). A multistage approach including item generation, item refinement and selection, and evaluation of score validity and reliability was used to test construction and validation. Implications for theory, practice, and future…

  6. White Men's Racial Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lensmire, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Increasingly, researchers and educators have argued that alternative conceptions of Whiteness and White racial identity are needed because current conceptions have undermined, rather than strengthened, our critical pedagogies with White people. Grounded in critical Whiteness studies, and drawing especially on the writings of…

  7. To Imagine and Pursue Racial Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmond, Matthew; Emirbayer, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    At the conclusion of many courses on race and racism, students, having learned, some for the first time, about the existence, origins, and complex dimensions of racial domination in America, are left pondering their next steps. "What is to be done?" many ask. "And what, exactly, is it that we want?" Important as they are, these questions too often…

  8. The Racial Trajectory of the Western Hero.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxton, Alexander

    1984-01-01

    Argues that the frequently negative representations of racial or ethnic minorities in American film are related to the ideology embodied in the "Western Hero." Focuses on ideology and race relations in Cooper's "Leatherstocking Tales" and three films: "The Vanishing American" (1925); "Bad Day at Black Rock" (1954); and "The Deer Hunter" (1978).…

  9. Henri Hubert, racial science and political myth.

    PubMed

    Strenski, I

    1987-10-01

    Henri Hubert developed early Durkheimian critiques of racial sciences such as anthroposociology from his perspective as an archeologist, historian, and ethnographer of primitive European religions. His major works on the "primitive" Celts and Germans continue these critiques of racism. But Hubert also engaged in the political mythologizing of French national identity by trading in the republican myth of "celtisme."

  10. Racial and Ethnic Barriers in Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    There are numerous problems involved in counseling minority group members. Rapport is difficult to establish because of the racial and/or cultural attitudes client and counselor have toward one another; consequently the client often finds his own goals in opposition to those of counseling. The existing cultural gap also leads to different patterns…

  11. African American Males Navigate Racial Microaggressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: High school educational environments find Black males experience systemic racial microaggressions in the form of discipline policies, academic tracking and hegemonic curriculum (Allen, Scott, & Lewis, 2013). Black males in high school are more likely than their White male peers to have high school truancies and be viewed as…

  12. Teaching for Critical Literacy and Racial Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Eminent African American historian Carter G. Woodson in his book "The Miseducation of the Negro," published a generation before the "Brown v. Board of Education" decision, concerned himself not with the racial composition of classrooms and schools, but with the curricula taught both in the schools and the larger culture. Certainly Woodson…

  13. Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes and Bullying Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Williams, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem within the U.S. school system. Prior research suggests that victimization is stratified by race and ethnicity. However, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This article extends research on this topic by considering whether stereotypes moderate bullying among racial and ethnic youth. Youth…

  14. Enhancing Theory Courses with Racially Inclusive Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramlett-Solomon, Sharon; Liebler, Carol M.

    1999-01-01

    Offers a blueprint that instructors of mass media theory courses can adopt to expose students to racially inclusive research in order to encourage students to explore and employ relevant theories when probing media and race questions. Offers examples of inclusive media research, examining six prominent theories: selective-perception theory,…

  15. Racial Discrimination in Canada: Asian Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandra, Kananur V.

    The aim of this study was to find out whether racial discrimination exists in Canada; if so, how extensive is it? The method had three phases. In the first phase, questionnaire-interviews were conducted among the colored immigrants (East Indians, Pakistanis, and Bangladeshis) in the city of Montreal. The purpose of the interviews was to find out…

  16. Discipline Policies, Successful Schools, and Racial Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losen, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    In March of 2010, Secretary of Education Arne Duncan delivered a speech that highlighted racial disparities in school suspension and expulsion and that called for more rigorous civil rights enforcement in education. He suggested that students with disabilities and Black students, especially males, were suspended far more often than their White…

  17. Barbie.com and Racial Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddington, Steve A.

    This study explored how black second grade girls racially identified themselves. Ten students worked on laptop computers at home to design a Barbie doll that looked like them and a Barbie doll that they liked best. Parents completed sociodemographic questionnaires and narratives. The questionnaires examined gender, skin shade, income, marital…

  18. Totalitarian Tendencies - Racial Polarization, 1912-1940.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert I.

    The purpose of this curricular unit intended for use at the secondary level is to provide an explanation for racial polarization by reviewing some of the violent developments in 20th century America as they affected Blacks. Main points and concepts are outlined for the teacher, beginning with a consideration of the hopes of Blacks during the…

  19. Social and Racial Correlates of Russian Roulette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven; Wasserman, Ira

    2008-01-01

    The epidemiology of a neglected form of suicidal behavior, Russian roulette, is addressed. Also tested is an explanation of racial differences based on the opportunity theory of deviant behavior related to the availability of revolvers, necessary weapons with which to play Russian roulette. Data refer to 15 cases of Russian roulette found through…

  20. "Jena Six": Case Study in Racial Tensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the racial tensions in Jena, Louisiana. On Aug. 31, 2006, school leaders in Jena, Louisiana, arrived to find two nooses hanging from an oak tree on the campus of Jena High School. The events since that incident--including the beating of a white student and resulting criminal charges against six black schoolmates that have…

  1. Healing the Hidden Wounds of Racial Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Kenneth V.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines racial trauma and highlights strategies for healing and transformation to support the disproportionate number of children and youth of color who fail in school and become trapped in the pipelines of treatment, social service, and justice systems. The difficulty in meeting the needs of these children and youth is failing to…

  2. Speech Patterns and Racial Wage Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogger, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Speech patterns differ substantially between whites and many African Americans. I collect and analyze speech data to understand the role that speech may play in explaining racial wage differences. Among blacks, speech patterns are highly correlated with measures of skill such as schooling and AFQT scores. They are also highly correlated with the…

  3. Racial identity mediates the association between ethnic-racial socialization and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Neblett, Enrique W; Hudson Banks, Kira; Cooper, Shauna M; Smalls-Glover, Ciara

    2013-04-01

    Ethnic-racial socialization has been positively linked with psychological adjustment; however, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. In this study, the authors examined the mediating role of racial identity in the association between racial socialization and depressive symptoms. Participants were 211 African American young adults (62% female; mean age = 20.73, SD = 1.90) recruited from a predominately White southeastern university. Multivariate mediation analyses revealed an indirect effect of racial pride messages on depressive symptoms through private regard such that individuals who reported receiving more frequent racial pride messages were more likely to feel positively about their race, and, in turn, less likely to report depressive symptoms. Individuals who reported that their parents engaged in more socialization activities (e.g., attending cultural events) were also more likely to feel positively about their race and, in turn, report fewer depressive symptoms. These results suggest that positive feelings about one's race are important considerations in our understanding of the relation between ethnic-racial socialization and youth psychological adjustment.

  4. White racial identity, color-blind racial attitudes, and multicultural counseling competence.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Alex; Jackson Williams, Dahra

    2015-07-01

    Multicultural counseling competence (awareness, knowledge, and skills) is necessary to provide effective psychotherapy to an increasingly diverse client population (Sue, 2001). Previous research on predictors of competency among White clinicians finds that above having multicultural training, exposure to racially diverse clients, and social desirability, that White racial identity stages predict multicultural counseling competence (Ottavi et al., 1994). Research also suggests that higher color-blind racial attitudes (denying or minimizing racism in society) correlates with less advanced White racial identity stages (Gushue & Constantine, 2007). However, no studies have examined these variables together as they relate to and possibly predict multicultural counseling competence. The current study aims to add to this literature by investigating the effects of these variables together as potential predictors of multicultural counseling competence among (N = 487) White doctoral students studying clinical, counseling, and school psychology. Results of 3 hierarchical multiple regressions found above the effects of social desirability, demographic variables, and multicultural training, that colorblind racial attitudes and White racial identity stages added significant incremental variance in predicting multicultural counseling knowledge, awareness, and skills. These results add to the literature by finding different predictors for each domain of multicultural competence. Implications of the findings for future research and the clinical training of White doctoral trainees are discussed. PMID:25090143

  5. White racial identity, color-blind racial attitudes, and multicultural counseling competence.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Alex; Jackson Williams, Dahra

    2015-07-01

    Multicultural counseling competence (awareness, knowledge, and skills) is necessary to provide effective psychotherapy to an increasingly diverse client population (Sue, 2001). Previous research on predictors of competency among White clinicians finds that above having multicultural training, exposure to racially diverse clients, and social desirability, that White racial identity stages predict multicultural counseling competence (Ottavi et al., 1994). Research also suggests that higher color-blind racial attitudes (denying or minimizing racism in society) correlates with less advanced White racial identity stages (Gushue & Constantine, 2007). However, no studies have examined these variables together as they relate to and possibly predict multicultural counseling competence. The current study aims to add to this literature by investigating the effects of these variables together as potential predictors of multicultural counseling competence among (N = 487) White doctoral students studying clinical, counseling, and school psychology. Results of 3 hierarchical multiple regressions found above the effects of social desirability, demographic variables, and multicultural training, that colorblind racial attitudes and White racial identity stages added significant incremental variance in predicting multicultural counseling knowledge, awareness, and skills. These results add to the literature by finding different predictors for each domain of multicultural competence. Implications of the findings for future research and the clinical training of White doctoral trainees are discussed.

  6. Is racial bias malleable? Whites' lay theories of racial bias predict divergent strategies for interracial interactions.

    PubMed

    Neel, Rebecca; Shapiro, Jenessa R

    2012-07-01

    How do Whites approach interracial interactions? We argue that a previously unexamined factor-beliefs about the malleability of racial bias-guides Whites' strategies for difficult interracial interactions. We predicted and found that those who believe racial bias is malleable favor learning-oriented strategies such as taking the other person's perspective and trying to learn why an interaction is challenging, whereas those who believe racial bias is fixed favor performance-oriented strategies such as overcompensating in the interaction and trying to end the interaction as quickly as possible. Four studies support these predictions. Whether measured (Studies 1, 3, and 4) or manipulated (Study 2), beliefs that racial bias is fixed versus malleable yielded these divergent strategies for difficult interracial interactions. Furthermore, beliefs about the malleability of racial bias are distinct from related constructs (e.g., prejudice and motivations to respond without prejudice; Studies 1, 3, and 4) and influence self-reported (Studies 1-3) and actual (Study 4) strategies in imagined (Studies 1-2) and real (Studies 3-4) interracial interactions. Together, these findings demonstrate that beliefs about the malleability of racial bias influence Whites' approaches to and strategies within interracial interactions. PMID:22564011

  7. Impulsivity moderates the association between racial discrimination and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Latzman, Robert D; Chan, Wing Yi; Shishido, Yuri

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol use among university students is a serious public health concern, particularly among minority students who may use alcohol to cope with experiences of racial discrimination. Although the impact of racial discrimination on alcohol use has been well-established, individual differences in factors that may act to either attenuate or exacerbate the negative effects of racial discrimination are largely unknown. One potentially fruitful individual differences trait that has repeatedly been found to predict alcohol problems is the multidimensional personality trait of impulsivity. Nonetheless, the ways in which various aspects of impulsivity interact with racial discrimination is yet unknown. The current study, therefore, examined the joint and interactive contribution of racial discrimination and impulsivity in the prediction of alcohol consumption among racial minority university students. Participants included 336 Black/African-American and Asian/Asian-American university students. Results revealed both racial discrimination and impulsivity to be significantly associated with alcohol problems. Further, individuals' responses to racial discrimination were not uniform. Specifically, the association between racial discrimination and alcohol problems was moderated by lack of Premeditation; racial discrimination was most strongly predictive of alcohol problems for those who reported low level of premeditation. Findings from the present study highlight the importance of investigating risk factors for alcohol problems across multiple levels of the ecology as individual personality traits appear to relate to how one might respond to the experience of racial discrimination.

  8. Racial discrimination, racial/ethnic segregation and health behaviors in the CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Borrell, Luisa N.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Williams, D. R.; Gordon-Larsen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Racial discrimination has been associated with unhealthy behaviors, but the mechanisms responsible for these associations are not understood and may be related to residential racial segregation. We investigated associations between self-reported racial discrimination and health behaviors before and after controlling for individual- and neighborhood-level characteristics; and potential effect modification of these associations by segregation. Design We used data from the longitudinal Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study (CARDIA) for 1,169 African-Americans and 1,322 whites. To assess racial discrimination, we used a 4 category variable to capture the extent and persistence of self-reported discrimination between years 7 (1992–93) and 15 (2000–2001). We assessed smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity at year 20 (2005–2006). Segregation was examined as the racial/ethnic composition of the Census tract level. Results Discrimination was more common in African-Americans (89.1%) than in whites (40.0%). Living in areas with high percentage of blacks was associated with less reports of discrimination in African-Americans but more reports in whites. After adjustment for selected characteristics including individual and neighborhood-level socioeconomic conditions and segregation, we found significant positive associations of discrimination with smoking and alcohol consumption in African-Americans and with smoking in whites. African-Americans experiencing moderate or high discrimination were more physically active than those reporting no discrimination. Whites reporting some discrimination were also more physically active than those reporting no discrimination. We observed no interactions between discrimination and segregation measures in African-Americans or whites for any of the three health behaviors. Conclusions Racial discrimination may impact individuals’ adoption of healthy and unhealthy behaviors independent of

  9. Discrimination, Racial Identity, and Cytokine Levels Among African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Low-grade inflammation, measured by circulating levels of cytokines, is a pathogenic mechanism for several chronic diseases of aging. Identifying factors related to inflammation among African American youths may yield insights into mechanisms underlying racial disparities in health. The purpose of the study was to determine whether (a) reported racial discrimination from ages 17 to 19 forecast heightened cytokine levels at age 22, and (b) this association is lower for youths with positive racial identities. Methods A longitudinal research design was used with a community sample of 160 African Americans who were 17 at the beginning of the study. Discrimination and racial identity were measured with questionnaires, and blood was drawn to measure basal cytokine levels. Ordinary least squares regression analyses were used to examine the hypotheses. Results After controlling for socioeconomic risk, life stress, depressive symptoms, and body mass index, racial discrimination (β = .307, p < .01), racial identity (β = −.179, p < .05), and their interaction (β = −.180, p < .05) forecast cytokine levels. Youths exposed to high levels of racial discrimination evinced elevated cytokine levels 3 years later. This association was not significant for young adults with positive racial identities. Conclusions High levels of interpersonal racial discrimination and the development of a positive racial identity operate jointly to determine low-grade inflammation levels that have been found to forecast chronic diseases of aging, such as coronary disease and stroke. PMID:25907649

  10. Racial microaggressions and the Asian American experience.

    PubMed

    Sue, Derald Wing; Bucceri, Jennifer; Lin, Annie I; Nadal, Kevin L; Torino, Gina C

    2007-01-01

    Racial microaggressions were examined through a focus group analysis of 10 self-identified Asian American participants using a semistructured interview and brief demographic questionnaire. Results identified 8 major microaggressive themes directed toward this group: (a) alien in own land, (b) ascription of intelligence, (c) exoticization of Asian women, (d) invalidation of interethnic differences, (e) denial of racial reality, (f) pathologizing cultural values/communication styles, (g) second class citizenship, and (h) invisibility. A ninth category, "undeveloped incidents/responses" was used to categorize microaggressions that were mentioned by only a few members. There were strong indications that the types of subtle racism directed at Asian Americans may be qualitatively and quantitatively different from other marginalized groups. Implications are discussed.

  11. Structural and racial barriers to health care.

    PubMed

    Burnes Bolton, Linda; Giger, Joyce Newman; Georges, C Alicia

    2004-01-01

    Limited access to health care and a system fraught with discriminatory practices inhibit some racial and ethnic minorities from gaining access to health care and assurance of equal treatment once they enter the health care system. The purpose of this chapter is to critically and systematically analyze the research literature to determine what impact individual and institutional racism has had on the prevailing health disparities across racial and ethnic minority groups. The chapter includes the following: (1) a review of the term racism and a brief overview of the history of racism in health care; (2) a review of the research literature analyzing the impact of racism on health disparities; and (3) recommendations to end the systematic institutional racism in scientific research, which is necessary to end health disparities.

  12. Racial and ethnic disparities in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Malek, Sayeed K; Keys, Brandon J; Kumar, Sanjaya; Milford, Edgar; Tullius, Stefan G

    2011-05-01

    Success of renal transplantation, as a viable alternative to dialysis, has been tempered by long-standing racial disparities. Ethnic minorities have less access to transplantation, are less likely to be listed for transplantation, and experience a higher rate of graft failure. Reasons for the existing racial disparities at various stages of the transplantation process are complex and multi-factorial. They include a combination of behavioral, social, environmental, and occupational factors, as well as potential intended or unintended discrimination within the healthcare system. Immunologic factors such as human leukocyte antigen matching, composition of the organ donor pool, and patient immune response, all of which affect post-transplantation graft rejection rates and patient survival, also contribute to health disparities between ethnic groups.

  13. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Katherine M.; Queenan, John T.; Schulkin, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article's aim is to review the literature on racial and ethnic disparities in breastfeeding rates and practices, address barriers to breastfeeding among minority women, conduct a systematic review of breastfeeding interventions, and provide obstetrician-gynecologists with recommendations on how they can help increase rates among minority women. In order to do so, the literature of racial and ethnic disparities in breastfeeding rates and barriers among minority women was reviewed, and a systematic review of breastfeeding interventions among minority women on PubMed and MEDLINE was conducted. Racial and ethnic minority women continue to have lower breastfeeding rates than white women and are not close to meeting the Healthy People 2020 goals. Minority women report many barriers to breastfeeding. Major efforts are still needed to improve breastfeeding initiation and duration rates among minority women in the United States. Obstetrician-gynecologists have a unique opportunity to promote and support breastfeeding through their clinical practices and public policy, and their efforts can have a meaningful impact on the future health of the mother and child. PMID:25831234

  14. Racial Differences in CT Phenotypes in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Hansel, Nadia N.; Washko, George R.; Foreman, Marilyn G.; Han, MeiLan K.; Hoffman, Eric A.; DeMeo, Dawn L.; Barr, R. Graham; Van Beek, Edwin J.R.; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Wise, Robert A.; Brown, Robert H.; Black-Shinn, Jennifer; Hokanson, John E.; Hanania, Nicola A.; Make, Barry; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James D.; Dransfield, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Whether African Americans (AA) are more susceptible to COPD than non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) and whether racial differences in disease phenotype exist is controversial. The objective is to determine racial differences in the extent of emphysema and airway remodeling in COPD. Methods First, 2,500 subjects enrolled in the COPDGene study were used to evaluate racial differences in quantitative CT (QCT) parameters of % emphysema, air trapping and airway wall thickness. Independent variables studied included race, age, gender, education, BMI, pack-years, smoking status, age at smoking initiation, asthma, previous work in dusty job, CT scanner and center of recruitment. Results Of the 1,063 subjects with GOLD Stage II-IV COPD, 200 self-reported as AA. AAs had a lower mean % emphysema (13.1 % vs. 16.1%, p = 0.005) than NHW and proportionately less emphysema in the lower lung zones. After adjustment for covariates, there was no statistical difference by race in air trapping or airway wall thickness. Measured QCT parameters were more predictive of poor functional status in NHWs compared to AAs. Conclusions AAs have less emphysema than NHWs but the same degree of airway disease. Additional factors not easily assessed by current QCT techniques may account for the poor functional status in AAs. PMID:23413893

  15. The racial disparity in breast cancer mortality.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Steven; Ansell, David; Orsi, Jennifer; Francois, Teena

    2011-08-01

    Black women die of breast cancer at a much higher rate than white women. Recent studies have suggested that this racial disparity might be even greater in Chicago than the country as a whole. When data describing this racial disparity are presented they are sometimes attributed in part to racial differences in tumor biology. Vital records data were employed to calculate age-adjusted breast cancer mortality rates for women in Chicago, New York City and the United States from 1980-2005. Race-specific rate ratios were used to measure the disparity in breast cancer mortality. Breast cancer mortality rates by race are the main outcome. In all three geographies the rate ratios were approximately equal in 1980 and stayed that way until the early 1990s, when the white rates started to decline while the black rates remained rather constant. By 2005 the black:white rate ratio was 1.36 in NYC, 1.38 in the US, and 1.98 in Chicago. In any number of ways these data are inconsistent with the notion that the disparity in black:white breast cancer mortality rates is a function of differential biology. Three societal hypotheses are posited that may explain this disparity. All three are actionable, beginning today.

  16. The racial foundations of whites' support for child saving.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Justin T; Chiricos, Ted; Gertz, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Scholars emphasize that attitudes toward rehabilitation and views about punitive polices are distinct phenomena with seemingly unique etiologies. However, few existing studies examine the sources of public views about juvenile rehabilitation, or "child saving," and none engage a measure of racial attitudes. At the same time, recent theoretical work implicates racial concerns as a central foundation of public opinion about youth justice. This paper thus provides the first assessment of whether whites' perceptions of the racial makeup of delinquents and animosities toward blacks are associated with their views about juvenile rehabilitation. Findings show that whites who more strongly associate delinquency with blacks and those who are racially resentful both tend to be less supportive-in absolute and relative terms-of rehabilitation. The results also suggest that contextual threat moderates the effect of racial typification of delinquency, but not that of racial resentment, on whites' views about rehabilitation.

  17. Racial microaggressions and daily well-being among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Ong, Anthony D; Burrow, Anthony L; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Ja, Nicole M; Sue, Derald Wing

    2013-04-01

    Although epidemiological studies and community surveys of Asian Americans have found that lifetime occurrences of racial discrimination are associated with increased risk for psychological morbidity, little is known about how exposure to racial discrimination is patterned in everyday life. Extrapolating from previous qualitative research (Sue, Bucceri, Lin, Nadal, & Torino, 2007), this study presents data on the prevalence and psychological correlates of everyday racial microaggressions that reflect the Asian American experience. Measures of positive affect, negative affect, somatic symptoms, and racial microaggressions were completed by 152 Asian Americans each day for up to 14 consecutive days. Approximately 78% of participants reported some form of racial microaggression within the 2-week study period. Multilevel analyses indicated that elevations in daily microaggressions, as well as greater microaggressions on average, predicted increases in somatic symptoms and negative affect. Implications of these findings for racial microaggression research and clinical practice are discussed.

  18. Ethnic identity and racial attitudes in a minority group of mixed racial origin.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy B; Stratton, Joy; Stones, Christopher R; Naidoo, Anthony

    2003-02-01

    Limited information exists on the racial attitudes and ethnic identities of groups of mixed racial origin. The present research tested the hypotheses that the construct of ethnic identity is valid among such groups and that ethnic identity is related to out-group prejudice, as predicted by social identity theory. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, the Anti-White Scale, and the Subtle Racism Scale were administered to 70 South Africans of mixed racial descent, the so-called Coloureds. A factor analysis supported the structural validity of the 12-item measure of ethnic identity with this sample, but correlations between scales did not support the prediction that group identity would be positively associated with out-group prejudice. Group identity was positively related .27 to positive attitudes toward Whites consistent with the tenets of social dominance theory.

  19. Racial segregation and maternal smoking during pregnancy: a multilevel analysis using the racial segregation interaction index.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Shoff, Carla; Noah, Aggie J; Black, Nyesha; Sparks, Corey S

    2014-04-01

    Drawing from both the place stratification and ethnic enclave perspectives, we use multilevel modeling to investigate the relationships between women's race/ethnicity (i.e., non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Asian, and Hispanic) and maternal smoking during pregnancy, and examine if these relationships are moderated by racial segregation in the continental United States. The results show that increased interaction with whites is associated with increased probability of maternal smoking during pregnancy, and racial segregation moderates the relationships between race/ethnicity and maternal smoking. Specifically, living in a less racially segregated area is related to a lower probability of smoking during pregnancy for black women, but it could double and almost triple the probability of smoking for Asian women and Hispanic women, respectively. Our findings provide empirical evidence for both the place stratification and ethnic enclave perspectives.

  20. On racial diversity and group decision making: identifying multiple effects of racial composition on jury deliberations.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Samuel R

    2006-04-01

    This research examines the multiple effects of racial diversity on group decision making. Participants deliberated on the trial of a Black defendant as members of racially homogeneous or heterogeneous mock juries. Half of the groups were exposed to pretrial jury selection questions about racism and half were not. Deliberation analyses supported the prediction that diverse groups would exchange a wider range of information than all-White groups. This finding was not wholly attributable to the performance of Black participants, as Whites cited more case facts, made fewer errors, and were more amenable to discussion of racism when in diverse versus all-White groups. Even before discussion, Whites in diverse groups were more lenient toward the Black defendant, demonstrating that the effects of diversity do not occur solely through information exchange. The influence of jury selection questions extended previous findings that blatant racial issues at trial increase leniency toward a Black defendant.

  1. Racial science, geopolitics, and empires: paradoxes of power.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Helen

    2014-12-01

    Scholars interested in the history of racial science continue to puzzle over the ways in which such ideas endure. This essay takes up a variant on this theme by considering how critiques of ideas about racial purity and hierarchies, expressed at the Universal Races Congress of 1911, were part of a larger intellectual project that simultaneously under- mined ideas of fixed racial types and bolstered identity categories defined in racial terms. Efforts to destabilize racial science in the early decades of the twentieth century often went hand in glove with burgeoning critiques of "white" and European domination in different parts of the world. This essay shines the spotlight on the paradoxical nature of these processes. While anthropologists helped to spearhead attempts to deconstruct mainstream pillars of racial science, they also left the door open for its reconstitution by refusing to reject classificatory schemes by group. And though global conversations about race and science tended to generate more cosmopolitan and egalitarian views, the very act of bringing together people from different places had the unintended effect of reinforcing racial identities and idioms, especially in the context of challenges to colonial rule. Finally, even as state building within empires ensured that racial taxonomies proliferated on the ground, imperial bureaucrats often avoided promoting racial science and research because such endeavors were a divisive force in transnational management. PMID:25665384

  2. Racial science, geopolitics, and empires: paradoxes of power.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Helen

    2014-12-01

    Scholars interested in the history of racial science continue to puzzle over the ways in which such ideas endure. This essay takes up a variant on this theme by considering how critiques of ideas about racial purity and hierarchies, expressed at the Universal Races Congress of 1911, were part of a larger intellectual project that simultaneously under- mined ideas of fixed racial types and bolstered identity categories defined in racial terms. Efforts to destabilize racial science in the early decades of the twentieth century often went hand in glove with burgeoning critiques of "white" and European domination in different parts of the world. This essay shines the spotlight on the paradoxical nature of these processes. While anthropologists helped to spearhead attempts to deconstruct mainstream pillars of racial science, they also left the door open for its reconstitution by refusing to reject classificatory schemes by group. And though global conversations about race and science tended to generate more cosmopolitan and egalitarian views, the very act of bringing together people from different places had the unintended effect of reinforcing racial identities and idioms, especially in the context of challenges to colonial rule. Finally, even as state building within empires ensured that racial taxonomies proliferated on the ground, imperial bureaucrats often avoided promoting racial science and research because such endeavors were a divisive force in transnational management.

  3. Neighborhood Foreclosures, Racial/Ethnic Transitions, and Residential Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew; Crowder, Kyle; Spring, Amy

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we use data on virtually all foreclosure events between 2005 and 2009 to calculate neighborhood foreclosure rates for nearly all block groups in the United States to assess the impact of housing foreclosures on neighborhood racial/ethnic change and on broader patterns of racial residential segregation. We find that the foreclosure crisis was patterned strongly along racial lines: black, Latino, and racially integrated neighborhoods had exceptionally high foreclosure rates. Multilevel models of racial/ethnic change reveal that foreclosure concentrations were linked to declining shares of whites and expanding shares of black and Latino residents. Results further suggest that these compositional shifts were driven by both white population loss and minority growth, especially from racially mixed settings with high foreclosure rates. To explore the impact of these racially selective migration streams on patterns of residential segregation, we simulate racial segregation assuming that foreclosure rates remained at their 2005 levels throughout the crisis period. Our simulations suggest that the foreclosure crisis increased racial segregation between blacks and whites by 1.1 dissimilarity points, and between Latinos and whites by 2.2 dissimilarity points. PMID:26120142

  4. The Relation of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, and Racial Socialization to Discrimination-Distress: A Meta-Analysis of Black Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial…

  5. Racial Microstressors, Racial Self-Concept, and Depressive Symptoms Among Male African Americans During the Transition to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A.; Brody, Gene H.

    2015-01-01

    Racial discrimination is a pervasive stressor that can undermine mental health among African American youth and young adults. Several studies identify links between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms; however, this research base does not focus on male African American youth who experience significant racism-related stress during the transition to young adulthood. Moreover, few prospective studies consider significant confounding variables that affect exposure to and perception of discriminatory treatment. In response to this need, we examined the effect of exposure to racial discrimination from ages 16–18 on depressive symptoms among male African Americans at age 20. Racial self-concept, one’s sense of positivity about one’s race, was examined as a mediator and self-control as a moderator. Hypotheses were tested with 222 participants, age 16 at baseline and age 20 at the endpoint. Participants provided self-report data at 5 time points. Exposure to racial discrimination from ages 16–18 predicted depressive symptoms at age 20, net of confounding influences. Racial self-concept mediated this effect. Self-control moderated the influence of discrimination on racial self-concept. This study underscores the salience of racial discrimination in the development of depressive symptoms among African American male youth and the clinical utility of interventions targeting racial pride and self-control. PMID:25344920

  6. Racial microstressors, racial self-concept, and depressive symptoms among male African Americans during the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A; Brody, Gene H

    2015-04-01

    Racial discrimination is a pervasive stressor that can undermine mental health among African American youth and young adults. Several studies identify links between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms; however, this research base does not focus on male African American youth who experience significant racism-related stress during the transition to young adulthood. Moreover, few prospective studies consider significant confounding variables that affect exposure to and perception of discriminatory treatment. In response to this need, we examined the effect of exposure to racial discrimination from ages 16 to 18 on depressive symptoms among male African Americans at age 20. Racial self-concept, one's sense of positivity about one's race, was examined as a mediator and self-control as a moderator. Hypotheses were tested with 222 participants, age 16 at baseline and age 20 at the endpoint. Participants provided self-report data at five time points. Exposure to racial discrimination from ages 16 to 18 predicted depressive symptoms at age 20, net of confounding influences. Racial self-concept mediated this effect. Self-control moderated the influence of discrimination on racial self-concept. This study underscores the salience of racial discrimination in the development of depressive symptoms among African American male youth and the clinical utility of interventions targeting racial pride and self-control.

