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Sample records for racial health disparities

  1. RACIAL DISPARITIES IN HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Sternthal, Michelle J.; Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the widespread assumption that racial differences in stress exist and that stress is a key mediator linking racial status to poor health, relatively few studies have explicitly examined this premise. We examine the distribution of stress across racial groups and the role of stress vulnerability and exposure in explaining racial differences in health in a community sample of Black, Hispanic, and White adults, employing a modeling strategy that accounts for the correlation between types of stressors and the accumulation of stressors in the prediction of health outcomes. We find significant racial differences in overall and cumulative exposure to eight stress domains. Blacks exhibit a higher prevalence and greater clustering of high stress scores than Whites. American-born Hispanics show prevalence rates and patterns of accumulation of stressors comparable to Blacks, while foreign-born Hispanics have stress profiles similar to Whites. Multiple stressors correlate with poor physical and mental health, with financial and relationship stressors exhibiting the largest and most consistent effects. Though we find no support for the stress-vulnerability hypothesis, the stress-exposure hypothesis does account for some racial health disparities. We discuss implications for future research and policy.

  2. Do wealth disparities contribute to health disparities within racial/ethnic groups?

    PubMed

    Pollack, Craig Evan; Cubbin, Catherine; Sania, Ayesha; Hayward, Mark; Vallone, Donna; Flaherty, Brian; Braveman, Paula A

    2013-05-01

    Though wide disparities in wealth have been documented across racial/ethnic groups, it is largely unknown whether differences in wealth are associated with health disparities within racial/ethnic groups. Data from the Survey of Consumer Finances (2004, ages 25-64) and the Health and Retirement Survey (2004, ages 50+), containing a wide range of assets and debts variables, were used to calculate net worth (a standard measure of wealth). Among non-Hispanic black, Hispanic and non-Hispanic white populations, we tested whether wealth was associated with self-reported poor/fair health status after accounting for income and education. Except among the younger Hispanic population, net worth was significantly associated with poor/fair health status within each racial/ethnic group in both data sets. Adding net worth attenuated the association between education and poor/fair health (in all racial/ethnic groups) and between income and poor/fair health (except among older Hispanics). The results add to the literature indicating the importance of including measures of wealth in health research for what they may reveal about disparities not only between but also within different racial/ethnic groups.

  3. Reducing Racial Health Care Disparities: A Social Psychological Analysis.

    PubMed

    Penner, Louis A; Blair, Irene V; Albrecht, Terrance L; Dovidio, John F

    2014-10-01

    Large health disparities persist between Black and White Americans. The social psychology of intergroup relations suggests some solutions to health care disparities due to racial bias. Three paths can lead from racial bias to poorer health among Black Americans. First is the already well-documented physical and psychological toll of being a target of persistent discrimination. Second, implicit bias can affect physicians' perceptions and decisions, creating racial disparities in medical treatments, although evidence is mixed. The third path describes a less direct route: Physicians' implicit racial bias negatively affects communication and the patient-provider relationship, resulting in racial disparities in the outcomes of medical interactions. Strong evidence shows that physician implicit bias negatively affects Black patients' reactions to medical interactions, and there is good circumstantial evidence that these reactions affect health outcomes of the interactions. Solutions focused on the physician, the patient, and the health care delivery system; all agree that trying to ignore patients' race or to change physicians' implicit racial attitudes will not be effective and may actually be counterproductive. Instead, solutions can minimize the impact of racial bias on medical decisions and on patient-provider relationships.

  4. Reducing Racial Health Care Disparities: A Social Psychological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Penner, Louis A.; Blair, Irene V.; Albrecht, Terrance L.; Dovidio, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Large health disparities persist between Black and White Americans. The social psychology of intergroup relations suggests some solutions to health care disparities due to racial bias. Three paths can lead from racial bias to poorer health among Black Americans. First is the already well-documented physical and psychological toll of being a target of persistent discrimination. Second, implicit bias can affect physicians’ perceptions and decisions, creating racial disparities in medical treatments, although evidence is mixed. The third path describes a less direct route: Physicians’ implicit racial bias negatively affects communication and the patient–provider relationship, resulting in racial disparities in the outcomes of medical interactions. Strong evidence shows that physician implicit bias negatively affects Black patients’ reactions to medical interactions, and there is good circumstantial evidence that these reactions affect health outcomes of the interactions. Solutions focused on the physician, the patient, and the health care delivery system; all agree that trying to ignore patients’ race or to change physicians’ implicit racial attitudes will not be effective and may actually be counterproductive. Instead, solutions can minimize the impact of racial bias on medical decisions and on patient–provider relationships. PMID:25705721

  5. Racial residential segregation: a fundamental cause of racial disparities in health.

    PubMed

    Williams, D R; Collins, C

    2001-01-01

    Racial residential segregation is a fundamental cause of racial disparities in health. The physical separation of the races by enforced residence in certain areas is an institutional mechanism of racism that was designed to protect whites from social interaction with blacks. Despite the absence of supportive legal statutes, the degree of residential segregation remains extremely high for most African Americans in the United States. The authors review evidence that suggests that segregation is a primary cause of racial differences in socioeconomic status (SES) by determining access to education and employment opportunities. SES in turn remains a fundamental cause of racial differences in health. Segregation also creates conditions inimical to health in the social and physical environment. The authors conclude that effective efforts to eliminate racial disparities in health must seriously confront segregation and its pervasive consequences.

  6. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Men's Health: Examining Psychosocial Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tyson; Hargrove, Taylor W.; Griffith, Derek M.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses data from the Health and Retirement Study and an approach informed by the Biopsychosocial Model of Racism as a Stressor to examine the extent to which SES, stressors, discrimination and neighborhood conditions are mechanisms underlying racial/ethnic disparities in functional limitations among men. Results reveal that racial/ethnic differences in SES, stressors, discrimination and neighborhood conditions—individually and collectively—account for a substantial proportion of racial/ethnic disparities in functional limitations. Findings suggest that the social determinants of health for men of color need to be more seriously considered in investigations of and efforts to address health disparities. PMID:26291191

  7. Measuring Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Methods and Practical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Benjamin Lê; McGuire, Thomas G; Zaslavsky,, Alan M

    2012-01-01

    Objective To review methods of measuring racial/ethnic health care disparities. Study Design Identification and tracking of racial/ethnic disparities in health care will be advanced by application of a consistent definition and reliable empirical methods. We have proposed a definition of racial/ethnic health care disparities based in the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) Unequal Treatment report, which defines disparities as all differences except those due to clinical need and preferences. After briefly summarizing the strengths and critiques of this definition, we review methods that have been used to implement it. We discuss practical issues that arise during implementation and expand these methods to identify sources of disparities. We also situate the focus on methods to measure racial/ethnic health care disparities (an endeavor predominant in the United States) within a larger international literature in health outcomes and health care inequality. Empirical Application We compare different methods of implementing the IOM definition on measurement of disparities in any use of mental health care and mental health care expenditures using the 2004–2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Conclusion Disparities analysts should be aware of multiple methods available to measure disparities and their differing assumptions. We prefer a method concordant with the IOM definition. PMID:22353147

  8. Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities among People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magaña, Sandra; Parish, Susan; Morales, Miguel A.; Li, Henan; Fujiura, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Racial and ethnic health disparities are a pervasive public health problem. Emerging research finds similar health disparities among people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) compared to nondisabled adults. However, few studies have examined racial and ethnic health disparities among adults with IDD. Using national data, we…

  9. How criminal system racial disparities may translate into health disparities.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Martin Y; Bell, James; Ramchand, Rajeev N; Fain, Terry

    2005-11-01

    Disadvantaged racial and ethnic minorities in the U.S. are strikingly over-represented in the juvenile justice and adult criminal justice systems. This paper briefly reviews the extent of over-representation attributable primarily to drug offenses and an earlier conceptual framework introduced by Iguchi and colleagues showing how the use of incarceration as a key drug control tool has disproportionately affected the health and well being of racial and ethnic minority communities. We then provide observations from the field that demonstrate how the implementation of a quality assessment approach might be used to mitigate procedural/structural biases that contribute to disparities in minority confinement, and ultimately, to reduce disparities in access to resources and health care.

  10. Understanding and Addressing Racial Disparities in Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Rucker, Toni D.

    2000-01-01

    Racial disparities in medical care should be understood within the context of racial inequities in societal institutions. Systematic discrimination is not the aberrant behavior of a few but is often supported by institutional policies and unconscious bias based on negative stereotypes. Effectively addressing disparities in the quality of care requires improved data systems, increased regulatory vigilance, and new initiatives to appropriately train medical professionals and recruit more providers from disadvantaged minority backgrounds. Identifying and implementing effective strategies to eliminate racial inequities in health status and medical care should be made a national priority. PMID:11481746

  11. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the VA Health Care System: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Michele; Toure, Joahd; Tippens, Kimberly M.; Weeks, Christine; Ibrahim, Said

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To better understand the causes of racial disparities in health care, we reviewed and synthesized existing evidence related to disparities in the “equal access” Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system. Methods We systematically reviewed and synthesized evidence from studies comparing health care utilization and quality by race within the VA. Results Racial disparities in the VA exist across a wide range of clinical areas and service types. Disparities appear most prevalent for medication adherence and surgery and other invasive procedures, processes that are likely to be affected by the quantity and quality of patient–provider communication, shared decision making, and patient participation. Studies indicate a variety of likely root causes of disparities including: racial differences in patients’ medical knowledge and information sources, trust and skepticism, levels of participation in health care interactions and decisions, and social support and resources; clinician judgment/bias; the racial/cultural milieu of health care settings; and differences in the quality of care at facilities attended by different racial groups. Conclusions Existing evidence from the VA indicates several promising targets for interventions to reduce racial disparities in the quality of health care. PMID:18301951

  12. Psychiatrists' attitudes toward and awareness about racial disparities in mental health care.

    PubMed

    Mallinger, Julie B; Lamberti, J Steven

    2010-02-01

    Psychiatrists may perpetuate racial-ethnic disparities in health care through racially biased, albeit unconscious, behaviors. Changing these behaviors requires that physicians accept that racial-ethnic disparities exist and accept their own contributions to disparities. The purposes of this study were to assess psychiatrists' awareness of racial disparities in mental health care, to evaluate the extent to which psychiatrists believe they contribute to disparities, and to determine psychiatrists' interest in participating in disparities-reduction programs. A random sample of psychiatrists, identified through the American Psychiatric Association's member directory, was invited to complete the online survey. The survey was also distributed to psychiatrists at a national professional conference. Of the 374 respondents, most said they were not familiar or only a little familiar with the literature on racial disparities. Respondents tended to believe that race has a moderate influence on quality of psychiatric care but that race is more influential in others' practices than in their own practices. One-fourth had participated in any type of disparities-reduction program within the past year, and approximately one-half were interested in participating in such a program. Psychiatrists may not recognize the pervasiveness of racial inequality in psychiatric care, and they may attribute racially biased thinking to others but not to themselves. Interventions to eliminate racial-ethnic disparities should focus on revealing and modifying unconscious biases. Lack of physician interest may be one barrier to such interventions.

  13. Hospital consolidation and racial/income disparities in health insurance coverage.

    PubMed

    Town, Robert J; Wholey, Douglas R; Feldman, Roger D; Burns, Lawton R

    2007-01-01

    Non-Hispanic whites are significantly more likely to have health insurance coverage than most racial/ethnic minorities, and this differential grew during the 1990s. Similarly, wealthier Americans are more likely to have health insurance than the poor, and this difference also grew over the 1990s. This paper examines the role of provider competition in increasing these disparities in insurance coverage. Over the 1990s, the hospital industry consolidated; we analyze the impact of this consolidation on health insurance take-up for different racial/ethnic minorities and income groups. We found that the hospital consolidation wave increased health insurance disparities along racial and income dimensions.

  14. Using Decision Support to Address Racial Disparities in Mental Health Service Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawal, Purva H.; Anderson, Tanya R.; Romansky, Jill R.; Lyons, John S.

    2008-01-01

    Unfortunately, racial disparities are well documented in the delivery of behavioral health services. This study examines the effects of implementing a decision support process, integrating clinical information into the administration of mental health services, on racial disparities in psychiatric hospital admissions for children in state custody.…

  15. The Changing Landscape for the Elimination of Racial/Ethnic Health Status Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Bailus; Mays, Vickie M.; Warren, Rueben

    2013-01-01

    The elimination of racial/ethnic health status disparities is a compelling national health objective. It was etched in sharp relief by the 1985 report of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Secretary’s Task Force on Black and Minority Health and considerable attention has been devoted to the problem since that report. But the problem persists, disparities are not fully explained and effective policies to reduce them have been elusive, a situation presenting both opportunities and challenges. Important advances towards reducing racial/ethnic health disparities may be made by better understanding the complex bidirectional relationship between and among the multiple factors, biological and non-biological, influencing morbidity and mortality. The landscape in which these influences are felt is anything but static. In this paper selected components of the landscape that are critical to the elimination of racial/ethnic health status disparities are reviewed. These factors underscore the importance of adopting and maintaining a perspective on health disparities that encompasses a broad array of health determinants. PMID:15531810

  16. Trends in Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Access to Mental Health Care, 2004-2012.

    PubMed

    Cook, Benjamin Lê; Trinh, Nhi-Ha; Li, Zhihui; Hou, Sherry Shu-Yeu; Progovac, Ana M

    2017-01-01

    This study compared trends in racial-ethnic disparities in mental health care access among whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Asians by using the Institute of Medicine definition of disparities as all differences except those due to clinical appropriateness, clinical need, and patient preferences. Racial-ethnic disparities in mental health care access were examined by using data from a nationally representative sample of 214,597 adults from the 2004-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys. The main outcome measures included three mental health care access measures (use of any mental health care, any outpatient care, and any psychotropic medication in the past year). Significant disparities were found in 2004-2005 and in 2011-2012 for all three racial-ethnic minority groups compared with whites in all three measures of access. Between 2004 and 2012, black-white disparities in any mental health care and any psychotropic medication use increased, respectively, from 8.2% to 10.8% and from 7.6% to 10.0%. Similarly, Hispanic-white disparities in any mental health care and any psychotropic medication use increased, respectively, from 8.4% to 10.9% and 7.3% to 10.3%. No reductions in racial-ethnic disparities in access to mental health care were identified between 2004 and 2012. For blacks and Hispanics, disparities were exacerbated over this period. Clinical interventions that improve identification of symptoms of mental illness, expansion of health insurance, and other policy interventions that remove financial barriers to access may help to reduce these disparities.

  17. Review of State Legislative Approaches to Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 2002–2011

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Keshia; Rutkow, Lainie

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a legal mapping study of state bills related to racial/ethnic health disparities in all 50 states between 2002 and 2011. Forty-five states introduced at least 1 bill that specifically targeted racial/ethnic health disparities; we analyzed 607 total bills. Of these 607 bills, 330 were passed into law (54.4%). These bills approached eliminating racial/ethnic health disparities by developing governmental infrastructure, providing appropriations, and focusing on specific diseases and data collection. In addition, states tackled emerging topics that were previously lacking laws, particularly Hispanic health. Legislation is an important policy tool for states to advance the elimination of racial/ethnic health disparities. PMID:25905834

  18. Defining cultural competence: a practical framework for addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Joseph R; Green, Alexander R; Carrillo, J Emilio; Ananeh-Firempong, Owusu

    2003-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in health in the U.S. have been well described. The field of "cultural competence" has emerged as one strategy to address these disparities. Based on a review of the relevant literature, the authors develop a definition of cultural competence, identify key components for intervention, and describe a practical framework for implementation of measures to address racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. The authors conducted a literature review of academic, foundation, and government publications focusing on sociocultural barriers to care, the level of the health care system at which a given barrier occurs, and cultural competence efforts that address these barriers. Sociocultural barriers to care were identified at the organizational (leadership/workforce), structural (processes of care), and clinical (provider-patient encounter) levels. A framework of cultural competence interventions--including minority recruitment into the health professions, development of interpreter services and language-appropriate health educational materials, and provider education on cross-cultural issues--emerged to categorize strategies to address racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. Demographic changes anticipated over the next decade magnify the importance of addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. A framework of organizational, structural, and clinical cultural competence interventions can facilitate the elimination of these disparities and improve care for all Americans.

  19. Engagement of health plans and employers in addressing racial and ethnic disparities in health care.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Meredith B; Landon, Bruce E; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Ahmad, Thaniyyah S; Epstein, Arnold M

    2009-04-01

    Disparities in access to and quality of health care along racial and ethnic lines are an important national problem. Health care purchasers and payers have a potentially important role to play in alleviating this problem. Using national surveys of 609 employers and 252 health plans with HMO products in 41 U.S. markets, we examined awareness of racial and ethnic disparities in health care access and quality, perceptions of employer and health plan role in addressing disparities, and reported efforts to measure and reduce disparities. Our findings suggest that most health plans and many employers are aware of the existence of substantial disparities and that health plans, but not employers, have taken steps to examine and influence patterns of care by race and ethnicity among their members.

  20. Beyond Individual Neighborhoods: A Geography of Opportunity Perspective for Understanding Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Osypuk, Theresa L.; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    There has been insufficient attention to how and why place and neighborhood context contribute to racial/ethnic health disparities, as well as to policies that can eliminate racial/ethnic health disparities. This article uses a geography of opportunity framework to highlight methodological issues specific for quantitative research examining neighborhoods and racial/ethnic health disparities, including study design, measurement, causation, interpretation, and implications for policy. We argue that failure to consider regional, racialized housing market processes given high US racial residential segregation may introduce bias, restrict generalizability, and/or limit the policy relevance of study findings. We conclude that policies must address the larger geography of opportunity within the region in addition to improving deprived neighborhoods. PMID:20705500

  1. Defining cultural competence: a practical framework for addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care.

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Joseph R.; Green, Alexander R.; Carrillo, J. Emilio; Ananeh-Firempong, Owusu

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Racial/ethnic disparities in health in the U.S. have been well described. The field of "cultural competence" has emerged as one strategy to address these disparities. Based on a review of the relevant literature, the authors develop a definition of cultural competence, identify key components for intervention, and describe a practical framework for implementation of measures to address racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. METHODS: The authors conducted a literature review of academic, foundation, and government publications focusing on sociocultural barriers to care, the level of the health care system at which a given barrier occurs, and cultural competence efforts that address these barriers. RESULTS: Sociocultural barriers to care were identified at the organizational (leadership/workforce), structural (processes of care), and clinical (provider-patient encounter) levels. A framework of cultural competence interventions--including minority recruitment into the health professions, development of interpreter services and language-appropriate health educational materials, and provider education on cross-cultural issues--emerged to categorize strategies to address racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. CONCLUSIONS: Demographic changes anticipated over the next decade magnify the importance of addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. A framework of organizational, structural, and clinical cultural competence interventions can facilitate the elimination of these disparities and improve care for all Americans. PMID:12815076

  2. Can Racial Disparity in Health between Black and White Americans Be Attributed to Racial Disparities in Body Weight and Socioeconomic Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahng, Sang Kyoung

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined to what extent racial disparities in chronic health conditions (CHCs) are attributable to racial differences in body weight (measured as body mass index [BMI]) and socioeconomic status (SES) among older adults. To address this gap, using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, the current study examined…

  3. The Role of High Schools in Addressing Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities: A Mixed-Methods Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payton, Erica; Price, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Racial/ethnic health disparities start early in life and become exacerbated throughout the life cycle. Schools have the opportunity to reduce the severity of disparities. The purpose of this study was to examine whether journals in school health cover racial/ethnic health disparities and to identify what leading authorities in school health…

  4. Health Benefits Mandates and Their Potential Impacts on Racial/Ethnic Group Disparities in Insurance Markets.

    PubMed

    Charles, Shana Alex; Ponce, Ninez; Ritley, Dominique; Guendelman, Sylvia; Kempster, Jennifer; Lewis, John; Melnikow, Joy

    2017-08-01

    Addressing racial/ethnic group disparities in health insurance benefits through legislative mandates requires attention to the different proportions of racial/ethnic groups among insurance markets. This necessary baseline data, however, has proven difficult to measure. We applied racial/ethnic data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey to the 2012 California Health Benefits Review Program Cost and Coverage Model to determine the racial/ethnic composition of ten health insurance market segments. We found disproportional representation of racial/ethnic groups by segment, thus affecting the health insurance impacts of benefit mandates. California's Medicaid program is disproportionately Latino (60 % in Medi-Cal, compared to 39 % for the entire population), and the individual insurance market is disproportionately non-Latino white. Gender differences also exist. Mandates could unintentionally increase insurance coverage racial/ethnic disparities. Policymakers should consider the distribution of existing racial/ethnic disparities as criteria for legislative action on benefit mandates across health insurance markets.

  5. Effect of Medicaid Managed Care on racial disparities in health care access.

    PubMed

    Cook, Benjamin Lê

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of Medicaid Managed Care (MMC) on racial disparities in access to care consistent with the Institute of Medicine (IOM) definition of racial disparity, which excludes differences stemming from health status but includes socioeconomic status (SES)-mediated differences. Secondary data from the Adult Samples of the 1997-2001 National Health Interview Survey, metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level Medicaid Health Maintenance Organization (MHMO) market share from the 1997 to 2001 InterStudy MSA Trend Dataset, and MSA characteristics from the 1997 to 2001 Area Resource File. I estimate multivariate regression models to compare racial disparities in doctor visits, emergency room (ER) use, and having a usual source of care between enrollees in MMC and Medicaid Fee-for-Service (FFS) plans. To contend with potential selection bias, I use a difference-in-difference analytical strategy and assess the impact of greater MHMO market share at the MSA level on Medicaid enrollees' access measures. To implement the IOM definition of racial disparity, I adjust for health status but not SES factors using a novel method to transform the distribution of health status for minority populations to approximate the white health status distribution. MMC enrollment is associated with lowered disparities in having any doctor visit in the last year for blacks, and in having any usual source of care for both blacks and Hispanics. Increasing Medicaid HMO market share lowered disparities in having any doctor visits in the last year for both blacks and Hispanics. Although disparities in most other measures were not much affected, black-white ER use disparities exist among MMC enrollees and in areas of high MHMO market share. MMC programs' reduction of some disparities suggests that recent shifts in Medicaid policy toward managed care plans have benefited minority enrollees. Future research should investigate whether black-white disparities in ER use within MMC groups

  6. Removing Obstacles To Eliminate Racial And Ethnic Disparities In Behavioral Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Alegría, Margarita; Alvarez, Kiara; Ishikawa, Rachel Zack; DiMarzio, Karissa; McPeck, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of research, racial and ethnic disparities in behavioral health care persist. The Affordable Care Act expanded access to behavioral health care, but many reform initiatives fail to consider research about racial/ethnic minorities. Mistaken assumptions that underlie the expansion of behavioral health care risk replicating existing service disparities. Based on a review of relevant literature and numerous observational and field studies with minority populations, we identified the following three mistaken assumptions: improvement in health care access alone will reduce disparities, current service planning addresses minority patients’ preferences, and evidence-based interventions are readily available for diverse populations. We propose tailoring the provision of care to remove obstacles that minority patients face in accessing treatment, promoting innovative services that respond to patient needs and preferences, and allowing flexibility in evidence-based practice and the expansion of the behavioral health workforce. These proposals should help meet the health care needs of a growing racial/ethnic minority population. PMID:27269014

  7. Racial Healthcare Disparities: A Social Psychological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Penner, Louis A.; Hagiwara, Nao; Eggly, Susan; Gaertner, Samuel L.; Albrecht, Terrance L.; Dovidio, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Around the world, members of racial/ethnic minority groups typically experience poorer health than members of racial/ethnic majority groups. The core premise of this article is that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors related to race and ethnicity play a critical role in healthcare disparities. Social psychological theories of the origins and consequences of these thoughts, feelings, and behaviors offer critical insights into the processes responsible for these disparities and suggest interventions to address them. We present a multilevel model that explains how societal, intrapersonal, and interpersonal factors can influence ethnic/racial health disparities. We focus our literature review, including our own research, and conceptual analysis at the intrapersonal (the race-related thoughts and feelings of minority patients and non-minority physicians) and interpersonal levels (intergroup processes that affect medical interactions between minority patients and non-minority physicians). At both levels of analysis, we use theories of social categorization, social identity, contemporary forms of racial bias, stereotype activation, stigma, and other social psychological processes to identify and understand potential causes and processes of health and healthcare disparities. In the final section, we identify theory-based interventions that might reduce ethnic/racial disparities in health and healthcare. PMID:25197206

  8. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in the Use of Mental Health Services in Poverty Areas

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Julian Chun-Chung; Jaffee, Kim; Snowden, Lonnie

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined racial/ethnic disparities in mental health service access and use at different poverty levels. Methods. We compared demographic and clinical characteristics and service use patterns of Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians living in low-poverty and high-poverty areas. Logistic regression models were used to assess service use patterns of minority racial/ethnic groups compared with Whites in different poverty areas. Results. Residence in a poverty neighborhood moderates the relationship between race/ethnicity and mental health service access and use. Disparities in using emergency and inpatient services and having coercive referrals were more evident in low-poverty than in high-poverty areas. Conclusions. Neighborhood poverty is a key to understanding racial/ethnic disparities in the use of mental health services. PMID:12721146

  9. Racial/ethnic disparities in the use of mental health services in poverty areas.

    PubMed

    Chow, Julian Chun-Chung; Jaffee, Kim; Snowden, Lonnie

    2003-05-01

    This study examined racial/ethnic disparities in mental health service access and use at different poverty levels. We compared demographic and clinical characteristics and service use patterns of Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians living in low-poverty and high-poverty areas. Logistic regression models were used to assess service use patterns of minority racial/ethnic groups compared with Whites in different poverty areas. Residence in a poverty neighborhood moderates the relationship between race/ethnicity and mental health service access and use. Disparities in using emergency and inpatient services and having coercive referrals were more evident in low-poverty than in high-poverty areas. Neighborhood poverty is a key to understanding racial/ethnic disparities in the use of mental health services.

  10. Removing Obstacles To Eliminating Racial And Ethnic Disparities In Behavioral Health Care.

    PubMed

    Alegría, Margarita; Alvarez, Kiara; Ishikawa, Rachel Zack; DiMarzio, Karissa; McPeck, Samantha

    2016-06-01

    Despite decades of research, racial and ethnic disparities in behavioral health care persist. The Affordable Care Act expanded access to behavioral health care, but many reform initiatives fail to consider research about racial/ethnic minorities. Mistaken assumptions that underlie the expansion of behavioral health care run the risk of replicating existing service disparities. Based on a review of relevant literature and numerous observational and field studies with minority populations, we identified the following three mistaken assumptions: Improvement in health care access alone will reduce disparities, current service planning addresses minority patients' preferences, and evidence-based interventions are readily available for diverse populations. We propose tailoring the provision of care to remove obstacles that minority patients face in accessing treatment, promoting innovative services that respond to patients' needs and preferences, and allowing flexibility in evidence-based practice and the expansion of the behavioral health workforce. These proposals should help meet the health care needs of a growing racial/ethnic minority population. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  11. Explaining Racial Disparities in Infant Health in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nyarko, Kwame A.; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to quantify how socioeconomic, health care, demographic, and geographic effects explain racial disparities in low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) rates in Brazil. Methods. We employed a sample of 8949 infants born between 1995 and 2009 in 15 cities and 7 provinces in Brazil. We focused on disparities in LBW (< 2500 g) and PTB (< 37 gestational weeks) prevalence between infants of African ancestry alone or African mixed with other ancestries, and European ancestry alone. We used a decomposition model to quantify the contributions of conceptually relevant factors to these disparities. Results. The model explained 45% to 94% of LBW and 64% to 94% of PTB disparities between the African ancestry groups and European ancestry. Differences in prenatal care use and geographic location were the most important contributors, followed by socioeconomic differences. The model explained the majority of the disparities for mixed African ancestry and part of the disparity for African ancestry alone. Conclusions. Public policies to improve children’s health should target prenatal care and geographic location differences to reduce health disparities between infants of African and European ancestries in Brazil. PMID:26313046

  12. Explaining Racial Disparities in Infant Health in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nyarko, Kwame A.; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to quantify how socioeconomic, health care, demographic, and geographic effects explain racial disparities in low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) rates in Brazil. Methods. We employed a sample of 8949 infants born between 1995 and 2009 in 15 cities and 7 provinces in Brazil. We focused on disparities in LBW (< 2500 g) and PTB (< 37 gestational weeks) prevalence between infants of African ancestry alone or African mixed with other ancestries, and European ancestry alone. We used a decomposition model to quantify the contributions of conceptually relevant factors to these disparities. Results. The model explained 45% to 94% of LBW and 64% to 94% of PTB disparities between the African ancestry groups and European ancestry. Differences in prenatal care use and geographic location were the most important contributors, followed by socioeconomic differences. The model explained the majority of the disparities for mixed African ancestry and part of the disparity for African ancestry alone. Conclusions. Public policies to improve children’s health should target prenatal care and geographic location differences to reduce health disparities between infants of African and European ancestries in Brazil. PMID:23409894

  13. Health insurance coverage and racial disparities in breast reconstruction after mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Shippee, Tetyana P; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Rowan, Kathleen; Virnig, Beth A

    2014-01-01

    Breast reconstruction after mastectomy offers clinical, cosmetic, and psychological benefits compared with mastectomy alone. Although reconstruction rates have increased, racial/ethnic disparities in breast reconstruction persist. Insurance coverage facilitates access to care, but few studies have examined whether health insurance ameliorates disparities. We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 2002 through 2006 to examine the relationships between health insurance coverage, race/ethnicity, and breast reconstruction rates among women who underwent mastectomy for breast cancer. We examined reconstruction rates as a function of the interaction of race and the primary payer (self-pay, private health insurance, government) while controlling for patient comorbidity, and we used generalized estimating equations to account for clustering and hospital characteristics. Minority women had lower breast reconstruction rates than White women (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.57 for African American; AOR, 0.70 for Hispanic; AOR, 0.45 for Asian; p < .001). Uninsured women (AOR, 0.33) and those with public coverage were less likely to undergo reconstruction (AOR, 0.35; p < .001) than privately insured women. Racial/ethnic disparities were less prominent within insurance types. Minority women, whether privately or publicly insured, had lower odds of undergoing reconstruction than White women. Among those without insurance, reconstruction rates did not differ by race/ethnicity. Insurance facilitates access to care, but does not eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in reconstruction rates. Our findings-which reveal persistent health care disparities not explained by patient health status-should prompt efforts to promote both access to and use of beneficial covered services for women with breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The costs and benefits of reducing racial-ethnic disparities in mental health care.

    PubMed

    Cook, Benjamin Lê; Liu, Zimin; Lessios, Anna Sophia; Loder, Stephen; McGuire, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have found that timely mental health treatment can result in savings in both mental health and general medical care expenditures. This study examined whether reducing racial-ethnic disparities in mental health care offsets costs of care. Data were from a subsample of 6,206 individuals with probable mental illness from the 2004-2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). First, disparities in mental health treatment were analyzed. Second, two-year panel data were used to determine the offset of year 1 mental health outpatient and pharmacy treatment on year 2 mental and general medical expenditures. Third, savings were estimated by combining results from steps 1 and 2. Compared with whites, blacks and Latinos with year 1 outpatient mental health care spent less on inpatient and emergency general medical care in year 2. Latinos receiving mental health care in year 1 spent less than others on inpatient general medical care in year 2. Latinos taking psychotropic drugs in year 1 showed reductions in inpatient general medical care. Reducing racial-ethnic disparities in mental health care and in psychotropic drug use led to savings in acute medical care expenditures. Savings in acute care expenditures resulting from eliminating disparities in racial-ethnic mental health care access were greater than costs in some but not all areas of acute mental health and general medical care. For blacks and Latinos, the potential savings from eliminating disparities in inpatient general medical expenditures are substantial (as much as $1 billion nationwide), suggesting that financial and equity considerations can be aligned when planning disparity reduction programs.

  15. Paved With Good Intentions: Do Public Health and Human Service Providers Contribute to Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Health?

    PubMed Central

    van Ryn, Michelle; Fu, Steven S.

    2003-01-01

    There is extensive evidence of racial/ethnic disparities in receipt of health care. The potential contribution of provider behavior to such disparities has remained largely unexplored. Do health and human service providers behave in ways that contribute to systematic inequities in care and outcomes? If so, why does this occur? The authors build on existing evidence to provide an integrated, coherent, and sound approach to research on providers’ contributions to racial/ethnic disparities. They review the evidence regarding provider contributions to disparities in outcomes and describe a causal model representing an integrated set of hypothesized mechanisms through which health care providers’ behaviors may contribute to these disparities. PMID:12554578

  16. Paved with good intentions: do public health and human service providers contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in health?

    PubMed

    van Ryn, Michelle; Fu, Steven S

    2003-02-01

    There is extensive evidence of racial/ethnic disparities in receipt of health care. The potential contribution of provider behavior to such disparities has remained largely unexplored. Do health and human service providers behave in ways that contribute to systematic inequities in care and outcomes? If so, why does this occur? The authors build on existing evidence to provide an integrated, coherent, and sound approach to research on providers' contributions to racial/ethnic disparities. They review the evidence regarding provider contributions to disparities in outcomes and describe a causal model representing an integrated set of hypothesized mechanisms through which health care providers' behaviors may contribute to these disparities.

  17. Examining racial disparities in colorectal cancer care.

    PubMed

    Berry, Jamillah; Bumpers, Kevin; Ogunlade, Vickie; Glover, Roni; Davis, Sharon; Counts-Spriggs, Margaret; Kauh, John; Flowers, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately burdened with colorectal cancer. Although incidence and mortality rates have declined in the past two decades, the disparity in health outcomes has progressively increased. This comprehensive review examines the existing literature regarding racial disparities in colorectal cancer screening, stage at diagnosis, and treatment to determine if differences exist in the quality of care delivered to African Americans. A comprehensive review of relevant literature was performed. Two databases (EBSCOHOST Academic Search Premier and Scopus) were searched from 2000 to 2007. Articles that assessed racial disparities in colorectal cancer screening, stage of disease at diagnosis, and treatment were selected. The majority of studies identified examined colorectal cancer screening outcomes. Although racial disparities in screening have diminished in recent years, African American men and women continue to have higher colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates and are diagnosed at more advanced stages. Several studies regarding stage of disease at diagnosis identified socioeconomic status (SES) and health insurance status as major determinants of disparity. However, some studies found significant racial disparities even after controlling for these factors. Racial disparities in treatment were also found at various diagnostic stages. Many factors affecting disparities between African Americans and Whites in colorectal cancer incidence and mortality remain unexplained. Although the importance of tumor biology, genetics, and lifestyle risk factors have been established, prime sociodemographic factors need further examination to understand variances in the care of African Americans diagnosed with colorectal cancer.

  18. Racial disparities in self-rated health: Trends, explanatory factors, and the changing role of socio-demographics

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Audrey N.; Finch, Brian K.; Lin, Shih-Fan; Hummer, Robert A.; Masters, Ryan K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses data from the U.S. National Health Interview Surveys (N = 1,513,097) to describe and explain temporal patterns in black-white health disparities with models that simultaneously consider the unique effects of age, period, and cohort. First, we employ cross-classified random effects age–period–cohort (APC) models to document black-white disparities in self-rated health across temporal dimensions. Second, we use decomposition techniques to shed light on the extent to which socio-economic shifts in cohort composition explain the age and period adjusted racial health disparities across successive birth cohorts. Third, we examine the extent to which exogenous conditions at the time of birth help explain the racial disparities across successive cohorts. Results show that black-white disparities are wider among the pre-1935 cohorts for women, falling thereafter; disparities for men exhibit a similar pattern but exhibit narrowing among cohorts born earlier in the century. Differences in socioeconomic composition consistently contribute to racial health disparities across cohorts; notably, marital status differences by race emerge as an increasingly important explanatory factor in more recent cohorts for women whereas employment differences by race emerge as increasingly salient in more recent cohorts for men. Finally, our cohort characteristics models suggest that cohort economic conditions at the time of birth (percent large family, farm or Southern birth) help explain racial disparities in health for both men and women. PMID:24581075

  19. Addressing Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: Using Federal Data to Support Local Programs to Eliminate Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Sequist, Thomas D; Schneider, Eric C

    2006-01-01

    To reduce racial and ethnic disparities in health care, managers, policy makers, and researchers need valid and reliable data on the race and ethnicity of individuals and populations. The federal government is one of the most important sources of such data. In this paper we review the strengths and weaknesses of federal data that pertain to racial and ethnic disparities in health care. We describe recent developments that are likely to influence how these data can be used in the future and discuss how local programs could make use of these data. PMID:16899018

  20. Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities and the Affordable Care Act: a Status Update

    PubMed Central

    Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Vickers, Jasmine; Elam, Angela; Wilson, M. Roy

    2015-01-01

    Persistent racial and ethnic health disparities exist in the USA, despite decades of research and public health initiatives. Several factors contribute to health disparities, including (but not limited to) implicit provider bias, access to health care, social determinants, and biological factors. Disparities in health by race/ethnicity are unacceptable and correctable. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is a comprehensive legislation that is focused on improving health care access, quality, and cost control. This health care reform includes specific provisions which focus on preventive care, the standardized collection of data on race, ethnicity, primary language and disability status, and health information technology. Although some provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act have not been implemented, such as funding for the U.S. Public Health Sciences track, which would have addressed the shortage of medical professionals in the USA who are trained to use patient-centered, interdisciplinary, and care coordination approaches, this legislation is still poised to make great strides toward eliminating health disparities. The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight the unprecedented opportunities that exist for the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in health in the USA. PMID:26668787

  1. Racial Ethnic Health Disparities: A Phenomenological Exploration of African American with Diabetes Complications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okombo, Florence A.

    2017-01-01

    Racial/ethnic minority groups experience a higher mortality rate, a lower life expectancy, and worse mental health outcomes than non-Hispanic in the United States. There is a scarcity of qualitative studies on racial/ethnic health disparities. The purpose of this hermeneutic phenomenological study was to explore the personal experiences,…

  2. An Examination of Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Children’s Oral Health in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fisher-Owens, Susan A.; Isong, Inyang A.; Soobader, Mah-J; Gansky, Stuart A.; Weintraub, Jane A.; Platt, Larry J.; Newacheck, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Assess the extent apparent racial/ethnic disparities in children’s oral health and oral health care are explained by factors other than race/ethnicity. Data Source 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health, for children 2–17 years (N=82,020). Outcomes included parental reports of child’s oral health status, receipt of preventive dental care, and delayed dental care/unmet need. Model-based survey data analysis examined racial/ethnic disparities, controlling for other child, family, and community/state (contextual) factors. Results Unadjusted results show large oral health disparities by race/ethnicity. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics and non-Hispanic Blacks were markedly more likely to be reported in only fair/poor oral health (odds ratios (ORs) [95% confidence intervals] 4.3 [4.0–4.6], 2.2 [2.0–2.4], respectively), lack preventive care (ORs 1.9 [1.8–2.0], 1.4 [1.3–1.5]), and experience delayed care/unmet need (ORs 1.5 [1.3–1.7], 1.4 [1.3–1.5]). Adjusting for child, family, and community/state factors reduced or eliminated racial/ethnic disparities. Adjusted ORs (AORs) for Hispanics and non-Hispanic Blacks attenuated for fair/poor oral health, to 1.6 [1.5–1.8] and 1.2 [1.1–1.4], respectively. Adjustment eliminated disparities in each group for lacking preventive care (AORs 1.0 [0.9–1.1], 1.1 [1.1–1.2]), and in Hispanics for delayed care/unmet need (AOR 1.0). Among non-Hispanic Blacks, adjustment reversed the disparity for delayed care/unmet need (AOR 0.6 [0.6–0.7]). Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in children’s oral health status and access were found to be attributable largely to determinants such as socioeconomic and health insurance factors. Efforts to decrease disparities may be more efficacious if targeted at the social, economic, and other factors associated with minority racial/ethnic status, and may also have collateral positive effects on sectors of the majority population who share similar social

  3. Awareness of Racial Disparities in Kidney Transplantation among Health Care Providers in Dialysis Facilities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joyce J; Basu, Mohua; Plantinga, Laura; Pastan, Stephen O; Mohan, Sumit; Smith, Kayla; Melanson, Taylor; Escoffery, Cam; Patzer, Rachel E

    2018-05-07

    Despite the important role that health care providers at dialysis facilities have in reducing racial disparities in access to kidney transplantation in the United States, little is known about provider awareness of these disparities. We aimed to evaluate health care providers' awareness of racial disparities in kidney transplant waitlisting and identify factors associated with awareness. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a survey of providers from low-waitlisting dialysis facilities ( n =655) across all 18 ESRD networks administered in 2016 in the United States merged with 2014 US Renal Data System and 2014 US Census data. Awareness of national racial disparity in waitlisting was defined as responding "yes" to the question: "Nationally, do you think that African Americans currently have lower waitlisting rates than white patients on average?" The secondary outcome was providers' perceptions of racial difference in waitlisting at their own facilities. Among 655 providers surveyed, 19% were aware of the national racial disparity in waitlisting: 50% (57 of 113) of medical directors, 11% (35 of 327) of nurse managers, and 16% (35 of 215) of other providers. In analyses adjusted for provider and facility characteristics, nurse managers (versus medical directors; odds ratio, 7.33; 95% confidence interval, 3.35 to 16.0) and white providers (versus black providers; odds ratio, 2.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.39 to 5.02) were more likely to be unaware of a national racial disparity in waitlisting. Facilities in the South (versus the Northeast; odds ratio, 3.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 8.94) and facilities with a low percentage of blacks (versus a high percentage of blacks; odds ratio, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 3.39) were more likely to be unaware. One quarter of facilities had >5% racial difference in waitlisting within their own facilities, but only 5% were aware of the disparity. Among a limited sample of dialysis facilities with low

  4. Racial Discrimination and Ethnic Disparities in Sleep Disturbance: the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Paine, Sarah-Jane; Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Research on the relationship between racial discrimination and sleep is limited. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the independent relationship between ethnicity, sex, age, socioeconomic position, experience of racial discrimination and self-reported sleep disturbances, and (2) determine the statistical contribution of experience of racial discrimination to ethnic disparities in sleep disturbances. Methods: The study used data from the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey, a nationally-representative, population-based survey of New Zealand adults (≥ 15 years). The sample included 4,108 self-identified Māori (indigenous New Zealanders) and 6,261 European adults. Outcome variables were difficulty falling asleep, frequent nocturnal awakenings, and early morning awakenings. Experiences of racial discrimination across five domains were used to assess overall racial discrimination “ever” and the level of exposure to racial discrimination. Socioeconomic position was measured using neighborhood deprivation, education, and equivalized household income. Results: Māori had a higher prevalence of each sleep disturbance item than Europeans. Reported experiences of racial discrimination were independently associated with each sleep disturbance item, adjusted for ethnicity, sex, age group, and socioeconomic position. Sequential logistic regression models showed that racial discrimination and socioeconomic position explained most of the disparity in difficulty falling asleep and frequent nocturnal awakening between Māori and Europeans; however, ethnic differences in early morning awakenings remained. Conclusions: Racial discrimination may play an important role in ethnic disparities in sleep disturbances in New Zealand. Activities to improve the sleep health of non-dominant ethnic groups should consider the potentially multifarious ways in which racial discrimination can disturb sleep. Citation: Paine SJ, Harris R, Cormack D, Stanley J. Racial

  5. Racial and ethnic disparities in antidepressant drug use.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Rizzo, John A

    2008-12-01

    Little is known about racial and ethnic disparities in health care utilization, expenditures and drug choice in the antidepressant market. This study investigates factors associated with the racial and ethnic disparities in antidepressant drug use. We seek to determine the extent to which disparities reflect differences in observable population characteristics versus heterogeneity across racial and ethnic groups. Among the population characteristics, we are interested in identifying which factors are most important in accounting for racial and ethnic disparities in antidepressant drug use. Using Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data from 1996-2003, we have an available sample of 10,416 Caucasian, 1,089 African American and 1,539 Hispanic antidepressant drug users aged 18 to 64 years. We estimate individual out-of-pocket payments, total prescription drug expenditures, drug utilization, the probability of taking generic versus brand name antidepressants, and the share of drugs that are older types of antidepressants (e.g., TCAs and MAOIs) for these individuals during a calendar year. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition techniques are employed to determine the extent to which disparities reflect differences in observable population characteristics versus unobserved heterogeneity across racial and ethnic groups. Caucasians have the highest antidepressant drug expenditures and utilization. African-Americans have the lowest drug expenditures and Hispanics have the lowest drug utilization. Relative to Caucasians and Hispanics, African-Americans are more likely to purchase generics and use a higher share of older drugs (e.g., TCAs and MAOIs). Differences in observable characteristics explain most of the racial/ethnic differences in these outcomes, with the exception of drug utilization. Differences in health insurance and education levels are particularly important factors in explaining disparities. In contrast, differences in drug utilization largely reflect unobserved

  6. Racial, Income, and Marital Status Disparities in Hospital Readmissions Within a Veterans-Integrated Health Care Network.

    PubMed

    Moore, Crystal Dea; Gao, Kelly; Shulan, Mollie

    2015-12-01

    Hospital readmission is an important indicator of health care quality and currently used in determining hospital reimbursement rates by Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Given the important policy implications, a better understanding of factors that influence readmission rates is needed. Racial disparities in readmission have been extensively studied, but income and marital status (a postdischarge care support indicator) disparities have received limited attention. By employing three Poisson regression models controlling for different confounders on 8,718 patients in a veterans-integrated health care network, this study assessed racial, income, and martial disparities in relation to total number of readmissions. In contrast to other studies, no racial and income disparities were found, but unmarried patients experienced significantly more readmissions: 16%, after controlling for the confounders. These findings render unique insight into health care policies aimed to improve race and income disparities, while challenging policy makers to reduce readmissions for those who lack family support. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Racializing drug design: implications of pharmacogenomics for health disparities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin

    2005-12-01

    Current practices of using "race" in pharmacogenomics research demands consideration of the ethical and social implications for understandings of group difference and for efforts to eliminate health disparities. This discussion focuses on an "infrastructure of racialization" created by current trajectories of research on genetic differences among racially identified groups, the use of race as a proxy for risk in clinical practice, and increasing interest in new market niches by the pharmaceutical industry. The confluence of these factors has resulted in the conflation of genes, disease, and race. I argue that public investment in pharmacogenomics requires careful consideration of current inequities in health status and social and ethical concerns over reifying race and issues of distributive justice.

  8. Racial and ethnic health disparities: evidence of discrimination's effects across the SEP spectrum.

    PubMed

    D'Anna, Laura Hoyt; Ponce, Ninez A; Siegel, Judith M

    2010-04-01

    Perceived discrimination is a psychosocial stressor that plays a role in explaining racial/ethnic disparities in self-reported physical and mental health. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to investigate the association between perceived discrimination in receiving healthcare and racial/ethnic disparities in self-rated health status, physical, and emotional functional limitations among a diverse sample of California adults; (2) to assess whether discrimination effects vary by racial/ethnic group and gender; and (3) to evaluate how the effects of discrimination on health are manifest across the socioeconomic position (SEP) spectrum. Data were drawn from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey adult file (n=55,428). The analytic approach employed multivariate linear and logistic regressions. Discrimination is qualitatively identified into two types: (1) discrimination due to race/ethnicity, language, or accent, and (2) other discrimination. Findings show that both types of discrimination negatively influenced self-rated health, and were associated with a two to three-fold odds of limitations in physical and emotional health. Further, these effects varied by racial/ethnic group and gender, and the effects were mixed. Most notably, for emotional health, racial/ethnic discrimination penalized Latinas more than non-Latina Whites, but for physical health, other discrimination was less detrimental to Latinas than it was to non-Latina Whites. At higher levels of SEP, the effects of racial/ethnic discrimination on self-rated health and other discriminations' effects on physical health were attenuated. Higher SEP may serve as an important mitigator, particularly when comparing the medium to the low SEP categories. It is also possible that SEP effects cannot be extracted from the relationships of interest in that SEP is an expression of social discrimination. In fact, negative health effects associated with discrimination are evident across the SEP spectrum. This study

  9. Mortality Disparities in Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups in the Veterans Health Administration: An Evidence Review and Map

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Johanna; Boundy, Erin; Ferguson, Lauren; McCleery, Ellen; Waldrip, Kallie

    2018-01-01

    Background. Continued racial/ethnic health disparities were recently described as “the most serious and shameful health care issue of our time.” Although the 2014 US Affordable Care Act–mandated national insurance coverage expansion has led to significant improvements in health care coverage and access, its effects on life expectancy are not yet known. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA), the largest US integrated health care system, has a sustained commitment to health equity that addresses all 3 stages of health disparities research: detection, understanding determinants, and reduction or elimination. Despite this, racial disparities still exist in the VHA across a wide range of clinical areas and service types. Objectives. To inform the health equity research agenda, we synthesized evidence on racial/ethnic mortality disparities in the VHA. Search Methods. Our research librarian searched MEDLINE and Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials from October 2006 through February 2017 using terms for racial groups and disparities. Selection Criteria. We included studies if they compared mortality between any racial/ethnic minority and nonminority veteran groups or between different minority groups in the VHA (PROSPERO# CRD42015015974). We made study selection decisions on the basis of prespecified eligibility criteria. They were first made by 1 reviewer and checked by a second and disagreements were resolved by consensus (sequential review). Data Collection and Analysis. Two reviewers sequentially abstracted data on prespecified population, outcome, setting, and study design characteristics. Two reviewers sequentially graded the strength of evidence using prespecified criteria on the basis of 5 key domains: study limitations (study design and internal validity), consistency, directness, precision of the evidence, and reporting biases. We synthesized the evidence qualitatively by grouping studies first by racial/ethnic minority group and then by

  10. Social Determinants of Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.; McKinney, Molly A.; Braun, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Too many racial/ethnic minorities do not reach their full potential for a healthy and rewarding life. This paper addresses the social determinants that impact, either directly or indirectly, child and adolescent health disparities. Understanding the role social determinants play in the life course of health status can help guide educational…

  11. Racial Disparities in Access to Care Under Conditions of Universal Coverage.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Arjumand A; Wang, Susan; Quinn, Kelly; Nguyen, Quynh C; Christy, Antony Dennis

    2016-02-01

    Racial disparities in access to regular health care have been reported in the U.S., but little is known about the extent of disparities in societies with universal coverage. To investigate the extent of racial disparities in access to care under conditions of universal coverage by observing the association between race and regular access to a doctor in Canada. Racial disparities in access to a regular doctor were calculated using the largest available source of nationally representative data in Canada--the Canadian Community Health Survey. Surveys from 2000-2010 were analyzed in 2014. Multinomial regression analyses predicted odds of having a regular doctor for each racial group compared to whites. Analyses were stratified by immigrant status--Canadian-born versus shorter-term immigrant versus longer-term immigrants--and controlled for sociodemographics and self-rated health. Racial disparities in Canada, a country with universal coverage, were far more muted than those previously reported in the U.S. Only among longer-term Latin American immigrants (OR=1.90, 95% CI=1.45, 2.08) and Canadian-born Aboriginals (OR=1.34, 95% CI=1.22, 1.47) were significant disparities noted. Among shorter-term immigrants, all Asians were more likely than whites, and among longer-term immigrants, South Asians were more like than whites, to have a regular doctor. Universal coverage may have a major impact on reducing racial disparities in access to health care, although among some subgroups, other factors may also play a role above and beyond health insurance. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Diabetes Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Peek, Monica E.; Cargill, Algernon; Huang, Elbert S.

    2008-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities bear a disproportionate burden of the diabetes epidemic; they have higher prevalence rates, worse diabetes control, and higher rates of complications. This article reviews the effectiveness of health care interventions at improving health outcomes and/or reducing diabetes health disparities among racial/ethnic minorities with diabetes. Forty-two studies met inclusion criteria. On average, these health care interventions improved the quality of care for racial/ethnic minorities, improved health outcomes (such as diabetes control and reduced diabetes complications), and possibly reduced health disparities in quality of care. There is evidence supporting the use of interventions that target patients (primarily through culturally tailored programs), providers (especially through one-on-one feedback and education), and health systems (particularly with nurse case managers and nurse clinicians). More research is needed in the areas of racial/ethnic minorities other than African Americans and Latinos, health disparity reductions, long-term diabetes-related outcomes, and the sustainability of health care interventions over time. PMID:17881626

  13. Racial and ethnic disparities in the receipt of cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Shavers, Vickie L; Brown, Martin L

    2002-03-06

    A disproportionate number of cancer deaths occur among racial/ethnic minorities, particularly African Americans, who have a 33% higher risk of dying of cancer than whites. Although differences in incidence and stage of disease at diagnosis may contribute to racial disparities in mortality, evidence of racial disparities in the receipt of treatment of other chronic diseases raises questions about the possible role of inequities in the receipt of cancer treatment. To evaluate racial/ethnic disparities in the receipt of cancer treatment, we examined the published literature that addressed access/use of specific cancer treatment procedures, trends in patterns of use, or survival studies. We found evidence of racial disparities in receipt of definitive primary therapy, conservative therapy, and adjuvant therapy. These treatment differences could not be completely explained by racial/ethnic variation in clinically relevant factors. In many studies, these treatment differences were associated with an adverse impact on the health outcomes of racial/ethnic minorities, including more frequent recurrence, shorter disease-free survival, and higher mortality. Reducing the influence of nonclinical factors on the receipt of cancer treatment may, therefore, provide an important means of reducing racial/ethnic disparities in health. New data resources and improved study methodology are needed to better identify and quantify the full spectrum of nonclinical factors that contribute to the higher cancer mortality among racial/ethnic minorities and to develop strategies to facilitate receipt of appropriate cancer care for all patients.

  14. Designing and Evaluating Interventions to Eliminate Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Lisa A; Hill, Martha N; Powe, Neil R

    2002-01-01

    A large number of factors contribute to racial and ethnic disparities in health status. Health care professionals, researchers, and policymakers have believed for some time that access to care is the centerpiece in the elimination of these health disparities. The Institute of Medicine's (IOM) model of access to health services includes personal, financial, and structural barriers, health service utilization, and mediators of care. This model can be used to describe the interactions among these factors and their impact on health outcomes and equity of services among racial and ethnic groups. We present a modified version of the IOM model that incorporates the features of other access models and highlights barriers and mediators that are relevant for interventions designed to eliminate disparities in U.S. health care. We also suggest that interventions to eliminate disparities and achieve equity in health care services be considered within the broader context of improving quality of care. Some health service intervention studies have shown improvements in the health of disadvantaged groups. If properly designed and implemented, these interventions could be used to reduce health disparities. Successful features of interventions include the use of multifaceted, intense approaches, culturally and linguistically appropriate methods, improved access to care, tailoring, the establishment of partnerships with stakeholders, and community involvement. However, in order to be effective in reducing disparities in health care and health status, important limitations of previous studies need to be addressed, including the lack of control groups, nonrandom assignment of subjects to experimental interventions, and use of health outcome measures that are not validated. Interventions might be improved by targeting high-risk populations, focusing on the most important contributing factors, including measures of appropriateness and quality of care and health outcomes, and prioritizing

  15. Interventions to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in health care.

    PubMed

    Chin, Marshall H; Walters, Amy E; Cook, Scott C; Huang, Elbert S

    2007-10-01

    In 2005, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation created Finding Answers: Disparities Research for Change, a program to identify, evaluate, and disseminate interventions to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in the care and outcomes of patients with cardiovascular disease, depression, and diabetes. In this introductory paper, we present a conceptual model for interventions that aim to reduce disparities. With this model as a framework, we summarize the key findings from the six other papers in this supplement on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, depression, breast cancer, interventions using cultural leverage, and pay-for-performance and public reporting of performance measures. Based on these findings, we present global conclusions regarding the current state of health disparities interventions and make recommendations for future interventions to reduce disparities. Multifactorial, culturally tailored interventions that target different causes of disparities hold the most promise, but much more research is needed to investigate potential solutions and their implementation.