  7. Women's Health: Racial and Ethnic Health Inequities.

    PubMed

    Sarto, Gloria E; Brasileiro, Julia; Franklin, Doris J

    2013-09-01

    Starting in the late 1980s and throughout the 1990s, reports appeared in the literature describing the poor health status and poor health outcomes experienced by minority populations, especially blacks, in the United States. Additionally, attention was brought to the limited access to health services for minority populations. These reports prompted Congress to request the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to conduct a study to assess differences in the kinds and quality of healthcare received by US racial and ethnic minorities and nonminorities. The study culminated in the report Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care.(1) Among the recommendations included in the report published in 2003 is a need for (1) change in legal, regulatory, and policy interventions and (2) health systems interventions. The committee extended the recommendations to include (3) implementation of programs to enhance individual education and empowerment, (4) a need for research into identifying racial and ethnic disparities and the development of and assessment of intervention strategies, and (5) a need to integrate cross-cultural education into the training of all health professionals.(1) Subsequent to this report, there has been an increase in efforts to increase diversity among healthcare providers and research investigators.(2) The American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC) continues to encourage recruitment of minorities to careers in medicine, to stress the importance of a diverse medical school faculty and administration, and to graduate culturally competent healthcare providers who will decrease health disparities and improve health equity. Additionally, as noted by Ginther et al in 2011, there continues to be a need to increase diversity at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) not only among the workforce but also among the recipients of awards.(3) To this end, the NIH has established the Working Group on Diversity in the Biomedical Research

  8. RACIAL DISPARITIES IN ACCESS TO RENAL TRANSPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Arnold M.; Ayanian, John Z.; Keogh, Joseph H.; Noonan, Susan J.; Armistead, Nancy; Cleary, Paul D.; Weissman, Joel S.; David-Kasdan, Jo Ann; Carlson, Diane; Fuller, Jerry; Marsh, Douglas; Conti, Rena M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite abundant evidence of racial disparities in the use of surgical procedures, it is uncertain whether these disparities reflect racial differences in clinical appropriateness or overuse or under-use of care. Methods We performed a literature review and used an expert panel to develop criteria for determining the appropriateness of renal transplantation for patients with end-stage renal disease. Using data from five states and the District of Columbia on patients who had started to undergo dialysis in 1996 or 1997, we selected a random sample of 1518 patients (age range, 18 to 54 years), stratified according to race and sex. We classified the appropriateness of patients as candidates for transplantation and analyzed data on rates of referral to a transplantation center for evaluation, placement on a waiting list, and receipt of a transplant according to race. Results Black patients were less likely than white patients to be rated as appropriate candidates for transplantation according to appropriateness criteria based on expert opinion (71 blacks [9.0 percent] vs. 152 whites [20.9 percent]) and were more likely to have had incomplete evaluations (368 [46.5 percent] vs. 282 [38.8 percent], P<0.001 for the overall chi-square). Among patients considered to be appropriate candidates for transplantation, blacks were less likely than whites to be referred for evaluation, according to the chart review (90.1 percent vs. 98.0 percent, P=0.008), to be placed on a waiting list (71.0 percent vs. 86.7 percent, P=0.007), or to undergo transplantation (16.9 percent vs. 52.0 percent, P<0.001). Among patients classified as inappropriate candidates, whites were more likely than blacks to be referred for evaluation (57.8 percent vs. 38.4 percent), to be placed on a waiting list (30.9 percent vs. 17.4 percent), and to undergo transplantation (10.3 percent vs. 2.2 percent, P<0.001 for all three comparisons). Conclusions Racial disparities in rates of renal

  9. Racial differences in sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Fender, Erin A; Henrikson, Charles A; Tereshchenko, Larisa

    2014-01-01

    There is an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) and sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), in African Americans, the basis of which is likely multifactorial. African Americans have higher rates of traditional cardiac risk factors including hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and heart failure. There are also significant disparities in health care delivery. While these factors undoubtedly affect health outcomes, there is also growing evidence that genetics may have a significant impact as well. In this paper, we discuss data and hypotheses in support of both sides of the controversy around racial differences in SCD/SCA.

  10. Racial Prejudice and Locational Equilibrium in an Urban Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yinger, John

    Racial prejudice is said to influence strongly the locational decisions of households in urban areas. This paper introduces racial prejudice into a model of an urban area and derives several results about residential location. A previously developed long-run model of an urban area adds a locational dimension to a model of the housing market under…

  11. Racial Identity Development of Mixed Race College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Helen Diamond

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that influence mixed race college students' choice of racial identity. This study also explored whether or not there are any differences among each of the racial identity groups' perceptions of institutional support for mixed race college students. The theoretical framework of this…

  12. Integration or fragmentation? Racial diversity and the American future.

    PubMed

    Lichter, Daniel T

    2013-04-01

    Over the next generation or two, America's older, largely white population will increasingly be replaced by today's disproportionately poor minority children. All future growth will come from populations other than non-Hispanic whites as America moves toward a majority-minority society by 2043. This so-called Third Demographic Transition raises important implications about changing racial boundaries in the United States, that is, about the physical, economic, and sociocultural barriers that separate different racial and ethnic groups. America's racial transformation may place upward demographic pressure on future poverty and inequality as today's disproportionately poor and minority children grow into adult roles. Racial boundaries will be reshaped by the changing meaning of race and ethnicity, shifting patterns of racial segregation in neighborhoods and the workplace, newly integrating (or not) friendship networks, and changing rates of interracial marriage and childbearing. The empirical literature provides complicated lessons and offers few guarantees that growing racial diversity will lead to a corresponding breakdown in racial boundaries-that whites and minorities will increasingly share the same physical and social spaces or interact as coequals. How America's older population of elected officials and taxpayers responds today to America's increasingly diverse population will provide a window to the future, when today's children successfully transition (or not) into productive adult roles. Racial and ethnic inclusion will be reshaped by changing ethnoracial inequality, which highlights the need to invest in children-now.

  13. Racial & Ethnic Diversity in Higher Education. ASHE Reader Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Caroline Sotello Viernes, Ed.; Garcia, Mildred, Ed.; Nora, Amaury, Ed.; Rendon, Laura I., Ed.

    This text is a resource on racial and ethnic diversity for faculty and students in higher education. It is organized in sections related to the history of racial and ethnic diversity in higher education, curriculum and teaching, students, faculty, administration, leadership and governance, and research issues. The chapters are: (1) "History of…

  14. Racial Microaggressions in Everyday Life: Implications for Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sue, Derald Wing; Capodilupo, Christina M.; Torino, Gina C.; Bucceri, Jennifer M.; Holder, Aisha M. B.; Nadal, Kevin L.; Esquilin, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Racial microaggressions are brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults toward people of color. Perpetrators of microaggressions are often unaware that they engage in such communications when they…

  15. Racial Effects in Counseling-like Interviews: An Experimental Analogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Ernest, Jr.; Zimmer, Jules M.

    1976-01-01

    This study examined racial experimenter effects in counseling-like interviews employing the verbal operant-conditioning paradigm. The absence of significant differences in the experimenter-subject racial interaction suggests that race, per se, may not be the most important variable in the experimenter-subject (or counselor-client) relationship.…

  16. Integration or fragmentation? Racial diversity and the American future.

    PubMed

    Lichter, Daniel T

    2013-04-01

    Over the next generation or two, America's older, largely white population will increasingly be replaced by today's disproportionately poor minority children. All future growth will come from populations other than non-Hispanic whites as America moves toward a majority-minority society by 2043. This so-called Third Demographic Transition raises important implications about changing racial boundaries in the United States, that is, about the physical, economic, and sociocultural barriers that separate different racial and ethnic groups. America's racial transformation may place upward demographic pressure on future poverty and inequality as today's disproportionately poor and minority children grow into adult roles. Racial boundaries will be reshaped by the changing meaning of race and ethnicity, shifting patterns of racial segregation in neighborhoods and the workplace, newly integrating (or not) friendship networks, and changing rates of interracial marriage and childbearing. The empirical literature provides complicated lessons and offers few guarantees that growing racial diversity will lead to a corresponding breakdown in racial boundaries-that whites and minorities will increasingly share the same physical and social spaces or interact as coequals. How America's older population of elected officials and taxpayers responds today to America's increasingly diverse population will provide a window to the future, when today's children successfully transition (or not) into productive adult roles. Racial and ethnic inclusion will be reshaped by changing ethnoracial inequality, which highlights the need to invest in children-now. PMID:23440733

  17. Welcome to the Front Seat: Racial Identity and Mesoamerican Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriaza, Gilberto

    2004-01-01

    In this article, I argue that mestizo immigrants from the Mesoamerica region experience a low socioeconomic tracking compounded by a racialized subordinating discourse in the United States. These immigrants come over to the United States from a region where social stratification and racial prejudice are based more on cultural and linguistic…

  18. Affective Interactions in Racially Diverse Classrooms: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Jacquelyn R.; Prawat, Richard S.

    1981-01-01

    Uses ethnographic case-study data to examine affective interaction in two racially diverse urban elementary classrooms. Subjects are 56 fifth and sixth graders and their teachers. Results suggest that teachers can foster racial harmony in the classroom through small group work. (CM)

  19. Racial Bias in the Classroom: Can Teachers Reach All Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiding, Darlene

    2006-01-01

    The accelerating demographic and economic changes within our society, the deepening racial divide, and the elusive quest for equality and justice make multicultural education and understanding the culturally diverse student imperative. The gap between the rich and poor has widened, visible signs of the racial crisis have become stark, and the rate…

  20. Development of racial-ethnic identity among First Nation children.

    PubMed

    Corenblum, Barry

    2014-03-01

    Elements of racial-ethnic identity, often found among adolescents from racial-ethnic minority groups, have their origins in middle childhood and pre-adolescence. The present study explored the developmental trajectory of some of those components among Native Canadian children living on relatively remote First Nation communities. Children and young adolescents (N = 414,209 female) between the ages of 6-11 completed measures assessing their level of racial-ethnic identity, concrete operational thought, implicit and explicit self-esteem, implicit and explicit in-group attitudes, and the importance of their racial-ethnic identity each year for 5 years. Consistent with predictions from cognitive developmental theory, trajectory modeling revealed significant increases over time in explicit and implicit in-group attitudes, level of concrete operational thought and the importance of children's racial-ethnic identity. However, level of racial-ethnic identity remained unchanged over time. The results are discussed in terms of cognitive-developmental theory, and the influence of living in a racially homogeneous environment on the development of racial-ethnic identity among minority group children. Studies are also suggested for future research. PMID:23982921

  1. Teaching Black History as a Racial Literacy Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, LaGarrett Jarriel

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have long promoted black history as an appropriate space to promote the development of racial literacy. Few research studies, however, have examined how teacher education uses black history as a heuristic to teach about race. Using racial literacy as a framework, this article examined the varied ways four social studies pre-service…

  2. Racial Microaggressions as a Tool for Critical Race Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez Huber, Lindsay; Solorzano, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    This conceptual article utilizes critical race theory (CRT) to explain how everyday forms of racism--racial microaggressions--emerge in the everyday experiences of People of Color. We provide a framework for understanding and analyzing racial microaggressions that demonstrates how everyday racist events are systemically mediated by…

  3. Racial-Ethnic Identity and Adjustment in Canadian Indigenous Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gfellner, Barbara M.; Armstrong, Helen D.

    2013-01-01

    This study supported associations between three theoretically driven conceptualizations of racial and ethnic identity (REI; Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure; Multidimensional Racial Identity Measure; Bicultural Identity Measure) and with adaptive functioning among Canadian indigenous adolescents in middle school to high school. Age differences…

  4. "The Biscuit Eater": Racial Stereotypes, 1939-1972

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliman, Bernice W.

    1978-01-01

    The story "The Biscuit Eater" and the two films made from it can be used as a paradigm of the image of blacks in works made by whites. However, unlike those of 1940, reviewers of the 1972 Disney film were critical of every racially insensitive nuance, representing progress in racial awareness. (Author/GC)

  5. Racial Microaggressions and Daily Well-Being among Asian Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Anthony D.; Burrow, Anthony L.; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Ja, Nicole M.; Sue, Derald Wing

    2013-01-01

    Although epidemiological studies and community surveys of Asian Americans have found that lifetime occurrences of racial discrimination are associated with increased risk for psychological morbidity, little is known about how exposure to racial discrimination is patterned in everyday life. Extrapolating from previous qualitative research (Sue,…

  6. White Racial Framing Related to Public School Financing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Terence

    2015-01-01

    In the 21st century, U.S. Blacks in public schools experience disenfranchisement, as did their ancestral predecessors in the 19th and 20th centuries. This research utilizes the "White Racial Frame," which essentially encompasses the cognitive racialized false stereotypes and beliefs Whites hold regarding people of color (Feagin, 2010).…

  7. Rethinking Multicultural Education: Teaching for Racial and Cultural Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980s, "Rethinking Schools" magazine has been renowned for its commitment to racial equality in education. Now, "Rethinking Multicultural Education: Teaching for Racial and Cultural Justice" has collected the best Rethinking Schools articles that deal with race and culture. "Rethinking Multicultural Education" moves beyond a simplistic…

  8. White Racial Identity Statuses as Predictors of White Privilege Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Havice, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between White privilege awareness and White racial identity development for 197 counseling trainees. Results indicated that 3 of J. E. Helms's (1984, 1990, 1995) White racial identity statuses (i.e., Contact, Reintegration, and Immersion/Emersian) significantly predicted White privilege awareness. Implications…

  9. The Relationship between African American Enculturation and Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin; Helm, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated how predictive the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS; B. J. Vandiver, W. E. Cross, F. C. Worrell, & P. Fhagen-Smith, 2002), a measure of Black racial identity, was of African American cultural practices, beliefs, and attitudes (i.e., enculturation) as measured by the African American Acculturation Scale-33 (H. Landrine & E.…

  10. African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…

  11. Miles to Go before We Sleep: Racial Inequities in Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Large, pervasive, and persistent racial inequalities exist in the onset, courses, and outcomes of illness. A comprehensive understanding of the patterning of racial disparities indicates that racism in both its institutional and individual forms remains an important determinant. There is an urgent need to build the science base that would identify…

  12. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis by Kindergarten Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur by kindergarten entry is currently unknown. We investigated risk factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry generally, and specifically whether racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by…

  13. Racial Transformation and the Changing Nature of Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Gary; Lee, Chungmei

    2006-01-01

    This report is about the changing patterns of segregation in American public schools through the 2003-2004 school year. It begins by examining the transformation of racial composition in the nation's schools, the dynamic patterns of segregation and desegregation of all racial groups in regions, states, and districts by using data from 1968 until…

  14. Campus Racial Climate Policies: The View from the Bottom Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michelle Hughes; Anderson, Rick; Cannon, Julie Harms; Perez, Eduardo; Moore, Helen A.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews debates over campus multicultural goals from the perspectives of university officials and 433 students. The role of campus experiences and diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds in shaping these opinions was considered. Findings demonstrate important patterns in student policy attitudes linked to racial/ethnic status.…

  15. White Silence: A Racial Biography of Margaret Haley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousmaniere, Kate

    2001-01-01

    Presents a racial biography of Margaret Haley, the early 1900s organizer of teachers' unions and explains that of all the progressive social and educational changes Haley spoke out about, racial equity in U.S. schools was not one of them. Argues that white teachers' silence about race is deeply and historically embedded in the cultural and…

  16. Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Desire to Marry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Scott J.

    1993-01-01

    Used data from over 2,000 respondents to explore racial, ethnic, and gender differences in desire to marry. African Americans were significantly less desiring of marriage than whites; racial difference among men was significantly larger than difference among women. Compared to nonhispanic whites of same gender, Hispanic men were more likely,…

  17. Efficacy of School Integration Policies in Reducing Racial Polarization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koslin, Sandra; And Others

    This paper summarizes the work of Riverside Research Institute (RRI) in the racial balance area during the past several years. Working under contract to the New York State Education Department, and with grant support from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, RRI has been developing racial attitude measures for use in the…

  18. A Multiyear National Profile of Racial Disparity in Autism Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Jason C.; Tincani, Matt; Krezmien, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Disproportionate representation of racially diverse students in special education is a well-documented problem, yet few studies have systematically evaluated disproportionate representation of diverse students with autism. This study examined disproportionate representation of racially diverse students with autism by determining risk and…

  19. Development of racial-ethnic identity among First Nation children.

    PubMed

    Corenblum, Barry

    2014-03-01

    Elements of racial-ethnic identity, often found among adolescents from racial-ethnic minority groups, have their origins in middle childhood and pre-adolescence. The present study explored the developmental trajectory of some of those components among Native Canadian children living on relatively remote First Nation communities. Children and young adolescents (N = 414,209 female) between the ages of 6-11 completed measures assessing their level of racial-ethnic identity, concrete operational thought, implicit and explicit self-esteem, implicit and explicit in-group attitudes, and the importance of their racial-ethnic identity each year for 5 years. Consistent with predictions from cognitive developmental theory, trajectory modeling revealed significant increases over time in explicit and implicit in-group attitudes, level of concrete operational thought and the importance of children's racial-ethnic identity. However, level of racial-ethnic identity remained unchanged over time. The results are discussed in terms of cognitive-developmental theory, and the influence of living in a racially homogeneous environment on the development of racial-ethnic identity among minority group children. Studies are also suggested for future research.

  20. Exorcising the Racism Phantasm: Racial Realism in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaisdell, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Based on a 3-year ethnographic project at a public elementary school in North Carolina, this article discusses how the concept of racial realism can be useful to researchers trying to live up to the goals of critical race studies in school-based research. Racial realism maintains that racism is a permanent aspect of U.S. society and schools. A…

  1. Democratic Education Online: Combating Racialized Aggressions on Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gin, Kevin J.; Martínez-Alemán, Ana M.; Knight, Sarah; Radimer, Scott; Lewis, Jonathan; Rowan-Kenyon, Heather T.

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, mobile, low-friction, and easy to use social media have changed the landscape of college campuses. Social media have opened the doors for racial hostility to be displayed on campus in new ways and have been widely used to express racial aggressions toward students of color. Anonymity allows these behaviors to be freely enacted…

  2. Promoting Racial and Ethnic Diversity among Canadian Academic Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandiuk, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This study examines racial and ethnic diversity among Canadian academic librarians and discusses the findings of a nationwide survey. The survey posed questions related to equity plans and programs as well as recruitment practices for academic librarians from equity-seeking groups with a focus on Aboriginal and visible/racial minority librarians.…

  3. Dismantling Racial Profiling: The ACLU's "Arrest the Racism" Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, Nancy C.

    2002-01-01

    Describes racial profiling both as a form of systemic (indirect) racism and a specific (direct) racist practice that violates individuals' civil rights. Outlines efforts by the ACLU to show how they are attempting to fight racial profiling, focusing on the litigation efforts, legislative efforts, and public education efforts. (SM)

  4. Racial Inequality and the Social Reconstructionists at Teachers College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Mary Rose; Murrow, Sonia E.

    2013-01-01

    Historians of education have probed into the involvement of Social Reconstructionists' with issues of racial justice and have argued explicitly that Social Reconstructionists, while "interested" in racial problems during the Depression, actually did little to carefully study the role of race or race relations in America. The authors found that…

  5. White University Students' Racial Affect : Understanding the Antiracist Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kordesh, Kathleen S.; Spanierman, Lisa B.; Neville, Helen A.

    2013-01-01

    Prior quantitative research using the Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites scale (PCRW; Spanierman & Heppner, 2004) identified five racial affect types among White undergraduate students. To better understand the Antiracist type, the most racially aware and sensitive among the five types, the authors of the present study conducted two focus…

  6. Strategy to Modify Racial Attitudes in Black and White Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlin-Robinson, Charlynn

    This paper reports on a procedure designed to alter racial bias in preschool children. Sixty 5- and 6-year-old black and white children initially displaying baseline bias (as assessed with a modified version of the Preschool Racial Attitude Measure) were taught to respond neutrally by manipulating those cues related to social perception (i.e.,…

  7. Campland: Racial Segregation of Roma in Italy. Country Reports Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahn, Claude; Carlisle, Kathryn D.; Fregoli, Claudia; Kiuranov, Deyan; Petrova, Dimitrina

    This report addresses racial segregation and human rights abuses against Roma in Italy, focusing on: "Anti-Gypsyism in Italy"; "Roma in Italy: Racial Segregation"; "Abuses by Police and Judicial Authorities" (e.g., abusive raids and evictions, abusive use of firearms, torture and physical abuse, discriminatory targeting of Roma by police, theft by…

  8. Patterns of racial and educational assortative mating in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gullickson, Aaron; Torche, Florencia

    2014-06-01

    Exchange of racial for educational status has been documented for black/white marriages in the United States. Exchange may be an idiosyncratic feature of U.S. society, resulting from unusually strong racial boundaries historically developed there. We examine status exchange across racial lines in Brazil. In contrast to the United States, Brazil features greater fluidity of racial boundaries and a middle tier of "brown" individuals. If exchange is contingent on strong racial boundaries, it should be weak or non-existent in Brazilian society. Contrary to this expectation, we find strong evidence of status exchange. However, this pattern results from a generalized penalty for darkness, which induces a negative association between higher education and marrying darker spouses ("market exchange") rather than from a direct trading of resources by partners ("dyadic exchange"). The substantive and methodological distinction between market and dyadic exchange helps clarify and integrate prior findings in the status exchange literature.

  9. Racial disparities in incarceration increase acceptance of punitive policies.

    PubMed

    Hetey, Rebecca C; Eberhardt, Jennifer L

    2014-10-01

    During the past few decades, punitive crime policies have led to explosive growth in the United States prison population. Such policies have contributed to unprecedented incarceration rates for Blacks in particular. In this article, we consider an unexamined relationship between racial disparities and policy reform. Rather than treating racial disparities as an outcome to be measured, we exposed people to real and extreme racial disparities and observed how this drove their support for harsh criminal-justice policies. In two experiments, we manipulated the racial composition of prisons: When the penal institution was represented as "more Black," people were more concerned about crime and expressed greater acceptance of punitive policies than when the penal institution was represented as "less Black." Exposure to extreme racial disparities, then, can lead people to support the very policies that produce those disparities, thus perpetuating a vicious cycle.

  10. Racial microaggressions in everyday life: implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Sue, Derald Wing; Capodilupo, Christina M; Torino, Gina C; Bucceri, Jennifer M; Holder, Aisha M B; Nadal, Kevin L; Esquilin, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Racial microaggressions are brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults toward people of color. Perpetrators of microaggressions are often unaware that they engage in such communications when they interact with racial/ethnic minorities. A taxonomy of racial microaggressions in everyday life was created through a review of the social psychological literature on aversive racism, from formulations regarding the manifestation and impact of everyday racism, and from reading numerous personal narratives of counselors (both White and those of color) on their racial/cultural awakening. Microaggressions seem to appear in three forms: microassault, microinsult, and microinvalidation. Almost all interracial encounters are prone to microaggressions; this article uses the White counselor--client of color counseling dyad to illustrate how they impair the development of a therapeutic alliance. Suggestions regarding education and training and research in the helping professions are discussed.

  11. Effects of racial diversity on complex thinking in college students.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Anthony Lising; Chang, Mitchell J; Hakuta, Kenji; Kenny, David A; Levin, Shana; Milem, Jeffrey F

    2004-08-01

    An experiment varying the racial (Black, White) and opinion composition in small-group discussions was conducted with college students (N = 357) at three universities to test for effects on the perceived novelty of group members' contributions to discussion and on participants' integrative complexity. Results showed that racial and opinion minorities were both perceived as contributing to novelty. Generally positive effects on integrative complexity were found when the groups had racial- and opinion-minority members and when members reported having racially diverse friends and classmates. The findings are discussed in the context of social psychological theories of minority influence and social policy implications for affirmative action. The research supports claims about the educational significance of race in higher education, as well as the complexity of the interaction of racial diversity with contextual and individual factors. PMID:15270993

  12. Modeling individual-level heterogeneity in racial residential segregation

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Zhou, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the dynamic relationship between residential choices of individuals and resulting long-term aggregate segregation patterns, allowing for feedback effects of macrolevel neighborhood conditions on residential choices. We reinterpret past survey data on whites’ attitudes about desired neighborhoods as revealing large heterogeneity in whites’ tolerance of black neighbors. Through agent-based modeling, we improve on a previous model of residential racial segregation by introducing individual-level heterogeneity in racial tolerance. Our model predicts, in the long run, a lower level of residential racial segregation than would be true with homogeneous racial tolerance. Further analysis shows that whites’ tolerance of black neighbors is closely associated with their overall racial attitudes toward blacks. PMID:22753466

  13. Racial stereotypes impair flexibility of emotional learning.

    PubMed

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E; Kubota, Jennifer T; Li, Jian; Coelho, Cesar A O; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2016-09-01

    Flexibility of associative learning can be revealed by establishing and then reversing cue-outcome discriminations. Here, we used functional MRI to examine whether neurobehavioral correlates of reversal-learning are impaired in White and Asian volunteers when initial learning involves fear-conditioning to a racial out-group. For one group, the picture of a Black male was initially paired with shock (threat) and a White male was unpaired (safe). For another group, the White male was a threat and the Black male was safe. These associations reversed midway through the task. Both groups initially discriminated threat from safety, as expressed through skin conductance responses (SCR) and activity in the insula, thalamus, midbrain and striatum. After reversal, the group initially conditioned to a Black male exhibited impaired reversal of SCRs to the new threat stimulus (White male), and impaired reversals in the striatum, anterior cingulate cortex, midbrain and thalamus. In contrast, the group initially conditioned to a White male showed successful reversal of SCRs and successful reversal in these brain regions toward the new threat. These findings provide new evidence that an aversive experience with a racial out-group member impairs the ability to flexibly and appropriately adjust fear expression towards a new threat in the environment. PMID:27107298

  14. RACIAL DIFFERENCES IN MYASTHENIA GRAVIS IN ALABAMA

    PubMed Central

    OH, SHIN J.; MORGAN, MARLA B.; LU, LIANG; HATANAKA, YUKI; HEMMI, SHOJI; YOUNG, ANGELA; CLAUSSEN, GWENDOLYN C.

    2010-01-01

    Demographic, clinical, and laboratory features were compared in 235 white and African-American (AA) patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) at the University of Alabama at Birmingham Neuromuscular Disease Clinic from May 2003 to January 2008. Seventy nine percent of patients were white. Acetylcholine receptor antibody was positive in 71% of white patients and in 59% of AA. In patients with seronegative generalized MG, the rate of positive muscle-specific tyrosine kinase antibody (MuSK-Ab) was significantly higher in AA than it was in whites (50% in AA vs. 17% in whites). Ocular MG was seronegative in 75% of AA patients. In AA, MG occurred earlier and more frequently in females, whereas, in whites, disease onset was later and more common in males. Another significant difference was a higher percentage of abnormality on repetitive nerve stimulation in AA. There was also a tendency for more severe forms of MG in AA. There are racial differences in MG between whites and AA in Alabama. These racial differences highlight the need to study biological factors in the pathogenesis of MG and to assess different approaches in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:19127534

  15. Racial stereotypes impair flexibility of emotional learning.

    PubMed

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E; Kubota, Jennifer T; Li, Jian; Coelho, Cesar A O; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2016-09-01

    Flexibility of associative learning can be revealed by establishing and then reversing cue-outcome discriminations. Here, we used functional MRI to examine whether neurobehavioral correlates of reversal-learning are impaired in White and Asian volunteers when initial learning involves fear-conditioning to a racial out-group. For one group, the picture of a Black male was initially paired with shock (threat) and a White male was unpaired (safe). For another group, the White male was a threat and the Black male was safe. These associations reversed midway through the task. Both groups initially discriminated threat from safety, as expressed through skin conductance responses (SCR) and activity in the insula, thalamus, midbrain and striatum. After reversal, the group initially conditioned to a Black male exhibited impaired reversal of SCRs to the new threat stimulus (White male), and impaired reversals in the striatum, anterior cingulate cortex, midbrain and thalamus. In contrast, the group initially conditioned to a White male showed successful reversal of SCRs and successful reversal in these brain regions toward the new threat. These findings provide new evidence that an aversive experience with a racial out-group member impairs the ability to flexibly and appropriately adjust fear expression towards a new threat in the environment.