  16. Survival-related Selection Bias in Studies of Racial Health Disparities: The Importance of the Target Population and Study Design.

    PubMed

    Howe, Chanelle J; Robinson, Whitney R

    2018-07-01

    The impact of survival-related selection bias has not always been discussed in relevant studies of racial health disparities. Moreover, the analytic approaches most frequently employed in the epidemiologic literature to minimize selection bias are difficult to implement appropriately in racial disparities research. This difficulty stems from the fact that frequently employed analytic techniques require that common causes of survival and the outcome are accurately measured. Unfortunately, such common causes are often unmeasured or poorly measured in racial health disparities studies. In the absence of accurate measures of the aforementioned common causes, redefining the target population or changing the study design represents a useful approach for reducing the extent of survival-related selection bias. To help researchers recognize and minimize survival-related selection bias in racial health disparities studies, we illustrate the aforementioned selection bias and how redefining the target population or changing the study design can be useful.

  17. Missed Opportunity? Leveraging Mobile Technology to Reduce Racial Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Ray, Rashawn; Sewell, Abigail A; Gilbert, Keon L; Roberts, Jennifer D

    2017-10-01

    Blacks and Latinos are less likely than whites to access health insurance and utilize health care. One way to overcome some of these racial barriers to health equity may be through advances in technology that allow people to access and utilize health care in innovative ways. Yet, little research has focused on whether the racial gap that exists for health care utilization also exists for accessing health information online and through mobile technologies. Using data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), we examine racial differences in obtaining health information online via mobile devices. We find that blacks and Latinos are more likely to trust online newspapers to get health information than whites. Minorities who have access to a mobile device are more likely to rely on the Internet for health information in a time of strong need. Federally insured individuals who are connected to mobile devices have the highest probability of reliance on the Internet as a go-to source of health information. We conclude by discussing the importance of mobile technologies for health policy, particularly related to developing health literacy, improving health outcomes, and contributing to reducing health disparities by race and health insurance status. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  18. State Minority Health Officers' Perceptions of their Successes and Barriers to Reducing Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Diehr, Aaron J; Jordan, Timothy R; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A

    2018-06-01

    Minimal research has been conducted to examine the impact and reach of state offices of minority health (SOMH) and their role in reducing racial and ethnic health disparities within their states. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to describe the shared experiences of SOMH officers to provide context for why these individuals believe that state organizational efforts have not yielded much success in reducing racial and ethnic health disparity gaps. Using a telephone interview guide, the investigators conducted telephone interviews with SOMH officers. Data were analyzed thematically based on emergent patterns in participant responses. A total of 47 of 50 state officers (94%) completed the interview. Though many officers were encouraged by increased awareness regarding health disparities, nearly every officer listed inadequate resources as the most impactful barrier impeding the success of their offices' missions. SOMH continue to be severely underfunded and are concerned about their potential for success, leaving them with minimal ability to engage in activities beyond educational awareness campaigns. For SOMH officers to be successful in eliminating disparities, legislators must provide them with adequate funding so they can engage in wider-reaching interventions targeting the social determinants of health.

  19. Understanding ethnic/racial health disparities in youth and families in the US.

    PubMed

    Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J; Carranza, Miguel A; Martinez, Miriam M

    2011-01-01

    To summarize, ethnic and social class disparities are evident across a spectrum of markers of psychological, behavioral, and physical health. Furthermore, the pattern is often complex such that disparities are sometimes found within ethnic/racial groups as well as across those groups. Indeed, it is likely that the causes of health disparities may be different across specific subgroups. Moreover, theoretical models are needed that examine biological, contextual, and person-level variables (including culture-specific variables) to account for health disparities. The scholars in the present volume provide exemplary research that moves us towards more comprehensive and integrative models of health disparities. A brief glance at the work summarized by these scholars yields some common elements of focus for future researchers regarding risk (e.g., poverty, lack of contextual diversity) and protective (e.g., family support, cultural identity) factors yet they also identify aspects (e.g., genetic vulnerabilities) that may be unique to specific ethnic/racial groups. In addition to employing more integrative and culturally sensitive models of health disparities, future research studies could expand the scope of investigation to include transnational studies of health disparities and the processes contributing to them. They might also consider culture-specific health problems and syndromes such as "nervios" in Latino cultures. Within nations, further attention might be directed to the community contexts in which ethnic minority and low SES families reside, not only urban areas but the much less studied rural areas. Finally, efforts to assess health disparities and the factors contributing to them across cultural and ethnic groups need to attend closely to the issue of measurement equivalence in order to ensure valid cross-group comparisons. We would add that future research on health disparities will need to examine markers of positive health outcomes and well being (e

  20. Racial Discrimination and Ethnic Disparities in Sleep Disturbance: the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Paine, Sarah-Jane; Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James

    2016-02-01

    Research on the relationship between racial discrimination and sleep is limited. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the independent relationship between ethnicity, sex, age, socioeconomic position, experience of racial discrimination and self-reported sleep disturbances, and (2) determine the statistical contribution of experience of racial discrimination to ethnic disparities in sleep disturbances. The study used data from the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey, a nationally-representative, population-based survey of New Zealand adults (≥ 15 years). The sample included 4,108 self-identified Māori (indigenous New Zealanders) and 6,261 European adults. Outcome variables were difficulty falling asleep, frequent nocturnal awakenings, and early morning awakenings. Experiences of racial discrimination across five domains were used to assess overall racial discrimination "ever" and the level of exposure to racial discrimination. Socioeconomic position was measured using neighborhood deprivation, education, and equivalized household income. Māori had a higher prevalence of each sleep disturbance item than Europeans. Reported experiences of racial discrimination were independently associated with each sleep disturbance item, adjusted for ethnicity, sex, age group, and socioeconomic position. Sequential logistic regression models showed that racial discrimination and socioeconomic position explained most of the disparity in difficulty falling asleep and frequent nocturnal awakening between Māori and Europeans; however, ethnic differences in early morning awakenings remained. Racial discrimination may play an important role in ethnic disparities in sleep disturbances in New Zealand. Activities to improve the sleep health of non-dominant ethnic groups should consider the potentially multifarious ways in which racial discrimination can disturb sleep. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  1. Increasing Racial/Ethnic Diversity in Nursing to Reduce Health Disparities and Achieve Health Equity

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    As nursing continues to advance health care in the 21st century, the current shift in demographics, coupled with the ongoing disparities in health care and health outcomes, will warrant our ongoing attention and action. As within all health professions, concerted efforts are needed to diversify the nation's health-care workforce. The nursing profession in particular will be challenged to recruit and retain a culturally diverse workforce that mirrors the nation's change in demographics. This increased need to enhance diversity in nursing is not new to the profession; however, the need to successfully address this issue has never been greater. This article discusses increasing the diversity in nursing and its importance in reducing health disparities. We highlight characteristics of successful recruitment and retention efforts targeting racial/ethnic minority nurses and conclude with recommendations to strengthen the development and evaluation of their contributions to eliminating health disparities. PMID:24385664

  2. A Plan for Action: Key Perspectives from the Racial/Ethnic Disparities Strategy Forum

    PubMed Central

    King, Roderick K; Green, Alexander R; Tan-Mcgrory, Aswita; Donahue, Elizabeth J; Kimbrough-Sugick, Jessie; Betancourt, Joseph R

    2008-01-01

    Context Racial and ethnic disparities in health care in the United States have been well documented, with research largely focusing on describing the problem rather than identifying the best practices or proven strategies to address it. Methods In 2006, the Disparities Solutions Center convened a one-and-a-half-day Strategy Forum composed of twenty experts from the fields of racial/ethnic disparities in health care, quality improvement, implementation research, and organizational excellence, with the goal of deciding on innovative action items and adoption strategies to address disparities. The forum used the Results Based Facilitation model, and several key recommendations emerged. Findings The forum's participants concluded that to identify and effectively address racial/ethnic disparities in health care, health care organizations should: (1) collect race and ethnicity data on patients or enrollees in a routine and standardized fashion; (2) implement tools to measure and monitor for disparities in care; (3) develop quality improvement strategies to address disparities; (4) secure the support of leadership; (5) use incentives to address disparities; and (6) create a messaging and communication strategy for these efforts. This article also discusses these recommendations in the context of both current efforts to address racial and ethnic disparities in health care and barriers to progress. Conclusions The Strategy Forum's participants concluded that health care organizations needed a multifaceted plan of action to address racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Although the ideas offered are not necessarily new, the discussion of their practical development and implementation should make them more useful. PMID:18522613

  3. Part II: Multisystemic Therapy--Addressing Racial Disparity and Its Effectiveness with Families from Diverse Racial and Ethnic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Kirstin; Scannapieco, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Disparities in health and mental health care delivered to racial and ethnic minorities became a focus of national policy following reports of the Institute of Medicine (IOM, 2002) and the Surgeon General (USDHHS, 2001). The Surgeon General (USDHHS, 2001) reported racial and ethnic minorities experience disparities in availability and quality of…

  4. Racial/ethnic disparities and culturally competent health care among youth and young men.

    PubMed

    Vo, Dzung X; Park, M Jane

    2008-06-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care are receiving increasing national attention from the fields of public health and medicine. Efforts to reduce disparities should adopt a life-span approach and recognize the role of gender. During adolescence, young people make increasingly independent decisions about health-related behavior and health care, while developing gender identity. Little is known about how cultural context shapes gender identity and gender identity's influence on health-related behavior and health care utilization. The authors review disparities in health status and health care among adolescents, especially young men, by reviewing health care access, clinical services, and issues related to culture, identity, and acculturation. Significant differences in health status by gender exist in adolescence, with young men faring worse on many health markers. This article discusses gaps in research and offers recommendations for improving health care quality and strengthening the research base on gender and disparities during adolescence.

  5. Racial Disparities in Health Behaviors and Conditions Among Lesbian and Bisexual Women: The Role of Internalized Stigma

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Yamile; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Simoni, Jane

    2013-01-01

    There are documented disparities in physical health behaviors and conditions, such as physical activity and obesity, with regard to both race/ethnicity and sexual orientation. However, physical health disparities for lesbian and bisexual (LB) women who are also racial minorities are relatively unexplored. Minority stressors, such as internalized stigma, may account for disparities in such multiply marginalized populations. We sought to (1) characterize inequalities among non-Hispanic white and African American LB women and (2) examine the roles of internalized sexism and homophobia in disparities. Data on health behaviors (diet, physical activity); physical health (hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity); internalized sexism; and internalized homophobia were collected via a web-based survey. Recruitment ads were sent electronically to over 200 listservs, online groups, and organizations serving the lesbian, gay, and bisexual community in all 50 U.S. states. The analytic sample consisted of 954 white and 75 African American LB women. African American participants were more likely than white participants to report low fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity, a higher body mass index, and a history of diabetes and hypertension. There were no racial differences in internalized homophobia, but African American women reported higher levels of internalized sexism. Internalized sexism partially mediated racial disparities in physical activity and diabetes, but not in the other outcomes. Findings suggest that African American LB women may be at greater risk than their white counterparts for poor health and that internalized sexism may be a mediator of racial differences for certain behaviors and conditions. PMID:25364769

  6. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health and Health Care: an Assessment and Analysis of the Awareness and Perceptions of Public Health Workers Implementing a Statewide Community Transformation Grant in Texas.

    PubMed

    Akinboro, Oladimeji; Ottenbacher, Allison; Martin, Marcus; Harrison, Roderick; James, Thomas; Martin, Eddilisa; Murdoch, James; Linnear, Kim; Cardarelli, Kathryn

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the awareness of public health professionals regarding racial and ethnic disparities in health in the United States of America (USA). Our study objective was to assess the awareness and perceptions of a group of public health workers in Texas regarding racial health disparities and their chief contributing causes. We surveyed public health professionals working on a statewide grant in Texas, who were participants at health disparities' training workshops. Multivariable logistic regression was employed in examining the association between the participants' characteristics and their perceptions of the social determinants of health as principal causes of health disparities. There were 106 respondents, of whom 38 and 35 % worked in health departments and non-profit organizations, respectively. The racial/ethnic groups with the highest incidence of HIV/AIDS and hypertension were correctly identified by 63 and 50 % of respondents, respectively, but only 17, and 32 % were knowledgeable regarding diabetes and cancer, respectively. Seventy-one percent of respondents perceived that health disparities are driven by the major axes of the social determinants of health. Exposure to information about racial/ethnic health disparities within the prior year was associated with a higher odds of perceiving that social determinants of health were causes of health disparities (OR 9.62; 95 % CI 2.77, 33.41). Among public health workers, recent exposure to information regarding health disparities may be associated with their perceptions of health disparities. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of such exposure on their long-term perception of disparities, as well as the equity of services and programs they administer.

  7. Ethnic-Racial Stigma and Health Disparities: From Psychological Theory and Evidence to Public Policy Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Luis M.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of diverse ethnic-racial groups in the United States today is a source of national pride. However, this cultural sentiment is overshadowed by the reality that those ethnic-racial groups that are stigmatized carry a disproportionate burden of negative physical health outcomes. These systematic differences are referred to as health disparities. Although this phenomenon is fairly well documented, relatively little is understood about the social contexts and the psychological processes they activate that contribute to poor health. More importantly, to demonstrate the processes underlying health disparities does not single-handedly address the issue of social injustice in the health of disadvantaged people. Scientists must assume the burden of facilitating the translation of their laboratory and community-based research to public policy recommendations. This volume of the Journal of Social Issues brings together social, developmental, cognitive, and clinical psychological research on the physical health of ethnic-racial stigmatized individuals in the United States. Each contribution explicitly discusses the implications of research for public health policy. PMID:25530632

  8. Residential segregation and racial disparities in self-rated health: How do dimensions of residential segregation matter?1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Zhao, Yunhan; Song, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on segregation and health has been criticized for overlooking the fact that segregation is a multi-dimensional concept (i.e., evenness, exposure, concentration, centralization, and clustering) and recent evidence drawn from non-black minorities challenges the conventional belief that residential segregation widens racial health disparities. Combining a survey data (n=18,752) from Philadelphia with the 2010 Census tract (n=925) data, we examine two theoretical frameworks to understand why the association of segregation with health may differ by race/ethnicity. Specifically, we investigate how each dimension of segregation contributed to racial disparities in self-rated health. We found (1) high levels of white/ black concentration could exacerbate the white/black health disparities up to 25 percent, (2) the white/Hispanic health disparities was narrowed by increasing the level of white/Hispanic centralization, and (3) no single dimension of segregation statistically outperforms others. Our findings supported that segregation is bad for blacks but may be beneficial for Hispanics. PMID:27886735

  9. Health disparities: a primer for public health social workers.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Robert H

    2010-05-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services published Healthy People 2010, which identified objectives to guide health promotion and to eliminate health disparities. Since 2001, much research has been published documenting racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare. Although progress has been made in eliminating the disparities, ongoing work by public health social workers, researchers, and policy analysts is needed. This paper focuses on racial and ethnic health disparities, why they exist, where they can be found, and some of the key health/medical conditions identified by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to receive attention. Finally, there is a discussion of what policy, professional and community education, and research can to do to eliminate racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare.

  10. Measuring racial/ethnic disparities across the distribution of health care expenditures.

    PubMed

    Cook, Benjamin Lê; Manning, Willard G

    2009-10-01

    To assess whether black-white and Hispanic-white disparities increase or abate in the upper quantiles of total health care expenditure, conditional on covariates. Nationally representative adult population of non-Hispanic whites, African Americans, and Hispanics from the 2001-2005 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys. We examine unadjusted racial/ethnic differences across the distribution of expenditures. We apply quantile regression to measure disparities at the median, 75th, 90th, and 95th quantiles, testing for differences over the distribution of health care expenditures and across income and education categories. We test the sensitivity of the results to comparisons based only on health status and estimate a two-part model to ensure that results are not driven by an extremely skewed distribution of expenditures with a large zero mass. Black-white and Hispanic-white disparities diminish in the upper quantiles of expenditure, but expenditures for blacks and Hispanics remain significantly lower than for whites throughout the distribution. For most education and income categories, disparities exist at the median and decline, but remain significant even with increased education and income. Blacks and Hispanics receive significantly disparate care at high expenditure levels, suggesting prioritization of improved access to quality care among minorities with critical health issues.

  11. The time is now: tackling racial and ethnic disparities in mental and behavioral health services in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Alegría, Margarita; Cook, Benjamin; Loder, Stephen; Doonan, Michael

    2014-12-11

    Massachusetts is in the midst of a demographic shift that will leave the state with unprecedented ethnic, racial and cultural diversity. In light of this change, health care services in the Commonwealth need to respond to and serve an increasingly multicultural population. The time is now for bold initiatives to reduce behavioral health and health service disparities by building collaborations between policymakers, insurers/payers, provider organizations, training institutions, and community groups. In the same way collaboration among diverse stakeholders enabled the Commonwealth to lead the nation in achieving near universal access to health insurance, a new collaboration can pave the way for the elimination of behavioral health and health care disparities. This brief compiles current information on racial and ethnic disparities in mental health and substance use disorders and treatment disparities in Massachusetts. It concludes with state level policy recommendations. The Brief does not recommend policies already in motion, such as moving to universal insurance coverage, enforcement of parity laws, policies to expand coverage of drug treatment services or greater inclusion of consumers in the development and configuration of behavioral health services. Recommendations offered are based on best practices and evidence-based research. Most research, however, studies incremental changes. To transform rather than reform the system, we integrate consideration of experience and research from other policy areas. The ultimate goal is to generate an action plan that motivates policymakers to address persistent racial and ethnic disparities in the availability and quality of behavioral health services in the Commonwealth.

  12. The role of provider supply and organization in reducing racial/ethnic disparities in mental health care in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Cook, Benjamin Lê; Doksum, Teresa; Chen, Chih-Nan; Carle, Adam; Alegría, Margarita

    2013-05-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in mental health care access in the United States are well documented. Prior studies highlight the importance of individual and community factors such as health insurance coverage, language and cultural barriers, and socioeconomic differences, though these factors fail to explain the extent of measured disparities. A critical factor in mental health care access is a local area's organization and supply of mental health care providers. However, it is unclear how geographic differences in provider organization and supply impact racial/ethnic disparities. The present study is the first analysis of a nationally representative U.S. sample to identify contextual factors (county-level provider organization and supply, as well as socioeconomic characteristics) associated with use of mental health care services and how these factors differ across racial/ethnic groups. Hierarchical logistic models were used to examine racial/ethnic differences in the association of county-level provider organization (health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration) and supply (density of specialty mental health providers and existence of a community mental health center) with any use of mental health services and specialty mental health services. Models controlled for individual- and county-level socio-demographic and mental health characteristics. Increased county-level supply of mental health care providers was significantly associated with greater use of any mental health services and any specialty care, and these positive associations were greater for Latinos and African-Americans compared to non-Latino Whites. Expanding the mental health care workforce holds promise for reducing racial/ethnic disparities in mental health care access. Policymakers should consider that increasing the management of mental health care may not only decrease expenditures, but also provide a potential lever for reducing mental health care disparities between social groups

  13. The role of provider supply and organization in reducing racial/ethnic disparities in mental health care in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Benjamin Lê; Doksum, Teresa; Chen, Chih-nan; Carle, Adam; Alegría, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in mental health care access in the United States are well documented. Prior studies highlight the importance of individual and community factors such as health insurance coverage, language and cultural barriers, and socioeconomic differences, though these factors fail to explain the extent of measured disparities. A critical factor in mental health care access is a local area’s organization and supply of mental health care providers. However, it is unclear how geographic differences in provider organization and supply impact racial/ethnic disparities. The present study is the first analysis of a nationally representative U.S. sample to identify contextual factors (county-level provider organization and supply, as well as socioeconomic characteristics) associated with use of mental health care services and how these factors differ across racial/ethnic groups. Hierarchical logistic models were used to examine racial/ethnic differences in the association of county-level provider organization (health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration) and supply (density of specialty mental health providers and existence of a community mental health center) with any use of mental health services and specialty mental health services. Models controlled for individual- and county-level socio-demographic and mental health characteristics. Increased county-level supply of mental health care providers was significantly associated with greater use of any mental health services and any specialty care, and these positive associations were greater for Latinos and African-Americans compared to non-Latino Whites. Expanding the mental health care workforce holds promise for reducing racial/ethnic disparities in mental health care access. Policymakers should consider that increasing the management of mental health care may not only decrease expenditures, but also provide a potential lever for reducing mental health care disparities between social groups

  14. Stigma and Racial/Ethnic HIV Disparities: Moving Toward Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Bogart, Laura M.; Dovidio, John F.; Williams, Davird R.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research suggests that stigma plays a role in racial/ethnic health disparities. However, there is limited understanding about the mechanisms by which stigma contributes to HIV-related disparities in risk, incidence and screening, treatment, and survival and what can be done to reduce the impact of stigma on these disparities. We introduce the Stigma and HIV Disparities Model to describe how societal stigma related to race and ethnicity is associated with racial/ethnic HIV disparities via its manifestations at the structural level (e.g., residential segregation) as well as the individual level among perceivers (e.g., discrimination) and targets (e.g., internalized stigma). We then review evidence of these associations. Because racial/ethnic minorities at risk of and living with HIV often possess multiple stigmas (e.g., HIV-positive, substance use), we adopt an intersectionality framework and conceptualize interdependence among co-occurring stigmas. We further propose a resilience agenda and suggest that intervening on modifiable strength-based moderators of the association between societal stigma and disparities can reduce disparities. Strengthening economic and community empowerment and trust at the structural level, creating common ingroup identities and promoting contact with people living with HIV among perceivers at the individual level, and enhancing social support and adaptive coping among targets at the individual level can improve resilience to societal stigma and ultimately reduce racial/ethnic HIV disparities. PMID:23688090

  15. Decomposing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Influenza Vaccination among the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Byung-Kwang; Hasebe, Takuya; Szilagyi, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    While persistent racial/ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination have been reported among the elderly, characteristics contributing to disparities are poorly understood. This study aimed to assess characteristics associated with racial/ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination using a nonlinear Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method. We performed cross-sectional multivariable logistic regression analyses for which the dependent variable was self-reported receipt of influenza vaccine during the 2010–2011 season among community dwelling non-Hispanic African-American (AA), non-Hispanic White (W), English-speaking Hispanic (EH) and Spanish-speaking Hispanic (SH) elderly, enrolled in the 2011 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) (un-weighted/weighted N= 6,095/19.2million). Using the nonlinear Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method, we assessed the relative contribution of seventeen covariates—including socio-demographic characteristics, health status, insurance, access, preference regarding healthcare, and geographic regions —to disparities in influenza vaccination. Unadjusted racial/ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination were 14.1 percentage points (pp) (W-AA disparity, p<.001), 25.7 pp (W-SH disparity, p<.001) and 0.6 pp (W-EH disparity, p>.8). The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method estimated that the unadjusted W-AA and W-SH disparities in vaccination could be reduced by only 45% even if AA and SH groups become equivalent to Whites in all covariates in multivariable regression models. The remaining 55% of disparities were attributed to (a) racial/ethnic differences in the estimated coefficients (e.g., odds ratios) in the regression models and (b) characteristics not included in the regression models. Our analysis found that only about 45% of racial/ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination among the elderly could be reduced by equalizing recognized characteristics among racial/ethnic groups. Future studies are needed to identify additional

  16. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Mental Health Care for Children and Young Adults: A National Study.

    PubMed

    Marrast, Lyndonna; Himmelstein, David U; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2016-10-01

    Psychiatric and behavior problems are common among children and young adults, and many go without care or only receive treatment in carceral settings. We examined racial and ethnic disparities in children's and young adults' receipt of mental health and substance abuse care using nationally representative data from the 2006-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys. Blacks' and Hispanics' visit rates (and per capita expenditures) were about half those of non-Hispanic whites for all types and definitions of outpatient mental health services. Disparities were generally larger for young adults than for children. Black and white children had similar psychiatric inpatient and emergency department utilization rates, while Hispanic children had lower hospitalization rates. Multivariate control for mental health impairment, demographics, and insurance status did not attenuate racial/ethnic disparities in outpatient care. We conclude that psychiatric and behavioral problems among minority youth often result in school punishment or incarceration, but rarely mental health care. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Lifecourse Approach to Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Childhood Obesity123

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Brittany; Peña, Michelle-Marie; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2012-01-01

    Eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care is a national priority, and obesity is a prime target. During the last 30 y in the United States, the prevalence of obesity among children has dramatically increased, sparing no age group. Obesity in childhood is associated with adverse cardio-metabolic outcomes such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and type II diabetes and with other long-term adverse outcomes, including both physical and psychosocial consequences. By the preschool years, racial/ethnic disparities in obesity prevalence are already present, suggesting that disparities in childhood obesity prevalence have their origins in the earliest stages of life. Several risk factors during pregnancy are associated with increased risk of offspring obesity, including excessive maternal gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes, smoking during pregnancy, antenatal depression, and biological stress. During infancy and early childhood, rapid infant weight gain, infant feeding practices, sleep duration, child’s diet, physical activity, and sedentary practices are associated with the development of obesity. Studies have found substantial racial/ethnic differences in many of these early life risk factors for childhood obesity. It is possible that racial/ethnic differences in early life risk factors for obesity might contribute to the high prevalence of obesity among minority preschool-age children and beyond. Understanding these differences may help inform the design of clinical and public health interventions and policies to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity and eliminate disparities among racial/ethnic minority children. PMID:22332105

  18. Stigma and Racial/Ethnic HIV Disparities: Moving toward Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Bogart, Laura M.; Dovidio, John F.; Williams, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research suggests that stigma plays a role in racial/ethnic health disparities. However, there is limited understanding about the mechanisms by which stigma contributes to HIV-related disparities in risk, incidence and screening, treatment, and survival and what can be done to reduce the impact of stigma on these disparities. We introduce…

  19. Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities in Reproductive Medicine: An Evidence-Based Overview

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Carter M.; Goldstein, Ellen H.; Clayton, Janine A.; Segars, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Racial and ethnic health disparities in reproductive medicine exist across the life span and are costly and burdensome to our healthcare system. Reduction and ultimate elimination of health disparities is a priority of the National Institutes of Health who requires reporting of race and ethnicity for all clinical research it supports. Given the increasing rates of admixture in our population, the definition and subsequent genetic significance of self-reported race and ethnicity used in health disparity research is not straightforward. Some groups have advocated using self-reported ancestry or carefully selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms, also known as ancestry informative markers, to sort individuals into populations. Despite the limitations in our current definitions of race and ethnicity in research, there are several clear examples of health inequalities in reproductive medicine extending from puberty and infertility to obstetric outcomes. We acknowledge that socioeconomic status, education, insurance status, and overall access to care likely contribute to the differences, but these factors do not fully explain the disparities. Epigenetics may provide the biologic link between these environmental factors and the transgenerational disparities that are observed. We propose an integrated view of health disparities across the life span and generations focusing on the metabolic aspects of fetal programming and the effects of environmental exposures. Interventions aimed at improving nutrition and minimizing adverse environmental exposures may act synergistically to reverse the effects of these epigenetic marks and improve the outcome of our future generations. PMID:23934691

  20. Counties eliminating racial disparities in colorectal cancer mortality.

    PubMed

    Rust, George; Zhang, Shun; Yu, Zhongyuan; Caplan, Lee; Jain, Sanjay; Ayer, Turgay; McRoy, Luceta; Levine, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rates are declining, racial-ethnic disparities in CRC mortality nationally are widening. Herein, the authors attempted to identify county-level variations in this pattern, and to characterize counties with improving disparity trends. The authors examined 20-year trends in US county-level black-white disparities in CRC age-adjusted mortality rates during the study period between 1989 and 2010. Using a mixed linear model, counties were grouped into mutually exclusive patterns of black-white racial disparity trends in age-adjusted CRC mortality across 20 three-year rolling average data points. County-level characteristics from census data and from the Area Health Resources File were normalized and entered into a principal component analysis. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to test the relation between these factors (clusters of related contextual variables) and the disparity trend pattern group for each county. Counties were grouped into 4 disparity trend pattern groups: 1) persistent disparity (parallel black and white trend lines); 2) diverging (widening disparity); 3) sustained equality; and 4) converging (moving from disparate outcomes toward equality). The initial principal component analysis clustered the 82 independent variables into a smaller number of components, 6 of which explained 47% of the county-level variation in disparity trend patterns. County-level variation in social determinants, health care workforce, and health systems all were found to contribute to variations in cancer mortality disparity trend patterns from 1990 through 2010. Counties sustaining equality over time or moving from disparities to equality in cancer mortality suggest that disparities are not inevitable, and provide hope that more communities can achieve optimal and equitable cancer outcomes for all. Cancer 2016;122:1735-48. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  1. Health care disparities in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Cone, David C; Richardson, Lynne D; Todd, Knox H; Betancourt, Joseph R; Lowe, Robert A

    2003-11-01

    The Institute of Medicine's landmark report, "Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care," documents the pervasiveness of racial and ethnic disparities in the U.S. health care delivery system, and provides several recommendations to address them. It is clear from research data, such as those demonstrating racial and ethnic disparities in emergency department (ED) pain management, that emergency medicine (EM) is not immune to this problem. The IOM authors describe two strategies that can reduce disparities in EM. First, workforce diversity is likely to result in a community of emergency physicians who are better prepared to understand, learn from, and collaborate with persons from other racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds, whether these be patients, fellow clinicians, or the larger medical and scientific community. Given the ethical and practical advantages of a more diverse EM workforce, continued and expanded initiatives to increase diversity within EM should be undertaken. Second, the specialty's educational programs should produce emergency physicians with the skills and knowledge needed to serve an increasingly diverse population. This cultural competence should include an awareness of existing racial and ethnic health disparities, recognition of the risks of stereotyping and biased treatment, and knowledge of the incidence and prevalence of health conditions among diverse populations. Culturally competent emergency care providers also possess the skills to identify and manage racial and ethnic differences in health values, beliefs, and behaviors with the ultimate goal of delivering quality health services to all patients cared for in EDs.

  2. Racial and Ethnic Disparities and Perceptions of Health Care: Does Health Plan Type Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Kelly A; Gaba, Ayorkor; Lavizzo-Mourey, Risa

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine whether racial and ethnic differences in the distribution of individuals across types of health plans explain differences in satisfaction and trust with their physicians. Data Sources Data were derived from the 1998–1999 Community Tracking Household and Followback Studies and consisted of a nationwide sample of adults (18 years and older). Data Collection The data were collected by telephone survey. Surveys were administered in English and Spanish. The response rate for the Household Survey was 63 percent, and the match rate for the Followback Survey was 59 percent. Study Design Multivariate analyses used regression methods to detect independent effects of respondent race and ethnicity on satisfaction and trust with physician, while controlling for enrollment in different types of health plans. Principal Findings Racial and ethnic minorities are more likely than whites to have lower levels of trust and satisfaction with their physician. The most prominent differences occurred within the Latino and Native American/Asian American/Pacific Islander/Other (“Other”) populations. Plan type does not mitigate the relationship between race/ethnicity and trust and satisfaction for the overall adult population. Conclusions Disparate levels of trust and satisfaction exist within ethnic and minority populations, even when controlling for the distribution of individuals across types of health plans. The results demonstrate a need to better understand the health care-related factors that drive disparate trust and satisfaction. PMID:15762907

  3. Racial health disparities among special health care needs children with mental disorders: do medical homes cater to their needs?

    PubMed

    Park, Chanhyun; Tan, Xi; Patel, Isha B; Reiff, Amanda; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Chang, Jongwha

    2014-10-01

    A health care reform has been taking place to provide cost-effective and coordinated care. One method of achieving these goals is a patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model, which is associated with provision of quality care among children belonging to racial/ethnic minorities. Despite the potential of the PCMH for children of minority backgrounds, little is known about the extent to which minorities with mental disorders have the PCMH. The study examined racial/ethnic disparities among children with mental disorders in accessing care from the PCMH. The 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN) was used for this analysis. Multivariate logistic regressions were applied to capture the racial/ethnic disparities and to analyze a composite outcome of the PCMH. An estimated population size of 4 677 904 CSHCN with mental disorders was included. Among them, 59.94% of children reported to have received medical homes. Compared with white children, the odds of receiving any medical home services decreased among Hispanic children (odds ratio [OR] = 0.69; P < .05) and black children (OR = 0.70; P < .05). The likelihood of having a medical home was lower for Hispanic children than white children, when they had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; OR = 0.57; P < .05) and development delay (OR = 0.73; P < .05). Compared with white children with ADHD or depression having a medical home, the odds of black children with ADHD (OR = 0.63; P < .05) and depression (OR = 0.68; P < .05) having a medical home were lower. There were significant racial/ethnic disparities among CSHCN with mental disorders, indicating several sizeable effects of each of the 5 components on Hispanic, black, and other children compared with white children. These differences could be a potential to improve racial/ethnic disparities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Katherine M.; Queenan, John T.; Schulkin, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article's aim is to review the literature on racial and ethnic disparities in breastfeeding rates and practices, address barriers to breastfeeding among minority women, conduct a systematic review of breastfeeding interventions, and provide obstetrician-gynecologists with recommendations on how they can help increase rates among minority women. In order to do so, the literature of racial and ethnic disparities in breastfeeding rates and barriers among minority women was reviewed, and a systematic review of breastfeeding interventions among minority women on PubMed and MEDLINE was conducted. Racial and ethnic minority women continue to have lower breastfeeding rates than white women and are not close to meeting the Healthy People 2020 goals. Minority women report many barriers to breastfeeding. Major efforts are still needed to improve breastfeeding initiation and duration rates among minority women in the United States. Obstetrician-gynecologists have a unique opportunity to promote and support breastfeeding through their clinical practices and public policy, and their efforts can have a meaningful impact on the future health of the mother and child. PMID:25831234

  5. Cultural Leverage: Interventions Using Culture to Narrow Racial Disparities in Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Thomas L.; Burnet, Deborah L.; Huang, Elbert S.; Chin, Marshall H.; Cagney, Kathleen A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors reviewed interventions using cultural leverage to narrow racial disparities in health care. Thirty-eight interventions of three types were identified: interventions that modified the health behaviors of individual patients of color, that increased the access of communities of color to the existing health care system, and that modified the health care system to better serve patients of color and their communities. Individual-level interventions typically tapped community members’ expertise to shape programs. Access interventions largely involved screening programs, incorporating patient navigators and lay educators. Health care interventions focused on the roles of nurses, counselors, and community health workers to deliver culturally tailored health information. These interventions increased patients’ knowledge for self-care, decreased barriers to access, and improved providers’ cultural competence. The delivery of processes of care or intermediate health outcomes was significantly improved in 23 interventions. Interventions using cultural leverage show tremendous promise in reducing health disparities, but more research is needed to understand their health effects in combination with other interventions. PMID:17881628

  6. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Chronic Diseases of Youths and Access to Health Care in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Price, James H.; Braun, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities are 1.5 to 2.0 times more likely than whites to have most of the major chronic diseases. Chronic diseases are also more common in the poor than the nonpoor and this association is frequently mediated by race/ethnicity. Specifically, children are disproportionately affected by racial/ethnic health disparities. Between 1960 and 2005 the percentage of children with a chronic disease in the United States almost quadrupled with racial/ethnic minority youth having higher likelihood for these diseases. The most common major chronic diseases of youth in the United States are asthma, diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, dental disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, mental illness, cancers, sickle-cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and a variety of genetic and other birth defects. This review will focus on the psychosocial rather than biological factors that play important roles in the etiology and subsequent solutions to these health disparities because they should be avoidable and they are inherently unjust. Finally, this review examines access to health services by focusing on health insurance and dental insurance coverage and access to school health services. PMID:24175301

  7. Racial/ethnic variations in women's health: the social embeddedness of health.

    PubMed

    Williams, David R

    2002-04-01

    This article provides an overview of the magnitude of and trends in racial/ethnic disparities in health for women in the United States. It emphasizes the importance of attending to diversity in the health profiles and populations of minority women. Socioeconomic status is a central determinant of racial/ethnic disparities in health, but several other factors, including medical care, geographic location, migration and acculturation, racism, and exposure to stress and resources also play a role. There is a need for renewed attention to monitoring, understanding, and actively seeking to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health.

  8. Racializing Drug Design: Implications of Pharmacogenomics for Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin

    2005-01-01

    Current practices of using “race” in pharmacogenomics research demands consideration of the ethical and social implications for understandings of group difference and for efforts to eliminate health disparities. This discussion focuses on an “infrastructure of racialization” created by current trajectories of research on genetic differences among racially identified groups, the use of race as a proxy for risk in clinical practice, and increasing interest in new market niches by the pharmaceutical industry. The confluence of these factors has resulted in the conflation of genes, disease, and race. I argue that public investment in pharmacogenomics requires careful consideration of current inequities in health status and social and ethical concerns over reifying race and issues of distributive justice. PMID:16257939

  9. Racial Disparities in Mental Health Outcomes after Psychiatric Hospital Discharge among Individuals with Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.

    2012-01-01

    Racial disparities in mental health outcomes have been widely documented in noninstitutionalized community psychiatric samples, but few studies have specifically examined the effects of race among individuals with the most severe mental illnesses. A sample of 925 individuals hospitalized for severe mental illness was followed for a year after hospital discharge to examine the presence of disparities in mental health outcomes between African American and white individuals diagnosed with a severe psychiatric condition. Results from a series of individual growth curve models indicated that African American individuals with severe mental illness experienced significantly less improvement in global functioning, activation, and anergia symptoms and were less likely to return to work in the year following hospitalization. Racial disparities persisted after adjustment for sociodemographic and diagnostic confounders and were largely consistent across gender, socioeconomic status, and psychiatric diagnosis. Implications for social work research and practice with minorities with severe mental illness are discussed. PMID:24049433

  10. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in the Mental Health Care Utilization of Fifth Grade Children

    PubMed Central

    Coker, Tumaini R.; Elliott, Marc N.; Kataoka, Sheryl; Schwebel, David C.; Mrug, Sylvie; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Cuccaro, Paula; Peskin, Melissa F.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine racial/ethnic differences in fifth grade children’s mental health care utilization. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from a study of 5147 fifth graders and their parents in 3 US metropolitan areas from 2004–06. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine racial/ethnic differences in mental health care utilization. Results Nine percent of parents reported that their child had ever used mental health care services; fewer black (6%) and Hispanic (8%) children had used services than white children (14%). Fewer black and Hispanic children with recent symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder, and fewer black children with symptoms of depression had ever utilized services compared with white children. In multivariate analyses controlling for demographic factors, parental mental health, social support, and symptoms of the 4 mental health conditions, we found that black children were less likely than white children to have ever used services (Odds ratio [OR] 0.3, 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.2–0.4, P <.001). The odds ratio for black children remained virtually unchanged when the analysis was restricted to children with symptoms of ≥1 mental health condition, and when the analysis was stratified by mental health condition. The difference in utilization for Hispanic compared with white children was fully explained by sociodemographics in all multivariate models. Conclusions Disparities exist in mental health care utilization for black and Hispanic children; the disparity for black children is independent of sociodemographics and child mental health need. Efforts to reduce this disparity may benefit from addressing not only access and diagnosis issues, but also parents’ help-seeking preferences for mental health care for their children. PMID:19329099

  11. Socioeconomic, health, and psychosocial mediators of racial disparities in cognition in early, middle, and late adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Zahodne, Laura B.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Smith, Jacqui; Seeman, Teresa; Lachman, Margie

    2017-01-01

    Racial disparities in cognitive performance exist across the life course, but it is not known whether mediators of disparities differ by age. Understanding sources of cognitive disparities at different ages can inform policies and interventions. Data were obtained for non-Hispanic Black and White respondents to The National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS-II) from three age groups: 28–44 (N=1210; 20% Black); 45–64 (N=2693; 15% Black), 65–85 (N=1298; 11% Black). Moderated mediation models characterized direct and indirect effects of race on episodic memory and executive function composite scores through economic, health, and psychosocial variables as a function of age group. Education, income, chronic health conditions, and external locus of control mediated cognitive disparities across the life course, though income was a stronger mediator at younger ages. Perceived discrimination was a weaker mediator among young adults due to an absence of racial differences in perceived discrimination in that group. Despite multiple indirect effects, there were still significant unexplained effects of race on cognition that were not moderated by age group. Interventional work is needed to determine whether increasing educational attainment and income, and reducing chronic health conditions and perceived constraints among Blacks, reduce cognitive disparities. Targeting income inequality and discrimination (or buffering the impact of those variables) may be differently effective at reducing cognitive disparities at different stages of the adult life course. PMID:28287782

  12. Discrimination and racial disparities in health: evidence and needed research

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Selina A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review and critique of empirical research on perceived discrimination and health. The patterns of racial disparities in health suggest that there are multiple ways by which racism can affect health. Perceived discrimination is one such pathway and the paper reviews the published research on discrimination and health that appeared in PubMed between 2005 and 2007. This recent research continues to document an inverse association between discrimination and health. This pattern is now evident in a wider range of contexts and for a broader array of outcomes. Advancing our understanding of the relationship between perceived discrimination and health will require more attention to situating discrimination within the context of other health-relevant aspects of racism, measuring it comprehensively and accurately, assessing its stressful dimensions, and identifying the mechanisms that link discrimination to health. PMID:19030981

  13. The 21st Century Cures Act Implications for the Reduction of Racial Health Disparities in the US Criminal Justice System: a Public Health Approach.

    PubMed

    Cole, Donna M; Thomas, Dawna Marie; Field, Kelsi; Wool, Amelia; Lipiner, Taryn; Massenberg, Natalie; Guthrie, Barbara J

    2017-11-09

    Past drug epidemics have disproportionately criminalized drug addiction among African Americans, leading to disparate health outcomes, increased rates of HIV/AIDS, and mass incarceration. Conversely, the current opioid addiction crisis in the USA focuses primarily on white communities and is being addressed as a public health problem. The 21st Century Cures Act has the potential to reduce racial health disparities in the criminal justice system through the Act's public health approach to addiction and mental health issues. The 21st Century Cures Act is a progressive step in the right direction; however, given the historical context of segregation and the criminalization of drug addiction among African Americans, the goals of health equity are at risk of being compromised. This paper discusses the implications of this landmark legislation and its potential to decrease racial health disparities, highlighting the importance of ensuring that access to treatment and alternatives to incarceration must include communities of color. In this paper, the authors explain the key components of the 21st Century Cures Act that are specific to criminal justice reform, including a key objective, which is treatment over incarceration. We suggest that without proper attention to how, and where, funding mechanisms are distributed, the 21st Century Cures Act has the potential to increase racial health disparities rather than alleviate them.

  14. Residential Segregation and Racial Cancer Disparities: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Landrine, Hope; Corral, Irma; Lee, Joseph G L; Efird, Jimmy T; Hall, Marla B; Bess, Jukelia J

    2017-12-01

    This paper provides the first review of empirical studies of segregation and black-white cancer disparities. We searched all years of PubMed (through May 2016) using these terms: racial segregation, residential segregation, neighborhood racial composition (first terms) and (second terms) cancer incidence, mortality, survival, stage at diagnosis, screening. The 17 (of 668) articles that measured both segregation and a cancer outcome were retained. Segregation contributed significantly to cancer and to racial cancer disparities in 70% of analyses, even after controlling for socioeconomic status and health insurance. Residing in segregated African-American areas was associated with higher odds of later-stage diagnosis of breast and lung cancers, higher mortality rates and lower survival rates from breast and lung cancers, and higher cumulative cancer risks associated with exposure to ambient air toxics. There were no studies of many types of cancer (e.g., cervical). Studies differed in their measure of segregation, and 40% used an invalid measure. Possible mediators of the segregation effect usually were not tested. Empirical analysis of segregation and racial cancer disparities is a recent area of research. The literature is limited to 17 studies that focused primarily on breast cancer. Studies differed in their measure of segregation, yet segregation nonetheless contributed to cancer and to racial cancer disparities in 70% of analyses. This suggests the need for further research that uses valid measures of segregation, examines a variety of types of cancers, and explores the variables that may mediate the segregation effect.

  15. Primary Care Providers Perceptions of Racial/Ethnic and Socioeconomic Disparities in Hypertension Control

    PubMed Central

    Nuccio, Eugene; Leiferman, Jenn A.; Sauaia, Angela

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the attitudes and perceptions of primary care providers (PCPs) regarding the presence and underlying sources of racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in hypertension control. METHODS We conducted a survey of 115 PCPs from 2 large academic centers in Colorado. We included physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants. The survey assessed provider recognition and perceived contributors of disparities in hypertension control. RESULTS Respondents were primarily female (66%), non-Hispanic White (84%), and physicians (80%). Among respondents, 67% and 73% supported the collection of data on the patients’ race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES), respectively. Eighty-six percent and 89% agreed that disparities in race/ethnicity and SES existed in hypertension care within the US health system. However, only 33% and 44% thought racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities existed in the care of their own patients. Providers were more likely to perceive patient factors rather than provider or health system factors as mediators of disparities. However, most supported interventions such as improving provider communication skills (87%) and cultural competency training (89%) to reduce disparities in hypertension control. CONCLUSIONS Most providers acknowledged that racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in hypertension control exist in the US health system, but only a minority reported disparities in care among patients they personally treat. Our study highlights the need for testing an intervention aimed at increasing provider awareness of disparities within the local health setting to improve hypertension control for minority patients. PMID:25631381

  16. Ethnic and Racial Disparities in Education: Psychology's Role in Understanding and Reducing Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintana, Stephen M.; Mahgoub, Lana

    2016-01-01

    We review the scope and sources of ethnic and racial disparities in education with a focus on the the implications of psychological theory and research for understanding and redressing these disparities. We identify 3 sources of ethnic and racial disparities including (a) social class differences, (b) differential treatment based on ethnic and…

  17. Racial/Ethnic Variations in Women's Health: The Social Embeddedness of Health

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.

    2002-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the magnitude of and trends in racial/ethnic disparities in health for women in the United States. It emphasizes the importance of attending to diversity in the health profiles and populations of minority women. Socioeconomic status is a central determinant of racial/ethnic disparities in health, but several other factors, including medical care, geographic location, migration and acculturation, racism, and exposure to stress and resources also play a role. There is a need for renewed attention to monitoring, understanding, and actively seeking to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health. PMID:11919058

  18. Racial Disparities in Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Cary P.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Wolf, Elizabeth; Andersen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to determine whether racial disparities in cancer therapy had diminished since the time they were initially documented in the early 1990s. METHODS The authors identified a cohort of patients in the SEER-Medicare linked database who were ages 66 to 85 years and who had a primary diagnosis of colorectal, breast, lung, or prostate cancer during 1992 through 2002. The authors identified 7 stage-specific processes of cancer therapy by using Medicare claims. Candidate covariates in multivariate logistic regression included year, clinical, and sociodemographic characteristics, and physician access before cancer diagnosis. RESULTS During the full study period, black patients were significantly less likely than white patients to receive therapy for cancers of the lung (surgical resection of early stage, 64.0% vs 78.5% for blacks and whites, respectively), breast (radiation after lumpectomy, 77.8% vs 85.8%), colon (adjuvant therapy for stage III, 52.1% vs 64.1%), and prostate (definitive therapy for early stage, 72.4% vs 77.2%, respectively). For both black and white patients, there was little or no improvement in the proportion of patients receiving therapy for most cancer therapies studied, and there was no decrease in the magnitude of any of these racial disparities between 1992 and 2002. Racial disparities persisted even after restricting the analysis to patients who had physician access before their diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS There has been little improvement in either the overall proportion of Medicare beneficiaries receiving cancer therapies or the magnitude of racial disparity. Efforts in the last decade to mitigate cancer therapy disparities appear to have been unsuccessful. PMID:18181101

  19. Not Near Enough: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Access to Nearby Behavioral Health Care and Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    VanderWielen, Lynn M.; Gilchrist, Emma C.; Nowels, Molly A.; Petterson, Stephen M.; Rust, George; Miller, Benjamin F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Racial, ethnic, and geographical health disparities have been widely documented in the United States. However, little attention has been directed towards disparities associated with integrated behavioral health and primary care services. Methods Access to behavioral health professionals among primary care physicians was examined using multinomial logistic regression analyses with 2010 National Plan and Provider Enumeration System, American Medical Association Physician Masterfile, and American Community Survey data. Results Primary care providers practicing in neighborhoods with higher percentages of African Americans and Hispanics were less likely to have geographically proximate behavioral health professionals. Primary care providers in rural areas were less likely to have geographically proximate behavioral health professionals. Conclusion Neighborhood-level factors are associated with access to nearby behavioral health and primary care. Additional behavioral health professionals are needed in racial/ ethnic minority neighborhoods and rural areas to provide access to behavioral health services, and to progress toward more integrated primary care. PMID:26320931

  20. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care Access and Utilization Under the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Mortensen, Karoline; Ortega, Alexander N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine racial and ethnic disparities in health care access and utilization after the Affordable Care Act (ACA) health insurance mandate was fully implemented in 2014. Research Design: Using the 2011–2014 National Health Interview Survey, we examine changes in health care access and utilization for the nonelderly US adult population. Multivariate linear probability models are estimated to adjust for demographic and sociodemographic factors. Results: The implementation of the ACA (year indicator 2014) is associated with significant reductions in the probabilities of being uninsured (coef=−0.03, P<0.001), delaying any necessary care (coef=−0.03, P<0.001), forgoing any necessary care (coef=−0.02, P<0.001), and a significant increase in the probability of having any physician visits (coef=0.02, P<0.001), compared with the reference year 2011. Interaction terms between the 2014 year indicator and race/ethnicity demonstrate that uninsured rates decreased more substantially among non-Latino African Americans (African Americans) (coef=−0.04, P<0.001) and Latinos (coef=−0.03, P<0.001) compared with non-Latino whites (whites). Latinos were less likely than whites to delay (coef=−0.02, P<0.001) or forgo (coef=−0.02, P<0.001) any necessary care and were more likely to have physician visits (coef=0.03, P<0.005) in 2014. The association between year indicator of 2014 and the probability of having any emergency department visits is not significant. Conclusions: Health care access and insurance coverage are major factors that contributed to racial and ethnic disparities before the ACA implementation. Our results demonstrate that racial and ethnic disparities in access have been reduced significantly during the initial years of the ACA implementation that expanded access and mandated that individuals obtain health insurance. PMID:26595227

  1. "Every shut eye, ain't sleep": The role of racism-related vigilance in racial/ethnic disparities in sleep difficulty.

    PubMed

    Hicken, Margaret T; Lee, Hedwig; Ailshire, Jennifer; Burgard, Sarah A; Williams, David R

    2013-06-01

    Although racial/ethnic disparities in health have been well-characterized in biomedical, public health, and social science research, the determinants of these disparities are still not well-understood. Chronic psychosocial stress related specifically to the American experience of institutional and interpersonal racial discrimination may be an important determinant of these disparities, as a growing literature in separate scientific disciplines documents the adverse health effects of stress and the greater levels of stress experienced by non-White compared to White Americans. However, the empirical literature on the importance of stress for health and health disparities specifically due to racial discrimination, using population-representative data, is still small and mixed. In this paper, we explore the association between a novel measure of racially-salient chronic stress - "racism-related vigilance" - and sleep difficulty. We found that, compared to the White adults in our sample, Black (but not Hispanic) adults reported greater levels of vigilance. This vigilance was positively associated with sleep difficulty to similar degrees for all racial/ethnic groups in our sample (White, Black, Hispanic). Black adults reported greater levels of sleep difficulty compared to White adults. This disparity was slightly attenuated after adjustment for education and income. However, this disparity was completely attenuated after adjustment for racism-related vigilance. We found similar patterns of results for Hispanic compared to White adults, however, the disparities in sleep difficulty were smaller and not statistically significant. Because of the importance of sleep quality to health, our results suggest that the anticipation of and perseveration about racial discrimination is an important determinant of racial disparities in health.

  2. Can Cultural Competency Reduce Racial And Ethnic Health Disparities? A Review And Conceptual Model

    PubMed Central

    Brach, Cindy; Fraserirector, Irene

    2016-01-01

    This article develops a conceptual model of cultural competency’s potential to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities, using the cultural competency and disparities literature to lay the foundation for the model and inform assessments of its validity. The authors identify nine major cultural competency techniques: interpreter services, recruitment and retention policies, training, coordinating with traditional healers, use of community health workers, culturally competent health promotion, including family/community members, immersion into another culture, and administrative and organizational accommodations. The conceptual model shows how these techniques could theoretically improve the ability of health systems and their clinicians to deliver appropriate services to diverse populations, thereby improving outcomes and reducing disparities. The authors conclude that while there is substantial research evidence to suggest that cultural competency should in fact work, health systems have little evidence about which cultural competency techniques are effective and less evidence on when and how to implement them properly. PMID:11092163

  3. Racial disparity in blood pressure: is vitamin D a factor?

    PubMed

    Fiscella, Kevin; Winters, Paul; Tancredi, Dan; Franks, Peter

    2011-10-01

    Higher prevalence of hypertension among African Americans is a key cause of racial disparity in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Explanations for the difference in prevalence are incomplete. Emerging data suggest that low vitamin D levels may contribute. To assess the contribution of vitamin D to racial disparity in blood pressure. Cross-sectional analysis. Adult non-Hispanic Black and White participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2006. We assessed Black-White differences in systolic blood pressure (SBP) controlling for conventional risk factors, and then additionally, for vitamin D (serum 25[OH]D). The sample included 1984 and 5156 Black and White participants ages 20 years and older. The mean age-sex adjusted Black-White SBP difference was 5.2 mm Hg. This difference was reduced to 4.0 mm Hg with additional adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics, health status, health care, health behaviors, and biomarkers; adding 25(OH)D reduced the race difference by 26% (95% CI 7-46%) to 2.9 mm Hg. This effect increased to 39% (95% CI 14-65%) when those on antihypertensive medications were excluded. Supplementary analyses that controlled for cardiovascular fitness, percent body fat, physical activity monitoring, skin type and social support yielded consistent results. In cross-sectional analyses, 25(OH)D explains one quarter of the Black-White disparity in SBP. Randomized controlled trials are required to determine whether vitamin D supplementation could reduce racial disparity in BP.

  4. Asthma and Health Disparities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Breathing Easier Asthma and Health Disparities Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of Contents Among ... Action Plan to Reduce Racial and Ethnic Asthma Disparities. The Action Plan presents a framework to maximize ...

  5. Racial Disparity in Minnesota's Child Protection System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erik P.; Clark, Sonja; Donald, Matthew; Pedersen, Rachel; Pichotta, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Minnesota has been recognized by several studies as a state with a significant amount of racial disparity in its child protection system. This study, using 2001 data from Minnesota's Social Services Information Service, was conducted to determine at which of the six decision points in Minnesota's child welfare system racial disparities are…

  6. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Influenza Vaccination of Chronically Ill US Adults: The Mediating Role of Perceived Discrimination in Health Care.

    PubMed

    Bleser, William K; Miranda, Patricia Y; Jean-Jacques, Muriel

    2016-06-01

    Despite well-established programs, influenza vaccination rates in US adults are well below federal benchmarks and exhibit well-documented, persistent racial and ethnic disparities. The causes of these disparities are multifactorial and complex, though perceived racial/ethnic discrimination in health care is 1 hypothesized mechanism. To assess the role of perceived discrimination in health care in mediating influenza vaccination RACIAL/ETHNIC disparities in chronically ill US adults (at high risk for influenza-related complications). We utilized 2011-2012 data from the Aligning Forces for Quality Consumer Survey on health and health care (n=8127), nationally representative of chronically ill US adults. Logistic regression marginal effects examined the relationship between race/ethnicity and influenza vaccination, both unadjusted and in multivariate models adjusted for determinants of health service use. We then used binary mediation analysis to calculate and test the significance of the percentage of this relationship mediated by perceived discrimination in health care. Respondents reporting perceived discrimination in health care had half the uptake as those without discrimination (32% vs. 60%, P=0.009). The change in predicted probability of vaccination given perceived discrimination experiences (vs. none) was large but not significant in the fully adjusted model (-0.185; 95% CI, -0.385, 0.014). Perceived discrimination significantly mediated 16% of the unadjusted association between race/ethnicity and influenza vaccination, though this dropped to 6% and lost statistical significance in multivariate models. The causes of persistent racial/ethnic disparities are complex and a single explanation is unlikely to be sufficient. We suggest reevaluation in a larger cohort as well as potential directions for future research.