  16. Making Cross-Racial Therapy Work: A Phenomenological Study of Clients' Experiences of Cross-Racial Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Doris F.; Berk, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    A phenomenological and consensual qualitative study of clients' lived experiences of cross-racial therapy was conducted to enhance the understanding of whether, how, and under what conditions race matters in the therapy relationship. The sample consisted of 16 racial and/or ethnic minority clients who received treatment from 16 White, European…

  17. Gender Matters, Too: The Influences of School Racial Discrimination and Racial Identity on Academic Engagement Outcomes among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavous, Tabbye M.; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Smalls, Ciara; Griffin, Tiffany; Cogburn, Courtney

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined relationships among racial identity, school-based racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11 (n = 204 boys and n = 206 girls). The authors found gender differences in peer and classroom discrimination and in the impact of earlier and later discrimination…

  18. Racial Diversity, Student Religiosity, and School Choice: An Empirical Case Study of Multi-Racial Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichard, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    This article comprises an empirical case study of student religiosity in the context of urban school choice. The purpose of this study was to compare student religiosity in a racially diverse religious private school to determine whether religious faith is a unifying factor across racial categories. Insofar as school choice has been called…

  19. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Cardiovascular Symptoms in Four Major Racial/Ethnic Groups of Midlife Women: A Secondary Analysis.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Ham, Ok Kyung; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority midlife women frequently do not recognize cardiovascular symptoms that they experience during the menopausal transition. Racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular symptoms are postulated as a plausible reason for their lack of knowledge and recognition of the symptoms. The purpose of this study was to explore racial/ethnic differences in midlife women's cardiovascular symptoms and to determine the factors related to these symptoms in each racial/ethnic group. This was a secondary analysis of the data from a larger study among 466 participants, collected from 2006 to 2011. The instruments included questions on background characteristics, health and menopausal status, and the Cardiovascular Symptom Index for Midlife Women. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics, including Poisson regression and logistic regression analyses. Significant racial/ethnic differences were observed in the total numbers and total severity scores of cardiovascular symptoms (p < .01). Non-Hispanic Asians had significantly lower total numbers and total severity scores compared to other racial/ethnic groups (p < .05). The demographic and health factors associated with cardiovascular symptoms were somewhat different in each racial/ethnic group. Further studies are needed about possible reasons for the racial/ethnic differences and the factors associated with cardiovascular symptoms in each racial/ethnic group. PMID:25826460

  20. Part II: Multisystemic Therapy--Addressing Racial Disparity and Its Effectiveness with Families from Diverse Racial and Ethnic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Kirstin; Scannapieco, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Disparities in health and mental health care delivered to racial and ethnic minorities became a focus of national policy following reports of the Institute of Medicine (IOM, 2002) and the Surgeon General (USDHHS, 2001). The Surgeon General (USDHHS, 2001) reported racial and ethnic minorities experience disparities in availability and quality of…

  1. A Cross-Cultural Examination of Racial Identity and Racial Preference of Preschool Children in the West Indies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopaul-McNicol, Sharon-Ann

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the racial attitudes of 302 preschool children in the West Indies whose racial preference was tested using black and white Cabbage Patch dolls. Standard Clark doll questions, plus four researcher-supplied questions, were individually administered. Findings show that 71.9 percent of the children chose to play with a white doll,…

  2. Pride and Prejudice: Racial Contacts Mediating the Change of In-Group and Out-Group Racial Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Ji

    2012-01-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen dataset, this study examined how students' within- and between-group racial contacts mediated the change of in-group and out-group racial perceptions across White, Black, Latino, and Asian students. This study was grounded in intergroup contact theory and employed multi-trait multi-method…

  3. Racial Battle Fatigue and the "Mis"Education of Black Men: Racial Microaggressions, Societal Problems, and Environmental Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William A.; Hung, Man; Franklin, Jeremy D.

    2011-01-01

    Black men's lives are racialized contradictions, They are told that contemporary educational and professional institutions--particularly historically White institutions (HWls)--are places where, through hard work, they can achieve the so-called American dream. However, for far too many Black men, HWIs represent racial climates that are replete…

  4. Sociocultural Factors and School Engagement among African American Youth: The Roles of Racial Discrimination, Racial Socialization, and Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the links between racial discrimination and school engagement and the roles of racial socialization and ethnic identity as protective factors in those linkages in a sample of 148, sixth through twelfth grade African American adolescents from working and middle-class two-parent families. In home interviews, youth described…

  5. The relation of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress: a meta-analysis of Black Americans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Debbiesiu L; Ahn, Soyeon

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial discrimination and psychological distress. Discrimination significantly related to aspects of racial identity, including immersion-emersion, public regard, encounter, Afrocentricity/racial centrality/private regard, and internalization. Distress significantly correlated with preencounter/assimilation, encounter, public regard, immersion-emersion, and Afrocentricity/racial centrality/private regard. Several of these relationships were significantly moderated by the measure of racial identity or demographic variables (gender or age). Implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. The relation of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress: a meta-analysis of Black Americans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Debbiesiu L; Ahn, Soyeon

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial discrimination and psychological distress. Discrimination significantly related to aspects of racial identity, including immersion-emersion, public regard, encounter, Afrocentricity/racial centrality/private regard, and internalization. Distress significantly correlated with preencounter/assimilation, encounter, public regard, immersion-emersion, and Afrocentricity/racial centrality/private regard. Several of these relationships were significantly moderated by the measure of racial identity or demographic variables (gender or age). Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:23356464

  7. Exploring Student Affairs Professionals' Experiences with the Campus Racial Climate at a Hispanic Serving Institution (HSI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Gina A.

    2016-01-01

    Although we know that people experience the campus racial climate differently based on their racial/ethnic identity, less is known about how they perceive the climate based on the racial/ethnic diversity of their institution and specifically within their department. Instead, the campus racial climate has largely been studied at Predominantly White…

  8. From Racial Stereotyping and Deficit Discourse toward a Critical Race Theory in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solorzano, Daniel G.; Yosso, Tara J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines connections between critical race theory (CRT) and its application to the concepts of race, racial bias, and racial stereotyping in teacher education. Defines CRT, then discusses racism and stereotyping, racial stereotypes in the media, and racial stereotypes in professional environments, noting the effects on minority students. Presents…

  9. Racial/Ethnic Minority Undergraduate Psychology Majors' Perceptions about School Psychology: Implications for Minority Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Newell, Markeda L.; Gubi, Aaron A.

    2016-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented within school psychology. Increased racial/ethnic diversity within university training programs has been shown to reduce prejudices and anxiety within students while increasing empathy for other racial/ethnic groups. The reduction of prejudices and anxiety and increased empathy for racial/ethnic…

  10. Racial Socialization in Transracial Adoptive Families: Does It Help Adolescents Deal with Discrimination Stress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Leigh A.; Smith, Jocelyn R.; Hrapczynski, Katie M.; Riley, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Racial socialization protects minority adolescents from stress associated with racial discrimination. The process of racial socialization, however, may be challenging in transracial adoptive families. White parents may struggle with preparing their children for discrimination and fostering the development of racial pride. Thus, transracially…

  11. Who We'll Live with: Neighborhood Racial Composition Preferences of Whites, Blacks and Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Valerie A.; Emerson, Michael O.; Klineberg, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    The debate about racial residential preferences has two open questions. First, are neighborhood racial preferences truly racial, or is race a proxy for socioeconomic factors? Second, are in-group or out-group preferences more salient? Using the Houston Area Survey, we employ a factorial experiment to assess the effect of racial composition on…

  12. It Just Happens: Colorblind Ideology and Undergraduate Explanations of Racial Interaction on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Regine; Sweeney, Kathryn; Welcher, Adria

    2014-01-01

    This article examines student perceptions of racial segregation on campus in terms of interaction across racial groups. Theories of colorblind racial ideology are used to interpret data from 14 group interviews focusing on 1.) the degree to which cross-group interaction is desired, 2.) perceptions of racial separation among students at a…

  13. Racial Battle Fatigue for Latina/o Students: A Quantitative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Jeremy D.; Smith, William A.; Hung, Man

    2014-01-01

    Previous literature demonstrates that as a result of racial microaggressions and hostile campus racial climates, Latina/o students often state they experience psychological, physiological, and behavioral stress responses during and after racialized incidents on campuses. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively test the racial battle fatigue…

  14. The Adverse Impact of Racial Microaggressions on College Students' Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadal, Kevin L.; Wong, Yinglee; Griffin, Katie E.; Davidoff, Kristin; Sriken, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Racial microaggressions are subtle (often unintentional or unconscious) forms of racial discrimination that negatively affect victims' mental health. Utilizing an undergraduate student sample (N = 225), the current study examined the relationship between racial microaggressions and self-esteem. Results indicate that racial microaggressions…

  15. Racially diverse classrooms: effects of classroom racial composition on interracial peer relationships.

    PubMed

    Barth, Joan M; McDonald, Kristina L; Lochman, John E; Boxmeyer, Carolyn; Powell, Nicole; Dillon, Casey; Sallee, Meghann

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the interactive effects that a child's race and the racial composition of a classroom have on a variety of sociometric measures. Sociometric nominations were collected from 872 fifth-grade students (48% male, 48% Black) who were in classrooms that ranged from nearly all Black to nearly all White students. Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses indicated that the race of the child, the race of the rater, and the classroom race composition each impacted sociometric nominations. Results suggest that schools that are more balanced in the distribution of Black and White students might promote more positive interracial peer relationships. However, opportunities to be highly liked and to be perceived as a leader might be greatest in a school in which the child is in the clear racial majority. PMID:23889015

  16. Neural basis of disgust perception in racial prejudice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunzhe; Lin, Wanjun; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Dandan; Luo, Yuejia

    2015-12-01

    Worldwide racial prejudice is originated from in-group/out-group discrimination. This prejudice can bias face perception at the very beginning of social interaction. However, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanism underlying the influence of racial prejudice on facial emotion perception. Here, we examined the neural basis of disgust perception in racial prejudice using a passive viewing task and functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that compared with the disgusted faces of in-groups, the disgusted faces of out-groups result in increased amygdala and insular engagement, positive coupling of the insula with amygdala-based emotional system, and negative coupling of the insula with anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-based regulatory system. Furthermore, machine-learning algorithms revealed that the level of implicit racial prejudice could be predicted by functional couplings of the insula with both the amygdala and the ACC, which suggests that the insula is largely involved in racially biased disgust perception through two distinct neural circuits. In addition, individual difference in disgust sensitivity was found to be predictive of implicit racial prejudice. Taken together, our results suggest a crucial role of insula-centered circuits for disgust perception in racial prejudice.

  17. Neural basis of disgust perception in racial prejudice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunzhe; Lin, Wanjun; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Dandan; Luo, Yuejia

    2015-12-01

    Worldwide racial prejudice is originated from in-group/out-group discrimination. This prejudice can bias face perception at the very beginning of social interaction. However, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanism underlying the influence of racial prejudice on facial emotion perception. Here, we examined the neural basis of disgust perception in racial prejudice using a passive viewing task and functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that compared with the disgusted faces of in-groups, the disgusted faces of out-groups result in increased amygdala and insular engagement, positive coupling of the insula with amygdala-based emotional system, and negative coupling of the insula with anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-based regulatory system. Furthermore, machine-learning algorithms revealed that the level of implicit racial prejudice could be predicted by functional couplings of the insula with both the amygdala and the ACC, which suggests that the insula is largely involved in racially biased disgust perception through two distinct neural circuits. In addition, individual difference in disgust sensitivity was found to be predictive of implicit racial prejudice. Taken together, our results suggest a crucial role of insula-centered circuits for disgust perception in racial prejudice. PMID:26417673

  18. Assessing Racial Microaggression Distress in a Diverse Sample.

    PubMed

    Torres-Harding, Susan; Turner, Tasha

    2015-12-01

    Racial microaggressions are everyday subtle or ambiguous racially related insults, slights, mistreatment, or invalidations. Racial microaggressions are a type of perceived racism that may negatively impact the health and well-being of people of color in the United States. This study examined the reliability and validity of the Racial Microaggression Scale distress subscales, which measure the perceived stressfulness of six types of microaggression experiences in a racially and ethnically diverse sample. These subscales exhibited acceptable to good internal consistency. The distress subscales also evidenced good convergent validity; the distress subscales were positively correlated with additional measures of stressfulness due to experiencing microaggressions or everyday discrimination. When controlling for the frequency of one's exposure to microaggression incidents, some racial/ethnic group differences were found. Asian Americans reported comparatively lower distress and Latinos reporting comparatively higher distress in response to Foreigner, Low-Achieving, Invisibility, and Environmental microaggressions. African Americans reported higher distress than the other groups in response to Environmental microaggressions. Results suggest that the Racial Microaggressions Scale distress subscales may aid health professionals in assessing the distress elicited by different types of microaggressions. In turn, this may facilitate diagnosis and treatment planning in order to provide multiculturally competent care for African American, Latino, and Asian American clients.

  19. Assessing Racial Microaggression Distress in a Diverse Sample.

    PubMed

    Torres-Harding, Susan; Turner, Tasha

    2015-12-01

    Racial microaggressions are everyday subtle or ambiguous racially related insults, slights, mistreatment, or invalidations. Racial microaggressions are a type of perceived racism that may negatively impact the health and well-being of people of color in the United States. This study examined the reliability and validity of the Racial Microaggression Scale distress subscales, which measure the perceived stressfulness of six types of microaggression experiences in a racially and ethnically diverse sample. These subscales exhibited acceptable to good internal consistency. The distress subscales also evidenced good convergent validity; the distress subscales were positively correlated with additional measures of stressfulness due to experiencing microaggressions or everyday discrimination. When controlling for the frequency of one's exposure to microaggression incidents, some racial/ethnic group differences were found. Asian Americans reported comparatively lower distress and Latinos reporting comparatively higher distress in response to Foreigner, Low-Achieving, Invisibility, and Environmental microaggressions. African Americans reported higher distress than the other groups in response to Environmental microaggressions. Results suggest that the Racial Microaggressions Scale distress subscales may aid health professionals in assessing the distress elicited by different types of microaggressions. In turn, this may facilitate diagnosis and treatment planning in order to provide multiculturally competent care for African American, Latino, and Asian American clients. PMID:25237154

  20. The effect of context on responses to racially ambiguous faces: changes in perception and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Willadsen-Jensen, Eve; Ito, Tiffany A

    2015-07-01

    Reactions to individuals who possess features associated with multiple racial groups may be particularly susceptible to external contextual influences, leading to meaningfully different racial perceptions and judgments in different situations. In the present study, we found that an extrinsic race-label cue not only changed evaluative associations activated by a racially ambiguous face, but also changed quickly occurring neural responses sensitive to racial perception. Behaviorally, prototypical Black faces and racially ambiguous faces labeled as Black activated more negative implicit associations than prototypical White faces and racially ambiguous faces labeled as White. Neurally, prototypical faces and racially ambiguous faces cued with the same race elicited similar responses. Specifically, prototypical Black and racially ambiguous faces labeled as Black elicited larger P200s but smaller N200s than prototypical White and racially ambiguous faces labeled as White. These results show that racial perception can be changed by an external cue and this, in turn, influences subsequent evaluative reactions. PMID:25344946

  1. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Men's Health: Examining Psychosocial Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tyson H; Hargrove, Taylor W; Griffith, Derek M

    2015-01-01

    This study uses data from the Health and Retirement Study and an approach informed by the Biopsychosocial Model of Racism as a Stressor to examine the extent to which socioeconomic status, stressors, discrimination, and neighborhood conditions are mechanisms underlying racial/ethnic disparities in functional limitations among men. Results reveal that racial/ethnic differences in socioeconomic status, stressors, discrimination, and neighborhood conditions-individually and collectively-account for a substantial proportion of racial/ethnic disparities in functional limitations. Findings suggest that the social determinants of health for men of color need to be more seriously considered in investigations of and efforts to address health disparities.

  2. Understanding and Addressing Racial Disparities in Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Rucker, Toni D.

    2000-01-01

    Racial disparities in medical care should be understood within the context of racial inequities in societal institutions. Systematic discrimination is not the aberrant behavior of a few but is often supported by institutional policies and unconscious bias based on negative stereotypes. Effectively addressing disparities in the quality of care requires improved data systems, increased regulatory vigilance, and new initiatives to appropriately train medical professionals and recruit more providers from disadvantaged minority backgrounds. Identifying and implementing effective strategies to eliminate racial inequities in health status and medical care should be made a national priority. PMID:11481746

  3. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Men's Health: Examining Psychosocial Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tyson; Hargrove, Taylor W.; Griffith, Derek M.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses data from the Health and Retirement Study and an approach informed by the Biopsychosocial Model of Racism as a Stressor to examine the extent to which SES, stressors, discrimination and neighborhood conditions are mechanisms underlying racial/ethnic disparities in functional limitations among men. Results reveal that racial/ethnic differences in SES, stressors, discrimination and neighborhood conditions—individually and collectively—account for a substantial proportion of racial/ethnic disparities in functional limitations. Findings suggest that the social determinants of health for men of color need to be more seriously considered in investigations of and efforts to address health disparities. PMID:26291191

  4. Engaging racial autoethnography as a teaching tool for womanist inquiry.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Janette Y; Mackin, Melissa A Lehan; Oldenburg, Angela M

    2008-01-01

    Racial autobiography, self-narratives on how one learned about the idea of race, has been underutilized as a tool to familiarize and orient students in the process of critical inquiry for nursing research. The aims of this article are to explore how racial autoethnography: (1) repositions students to effect an epistemological change, (2) challenges dominant ideology, and (3) functions as a link between the student and critical theories for use in nursing research. Students engage in and share reflective narrative about a variety of instructional materials used in the course. Reflective narratives are presented in a framework that addresses white racial identity development. PMID:19033749

  5. Engaging racial autoethnography as a teaching tool for womanist inquiry.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Janette Y; Mackin, Melissa A Lehan; Oldenburg, Angela M

    2008-01-01

    Racial autobiography, self-narratives on how one learned about the idea of race, has been underutilized as a tool to familiarize and orient students in the process of critical inquiry for nursing research. The aims of this article are to explore how racial autoethnography: (1) repositions students to effect an epistemological change, (2) challenges dominant ideology, and (3) functions as a link between the student and critical theories for use in nursing research. Students engage in and share reflective narrative about a variety of instructional materials used in the course. Reflective narratives are presented in a framework that addresses white racial identity development.

  6. Social and racial correlates of Russian roulette.

    PubMed

    Stack, Steven; Wasserman, Ira

    2008-08-01

    The epidemiology of a neglected form of suicidal behavior, Russian roulette, is addressed. Also tested is an explanation of racial differences based on the opportunity theory of deviant behavior related to the availability of revolvers, necessary weapons with which to play Russian roulette. Data refer to 15 cases of Russian roulette found through a search of the medical examiner's suicide files (N = 1,412) and 75 matched controls who suicided by a gunshot to the head. The results support an opportunity perspective: 80% of the Russian roulette victims were African American compared to 30.7% of the controls. Further, among the controls, Blacks were three times more likely than Whites to use revolvers in suicides, a pattern indicating Blacks' greater access to revolvers. Russian roulette victims were entirely male, significantly younger, and less apt to be married than the control group.

  7. Intergroup time bias and racialized social relations.

    PubMed

    Vala, Jorge; Pereira, Cícero Roberto; Oliveira Lima, Marcus Eugênio; Leyens, Jacques-Philippe

    2012-04-01

    Within the framework of intergroup relations, the authors analyzed the time people spent evaluating ingroup and outgroup members. They hypothesized that White participants take longer to evaluate White targets than Black targets. In four experiments, White participants were slower to form impressions of White than of Black people; that is, they showed an intergroup time bias (ITB). In Study 1 (N = 60), the ITB correlated with implicit prejudice and homogeneity. Study 2 (N = 60) showed that the ITB was independent of the type of trait in question (nonstereotypical vs. stereotypical). Study 3 (N = 100) demonstrated that ITB correlates with racism measured 3 months beforehand, is independent of motivation to control prejudice, and is not an epiphenomenon of homogeneity. In Study 4 (N = 40) participants not only showed the ITB in a racialized social context but also displayed it following a minimal group manipulation.

  8. Racial and ethnic disparities in renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Churak, Joanne M

    2005-02-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities exist in renal transplantation. The causes are multifactorial and include but are not limited to racism, socioeconomic status and class, unfavorable geographical location, lack of organ donation by minority groups, and differences in social networks, health beliefs culture and HLA typing. These disparities affect blacks, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, Alaskan natiives and Asians. Elimination of these disparities is difficult, since many of the causes are intertwined, and it is difficult todiscern attributable disparity risk associated with the various factors. The possible solutions and recommendations are numerous. Since it is difficult to identify which may be successsful, thorough evaluation is required to determine which should be implemented. Some recommendations may not be easily implemented. Those selected for implementation must be continuously monitored for the expected results and effects.

  9. Racial disparities in kidney disease outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Susanne B; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Norris, Keith C

    2013-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a national public health problem. Although the prevalence of early stages of CKD is similar across different racial/ethnic and socioeconomic groups, the prevalence of end-stage renal disease is greater for minorities than their non-Hispanic white peers. Paradoxically, once on dialysis, minorities experience survival rates that exceed their non-Hispanic white peers. Advancing our understanding of the unique interplay of biological, genetic, environmental, sociocultural, and health care system level factors may prompt reorientation of our approach to health promotion and disease prevention. The potential of this new approach is to create previously unimagined gains to improve patient outcomes and reduce health inequities for patients with CKD.

  10. Match probabilities in racially admixed populations.

    PubMed

    Lange, K

    1993-02-01

    The calculation of match probabilities is the most contentious issue dividing prosecution and defense experts in the forensic applications of DNA fingerprinting. In particular, defense experts question the applicability of the population genetic laws of Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium to racially admixed American populations. Linkage equilibrium justifies the product rule for computing match probabilities across loci. The present paper suggests a method of bounding match probabilities that depends on modeling gene descent from ancestral populations to contemporary populations under the assumptions of Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium only in the ancestral populations. Although these bounds are conservative from the defendant's perspective, they should be small enough in practice to satisfy prosecutors.

  11. Halitosis among racially diverse populations: an update.

    PubMed

    Rayman, S; Almas, K

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the cultural perceptions of halitosis to dental professionals. Halitosis (oral malodour or bad breath) is caused mainly by tongue coating and periodontal disease. Bacterial metabolism of amino acids leads to metabolites including many compounds, such as indole, skatole and volatile sulphur compounds (VSC), hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide. They are claimed to be the main aetiological agents for halitosis. Gastrointestinal diseases are also generally believed to cause halitosis. In general, physicians and dentists are poorly informed about the causes and treatments for halitosis. The paper reviews the prevalence and distribution of halitosis, oral malodour, its aetiology, concepts of general and oral health and diseases and their perception among racially diverse population. Eating, smoking and drinking habits and understanding of halitosis as a social norm among different people has been highlighted. The treatment options have also been presented very briefly. A brief discussion about general importance within existing healthcare services has been highlighted. Oral malodour may rank only behind dental caries and periodontal disease as the cause of patient's visits to the dentist. It is a public social health problem. The perception of halitosis is different in culturally diverse populations. So the dental professionals should be aware of the cultural perceptions of halitosis among racially and culturally diverse populations. There is a need to integrate the cultural awareness and knowledge about halitosis among the dental professional for better understanding of halitosis to treat patients with the social dilemma of halitosis to improve the quality of life and well-being of individuals with the problem. It is concluded that dental professionals (especially dental hygienists) should be prepared to practice in a culturally diverse environment in a sensitive and appropriate manner, to deliver optimal oral

  12. Racial Differences in Nitric Oxide-Dependent Vasorelaxation

    PubMed Central

    Mata-Greenwood, Eugenia; Chen, Dong-Bao

    2008-01-01

    Along with the growing heterogeneity of the American population, ethnic/racial disparity is becoming a clear health issue in the United States. The awareness of ethnic/racial disparities has been growing because of considerable data gathered from recent clinical and epidemiological studies. These studies have highlighted the importance of addressing these differences in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases potentially according to race. It is becoming particularly clear that there is a 2- to 3-fold racial difference in certain cardiovascular diseases (eg, preeclampsia) associated with dysfunctional nitric oxide–mediated vasodilation. In this review, the authors summarize the current literature on racial disparities in nitric oxide–mediated vasodilation in relation to cardiovascular health with an emphasis on vascular nitric oxide bioavailability as a balance between production via endothelial nitric oxide synthase and degradation through reactive oxygen species. The major hypotheses postulated on the biological basis of these differences are also highlighted. PMID:18212350

  13. Neighborhood Selection and the Social Reproduction of Concentrated Racial Inequality

    PubMed Central

    SAMPSON, ROBERT J.; SHARKEY, PATRICK

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we consider neighborhood selection as a social process central to the reproduction of racial inequality in neighborhood attainment. We formulate a multilevel model that decomposes multiple sources of stability and change in longitudinal trajectories of achieved neighborhood income among nearly 4,000 Chicago families followed for up to seven years wherever they moved in the United States. Even after we adjust for a comprehensive set of fixed and time-varying covariates, racial inequality in neighborhood attainment is replicated by movers and stayers alike. We also study the emergent consequences of mobility pathways for neighborhood-level structure. The temporal sorting by individuals of different racial and ethnic groups combines to yield a structural pattern of flows between neighborhoods that generates virtually nonoverlapping income distributions and little exchange between minority and white areas. Selection and racially shaped hierarchies are thus mutually constituted and account for an apparent equilibrium of neighborhood inequality. PMID:18390289

  14. Moving beyond Racial and Ethnic Diversity at HBCUs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John Michael, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter emphasizes the importance of going beyond racial and ethnic diversity at HBCUs to include other forms of diversity such as socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, and international status.

  15. Person categorization and automatic racial stereotyping effects on weapon identification.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher R; Fazio, Russell H

    2010-08-01

    Prior stereotyping research provides conflicting evidence regarding the importance of person categorization along a particular dimension for the automatic activation of a stereotype corresponding to that dimension. Experiment 1 replicated a racial stereotyping effect on object identification and examined whether it could be attenuated by encouraging categorization by age. Experiment 2 employed socially complex person stimuli and manipulated whether participants categorized spontaneously or by race. In Experiment 3, the distinctiveness of the racial dimension was manipulated by having Black females appear in the context of either Black males or White females. The results indicated that conditions fostering categorization by race consistently produced automatic racial stereotyping and that conditions fostering nonracial categorization can eliminate automatic racial stereotyping. Implications for the relation between automatic stereotype activation and dimension of categorization are discussed.

  16. An fMRI investigation of racial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Norton, Michael I; Mason, Malia F; Vandello, Joseph A; Biga, Andrew; Dyer, Rebecca

    2013-04-01

    We explore the existence and underlying neural mechanism of a new norm endorsed by both black and white Americans for managing interracial interactions: "racial paralysis', the tendency to opt out of decisions involving members of different races. We show that people are more willing to make choices--such as who is more intelligent, or who is more polite-between two white individuals (same-race decisions) than between a white and a black individual (cross-race decisions), a tendency which was evident more when judgments involved traits related to black stereotypes. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the mechanisms underlying racial paralysis, to examine the mechanisms underlying racial paralysis, revealing greater recruitment of brain regions implicated in socially appropriate behavior (ventromedial prefrontal cortex), conflict detection (anterior cingulate cortex), deliberative processing (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), and inhibition (ventrolateral prefrontal cortex). We also discuss the impact of racial paralysis on the quality of interracial relations.

  17. Racial/Ethnic disparities in depression and its theoretical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjeong

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to look at racial/ethnic disparities in the diagnosis of depression and its treatment and to explain the dynamics and causes of these racial/ethnic disparities in depression by looking at several theories, such as perceived racism, cultural competency, and other theories. Perceived racism is that the perceptions of an environmental stimulus as being racist affects the coping responses of ethnic/racial minorities, which alters psychological and physiological stress responses, and finally affects health outcomes negatively. A lower level of cultural competence can lead to health disparities. In addition, lower socioeconomic status and health care providers' beliefs and behaviors about patients' race/ethnicity and class can affect depressive symptoms as well as diagnosis and treatment. In order to reduce these racial/ethnic disparities in depression, diverse interventions should be developed to improve depression outcomes for ethnic minority populations based on these theoretical perspectives.

  18. Racial/ethnic residential segregation and cardiovascular disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Albrecht, Sandra S.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has examined whether racial/ethnic residential segregation contributes to health disparities, but recent findings in the literature, particularly with respect to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, have not been summarized. This review provides an overview of findings from studies of racial/ethnic residential segregation of non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics with CVD risk published between January 2011 and July 2014. The majority of studies of black segregation showed higher segregation was related to higher CVD risk, although relationships were less clear for certain outcomes. Relationships among Hispanics were more mixed and appeared to vary widely by factors such as gender, country of origin, racial identity, and acculturation. Implications for research on racial/ethnic disparities in CVD and lingering gaps in the literature are discussed as well. PMID:25893031

  19. Exploring ethnic and racial differences in falls among older adults.

    PubMed

    Han, Benjamin H; Ferris, Rosie; Blaum, Caroline

    2014-12-01

    Falls are common events that threaten the independence and health of older adults. Studies have found a wide range of fall statistics in different ethnic and racial groups throughout the world. These studies suggest that fall rates may differ between different racial and ethnic groups. Studies also suggest that the location of falls, circumstances of falls, and particular behaviors may also be different by population. Also migration to new locations may alter an individual's fall risk. However, there are few studies that directly compare ethnic and racial differences in falls statistics or examine how known fall risk factors change based on race and ethnicity. This paper reviews the existing literature on how falls may differ between different racial and ethnic groups, highlights gaps in the literature, and explores directions for future research. The focus of this paper is community dwelling older adults and immigrant populations in the United States.