  7. Does Medicaid Managed Care Help Equalize Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Utilization?

    PubMed

    Marton, James; Yelowitz, Aaron; Shores, Meredith; Talbert, Jeffery C

    2016-06-01

    To estimate the impact of different forms of Medicaid managed care (MMC) delivery on racial and ethnic disparities in utilization. Longitudinal, administrative data on 101,649 children in Kentucky continuously enrolled in Medicaid between January 1997 and June 1999. Outcomes considered are monthly professional, outpatient, and inpatient utilization. We apply an intent-to-treat, instrumental variables analysis using the staggered geographic implementation of MMC to create treatment and control groups of children. The implementation of MMC reduced monthly professional visits by a smaller degree for non-whites than whites (3.8 percentage points vs. 6.2 percentage points), thereby helping to equalize the initial racial/ethnic disparity in utilization. The Passport MMC program in the Louisville-centered region statistically significantly reduced disparities for professional visits (closing the gap by 8.0 percentage points), while the Kentucky Health Select MMC program in the Lexington-centered region did not. No substantive impact on disparities was found for either outpatient or inpatient utilization in either program. We find evidence that MMC has the possibility to reduce racial/ethnic disparities in professional utilization. More work is needed to determine which managed care program characteristics drive this result. © 2015 The Authors. Health Services Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Health Research and Educational Trust.

  8. microRNA in Prostate Cancer Racial Disparities and Aggressiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0477 TITLE: microRNA in Prostate Cancer Racial Disparities and Aggressiveness PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Cathryn...microRNA in Prostate Cancer Racial Disparities and Aggressiveness 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0477 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...final analyses. 15. SUBJECT TERMS prostate cancer, microRNA, racial disparities, African American, genetic polymorphisms, biochemical recurrence

  9. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Early Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Isong, Inyang A; Rao, Sowmya R; Bind, Marie-Abèle; Avendaño, Mauricio; Kawachi, Ichiro; Richmond, Tracy K

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity is significantly higher among racial and/or ethnic minority children in the United States. It is unclear to what extent well-established obesity risk factors in infancy and preschool explain these disparities. Our objective was to decompose racial and/or ethnic disparities in children's weight status according to contributing socioeconomic and behavioral risk factors. We used nationally representative data from ∼10 700 children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort who were followed from age 9 months through kindergarten entry. We assessed the contribution of socioeconomic factors and maternal, infancy, and early childhood obesity risk factors to racial and/or ethnic disparities in children's BMI z scores by using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analyses. The prevalence of risk factors varied significantly by race and/or ethnicity. African American children had the highest prevalence of risk factors, whereas Asian children had the lowest prevalence. The major contributor to the BMI z score gap was the rate of infant weight gain during the first 9 months of life, which was a strong predictor of BMI z score at kindergarten entry. The rate of infant weight gain accounted for between 14.9% and 70.5% of explained disparities between white children and their racial and/or ethnic minority peers. Gaps in socioeconomic status were another important contributor that explained disparities, especially those between white and Hispanic children. Early childhood risk factors, such as fruit and vegetable consumption and television viewing, played less important roles in explaining racial and/or ethnic differences in children's BMI z scores. Differences in rapid infant weight gain contribute substantially to racial and/or ethnic disparities in obesity during early childhood. Interventions implemented early in life to target this risk factor could help curb widening racial and/or ethnic disparities in early childhood obesity

  10. RACIAL AND ETHNIC APPROACHES TO COMMUNITY HEALTH (REACH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 is the cornerstone of CDC's efforts to eliminate racial and ethnic disparities in health. Launched in 1999, REACH 2010 is designed to eliminate disparities in the following six priority areas: cardiovascular disease, i...

  11. Health disparities and gaps in school readiness.

    PubMed

    Currie, Janet

    2005-01-01

    The author documents pervasive racial disparities in the health of American children and analyzes how and how much those disparities contribute to racial gaps in school readiness. She explores a broad sample of health problems common to U.S. children, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, asthma, and lead poisoning, as well as maternal health problems and health-related behaviors that affect children's behavioral and cognitive readiness for school. If a health problem is to affect the readiness gap, it must affect many children, it must be linked to academic performance or behavior problems, and it must show a racial disparity either in its prevalence or in its effects. The author focuses not only on the black-white gap in health status but also on the poor-nonpoor gap because black children tend to be poorer than white children. The health conditions Currie considers seriously impair cognitive skills and behavior in individual children. But most explain little of the overall racial gap in school readiness. Still, the cumulative effect of health differentials summed over all conditions is significant. Currie's rough calculation is that racial differences in health conditions and in maternal health and behaviors together may account for as much as a quarter of the racial gap in school readiness. Currie scrutinizes several policy steps to lessen racial and socioeconomic disparities in children's health and to begin to close the readiness gap. Increasing poor children's eligibility for Medicaid and state child health insurance is unlikely to be effective because most poor children are already eligible for public insurance. The problem is that many are not enrolled. Even increasing enrollment may not work: socioeconomic disparities in health persist in Canada and the United Kingdom despite universal public health insurance. The author finds more promise in strengthening early childhood programs with a built-in health component, like Head Start; family

  12. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Disability Prevalence.

    PubMed

    Goyat, Rashmi; Vyas, Ami; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2016-12-01

    Worldwide, the number of disabled individuals is used as a marker for population health status because of high morbidity and mortality burden associated with disability. The primary objective of the current study is to use the 2012 NHIS disability supplement and examine racial/ethnic disparities in disability after controlling for a comprehensive list of factors, using the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (WHO-ICF). A retrospective cross-sectional study design with data from 7993 individuals aged above 21 years from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) was adopted. Disability was defined based on a standard set of questions related to mobility, self-care, and cognition from the "Functioning and Disability" supplement of 2012 NHIS. Chi-squared tests and multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to examine the association between race/ethnicity and disability. There were statistically significant racial/ethnic differences in disability status; 10.2 % non-Hispanic whites, 14.8 % non-Hispanic African Americans, 8.1 % Latino, and 6.7 % other racial minorities had severe disability. Non-Hispanic African Americans were more likely to have severe disability than were non-Hispanic whites (OR = 1.56, 95 % CI = 1.24, 1.95), and Latinos were less likely to have severe disability (OR = 0.70, 95 % CI = 0.55, 0.90) in the unadjusted model. There was no difference in disability status among non-Hispanic African Americans and non-Hispanic whites after adjusting for socio-economic status. The study findings highlighted the role of socio-economic characteristics in reducing disparities in disability between non-Hispanic African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. As SES can affect health through a complex interaction of biological, psychological, lifestyle, environmental, social, and neighborhood factors, a multipronged approach that focuses on primary, secondary, and territory prevention of disability is

  13. Racial disparity: substance dependency and psychological health problems among welfare recipients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Hines, Lisa D

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the racial disparity of substance dependency and psychological health among White, African American, and Hispanic Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) recipients as well as the relationship between substance dependency and psychological health. It analyzed 1,286 TANF recipients from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data. Analysis of variance indicated that Whites were experiencing more nicotine and alcohol dependency and psychological distress than others, but African Americans and Hispanics were experiencing more cocaine dependency than Whites. Ordinary least squares regression revealed that nicotine dependency is significantly related to the psychological distress of Whites. Alcohol dependency is significantly associated with the psychological distress of three groups. Culturally competent programs are suggested.

  14. Racial/Ethnic Variations in Women’s Health: The Social Embeddedness of Health

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the magnitude of and trends in racial/ethnic disparities in health for women in the United States. It emphasizes the importance of attending to diversity in the health profiles and populations of minority women. Socioeconomic status is a central determinant of racial/ethnic disparities in health, but several other factors, including medical care, geographic location, migration and acculturation, racism, and exposure to stress and resources also play a role. There is a need for renewed attention to monitoring, understanding, and actively seeking to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health. PMID:18687617

  15. America's Health Centers: reducing racial and ethnic disparities in perinatal care and birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Leiyu; Stevens, Gregory D; Wulu, John T; Politzer, Robert M; Xu, Jiahong

    2004-12-01

    To examine whether community health centers (CHCs) reduce racial/ethnic disparities in perinatal care and birth outcomes, and to identify CHC characteristics associated with better outcomes. Despite great national wealth, the U.S. continues to rank poorly relative to other industrialized nations on infant mortality and other birth outcomes, and with wide inequities by race/ethnicity. Disparities in primary care (including perinatal care) may contribute to disparities in birth outcomes, which may be addressed by CHCs that provide safety-net medical services to vulnerable populations. Data are from annual Uniform Data System reports submitted to the Bureau of Primary Health Care over six years (1996-2001) by about 700 CHCs each year. Across all years, about 60% of CHC mothers received first-trimester prenatal care and more than 70% received postpartum and newborn care. In 2001, Asian mothers were the most likely to receive both postpartum and newborn care (81.7% and 80.3%), followed by Hispanics (75.0% and 76.3%), blacks (70.8% and 69.9%), and whites (70.7% and 66.7%). In 2001, blacks had higher rates of low birth weight (LBW) babies (10.4%), but the disparity in rates for blacks and whites was smaller in CHCs (3.3 percentage points) compared to national disparities for low-socioeconomic status mothers (5.8 percentage points) and the total population (6.2 percentage points). In CHCs, greater perinatal care capacity was associated with higher rates of first-trimester prenatal care, which was associated with a lower LBW rate. Racial/ethnic disparities in certain prenatal services and birth outcomes may be lower in CHCs compared to the general population, despite serving higher-risk groups. Within CHCs, increasing first-trimester prenatal care use through perinatal care capacity may lead to further improvement in birth outcomes for the underserved.

  16. Reduction of racial/ethnic disparities in vaccination coverage, 1995-2011.

    PubMed

    Walker, Allison T; Smith, Philip J; Kolasa, Maureen

    2014-04-18

    The Presidential Childhood Immunization Initiative was developed in 1993 to address major gaps in childhood vaccination coverage in the United States. Eliminating the cost of vaccines as a barrier to vaccination was one strategy of the Childhood Immunization Initiative; it led to Congressional legislation that authorized creation of the Vaccines for Children program (VFC) in 1994. CDC analyzed National Immunization Survey data for 1995-2011 to evaluate trends in disparities in vaccination coverage rates between non-Hispanic white children and children of other racial/ethnic groups. VFC has been effective in ireducing disparities in vaccination coverage among U.S. children. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion that follows to provide an example of a program that has been effective in reducing childhood vaccination coverage-related disparities in the United States. At its inception in 1994, VFC was implemented in 78 Immunization Action Plan areas that covered the entire United States; within each area, concerted efforts were made to improve childhood vaccination coverage. The findings in this report demonstrate that there have been no racial/ethnic disparities in vaccine coverage for measles-mumps-rubella and poliovirus in the United States since 2005. Disparities in coverage for the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis/diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine were absent, declining, or inconsistent during this period, depending on the racial/ethnic group examined. The results in this report highlight the effectiveness of VFC.

  17. Health Disparities and Gaps in School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Janet

    2005-01-01

    The author documents pervasive racial disparities in the health of American children and analyzes how and how much those disparities contribute to racial gaps in school readiness. She explores a broad sample of health problems common to U.S. children, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, asthma, and lead poisoning, as well as maternal…

  18. From Politics to Parity: Using a Health Disparities Index to Guide Legislative Efforts for Health Equity

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Sean L.; Hairston, Kristen G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We created an index quantifying the longitudinal burden of racial health disparities by state and compared this index to variables to guide the construction of, and validate support for, legislative efforts aimed at eliminating health disparities. Methods. We evaluated 5 focus areas of greatest racial disparities in health from 1999 to 2005 and compiled state health disparities index (HDI) scores. We compared these scores with variables representing the purported social determinants of health. Results. Massachusetts (0.35), Oklahoma (0.35), and Washington (0.39) averaged the fewest disparities. Michigan (1.22), Wisconsin (1.32), and Illinois (1.50) averaged the greatest disparities. The statistical reference point for nationwide average racial disparities was 1.00. The longitudinal mixed model procedure yielded statistically significant correlations between HDI scores and Black state population percentage as well as with the racial gap in uninsured percentages. We noted a trend for HDI correlations with median household income ratios. Conclusions. On the basis of the HDI-established trends in the extent and distribution of racial health disparities, and their correlated social determinants of health, policymakers should consider incorporating this tool to advise future efforts in minority health legislation. PMID:21233445

  19. Racial Disparities in Cardiovascular Health Behaviors: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kara M; Jacobs, David R; Kershaw, Kiarri N; Demmer, Ryan T; Booth, John N; Carson, April P; Lewis, Cora E; Goff, David C; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Kiefe, Catarina I

    2018-07-01

    There are known racial differences in cardiovascular health behaviors, including smoking, physical activity, and diet quality. A better understanding of these differences may help identify intervention targets for reducing cardiovascular disease disparities. This study examined whether socioeconomic, psychosocial, and neighborhood environmental factors, in isolation or together, mediate racial differences in health behaviors. Participants were 3,081 men and women from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study who were enrolled in 1985-1986 (Year 0) and completed a follow-up examination in 2015-2016 (Year 30). A health behavior score was created at Years 0, 7, 20, and 30 using smoking, physical activity, and diet assessed that year. The race difference in health behavior score was estimated using linear regression in serial cross-sectional analyses. Mediation analyses computed the proportion of the race and health behavior score association attributable to socioeconomic, psychosocial, and neighborhood factors. Data analysis conducted in 2016-2017 found that blacks had significantly lower health behavior scores than whites across 30 years of follow-up. Individual socioeconomic factors mediated 48.9%-70.1% of the association between race and health behavior score, psychosocial factors 20.3%-30.0%, and neighborhood factors 22.1%-41.4% (p<0.01 for all). Racial differences in health behavior scores appear to be mediated predominately by correspondingly large differences in socioeconomic factors. This study highlights the profound impact of socioeconomic factors, which are mostly not under an individual's control, on health behaviors. Policy action targeting socioeconomic factors may help reduce disparities in health behaviors. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Racial/Ethnic and Gender Disparities in Health Care Use and Access.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Jennifer I

    2018-06-01

    To document racial/ethnic and gender differences in health service use and access after the Affordable Care Act went into effect. Secondary data from the 2006-2014 National Health Interview Survey. Linear probability models were used to estimate changes in health service use and access (i.e., unmet medical need) in two separate analyses using data from 2006 to 2014 and 2012 to 2014. Adult respondents aged 18 years and older (N = 257,560). Results from the 2006-2014 and 2012-2014 analyses show differential patterns in health service use and access by race/ethnicity and gender. Non-Hispanic whites had the greatest gains in health service use and access across both analyses. While there was significant progress among Hispanic respondents from 2012 to 2014, no significant changes were found pre-post-health care reform, suggesting access may have worsened before improving for this group. Asian men had the largest increase in office visits between 2006 and 2014, and although not statistically significant, the increase continued 2012-2014. Black women and men fared the worst with respect to changes in health care access. Ongoing research is needed to track patterns of health service use and access, especially among vulnerable racial/ethnic and gender groups, to determine whether existing efforts under health care reform reduce long-standing disparities. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  1. Health disparities and health equity: concepts and measurement.

    PubMed

    Braveman, Paula

    2006-01-01

    There is little consensus about the meaning of the terms "health disparities," "health inequalities," or "health equity." The definitions can have important practical consequences, determining the measurements that are monitored by governments and international agencies and the activities that will be supported by resources earmarked to address health disparities/inequalities or health equity. This paper aims to clarify the concepts of health disparities/inequalities (used interchangeably here) and health equity, focusing on the implications of different definitions for measurement and hence for accountability. Health disparities/inequalities do not refer to all differences in health. A health disparity/inequality is a particular type of difference in health (or in the most important influences on health that could potentially be shaped by policies); it is a difference in which disadvantaged social groups-such as the poor, racial/ethnic minorities, women, or other groups who have persistently experienced social disadvantage or discrimination-systematically experience worse health or greater health risks than more advantaged social groups. ("Social advantage" refers to one's relative position in a social hierarchy determined by wealth, power, and/or prestige.) Health disparities/inequalities include differences between the most advantaged group in a given category-e.g., the wealthiest, the most powerful racial/ethnic group-and all others, not only between the best- and worst-off groups. Pursuing health equity means pursuing the elimination of such health disparities/inequalities.

  2. Health Literacy and Education as Mediators of Racial Disparities in Patient Activation Within an Elderly Patient Cohort.

    PubMed

    Eneanya, Nwamaka D; Winter, Michael; Cabral, Howard; Waite, Katherine; Henault, Lori; Bickmore, Timothy; Hanchate, Amresh; Wolf, Michael; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    The Patient Activation Measure (PAM) assesses facets of patient engagement to identify proactive health behaviors and is an important predictor of health outcomes. Health literacy and education are also important for patient participation and successful navigation of the health care system. Because health literacy, education, and patient activation are associated with racial disparities, we sought to investigate whether health literacy and education would mediate racial differences in patient activation. Participants were 265 older adults who participated in a computer-based exercise interventional study. Health literacy was assessed using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA). Of 210 eligible participants, 72% self-identified as Black and 28% as White. In adjusted analyses, education and health literacy each significantly reduced racial differences in patient activation. These findings are especially important when considering emerging data on the significance of patient activation and new strategies to increase patient engagement.

  3. Factors Explaining Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Rates of Physician Recommendation for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Valerie; Winter, Kelly; Albatineh, Ahmed N.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Physician recommendation plays a crucial role in receiving endoscopic screening for colorectal cancer (CRC). This study explored factors associated with racial/ethnic differences in rates of screening recommendation. Methods. Data on 5900 adults eligible for endoscopic screening were obtained from the National Health Interview Survey. Odds ratios of receiving an endoscopy recommendation were calculated for selected variables. Planned, sequenced logistic regressions were conducted to examine the extent to which socioeconomic and health care variables account for racial/ethnic disparities in recommendation rates. Results. Differential rates were observed for CRC screening and screening recommendations among racial/ethnic groups. Compared with Whites, Hispanics were 34% less likely (P < .01) and Blacks were 26% less likely (P < .05) to receive this recommendation. The main predictors that emerged in sequenced analysis were education for Hispanics and Blacks and income for Blacks. After accounting for the effects of usual source of care, insurance coverage, and education, the disparity reduced and became statistically insignificant. Conclusions. Socioeconomic status and access to health care may explain major racial/ethnic disparities in CRC screening recommendation rates. PMID:23678899

  4. Cumulative Inequality and Racial Disparities in Health: Private Insurance Coverage and Black/White Differences in Functional Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Miles G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To test different forms of private insurance coverage as mediators for racial disparities in onset, persistent level, and acceleration of functional limitations among Medicare age-eligible Americans. Method. Data come from 7 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (1996–2008). Onset and progression latent growth models were used to estimate racial differences in onset, level, and growth of functional limitations among a sample of 5,755 people aged 65 and older in 1996. Employer-provided insurance, spousal insurance, and market insurance were next added to the model to test how differences in private insurance mediated the racial gap in physical limitations. Results. In baseline models, African Americans had larger persistent level of limitations over time. Although employer-provided, spousal provided, and market insurances were directly associated with lower persistent levels of limitation, only differences in market insurance accounted for the racial disparities in persistent level of limitations. Discussion. Results suggest private insurance is important for reducing functional limitations, but market insurance is an important mediator of the persistently larger level of limitations observed among African Americans. PMID:24569001

  5. Poverty and elimination of urban health disparities: challenge and opportunity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Stephen B; Quinn, Sandra Crouse

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the intersection of race and poverty, two critical factors fueling persistent racial and ethnic health disparities among urban populations. From the morass of social determinants that shape the health of racial and ethnic communities in our urban centers, we will offer promising practices and potential solutions to eliminating racial and ethnic health disparities.

  6. “Every shut eye, ain’t sleep”1: The role of racism-related vigilance in racial/ethnic disparities in sleep difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hedwig; Ailshire, Jennifer; Burgard, Sarah A.; Williams, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Although racial/ethnic disparities in health have been well-characterized in biomedical, public health, and social science research, the determinants of these disparities are still not well-understood. Chronic psychosocial stress related specifically to the American experience of institutional and interpersonal racial discrimination may be an important determinant of these disparities, as a growing literature in separate scientific disciplines documents the adverse health effects of stress and the greater levels of stress experienced by non-White compared to White Americans. However, the empirical literature on the importance of stress for health and health disparities specifically due to racial discrimination, using population-representative data, is still small and mixed. In this paper, we explore the association between a novel measure of racially-salient chronic stress – “racism-related vigilance” – and sleep difficulty. We found that, compared to the White adults in our sample, Black (but not Hispanic) adults reported greater levels of vigilance. This vigilance was positively associated with sleep difficulty to similar degrees for all racial/ethnic groups in our sample (White, Black, Hispanic). Black adults reported greater levels of sleep difficulty compared to White adults. This disparity was slightly attenuated after adjustment for education and income. However, this disparity was completely attenuated after adjustment for racism-related vigilance. We found similar patterns of results for Hispanic compared to White adults, however, the disparities in sleep difficulty were smaller and not statistically significant. Because of the importance of sleep quality to health, our results suggest that the anticipation of and perseveration about racial discrimination is an important determinant of racial disparities in health. PMID:23894254

  7. Racial Disparities in Mental Health Outcomes after Psychiatric Hospital Discharge among Individuals with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.

    2012-01-01

    Racial disparities in mental health outcomes have been widely documented in noninstitutionalized community psychiatric samples, but few studies have specifically examined the effects of race among individuals with the most severe mental illnesses. A sample of 925 individuals hospitalized for severe mental illness was followed for a year after…

  8. Reducing Racial Disparities in Breast Cancer Care: The Role of 'Big Data'.

    PubMed

    Reeder-Hayes, Katherine E; Troester, Melissa A; Meyer, Anne-Marie

    2017-10-15

    Advances in a wide array of scientific technologies have brought data of unprecedented volume and complexity into the oncology research space. These novel big data resources are applied across a variety of contexts-from health services research using data from insurance claims, cancer registries, and electronic health records, to deeper and broader genomic characterizations of disease. Several forms of big data show promise for improving our understanding of racial disparities in breast cancer, and for powering more intelligent and far-reaching interventions to close the racial gap in breast cancer survival. In this article we introduce several major types of big data used in breast cancer disparities research, highlight important findings to date, and discuss how big data may transform breast cancer disparities research in ways that lead to meaningful, lifesaving changes in breast cancer screening and treatment. We also discuss key challenges that may hinder progress in using big data for cancer disparities research and quality improvement.

  9. Theory-Guided Selection of Discrimination Measures for Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities Research among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, Angela D.; Clay, Olivio J.; Ford, Chandra L.; Stewart, Anita L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Discrimination may contribute to health disparities among older adults. Existing measures of perceived discrimination have provided important insights but may have limitations when used in studies of older adults. This paper illustrates the process of assessing the appropriateness of existing measures for theory-based research on perceived discrimination and health. Methods First we describe three theoretical frameworks that are relevant to the study of perceived discrimination and health – stress-process models, life course models, and the Public Health Critical Race praxis. We then review four widely-used measures of discrimination, comparing their content and describing how well they address key aspects of each theory, and discussing potential areas of modification. Discussion Using theory to guide measure selection can help improve understanding of how perceived discrimination may contribute to racial/ethnic health disparities among older adults. PMID:22451527

  10. Racial Disparities in Hepatitis C Treatment Eligibility.

    PubMed

    Sims, Omar; Pollio, David; Hong, Barry; North, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis C (HCV) is more prevalent in African Americans than in any other racial group in the United States. However, African Americans are more likely to be deemed ineligible for HCV treatment than non-African Americans. There has been limited research into the origins of racial disparities in HCV treatment eligibility. The purpose of this study was to compare medical and non-medical characteristics commonly assessed in clinical practice that could potentially contribute to HCV treatment ineligibility disparities between African American and non-African American patients. Patients with confirmed HCV RNA considering treatment (n = 309) were recruited from university-affiliated and VA liver and infectious disease clinics. African Americans and non-African Americans did not differ in prevalence of lifetime and current psychiatric disorders and risky behaviors, and HCV knowledge. HCV clinical characteristics were similar between both groups in terms of HCV exposure history, number of months aware of HCV diagnosis, stage of fibrosis, and HCV virologic levels. African Americans did have higher proportions of diabetes, renal disease, and bleeding ulcer. No clinical evidence was found to indicate that African Americans should be more often deemed ineligible for HCV treatment than other racial groups. Diabetes and renal disease do not fully explain the HCV treatment ineligibility racial disparity, because HCV patients with these conditions are priority patients for HCV treatment because of their greater risk for cirrhosis, steatosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The findings suggest that an underlying contributor to the HCV treatment eligibility disparity disfavoring African Americans could be racial discrimination.

  11. Perspectives of Orthopedic Surgeons on Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Care.

    PubMed

    Adelani, Muyibat A; O'Connor, Mary I

    2017-08-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in healthcare, including orthopedics, have been extensively documented. However, the level of knowledge among orthopedic surgeons regarding racial/ethnic disparities is unknown. The purpose of this study is to determine the views of orthopedic surgeons on (1) the extent of racial/ethnic disparities in orthopedic care, (2) patient and system factors that may contribute, and (3) the potential role of orthopedic surgeons in the reduction of disparities. Three hundred five members of the American Orthopaedic Association completed a survey to assess their knowledge of racial/ethnic disparities and their perceptions about the underlying causes. Twelve percent of respondents believe that patients often receive different care based on race/ethnicity in healthcare in general, while 9 % believe that differences exist in orthopedic care in general, 3 % believe that differences exist within their hospitals/clinics, and 1 % reported differences in their own practices. Despite this, 68 % acknowledge that there is evidence of disparities in orthopedic care. Fifty-one percent believe that a lack of insurance significantly contributes to disparities. Thirty-five percent believe that diversification of the orthopedic workforce would be a "very effective" strategy in addressing disparities, while 25 % percent believe that research would be "very effective" and 24 % believe that surgeon education would be "very effective." Awareness regarding racial/ethnic disparities in musculoskeletal care is low among orthopedic surgeons. Additionally, respondents were more likely to acknowledge disparities within the practices of others than their own. Increased diversity, research, and education may help improve knowledge of this problem.

  12. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis by Kindergarten Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur by kindergarten entry is currently unknown. We investigated risk factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry generally, and specifically whether racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by…

  13. A selected, annotated list of materials that support the development of policies designed to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Donatiello, Joann E.; Droese, Peter W.; Kim, Soo H.

    2004-01-01

    Research documents the existence of racial and ethnic health disparities. As a result, policy makers are seeking to address these disparities. This list is a starting point for building or updating a collection that supports this policy development process. It is written for health policy librarians and researchers and includes annotated recommendations for books, periodicals, government publications, and Websites. Entries for print publications are primarily from 1998 to 2003. PMID:15098056

  14. A selected, annotated list of materials that support the development of policies designed to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities.

    PubMed

    Donatiello, Joann E; Droese, Peter W; Kim, Soo H

    2004-04-01

    Research documents the existence of racial and ethnic health disparities. As a result, policy makers are seeking to address these disparities. This list is a starting point for building or updating a collection that supports this policy development process. It is written for health policy librarians and researchers and includes annotated recommendations for books, periodicals, government publications, and Websites. Entries for print publications are primarily from 1998 to 2003.

  15. Interviewer-Perceived Honesty Mediates Racial Disparities in the Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Eack, Shaun M.; Bahorik, Amber L.; Newhill, Christina E.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Davis, Larry E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective African Americans are disproportionately diagnosed with schizophrenia, and the factors that contribute to this disparity are poorly understood. This study utilized data from the 1995 MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study to examine the impact of racial differences in sociodemographic characteristics, clinical presentation, and research interviewer perceptions of honesty on disparities in the diagnosis of schizophrenia in African Americans. Method African Americans (n = 215) and whites (n = 537) with severe mental illness receiving inpatient care were administered structured diagnostic, sociodemographic, and clinical measures during hospitalization. Assessments of interviewer-perceived honesty during diagnostic interviews were used to characterize interviewer perceptions of the patient, and their impact on racial disparities in the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Results African Americans were over three times as likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia (n = 97, 45%) compared to whites (n = 101, 19%). Disparities in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics modestly contributed to disparities in diagnostic rates. In contrast, interviewer-perceived honesty proved to be a significant predictor of racial disparities in schizophrenia diagnoses that when accounted for, substantially reduced diagnostic disparities between African Americans and whites. Mediator analyses confirmed that interviewer-perceived honesty was the only consistent mediator of the relationship between race and schizophrenia diagnosis. Conclusions Interviewer perceptions patient honesty are important contributors to disparities in the diagnosis of schizophrenia among African Americans, and may be reflective of poor patient-clinician relationships. Methods of facilitating a trusting relationship between patients and clinicians are needed to improve the assessment and treatment of minorities seeking mental health care. PMID:22751938

  16. Two Mechanisms: The Role of Social Capital and Industrial Pollution Exposure in Explaining Racial Disparities in Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Ard, Kerry; Colen, Cynthia; Becerra, Marisol; Velez, Thelma

    2016-01-01

    This study provides an empirical test of two mechanisms (social capital and exposure to air pollution) that are theorized to mediate the effect of neighborhood on health and contribute to racial disparities in health outcomes. To this end, we utilize the Social Capital Benchmark Study, a national survey of individuals nested within communities in the United States, to estimate how multiple dimensions of social capital and exposure to air pollution, explain racial disparities in self-rated health. Our main findings show that when controlling for individual-confounders, and nesting within communities, our indicator of cognitive bridging, generalized trust, decreases the gap in self-rated health between African Americans and Whites by 84%, and the gap between Hispanics and Whites by 54%. Our other indicator of cognitive social capital, cognitive linking as represented by engagement in politics, decreases the gap in health between Hispanics and Whites by 32%, but has little impact on African Americans. We also assessed whether the gap in health was explained by respondents’ estimated exposure to toxicity-weighted air pollutants from large industrial facilities over the previous year. Our results show that accounting for exposure to these toxins has no effect on the racial gap in self-rated health in these data. This paper contributes to the neighborhood effects literature by examining the impact that estimated annual industrial air pollution, and multiple measures of social capital, have on explaining the racial gap in health in a sample of individuals nested within communities across the United States. PMID:27775582

  17. Two Mechanisms: The Role of Social Capital and Industrial Pollution Exposure in Explaining Racial Disparities in Self-Rated Health.

    PubMed

    Ard, Kerry; Colen, Cynthia; Becerra, Marisol; Velez, Thelma

    2016-10-19

    This study provides an empirical test of two mechanisms (social capital and exposure to air pollution) that are theorized to mediate the effect of neighborhood on health and contribute to racial disparities in health outcomes. To this end, we utilize the Social Capital Benchmark Study, a national survey of individuals nested within communities in the United States, to estimate how multiple dimensions of social capital and exposure to air pollution, explain racial disparities in self-rated health. Our main findings show that when controlling for individual-confounders, and nesting within communities, our indicator of cognitive bridging, generalized trust, decreases the gap in self-rated health between African Americans and Whites by 84%, and the gap between Hispanics and Whites by 54%. Our other indicator of cognitive social capital, cognitive linking as represented by engagement in politics, decreases the gap in health between Hispanics and Whites by 32%, but has little impact on African Americans. We also assessed whether the gap in health was explained by respondents' estimated exposure to toxicity-weighted air pollutants from large industrial facilities over the previous year. Our results show that accounting for exposure to these toxins has no effect on the racial gap in self-rated health in these data. This paper contributes to the neighborhood effects literature by examining the impact that estimated annual industrial air pollution, and multiple measures of social capital, have on explaining the racial gap in health in a sample of individuals nested within communities across the United States.

  18. The role of neighborhood characteristics in racial/ethnic disparities in type 2 diabetes: Results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey

    PubMed Central

    Piccolo, Rebecca S.; Duncan, Dustin T.; Pearce, Neil; McKinlay, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are well documented and until recently, research has focused almost exclusively on individual-based determinants as potential contributors to these disparities (health behaviors, biological/genetic factors, and individual-level sociodemographics). Research on the role of neighborhood characteristics in relation to racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM is very limited. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify and estimate the contribution of specific aspects of neighborhoods that may be associated with racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM. Data from the Boston Area Community Health III Survey (N = 2,764) was used in this study, which is a community-based random-sample survey of adults in Boston, Massachusetts from three racial/ethnic groups (Black, Hispanic, and White). We applied two-level random intercepts logistic regression to assess the associations between race/ethnicity, neighborhood characteristics (census tract socioeconomic status, racial composition, property and violent crime, open space, geographic proximity to grocery stores, convenience stores, and fast food, and neighborhood disorder) and prevalent T2DM (fasting glucose > 125 mg/dL, HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, or self-report of a T2DM diagnosis). Black and Hispanic participants had 2.89 times and 1.48 times the odds of T2DM as White participants, respectively. Multilevel models indicated a significant between-neighborhood variance estimate of 0.943, providing evidence of neighborhood variation. Individual demographics (race/ethnicity, age and gender) explained 22.3% of the neighborhood variability in T2DM. The addition of neighborhood-level variables to the model had very little effect on the magnitude of the racial/ethnic disparities and on the between-neighborhood variability. For example, census tract poverty explained less than 1% and 6% of the excess odds of T2DM among Blacks and Hispanics and only 1.8% of the neighborhood

  19. Reducing and eliminating health disparities: a targeted approach.

    PubMed Central

    Green, B. Lee; Lewis, Rhonda K.; Bediako, Shawn M.

    2005-01-01

    Health disparities have dominated recent discourse among public health and medical researchers. Ever since the United States began to compile health statistics, differences in health status have been noted between majority and non-majority populations. Myriad approaches have been undertaken in an attempt to reduce or eliminate racial and ethnic disparities in health. However, the disparities continue to persist. We are at a point in our history where innovative strategies must be explored that will be more effective in addressing racial and ethnic disparities in health. In large part, health disparities exist as a result of inequitable distribution of goods, resources, services and power in America. We have learned that improvements in health cannot come about solely through primary and secondary interventions but rather through an examination of the availability of resources that would allow individuals to improve their health. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of the contextual factors that affect health disparities, to integrate theory to address disparities and to provide recommendations to encourage systematic changes to eliminate health disparities. It is hoped that this paper will bring about a national discussion relating to addressing the real issues we face in reducing and ultimately eliminating health disparities. PMID:15719868

  20. Disparities in treatment for substance use disorders and co-occurring disorders for ethnic/racial minority youth

    PubMed Central

    Alegria, Margarita; Carson, Nicholas J.; Goncalves, Marta; Keefe, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    Objective To review the literature on racial and ethnic disparities in behavioral health services and present recent data, focusing on services for substance use disorders (SUD) and comorbid mental health disorders for children and adolescents. Method A literature review was conducted of behavioral health services for minority youth. Papers were included if specific comparisons in receipt of SUD services for youth were made by race or ethnicity. The review was organized following the Sociocultural Framework. Results Compared to non-Latino Whites with SUD, Black adolescents with SUD report receiving less specialty and informal care, while Latinos with SUD report less informal services. Potential mechanisms of racial and ethnic disparities were identified in: federal and economic health care policies and regulations; the operation of the health care system and provider organization; provider level factors; the environmental context; the operation of the community system; and patient level factors. Significant disparities reductions could be achieved by adoption of certain state policies and regulations that increase eligibility in public insurance. There is also a need to study how the organization of treatment services might lead to service disparities, particularly problems in treatment completion. Institutional and family characteristics linked to better quality of care should be explored. Since treatments appear to work well independent of race/ethnicity, translational research to bring evidence based care in diverse communities can bolster their effectiveness. Conclusions Our review suggests promising venues to reduce ethnic and racial disparities in behavioral health services for ethnic and racial minority youth. PMID:21156267

  1. Epidemiology, Policy, and Racial/Ethnic Minority Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Offutt-Powell, Tabatha; Kaufman, Jay S.; Giles, Wayne; Mays, Vickie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Epidemiologists have long contributed to policy efforts to address health disparities. Three examples illustrate how epidemiologists have addressed health disparities in the U.S. and abroad through a “social determinants of health” lens. Methods To identify examples of how epidemiologic research has been applied to reduce health disparities, we queried epidemiologists engaged in disparities research in the U.S., Canada, and New Zealand, and drew upon the scientific literature. Results Resulting examples covered a wide range of topic areas. Three areas selected for their contributions to policy were: 1) epidemiology's role in definition and measurement, 2) the study of housing and asthma, and 3) the study of food policy strategies to reduce health disparities. While epidemiologic research has done much to define and quantify health inequalities, it has generally been less successful at producing evidence that would identify targets for health equity intervention. Epidemiologists have a role to play in measurement and basic surveillance, etiologic research, intervention research, and evaluation research. However, our training and funding sources generally place greatest emphasis on surveillance and etiologic research. Conclusions: The complexity of health disparities requires better training for epidemiologists to effectively work in multidisciplinary teams. Together we can evaluate contextual and multilevel contributions to disease and study intervention programs in order to gain better insights into evidenced-based health equity strategies. PMID:22626003

  2. Reduction of Peripartum Racial and Ethnic Disparities: A Conceptual Framework and Maternal Safety Consensus Bundle.

    PubMed

    Howell, Elizabeth A; Brown, Haywood; Brumley, Jessica; Bryant, Allison S; Caughey, Aaron B; Cornell, Andria M; Grant, Jacqueline H; Gregory, Kimberly D; Gullo, Susan M; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Mhyre, Jill M; Toledo, Paloma; DʼOria, Robyn; Ngoh, Martha; Grobman, William A

    2018-05-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities exist in both perinatal outcomes and health care quality. For example, black women are three to four times more likely to die from pregnancy-related causes and have more than a twofold greater risk of severe maternal morbidity than white women. In an effort to achieve health equity in maternal morbidity and mortality, a multidisciplinary workgroup of the National Partnership for Maternal Safety, within the Council on Patient Safety in Women's Health Care, developed a concept article for the bundle on reduction of peripartum disparities. We aimed to provide health care providers and health systems with insight into racial and ethnic disparities in maternal outcomes, the etiologies that are modifiable within a health care system, and resources that can be used to address these etiologies and achieve the desired end of safe and equitable health care for all childbearing women.

  3. Federal Investments to Eliminate Racial/Ethnic Health-Care Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, William

    2014-01-01

    Health care is an important lever for moderating the effects of social determinants on health. We present a model that describes the relationships among social disadvantage, health-care disparities, and health disparities. Improving access to health care and enhancing patient-provider interaction are critical pathways for reducing disparities. Increasing the diversity of the public health and health-care workforces is an efficient strategy for reducing disparities because it impacts both access to care and patient-provider communication. Federal policy makers should continue interest in workforce diversity to optimize the health of all Americans. PMID:24385667

  4. Racial-ethnic disparities in health and the labor market: Losing and leaving jobs.

    PubMed

    Strully, Kate

    2009-09-01

    This study examines whether employment disruptions have varying health consequences for White and Black or Hispanic workers in the U.S. Since employment disruptions mark major shocks to socioeconomic status (SES), this analysis also speaks to a broader set of questions about how race/ethnicity and SES shape population-level health disparities. Data from 1999, 2001 and 2003 waves of the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics provide no evidence of racial/ethnic variation in the health consequences of involuntary job loss. However, associations between leaving jobs voluntarily and poor self-assessed health are larger for Black and Hispanic workers than for White workers. This pattern may be linked to downward occupational mobility within the Black and Hispanic sample.

  5. Racial and ethnic disparities in the clinical practice of emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Lynne D; Babcock Irvin, Charlene; Tamayo-Sarver, Joshua H

    2003-11-01

    There is convincing evidence that racial and ethnic disparities exist in the provision of health care, including the provision of emergency care; and that stereotyping, biases, and uncertainty on the part of health care providers all contribute to unequal treatment. Situations, such as the emergency department (ED), that are characterized by time pressure, incomplete information, and high demands on attention and cognitive resources increase the likelihood that stereotypes and bias will affect diagnostic and treatment decisions. It is likely that there are many as-yet-undocumented disparities in clinical emergency practice. Racial and ethnic disparities may arise in decisions made by out-of-hospital personnel regarding ambulance destination, triage assessments made by nursing personnel, diagnostic testing ordered by physicians or physician-extenders, and in disposition decisions. The potential for disparate treatment includes the timing and intensity of ED therapy as well as patterns of referral, prescription choices, and priority for hospital admission and bed assignment. At a national roundtable discussion, strategies suggested to address these disparities included: increased use of evidence-based clinical guidelines; use of continuous quality improvement methods to document individual and institutional disparities in performance; zero tolerance for stereotypical remarks in the workplace; cultural competence training for emergency providers; increased workforce diversity; and increased epidemiologic, clinical, and services research. Careful scrutiny of the clinical practice of emergency medicine and diligent implementation of strategies to prevent disparities will be required to eliminate the individual behaviors and systemic processes that result in the delivery of disparate care in EDs.

  6. Racial disparities in prescription drug use for mental illness among population in US.

    PubMed

    Han, Euna; Liu, Gordon G

    2005-09-01

    Racial minorities are a rapidly growing portion of the US population. Research suggests that racial minorities are more vulnerable to mental illness due to risk factors, such as higher rates of poverty. Given that the burden of mental illnesses is significant, equal likelihood of mental health services utilization is important to reduce such burden. Racial minorities have been known to use mental health services less than Whites. However, it is unclear whether racial disparity in prescription drug use for mental illnesses exists in a nationally representative sample. For a valid estimation of prescription drug use patterns, the characteristic in the distribution of prescription drug use should be accounted for in the estimation model. This study is intended to document whether there was a disparity in psychiatric drug use in both extensive and intensive margins between Whites and three racial minorities: Blacks, Hispanics, and Asian-Indians. The study looked at several specified mental illnesses, controlling for underlying health status and other confounding factors. Secondary data analysis was conducted using the multiyear Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), a nationally representative panel sample from 1996 through 2000. This analysis provides estimates of the actual expenditure on prescription drug use for people with specified mental illnesses for this study, based on comparison of Whites and other racial minorities. We derived the estimates from the two-part model, a framework that adjusts the likelihood of using prescription drugs for the specified mental illnesses while estimating the total actual expenditures on prescription drugs among the users. This study found that Blacks, Hispanics, and Asian-Indians were less likely than Whites to use prescription drugs by 8.3, 6.1 and 23.6 percentage points, respectively, holding other factors constant in the sample, with at least one of the specified mental illnesses. The expenditure on prescription drugs for

  7. Cumulative inequality and racial disparities in health: private insurance coverage and black/white differences in functional limitations.

    PubMed

    Kail, Ben Lennox; Taylor, Miles G

    2014-09-01

    To test different forms of private insurance coverage as mediators for racial disparities in onset, persistent level, and acceleration of functional limitations among Medicare age-eligible Americans. Data come from 7 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (1996-2008). Onset and progression latent growth models were used to estimate racial differences in onset, level, and growth of functional limitations among a sample of 5,755 people aged 65 and older in 1996. Employer-provided insurance, spousal insurance, and market insurance were next added to the model to test how differences in private insurance mediated the racial gap in physical limitations. In baseline models, African Americans had larger persistent level of limitations over time. Although employer-provided, spousal provided, and market insurances were directly associated with lower persistent levels of limitation, only differences in market insurance accounted for the racial disparities in persistent level of limitations. Results suggest private insurance is important for reducing functional limitations, but market insurance is an important mediator of the persistently larger level of limitations observed among African Americans. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Identifying health disparities across the tobacco continuum.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Pebbles; Moolchan, Eric T; Lawrence, Deirdre; Fernander, Anita; Ponder, Paris K

    2007-10-01

    Few frameworks have addressed work-force diversity, inequities and inequalities as part of a comprehensive approach to eliminating tobacco-related health disparities. This paper summarizes the literature and describes the known disparities that exist along the tobacco disease continuum for minority racial and ethnic groups, those living in poverty, those with low education and blue-collar and service workers. The paper also discusses how work-force diversity, inequities in research practice and knowledge allocation and inequalities in access to and quality of health care are fundamental to addressing disparities in health. We examined the available scientific literature and existing public health reports to identify disparities across the tobacco disease continuum by minority racial/ethnic group, poverty status, education level and occupation. Results indicate that differences in risk indicators along the tobacco disease continuum do not explain fully tobacco-related cancer consequences among some minority racial/ethnic groups, particularly among the aggregate groups, blacks/African Americans and American Indians/Alaska Natives. The lack of within-race/ethnic group data and its interactions with socio-economic factors across the life-span contribute to the inconsistency we observe in the disease causal paradigm. More comprehensive models are needed to understand the relationships among disparities, social context, diversity, inequalities and inequities. A systematic approach will also help researchers, practitioners, advocates and policy makers determine critical points for interventions, the types of studies and programs needed and integrative approaches needed to eliminate tobacco-related disparities.

  9. Racialized legal status as a social determinant of health.

    PubMed

    Asad, Asad L; Clair, Matthew

    2018-02-01

    This article advances the concept of racialized legal status (RLS) as an overlooked dimension of social stratification with implications for racial/ethnic health disparities. We define RLS as a social position based on an ostensibly race-neutral legal classification that disproportionately impacts racial/ethnic minorities. To illustrate the implications of RLS for health and health disparities in the United States, we spotlight existing research on two cases: criminal status and immigration status. We offer a conceptual framework that outlines how RLS shapes disparities through (1) primary effects on those who hold a legal status and (2) spillover effects on racial/ethnic in-group members, regardless of these individuals' own legal status. Primary effects of RLS operate by marking an individual for material and symbolic exclusion. Spillover effects result from the vicarious experiences of those with social proximity to marked individuals, as well as the discredited meanings that RLS constructs around racial/ethnic group members. We conclude by suggesting multiple avenues for future research that considers RLS as a mechanism of social inequality with fundamental effects on health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A roadmap and best practices for organizations to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in health care.

    PubMed

    Chin, Marshall H; Clarke, Amanda R; Nocon, Robert S; Casey, Alicia A; Goddu, Anna P; Keesecker, Nicole M; Cook, Scott C

    2012-08-01

    Over the past decade, researchers have shifted their focus from documenting health care disparities to identifying solutions to close the gap in care. Finding Answers: Disparities Research for Change, a national program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, is charged with identifying promising interventions to reduce disparities. Based on our work conducting systematic reviews of the literature, evaluating promising practices, and providing technical assistance to health care organizations, we present a roadmap for reducing racial and ethnic disparities in care. The roadmap outlines a dynamic process in which individual interventions are just one part. It highlights that organizations and providers need to take responsibility for reducing disparities, establish a general infrastructure and culture to improve quality, and integrate targeted disparities interventions into quality improvement efforts. Additionally, we summarize the major lessons learned through the Finding Answers program. We share best practices for implementing disparities interventions and synthesize cross-cutting themes from 12 systematic reviews of the literature. Our research shows that promising interventions frequently are culturally tailored to meet patients' needs, employ multidisciplinary teams of care providers, and target multiple leverage points along a patient's pathway of care. Health education that uses interactive techniques to deliver skills training appears to be more effective than traditional didactic approaches. Furthermore, patient navigation and engaging family and community members in the health care process may improve outcomes for minority patients. We anticipate that the roadmap and best practices will be useful for organizations, policymakers, and researchers striving to provide high-quality equitable care.

  11. The Role of Community Health Centers in Reducing Racial Disparities in Spatial Access to Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Jane W; Polsky, Daniel E; Brown, Elizabeth J; Barbu, Corentin M; Grande, David

    2017-07-01

    Racial minorities are more likely to live in primary care shortage areas. We sought to understand community health centers' (CHCs) role in reducing disparities. We surveyed all primary care practices in an urban area, identified low access areas, and examined how CHCs influence spatial accessibility. Census tracts with higher rates of public insurance (≥40% vs <10%, odds ratio [OR] = 31.06, P < .001; 30-39% vs 10%, OR = 7.84, P = 0.001) were more likely to be near a CHC and those with moderate rates of uninsurance (10%-19% vs <10%, OR = 0.42, P = .045) were less likely. Racial composition was not associated with proximity. Tracts close to a CHC were less likely (OR = 0.11, P < .0001) to be in a low access area. This association did not differ based on racial composition. Although CHCs were more likely to be in areas with a greater fraction of racial minorities, location was more strongly influenced by public insurance rates. CHCs reduced the likelihood of being in low access areas but the effect did not vary by tract racial composition.

  12. A study of national physician organizations' efforts to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Peek, Monica E; Wilson, Shannon C; Bussey-Jones, Jada; Lypson, Monica; Cordasco, Kristina; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Bright, Cedric; Brown, Arleen F

    2012-06-01

    To characterize national physician organizations' efforts to reduce health disparities and identify organizational characteristics associated with such efforts. This cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2009 and June 2010. The authors used two-sample t tests and chi-square tests to compare the proportion of organizations with disparity-reducing activities between different organizational types (e.g., primary care versus subspecialty organizations, small [<1,000 members] versus large [>5,000 members]). Inclusion criteria required physician organizations to be (1) focused on physicians, (2) national in scope, and (3) membership based. The number of activities per organization ranged from 0 to 22. Approximately half (53%) of organizations had 0 or 1 disparity-reducing activities. Organizational characteristics associated with having at least 1 disparity-reducing effort included membership size (88% of large groups versus 58% of small groups had at least 1 activity; P = .004) and the presence of a health disparities committee (95% versus 59%; P < .001). Primary care (versus subspecialty) organizations and racial/ethnic minority physician organizations were more likely to have disparity-reducing efforts, although findings were not statistically significant. Common themes addressed by activities were health care access, health care disparities, workforce diversity, and language barriers. Common strategies included education of physicians/trainees and patients/general public, position statements, and advocacy. Despite the national priority to eliminate health disparities, more than half of national physician organizations are doing little to address this problem. Primary care and minority physician organizations, and those with disparities committees, may provide leadership to extend the scope of disparity-reduction efforts.

  13. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Therapist Effectiveness: A Conceptualization and Initial Study of Cultural Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Zac E.; Baldwin, Scott; Atkins, David C.; Owen, Jesse; Baardseth, Tim; Wampold, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    As a result of mental health disparities between White and racial/ethnic minority clients, researchers have argued that some therapists may be generally competent to provide effective services but lack cultural competence. This distinction assumes that client racial/ethnic background is a source of variability in therapist effectiveness. However,…

  14. Role of financial and social hardships in asthma racial disparities.

    PubMed

    Beck, Andrew F; Huang, Bin; Simmons, Jeffrey M; Moncrief, Terri; Sauers, Hadley S; Chen, Chen; Ryan, Patrick H; Newman, Nicholas C; Kahn, Robert S

    2014-03-01

    Health care reform offers a new opportunity to address child health disparities. This study sought to characterize racial differences in pediatric asthma readmissions with a focus on the potential explanatory role of hardships that might be addressed in future patient care models. We enrolled 774 children, aged 1 to 16 years, admitted for asthma or bronchodilator-responsive wheezing in a population-based prospective observational cohort. The outcome was time to readmission. Child race, socioeconomic status (measured by lower income and caregiver educational attainment), and hardship (caregivers looking for work, having no one to borrow money from, not owning a car or home, and being single/never married) were recorded. Analyses used Cox proportional hazards. The cohort was 57% African American, 33% white, and 10% multiracial/other; 19% were readmitted within 12 months. After adjustment for asthma severity classification, African Americans were twice as likely to be readmitted as whites (hazard ratio: 1.98; 95% confidence interval: 1.42 to 2.77). Compared with whites, African American caregivers were significantly more likely to report lower income and educational attainment, difficulty finding work, having no one to borrow money from, not owning a car or home, and being single/never married (all P ≤ .01). Hardships explained 41% of the observed racial disparity in readmission; jointly, socioeconomic status and hardship explained 49%. African American children were twice as likely to be readmitted as white children; hardships explained >40% of this disparity. Additional factors (eg, pollution, tobacco exposure, housing quality) may explain residual disparities. Targeted interventions could help achieve greater child health equity.

  15. Cross-sectional analysis of two social determinants of health in California cities: racial/ethnic and geographic disparities

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante-Zamora, Dulce; Maizlish, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Objective To study the magnitude and direction of city-level racial and ethnic differences in poverty and education to characterise health equity and social determinants of health in California cities. Design We used data from the American Community Survey, United States Census Bureau, 2006–2010, and calculated differences in the prevalence of poverty and low educational attainment in adults by race/ethnicity and by census tracts within California cities. For race/ethnicity comparisons, when the referent group (p2) to calculate the difference (p1−p2) was the non-Hispanic White population (considered a historically advantaged group), a positive difference was considered a health inequity. Differences with a non-White reference group were considered health disparities. Setting Cities of the State of California, USA. Results Within-city differences in the prevalence of poverty and low educational attainment disfavoured Black and Latinos compared with Whites in over 78% of the cities. Compared with Whites, the median within-city poverty difference was 7.0% for Latinos and 6.2% for Blacks. For education, median within-city difference was 26.6% for Latinos compared with Whites. In a small, but not negligible proportion of cities, historically disadvantaged race/ethnicity groups had better social determinants of health outcomes than Whites. The median difference between the highest and lowest census tracts within cities was 14.3% for poverty and 15.7% for low educational attainment. Overall city poverty rate was weakly, but positively correlated with within-city racial/ethnic differences. Conclusions Disparities and inequities are widespread in California. Local health departments can use these findings to partner with cities in their jurisdiction and design strategies to reduce racial, ethnic and geographic differences in economic and educational outcomes. These analytic methods could be used in an ongoing surveillance system to monitor these determinants of health

  16. Racial and ethnic disparities in the financial burden of prescription drugs among older Americans.

    PubMed

    Xu, K Tom; Borders, Tyrone F

    2007-01-01

    This study examines racial and ethnic disparities in the financial burden of prescription drugs among older Americans using a market and an egalitarian model. A nationally representative data set, the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2002, was used. The financial burden of prescription drugs was measured by the out-of-pocket expenditure and proportion. In the market model (utilization adjustment)., utilization was measured at the annual aggregate level by the total number of prescription drugs, the average refills and the average quantity per prescription drug. In the egalitarian model (need adjustment)., health was measured by 15 chronic and costly diseases and the SF-12. Individuals 65 years or older were included. Nationally representative estimates were calculated. Raw racial and ethnic disparities were observed in the bivariate analyses between non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics in the out-of-pocket expenditure and proportion, and between non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks in the out-of-pocket proportion. However, these disparities disappeared after controlling for utilization or health needs. Insurance status contributed the most to the disparities in the financial burden of prescription drugs. In conclusion, The disparities in the financial burden of prescription drugs between non-Hispanic elderly whites and Hispanics may be attributable to differences in utilization patterns. However, whether health disparities contribute to disparities in the financial burden of prescription drugs requires studies of specific diseases.

  17. Racial disparities in health-related quality of life in a cohort of very-low-birth-weight 2- and 3-year-olds with and without asthma.