  20. Smoking Rates Still High in Some Racial Groups, CDC Reports

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160256.html Smoking Rates Still High in Some Racial Groups, CDC ... lot of progress in getting Americans to stop smoking, some groups still have high smoking rates, a ...

  1. Disparities in Healthcare for Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Joshua C.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter situates healthcare as a concern for the field of adult education through a critique of disparities in access to healthcare, quality of care received, and caregiver services for racial, ethnic, and sexual minorities.

  2. Doctors' and nurses' explanations for racial disparities in medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Clark-Hitt, Rose; Malat, Jennifer; Burgess, Diana; Friedemann-Sanchez, Greta

    2010-02-01

    Racial inequality in medical treatment is a problem whose sources are not fully understood. To gain better insight into how race may affect treatment, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 doctors and nurses. Using an open coding scheme, the explanations of racial inequality in treatment were coded by two people. Four major categories of responses emerged to explain why Black patients are less likely to receive the same levels of medical care as Whites: access to care, physician bias, Black patients' perceived shortcomings, and White patients' demands. Interviewees commonly cited access and patient factors before naming physician bias. The majority questioned the validity of studies reporting disparities. Educational campaigns should emphasize evidence that racial disparities persist even after controlling for factors such as insurance and patient characteristics. Educational programs should also address subconscious racial bias and how it may operate in a clinical setting.

  3. Neighborhood selection and the social reproduction of concentrated racial inequality.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Robert J; Sharkey, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we consider neighborhood selection as a social process central to the reproduction of racial inequality in neighborhood attainment. We formulate a multilevel model that decomposes multiple sources of stability and change in longitudinal trajectories of achieved neighborhood income among nearly 4000 Chicago families followed for up to seven years wherever they moved in the United States. Even after we adjust for a comprehensive set of fixed and time-varying covariates, racial inequality in neighborhood attainment is replicated by movers and stayers alike. We also study the emergent consequences of mobility pathways for neighborhood-level structure. The temporal sorting by individuals of different racial and ethnic groups combines to yield a structural pattern offlows between neighborhoods that generates virtually nonoverlapping income distributions and little exchange between minority and white areas. Selection and racially shaped hierarchies are thus mutually constituted and account for an apparent equilibrium of neighborhood inequality.

  4. Racial/Ethnic disparities in depression and its theoretical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjeong

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to look at racial/ethnic disparities in the diagnosis of depression and its treatment and to explain the dynamics and causes of these racial/ethnic disparities in depression by looking at several theories, such as perceived racism, cultural competency, and other theories. Perceived racism is that the perceptions of an environmental stimulus as being racist affects the coping responses of ethnic/racial minorities, which alters psychological and physiological stress responses, and finally affects health outcomes negatively. A lower level of cultural competence can lead to health disparities. In addition, lower socioeconomic status and health care providers' beliefs and behaviors about patients' race/ethnicity and class can affect depressive symptoms as well as diagnosis and treatment. In order to reduce these racial/ethnic disparities in depression, diverse interventions should be developed to improve depression outcomes for ethnic minority populations based on these theoretical perspectives. PMID:23801269

  5. Race, racism, and racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Tyan Parker

    2008-06-01

    While the biologic authenticity of race remains a contentious issue, the social significance of race is indisputable. The chronic stress of racism and the social inequality it engenders may be underlying social determinants of persistent racial disparities in health, including infant mortality, preterm delivery, and low birth weight. This article describes the problem of racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes; outlines the multidimensional nature of racism and the pathways by which it may adversely affect health; and discusses the implications for clinical practice.

  6. Miles to go before we sleep: racial inequities in health.

    PubMed

    Williams, David R

    2012-09-01

    Large, pervasive, and persistent racial inequalities exist in the onset, courses, and outcomes of illness. A comprehensive understanding of the patterning of racial disparities indicates that racism in both its institutional and individual forms remains an important determinant. There is an urgent need to build the science base that would identify how to trigger the conditions that would facilitate needed societal change and to identify the optimal interventions that would confront and dismantle the societal conditions that create and sustain health inequalities.

  7. Racially and Ethnically Diverse Schools and Adolescent Romantic Relationships*

    PubMed Central

    Strully, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on romantic relationships, which are often seen as a barometer of social distance, this analysis investigates how adolescents from different racial-ethnic and gender groups respond when they attend diverse schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating. Which groups respond by forming inter-racial-ethnic relationships, and which groups appear to “work around” opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating by forming more same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of school boundaries? Most prior studies have analyzed only relationships within schools and, therefore, cannot capture a potentially important way that adolescents express preferences for same-race-ethnicity relationships and/or work around constraints from other groups’ preferences. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that, when adolescents are in schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating, black females and white males are most likely to form same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of the school; whereas Hispanic males and females are most likely to date across racial-ethnic boundaries within the school. PMID:25848670

  8. Community Influences on White Racial Attitudes: What Matters and Why?

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Marylee C.; Mateyka, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Tracing the roots of racial attitudes in historical events and individual biographies has been a longstanding goal of race relations scholars. Recent years have seen a new development in racial attitude research: Local community context has entered the spotlight as a potential influence on racial views. The race composition of the locality has been the most common focus; evidence from earlier decades suggests that white Americans are more likely to hold anti-black attitudes if they live in areas where the African American population is relatively large. However, an influential 2000 article argued that the socioeconomic composition of the white community is a more powerful influence on white attitudes: In low-SES locales, “stress-inducing” deprivations and hardships in whites’ own lives purportedly lead them to disparage blacks. The study reported here re-assesses this “scapegoating” claim, using data from the 1998–2002 General Social Surveys linked to 2000 census information about communities. Across many dimensions of racial attitudes, there is pronounced influence of both local racial proportions and college completion rates among white residents. However, the economic dimension of SES exerts negligible influence on white racial attitudes, suggesting that local processes other than scapegoating must be at work. PMID:21910274

  9. Community influences on white racial attitudes: what matters and why?

    PubMed

    Taylor, Marylee C; Mateyka, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Tracing the roots of racial attitudes in historical events and individual biographies has been a long-standing goal of race relations scholars. Recent years have seen a new development in racial attitude research: Local community context has entered the spotlight as a potential influence on racial views. The race composition of the locality has been the most common focus; evidence from earlier decades suggests that white Americans are more likely to hold anti-black attitudes if they live in areas where the African-American population is relatively large. However, an influential 2000 article argued that the socioeconomic composition of the white community is a more powerful influence on white attitudes: In low-socioeconomic status (SES) locales, “stress-inducing” deprivations and hardships in whites' own lives purportedly lead them to disparage blacks. The study reported here reassesses this “scapegoating” claim, using data from the 1998 to 2002 General Social Surveys linked to 2000 census information about communities. Across many dimensions of racial attitudes, there is pronounced influence of both local racial proportions and college completion rates among white residents. However, the economic dimension of SES exerts negligible influence on white racial attitudes, suggesting that local processes other than scapegoating must be at work.

  10. The Role of Mothers' and Adolescents' Perceptions of Ethnic-Racial Socialization in Shaping Ethnic-Racial Identity among Early Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Diane; Hagelskamp, Carolin; Way, Niobe; Foust, Monica D.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined relationships between adolescents' and mothers' reports of ethnic-racial socialization and adolescents' ethnic-racial identity. The sample included 170 sixth graders (49% boys, 51% girls) and their mothers, all of whom identified as Black, Puerto Rican, Dominican, or Chinese. Two dimensions of ethnic-racial socialization…

  11. Interracial Contact and Racial Constancy: A Multi-Site Study of Racial Intergroup Bias in 3-5 Year Old Anglo-British Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Bennett, Laura; Ferrell, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This paper examined the influence of interracial contact and racial constancy on the racial intergroup bias of young Anglo-British children. This multi-site study was conducted in areas of Great Britain that varied in terms of racial diversity. The study also investigated whether preschool children express bias on positive, but not negative,…

  12. An Exploratory Examination of the Associations among Racial and Ethnic Discrimination, Racial Climate, and Trauma-Related Symptoms in a College Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Evans, Sarah A.; Walter, Rebecca A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the association among perceptions of racial and/or ethnic discrimination, racial climate, and trauma-related symptoms among 289 racially diverse college undergraduates. Study measures included the Perceived Stress Scale, the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder…

  13. Does Racial Isolation in School Lead to Long-Term Disadvantages? Labor Market Consequences of High School Racial Composition.

    PubMed

    Gamoran, Adam; Barfels, Sarah; Collares, Ana Cristina

    2016-01-01

    School racial composition has modest effects on test score gaps, but evidence of a longer-term impact is scarce. Perpetuation theory suggests that blacks who attend schools with higher proportions of white classmates may have better job outcomes. Multilevel analyses of two national longitudinal surveys reveal no effects of high school racial composition on occupational status, employment, or annual earnings for blacks or whites. For other minority groups, attending schools with more whites impedes occupational advancement. For all groups, however, school racial composition predicts workplace racial composition: Whites who attend high schools with higher proportions of white students have higher proportions of white coworkers, while nonwhites who attend schools with higher proportions of whites have fewer same-race coworkers. The findings are modest in size but robust to alternative specifications, and sensitivity analyses support a causal interpretation for same-race coworkers. These results support perpetuation theory for workplace composition but not for stratification outcomes.

  14. Does Racial Isolation in School Lead to Long-Term Disadvantages? Labor Market Consequences of High School Racial Composition.

    PubMed

    Gamoran, Adam; Barfels, Sarah; Collares, Ana Cristina

    2016-01-01

    School racial composition has modest effects on test score gaps, but evidence of a longer-term impact is scarce. Perpetuation theory suggests that blacks who attend schools with higher proportions of white classmates may have better job outcomes. Multilevel analyses of two national longitudinal surveys reveal no effects of high school racial composition on occupational status, employment, or annual earnings for blacks or whites. For other minority groups, attending schools with more whites impedes occupational advancement. For all groups, however, school racial composition predicts workplace racial composition: Whites who attend high schools with higher proportions of white students have higher proportions of white coworkers, while nonwhites who attend schools with higher proportions of whites have fewer same-race coworkers. The findings are modest in size but robust to alternative specifications, and sensitivity analyses support a causal interpretation for same-race coworkers. These results support perpetuation theory for workplace composition but not for stratification outcomes. PMID:27017708

  15. Racial Discrimination, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, and Crime: A Micro-sociological Model of Risk and Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Callie Harbin; Simons, Ronald L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2013-01-01

    Dominant theoretical explanations of racial disparities in criminal offending overlook a key risk factor associated with race: interpersonal racial discrimination. Building on recent studies that analyze race and crime at the micro-level, we specify a social psychological model linking personal experiences with racial discrimination to an increased risk of offending. We add to this model a consideration of an adaptive facet of African American culture: ethnic-racial socialization, and explore whether two forms—cultural socialization and preparation for bias—provide resilience to the criminogenic effects of interpersonal racial discrimination. Using panel data from several hundred African American male youth from the Family and Community Health Study, we find that racial discrimination is positively associated with increased crime in large part by augmenting depression, hostile views of relationships, and disengagement from conventional norms. Results also indicate that preparation for bias significantly reduces the effects of discrimination on crime, primarily by reducing the effects of these social psychological mediators on offending. Cultural socialization has a less influential but beneficial effect. Finally, we show that the more general parenting context within which preparation for bias takes place influences its protective effects. PMID:24058204

  16. Young children's racial awareness and affect and their perceptions about mothers' racial affect in a multiracial context.

    PubMed

    Lam, Virginia; Guerrero, Silvia; Damree, Natasha; Enesco, Ileana

    2011-11-01

    There is a substantial literature documenting pre-schoolers' racial awareness and affect from multiracial societies in North America and a fast-growing body of work from societies that are or were once more racially homogeneous. However, studies in Britain, a racially diverse society, on this developmental period have been curiously rare. This study examined racial awareness and affect of 125 White, Black, and Asian 3--to 5-year-olds in London. Children were tested on cognitive level, person description and classification, race labelling and matching, self-categorization and asked about their racial preference and rejection and inferences about their mothers' preference and rejection. Children were least likely to use race versus other categorical cues to spontaneously describe or classify others, even though the majority correctly sorted others by race labels, matched them to drawings, and categorized themselves by race. With age and increasing cognitive level, children described and categorized others by race more and improved in race matching. White children from age 4 preferred White peers and inferred that their mothers would prefer White children at age 5. Children's own preference and inference about mothers are related. Children did not show race-based rejection, but boys inferred that their mothers would prefer White children and reject Black children. The findings are discussed in relation to racial salience between contexts, previous research, and theories. PMID:21199507

  17. Racial Discrimination, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, and Crime: A Micro-sociological Model of Risk and Resilience.

    PubMed

    Burt, Callie Harbin; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2012-08-01

    Dominant theoretical explanations of racial disparities in criminal offending overlook a key risk factor associated with race: interpersonal racial discrimination. Building on recent studies that analyze race and crime at the micro-level, we specify a social psychological model linking personal experiences with racial discrimination to an increased risk of offending. We add to this model a consideration of an adaptive facet of African American culture: ethnic-racial socialization, and explore whether two forms-cultural socialization and preparation for bias-provide resilience to the criminogenic effects of interpersonal racial discrimination. Using panel data from several hundred African American male youth from the Family and Community Health Study, we find that racial discrimination is positively associated with increased crime in large part by augmenting depression, hostile views of relationships, and disengagement from conventional norms. Results also indicate that preparation for bias significantly reduces the effects of discrimination on crime, primarily by reducing the effects of these social psychological mediators on offending. Cultural socialization has a less influential but beneficial effect. Finally, we show that the more general parenting context within which preparation for bias takes place influences its protective effects.

  18. Racial Segregation and the American Foreclosure Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Rugh, Jacob S.; Massey, Douglas S.

    2013-01-01

    Although the rise in subprime lending and the ensuing wave of foreclosures was partly a result of market forces that have been well-identified in the literature, in the United States it was also a highly racialized process. We argue that residential segregation created a unique niche of poor minority clients who were differentially marketed risky subprime loans that were in great demand for use in mortgage-backed securities that could be sold on secondary markets. We test this argument by regressing foreclosure actions in the top 100 U.S. metropolitan areas on measures of black, Hispanic, and Asian segregation while controlling for a variety of housing market conditions, including average creditworthiness, the extent of coverage under the Community Reinvestment Act, the degree of zoning regulation, and the overall rate of subprime lending. We find that black residential dissimilarity and spatial isolation are powerful predictors of foreclosures across U.S. metropolitan areas. In order to isolate subprime lending as the causal mechanism whereby segregation influences foreclosures, we estimate a two-stage least squares model that confirms the causal effect of black segregation on the number and rate of foreclosures across metropolitan areas. In the United States segregation was an important contributing cause of the foreclosure crisis, along with overbuilding, risky lending practices, lax regulation, and the bursting of the housing price bubble. PMID:25308973

  19. Racial Segregation and the American Foreclosure Crisis.

    PubMed

    Rugh, Jacob S; Massey, Douglas S

    2010-10-01

    Although the rise in subprime lending and the ensuing wave of foreclosures was partly a result of market forces that have been well-identified in the literature, in the United States it was also a highly racialized process. We argue that residential segregation created a unique niche of poor minority clients who were differentially marketed risky subprime loans that were in great demand for use in mortgage-backed securities that could be sold on secondary markets. We test this argument by regressing foreclosure actions in the top 100 U.S. metropolitan areas on measures of black, Hispanic, and Asian segregation while controlling for a variety of housing market conditions, including average creditworthiness, the extent of coverage under the Community Reinvestment Act, the degree of zoning regulation, and the overall rate of subprime lending. We find that black residential dissimilarity and spatial isolation are powerful predictors of foreclosures across U.S. metropolitan areas. In order to isolate subprime lending as the causal mechanism whereby segregation influences foreclosures, we estimate a two-stage least squares model that confirms the causal effect of black segregation on the number and rate of foreclosures across metropolitan areas. In the United States segregation was an important contributing cause of the foreclosure crisis, along with overbuilding, risky lending practices, lax regulation, and the bursting of the housing price bubble. PMID:25308973

  20. Racial segregation, income inequality, and mortality in US metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Nuru-Jeter, Amani M; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2011-04-01

    Evidence of the association between income inequality and mortality has been mixed. Studies indicate that growing income inequalities reflect inequalities between, rather than within, racial groups. Racial segregation may play a role. We examine the role of racial segregation on the relationship between income inequality and mortality in a cross-section of US metropolitan areas. Metropolitan areas were included if they had a population of at least 100,000 and were at least 10% black (N = 107). Deaths for the time period 1991-1999 were used to calculate age-adjusted all-cause mortality rates for each metropolitan statistical area (MSA) using direct age-adjustment techniques. Multivariate least squares regression was used to examine associations for the total sample and for blacks and whites separately. Income inequality was associated with lower mortality rates among whites and higher mortality rates among blacks. There was a significant interaction between income inequality and racial segregation. A significant graded inverse income inequality/mortality association was found for MSAs with higher versus lower levels of black-white racial segregation. Effects were stronger among whites than among blacks. A positive income inequality/mortality association was found in MSAs with higher versus lower levels of Hispanic-white segregation. Uncertainty regarding the income inequality/mortality association found in previous studies may be related to the omission of important variables such as racial segregation that modify associations differently between groups. Research is needed to further elucidate the risk and protective effects of racial segregation across groups.

  1. Is perceived racial privilege associated with health? Findings from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Fujishiro, Kaori

    2009-03-01

    While racial discrimination has gained increasing attention in public health research, little is known about perceived racial privilege and health. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data, this study explored the relationship of both perceived racial discrimination and privilege with well-being in the USA. Data were extracted from the BRFSS 2004 data set, in which 22,412 respondents in seven states and one major city provided data on perceived racial discrimination and privilege at work. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationships of differential racial treatment to self-rated general health status and the number of physically and mentally unhealthy days. Racially stratified analyses found that perceived racial privilege was significantly associated with more days of poor physical and mental health. This relationship was consistent for Whites, but for racial minorities it appeared on only some outcome measures. Reports of being treated worse than other races in the workplace were associated with poor health for all racial groups, as had been reported in previous studies on racial discrimination. Because racial discrimination and racial privilege are both products of racism, this study's findings suggest that racism may harm all involved. Impacts of perceived racial privilege deserve more attention in the literature on racism and health.

  2. Racial disparities in hematopoietic cell transplantation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Majhail, N S; Nayyar, S; Santibañez, M E Burton; Murphy, E A; Denzen, E M

    2012-11-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a highly specialized, expensive and resource-intense medical procedure that can be associated with racial disparities. We review the prevailing literature on racial disparities in HCT in the United States and describe areas for future research and interventions. We discuss the complexity of interpreting race as a biological and social determinant of disease in biomedical research, especially as it relates to HCT. In the United States, race is often a surrogate for socioeconomic, education and health insurance status. We also discuss some of the nuances to consider while reviewing the literature on racial disparities. Disparities by race exist in three areas related to HCT: donor availability, access to HCT and outcomes of HCT. African-Americans/Blacks have a lower likelihood of finding an unrelated donor. Race and ethnicity definitions are country-specific and reconciling race data can represent significant challenges to unrelated donor registries worldwide. African-Americans/Blacks do not have the same access to autologous and allogeneic HCT as Whites. Racial disparities in outcomes of HCT are more prevalent among allogeneic HCT than autologous HCT recipients. More research is required to understand the biological, social, cultural, medical and financial aspects of race that may influence access to HCT and survival after transplantation. Better understanding of racial disparities will minimize inequities, inform health policy, guide development of interventions targeted to eliminate disparities and ensure equitable access to HCT for all populations.

  3. Racial Disparities in Survival Among Injured Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Haskins, Amy E.; Clark, David E.; Travis, Lori L.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies on racial and ethnic disparities in survival after motor vehicle crashes have examined only population-based death rates or have been restricted to hospitalized patients. In the current study, we examined 3 components of crash survival by race/ethnicity: survival overall, survival to reach a hospital, and survival among those hospitalized. Nine years of data (from 2000 through 2008) from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System were used to examine white non-Hispanic, black non-Hispanic, and Hispanic drivers aged ≥15 years with serious injuries (injury severity scores of ≥9). By using multivariable logistic regression, we found that a driver's race/ethnicity was not significantly associated with overall survival after being injured in a crash (for blacks, odds ratio (OR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36, 1.32; for Hispanics, OR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.59, 1.72), and blacks and Hispanics were equally likely to survive to be treated at a hospital compared with whites (for blacks, OR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.52, 1.93; for Hispanics, OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.71, 1.79). However, among patients who were treated at a hospital, blacks were 50% less likely to survive 30 days compared with whites (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.76). The disparity in survival after serious traffic injuries among blacks appears to occur after hospitalization, not in prehospital survival. PMID:23371352

  4. School Desegregation and Racial Cleavage, 1954-1970: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carithers, Martha W.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews the empirical studies dealing with school desegregation and racial cleavage which have appeared since the 1954 Supreme Court decision. Focuses on patterns and consequences of interracial association, and attitude change relevant to racial cleavage. (DM)

  5. The Everyday Implications of Ethnic-Racial Identity Processes: Exploring Variability in Ethnic-Racial Identity Salience Across Situations.

    PubMed

    Douglass, Sara; Wang, Yijie; Yip, Tiffany

    2016-07-01

    Given the social and developmental relevance of ethnicity-race during adolescence, it is important to understand the meaning of ethnic-racial identity in adolescents' everyday lives. The current study considered how individual differences in ethnic-racial identity exploration (i.e., the extent to which individuals have explored their ethnicity-race), and commitment (i.e., the extent which they have a clear sense of what it means to them) influenced variability versus stability in the awareness of ethnicity-race in a given situation (i.e., salience), and how this variability is related to mood in that situation. Within an ethnic/racially diverse sample of 395 adolescents (M age = 15; 63 % female; 12 % Black, 26 % Latino, 34 % Asian, 23 % White), results indicated that ethnic-racial identity exploration was unrelated to variability in salience, while commitment promoted stability in salience across situations. Further, among adolescents who were generally very aware of their ethnicity-race, increases in situational salience were related to decreased negative and anxious mood. Among adolescents who were generally not aware of their ethnicity-race, increases in situational salience were related to increased positive and decreased negative mood. Implications for understanding the developmental and everyday experiences of ethnic-racial identity are discussed. PMID:26662047

  6. Understanding Racial/ethnic Disparities in Health: Sociological Contributions*

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Sternthal, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the contribution of sociologists to the study of racial and ethnic inequalities in health in the U.S. It argues that sociologists have made four principal contributions. First, they have challenged and problematized the biological understanding of race. Second, they have emphasized the primacy of social structure and context as determinants of racial differences in disease. Third, they have contributed to our understanding of the multiple ways in which racism affects health. Finally, sociologists have enhanced our understanding of the ways in which migration history and status can affect health. Sociological insights on racial disparities in health have important implications for the development of effective approaches to improve health and reduce health inequities. PMID:20943580

  7. Are hysterectomies necessary? Racial-ethnic differences in women's attitudes.

    PubMed

    Dillaway, Heather E

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of comparative information about how women from diverse social locations think about, talk about, and experience the various types of reproductive aging. In this article I analyze racial-ethnic differences in attitudes toward surgically induced menopause (hysterectomy) utilizing data from an interview study of 130 menopausal women. African American women in this study were more suspect of doctors' initial offers of hysterectomies than European American women, with the former group of interviewees still fearing a legacy of racial-ethnic discrimination within medical institutions. Only after seeking a second opinion or finding a trustworthy doctor did African American women feel comfortable accepting a hysterectomy. European American interviewees were not as wary as their African American counterparts and sometimes reported wishing for a hysterectomy. I argue that attitudes toward hysterectomy must be contextualized within women's experiences of racial-ethnic oppression and privilege to be fully understood. PMID:27045199

  8. Excess success for three related papers on racial bias.

    PubMed

    Francis, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Three related articles reported that racial bias altered perceptual experience and influenced decision-making. These findings have been applied to training programs for law enforcement, and elsewhere, to mitigate racial bias. However, a statistical analysis of each of the three articles finds that the reported experimental results should be rare, even if the theoretical ideas were correct. The analysis estimates that the probability of the reported experimental success for the articles is 0.003, 0.048, and 0.070, respectively. These low probabilities suggest that similar future work is unlikely to produce as successful outcomes and indicates that readers should be skeptical about the validity of the reported findings and their theoretical implications. The reported findings should not be used to guide policies related to racial bias, and new experimental work is needed to judge the merit of the theoretical ideas. PMID:25983701

  9. Dermatoglyphics in Down's syndrome patients of different racial origins.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Q H; Mapa, H C; McGann, B; Woods, J

    1977-11-01

    To investigate whether the phenotypic resemblance of Down's syndrome patients of different racial origins extended to include their dermatoglyphic characteristics, we made comparisons of dermal pattern frequencies on digits, palms, and hallucal areas of white, black and Japanese patients and matched controls. The results showed similarities in frequencies of digital whorls and ulnar loops in patients of all racial groups, of patterns in hallucal, thenar/I, second and third interdigital areas in white and black patients, and of hypothenar patterns and t" triradii in Japanese and black patients. The frequencies of the digital arches and remainder of the palmar configurations in patients of three racial groups showed significant, though often smaller, differences than those found in their controls.

  10. Reducing automatically activated racial prejudice through implicit evaluative conditioning.

    PubMed

    Olson, Michael A; Fazio, Russell H

    2006-04-01

    The authors report a set of experiments that use an implicit evaluative conditioning procedure to reduce automatically activated racial prejudice in White participants in a short period and with relatively few trials. Experiment 1 demonstrated that participants were unaware of the repeated conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US) pairings of Black-good and White-bad. In Experiment 2, the procedure was found to be effective in reducing prejudice as indicated by an evaluative priming measure of automatically activated racial attitudes. In Experiment 3, this reduction in prejudice was found to persist throughout a 2-day separation between the conditioning procedure and the administration of the dependent measure. The implications of the present findings for the persistence of automatically activated racial prejudice are discussed.

  11. Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities in Incarcerated Populations.

    PubMed

    Borysova, Meghan E; Mitchell, Ojmarrh; Sultan, Dawood H; Williams, Arthur R

    2012-01-01

    Alarming disparities in population health and wellness in the United States have led to multidisciplinary research efforts to create health equity. Identifying disparities, elucidating the etiological bases of disparities, and implementing solutions to eliminate disparities are part of the U.S. national health agenda. Racial and ethnic disparities have been identified throughout the cancer control continuum, in cardiovascular disease, diabetes and a multitude of other conditions. The causes of disparities are complex, condition specific, and conjectured to result from combinations of biological and socio-behavioral factors. Racial and ethnic health disparities within the vast incarcerated communities have been excluded from most studies, yet are of significant ethical and fiscal concern to inmates, governing bodies, and non-incarcerated communities into which inmates return. Importantly, research on racial and ethnic disparities in this unique population may shed light on the relative etiologies of health disparities and solutions for creating health equity throughout the general population in the United States.

  12. School diversity and racial discrimination among African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Eleanor K; Douglass, Sara

    2014-04-01

    The study presented here examined school context as a moderator in the relation between daily perceptions of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. The sample included 75 Black adolescents who completed daily surveys for 14 days. The results indicated that approximately 97% of adolescents reported experiencing at least one discriminatory experience over the 2-week period. During the daily diary period, the 2-week average was 26 discriminatory experiences with a daily average of 2.5 discriminatory events. The results indicated perceptions of racial discrimination were linked to increased depressive symptoms on the following day. This relation was apparent for Black youth attending predominantly Black and White high schools, but not for Black youth attending schools with no clear racial majority.

  13. Racial Residential Segregation and Disparities in Obesity among Women.

    PubMed

    Bower, Kelly M; Thorpe, Roland J; Yenokyan, Gayane; McGinty, E Emma E; Dubay, Lisa; Gaskin, Darrell J

    2015-10-01

    The high rate of obesity among black women in the USA is a significant public health problem. However, there is limited research on the relationship between racial residential segregation and disparities in obesity, and the existing evidence is limited and results are mixed. This study examines the relationship between racial residential segregation and obesity among black and white women. We conducted this cross-sectional study by joining data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with data from the 2000 US Census. Multilevel logistic regression models found that for every one-point increase in the black isolation index, there was a 1.06 (95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.01, 1.11) times higher odds of obesity for black women. In order to address the disparately high rates of obesity among black women, health policies need to address the economic, political, and social forces that produce racially segregated neighborhoods.

  14. Intergroup anxiety effects on implicit racial evaluation and stereotyping.

    PubMed

    Amodio, David M; Hamilton, Holly K

    2012-12-01

    How does intergroup anxiety affect the activation of implicit racial evaluations and stereotypes? Given the common basis of social anxiety and implicit evaluative processes in memory systems linked to classical conditioning and affect, we predicted that intergroup anxiety would amplify implicit negative racial evaluations. Implicit stereotyping, which is associated primarily with semantic memory systems, was not expected to increase as a function of intergroup anxiety. This pattern was observed among White participants preparing to interact with Black partners, but not those preparing to interact with White partners. These findings shed new light on how anxiety, often elicited in real-life intergroup interactions, can affect the operation of implicit racial biases, suggesting that intergroup anxiety has more direct implications for affective and evaluative forms of implicit bias than for implicit stereotyping. These findings also support a memory-systems model of the interplay between emotion and cognition in the context of social behavior.