    PubMed

    McManus, Beth Marie; Robert, Stephanie; Albanese, Aggie; Sadek-Badawi, Mona; Palta, Mari

    2012-07-01

    Children born very low birth weight (VLBW) are at risk for low health-related quality of life (HRQoL), compared with normal-birth-weight peers, and racial disparities may compound the difference. Asthma is the most pervasive health problem among VLBW children and is also more common among black than white children, partly due to unfavourable environmental exposures. This study explores racial disparities in HRQoL among VLBW children and examines whether potential disparities can be explained by asthma and neighbourhood disadvantage. The study population was the Newborn Lung Project, a cohort of infants (n=660) born VLBW in 2003-2004 in Wisconsin, USA, who were followed up at age 2-3. Multilevel linear regression models were used to examine the contributions of asthma, neighbourhood disadvantage, and other child and family socio-demographic covariates, to racial disparities in HRQoL at age 2-3. A child's HRQoL was measured using the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0. VLBW, black, non-Hispanic children, on average, score nearly 4 points lower (p<0.01) on HRQoL than do white, non-Hispanic children. Including asthma reduces the difference between black and white children from -3.6 (p<0.01) to 0.08 (p>0.05). The authors found no evidence that the relationship between asthma and HRQoL differs by race. The interaction between neighbourhood disadvantage and asthma is statistically significant, with further examination suggesting that racial disparities are particularly pronounced in the most advantaged neighbourhoods. The authors found that the black disadvantage in HRQoL among 2-3-year-old VLBW children likely stems from a high prevalence of asthma. Neighbourhood attributes did not further explain the disparity, as the racial difference was particularly pronounced in advantaged neighbourhoods.

  18. Is there progress toward eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in the leading causes of death?

    PubMed

    Keppel, Kenneth G; Pearcy, Jeffrey N; Heron, Melonie P

    2010-01-01

    We examined changes in relative disparities between racial/ethnic populations for the five leading causes of death in the United States from 1990 to 2006. The study was based on age-adjusted death rates for four racial/ethnic populations from 1990-1998 and 1999-2006. We compared the percent change in death rates over time between racial/ethnic populations to assess changes in relative differences. We also computed an index of disparity to assess changes in disparities relative to the most favorable group rate. Except for stroke deaths from 1990 to 1998, relative disparities among racial/ethnic populations did not decline between 1990 and 2006. Disparities among racial/ethnic populations increased for heart disease deaths from 1999 to 2006, for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease deaths from 1990 to 1998, and for chronic lower respiratory disease deaths from 1999 to 2006. Deaths rates for the leading causes of death are generally declining; however, relative differences between racial/ethnic groups are not declining. The lack of reduction in relative differences indicates that little progress is being made toward the elimination of racial/ethnic disparities.

  19. Oral health disparities and the workforce: a framework to guide innovation.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Irene V; Lester, Arlene M

    2010-06-01

    Oral health disparities currently exist in the United States, and workforce innovations have been proposed as one strategy to address these disparities. A framework is needed to logically assess the possible role of workforce as a contributor to and to analyze workforce strategies addressing the issue of oral health disparities. Using an existing framework, A Strategic Framework for Improving Racial/Ethnic Minority Health and Eliminating Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities, workforce was sequentially applied across individual, environmental/community, and system levels to identify long-term problems, contributing factors, strategies/innovation, measurable outcomes/impacts, and long-term goals. Examples of current workforce innovations were applied to the framework. Contributing factors to oral health disparities included lack of racial/ethnic diversity of the workforce, lack of appropriate training, provider distribution, and a nonuser-centered system. The framework was applied to selected workforce innovation models delineating the potential impact on contributing factors across the individual, environmental/community, and system levels. The framework helps to define expected outcomes from workforce models that would contribute to the goal of reducing oral health disparities and examine impacts across multiple levels. However, the contributing factors to oral health disparities cannot be addressed by workforce innovation alone. The Strategic Framework is a logical approach to guide workforce innovation, solutions, and identification of other aspects of the oral healthcare delivery system that need innovation in order to reduce oral health disparities.

  20. Considering organizational factors in addressing health care disparities: two case examples.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Derek M; Yonas, Michael; Mason, Mondi; Havens, Betsy E

    2010-05-01

    Policy makers and practitioners have yet to successfully understand and eliminate persistent racial differences in health care quality. Interventions to address these racial health care disparities have largely focused on increasing cultural awareness and sensitivity, promoting culturally competent care, and increasing providers' adherence to evidence-based guidelines. Although these strategies have improved some proximal factors associated with service provision, they have not had a strong impact on racial health care disparities. Interventions to date have had limited impact on racial differences in health care quality, in part, because they have not adequately considered or addressed organizational and institutional factors. In this article, we describe an emerging intervention strategy to reduce health care disparities called dismantling (undoing) racism and how it has been adapted to a rural public health department and an urban medical system. These examples illustrate the importance of adapting interventions to the organizational and institutional context and have important implications for practitioners and policy makers.

  1. Can school income and racial/ethnic composition explain the racial/ethnic disparity in adolescent physical activity participation?

    PubMed

    Richmond, Tracy K; Hayward, Rodney A; Gahagan, Sheila; Field, Alison E; Heisler, Michele

    2006-06-01

    Our goal was to determine if racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent boys' and girls' physical activity participation exist and persist once the school attended is considered. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 17,007 teens in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Using multivariate linear regression, we examined the association between adolescent self-reported physical activity and individual race/ethnicity stratified by gender, controlling for a wide range of sociodemographic, attitudinal, behavioral, and health factors. We used multilevel analyses to determine if the relationship between race/ethnicity and physical activity varied by the school attended. Participants attended racially segregated schools; approximately 80% of Hispanic and black adolescent boys and girls attended schools with student populations that were <66% white, whereas nearly 40% of the white adolescents attended schools that were >94% white. Black and Hispanic adolescent girls reported lower levels of physical activity than white adolescent girls. There were more similar levels of physical activity reported in adolescent boys, with black boys reporting slightly more activities. Although black and Hispanic adolescent girls were more likely to attend poorer schools with overall lower levels of physical activity in girls; there was no difference within schools between black, white, and Hispanic adolescent girls' physical activity levels. Within the same schools, both black and Hispanic adolescent boys had higher rates of physical activity when compared with white adolescent boys. In this nationally representative sample, lower physical activity levels in Hispanic and black adolescent girls were largely attributable to the schools they attended. In contrast, black and Hispanic males had higher activity levels than white males when attending the same schools. Future research is needed to determine the mechanisms through which school environments contribute to racial

  2. Adjusting for Health Status in Non-Linear Models of Health Care Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Benjamin L.; McGuire, Thomas G.; Meara, Ellen; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    This article compared conceptual and empirical strengths of alternative methods for estimating racial disparities using non-linear models of health care access. Three methods were presented (propensity score, rank and replace, and a combined method) that adjust for health status while allowing SES variables to mediate the relationship between race and access to care. Applying these methods to a nationally representative sample of blacks and non-Hispanic whites surveyed in the 2003 and 2004 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys (MEPS), we assessed the concordance of each of these methods with the Institute of Medicine (IOM) definition of racial disparities, and empirically compared the methods' predicted disparity estimates, the variance of the estimates, and the sensitivity of the estimates to limitations of available data. The rank and replace and combined methods (but not the propensity score method) are concordant with the IOM definition of racial disparities in that each creates a comparison group with the appropriate marginal distributions of health status and SES variables. Predicted disparities and prediction variances were similar for the rank and replace and combined methods, but the rank and replace method was sensitive to limitations on SES information. For all methods, limiting health status information significantly reduced estimates of disparities compared to a more comprehensive dataset. We conclude that the two IOM-concordant methods were similar enough that either could be considered in disparity predictions. In datasets with limited SES information, the combined method is the better choice. PMID:20352070

  3. What causes racial disparities in very preterm birth? A biosocial perspective.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Michael R; Hogue, Carol R

    2009-01-01

    Very preterm birth (<32 weeks' gestation) occurs in approximately 2% of livebirths but is a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity in the United States. African-American women have a 2-fold to 3-fold elevated risk compared with non-Hispanic white women for reasons that are incompletely understood. This paper reviews the evidence for the biologic and social patterning of very preterm birth, with attention to leading hypotheses regarding the etiology of the racial disparity. A systematic review of the literature in the MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and EMBASE indices was conducted. The literature to date suggests a complex, multifactorial causal framework for understanding racial disparities in very preterm birth, with maternal inflammatory, vascular, or neuroendocrine dysfunction as proximal pathways and maternal exposure to stress, racial differences in preconceptional health, and genetic, epigenetic, and gene-environment interactions as more distal mediators. Interpersonal and institutionalized racism are mechanisms that may drive racially patterned differences. Current literature is limited in that research on social determinants and biologic processes of prematurity has been generally disconnected. Improved etiologic understanding and the potential for effective intervention may come with better integration of these research approaches.

  4. A Study of National Physician Organizations’ Efforts to Reduce Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Peek, Monica E.; Wilson, Shannon C.; Bussey-Jones, Jada; Lypson, Monica; Cordasco, Kristina; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.; Bright, Cedric; Brown, Arleen F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To characterize national physician organizations’ efforts to reduce health disparities and identify organizational characteristics associated with such efforts. Method This cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2009 and June 2010. The authors used two-sample t tests and chi-square tests to compare the proportion of organizations with disparity-reducing activities between different organizational types (e.g., primary care versus subspecialty organizations, small [<1,000 members] versus large [>5,000 members]). Inclusion criteria required physician organizations to be (1) focused on physicians, (2) national in scope, and (3) membership based. Results The number of activities per organization ranged from 0 to 22. Approximately half (53%) of organizations had 0 or 1 disparity-reducing activities. Organiza-tional characteristics associated with having at least 1 disparity-reducing effort included membership size (88% of large groups versus 58% of small groups had at least 1 activity; P = .004) and the presence of a health disparities committee (95% versus 59%; P < .001). Primary care (versus subspecialty) organizations and racial/ethnic minority physician organizations were more likely to have disparity-reducing efforts, although findings were not statistically significant. Common themes addressed by activities were health care access, health care disparities, workforce diversity, and language barriers. Common strategies included education of physicians/trainees and patients/general public, position statements, and advocacy. Conclusions Despite the national priority to eliminate health disparities, more than half of national physician organizations are doing little to address this problem. Primary care and minority physician organizations, and those with disparities committees, may provide leadership to extend the scope of disparity-reduction efforts. PMID:22534593

  5. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Use of Health Care Services for Diabetes Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Raeven Faye; Monnat, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Research demonstrates consistent racial/ethnic disparities in access to and use of health care services for a variety of chronic conditions. Yet we know little about whether these disparities exist for use of health care services for diabetes management. Racial/ethnic minorities disproportionately suffer from diabetes, complications from diabetes,…

  6. Disparity vs inequity: toward reconceptualization of pain treatment disparities.

    PubMed

    Meghani, Salimah H; Gallagher, Rollin M

    2008-01-01

    "Disparity" and "inequity" are two interdependent, yet distinct concepts that inform our discourse on ethics and morals in pain medicine practice and in health policy. Disparity implies a difference of some kind, whereas inequity implies unfairness and injustice. An overwhelming body of literature documents racial/ethnic disparities in health. The debate on health disparities is generally formulated using the principle of "horizontal equity," which requires that individuals having the same needs be treated equally. While some types of health treatments are amenable to the principle of horizontal equity, others may not be appropriately studied in this way. The existing research surrounding racial/ethnic disparities in pain treatment presents a conceptual predicament when placed within the framework of horizontal equity. Using pain treatment as a prototype, we advance the conceptual debate about racial/ethnic disparities in health. More specifically, we ask three questions: (1) When may disparities be considered inequities? (2) When may disparities not be considered inequities? (3) What are the uncertainties in the disparity-inequity discourse? Significant policy implications may result from the manner in which health disparities are conceptualized. Increasingly, researchers and policy makers use the term disparity interchangeably with inequity. This usage confuses the meaning and application of these distinct concepts. In a given health care setting, different types of disparities may operate simultaneously, each requiring serious scrutiny to avoid categorical interpretation leading to misguided practice and policy. While the science of pain treatment disparities is still emerging, the authors present one perspective toward the conceptualization of racial/ethnic disparities in pain treatment.

  7. New spatially continuous indices of redlining and racial bias in mortgage lending: links to survival after breast cancer diagnosis and implications for health disparities research.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Zhou, Yuhong; Matthews, Kevin; Bemanian, Amin; Laud, Purushottam W; Nattinger, Ann B

    2016-07-01

    Racial health disparities continue to be a serious problem in the United States and have been linked to contextual factors, including racial segregation. In some cases, including breast cancer survival, racial disparities appear to be worsening. Using the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) database, we extend current spatial analysis methodology to derive new, spatially continuous indices of (1) racial bias in mortgage lending and (2) redlining. We then examine spatial patterns of these indices and the association between these new measures and breast cancer survival among Black/African American women in the Milwaukee, Wisconsin metropolitan area. These new measures can be used to examine relationships between mortgage discrimination and patterns of disease throughout the United States. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Using Decomposition Analysis to Identify Modifiable Racial Disparities in the Distribution of Blood Pressure in the United States.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sanjay; Hong, Anthony; Siddiqi, Arjumand

    2015-08-15

    To lower the prevalence of hypertension and racial disparities in hypertension, public health agencies have attempted to reduce modifiable risk factors for high blood pressure, such as excess sodium intake or high body mass index. In the present study, we used decomposition methods to identify how population-level reductions in key risk factors for hypertension could reshape entire population distributions of blood pressure and associated disparities among racial/ethnic groups. We compared blood pressure distributions among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican-American persons using data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2010). When using standard adjusted logistic regression analysis, we found that differences in body mass index were the only significant explanatory correlate to racial disparities in blood pressure. By contrast, our decomposition approach provided more nuanced revelations; we found that disparities in hypertension related to tobacco use might be masked by differences in body mass index that significantly increase the disparities between black and white participants. Analysis of disparities between white and Mexican-American participants also reveal hidden relationships between tobacco use, body mass index, and blood pressure. Decomposition offers an approach to understand how modifying risk factors might alter population-level health disparities in overall outcome distributions that can be obscured by standard regression analyses. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  9. Role of Financial and Social Hardships in Asthma Racial Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bin; Simmons, Jeffrey M.; Moncrief, Terri; Sauers, Hadley S.; Chen, Chen; Ryan, Patrick H.; Newman, Nicholas C.; Kahn, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Health care reform offers a new opportunity to address child health disparities. This study sought to characterize racial differences in pediatric asthma readmissions with a focus on the potential explanatory role of hardships that might be addressed in future patient care models. METHODS: We enrolled 774 children, aged 1 to 16 years, admitted for asthma or bronchodilator-responsive wheezing in a population-based prospective observational cohort. The outcome was time to readmission. Child race, socioeconomic status (measured by lower income and caregiver educational attainment), and hardship (caregivers looking for work, having no one to borrow money from, not owning a car or home, and being single/never married) were recorded. Analyses used Cox proportional hazards. RESULTS: The cohort was 57% African American, 33% white, and 10% multiracial/other; 19% were readmitted within 12 months. After adjustment for asthma severity classification, African Americans were twice as likely to be readmitted as whites (hazard ratio: 1.98; 95% confidence interval: 1.42 to 2.77). Compared with whites, African American caregivers were significantly more likely to report lower income and educational attainment, difficulty finding work, having no one to borrow money from, not owning a car or home, and being single/never married (all P ≤ .01). Hardships explained 41% of the observed racial disparity in readmission; jointly, socioeconomic status and hardship explained 49%. CONCLUSIONS: African American children were twice as likely to be readmitted as white children; hardships explained >40% of this disparity. Additional factors (eg, pollution, tobacco exposure, housing quality) may explain residual disparities. Targeted interventions could help achieve greater child health equity. PMID:24488745

  10. Socioeconomic position, health behaviors, and racial disparities in cause-specific infant mortality in Michigan, USA

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M.; Finkton, Darryl W.; Paczkowski, Magdalena; Keyes, Katherine M.; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Studies about racial disparities in infant mortality suggest that racial differences in socioeconomic position (SEP) and maternal risk behaviors explain some, but not all, excess infant mortality among Blacks relative to non-Hispanic Whites. We examined the contribution of these to disparities in specific causes of infant mortality. Methods We analyzed data about 2,087,191 mother–child dyads in Michigan between 1989 and 2005. First, we calculated crude Black–White infant mortality ratios independently and by specific cause of death. Second, we fit multivariable Poisson regression models of infant mortality, overall and by cause, adjusting for SEP and maternal risk behaviors. Third, Crude Black–White mortality ratios were compared to adjusted predicted probability ratios, overall and by specific cause. Results SEP and maternal risk behaviors explained nearly a third of the disparity in infant mortality overall, and over 25% of disparities in several specific causes including homicide, accident, sudden infant death syndrome, and respiratory distress syndrome. However, SEP and maternal risk behaviors had little influence on disparities in other specific causes, such as septicemia and congenital anomalies. Conclusions These findings help focus policy attention toward disparities in those specific causes of infant mortality most amenable to social and behavioral intervention, as well as research attention to disparities in specific causes unexplained by SEP and behavioral differences. PMID:25849882

  11. Socioeconomic position, health behaviors, and racial disparities in cause-specific infant mortality in Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M; Finkton, Darryl W; Paczkowski, Magdalena; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro

    2015-07-01

    Studies about racial disparities in infant mortality suggest that racial differences in socioeconomic position (SEP) and maternal risk behaviors explain some, but not all, excess infant mortality among Blacks relative to non-Hispanic Whites. We examined the contribution of these to disparities in specific causes of infant mortality. We analyzed data about 2,087,191 mother-child dyads in Michigan between 1989 and 2005. First, we calculated crude Black-White infant mortality ratios independently and by specific cause of death. Second, we fit multivariable Poisson regression models of infant mortality, overall and by cause, adjusting for SEP and maternal risk behaviors. Third, Crude Black-White mortality ratios were compared to adjusted predicted probability ratios, overall and by specific cause. SEP and maternal risk behaviors explained nearly a third of the disparity in infant mortality overall, and over 25% of disparities in several specific causes including homicide, accident, sudden infant death syndrome, and respiratory distress syndrome. However, SEP and maternal risk behaviors had little influence on disparities in other specific causes, such as septicemia and congenital anomalies. These findings help focus policy attention toward disparities in those specific causes of infant mortality most amenable to social and behavioral intervention, as well as research attention to disparities in specific causes unexplained by SEP and behavioral differences. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Patient activation and disparate health care outcomes in a racially diverse sample of chronically ill older adults.

    PubMed

    Ryvicker, Miriam; Peng, Timothy R; Feldman, Penny Hollander

    2012-11-01

    The Patient Activation Measure (PAM) assesses people's ability to self-manage their health. Variations in PAM score have been linked with health behaviors, outcomes, and potential disparities. This study assessed the relative impacts of activation, socio-demographic and clinical factors on health care outcomes in a racially diverse sample of chronically ill, elderly homecare patients. Using survey and administrative data from 249 predominantly non-White patients, logistic regression was conducted to examine the effects of activation level and patient characteristics on the likelihood of subsequent hospitalization and emergency department (ED) use. Activation was not a significant predictor of hospitalization or ED use in adjusted models. Non-Whites were more likely than Whites to have a hospitalization or ED visit. Obesity was a strong predictor of both outcomes. Further research should examine potential sources of disadvantage among chronically ill homecare patients to design effective interventions to reduce health disparities in this population.

  13. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Nursing Home Quality of Life Deficiencies, 2001 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Lauren J.; Cai, Xueya; Gao, Shan; Li, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Racial/ethnic disparities in nursing homes (NHs) are associated with lower quality of care, and state Medicaid payment policies may influence NH quality. However, no studies analyzing disparities in NH quality of life (QoL) exist. Therefore, this study aims to estimate associations at the NH level between average number of QoL deficiencies and concentrations of racial/ethnic minority residents, and to identify effects of state Medicaid payment policies on racial/ethnic disparities. Method: Multivariable Poisson regression with NH random effects was used to determine the association between NH minority concentration in 2000 to 2010 and average number of QoL deficiencies in 2001 to 2011 at the NH level, and the effect of state NH payment policies on QoL deficiencies and racial/ethnic disparities in QoL deficiencies across NH minority concentrations. Results: Racial/ethnic disparities in QoL between high and low minority concentration NHs decrease over time, but are not eliminated. Case mix payment was associated with an increased disparity between high and low minority concentration NHs in QoL deficiencies. Discussion: NH managers and policy makers should consider initiatives targeting minority residents or low-performing NHs with higher minority concentrations for improvement to reduce disparities and address QoL deficiencies. PMID:27819015

  14. Identification of racial disparities in breast cancer mortality: does scale matter?

    PubMed

    Tian, Nancy; Goovaerts, Pierre; Zhan, F Benjamin; Wilson, Jeff G

    2010-07-05

    This paper investigates the impact of geographic scale (census tract, zip code, and county) on the detection of disparities in breast cancer mortality among three ethnic groups in Texas (period 1995-2005). Racial disparities were quantified using both relative (RR) and absolute (RD) statistics that account for the population size and correct for unreliable rates typically observed for minority groups and smaller geographic units. Results were then correlated with socio-economic status measured by the percentage of habitants living below the poverty level. African-American and Hispanic women generally experience higher mortality than White non-Hispanics, and these differences are especially significant in the southeast metropolitan areas and southwest border of Texas. The proportion and location of significant racial disparities however changed depending on the type of statistic (RR versus RD) and the geographic level. The largest proportion of significant results was observed for the RD statistic and census tract data. Geographic regions with significant racial disparities for African-Americans and Hispanics frequently had a poverty rate above 10.00%. This study investigates both relative and absolute racial disparities in breast cancer mortality between White non-Hispanic and African-American/Hispanic women at the census tract, zip code and county levels. Analysis at the census tract level generally led to a larger proportion of geographical units experiencing significantly higher mortality rates for minority groups, although results varied depending on the use of the relative versus absolute statistics. Additional research is needed before general conclusions can be formulated regarding the choice of optimal geographic regions for the detection of racial disparities.

  15. Review: Increasing Awareness and Education on Health Disparities for Health Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Nesbitt, Shawna; Palomarez, Rigo Estevan

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this review is to highlight health care disparities and trends in several common diseases in selected populations while offering evidence-based approaches to mitigating health care disparities. Health care disparities cross many barriers and affect multiple populations and diseases. Ethnic minorities, the elderly, and those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) are more at-risk than others. However, many low SES Whites and higher SES racial minorities have poorer health than their racial or SES peers. Also, recent immigrant groups and Hispanics, in particular, maintain high health ratings. The so-called Hispanic Paradox provides an example of how culture and social background can be used to improve health outcomes. These groups have unique determinants of disparity that are based on a wide range of cultural and societal factors. Providing improved access to care and reducing the social determinants of disparity is crucial to improving public health. At the same time, for providers, increasing an understanding of the social determinants promotes better models of individualized care to encourage more equitable care. These approaches include increasing provider education on disparities encountered by different populations, practicing active listening skills, and utilizing a patient’s cultural background to promote healthy behaviors PMID:27103768

  16. DSM-5 Insomnia and Short Sleep: Comorbidity Landscape and Racial Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Kalmbach, David A.; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J. Todd; Drake, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: We estimated rates of cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric illness associated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) insomnia disorder (current and in remission) and habitual short sleep (fewer than 6 h), and examined the roles of insomnia and short sleep in racial disparities in disease burden between black and non-Hispanic white Americans. Methods: This epidemiological survey study was cross-sectional. The community-based sample consisted of 3,911 subjects (46.0 y ± 13.3; 65.4% female; 25.0% black) across six sleep groups based on DSM-5 insomnia classification (never vs. remitted vs. current) and self-reported habitual sleep duration (normal vs. short). Vascular events, cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric symptoms were self-reported. Results: Short sleeping insomniacs were at elevated risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, treated hypertension, diabetes, chronic pain, back pain, depression, and anxiety, independent of sex, age, and obesity. Morbidity profiles for insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs, irrespective of sleep duration, were similar with elevations in treated hypertension, chronic pain, depression, and anxiety. Regarding racial disparities, cardiometabolic and psychiatric illness burden was greater for blacks, who were more likely to have short sleep and the short sleep insomnia phenotype. Evidence suggested that health disparities may be attributable in part to race-related differences in sleep. Conclusions: Insomnia disorder with short sleep is the most severe phenotype of insomnia and comorbid with many cardiometabolic and psychiatric illnesses, whereas morbidity profiles are highly similar between insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs. Short sleep endemic to black Americans increases risk for the short sleep insomnia phenotype and likely contributes to racial disparities in cardiometabolic disease

  17. Decomposing Racial Disparities in Obesity Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Chelsea R.; Affuso, Olivia; Sen, Bisakha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Racial disparities in obesity exist at the individual and community levels. Retail food environment has been hypothesized to be associated with racial disparities in obesity prevalence. This study aimed to quantify how much food environment measures explain racial disparities in obesity at the county level. Methods Data from 2009 to 2010 on 3,135 U.S. counties were extracted from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Environment Atlas and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and analyzed in 2013. Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition was used to quantify the portion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high and low proportion of African American residents is explained by food environment measures (e.g., proximity to grocery stores, per capita fast food restaurants). Counties were considered to have a high African American population if the percentage of African American residents was >13.1%, which represents the 2010 U.S. Census national estimate of percentage African American citizens. Results There were 665 counties (21%) classified as a high African American county. The total gap in mean adult obesity prevalence between high and low African American counties was found to be 3.35 percentage points (32.98% vs 29.63%). Retail food environment measures explained 13.81% of the gap in mean age-adjusted adult obesity prevalence. Conclusions Retail food environment explains a proportion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high proportion of African American residents and counties with a low proportion of African American residents. PMID:26507301

  18. Racial disparities in human papillomavirus vaccination: does access matter?

    PubMed

    Gelman, Amanda; Miller, Elizabeth; Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Akers, Aletha Y; Jeong, Kwonho; Borrero, Sonya

    2013-12-01

    To examine the association between race/ethnicity and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation and to determine how access to health care influences this relationship. We used nationally representative data from the National Survey of Family Growth to assess HPV vaccine initiation in 2,168 females aged 15-24 years. A series of regression analyses were performed to determine the independent effect of race/ethnicity on HPV vaccine initiation after controlling for sociodemographic variables and health care access measures. Age-stratified regression analyses were also performed to assess whether the relationship between race/ethnicity and HPV vaccine initiation differed among females aged 15-18 and 19-24 years. There were significant racial/ethnic disparities in HPV vaccination; United States (US)-born Hispanics, foreign-born Hispanics, and African-Americans were less likely to have initiated vaccination than were whites (p < .001). Adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics attenuated the disparity for both US-born and foreign-born Hispanics (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], .76; 95% confidence interval [CI], .50-1.16; and AOR, .67; 95% CI, .37-1.19) but not for African-Americans (AOR, .47, 95% CI, .33-.66). Adding health care access measures further attenuated the disparity for US-born and foreign-born Hispanics (AOR, .85, 95% CI, .54-1.34; and AOR, .84, 95% CI, .45-1.55). However, African-Americans remained less likely than whites to have initiated vaccination (AOR, .49, 95% CI, .36-.68). These racial/ethnic trends were similar for females aged 15-18 and 19-24 years. Lower rates of HPV vaccination among African-American females do not appear to be explained by differential access to health care. More research is necessary to elucidate factors contributing to HPV vaccination in this population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Measuring Disparities across the Distribution of Mental Health Care Expenditures

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Benjamin Lê; Manning, Willard; Alegría, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous mental health care disparities studies predominantly compare mean mental health care use across racial/ethnic groups, leaving policymakers with little information on disparities among those with a higher level of expenditures. Aims of the Study To identify racial/ethnic disparities among individuals at varying quantiles of mental health care expenditures. To assess whether disparities in the upper quantiles of expenditure differ by insurance status, income and education. Methods Data were analyzed from a nationally representative sample of white, black and Latino adults 18 years and older (n=83,878). Our dependent variable was total mental health care expenditure. We measured disparities in any mental health care expenditures, disparities in mental health care expenditure at the 95th, 97.5th, and 99th expenditure quantiles of the full population using quantile regression, and at the 50th, 75th, and 95th quantiles for positive users. In the full population, we tested interaction coefficients between race/ethnicity and income, insurance, and education levels to determine whether racial/ethnic disparities in the upper quantiles differed by income, insurance and education. Results Significant Black-white and Latino-white disparities were identified in any mental health care expenditures. In the full population, moving up the quantiles of mental health care expenditures, Black-White and Latino-White disparities were reduced but remained statistically significant. No statistically significant disparities were found in analyses of positive users only. The magnitude of black-white disparities was smaller among those enrolled in public insurance programs compared to the privately insured and uninsured in the 97.5th and 99th quantiles. Disparities persist in the upper quantiles among those in higher income categories and after excluding psychiatric inpatient and emergency department (ED) visits. Discussion Disparities exist in any mental health care and

  20. Racial disparities in reported prenatal care advice from health care providers.

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, M D; Kotelchuck, M; Alexander, G R; Johnson, W E

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The relationship between certain maternal behaviors and adverse pregnancy outcomes has been well documented. One method to alter these behaviors is through the advice of women's health care providers. Advice from providers may be particularly important in minority populations, who have higher rates of infant mortality and prematurity. This study examines racial disparities according to women's self-report of advice received from health care providers during pregnancy in four areas: tobacco use, alcohol consumption, drug use, and breast-feeding. METHODS. Health care providers' advice to 8310 White non-Hispanic and Black women was obtained from the National Maternal and Infant Health Survey. RESULTS. After controlling for sociodemographic, utilization, and medical factors, Black women were more likely to report not receiving advice from their prenatal care providers about smoking cessation and alcohol use. The difference between Blacks and Whites also approached significance for breast-feeding. No overall difference was noted in advice regarding cessation of drug use, although there was a significant interaction between race and marital status. CONCLUSIONS. These data suggest that Black women may be at greater risk for not receiving information that could reduce their chances of having an adverse pregnancy outcome. PMID:8279618

  1. The role of non-verbal behaviour in racial disparities in health care: implications and solutions.

    PubMed

    Levine, Cynthia S; Ambady, Nalini

    2013-09-01

    People from racial minority backgrounds report less trust in their doctors and have poorer health outcomes. Although these deficiencies have multiple roots, one important set of explanations involves racial bias, which may be non-conscious, on the part of providers, and minority patients' fears that they will be treated in a biased way. Here, we focus on one mechanism by which this bias may be communicated and reinforced: namely, non-verbal behaviour in the doctor-patient interaction. We review 2 lines of research on race and non-verbal behaviour: (i) the ways in which a patient's race can influence a doctor's non-verbal behaviour toward the patient, and (ii) the relative difficulty that doctors can have in accurately understanding the nonverbal communication of non-White patients. Further, we review research on the implications that both lines of work can have for the doctor-patient relationship and the patient's health. The research we review suggests that White doctors interacting with minority group patients are likely to behave and respond in ways that are associated with worse health outcomes. As doctors' disengaged non-verbal behaviour towards minority group patients and lower ability to read minority group patients' non-verbal behaviours may contribute to racial disparities in patients' satisfaction and health outcomes, solutions that target non-verbal behaviour may be effective. A number of strategies for such targeting are discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Cross-sectional analysis of two social determinants of health in California cities: racial/ethnic and geographic disparities.