  15. Social equity theory and racial-ethnic achievement gaps.

    PubMed

    McKown, Clark

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, racial-ethnic differences on tests of school readiness and academic achievement continue. A complete understanding of the origins of racial-ethnic achievement gaps is still lacking. This article describes social equity theory (SET), which proposes that racial-ethnic achievement gaps originate from two kinds of social process, direct and signal influences, that these two kinds of processes operate across developmental contexts, and that the kind of influence and the setting in which they are enacted change with age. Evidence supporting each of SET's key propositions is discussed in the context of a critical review of research on the Black-White achievement gap. Specific developmental hypotheses derived from SET are described, along with proposed standards of evidence for testing those hypotheses.

  16. Racial differences in hypertension: implications for high blood pressure management.

    PubMed

    Lackland, Daniel T

    2014-08-01

    The racial disparity in hypertension and hypertension-related outcomes has been recognized for decades with African Americans with greater risks than Caucasians. Blood pressure levels have consistently been higher for African Americans with an earlier onset of hypertension. Although awareness and treatment levels of high blood pressure have been similar, racial differences in control rates are evident. The higher blood pressure levels for African Americans are associated with higher rates of stroke, end-stage renal disease and congestive heart failure. The reasons for the racial disparities in elevated blood pressure and hypertension-related outcomes risk remain unclear. However, the implications of the disparities of hypertension for prevention and clinical management are substantial, identifying African American men and women with excel hypertension risk and warranting interventions focused on these differences. In addition, focused research to identify the factors attributed to these disparities in risk burden is an essential need to address the evidence gaps.

  17. Racial Residential Segregation and Disparities in Obesity among Women.

    PubMed

    Bower, Kelly M; Thorpe, Roland J; Yenokyan, Gayane; McGinty, E Emma E; Dubay, Lisa; Gaskin, Darrell J

    2015-10-01

    The high rate of obesity among black women in the USA is a significant public health problem. However, there is limited research on the relationship between racial residential segregation and disparities in obesity, and the existing evidence is limited and results are mixed. This study examines the relationship between racial residential segregation and obesity among black and white women. We conducted this cross-sectional study by joining data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with data from the 2000 US Census. Multilevel logistic regression models found that for every one-point increase in the black isolation index, there was a 1.06 (95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.01, 1.11) times higher odds of obesity for black women. In order to address the disparately high rates of obesity among black women, health policies need to address the economic, political, and social forces that produce racially segregated neighborhoods. PMID:26268731

  18. Racial differences in hypertension: implications for high blood pressure management.

    PubMed

    Lackland, Daniel T

    2014-08-01

    The racial disparity in hypertension and hypertension-related outcomes has been recognized for decades with African Americans with greater risks than Caucasians. Blood pressure levels have consistently been higher for African Americans with an earlier onset of hypertension. Although awareness and treatment levels of high blood pressure have been similar, racial differences in control rates are evident. The higher blood pressure levels for African Americans are associated with higher rates of stroke, end-stage renal disease and congestive heart failure. The reasons for the racial disparities in elevated blood pressure and hypertension-related outcomes risk remain unclear. However, the implications of the disparities of hypertension for prevention and clinical management are substantial, identifying African American men and women with excel hypertension risk and warranting interventions focused on these differences. In addition, focused research to identify the factors attributed to these disparities in risk burden is an essential need to address the evidence gaps. PMID:24983758

  19. Social equity theory and racial-ethnic achievement gaps.

    PubMed

    McKown, Clark

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, racial-ethnic differences on tests of school readiness and academic achievement continue. A complete understanding of the origins of racial-ethnic achievement gaps is still lacking. This article describes social equity theory (SET), which proposes that racial-ethnic achievement gaps originate from two kinds of social process, direct and signal influences, that these two kinds of processes operate across developmental contexts, and that the kind of influence and the setting in which they are enacted change with age. Evidence supporting each of SET's key propositions is discussed in the context of a critical review of research on the Black-White achievement gap. Specific developmental hypotheses derived from SET are described, along with proposed standards of evidence for testing those hypotheses. PMID:23240908

  20. Reverse deterrence in racial profiling: increased transgressions by nonprofiled whites.

    PubMed

    Hackney, Amy A; Glaser, Jack

    2013-10-01

    A controlled experiment tested the possibility that racial profiling-disproportionate scrutiny of a minority racial group by sanctioned authorities-would have a "reverse deterrent" effect on the illicit behavior of members of a nonprofiled majority group. Research participants given a task involving extremely difficult anagrams were given the opportunity to cheat. White participants randomly assigned to a condition in which two Black confederates were obtrusively singled out for scrutiny by the study administrator cheated more than Whites in a White-profiling condition and a no-profiling control condition, and more than Black participants in all three conditions. Black participants cheated at comparable levels across the three experimental conditions. The effect of the profiling of Blacks was consequently a net increase in cheating. The results indicate that racial profiling may be counterproductive.

  1. Understanding racial-ethnic disparities in health: sociological contributions.

    PubMed

    Williams, David R; Sternthal, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the contribution of sociologists to the study of racial and ethnic inequalities in health in the United States. It argues that sociologists have made four principal contributions. First, they have challenged and problematized the biological understanding of race. Second, they have emphasized the primacy of social structure and context as determinants of racial differences in disease. Third, they have contributed to our understanding of the multiple ways in which racism affects health. Finally, sociologists have enhanced our understanding of the ways in which migration history and status can affect health. Sociological insights on racial disparities in health have important implications for the development of effective approaches to improve health and reduce health inequities.

  2. Children Associate Racial Groups with Wealth: Evidence from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Kristina R.; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; Weisman, Kara G.

    2012-01-01

    Group-based social hierarchies exist in nearly every society, yet little is known about whether children understand that they exist. The present studies investigated whether 3- to 10-year-old children (N=84) in South Africa associate higher-status racial groups with higher levels of wealth, one indicator of social status. Children matched higher-value belongings with White people more often than with multiracial or Black people and with multiracial people more often than with Black people, thus showing sensitivity to the de facto racial hierarchy in their society. There were no age-related changes in children’s tendency to associate racial groups with wealth differences. The implications of these results are discussed in light of the general tendency for people to legitimize and perpetuate the status quo. PMID:22860510

  3. Unraveling the racial disparities associated with kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Norris, Keith C; Agodoa, Lawrence Y

    2005-09-01

    In the United States, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and in particular end-stage renal disease (ESRD), represent a growing problem. Many other countries also have an increasing number of ESRD cases. Racial/ethnic disparities have been documented globally in the prevalence, incidence, and treatment of CKD, most extensively in the United States, but also in the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand, among others. In many circumstances, these disparities are of a negative nature, that is, certain racial/ethnic groups fare worse than their white counterparts with respect to the treatment or outcome of CKD. However, in a few circumstances, they are of a positive nature, such as the survival advantage seen in minorities with ESRD compared with whites. The reasons for racial disparities in the prevalence, incidence, and treatment of CKD are not fully understood, although they are explained partly by coexisting medical conditions and modifiable risk factors, such as socioeconomic, lifestyle, and cultural. It is likely, however, that the complete picture incorporates a complex interaction between these sociocultural, genetic, and environmental factors. In a global society that prides itself on a high level of sensitivity and equality, there is an ethical and moral imperative to address the continuing racial/ethnic disparities in CKD and many of the factors underlying this epidemic. We review data highlighting the racial/ethnic disparities that exist in the incidence and treatment of CKD, with particular emphasis on ESRD. A better understanding of both the negative and positive racial/ethnic disparities may yield important insights, which can inform future research strategies and improve health outcomes for all patients afflicted with CKD.

  4. Racial Differences in Adolescents' Answering Questions About Suicide.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Laura M; Lowry, Lynda S; Wuensch, Karl L

    2015-01-01

    The present purpose was to examine racial differences in response rate and serious behavioral suicide risk based on the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBS). Data from 15,245 adolescents (YRBS, 2011) were included. Survey items pertaining to making suicidal plans and attempting suicide were included. Significant differences in responding and content emerged, especially with regard to suicide attempts. Racial minority adolescents are at elevated risk for serious suicidal behaviors and are more likely to omit items pertaining to suicide attempts. African American adolescents rarely reported having attempted suicide, but they also frequently failed to respond to that question. PMID:26083790

  5. Reconstituting racial histories and identities: the narratives of interracial couples.

    PubMed

    Killian, K D

    2001-01-01

    This study explores the process by which interracial spouses construct narratives about their racial histories, identities, and experiences in their relationship together. Ten black-white couples were interviewed individually and conjointly. The results reflected interracial spouses' experience of their life together, their perception of others' perceptions of them, and their unique processes of negotiating racial, gender, and class differences. Black spouses, compared with white spouses, demonstrated a greater awareness of and sensitivity to social resistance to interracial couples, and black spouses' familial and personal histories were sometimes relegated to silence in the couple relationship. I discuss recommendations for marriage and family therapists working with interracial spouses.

  6. Measuring healthcare disparities and racial segregation in Missouri nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yishih J; Siegel, Bruce; Wilkerson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Measuring and, ultimately, addressing disparities in long-term care quality continue to be a challenge. Although literature suggests that disparities in healthcare quality exist and nursing homes remain relatively segregated, healthcare professionals and policymakers stand to benefit from improvements in measuring both racial segregation and healthcare disparities. This paper quantifies the relationships between healthcare disparities and racial segregation using the disparities quality index and dissimilarity index. Results suggested that the more segregated the nursing homes, the greater the observed disparities. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that the proportion of Black residents in nursing homes is the variable that best predicts disparities.

  7. Racial microaggressions and difficult dialogues on race in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Sue, Derald Wing; Lin, Annie I; Torino, Gina C; Capodilupo, Christina M; Rivera, David P

    2009-04-01

    A qualitative study supports the observation that difficult dialogues on race and racism are often triggered by racial microaggressions that make their appearance in classroom encounters or educational activities and materials. Difficult dialogues are filled with strong powerful emotions that may prove problematic to both students and teachers. When poorly handled by teachers, difficult dialogues can assail the personal integrity of students of color while reinforcing biased worldviews of White students. The success or failure of facilitating difficult dialogues on race is intimately linked to the characteristics and actions of instructors and their ability to recognize racial microaggressions. Implications regarding specific education and training recommendations are presented.

  8. Measuring healthcare disparities and racial segregation in Missouri nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yishih J; Siegel, Bruce; Wilkerson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Measuring and, ultimately, addressing disparities in long-term care quality continue to be a challenge. Although literature suggests that disparities in healthcare quality exist and nursing homes remain relatively segregated, healthcare professionals and policymakers stand to benefit from improvements in measuring both racial segregation and healthcare disparities. This paper quantifies the relationships between healthcare disparities and racial segregation using the disparities quality index and dissimilarity index. Results suggested that the more segregated the nursing homes, the greater the observed disparities. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that the proportion of Black residents in nursing homes is the variable that best predicts disparities. PMID:22059384

  9. The Marginalized "Model" Minority: An Empirical Examination of the Racial Triangulation of Asian Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jun; Lee, Jennifer C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we propose a shift in race research from a one-dimensional hierarchical approach to a multidimensional system of racial stratification. Building upon Claire Kim's (1999) racial triangulation theory, we examine how the American public rates Asians relative to blacks and whites along two dimensions of racial stratification: racial…

  10. Racial Socialization of Biracial Youth: Maternal Messages and Approaches to Address Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Alethea; Hunter, Andrea G.

    2013-01-01

    We explored how mothers of biracial youth prepare their children to navigate diverse racial ecologies and experiences of racism and discrimination. A qualitative thematic analysis was used to identify racial socialization messages mothers used and emergent racial socialization approaches. Mothers of biracial youth engaged in the full range of…

  11. Hate Crimes on Campus: Racial/Ethnic Diversity and Campus Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotzer, Rebecca L.; Hossellman, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Colleges and universities across the US have prioritized minority enrollments in their recruitment strategies, but theories offer to possible outcomes of increasing diversity on campus--increased racial harmony or increased racial tension. This study examines the impact of racial diversity on the reported number of hate crimes that occur on…

  12. New Perspectives on Racial Identity Development: A Theoretical and Practical Anthology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijeyesinghe, Charmaine L., Ed.; Jackson, Bailey W., III, Ed.

    This book presents a collection of essays on racial identity development in a variety of racial populations, focusing on the application of racial identity development theories and their expansion beyond their original borders. The 10 chapters are (1) "Black Identity Development: Further Analysis and Elaboration" (Bailey W. Jackson III); (2)…

  13. Racial Identity, Self-Esteem, and Academic Achievement: Too Much Interpretation, Too Little Supporting Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockett, Charles T.; Harrell, Jules P.

    2003-01-01

    To examine the relationship between racial identity, self-esteem, and academic achievement, this study administered the Racial Identity Attitude Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and a background questionnaire to African American students from a historically black college. Results showed that the unique effect of racial identity on academic…

  14. Oxytocin receptor gene and racial ingroup bias in empathy-related brain activity.

    PubMed

    Luo, Siyang; Li, Bingfeng; Ma, Yina; Zhang, Wenxia; Rao, Yi; Han, Shihui

    2015-04-15

    The human brain responds more strongly to racial ingroup than outgroup individuals' pain. This racial ingroup bias varies across individuals and has been attributed to social experiences. What remains unknown is whether the racial ingroup bias in brain activity is associated with a genetic polymorphism. We investigated genetic associations of racial ingroup bias in the brain activity to racial ingroup and outgroup faces that received painful or non-painful stimulations by scanning A/A and G/G homozygous of the oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism (OXTR rs53576) using functional MRI. We found that G/G compared to A/A individuals showed stronger activity in the anterior cingulate and supplementary motor area (ACC/SMA) in response to racial ingroup members' pain, whereas A/A relative to G/G individuals exhibited greater activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in response to racial outgroup members' pain. Moreover, the racial ingroup bias in ACC/SMA activity positively predicted participants' racial ingroup bias in implicit attitudes and NAcc activity to racial outgroup individuals' pain negatively predicted participants' motivations to reduce racial outgroup members' pain. Our results suggest that the two variants of OXTR rs53576 are associated with racial ingroup bias in brain activities that are linked to implicit attitude and altruistic motivation, respectively. PMID:25637390

  15. Relationships among Perceived Racial Stress, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Worry in a Black Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, LaTanya S.; West, Lindsey M.; Roemer, Lizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among chronic worry, perceived racial stress, and intolerance of uncertainty in a sample of adults who racially identify as Black. Intolerance of uncertainty has been associated with worry and generalized anxiety disorder in predominantly White samples. Given that racial stress is likely…

  16. Oxytocin receptor gene and racial ingroup bias in empathy-related brain activity.

    PubMed

    Luo, Siyang; Li, Bingfeng; Ma, Yina; Zhang, Wenxia; Rao, Yi; Han, Shihui

    2015-04-15

    The human brain responds more strongly to racial ingroup than outgroup individuals' pain. This racial ingroup bias varies across individuals and has been attributed to social experiences. What remains unknown is whether the racial ingroup bias in brain activity is associated with a genetic polymorphism. We investigated genetic associations of racial ingroup bias in the brain activity to racial ingroup and outgroup faces that received painful or non-painful stimulations by scanning A/A and G/G homozygous of the oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism (OXTR rs53576) using functional MRI. We found that G/G compared to A/A individuals showed stronger activity in the anterior cingulate and supplementary motor area (ACC/SMA) in response to racial ingroup members' pain, whereas A/A relative to G/G individuals exhibited greater activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in response to racial outgroup members' pain. Moreover, the racial ingroup bias in ACC/SMA activity positively predicted participants' racial ingroup bias in implicit attitudes and NAcc activity to racial outgroup individuals' pain negatively predicted participants' motivations to reduce racial outgroup members' pain. Our results suggest that the two variants of OXTR rs53576 are associated with racial ingroup bias in brain activities that are linked to implicit attitude and altruistic motivation, respectively.

  17. Latino Immigrants and the U.S. Racial Order: How and where Do They Fit In?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Reanne; Redstone Akresh, Ilana; Bo Lu,

    2010-01-01

    How do Latino immigrants in the United States understand existing racial categories? And how does the existing U.S. racial order influence this understanding? Using data from the New Immigrant Survey (NIS), our analysis points to changes in how the U.S. racial order might operate in the future. We find that most Latino immigrants recognize the…

  18. Physiologic Responses to Racial Rejection Images among Young Adults from African-American Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Carlson, Erika N.; Lawson, Yolanda N.; Shell, J. Clark

    2009-01-01

    Physiologic reactivity to racially rejecting images was assessed in 35 young adults (10 males, 25 female) from African-American backgrounds using the startle probe paradigm. In a laboratory setting, participants viewed 16 images depicting racial rejection, racial acceptance, nonracial negative, and nonracial positive themes. While viewing these…

  19. Racial Identity, Maternal Support, and Psychological Distress among African American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bernat, Debra Hilkene; Sellers, Robert M.; Notaro, Paul C.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the role of racial identity and maternal support in reducing psychological distress among African American twelfth-graders. Results provided little support for a direct association between racial identity or maternal support and depressive symptoms and anxiety within a multivariate context. Influence of racial identity and…

  20. Racial Microaggressions in the Workplace: A Critical Race Analysis of the Experiences of African American Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Gunby, Norris W., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of racial microaggressions, racial/ethnic identity, and coping, as they relate to job satisfaction. We found that the experiencing of racial microaggressions negatively affects job satisfaction and that educators in higher education contexts often engage in detachment coping. Job satisfaction was…

  1. The What, the Why, and the How: A Review of Racial Microaggressions Research in Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Derthick, Annie O.; David, E. J. R.; Saw, Anne; Okazaki, Sumie

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of Sue et al. (Am Psychol 62:271–286, 2007a, b) seminal article, there has been an enormous scholarly interest in psychology on this construct of racial microaggressions—subtle everyday experiences of racism. In this paper, we provide a review of racial microaggressions research literature in psychology since 2007, following the publication of the first comprehensive taxonomy of racial microaggressions, which provided a conceptual framework and directions for research related to racial microaggressions. However, our review suggests that important conceptual and methodological issues remain to be addressed in the three domains: (1) what are racial microaggressions and who do they impact; (2) why are racial microaggressions important to examine; and (3) how are racial microaggressions currently studied and how might we improve the methodologies used to study racial microaggressions. We propose recommendations to further facilitate racial microaggressions research, improve the scientific rigor of racial microaggressions research, and contribute toward a more complete and sophisticated understanding of the concept and consequences of racial microaggressions—a construct that is undoubtedly salient and psychologically relevant among many members of racial minority groups. PMID:26913088

  2. A Status Quo of Segregation: Racial and Economic Imbalance in New Jersey Schools, 1989-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaxman, Greg

    2013-01-01

    New Jersey has a curious status regarding school desegregation. It has had the nation's most venerable and strongest state law prohibiting racially segregated schooling and requiring racial balance in the schools whenever feasible. Yet, it simultaneously has had one of the worst records of racially imbalanced schools. Against the legal and…

  3. African American Men's Female Body Size Preferences Based on Racial Identity and Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meshreki, Lotus M.; Hansen, Catherine E.

    2004-01-01

    Racial identity attitude has become a popular research topic. Primary purposes of this study were twofold: (a) assessing the effects of college environment on racial identity attitudes and then (b) the effects of environment and racial identity attitude on African American men's body size preferences regarding women. Using weighted scale scores,…

  4. Implicit Racial Biases in Preschool Children and Adults from Asia and Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Miao K.; Heyman, Gail D.; Quinn, Paul C.; Messi, Francoise A.; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2016-01-01

    This research used an Implicit Racial Bias Test to investigate implicit racial biases among 3- to 5-year-olds and adult participants in China (N = 213) and Cameroon (N = 257). In both cultures, participants displayed high levels of racial biases that remained stable between 3 and 5 years of age. Unlike adults, young children's implicit racial…

  5. Preparing the Underprepared: An Analysis of Racial Disparities in Postsecondary Mathematics Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Peter Riley

    2010-01-01

    In this study, I examine racial disparities in successful remediation in math. I first quantify a previously unidentified racial gap in successful remediation and then seek to explain this gap through a set of mediating and moderating variables. In addition, I test the relative efficacy of remediation across racial groups. (Contains 6 tables and 5…

  6. Racial Primes and Black Misandry on Historically White Campuses: Toward Critical Race Accountability in Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William A.; Yosso, Tara J.; Solorzano, Daniel G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Racial primes are an outgrowth and inculcation of a well-structured, highly developed, racially conservative, "race-neutral" or "color-blind" racial socialization process in which children learn race-specific stereotypes about African Americans and other race/ethnic groups. As they get older, they continue to receive--both involuntary…

  7. Construction and Initial Validation of the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale (CoBRAS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Helen A.; Lilly, Roderick L.; Duran, Georgia; Lee, Richard M.; Browne, LaVonne

    2000-01-01

    Describes development of a conceptually grounded scale to assess cognitive aspects of color-blind racial attitudes. Factor analysis suggests that the 3-factor model is a good fit of data. States that CoBRAS was positively related to other indexes of racial attitudes indicating that greater endorsement of color-blind racial attitudes was related to…

  8. The Racial/Ethnic Composition of Elementary Schools and Young Children's Academic and Socioemotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Aprile D.; Crosnoe, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This study attempted to untangle how two dimensions of school racial/ethnic composition--racial/ethnic diversity of the student body and racial/ethnic matching between children and their peers--were related to socioemotional and academic development after the transition into elementary school. Analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal…

  9. A Cognitive-Developmental Approach to Racial Stereotyping and Reconstructive Memory in Euro-American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Rebecca S.; Liben, Lynn S.

    1993-01-01

    To examine the role of cognitive skill and racial stereotyping in Euro-American children's processing of race-related information, 75 Euro-American children, aged 4 to 9 years, were asked to recall test stories that were either consistent or inconsistent with cultural racial stereotypes. As predicted, lower degrees of racial stereotyping were…

  10. Racial Perceptions of Young Children: A Review of Literature Post-1999

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cristol, Dean; Gimbert, Belinda

    2008-01-01

    It has been argued that intervention strategies designed to reduce racial prejudice in young children have been based on weak theoretical models of racial stereotyping and prejudice with little effect on the reduction of racial bias. This paper examines the social-cognitive and intergroup scholarship post-Bigler ("J Soc Issues 55"(4), 687-705,…

  11. Analyzing Anti-Asian Prejudice from a Racial Identity and Color-Blind Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohatsu, Eric L.; Victoria, Rodolfo; Lau, Andrew; Flores, Michelle; Salazar, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent both racial identity and color-blind racial attitudes help explain anti-Asian prejudice across different socioracial groups. Participants of color from a culturally diverse West Coast university were surveyed (N = 260). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that resistance racial identity…

  12. When Race Enters the Room: Improving Leadership and Learning through Racial Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsford, Sonya Douglass

    2014-01-01

    This article explains (a) why racial literacy--an understanding of the origins and function of race in US schools and society--is essential to the work of educational leaders, and (b) how educational leaders can improve their leadership through racial literacy. It introduces the concept of racial literacy as a first step to improving school…

  13. Racial Identity, Social Context, and Race-Related Social Cognition in African Americans during Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Stephanie J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Zeisel, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of changes in racial identity, cross-race friendships, same-race friendships, and classroom racial composition on changes in race-related social cognition from 3rd to 5th grade for 73 African American children. The goal of the study was to determine the extent to which preadolescent racial identity and social context…

  14. Unspoken Rules of Engagement: Navigating Racial Microaggressions in the Academic Terrain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollock, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Racial microaggressions are brief, everyday interactions that send denigrating messages to people of color because they belong to a racially minoritised group. Compared to more overt forms of racism, racial microaggressions are subtle and insidious, often leaving the victim confused, distressed and frustrated and the perpetrator oblivious of the…

  15. Development and Validation of the Adolescent Racial and Ethnic Socialization Scale (ARESS) in African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tiffany L.; Krishnakumar, Ambika

    2007-01-01

    Racial and ethnic socialization are an integral part of African American parenting strategies. Varied conceptualizations and operationalizations of racial and ethnic socialization exist within the literature with limited evidence of the validity of existing measures. The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive definition of racial and…

  16. Racial discrimination and blood pressure: perceptions, emotions, and behaviors of black American adults.

    PubMed

    Barksdale, Debra J; Farrug, Eugene R; Harkness, Kimberly

    2009-02-01

    This study examined racial discrimination and blood pressure (BP) in 211 Black Americans. Racial discrimination is a chronic stressor for many Black Americans and hypertension prevalence is high in this population. Secondary analyses of data from the study, "Everyday Life for Black American Adults," were conducted to examine relationships among perceived racial discrimination, emotional and behavioral responses to racism, and BP. Although racial discrimination was not correlated with BP, sadness and frustration were significantly but negatively correlated with BP. Speaking out and prayer were frequent behavioral responses to racism. Findings should sensitize healthcare providers to the effects of racial discrimination on the health of Black Americans.

  17. Perceived Gender and Racial/Ethnic Barriers to STEM Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Porche, Michelle V.

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined urban adolescents' perceptions of gender and racial/ethnic barriers to STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) success, and their meaning-making and coping regarding these experiences. The sample includes surveys from 1024 high school-aged students and interviews from 53 students. Logistic…

  18. Racial-Ethnic Biases, Time Pressure, and Medical Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepanikova, Irena

    2012-01-01

    This study examined two types of potential sources of racial-ethnic disparities in medical care: implicit biases and time pressure. Eighty-one family physicians and general internists responded to a case vignette describing a patient with chest pain. Time pressure was manipulated experimentally. Under high time pressure, but not under low time…

  19. Socializing Respect and Knowledge in a Racially Integrated Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solis, Jorge; Kattan, Shlomy; Baquedano-Lopez, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    In this article we examine the socialization of respect in a racially integrated science classroom in Northern California that employed a character education program called Tribes. We focus on the ways scripts derived from this program are enacted during Community Circle activities and how breaches to these scripts and the norms of respectful…

  20. Racial and Ethnic Identity. Psychological Development and Creative Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Herbert W., Ed.; And Others

    Racial and ethnic identity must be understood as an important determinant of the creative process and social dynamics, as well as understood as individual psychology. This collection of papers examines identity issues in the following chapters: (1) "Roots and Routes: Black Identity as an Outernational Project" (Paul Gilroy); (2) "Identity as…

  1. Cultural Group Perceptions of Racial Climates in Residence Halls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Vanessa D.

    2003-01-01

    Study suggests that residence hall students at a predominantly White university perceive the racial climate of residence halls differently depending on their cultural group. Statistical significances occurred between Whites and one or more of the cultural minority groups. There were no significant differences between any of the ethnic minority…

  2. Racial Discrimination and Asian Mental Health: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2011-01-01

    Although research on racial discrimination and mental health has proliferated, findings are varied and dispersed. This study explored the critical question of how Asians, in particular, deal with discrimination and how this relates to Asian mental health. With 99 correlations from 23 independent studies, the overall relationship between racial…

  3. A Harassing Climate? Sexual Harassment and Campus Racial Climate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy-Wagner, Valerie; Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2013-01-01

    In this conceptual paper, the authors discuss how research about sexual harassment and campus racial climates for undergraduate students is relegated to separate silos. Drawing on intersectionality and critical race feminist frameworks, the authors juxtapose these strands of research with attention to ethnicity/race and gender, highlighting how…

  4. Regulating Racial Harassment on Campus: A Legal Compendium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustoles, Thomas P., Ed.; Connolly, Walter B., Jr., Ed.

    The purpose of this compendium is to provide tools for college and university counsel and administrators to consider their institution's approach concerning the balance of First Amendment values with the harm caused by racial harassment. Section I examines the development of the University of Michigan's initial policy broadly regulating…

  5. Neighborhood Integration: Racial Differences among Social Psychological Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widgery, Robin N.

    Research in 37 neighborhoods in Flint, Michigan, investigated the association between the extent of racial integration in a neighborhood and residents' satisfaction with, awareness of, and attitudes toward various aspects of neighborhood and community life. The influence of demographic factors was also examined. The degree of neighborhood…

  6. The Concerns about Counseling Racial Minority Clients Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Meifen; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Botello-Zamarron, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Concerns about Counseling Racial Minority Clients (CCRMC) scale among counselor trainees. Sample 1 was used for an exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Four factors were identified, Managing Cultural Differences ([alpha] = 0.82), Offending or Hurting Clients…

  7. Sustained Dialogue: How Students Are Changing Their Own Racial Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Priya Narayan

    2006-01-01

    Across American campuses, racial tension and other issues of diversity remain a major challenge. The majority of this country's institutions demonstrate that they value and promote diversity through efforts in affirmative action, minority student and faculty recruitment, minority retention, administration of special scholarships, diversity Web…

  8. 12. THE DIVISION OF STOCKHAM'S WORKFORCE FELL MOSTLY ALONG RACIAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. THE DIVISION OF STOCKHAM'S WORKFORCE FELL MOSTLY ALONG RACIAL BOUNDARIES. THESE WHITE COLLAR WORKERS TYPIFIED THE MAKEUP OF ENGINEERING, ACCOUNTING, SALES, AND SUPERVISORY STAFFS OF THE FIRM CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  9. Preschool Children's Understanding of Racial Cues in Drawings and Photographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Silvia; Enesco, Ileana; Lago, Oliva; Rodriguez, Purificacion

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the development of racial awareness have used--albeit asystematically--stimuli of varying degrees of realism (dolls, drawings, photographs). Although researchers have weighed the advantages and disadvantages of using one or the other type of material with young children, there are no empirical studies that determine whether the nature…

  10. Racial Diversity in the Schools: A Necessary Evil?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitz, Linda; Puchner, Laurel

    2014-01-01

    White teachers see racial diversity in the schools as a "necessary evil." Common beliefs are that (1) Black students are saved by nurturing White teachers and well-behaved White children; and (2) White students learn from "disadvantaged" Black children the dual lesson of empathy and gratitude. A pilot project in the fall of…

  11. Racial disparities in preterm births. The role of urogenital infections.

    PubMed Central

    Fiscella, K

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of urogenital infections on the racial gap between black and white women in preterm birth rates. METHODS: A computer-assisted search of the medical literature was conducted through MEDLINE aided by a manual bibliographic search of published articles and relevant books. Estimates of the relative risk for preterm birth were extracted from published studies for the following infections: N. gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomoniasis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Group B streptococcal vaginal colonization, asymptomatic bacteriuria, genital mycoplasmas, and bacterial vaginosis. Estimates of the prevalence among black and white women by race for each of these infections were extracted from published studies. The attributable risk for preterm birth for selected infections was then calculated for the black and white populations and the impact on the racial gap in preterm births was estimated. RESULTS: Only bacterial vaginosis and bacteriuria appear to be established risk factors for preterm births. Significantly higher rates of bacterial vaginosis among black women may account for nearly 30% of the racial gap in preterm births. Higher rates of bacteriuria among black women may account for roughly 5% of the gap. CONCLUSION: Although these findings are limited by the reliability of published estimates of prevalence and relative risk for these infections, treatment of infections during pregnancy, particularly bacterial vaginosis, offers hope for reducing the racial gap in preterm births. Images p104-a p110-a PMID:8606905

  12. Immigration and the New Racial Diversity in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichter, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the new racial and ethnic diversity in rural America, which may be the most important but least anticipated population shift in recent demographic history. Ethnoracial change is central to virtually every aspect of rural America over the foreseeable future: agro-food systems, community life, labor force change, economic…

  13. Gender and Racial Bias in Juvenile Computer Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kay; Bishop, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    This action research study looks at a sample of 30 juvenile computer books from the past 30 years and analyzes the illustrations for evidence of gender and racial bias as well as career depiction. Examines the gender of authors and illustrators and discusses library media implications. (Author/LRW)

  14. Racial Presentation in Children's Comics: No Laughing Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidmead, Pat; Leicester, Mal

    2001-01-01

    Explored the nature and degree of racial bias in comics for children of all ages. Results revealed a visual bias against black groups in five key areas (numerical inclusion, suggested level of intellectual capacity, cultural stereotyping, and negative historical and geographic presentation). Black characters were not shown in leadership or hero…

  15. Academic Freedom and Racial Injustice: South Africa's Former "Open Universities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Y.; Taylor, R.

    2010-01-01

    The article critically re-interrogates three high profile cases of white racism at South Africa's former "open universities" to highlight the way in which existing debates around academic freedom fail to come to terms with questions of racial injustice after apartheid. The cases covered are the Makgoba affair at Wits, the Mamdani affair at the…

  16. Know Your Role: Black College Students, Racial Identity, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Dafina-Lazarus

    2015-01-01

    This article is a report of a critical constructivist study of racial identity and performance among 13 Black, traditional-age students enrolled at three different colleges, two historically Black and one predominantly White. The study's approach understood identity to be socially constructed and reliant upon community affirmation and…

  17. Asian American Educational Goals: Racial Barriers and Cultural Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yung-Lung; Fouad, Nadya A.

    2013-01-01

    Educational success among Asian American students has often been misunderstood as an occupational development separate from any experience of racism. However, several theorists have suggested that racial barriers in occupational mobility correlate with educational pursuits. Therefore, this research aims to examine the direct effect of perceived…

  18. Racialized Research Identities in ESL/EFL Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ena; Simon-Maeda, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    There has been increasing recognition of the need to pursue critical research in the fields of ESL/EFL; however, the role that race plays in our research practices has not been frequently discussed. In-depth explorations of how a racialized identity shapes (and is shaped within) complex interactions between the researcher and researched can…

  19. The Existence of Implicit Racial Bias in Nursing Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons, Kathleen A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the existence of implicit racial bias in nursing faculty using the Implicit Association Test (IAT). It was conducted within a critical race theory framework where race was seen as a permanent, pervasive, and systemic condition, not an individual process. The study was fueled by data showing continued disparate academic and…

  20. The Obama Era: A Post-Racial Society?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    With Barack Obama ensconced as the nation's first Black president, plenty of voices in the national conversation are trumpeting America as a post-racial society--that race matters much less than it used to, that the boundaries of race have been overcome, that racism is no longer a big problem. In this article, longtime scholars whose life's work…

  1. One Struggle through Individualism: Toward an Antiracist White Racial Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croteau, James M.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding the collective versus individualistic viewpoint is important to understanding racism in America. The author applies lessons learned in dealing with homophobia to the matter of racism. Forming for oneself a white version of racial identity is the key to white's active personal involvement and identification with being anti-racist.…

  2. Promising or Potentially Harmful? Suburban School Responses to Racial Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayscue, Jennifer B.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last several decades, suburban schools have become increasingly more diverse and now must respond to racial change, so that they can successfully educate an increasingly more diverse and multiracial student body. This article analyzes interview responses of administrators, teachers, and staff at 19 schools in six diversifying suburban…

  3. Racial Regard as a Predictor for Hazing Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ester, Joyce Cryzant

    2009-01-01

    The practice of requiring others to engage in activities that humiliate, degrade, abuses, and/or endangers them in order to join an organization is becoming increasingly prevalent on college campuses and beyond. These activities have resulted in physical and emotional scars are well as lead to deaths. Using Racial Identity Theory and Social…

  4. Transportation Requirements for Improved Racial Balance. Research Memorandum No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Howard R.; Moon, Albert E.

    This memorandum presents the costs of transporting students to achieve racial balance in the San Francisco public schools. The costs of a district owned school bus system are analyzed for a four year implementation period. Costs of different sizes and types of buses and of major operating requirements (including parking, buildings, staff, and…

  5. Counseling Racial and Ethnic Minorities in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vontress, Clemmont

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss in brief six racial and ethnic minority groups in the United States, in order to demonstrate how selected cultural variables may intrude in the counseling relationship. American Indians present such problems as language difficulties, taciturnity, and suspiciousness. In working with Americans of African…

  6. Strategies for Counseling Chicanos: Effects of Racial and Cultural Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Frank, Jr.; Ybarra-Garcia, Melva

    This manual acquaints non-Chicano school counselors and educators with the difficulty of counseling Mexican American students due to the racist manifestations of cultural and racial stereotypes. Chapter 1, a general introduction, argues that counselors have often failed to effectively reach Chicano students because they have been insensitive to…

  7. Urban Inequality and Racial Differences in Risk for Violent Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Like, Toya Z.

    2011-01-01

    Past research has shown that racial inequality in urban areas--Black and White residential segregation and economic inequality--is associated with increased levels of homicide offending and that victimization among Blacks yet serves as a protection mechanism against such violence among Whites. However, few studies have considered alternative…

  8. Women and Racial Minority Representation in School Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montenegro, Xenia

    This booklet presents findings of the fifth survey conducted by the American Association of School Administrators (AASA), which tracked the representation of women and racial minorities in school administration. Data were derived from a survey mailed to chief state school officers across the United States. Responses were received from 49 states…

  9. Racial Differences in Exposure and Reactivity to Daily Family Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cichy, Kelly E.; Stawski, Robert S.; Almeida, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the National Study of Daily Experiences, the authors examined racial differences in exposure and reactivity to daily stressors involving family members. Respondents included African American and European American adults age 34 to 84 (N = 1,931) who participated in 8 days of daily interviews during which they reported on daily…

  10. Urbanism, Region, and Tolerance Revisited: The Case of Racial Prejudice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuch, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    Using prejudice toward blacks as the outcome measure, analysis of national survey data for 1972 and 1985 indicates that: urbanites and non-Southerners are more racially tolerant than their non-urban and Southern counterparts; the net effects of urbanism on tolerance have increased over time while region effects have decreased; and urban to…

  11. Facing Race: 2006 Legislative Report Card on Racial Equity. California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajcer, Menachem; Johnson, Tammy

    2006-01-01

    This Legislative Report Card assesses how California's governor and Legislature have handled bills it says affected racial inequities--or might have if they had been signed into law. The report examines an eclectic collection of bills that addressed the minimum wage, the creation of a single-payer health care system and other issues in education,…

  12. Interrupting Privilege: White Student Affairs Educators as Racial Justice Allies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Law, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the ally development process and behaviors of ten white student affairs educators at four-year institutions in the Bay Area region of Northern California who were identified as racial justice allies by a colleague of color. The methods of this study included a survey to understand the context of multicultural competency in…

  13. Racially Based Trust Expectancies of Native American and Caucasian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; Cerda, Carrie

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a study of trust expectancies among 113 Native American and Caucasian intermediate grade students in same-race and mixed-race schools. Finds that both racial groups had more trust expectancy of their own race. Also finds that this trust expectancy pattern was somewhat less evident in mixed-race schools. (CFR)

  14. Neighborhood Matters: Racial Socialization of African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Nettles, Saundra Murray; O'Campo, Patricia J.; Lohrfink, Kimberly Fraleigh

    2006-01-01

    Differences in racial socialization practices and their effects were examined in a sample of 241 African American 1st graders (average age 6.59 years) living in an urban area. Child outcomes included cognitive development, receptive language skills, and child problem behavior. The cultural environment of the home was associated with higher…

  15. A Psychoanalytic Introduction to Reader Response to Racial Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Terence George

    The essay defines and illustrates ways in which the anxiety of separation and the fantasy of dirt play a key role in shaping the response of readers to texts loosely defined as "racial." The work of Wheatley, Wright, and Baldwin, as well as that of some of the new black poets, is examined in relation to the psychoanalytic theories which delineate…

  16. Gender and Racial Gaps in Earnings among Recent College Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang

    2008-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of baccalaureate graduates from 1993 (B&B 93/97/03), I explore factors that contribute to the gender and racial gap in earnings among recent college graduate. Results indicate that college major remains the most significant factor in accounting for the gender gap in pay. Female graduates are still left…

  17. Stigma and Racial/Ethnic HIV Disparities: Moving toward Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Bogart, Laura M.; Dovidio, John F.; Williams, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research suggests that stigma plays a role in racial/ethnic health disparities. However, there is limited understanding about the mechanisms by which stigma contributes to HIV-related disparities in risk, incidence and screening, treatment, and survival and what can be done to reduce the impact of stigma on these disparities. We introduce…

  18. A Disrupting Darkness: Youth Resistance as Racial Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paperson, La

    2011-01-01

    This article considers what resistance accomplishes for a peer group of young women of color attending an urban high school in 2001, and from a perspective 10 years later in 2011. Their resistance is deeply racial yet troubles categorical race, nurtures new solidarities through old ethnicities, and sustains a network with important material value…

  19. Racial and Ethnic Differences: Sociocultural and Contextual Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ruth K.; Otsuki-Clutter, Michiko

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing focus on racial and ethnic diversity in studies of adolescence, this review highlights trends in this research over the past decade. Not only is the sheer number of studies incorporating diverse youth increasing, this research has penetrated many areas of the study of adolescence. Some of this research has attempted to…

  20. Helping or Hurting: Are Adolescent Intervention Programs Minimizing Racial Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Rachael

    2011-01-01

    In 1965, appalled by the racial disparity with respect to access to higher education, the federal government implemented the Higher Education Act. After more than 40 years of programmatic intervention, gaps persist. As such, this study analyzes two of the three original HEA programs--Upward Bound and Talent Search--focusing on race/ethnicity and…

  1. Children Associate Racial Groups with Wealth: Evidence from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kristina R.; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; Weisman, Kara G.

    2012-01-01

    Group-based social hierarchies exist in nearly every society, yet little is known about whether children understand that they exist. The present studies investigated whether 3- to 10-year-old children (N = 84) in South Africa associate higher status racial groups with higher levels of wealth, one indicator of social status. Children matched higher…

  2. Developing Principals as Racial Equity Leaders: A Mixed Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raskin, Candace F.; Krull, Melissa; Thatcher, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    This article will present information and research on how a college of education is intentionally developing principals to lead with confidence and racial competence. The nation's student achievement research is sobering: our current school systems widen already existing gaps between white students and students of color, (Darling-Hammond, L. 2004,…

  3. Racial Attitudes and the Impact of TV Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Bradley S.; Hanneman, Gerhard J.

    1970-01-01

    "The present study is an initial attempt to assess the impact of blacks on television for both white and black viewers. Then, among white viewers, our interst is in determining to what extent racial attitudes affect reaction to the greater presence of TV blacks." (Authors)

  4. Stigma and Racial/Ethnic HIV Disparities: Moving Toward Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Bogart, Laura M.; Dovidio, John F.; Williams, Davird R.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research suggests that stigma plays a role in racial/ethnic health disparities. However, there is limited understanding about the mechanisms by which stigma contributes to HIV-related disparities in risk, incidence and screening, treatment, and survival and what can be done to reduce the impact of stigma on these disparities. We introduce the Stigma and HIV Disparities Model to describe how societal stigma related to race and ethnicity is associated with racial/ethnic HIV disparities via its manifestations at the structural level (e.g., residential segregation) as well as the individual level among perceivers (e.g., discrimination) and targets (e.g., internalized stigma). We then review evidence of these associations. Because racial/ethnic minorities at risk of and living with HIV often possess multiple stigmas (e.g., HIV-positive, substance use), we adopt an intersectionality framework and conceptualize interdependence among co-occurring stigmas. We further propose a resilience agenda and suggest that intervening on modifiable strength-based moderators of the association between societal stigma and disparities can reduce disparities. Strengthening economic and community empowerment and trust at the structural level, creating common ingroup identities and promoting contact with people living with HIV among perceivers at the individual level, and enhancing social support and adaptive coping among targets at the individual level can improve resilience to societal stigma and ultimately reduce racial/ethnic HIV disparities. PMID:23688090

  5. Racial Variation in the Effect of Incarceration on Neighborhood Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Massoglia, Michael; Firebaugh, Glenn; Warner, Cody

    2013-01-01

    Each year, more than 700,000 convicted offenders are released from prison and reenter neighborhoods across the country. Prior studies have found that minority ex-inmates tend to reside in more disadvantaged neighborhoods than do white ex-inmates. However, because these studies do not control for pre-prison neighborhood conditions, we do not know how much (if any) of this racial variation is due to arrest and incarceration, or if these observed findings simply reflect existing racial residential inequality. Using a nationally representative dataset that tracks individuals over time, we find that only whites live in significantly more disadvantaged neighborhoods after prison than prior to prison. Blacks and Hispanics do not, nor do all groups (whites, blacks, and Hispanics) as a whole live in worse neighborhoods after prison. We attribute this racial variation in the effect of incarceration to the high degree of racial neighborhood inequality in the United States: because white offenders generally come from much better neighborhoods, they have much more to lose from a prison spell. In addition to advancing our understanding of the social consequences of the expansion of the prison population, these findings demonstrate the importance of controlling for preprison characteristics when investigating the effects of incarceration on residential outcomes. PMID:24367134

  6. Racial Variation in the Effect of Incarceration on Neighborhood Attainment.

    PubMed

    Massoglia, Michael; Firebaugh, Glenn; Warner, Cody

    2013-02-01

    Each year, more than 700,000 convicted offenders are released from prison and reenter neighborhoods across the country. Prior studies have found that minority ex-inmates tend to reside in more disadvantaged neighborhoods than do white ex-inmates. However, because these studies do not control for pre-prison neighborhood conditions, we do not know how much (if any) of this racial variation is due to arrest and incarceration, or if these observed findings simply reflect existing racial residential inequality. Using a nationally representative dataset that tracks individuals over time, we find that only whites live in significantly more disadvantaged neighborhoods after prison than prior to prison. Blacks and Hispanics do not, nor do all groups (whites, blacks, and Hispanics) as a whole live in worse neighborhoods after prison. We attribute this racial variation in the effect of incarceration to the high degree of racial neighborhood inequality in the United States: because white offenders generally come from much better neighborhoods, they have much more to lose from a prison spell. In addition to advancing our understanding of the social consequences of the expansion of the prison population, these findings demonstrate the importance of controlling for preprison characteristics when investigating the effects of incarceration on residential outcomes.

  7. Psychoanalytic Ethnography and the Transformation of Racially Wounded Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, John H., II

    2006-01-01

    This paper first defines race and related dehumanizing experiences and then explores the history of the study of Blacks in ethnography and in psychoanalysis before addressing the primary focus: psychoanalytical ethnography. Psychoanalytical ethnography is valuable for transforming racially wounded communities into vibrant open communities through…

  8. Patterns of Racial-Ethnic Exclusion by Internet Daters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robnett, Belinda; Feliciano, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Using data from 6070 U.S. heterosexual internet dating profiles, this study examines how racial and gender exclusions are revealed in the preferences of black, Latino, Asian and white online daters. Consistent with social exchange and group positions theories, the study finds that whites are least open to out-dating and that, unlike blacks, Asians…

  9. School Choice and Educational Opportunity: Rationales, Outcomes and Racial Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Porath, Sigal

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the rationales for school choice, and the significance of choice mechanisms for racial disparities in educational opportunities and outcomes. It identifies tensions between liberty-based rationales and equality-based rationales, and surveys research findings on the outcomes of school choice policies, especially with regard to…

  10. School Choice and Segregation: "Tracking" Racial Equity in Magnet Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Tomeka M.

    2014-01-01

    Three arguments regarding racial equity have arisen in the school choice debate. Choice advocates charge that choice will improve access to quality schools for disadvantaged minority students (Chubb & Moe 1990; Coons & Sugarman, 1978; Godwin & Kemerer, 2002; Viteritti, 1999). Critics argue that choice is unlikely to benefit minority…

  11. Howard Beach Youth: A Study of Racial and Ethnic Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichter, Linda S.; Lichter, S. Robert

    This assessment of the climate of racial and ethnic attitudes in Howard Beach (New York) was conducted at John Adams High School, the public school attended by the greatest number of high school children in the Howard Beach community. The survey of 1,217 students was administered in December, 1986, several weeks before the incident in which a…

  12. Educating and Developing Leaders of Racially Diverse Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Marilyn

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the need to address issues emerging from racial differences in the workplace under the heading of leadership development. Traditionally leadership development centers on creating models of leadership, describing what constitutes effective leadership, and identifying skills and competencies that will improve the capacity to…

  13. (Mixed) Race Matters: Racial Theory, Classification, and Campus Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wann, Chelsea Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    As the expanding post-civil rights multiracial population is likely to transform the demographics of American colleges and universities, its perceived growth is also misused to advance neo-conservative agendas and post-racial views about the declining significance of race. Politicized issues around multiraciality frame and impact the campus…

  14. Immigration and the New Racial Diversity in Rural America*

    PubMed Central

    Lichter, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the new racial and ethnic diversity in rural America, which may be the most important but least anticipated population shift in recent demographic history. Ethnoracial change is central to virtually every aspect of rural America over the foreseeable future: agro-food systems, community life, labor force change, economic development, schools and schooling, demographic change, intergroup relations, and politics. The goal here is to plainly illustrate how America’s racial and ethnic transformation has emerged as an important dimension of ongoing U.S. urbanization and urbanism, growing cultural and economic heterogeneity, and a putative “decline in community” in rural America. Rural communities provide a natural laboratory for better understanding the implications of uneven settlement and racial diversity, acculturation, and economic and political incorporation among Hispanic newcomers. This article raises the prospect of a new racial balkanization and outlines key impediments to full incorporation of Hispanics into rural and small town community life. Immigration and the new ethnoracial diversity will be at the leading edge of major changes in rural community life as the nation moves toward becoming a majority-minority society by 2042. PMID:26478602

  15. Reexamination of Young Children's Racial Attitudes and Skin Tone Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Phillip; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2009-01-01

    This study continues the line of research on children's racial preferences that dates to Kenneth and Mamie Clark's classic research that revealed that Black children preferred White dolls and attributed more positive characteristics to White dolls than to Black dolls. In the current research, the authors examined Black and White preschool…

  16. Beyond the realism debate: The metaphysics of 'racial' distinctions.

    PubMed

    Lemeire, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    The current metaphysical race debate is very much focused on the realism question whether races exist. In this paper I argue against the importance of this question. Philosophers, biologists and anthropologists expect that answering this question will tell them something substantive about the metaphysics of racial classifications, and will help them to decide whether it is justified to use racial categories in scientific research and public policy. I argue that there are two reasons why these expectations are not fulfilled. First of all, the realism question about race leads to a very broad philosophical debate about the semantics of general terms and the criteria for real kinds, rather than to a debate about the metaphysics of racial categories specifically. Secondly, there is a type of race realism that is so toothless that it is almost completely uninformative about the metaphysics of race. In response to these worries, I argue that the metaphysical race debate should rather be focused on the question in what way and to what extent 'racial' distinctions can ground the epistemic practices of various scientific disciplines. I spell out what I mean by this, and go on to demonstrate that trying to answer this question leads to a more fruitful metaphysical debate.

  17. Psychiatric Inpatient MMPI Profiles: An Exploration for Potential Racial Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark E.; Brems, Christiane

    1990-01-01

    Examined presence of racial bias in Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory's (MMPI) use with 22 Black and 22 White inpatient psychiatric patients. Found no statistically or clinically significant differences between 2 races on MMPI. Suggests that differences in previous studies may be attributable to variables other than race. (Author/PVV)

  18. Mixed Emotions as Racial Barriers Fell: A University President Remembers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvard, Dean W.

    An account about living in one of the last states to integrate public universities to include blacks is provided by former Mississippi State University (MSU) president (1960-1966), Dean W. Colvard. He recounts his initial reactions to the invitation to become MSU president in the face of predictable racial problems, and his reception as an…

  19. Race Bending: "Mixed" Youth Practicing Strategic Racialization in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Mica

    2004-01-01

    As more U.S. youth claim "mixed" heritages, some adults are proposing to erase race words altogether from the nation's inequality analysis. Yet such proposals, as detailed ethnography shows, ignore the complex realities of continuing racialized practice. At an urban California high school in the 1990s, "mixed" youth strategically employed simple…

  20. Health care and seniors. Ethnic, racial, and cultural dimensions.

    PubMed Central

    Masi, R.; Disman, M.

    1994-01-01

    The profiles of Canadian seniors are changing. Racial, cultural, and social context is becoming increasingly important in the health care of seniors. This article discusses the interactions between physicians and seniors affected by ethnocultural variables and suggests a framework for cross-cultural care. PMID:8199506

  1. The Positive Educational Effects of Racial Diversity on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mitchell J.

    This study examined links between racial diversity on college campuses and positive educational outcomes. Data came from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program database, a longitudinal set of student and faculty surveys and research that assessed the impact of college on students. This study used data from a 1985 freshman survey and the…

  2. Eliminating Racial Profiling in School Discipline: Cultures in Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bireda, Martha R.

    2002-01-01

    Referrals, suspensions, and expulsions of African American students, especially males, are at an all-time high. However, as this book shows, culturally determined assumptions and friction over communication have a role to play in this as well. "Eliminating Racial Profiling in School Discipline" is designed to make readers aware of how cultural…

  3. Training of Racially Mixed Groups in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanepoel, Hennie; de Beer, Frik

    1995-01-01

    A training course for a racially mixed group of 40 South Africans addressed the race issue by seeking to break down mutual ignorance, change attitudes, and ease distrust. Success resulted from facing the issue head on, using experiential techniques, keeping the atmosphere relaxed, and seeking contributions to the process from trainees. (SK)

  4. The Constitutionality of Racial Classifications in Public School Admissions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    Revisits the Supreme Court's school desegregation jurisprudence, examining the typical analysis applied to this issue by recent lower federal court decisions. Discusses Supreme Court cases applying constitutional provisions to the public education context, suggesting that the constitutional analysis of the use of racial classifications to further…

  5. Blacks and Whites: An Experiment in Racial Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flax, Michael J.

    This report deals with the question of racial equality, and attempts to present a balanced view of recent trends. The method of the report is to present indicator data for both blacks and whites over the period 1960 to 1968, relating to measurable social and economic matters. The data address such issues as: (1) comparisons of the levels of…

  6. Racial Differences in Suicidality in an Older Urban Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Carl I.; Colemon, Yolonda; Yaffee, Robert; Casimir, Georges J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study used epidemiological data of older African Americans and Caucasians living in an urban community to compare those factors associated with active or passive suicidal ideation in each racial group. Design and Methods: Using 1990 census data for Brooklyn, New York, we attempted to interview all cognitively intact adults aged 55 or…

  7. Racial Counternarratives and Latina Epistemologies in Relational Organizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla, Christopher Milk

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the perceptions and actions of working-class Latina family leaders as they promote their epistemological values during the community organizing of a "huerta" (vegetable garden) in an urban bilingual school. I focus on how their racial counternarratives are embedded in the intersected oppression of their local context…

  8. Racial-Ethnic Differences in Social Anxiety among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeSure-Lester, G. Evelyn; King, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated racial-ethnic differences in social anxiety among college students in two-year colleges. The sample consisted of 189 Asian American, African American, White American, and Hispanic American students from two colleges in the Southeast. Participants completed a questionnaire measure of social anxiety. The results…

  9. Can racial disparity in health between black and white Americans be attributed to racial disparities in body weight and socioeconomic status?

    PubMed

    Kahng, Sang Kyoung

    2010-11-01

    Few studies have examined to what extent racial disparities in chronic health conditions (CHCs) are attributable to racial differences in body weight (measured as body mass index [BMI]) and socioeconomic status (SES) among older adults. To address this gap, using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, the current study examined risk factors of CHC trajectory including race, BMI, and SES. The sample consists of 22,560 in 1998, 20,825 in 2000, and 19,004 in 2002. Data analysis was done through latent growth curve modeling. As expected, older adults presented an increasing trajectory of CHCs over time. Black Americans presented a significantly more negative CHC trajectory than did their white counterparts, confirming racial disparity in health over time. Consequent hierarchical analyses revealed that racial disparity in CHC trajectory can be explained by racial disparity in BMI and that racial disparity in BMI can be attributed to racial disparity in SES. Because low SES is closely related to unhealthy diet and negative health behaviors that may subsequently lead to obesity and chronic health conditions, the findings suggest that to address racial disparity in CHCs, it is important for social workers to continuously try to mitigate racial inequality in SES.

  10. Virtual Black Spaces: An Anthropological Exploration of African American Online Communities' Racial and Political Agency amid Virtual Universalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyward, Kamela S.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the strategic practice of virtual racial embodiment, as a case study of African Americans attempting to complicate current constructions of race and social justice in new media. I suggest that dominant racial constructions online teeter between racial stereotypes and the absence of race. Virtual racial classification and…

  11. Age and Racial Disparities in Dialysis Survival

    PubMed Central

    Kucirka, Lauren M.; Grams, Morgan E.; Lessler, Justin; Hall, Erin Carlyle; James, Nathan; Massie, Allan B; Montgomery, Robert A.; Segev, Dorry L.

    2013-01-01

    Context Many studies have reported that blacks survive longer on dialysis than whites. This observation is paradoxical given racial disparities in access to and quality of care, and is inconsistent with observed lower survival among blacks with chronic kidney disease. We hypothesized that age and the competing risk of transplantation modify survival differences by race. Objectives To estimate death on dialysis by race, accounting for age as an effect modifier and kidney transplantation as a competing risk. Design, Setting, and Participants An observational cohort study of 1,330,007 incident end-stage renal disease patients as captured in the United States Renal Data System between January 1, 1995 and September 28, 2009 (median potential follow-up time = 6.7 years, range 1 day-14.8 years). Multivariate age-stratified Cox proportional hazards and competing risk models were constructed to examine death on dialysis. Main Outcome Measures Death on dialysis in blacks versus whites Results Similar to previous studies, blacks had a lower death rate on dialysis compared with whites (232,361 deaths (57.1% mortality) for blacks versus 585,792 deaths (63.5% mortality) for whites, adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.84, 95% CI: 0.83-0.84, p<0.001). However, stratifying by age and treating kidney transplantation as a competing risk, blacks had significantly higher mortality than their white counterparts at ages 18-30 (27.6% mortality versus 14.2%, aHR 1.93, 95% CI: 1.84-2.03), 31-40 (37.5% versus 26.8%, aHR 1.46, 95% CI: 1.41-1.50), and 41-50 (44.8% versus 38.0%, aHR 1.12, 95% CI: 1.10-1.14, p <0.001 for interaction terms between race and each prior age category), as opposed to those 51-60 (51.5% versus 50.9%, aHR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.92-0.94), 61-70 (64.9% versus 67.2%, aHR 0.87, 95% CI: 0.86-0.88), 71-80 (76.1% versus 79.7%, aHR 0.85, 95% CI: 0.84-0.86), and > 80 (82.4% versus 83.6%, aHR 0.87, 95% CI: 0.85-0.88). Conclusions Overall, among dialysis patients in the United States, there

  12. Color-blind racial ideology: theory, training, and measurement implications in psychology.

    PubMed

    Neville, Helen A; Awad, Germine H; Brooks, James E; Flores, Michelle P; Bluemel, Jamie

    2013-09-01

    Synthesizing the interdisciplinary literature, we characterize color-blind racial ideology (CBRI) as consisting of two interrelated domains: color-evasion (i.e., denial of racial differences by emphasizing sameness) and power-evasion (i.e., denial of racism by emphasizing equal opportunities). Mounting empirical data suggest that the color-evasion dimension is ineffective and in fact promotes interracial tension and potential inequality. CBRI may be conceived as an ultramodern or contemporary form of racism and a legitimizing ideology used to justify the racial status quo. Four types of CBRI are described: denial of (a) race, (b) blatant racial issues, (c) institutional racism, and (d) White privilege. We discuss empirical findings suggesting a relationship between CBRI and increased racial prejudice, racial anger, and racial fear. Implications for education, training, and research are provided.

  13. Racial Bias in Neural Empathic Responses to Pain

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Huerta, Luis Sebastian; Baker, Katharine S.; Reynolds, Katherine J.; Batalha, Luisa; Cunnington, Ross

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that perceiving the pain of others activates brain regions in the observer associated with both somatosensory and affective-motivational aspects of pain, principally involving regions of the anterior cingulate and anterior insula cortex. The degree of these empathic neural responses is modulated by racial bias, such that stronger neural activation is elicited by observing pain in people of the same racial group compared with people of another racial group. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a more general social group category, other than race, could similarly modulate neural empathic responses and perhaps account for the apparent racial bias reported in previous studies. Using a minimal group paradigm, we assigned participants to one of two mixed-race teams. We use the term race to refer to the Chinese or Caucasian appearance of faces and whether the ethnic group represented was the same or different from the appearance of the participant' own face. Using fMRI, we measured neural empathic responses as participants observed members of their own group or other group, and members of their own race or other race, receiving either painful or non-painful touch. Participants showed clear group biases, with no significant effect of race, on behavioral measures of implicit (affective priming) and explicit group identification. Neural responses to observed pain in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula cortex, and somatosensory areas showed significantly greater activation when observing pain in own-race compared with other-race individuals, with no significant effect of minimal groups. These results suggest that racial bias in neural empathic responses is not influenced by minimal forms of group categorization, despite the clear association participants showed with in-group more than out-group members. We suggest that race may be an automatic and unconscious mechanism that drives the initial neural responses to observed pain in

  14. Gene Expression Profiling to Study Racial Differences after Heart Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Khush, Kiran K.; Pham, Michael X.; Teuteberg, Jeffrey J.; Kfoury, Abdallah G.; Deng, Mario C.; Kao, Andrew; Anderson, Allen S.; Cotts, William G; Ewald, Gregory A.; Baran, David A.; Hiller, David; Yee, James; Valantine, Hannah A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The basis for increased mortality after heart transplantation in African Americans and other non-Caucasian racial groups is poorly defined. We hypothesized that increased risk of adverse events is driven by biological factors. To test this hypothesis in the IMAGE study, we determined whether the event rate of the primary outcome of acute rejection, graft dysfunction, death, or re-transplantation varied by race as a function of calcineurin inhibitor levels and gene expression profile (GEP) scores. Methods We determined the event rate of the primary outcome, comparing racial groups, stratified by time post-transplant. Logistic regression was used to compute the relative risk across racial groups and linear modeling was used to measure the dependence of CNI levels and GEP score on race. Results In 580 patients followed for a median of 19 months, the incidence of the primary endpoint in African Americans, other non-Caucasians, and Caucasians was 18.3%, 22.2%, and 8.5%, respectively (p<0.001). There were small but significant correlations of race and tacrolimus trough levels to GEP score. Tacrolimus levels were similar between races. Of patients receiving tacrolimus, other non-Caucasians had higher GEP scores than the other racial groups. African American recipients demonstrated a unique decrease in expression of the FLT3 gene in response to higher tacrolimus levels. Conclusions African Americans and other non-Caucasian heart transplant recipients were 2.5–3 times more likely than Caucasians to experience outcome events in IMAGE. The increased risk of adverse outcomes may be partly due to the biology of the alloimmune response, which is less effectively inhibited at similar tacrolimus levels in minority racial groups. PMID:25840504

  15. Beyond Post-Racial Narratives: Barack Obama and the (Re)shaping of Racial Memory in US Schools and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William L.; Brown, Anthony L.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from the work of "cultural memory" and "racial formation theory" (Omi and Winant 1994) we explore the ascension of Barack Obama as an illustration of how "race" is understood and remembered. This article focuses on the public media discourse of the 2012 Obama re-election to illustrate how the narrative morphed…

  16. Increasing Ethical Sensitivity to Racial and Gender Intolerance in Schools: Development of the REST (Racial Ethical Sensitivity Test).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brabeck, Mary M.; McCubbin, Laurie; Rogers, Lauren A.; Ting, Kathleen; Warner, Chris; Sirin, Selcuk; Weaver, Monica

    An effort to develop a measure of ethical sensitivity to acts of racial and gender intolerance that occur in school settings is described. The rationale and theory on which the instrument is based is derived from the work of J. Rest (1983) that outlines four psychological components of morality: (1) ethical sensitivity; (2) moral judgment; (3)…

  17. Gender matters, too: the influences of school racial discrimination and racial identity on academic engagement outcomes among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chavous, Tabbye M; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Smalls, Ciara; Griffin, Tiffany; Cogburn, Courtney

    2008-05-01

    The authors examined relationships among racial identity, school-based racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11 (n = 204 boys and n = 206 girls). The authors found gender differences in peer and classroom discrimination and in the impact of earlier and later discrimination experiences on academic outcomes. Racial centrality related positively to school performance and school importance attitudes for boys. Also, centrality moderated the relationship between discrimination and academic outcomes in ways that differed across gender. For boys, higher racial centrality related to diminished risk for lower school importance attitudes and grades from experiencing classroom discrimination relative to boys lower in centrality, and girls with higher centrality were protected against the negative impact of peer discrimination on school importance and academic self-concept. However, among lower race-central girls, peer discrimination related positively to academic self-concept. Finally, socioeconomic background moderated the relationship of discrimination with academic outcomes differently for girls and boys. The authors discuss the need to consider interactions of individual- and contextual-level factors in better understanding African American youths' academic and social development.

  18. Making cross-racial therapy work: A phenomenological study of clients’ experiences of cross-racial therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Doris F.; Berk, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    A phenomenological/consensual qualitative study of clients’ lived experiences of cross-racial therapy was conducted to enhance our understanding of whether, how, and under what conditions race matters in the therapy relationship. The sample consisted of 16 racial/ethnic minority clients who received treatment from 16 White, European American therapists across a range of treatment settings. Participants who reported a satisfying experience of cross-racial therapy (n=8) were examined in relation to gender- and in most cases, race/ethnicity-matched controls (n=8) who reported an overall unsatisfying experience. Therapy satisfaction was assessed during the screening process and confirmed during the research interview. Therapy narratives were analyzed using consensual qualitative research to identify the client, therapist, and relational factors that distinguished satisfied from unsatisfied cases. Findings reveal substantial differences at the level of individual characteristics and relational processes, providing evidence of both universal (etic) as well as culture/context-specific (emic) aspects of healing relationships. Recommendations for facilitating positive alliance formation in cross-racial therapy are provided based on clients’ descriptions of facilitative conditions in the therapy relationship. PMID:20414342

  19. Comparison of African American college students' coping with racially and nonracially stressful events.

    PubMed

    Hoggard, Lori S; Byrd, Christy M; Sellers, Robert M

    2012-10-01

    Racial discrimination, a common experience for many African Americans, has been conceptualized within a stress and coping framework. However, few have examined whether racially stressful events are appraised and coped with differently from nonracially stressful events. The present study uses a daily diary method to examine African American college students' appraisals and coping behaviors in racially and nonracially stressful situations. The study examines the following 3 questions: 1) Do African Americans appraise racially stressful events differently from nonracially stressful events? 2) Do they cope with racially stressful events differently from nonracially stressful events? and 3) Do they cope with racially stressful events differently from nonracially stressful events, even after controlling for differences in cognitive appraisals of the events? The present sample consists of 35 participants who reported experiencing at least one racially stressful event and at least one nonracially stressful event during a 20-day diary study. Overall, no differences were found in students' appraisals in the racially stressful versus nonracially stressful events. Participants used less planful problem solving and more confrontive, ruminative, and avoidance coping strategies in the racially stressful events as compared with the nonracially stressful events. These findings suggest a need for race-specific models for coping with racial discrimination. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Can Racial Disparity in Health between Black and White Americans Be Attributed to Racial Disparities in Body Weight and Socioeconomic Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahng, Sang Kyoung

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined to what extent racial disparities in chronic health conditions (CHCs) are attributable to racial differences in body weight (measured as body mass index [BMI]) and socioeconomic status (SES) among older adults. To address this gap, using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, the current study examined…

  1. A Test of Stability and Construct Validity of the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale, Form B (RIAS-B) and the White Racial Identity Attitude Scale (WRIAS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, Rochelle L.; Waehler, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    Found that the test-retest reliabilities of two measures--(RIAS-B) and (WRIAS)--imply that racial identity may reflect more state characteristics (conditions or events) than trait characteristics (stable). Measures of self-derogation, self-esteem, and ethnic identity were also correlated with the racial identity scales. (RJM)

  2. Racialized masculinities and the new homonormativity in LOGO's Noah's Arc.

    PubMed

    Yep, Gust A; Elia, John P

    2012-01-01

    Examining the relationship between neoliberalism, race, and gender performance, this article provides an analysis of Noah's Arc, a popular LOGO television series in the United States. More specifically, it focuses on the intricate relationship between specific forms of racialized masculinities and the new homonormativity in this show. This article is divided into six sections. First, an overview of the LOGO series is provided. Next, gay, lesbian, and queer visibility in mainstream U.S. popular culture and the new homonormativity are examined. Third, the relationship between race and masculinity is discussed. Next, a close reading and analysis of the show is provided. Fifth, an exploration of how representations of Noah's Arc queers and "quares" Black masculinity in U.S. culture is undertaken. Finally, some concluding thoughts on representations of racialized masculinities and homonormativity in this popular television series are offered. PMID:22925051

  3. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Pediatric Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Alegria, Margarita; Vallas, Melissa; Pumariega, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Disparities remain in mental health status and care for racial and ethnic minority youth, despite national attention to disparity reduction. This paper offers a comprehensive picture of the status of pediatric disparities, by addressing the major areas affecting minority youth mental health, including: prevention of problems, need for services, access to care, mental health treatment types and treatment outcomes. It addresses relevant factors in the family, community and socioeconomic context, and describes various local and national programs that aim to tackle the obstacles and fill the gaps in high quality care for racial/ethnic minority youth. It concludes by offering recommendations for improvement which acknowledge the importance of understanding preferences and attitudes towards treatment, ensuring that screening and diagnosis is appropriate to minority youth, and ensuring that evidence-based programs are available at multiple levels to best service children and succeed in addressing their needs. PMID:21056345

  4. Miles to Go Before We Sleep: Racial Inequities in Health

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Large, pervasive and persistent racial inequalities exist in the onset, course and outcomes of illness. A comprehensive understanding of the patterning of racial disparities indicates that racism in both its institutional and individual forms remains an important determinant. Despite our extensive knowledge of the magnitude, trends and determinants of these social inequalities in health, there is still much that we need to learn about the forces that drive them. There is also an even greater opportunity to build the science base that would identify how to trigger the conditions that would facilitate needed societal change, and identify the optimal interventions that would confront and dismantle the societal conditions that create and sustain health inequalities. PMID:22940811

  5. FRIENDSHIP CHOICES OF MULTIRACIAL ADOLESCENTS: RACIAL HOMOPHILY, BLENDING, OR AMALGAMATION?*

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Jamie Mihoko; Kao, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we utilize the concepts of homophily, blending, and amalgamation to describe the possible friendship patterns of multiracials. Homophily occurs when multiracials are most likely to choose other multiracials as friends. Blending occurs when friendship patterns of multiracials are somewhere in-between those of their monoracial counterparts. Amalgamation consists of friendship patterns that are similar to one of their monoracial counterparts. All groups exhibit signs of amalgamation such that non-white multiracials resemble Blacks, and White multiracials resemble whites except for Black-White multiracials. Black-Whites, Asian-Whites, and Asian-Blacks also exhibit signs of blending, while only Native American multiracials show signs of homophily. Multiracials have different experiences depending on their specific racial composition, and while they seem to bridge the distance between racial groups, their friendship patterns also fall along Black and White lines. PMID:19727415

  6. Pelvimetry and the persistance of racial science in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    In the late nineteenth century, Mexican scientists became fixated on pelvic structure as an indicator of racial difference and hereditary worth. Forty years later, in his 1931 dissertation, medical student Gustavo Aldolfo Trangay proposed the implementation of a eugenic sterilization campaign in Mexico. He even reported performing clandestine sterilizations in public clinics, despite federal laws that prohibited doctors from doing so. Trangay reasoned that his patients were unfit for motherhood, and he claimed that their small pelvic cavities were a sign of biological inferiority. His focus on anatomical measurements--and especially pelvic measurements--was not novel in Mexico, but his work shows how doctors used nineteenth century racial science to rationalize eugenic sterilization.

  7. Racialized masculinities and the new homonormativity in LOGO's Noah's Arc.

    PubMed

    Yep, Gust A; Elia, John P

    2012-01-01

    Examining the relationship between neoliberalism, race, and gender performance, this article provides an analysis of Noah's Arc, a popular LOGO television series in the United States. More specifically, it focuses on the intricate relationship between specific forms of racialized masculinities and the new homonormativity in this show. This article is divided into six sections. First, an overview of the LOGO series is provided. Next, gay, lesbian, and queer visibility in mainstream U.S. popular culture and the new homonormativity are examined. Third, the relationship between race and masculinity is discussed. Next, a close reading and analysis of the show is provided. Fifth, an exploration of how representations of Noah's Arc queers and "quares" Black masculinity in U.S. culture is undertaken. Finally, some concluding thoughts on representations of racialized masculinities and homonormativity in this popular television series are offered.

  8. An assessment of practitioner cross-racial treatment experiences.

    PubMed

    Davis, L E; Gelsomino, J

    1994-01-01

    This study sought to determine differences in the cross-racial practice experiences of white and minority social services practitioners. Fifty-three counselors in a Veterans Administration outreach center evaluated various aspects of their cross-racial practice experiences. Both white and minority counselors perceived themselves to work equally well with white clients, but white counselors perceived themselves to be less effective when working with minority clients. The majority of white and minority counselors reported identifying the source of white clients' problems as being internal and that of minority clients' problems as being external. This finding was interpreted as being a possible bias against white clients on the part of both white and minority practitioners. White counselors reported experiencing less client credibility, and minority counselors reported more incidents of racism. Implications for social work are discussed.

  9. Racial discrimination and substance use: longitudinal associations and identity moderators.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Cogburn, Courtney D; Brodish, Amanda B; Peck, Stephen C; Malanchuk, Oksana; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2012-12-01

    Current research indicates that racial discrimination is pervasive in the lives of African Americans. Although there are a variety of ways in which discrimination may contribute to health, one potentially important pathway is through its impact on substance use. Addressing the paucity of longitudinal research on this topic, the present study examined the influence of teacher discrimination on changes in substance use over time among African American adolescents and considered three dimensions of racial identity as moderators of this association (centrality, private regard, and public regard). Latent variable SEM analyses indicated that, on average, levels of discrimination were associated with increases in substance use across the high school years. However, public regard was found to moderate this association such that discrimination was less strongly associated with increases in substance use for individual who reported lower levels of public regard. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Racial differences in Urban children's environmental exposures to lead.

    PubMed Central

    Lanphear, B P; Weitzman, M; Eberly, S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study explored whether differences in environmental lead exposures explain the racial disparity in children's blood lead levels. METHODS: Environmental sources of lead were identified for a random sample of 172 urban children. RESULTS: Blood lead levels were significantly higher among Black children. Lead-contamination of dust was higher in Black children's homes, and the condition of floors and interior paint was generally poorer. White children were more likely to put soil in their mouths and to suck their fingers, whereas Black children were more likely to put their mouths on window sills and to use a bottle. Major contributors to blood lead were interior lead exposures for Black children and exterior lead exposures for White children. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in housing conditions and exposures to lead-contaminated house dust contribute strongly to the racial disparity in urban children's blood lead levels. PMID:8876521

  11. Race Salience and Essentialist Thinking in Racial Stereotype Development

    PubMed Central

    Pauker, Kristin; Ambady, Nalini; Apfelbaum, Evan P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored the emergence and antecedents of racial stereotyping in 89 children ages 3–10 years. Children completed a number of matching and sorting tasks, including a measure designed to assess their knowledge and application of both positive and negative in-group and out-group stereotypes. Results indicate that children start to apply stereotypes to the out-group starting around 6 years of age. Controlling for a number of factors, two predictors contributed significantly towards uniquely explaining the use of these stereotypes: race salience (i.e., seeing and organizing by race) and essentialist thinking (i.e., believing that race cannot change). These results provide insight into how and when real-world interventions aimed at altering the acquisition of racial stereotypes may be implemented. PMID:21077865

  12. Race and imprisonments: vigilante violence, minority threat, and racial politics.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, David; Malone, Chad; Iles, Gale

    2012-01-01

    The effects of lynchings on criminal justice outcomes have seldom been examined. Recent findings also are inconsistent about the effects of race on imprisonments. This study uses a pooled time-series design to assess lynching and racial threat effects on state imprisonments from 1972 to 2000. After controlling for Republican strength, conservatism, and other factors, lynch rates explain the growth in admission rates. The findings also show that increases in black residents produce subsequent expansions in imprisonments that likely are attributable to white reactions to this purported menace. But after the percentage of blacks reaches a substantial threshold—and the potential black vote becomes large enough to begin to reduce these harsh punishments—reductions in prison admissions occur. These results also confirm a political version of racial threat theory by indicating that increased Republican political strength produces additional imprisonments. PMID:22616115

  13. Race and imprisonments: vigilante violence, minority threat, and racial politics.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, David; Malone, Chad; Iles, Gale

    2012-01-01

    The effects of lynchings on criminal justice outcomes have seldom been examined. Recent findings also are inconsistent about the effects of race on imprisonments. This study uses a pooled time-series design to assess lynching and racial threat effects on state imprisonments from 1972 to 2000. After controlling for Republican strength, conservatism, and other factors, lynch rates explain the growth in admission rates. The findings also show that increases in black residents produce subsequent expansions in imprisonments that likely are attributable to white reactions to this purported menace. But after the percentage of blacks reaches a substantial threshold—and the potential black vote becomes large enough to begin to reduce these harsh punishments—reductions in prison admissions occur. These results also confirm a political version of racial threat theory by indicating that increased Republican political strength produces additional imprisonments.

  14. Racial disparities in outcomes after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lad, Shivanand P; Umeano, Odera A; Karikari, Isaac O; Somasundaram, Aravind; Bagley, Carlos A; Gottfried, Oren N; Isaacs, Robert E; Ugiliweneza, Beatrice; Patil, Chirag G; Huang, Kevin; Boakye, Maxwell

    2013-03-15

    Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is an acute trauma to the neural elements resulting in temporary or permanent sensory and motor deficit. Studies have indicated that although 66% of SCI occur in Caucasians, there are a growing number of other racial groups affected by SCI. Furthermore, there has been a lack of research concerning racial disparities in outcomes following SCI. As such, a retrospective analysis using the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) from 2000 to 2009 was performed. African Americans, Caucasians, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans were included in the study. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (OR) to examine the relationship between racial backgrounds and mortality, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, length of hospital stay, in-hospital complications, and patient disposition. Our results showed that significant differences were found in length of hospital stay, with African American and Hispanic populations having longer hospital stays than Caucasian and Asians. For all type complications, African Americans (OR 1.228, confidence interval [CI] 1.11-1.356) and Native Americans (OR 1.618, CI 1.083-2.419) were more likely than Caucasian and Hispanic patients to have in-hospital complications. For disposition status, African Americans (OR 0.844, CI 0.730-0.976) and Asians (OR 0.475, CI 0.297-0.760) were much less likely than Caucasians or Hispanic populations to be discharged to an acute rehabilitation program. The results from this large-scale study (n=18,671) demonstrate a number of racial disparities following SCI at the national level, including rate of complications, length of stay, and disposition to acute rehabilitation centers. This should raise awareness to cultural differences but also serve as an opportunity to reduce gaps in care across ethnicities for this universally life-altering condition.

  15. Racial Disparities Among Lung Cancer Patients Recommended Operative Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Farjah, Farhood; Wood, Douglas E.; Yanez, N. David; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Symons, Rebecca Gaston; Krishnadasan, Bahirathan; Flum, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Hypothesis Healthcare system/provider biases and differences in patient characteristics are thought to be prevailing factors underlying racial disparities. The influence of these factors on the receipt of care would likely be mitigated among patients recommended optimal therapy. We hypothesized that there would be no significant evidence of racial disparities among early-stage lung cancer patients recommended surgical therapy. Design Retrospective cohort study. Patients and Setting Patients within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results-Medicare database diagnosed with stage I or II lung cancer between 1992 and 2002 (follow-up through 2005). Main Outcome Measures Receipt of lung resection and overall survival. Results Among 17,739 patients recommended surgical therapy—mean (SD) age 75 (5) years, 89% white, 6% black—blacks less frequently underwent resection compared to whites (69% versus 83%, p<0.001). After adjustment, black race was associated with a lower odds of receiving surgical therapy (OR 0.43, 99% CI 0.36-0.52). Unadjusted 5-year survival rates were lower for blacks compared to whites (36% versus 42%, p<0.001). After adjustment, there was no significant association between race and death (HR 1.03, 99% CI 0.92-1.14) despite a 14% difference in receipt of optimal therapy. Conclusions Even among patients recommend surgical therapy, blacks underwent lung resection less often then whites. Unexpectedly, racial differences in the receipt of optimal therapy did not appear to affect outcomes. These findings suggest that distrust, beliefs and perceptions about lung cancer and its treatment, and limited access to care (despite insurance) might have a more dominant role in perpetuating racial disparities than previously recognized. PMID:19153319

  16. Racial inequality and child neglect: findings in a metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Saunders, E J; Nelson, K; Landsman, M J

    1993-01-01

    Despite contradictory evidence, child neglect is often believed to occur more frequently in the African American than in the Caucasian population. This article reports findings on the racial differences among 182 families referred for neglect in a large metropolitan area. Although almost all of the families were poor, African American families in the neglect sample suffered even more from economic inequality than those in the general population. Implications of the findings for social welfare policy and child welfare practice are discussed.

  17. Cancer genes in lung cancer: racial disparities: are there any?

    PubMed

    El-Telbany, Ahmed; Ma, Patrick C

    2012-07-01

    Cancer is now known as a disease of genomic alterations. Mutational analysis and genomics profiling in recent years have advanced the field of lung cancer genetics/genomics significantly. It is becoming more accepted now that the identification of genomic alterations in lung cancer can impact therapeutics, especially when the alterations represent "oncogenic drivers" in the processes of tumorigenesis and progression. In this review, we will highlight the key driver oncogenic gene mutations and fusions identified in lung cancer. The review will summarize and report the available demographic and clinicopathological data as well as molecular details behind various lung cancer gene alterations in the context of race. We hope to shed some light into the disparities in the incidence of various genetic mutations among lung cancer patients of different racial backgrounds. As molecularly targeted therapy continues to advance in lung cancer, racial differences in specific genetic/genomic alterations can have an important impact in the choices of therapeutics and in our understanding of the drug sensitivity/resistance profile. The most relevant genes in lung cancer described in this review include the following: EGFR, KRAS, MET, LKB1, BRAF, PIK3CA, ALK, RET, and ROS1. Commonly identified genetic/genomic alterations such as missense or nonsense mutations, small insertions or deletions, alternative splicing, and chromosomal fusion rearrangements were discussed. Relevance in current targeted therapeutic drugs was mentioned when appropriate. We also highlighted various targeted therapeutics that are currently under clinical development, such as the MET inhibitors and antibodies. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, the landscape of genomic alterations in lung cancer is expected to be much transformed and detailed in upcoming years. These genomic landscape differences in the context of racial disparities should be emphasized both in tumorigenesis and in drug sensitivity

  18. Exploring racial differences in the obesity gender gap

    PubMed Central

    Seamans, Marissa J.; Robinson, Whitney R.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Cole, Stephen R.; LaVeist, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether the gender gap in obesity prevalence is greater among US Blacks than Whites in a study designed to account for racial differences in socioeconomic and environmental conditions. Methods We estimated age-adjusted, race-stratified gender gaps in obesity (female obesity minus male obesity, defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) in the National Health Interview Survey 2003 (NHIS) and the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities-Southwest Baltimore 2003 study (EHDIC-SWB). EHDIC-SWB is a population-based survey of 1381 adults living in two urban, low-income, racially integrated census tracts with no race difference in income. Results In NHIS, the obesity gender gap was larger in Blacks than Whites: 7.7 percentage-points (ppts) (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.4, 11.9) in Blacks versus −1.5 ppts (95% CI: −2.8, −0.2) in Whites. In EHDIC-SWB, the gender gap was similarly large for Blacks and Whites: 15.3 ppts (95% CI: 8.6, 22.0) in Blacks versus 14.0 ppts (95% CI: 7.1, 20.9) in Whites. Conclusions In a racially integrated, low-income urban community, gender gaps in obesity prevalence were similar for Blacks and Whites. PMID:25887701

  19. Racial inequality in active life among adult Americans.

    PubMed

    Hayward, M D; Heron, M

    1999-02-01

    Is a shorter life with more years lived in poor health a defining attribute of the life cycle of disadvantaged groups? Based on the 1990 5% Public Use Microdata Survey, we develop life table models of healthy (or active) life for the major racial groups, by sex, in the United States. The analysis underscores the complexity of the relationship between morbidity and mortality in the population. For Asians, longer life is associated with fewer years lived in poor health. In contrast, Native Americans' relatively longer lives are accompanied by extended periods of chronic health problems. Of all racial groups, blacks live the fewest years, and they live a high proportion of those years with a chronic health problems. Hispanics also live substantially fewer years, yet the period of life they spend with a health problem is relatively compressed. Racial differences in the link between morbidity and mortality point to the importance of investigating how chronic diseases and disease prevention and treatment are related to active life across the population subgroups.

  20. Extracted facial feature of racial closely related faces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liewchavalit, Chalothorn; Akiba, Masakazu; Kanno, Tsuneo; Nagao, Tomoharu

    2010-02-01

    Human faces contain a lot of demographic information such as identity, gender, age, race and emotion. Human being can perceive these pieces of information and use it as an important clue in social interaction with other people. Race perception is considered the most delicacy and sensitive parts of face perception. There are many research concerning image-base race recognition, but most of them are focus on major race group such as Caucasoid, Negroid and Mongoloid. This paper focuses on how people classify race of the racial closely related group. As a sample of racial closely related group, we choose Japanese and Thai face to represents difference between Northern and Southern Mongoloid. Three psychological experiment was performed to study the strategies of face perception on race classification. As a result of psychological experiment, it can be suggested that race perception is an ability that can be learn. Eyes and eyebrows are the most attention point and eyes is a significant factor in race perception. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to extract facial features of sample race group. Extracted race features of texture and shape were used to synthesize faces. As the result, it can be suggested that racial feature is rely on detailed texture rather than shape feature. This research is a indispensable important fundamental research on the race perception which are essential in the establishment of human-like race recognition system.

  1. At the crossroads of race: racial ambiguity and biracial identification influence psychological essentialist thinking.

    PubMed

    Young, Danielle M; Sanchez, Diana T; Wilton, Leigh S

    2013-10-01

    Racial essentialism refers to the widely held belief that race is a biological, stable, and natural category. Although research finds very little evidence that race has biological underpinnings, racial essentialist beliefs persist and are linked to negative outgroup consequences. This study initially demonstrates that label and visual ambiguity concurrently inform racial categorization. It then tests whether exposure to racially ambiguous targets (a) challenges essentialism when ambiguous targets are labeled with biracial categories and (b) reinforces essentialism when ambiguous targets identify with monoracial categories. The results showed that White perceivers (N = 84) who were exposed to racially ambiguous, biracially labeled targets showed reductions in their essentialist thinking about race, whereas perceivers who were exposed to racially ambiguous, monoracially labeled targets showed increases in their essentialist beliefs.

  2. Implicit Racial Biases in Preschool Children and Adults From Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Qian, Miao K; Heyman, Gail D; Quinn, Paul C; Messi, Francoise A; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2016-01-01

    This research used an Implicit Racial Bias Test to investigate implicit racial biases among 3- to 5-year-olds and adult participants in China (N = 213) and Cameroon (N = 257). In both cultures, participants displayed high levels of racial biases that remained stable between 3 and 5 years of age. Unlike adults, young children's implicit racial biases were unaffected by the social status of the other-race groups. Also, unlike adults, young children displayed overt explicit racial biases, and these biases were dissociated from their implicit biases. The results provide strong evidence for the early emergence of implicit racial biases and point to the need to reduce them in early childhood. PMID:26435128

  3. Racial progress as threat to the status hierarchy: implications for perceptions of anti-White bias.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Clara L; Kaiser, Cheryl R

    2014-02-01

    In three studies, we examined how racial progress affects Whites' perceptions of anti-White bias. When racial progress was chronically (Study 1) and experimentally (Study 2) salient, Whites who believed the current U.S. status hierarchy was legitimate were more likely to report that Whites were victims of racial discrimination. In contrast, Whites who perceived the current status system as illegitimate were unaffected by the salience of racial progress. The results of Study 3 point to the role of threat in explaining these divergent reactions to racial progress. When self-affirmed, Whites who perceived the status hierarchy as legitimate no longer showed increased perceptions of anti-White bias when confronted with evidence of racial progress. Implications for policies designed to remedy social inequality are discussed.

  4. Longitudinal associations between experienced racial discrimination and depressive symptoms in African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2014-04-01

    While recent evidence has indicated that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African American adolescents, most studies rely on cross-sectional and short-term longitudinal research designs. As a result, the direction and persistence of this association across time remains unclear. This article examines longitudinal associations between experienced racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among a community sample of African American adolescents (N = 504) from Grade 7 to Grade 10, while controlling for multiple alternative causal pathways. Sex was tested as a moderator of the link between experienced racial discrimination and later depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling revealed that experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with depressive symptoms 1 year later across all waves of measurement. The link between experienced racial discrimination at Grade 7 and depressive symptoms at Grade 8 was stronger for females than males. Findings highlight the role of experienced racial discrimination in the etiology of depressive symptoms for African Americans across early adolescence.

  5. "More than skin deep": stress neurobiology and mental health consequences of racial discrimination.

    PubMed

    Berger, Maximus; Sarnyai, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority groups across the world face a complex set of adverse social and psychological challenges linked to their minority status, often involving racial discrimination. Racial discrimination is increasingly recognized as an important contributing factor to health disparities among non-dominant ethnic minorities. A growing body of literature has recognized these health disparities and has investigated the relationship between racial discrimination and poor health outcomes. Chronically elevated cortisol levels and a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis appear to mediate effects of racial discrimination on allostatic load and disease. Racial discrimination seems to converge on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and may impair the function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hence showing substantial similarities to chronic social stress. This review provides a summary of recent literature on hormonal and neural effects of racial discrimination and a synthesis of potential neurobiological pathways by which discrimination affects mental health.

  6. Racial discrimination, social support, and sexual HIV risk among Black heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Bowleg, Lisa; Burkholder, Gary J; Massie, Jenné S; Wahome, Rahab; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies document the adverse impact of racial discrimination on African Americans' health outcomes, but few have focused on HIV risk. We examined the relationship between racial discrimination and sexual risk in a sample of 526 Black heterosexual men and tested the hypothesis that social support would moderate this relationship. Participants in the predominantly low-income urban sample ranged in age from 18 to 45. High social support had a buffering impact on the relationship between racial discrimination and sexual risk. Among men reporting high racial discrimination, those with more social support reported less sexual risk than men with low social support. Men who reported high racial discrimination and low social support reported more sexual risk than men in any of the other groups. The study highlights social support as an important but understudied protective factor that may reduce sexual risk for Black heterosexual men who report high levels of racial discrimination.

  7. PERCEIVED RACIAL DISCRIMINATION AMONG HOME HEALTH AIDES: EVIDENCE FROM A NATIONAL SURVEY.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doohee; Muslin, Ivan; McInerney, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    Home health aides are one of our essential human resources in the U.S. long-term care industry but understanding whether home health aides experience racial discrimination in the workplace and, if so, which personal/organizational factors are associated at the national level has been unnoticed. Using a nationally representative sample (n=3377), we attempt to investigate the association between racial discrimination and personal and organizational factors. The study found the 13.5% prevalence rate of racial discrimination. The study findings from multiple regression analysis reveal that black home care aides are more likely than white aides to experience racial discrimination in the workplace, suggesting that racial disparity may be an additional barrier to our home health care industry. National chain affiliation and low income were also found to be associated with perceived racial discrimination.

  8. Believing is seeing: the effects of racial labels and implicit beliefs on face perception.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, Jennifer L; Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Banaszynski, Tracy L

    2003-03-01

    Two studies tested whether racial category labels and lay beliefs about human traits have a combined effect on people's perception of, and memory for, racially ambiguous faces. Participants saw a morphed target face accompanied by a racial label (Black or White). Later, they were asked to identify the face from a set of two new morphed faces, one more Black and the other more White than the target. As predicted, entity theorists, who believe traits are immutable, perceived and remembered the target face as consistent with the racial label, whereas incremental theorists, who believe traits are malleable, perceived and remembered the face as inconsistent with the racial label. In Study 2, participants also drew the target face more consistently (entity theorists) or less consistently (incremental theorists) with the racial label. Results of both studies confirm that social variables can affect how physical features are seen and remembered.

  9. Congregational Size and Attitudes towards Racial Inequality among Church Attendees in America

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Ryon J.; Dougherty, Kevin D.; Park, Jerry Z.; Perry, Samuel L.

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that congregational characteristics are associated with the racial attitudes of American churchgoers. This study examines the relationship between congregational size and beliefs about the Black/White socioeconomic gap among religious adherents. Method Drawing upon data from the General Social Survey and the National Congregations Study, we fit binary logistic regression models to estimate the association between congregational size and Americans’ explanations of Black/White economic inequality. Results Findings reveal that attendees of larger congregations are less likely than attendees of smaller congregations to explain racial inequality as the result of the racial discrimination. The likelihood of explaining racial inequality in terms of personal motivation does not vary by congregation size. Conclusion Despite the growing diversity in larger congregations in America, such congregations may steer attendees’ views about racial inequality away from systemic/structural factors, which may attenuate the ability of such congregations to bridge racial divisions. PMID:27429797

  10. More eyes on the prize: variability in White Americans' perceptions of progress toward racial equality.

    PubMed

    Brodish, Amanda B; Brazy, Paige C; Devine, Patricia G

    2008-04-01

    Much recent research suggests that Whites and non-Whites think differently about issues of race in contemporary America. For example, Eibach and Ehrlinger (2006) recently demonstrated that Whites perceive that more progress toward racial equality has been made as compared to non-Whites. The authors of this article sought to extend Eibach and Ehrlinger's analysis. To this end, they found that differences in Whites' and non-Whites' perceptions of racial progress can be explained by the reference points they use for understanding progress toward racial equality (Study 1). Furthermore, they demonstrated that there is variability in White people's perceptions of racial progress that can be explained by self-reported racial prejudice (Studies 1 and 2). Finally, they demonstrated that White people's perceptions of racial progress predict reactions to affirmative action (Study 2). Implications for better understanding intergroup relations and reactions to social policies are discussed. PMID:18216209

  11. Racial and gender identity among Black adolescent males: an intersectionality perspective.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Scott, Marc A; Way, Niobe

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of social identity research has focused on race and racial identity, while gender identity, particularly among Black adolescents, remains underexamined. The current study used survey data from 183 Black adolescent males (13-16 years old) to investigate the development and relation between racial and gender identity centrality and private regard, and how these identities impact adjustment over time. It was found that dimensions of racial and gender identity were strongly correlated. Levels of racial centrality increased over time while gender centrality, and racial and gender private regard declined. In addition, racial and gender identity uniquely contributed to higher levels of psychological well-being and academic adjustment. These findings are discussed within the context of existing identity theories and intersectionality theory.

  12. PERCEIVED RACIAL DISCRIMINATION AMONG HOME HEALTH AIDES: EVIDENCE FROM A NATIONAL SURVEY.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doohee; Muslin, Ivan; McInerney, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    Home health aides are one of our essential human resources in the U.S. long-term care industry but understanding whether home health aides experience racial discrimination in the workplace and, if so, which personal/organizational factors are associated at the national level has been unnoticed. Using a nationally representative sample (n=3377), we attempt to investigate the association between racial discrimination and personal and organizational factors. The study found the 13.5% prevalence rate of racial discrimination. The study findings from multiple regression analysis reveal that black home care aides are more likely than white aides to experience racial discrimination in the workplace, suggesting that racial disparity may be an additional barrier to our home health care industry. National chain affiliation and low income were also found to be associated with perceived racial discrimination. PMID:27079055

  13. Parental racial socialization as a moderator of the effects of racial discrimination on educational success among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Huguley, James P

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether parental racial socialization practices moderated the relation between racial discrimination in school and adolescents' educational outcomes. Using data from a longitudinal study of an economically diverse sample of 630 African American adolescents (mean age=14.5) from a major East Coast metropolis, the results revealed that cultural socialization attenuated the effect of teacher discrimination on grade point average (GPA) and educational aspirations, as well as the effect of peer discrimination on GPA. Also, preparation for bias and cultural socialization interacted to make unique contributions to African American adolescents' educational outcomes. Finally, there was some evidence that teacher discrimination was more detrimental to the academic engagement of African American males than females. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  14. "Whose second life is this?" How avatar-based racial cues shape ethno-racial minorities' perception of virtual worlds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Eun Roselyn; Park, Sung Gwan

    2011-11-01

    Research on social identity contingencies suggests that situational cues, such as a numerical representation of social identities in a given social environment, can trigger identity-associated threat for individuals whose social identity is marginalized. Given that popular virtual worlds (e.g., Second Life [SL]) are often criticized for White-avatar dominance or White bias, we examined the psychological effects of the alleged White dominance in avatar-based virtual worlds by conducting two experiments in which participants read fictitious profiles of SL resident avatars. White and non-White participants were randomly assigned to view either a set of White-dominant avatar profiles or a set of racially diverse ones. After reading the profiles, participants had an opportunity to customize avatars using the SL interface. The findings of Experiment 1 (n=59) revealed that non-White participants exposed to the White-dominant avatar profiles, when compared with those exposed to the racially diverse profiles, reported significantly lower levels of sense of belonging and intention to participate in SL. Experiment 2 (n=64) demonstrated that non-White participants exposed to the White-dominant avatar profiles gave significantly higher estimation of the White user population within SL; the data also showed that exposure to the White-dominant avatar profiles resulted in a greater sense of limitation on skin customization among non-White participants than among White participants. The present research suggests that ethno-racial minorities, when exposed to avatar-based cues that signal White dominance, may perceive the virtual world as identity threatening, thereby feeling psychologically disconnected and detached from it. Implications regarding racial/ethnic diversity in virtual worlds are discussed.

  15. Racial identity and reasons for living in African American female suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Street, Jalika C; Taha, Farah; Jones, Ashley D; Jones, Kamilah A; Carr, Erika; Woods, Amanda; Woodall, Staci; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2012-10-01

    The current study investigated the association between racial identity and reasons for living in African American women who have attempted suicide. Particular attention was paid to the relation between two elements of racial identity (private regard, racial centrality) and reasons for living, an alternative assessment of suicidal risk. While private regard refers to an individual's beliefs about the African American race, racial centrality describes the importance an individual places on his or her racial identity. The sample included 82 low-income African American women, ages 18-64, who reported a suicide attempt in the past 12 months. Participants, recruited from a large, urban public hospital located in the Southeast, completed the Reasons for Living Inventory and the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity, which included the private regard and racial centrality subscales. Results indicated that, as predicted, higher private regard was associated with more reasons for living. Contrary to expectations, racial centrality was not correlated with reasons for living nor was there an interaction between private regard and racial centrality indicating that racial centrality did not function as a moderator in predicting participants' reasons for living scores. Implications for culturally competent clinical interventions that target bolstering private regard are discussed.

  16. Hate crimes on campus: racial/ethnic diversity and campus safety.

    PubMed

    Stotzer, Rebecca L; Hossellman, Emily

    2012-03-01

    Colleges and universities across the US have prioritized minority enrollments in their recruitment strategies, but theories offer to possible outcomes of increasing diversity on campus-increased racial harmony or increased racial tension. This study examines the impact of racial diversity on the reported number of hate crimes that occur on campus. Findings suggest that those schools that are most successful in recruiting the hardest to recruit minorities (Black and Latino students) report fewer hate crimes on campus. Implications for campus climate and racial dynamics on campus, as well as future research, are discussed.

  17. Racial Segregation and Quality of Care Disparity in US Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Momotazur; Foster, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine the contributions of travel distance and preferences for racial homogeneity as sources of nursing home segregation and racial disparities in nursing home quality. We first theoretically characterize the distinctive implications of these mechanisms for nursing home racial segregation. We then use this model to structure an empirical analysis of nursing home sorting. We find little evidence of differential willingness to pay for quality by race among first-time nursing home entrants, but do find significant distance and race-based preference effects. Simulation exercises suggest that both effects contribute importantly to racial disparities in nursing home quality. PMID:25461895

  18. Racial segregation and quality of care disparity in US nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Momotazur; Foster, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the contributions of travel distance and preferences for racial homogeneity as sources of nursing home segregation and racial disparities in nursing home quality. We first theoretically characterize the distinctive implications of these mechanisms for nursing home racial segregation. We then use this model to structure an empirical analysis of nursing home sorting. We find little evidence of differential willingness to pay for quality by race among first-time nursing home entrants, but do find significant distance and race-based preference effects. Simulation exercises suggest that both effects contribute importantly to racial disparities in nursing home quality. PMID:25461895

  19. Effects of racialized tracking on racial gaps in science self-efficacy, identity, engagement, and aspirations: Connection to science and school segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Briana L.

    Given the concentration of economic growth and power in science fields and the current levels of racial stratification in schooling, this study examined (1) the effects of race on students' connectedness to science and career aspirations, (2) the extent to which these effects were moderated by school racial composition and racialized tracking, and (3) the differences in modeling effects using separate variables for race and gender (i.e., White, Black, Hispanic, female) versus race/gender (e.g., White female, Black male, etc.). Using the lens of racial formation theory, this study situated access to science knowledge as a racial project, conferring and denying access to resources along racial lines. Reviews of the literature on science self-efficacy, identity, engagement, and career aspirations revealed an under-emphasis on school institutional factors, such as racial composition and racialized tracking (which are important in sociological literature), as shaping student outcomes. The study analyzed data from the nationally representative High School Longitudinal Study that surveyed students in 2009 during their freshman year in high school and again in 2012 during most students' junior year (n = 6,998). Affective ratings (in self-efficacy, identity, engagement) and career aspirations for students measured in 2012 were examined as dependent variables and a variable for racialized tracking was estimated given schools' placement of students in advanced science coursework in 2012. Although school racial composition was not found to moderate race on outcome effects, primary analyses demonstrated that the presence of racialized tracking in the students' schools did moderate these effects. Overall these results suggested that the student subgroups most often at a disadvantage compared to White students for the science outcomes studied were Hispanic males and females; Black students' ratings and aspirations were largely on par or exceeded those of their White counterparts

  20. Racial Discrimination and Ethnic Disparities in Sleep Disturbance: the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Paine, Sarah-Jane; Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Research on the relationship between racial discrimination and sleep is limited. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the independent relationship between ethnicity, sex, age, socioeconomic position, experience of racial discrimination and self-reported sleep disturbances, and (2) determine the statistical contribution of experience of racial discrimination to ethnic disparities in sleep disturbances. Methods: The study used data from the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey, a nationally-representative, population-based survey of New Zealand adults (≥ 15 years). The sample included 4,108 self-identified Māori (indigenous New Zealanders) and 6,261 European adults. Outcome variables were difficulty falling asleep, frequent nocturnal awakenings, and early morning awakenings. Experiences of racial discrimination across five domains were used to assess overall racial discrimination “ever” and the level of exposure to racial discrimination. Socioeconomic position was measured using neighborhood deprivation, education, and equivalized household income. Results: Māori had a higher prevalence of each sleep disturbance item than Europeans. Reported experiences of racial discrimination were independently associated with each sleep disturbance item, adjusted for ethnicity, sex, age group, and socioeconomic position. Sequential logistic regression models showed that racial discrimination and socioeconomic position explained most of the disparity in difficulty falling asleep and frequent nocturnal awakening between Māori and Europeans; however, ethnic differences in early morning awakenings remained. Conclusions: Racial discrimination may play an important role in ethnic disparities in sleep disturbances in New Zealand. Activities to improve the sleep health of non-dominant ethnic groups should consider the potentially multifarious ways in which racial discrimination can disturb sleep. Citation: Paine SJ, Harris R, Cormack D, Stanley J. Racial

  1. Metropolitan racial residential segregation and cardiovascular mortality: exploring pathways.

    PubMed

    Greer, Sophia; Kramer, Michael R; Cook-Smith, Jessica N; Casper, Michele L

    2014-06-01

    Racial residential segregation has been associated with an increased risk for heart disease and stroke deaths. However, there has been little research into the role that candidate mediating pathways may play in the relationship between segregation and heart disease or stroke deaths. In this study, we examined the relationship between metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level segregation and heart disease and stroke mortality rates, by age and race, and also estimated the effects of various educational, economic, social, and health-care indicators (which we refer to as pathways) on this relationship. We used Poisson mixed models to assess the relationship between the isolation index in 265 U.S. MSAs and county-level (heart disease, stroke) mortality rates. All models were stratified by race (non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white), age group (35-64 years, ≥ 65 years), and cause of death (heart disease, stroke). We included each potential pathway in the model separately to evaluate its effect on the segregation-mortality association. Among blacks, segregation was positively associated with heart disease mortality rates in both age groups but only with stroke mortality rates in the older age group. Among whites, segregation was marginally associated with heart disease mortality rates in the younger age group and was positively associated with heart disease mortality rates in the older age group. Three of the potential pathways we explored attenuated relationships between segregation and mortality rates among both blacks and whites: percentage of female-headed households, percentage of residents living in poverty, and median household income. Because the percentage of female-headed households can be seen as a proxy for the extent of social disorganization, our finding that it has the greatest attenuating effect on the relationship between racial segregation and heart disease and stroke mortality rates suggests that social disorganization may play a strong role in the

  2. Racial and Regional Differences in Rates of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease

    PubMed Central

    de St Maurice, Annabelle; Grijalva, Carlos G.; Fonnesbeck, Christopher; Schaffner, William

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) remains an important cause of illness in US children. We assessed the impact of introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) on pediatric IPD rates, as well as changes in racial and regional differences in IPD, in Tennessee. METHODS: Data from active laboratory and population-based surveillance of IPD were used to compare IPD rates in the early-PCV7 (2001–2004), late-PCV7 (2005–2009), and post-PCV13 (2011–2012) eras. IPD rates were further stratified according to age, race, and region (east and middle-west TN). RESULTS: Among children aged <2 years, IPD rates declined by 70% from 67 to 19 per 100 000 person-years in the early-PCV7 era and post-PCV13 era, respectively. Similar decreasing trends in IPD rates were observed in older children aged 2 to 4 years and 5 to 17 years. In the late-PCV7 era, IPD rates in children aged <2 years were higher in black children compared with white children (70 vs 43 per 100 000 person-years); however, these racial differences in IPD rates were no longer significant after PCV13 introduction. Before PCV13, IPD rates in children aged <2 years were also higher in east Tennessee compared with middle-west Tennessee (91 vs 45 per 100 000 person-years), but these differences were no longer significant in the post-PCV13 era. CONCLUSIONS: PCV13 introduction led to substantial declines in childhood IPD rates and was associated with reduced regional and racial differences in IPD rates in Tennessee. PMID:26459652

  3. Racial Disparity Among the Head and Neck Cancer Population.

    PubMed

    Daraei, Pedram; Moore, Charles E

    2015-09-01

    Head and neck cancer is the ninth most common cancer in the USA, accounting for 3.3 % of all cancers. The incidence of head and neck cancer has plateaued recently; however, morbidity and mortality continue to remain high. Moreover, racial disparity between African-American and White patients has been studied in the head and neck community, and a vast difference still remains in mortality rate and late stage at presentation. A review of the English literature was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE for demographics, epidemiology, and studies that focused on the disparity in head and neck cancer between African-American and White patients. Age-adjusted incidence of head and neck cancer is increased in African-Americans, while the 5-year survival is decreased compared to Whites. African-American patients present with more advanced disease. When receiving similar multidisciplinary care, the overall survival was not significantly different, but racial disparity often persists in treatment regimens. Socioeconomic determinants such as insurance status play a critical role in racial disparity, along with low levels of public awareness, a lack of knowledge of specific risk factors, and a sense of mistrust that is seen in the African-American population. Disparity in the head and neck cancer community is worrisome, and although efforts have been taken to decrease the disparity, a significant difference exists. Fortunately, the disparity is reversible and can be eliminated. To do so, it is critical to extend to underserved community programs that provide appropriate screening and diagnosis, with subsequent follow-up and treatment following the standards of care.

  4. Racial/ethnic differences in children's access to care.

    PubMed Central

    Weinick, R M; Krauss, N A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study explored reasons for racial and ethnic differences in children's usual sources of care. METHODS: Data from the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were examined by means of logistic regression techniques. RESULTS: Black and Hispanic children were substantially less likely than White children to have a usual source of care. These differences persisted after control for health insurance and socioeconomic status. Control for language ability, however, eliminated differences between Hispanic and White children. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that the marked Hispanic disadvantage in children's access to care noted in earlier studies may be related to language ability. PMID:11076248

  5. Racial-ethnic biases, time pressure, and medical decisions.

    PubMed

    Stepanikova, Irena

    2012-09-01

    This study examined two types of potential sources of racial-ethnic disparities in medical care: implicit biases and time pressure. Eighty-one family physicians and general internists responded to a case vignette describing a patient with chest pain. Time pressure was manipulated experimentally. Under high time pressure, but not under low time pressure, implicit biases regarding blacks and Hispanics led to a less serious diagnosis. In addition, implicit biases regarding blacks led to a lower likelihood of a referral to specialist when physicians were under high time pressure. The results suggest that when physicians face stress, their implicit biases may shape medical decisions in ways that disadvantage minority patients.

  6. Racial Disparities in Treatment Rates for Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Vutien, Philip; Hoang, Joseph; Brooks, Louis; Nguyen, Nghia H.; Nguyen, Mindie H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) disproportionately affects racial minorities in the United States (US). Although prior studies have reported lower treatment rates in Blacks than in Caucasians, the rates of other minorities remain understudied. We aimed to examine antiviral treatment rates by race and to evaluate the effect of other demographic, medical, and psychiatric factors on treatment rates. We performed a population-based study of adult CHC patients identified via ICD-9CM query from OptumInsight's Data Mart from January 2009 to December 2013. Antiviral treatment was defined by pharmaceutical claims for interferon and/or pegylated-interferon. A total of 73,665 insured patients were included: 51,282 Caucasians, 10,493 Blacks, 8679 Hispanics, and 3211 Asians. Caucasians had the highest treatment rate (10.7%) followed by Blacks (8.8%), Hispanics (8.8%), and Asians (7.9%, P < .001). Hispanics had the highest cirrhosis rates compared with Caucasians, Blacks, and Asians (20.7% vs 18.3%, 17.1%, and 14.3%, respectively). Caucasians were the most likely to have a psychiatric comorbidity (20.1%) and Blacks the most likely to have a medical comorbidity (44%). Asians were the least likely to have a psychiatric (6.4%) or medical comorbidity (26.9%). On multivariate analysis, racial minority was a significant predictor of nontreatment with odds ratios of 0.82 [confidence interval (CI): 0.74–0.90] for Blacks, 0.87 (CI: 0.78–0.96) for Hispanics, and 0.73 (CI: 0.62–0.86) for Asians versus Caucasians. Racial minorities had lower treatment rates than Caucasians. Despite fewer medical and psychiatric comorbidities and higher incomes and educational levels, Asians had the lowest treatment rates. Hispanics also had lower treatment rates than Caucasians despite having higher rates of cirrhosis. Future studies should aim to identify underlying racial-related barriers to hepatitis C virus treatment besides socioeconomic status and medical or psychiatric comorbidities

  7. [The concept of racial democracy in Brazilian intellectual history].

    PubMed

    Brochier, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to reconstruct the history of the term "racial democracy" in Brazilian sociological literature. This term, usually associated with the idea of "myth", is used in many studies of race relations without little definition or clarity. This article retraces its origins, in particular by showing that the concept is not the invention of Gilberto Freyre. It then examines the evolution of its use with particular emphasis on Unesco's research in the 1950s and the texts of Florestan Fernandes in the 1960s.

  8. Thirty Years of Racial/Ethnic Identity Development Research: An Examination of Black College Students Racial/Ethnic Identity Development and Acculturation and How It Affects Their Attitudes toward Professional Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbour, Edwanike C.

    2009-01-01

    After thirty years of racial/ethnic identity development (R/EID) studies, research has shown little other than how racial identity is a reflection of one's political affiliation with a racial group. Recent research has shown that R/EID of college students affects psychological well-being (Kwan & Sodowsky, 1997; Yoo & Lee, 2005). However, Black…

  9. The Role of Student Affairs Practitioners in Improving Campus Racial Climate: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karkouti, Ibrahim Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the racial conflict that occurred at the University of Michigan (UMI) earlier last year when Black students expressed their frustrations with the underrepresentation, racial discrimination and disparaging remarks against African Americans on campus (Jaschik, 2014). Because student affairs is the service most…

  10. White Racial Identity Development and Cross-Cultural Counselor Training: A Stage Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabnani, Haresh B.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Integrates work of cross-cultural counselor training development theorists, racial-identity development specialists, and cross-cultural counseling competency experts in formation of comprehensive multicultural training model for majority-group counselors. Reviews and integrates extant stage models of white racial consciousness, describes how…

  11. Speaking American: Comparing Supreme Court and Hollywood Racial Interpretation in the Early Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Paul Henry

    2010-01-01

    Apprehending that race is social, not biological, this study examines U.S. racial formation in the early twenty-first century. In particular, Hollywood and Supreme Court texts are analyzed as media for gathering, shaping and transmitting racial ideas. Representing Hollywood, the 2004 film "Crash" is analyzed. Representing the Supreme Court, the…

  12. Potential Mechanisms for Racial and Ethnic Differences in Antimüllerian Hormone and Ovarian Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Seifer, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that reproductive potential and function may be different across racial and ethnic groups. Racial differences have been demonstrated in pubertal timing, infertility, outcomes after assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment, and reproductive aging. Recently, racial differences have also been described in serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH), a sensitive biomarker of ovarian reserve, supporting the notion that ovarian reserve differs between racial/ethnic groups. The existence of such racial/ethnic differences in ovarian reserve, as reflected by AMH, may have important clinical implications for reproductive endocrinologists. However, the mechanisms which may underlie such racial differences in ovarian reserve are unclear. Various genetic factors and environmental factors such as obesity, smoking, and vitamin D deficiency which have been shown to correlate with serum AMH levels and also display significant racial/ethnic variations are discussed in this review. Improving our understanding of racial differences in ovarian reserve and their underlying causes may be essential for infertility treatment in minority women and lead to better reproductive planning, improved treatment outcomes, and timely interventions which may prolong reproductive lifespan in these women. PMID:24348557

  13. "Chinese-Mexicans" and "Blackest Asians": Filipino American Youth Resisting the Racial Binary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chutuape, Erica D.

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a deeper understanding of the interracial connections not just between non-whites and whites, but among non-whites. Filipino American youth attending high school in New York City contended with a dominant bipolar racial discourse that marginalizes the racialized experiences of Asians and Pacific Islanders. However, instead of…

  14. The Impact of Racial Socialization on the Academic Performance and Prosocial Involvement of Black Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Johnson, Rhonda L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence linking racial socialization processes to the functioning of Black youth, the effect of these parenting practices among Black college students is less clear. This study examined the relationship among racial socialization messages, academic performance, and prosocial involvement for 295 Black college students. Results revealed…

  15. Profiles of Racial Socialization among African American Parents: Correlates, Context, and Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Nettles, Saundra Murray; Lima, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Self report and observational data on racial socialization practices in a sample of 218 African American parents of young children were used to determine whether or not parents could be characterized in terms of their pattern of racial socialization practices. Parents fell into four groups: silence about race, emphasis on cultural socialization,…

  16. There Still Be Dragons: Racial Disparity in School Funding Is No Myth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Raegen; Epstein, Diana

    2011-01-01

    It's hard to debunk a myth that's not a myth, but Jason Richwine of the Heritage Foundation has given it a try in his recent backgrounder, "The Myth of Racial Disparities in Public School Financing." The report suggests that public education spending is broadly similar across racial and ethnic groups, and it has found a predictably receptive…

  17. Are Client-Counselor Ethnic/Racial Matches Associated with Successful Rehabilitation Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Harold Wayne; Venable, Riley; Broussard, Shanna

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if client-counselor ethnic/racial matches were associated with successful vocational rehabilitation (VR) outcomes. There was no significant difference in acceptance rates for VR services. Client-counselor ethnic/racial matches had a significantly higher rehabilitation rate than client-counselor…

  18. Racial identification modulates default network activity for same and other races.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Vani A; Harada, Tokiko; Chiao, Joan Y

    2012-08-01

    Racial identification shapes self-concept and how people share in and respond to the emotional states of others around them. Prior neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the role of the neural default network in self-referential and empathic processing. However, how racial identification affects neural processing of social information remains unknown. Here, we examined the effect of racial identification on neural response related to social perception among African American and Caucasian American individuals using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Our results demonstrate that degree of racial identification predicts activity within cortical midline structures of the default network in response to viewing racial ingroup, relative to outgroup members, and activity within the medial temporal lobe subsystem of the default network in response to viewing racial outgroup, relative to ingroup members. Broadly, our findings suggest that the strength of racial identification is associated with differential recruitment of neural and cognitive processes to understand and respond to other people within and outside of one's racial group. PMID:21618667

  19. Race, Context, and Privilege: White Adolescents' Explanations of Racial-Ethnic Centrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Charmaraman, Linda

    2009-01-01

    This mixed-methods exploratory study examined the diverse content and situated context of White adolescents' racial-ethnic identities. The sample consisted of 781 9th-12th grade White adolescents from three New England schools, which varied in racial and economic make-up. Open-ended responses provided a range of thematic categories regarding the…

  20. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Therapist Effectiveness: A Conceptualization and Initial Study of Cultural Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Zac E.; Baldwin, Scott; Atkins, David C.; Owen, Jesse; Baardseth, Tim; Wampold, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    As a result of mental health disparities between White and racial/ethnic minority clients, researchers have argued that some therapists may be generally competent to provide effective services but lack cultural competence. This distinction assumes that client racial/ethnic background is a source of variability in therapist effectiveness. However,…