    PubMed

    Bustamante-Zamora, Dulce; Maizlish, Neil

    2017-06-06

    To study the magnitude and direction of city-level racial and ethnic differences in poverty and education to characterise health equity and social determinants of health in California cities. We used data from the American Community Survey, United States Census Bureau, 2006-2010, and calculated differences in the prevalence of poverty and low educational attainment in adults by race/ethnicity and by census tracts within California cities. For race/ethnicity comparisons, when the referent group (p 2 ) to calculate the difference (p 1 -p 2 ) was the non-Hispanic White population (considered a historically advantaged group), a positive difference was considered a health inequity. Differences with a non-White reference group were considered health disparities. Cities of the State of California, USA. Within-city differences in the prevalence of poverty and low educational attainment disfavoured Black and Latinos compared with Whites in over 78% of the cities. Compared with Whites, the median within-city poverty difference was 7.0% for Latinos and 6.2% for Blacks. For education, median within-city difference was 26.6% for Latinos compared with Whites. In a small, but not negligible proportion of cities, historically disadvantaged race/ethnicity groups had better social determinants of health outcomes than Whites. The median difference between the highest and lowest census tracts within cities was 14.3% for poverty and 15.7% for low educational attainment. Overall city poverty rate was weakly, but positively correlated with within-city racial/ethnic differences. Disparities and inequities are widespread in California. Local health departments can use these findings to partner with cities in their jurisdiction and design strategies to reduce racial, ethnic and geographic differences in economic and educational outcomes. These analytic methods could be used in an ongoing surveillance system to monitor these determinants of health. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  3. Dollar for Dollar: Racial and ethnic inequalities in health and health-related outcomes among persons with very high income.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kanetha B; Thorpe, Roland J; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2017-03-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in health have been well-documented, and low SES is widely considered to be a driver of this relationship. However, the race-social class-health interrelationship is complex, as several studies have found race disparities between racial/ethnic minorities and whites at middle- income levels. Research on higher income persons is complicated by the lack of data for persons with incomes about $75,000. Most national datasets collect income data in categories with the highest income category being $75,000 and above. In our study, we examined racial/ethnic disparities in health status and behaviors among persons of very high income, reported income of $175,000 or above per year. Data are from the Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys (MEPS). Our findings revealed health disparities in 10 of the 16 health-related outcomes selected. African Americans were most dissimilar to whites at this income and with disadvantages on 6 health outcomes relative to whites. While results also showed some disparities for Asian Americans and Hispanic Americans relative to whites, these groups were advantaged, relative to whites on several health outcomes. Our findings indicate that income does not fully explain racial/ethnic disparities in health. Most public interventions are targeted to low income persons. However, public health interventions should target minority individuals of very high income as well, especially African Americans. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Racial Disparities in Mortality Among Middle-Aged and Older Men: Does Marriage Matter?

    PubMed

    Su, Dejun; Stimpson, Jim P; Wilson, Fernando A

    2015-07-01

    Based on longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, this study assesses the importance of marital status in explaining racial disparities in all-cause mortality during an 18-year follow-up among White and African American men aged 51 to 61 years in 1992. Being married was associated with significant advantages in household income, health behaviors, and self-rated health. These advantages associated with marriage at baseline also got translated into better survival chance for married men during the 1992-2010 follow-up. Both marital selection and marital protection were relevant in explaining the mortality advantages associated with marriage. After adjusting for the effect of selected variables on premarital socioeconomic status and health, about 28% of the mortality gap between White and African American men in the Health and Retirement Study can be explained by the relatively low rates of marriage among African American men. Addressing the historically low rates of marriage among African Americans and their contributing factors becomes important for reducing racial disparities in men's mortality. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Coker, Tumaini R.; Elliott, Marc N.; Toomey, Sara L.; Schwebel, David C.; Cuccaro, Paula; Emery, Susan Tortolero; Davies, Susan L.; Visser, Susanna N.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We examined racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and medication use and determined whether medication disparities were more likely due to underdiagnosis or undertreatment of African-American and Latino children, or overdiagnosis or overtreatment of white children. METHODS We used a population-based, multisite sample of 4297 children and parents surveyed over 3 waves (fifth, seventh, and 10th grades). Multivariate logistic regression examined disparities in parent-reported ADHD diagnosis and medication use in the following analyses: (1) using the total sample; (2) limited to children with an ADHD diagnosis or symptoms; and (3) limited to children without a diagnosis or symptoms. RESULTS Across all waves, African-American and Latino children, compared with white children, had lower odds of having an ADHD diagnosis and of taking ADHD medication, controlling for sociodemographics, ADHD symptoms, and other potential comorbid mental health symptoms. Among children with an ADHD diagnosis or symptoms, African-American children had lower odds of medication use at fifth, seventh, and 10th grades, and Latino children had lower odds at fifth and 10th grades. Among children who had neither ADHD symptoms nor ADHD diagnosis by fifth grade (and thus would not likely meet ADHD diagnostic criteria at any age), medication use did not vary by race/ethnicity in adjusted analysis. CONCLUSIONS Racial/ethnic disparities in parent-reported medication use for ADHD are robust, persisting from fifth grade to 10th grade. These findings suggest that disparities may be more likely related to underdiagnosis and undertreatment of African-American and Latino children as opposed to overdiagnosis or overtreatment of white children. PMID:27553219

  6. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Coker, Tumaini R; Elliott, Marc N; Toomey, Sara L; Schwebel, David C; Cuccaro, Paula; Tortolero Emery, Susan; Davies, Susan L; Visser, Susanna N; Schuster, Mark A

    2016-09-01

    We examined racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and medication use and determined whether medication disparities were more likely due to underdiagnosis or undertreatment of African-American and Latino children, or overdiagnosis or overtreatment of white children. We used a population-based, multisite sample of 4297 children and parents surveyed over 3 waves (fifth, seventh, and 10th grades). Multivariate logistic regression examined disparities in parent-reported ADHD diagnosis and medication use in the following analyses: (1) using the total sample; (2) limited to children with an ADHD diagnosis or symptoms; and (3) limited to children without a diagnosis or symptoms. Across all waves, African-American and Latino children, compared with white children, had lower odds of having an ADHD diagnosis and of taking ADHD medication, controlling for sociodemographics, ADHD symptoms, and other potential comorbid mental health symptoms. Among children with an ADHD diagnosis or symptoms, African-American children had lower odds of medication use at fifth, seventh, and 10th grades, and Latino children had lower odds at fifth and 10th grades. Among children who had neither ADHD symptoms nor ADHD diagnosis by fifth grade (and thus would not likely meet ADHD diagnostic criteria at any age), medication use did not vary by race/ethnicity in adjusted analysis. Racial/ethnic disparities in parent-reported medication use for ADHD are robust, persisting from fifth grade to 10th grade. These findings suggest that disparities may be more likely related to underdiagnosis and undertreatment of African-American and Latino children as opposed to overdiagnosis or overtreatment of white children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Measuring disparities across the distribution of mental health care expenditures.

    PubMed

    Le Cook, Benjamin; Manning, Willard; Alegria, Margarita

    2013-03-01

    Previous mental health care disparities studies predominantly compare mean mental health care use across racial/ethnic groups, leaving policymakers with little information on disparities among those with a higher level of expenditures. To identify racial/ethnic disparities among individuals at varying quantiles of mental health care expenditures. To assess whether disparities in the upper quantiles of expenditure differ by insurance status, income and education. Data were analyzed from a nationally representative sample of white, black and Latino adults 18 years and older (n=83,878). Our dependent variable was total mental health care expenditure. We measured disparities in any mental health care expenditures, disparities in mental health care expenditure at the 95th, 97.5 th, and 99 th expenditure quantiles of the full population using quantile regression, and at the 50 th, 75 th, and 95 th quantiles for positive users. In the full population, we tested interaction coefficients between race/ethnicity and income, insurance, and education levels to determine whether racial/ethnic disparities in the upper quantiles differed by income, insurance and education. Significant Black-white and Latino-white disparities were identified in any mental health care expenditures. In the full population, moving up the quantiles of mental health care expenditures, Black-White and Latino-White disparities were reduced but remained statistically significant. No statistically significant disparities were found in analyses of positive users only. The magnitude of black-white disparities was smaller among those enrolled in public insurance programs compared to the privately insured and uninsured in the 97.5 th and 99 th quantiles. Disparities persist in the upper quantiles among those in higher income categories and after excluding psychiatric inpatient and emergency department (ED) visits. Disparities exist in any mental health care and among those that use the most mental health care

  8. Identification of racial disparities in breast cancer mortality: does scale matter?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This paper investigates the impact of geographic scale (census tract, zip code, and county) on the detection of disparities in breast cancer mortality among three ethnic groups in Texas (period 1995-2005). Racial disparities were quantified using both relative (RR) and absolute (RD) statistics that account for the population size and correct for unreliable rates typically observed for minority groups and smaller geographic units. Results were then correlated with socio-economic status measured by the percentage of habitants living below the poverty level. Results African-American and Hispanic women generally experience higher mortality than White non-Hispanics, and these differences are especially significant in the southeast metropolitan areas and southwest border of Texas. The proportion and location of significant racial disparities however changed depending on the type of statistic (RR versus RD) and the geographic level. The largest proportion of significant results was observed for the RD statistic and census tract data. Geographic regions with significant racial disparities for African-Americans and Hispanics frequently had a poverty rate above 10.00%. Conclusions This study investigates both relative and absolute racial disparities in breast cancer mortality between White non-Hispanic and African-American/Hispanic women at the census tract, zip code and county levels. Analysis at the census tract level generally led to a larger proportion of geographical units experiencing significantly higher mortality rates for minority groups, although results varied depending on the use of the relative versus absolute statistics. Additional research is needed before general conclusions can be formulated regarding the choice of optimal geographic regions for the detection of racial disparities. PMID:20602784

  9. The role of food culture and marketing activity in health disparities.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jerome D; Crockett, David; Harrison, Robert L; Thomas, Kevin D

    2012-11-01

    Marketing activities have attracted increased attention from scholars interested in racial disparities in obesity prevalence, as well as the prevalence of other preventable conditions. Although reducing the marketing of nutritionally poor foods to racial/ethnic communities would represent a significant step forward in eliminating racial disparities in health, we focus instead on a critical-related question. What is the relationship between marketing activities, food culture, and health disparities? This commentary posits that food culture shapes the demand for food and the meaning attached to particular foods, preparation styles, and eating practices, while marketing activities shape the overall environment in which food choices are made. We build on prior research that explores the socio-cultural context in which marketing efforts are perceived and interpreted. We discuss each element of the marketing mix to highlight the complex relationship between food culture, marketing activities, and health disparities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. When are Racial Disparities in Education the Result of Racial Discrimination? A Social Science Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin

    2003-01-01

    Synthesizes the social science research on racially correlated disparities in education, focusing on biological determinism (behavioral genetics); social structure (e.g., reproduction theory and resistance theory); school organization and opportunities to learn (e.g., resources, racial composition, and tracking); family background (financial,…

  11. Racial Disparities in Diabetes Hospitalization of Rural Medicare Beneficiaries in 8 Southeastern States.

    PubMed

    Wan, Thomas T H; Lin, Yi-Ling; Ortiz, Judith

    2016-01-01

    This study examined racial variability in diabetes hospitalizations attributable to contextual, organizational, and ecological factors controlling for patient variabilities treated at rural health clinics (RHCs). The pooled cross-sectional data for 2007 through 2013 for RHCs were aggregated from Medicare claim files of patients served by RHCs. Descriptive statistics were presented to illustrate the general characteristics of the RHCs in 8 southeastern states. Regression of the dependent variable on selected predictors was conducted using a generalized estimating equation method. The risk-adjusted diabetes mellitus (DM) hospitalization rates slightly declined in 7 years from 3.55% to 2.40%. The gap between the crude and adjusted rates became wider in the African American patient group but not in the non-Hispanic white patient group. The average DM disparity ratio increased 17.7% from the pre-Affordable Care Act (ACA; 1.47) to the post-ACA period (1.73) for the African American patient group. The results showed that DM disparity ratios did not vary significantly by contextual, organizational, and individual factors for African Americans. Non-Hispanic white patients residing in large and small rural areas had higher DM disparity ratios than other rural areas. The results of this study confirm racial disparities in DM hospitalizations. Future research is needed to identify the underlying reasons for such racial disparities to guide the formulation of effective and efficient changes in DM care management practices coupled with the emphasis of culturally competent, primary and preventive care.

  12. Racial and ethnic disparities in stroke outcomes: a scoping review of post-stroke disability assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Burns, Suzanne Perea; White, Brandi M; Magwood, Gayenell; Ellis, Charles; Logan, Ayaba; Jones Buie, Joy N; Adams, Robert J

    2018-03-23

    To identify how post-stroke disability outcomes are assessed in studies that examine racial/ethnic disparities and to map the identified assessment content to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) across the time course of stroke recovery. We conducted a scoping review of the literature. Articles published between January 2001 and July 2017 were identified through Scopus, PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. We identified 1791 articles through database and hand-searching strategies. Of the articles, 194 met inclusion criteria for full-text review, and 41 met inclusion criteria for study inclusion. The included studies used a variety of outcome measures encompassing domains within the ICF: body functions, activities, participation, and contextual factors across the time course of stroke recovery. We discovered disproportionate representation among racial/ethnic groups in the post-stroke disability disparities literature. A wide variety of assessments are used to examine disparities in post-stroke disability across the time course of stroke recovery. Several studies have identified disparities through a variety of assessments; however, substantial problems abound from the assessments used including inconsistent use of assessments, lacking evidence on the validity of assessments among racial/ethnic groups, and inadequate representation among all racial/ethnic populations comprising the US. Implications for Rehabilitation An enhanced understanding of racial/ethnic disparities in post-stroke disability outcomes is inherently important among rehabilitation practitioners who frequently engage with racial/ethnic minority populations across the time course of stroke recovery. Clinicians should carefully consider the psychometric properties of assessment tools to counter potential racial bias. Clinicians should be aware that many assessments used in stroke rehabilitation lack cultural

  13. The human face of health disparities.

    PubMed

    Green, Alexander R

    2003-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the issue of disparities in health between racial/ethnic groups has moved from the realm of common sense and anecdote to the realm of science. Hard, cold data now force us to consider what many had long taken for granted. Not only does health differ by race/ethnicity, but our health care system itself is deeply biased. From lack of diversity in the leadership and workforce, to ethnocentric systems of care, to biased clinical decision-making, the American health care system is geared to treat the majority, while the minority suffers. The photos shown here are of patients and scenes that recall some of the important landmarks in research on racial/ethnic disparities in health. The purpose is to put faces and humanity onto the numbers. While we now have great bodies of evidence upon which to lobby for change, in the end, each statistic still represents a personal tragedy or an individual triumph.

  14. The human face of health disparities.

    PubMed Central

    Green, Alexander R.

    2003-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the issue of disparities in health between racial/ethnic groups has moved from the realm of common sense and anecdote to the realm of science. Hard, cold data now force us to consider what many had long taken for granted. Not only does health differ by race/ethnicity, but our health care system itself is deeply biased. From lack of diversity in the leadership and workforce, to ethnocentric systems of care, to biased clinical decision-making, the American health care system is geared to treat the majority, while the minority suffers. The photos shown here are of patients and scenes that recall some of the important landmarks in research on racial/ethnic disparities in health. The purpose is to put faces and humanity onto the numbers. While we now have great bodies of evidence upon which to lobby for change, in the end, each statistic still represents a personal tragedy or an individual triumph. PMID:12815077

  15. Racial disparities in bipolar disorder treatment and research: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Akinhanmi, Margaret O; Biernacka, Joanna M; Strakowski, Stephen M; McElroy, Susan L; Balls Berry, Joyce E; Merikangas, Kathleen R; Assari, Shervin; McInnis, Melvin G; Schulze, Thomas G; LeBoyer, Marion; Tamminga, Carol; Patten, Christi; Frye, Mark A

    2018-03-12

    Health disparities between individuals of African and European ancestry are well documented. The disparities in bipolar disorder may be driven by racial bias superimposed on established factors contributing to misdiagnosis, including: evolving empirically based diagnostic criteria (International Classification of Diseases [ICD], Research Diagnostic Criteria [RDC] and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual [DSM]), multiple symptom domains (i.e. mania, depression and psychosis), and multimodal medical and additional psychiatric comorbidity. For this paper, we reviewed the phenomenological differences between bipolar individuals of African and European ancestry in the context of diagnostic criteria and clinical factors that may contribute to a potential racial bias. Published data show that bipolar persons of African ancestry, compared with bipolar persons of non-African ancestry, are more often misdiagnosed with a disease other than bipolar disorder (i.e. schizophrenia). Additionally, studies show that there are disparities in recruiting patients of African ancestry to participate in important genomic studies. This gap in biological research in this underrepresented minority may represent a missed opportunity to address potential racial differences in the risk and course of bipolar illness. A concerted effort by the research community to increase inclusion of diverse persons in studies of bipolar disorder through community engagement may facilitate fully addressing these diagnostic and treatment disparities in bipolar individuals of African ancestry. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Using Reported Rates of Sexually Transmitted Diseases to Illustrate Potential Methodological Issues in the Measurement of Racial and Ethnic Disparities.

    PubMed

    Chesson, Harrell W; Patel, Chirag G; Gift, Thomas L; Bernstein, Kyle T; Aral, Sevgi O

    2017-09-01

    Racial disparities in the burden of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been documented and described for decades. Similarly, methodological issues and limitations in the use of disparity measures to quantify disparities in health have also been well documented. The purpose of this study was to use historic STD surveillance data to illustrate four of the most well-known methodological issues associated with the use of disparity measures. We manually searched STD surveillance reports to find examples of racial/ethnic distributions of reported STDs that illustrate key methodological issues in the use of disparity measures. The disparity measures we calculated included the black-white rate ratio, the Index of Disparity (weighted and unweighted by subgroup population), and the Gini coefficient. The 4 examples we developed included illustrations of potential differences in relative and absolute disparity measures, potential differences in weighted and nonweighted disparity measures, the importance of the reference point when calculating disparities, and differences in disparity measures in the assessment of trends in disparities over time. For example, the gonorrhea rate increased for all minority groups (relative to whites) from 1992 to 1993, yet the Index of Disparity suggested that racial/ethnic disparities had decreased. Although imperfect, disparity measures can be useful to quantify racial/ethnic disparities in STDs, to assess trends in these disparities, and to inform interventions to reduce these disparities. Our study uses reported STD rates to illustrate potential methodological issues with these disparity measures and highlights key considerations when selecting disparity measures for quantifying disparities in STDs.

  17. Racial and ethnic disparities in pneumonia treatment and mortality.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Leslie R M; Ibrahim, Said A; Mehrotra, Ateev; Nsa, Wato; Bratzler, Dale W; Mor, Maria K; Fine, Michael J

    2009-09-01

    The extent to which racial/ethnic disparities in pneumonia care occur within or between hospitals is unclear. Examine within and between-hospital racial/ethnic disparities in quality indicators and mortality for patients hospitalized for pneumonia. Retrospective cohort study. A total of 1,183,753 non-Hispanic white, African American, and Hispanic adults hospitalized for pneumonia between January 2005 and June 2006. Eight pneumonia care quality indicators and in-hospital mortality. Performance rates for the 8 quality indicators ranged from 99.4% (oxygenation assessment within 24 hours) to 60.2% (influenza vaccination). Overall hospital mortality was 4.1%. African American and Hispanic patients were less likely to receive pneumococcal and influenza vaccinations, smoking cessation counseling, and first dose of antibiotic within 4 hours than white patients at the same hospital (ORs = 0.65-0.95). Patients at hospitals with the racial composition of those attended by average African Americans and Hispanics were less likely to receive all indicators except blood culture within 24 hours than patients at hospitals with the racial composition of those attended by average whites. Hospital mortality was higher for African Americans (OR = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.09) and lower for Hispanics (OR = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.81, 0.89) than for whites within the same hospital. Mortality for patients at hospitals with the racial composition of those attended by average African Americans (OR = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.18, 1.25) or Hispanics (OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.14, 1.23) was higher than for patients at hospitals with the racial composition of those attended by average whites. Racial/ethnic disparities in pneumonia treatment and mortality are larger and more consistent between hospitals than within hospitals.

  18. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Depressive Symptoms Among Pregnant Women Vary by Income and Neighborhood Poverty.

    PubMed

    Cubbin, Catherine; Heck, Katherine; Powell, Tara; Marchi, Kristen; Braveman, Paula

    2015-01-01

    We examined racial/ethnic disparities in depressive symptoms during pregnancy among a population-based sample of childbearing women in California (N = 24,587). We hypothesized that these racial/ethnic disparities would be eliminated when comparing women with similar incomes and neighborhood poverty environments. Neighborhood poverty trajectory descriptions were linked with survey data measuring age, parity, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, income, and depressive symptoms. We constructed logistic regression models among the overall sample to examine both crude and adjusted racial/ethnic disparities in feeling depressed. Next, stratified adjusted logistic regression models were constructed to examine racial/ethnic disparities in feeling depressed among women of similar income levels living in similar neighborhood poverty environments. We found that racial/ethnic disparities in feeling depressed remained only among women who were not poor themselves and who lived in long-term moderate or low poverty neighborhoods.

  19. Decomposing racial and ethnic disparities in the use of postacute rehabilitation care.

    PubMed

    Holmes, George M; Freburger, Janet K; Ku, Li-Jung E

    2012-06-01

    To determine the degree to which racial and ethnic disparities in the use of postacute rehabilitation care (PARC) are explained by observed characteristics. State inpatient databases (SIDs) for 2005 and 2006 from four diverse states were used to identify patients with stays for joint replacement, stroke, or hip fracture. Our primary outcomes were use of institutional PARC (versus discharge home) and, conditional on discharge to an institution, skilled nursing facility (versus inpatient rehabilitation facility) care. We modified the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method to account for the dichotomous outcome and multilevel nature of the data. Discharges from the four SIDs were included if the principal diagnosis (stroke, hip fracture) or procedure (joint replacement) was in the sample inclusion criteria. Observed characteristics explained roughly half of the unadjusted differences in use of institutional PARC. Patient-level factors (clinical, age) were more explanatory of disparities in institutional PARC use, while hospital-level factors were more explanatory of skilled nursing facility versus inpatient rehabilitation facility care. Adjustment for characteristics influencing PARC use both mitigated and exacerbated racial/ethnic disparities in use. The degree to which the characteristics explained the disparity varied across conditions and outcomes. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  20. Examining Racial Disparities in Teacher Perceptions of Student Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooc, North

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: The overrepresentation of some minority groups in special education in the United States raises concerns about racial inequality and stratification within schools. While many actors and mechanisms within the school system may contribute to racial disparities in special education, the role of teachers is particularly important…

  1. One size does not fit all: an examination of low birthweight disparities among a diverse set of racial/ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Johnelle Sparks, P

    2009-11-01

    To examine disparities in low birthweight using a diverse set of racial/ethnic categories and a nationally representative sample. This research explored the degree to which sociodemographic characteristics, health care access, maternal health status, and health behaviors influence birthweight disparities among seven racial/ethnic groups. Binary logistic regression models were estimated using a nationally representative sample of singleton, normal for gestational age births from 2001 using the ECLS-B, which has an approximate sample size of 7,800 infants. The multiple variable models examine disparities in low birthweight (LBW) for seven racial/ethnic groups, including non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, U.S.-born Mexican-origin Hispanic, foreign-born Mexican-origin Hispanic, other Hispanic, Native American, and Asian mothers. Race-stratified logistic regression models were also examined. In the full sample models, only non-Hispanic black mothers have a LBW disadvantage compared to non-Hispanic white mothers. Maternal WIC usage was protective against LBW in the full models. No prenatal care and adequate plus prenatal care increase the odds of LBW. In the race-stratified models, prenatal care adequacy and high maternal health risks are the only variables that influence LBW for all racial/ethnic groups. The race-stratified models highlight the different mechanism important across the racial/ethnic groups in determining LBW. Differences in the distribution of maternal sociodemographic, health care access, health status, and behavior characteristics by race/ethnicity demonstrate that a single empirical framework may distort associations with LBW for certain racial and ethnic groups. More attention must be given to the specific mechanisms linking maternal risk factors to poor birth outcomes for specific racial/ethnic groups.

  2. Making a business case for small medical practices to maintain quality while addressing racial healthcare disparities.

    PubMed

    Dunston, Frances J; Eisenberg, Andrew C; Lewis, Evelyn L; Montgomery, John M; Ramos, Diana; Elster, Arthur

    2008-11-01

    Various reports have documented variations in quality of care that occur among racial and ethnic populations, even after accounting for socioeconomic factors and health insurance status. Although quality improvement initiatives are often touted as the answer to healthcare disparities, researchers have questioned whether a business case exists that supports this notion. We assess various barriers and incentives for using quality improvement to address racial and ethnic healthcare disparities in small-to-medium-sized practices. We believe that although both indirect and direct cost incentives may exist, a favorable business case for small private practices cannot be made unless there are additional financial incentives. The business community can work with health plans to provide these incentives.

  3. Have Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Quality of Health Care Relationships Changed for Children with Developmental Disabilities and ASD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magaña, Sandra; Parish, Susan L.; Son, Esther

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if racial and ethnic disparities in the quality of provider interaction have changed between 2006 and 2010 for children with developmental disabilities and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data from the 2005/2006 and 2009/2010 National Survey of Children With Special Health Care Needs were analyzed. Results…

  4. The Contribution of Biogeographic Ancestry and Socioeconomic Status to Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey

    PubMed Central

    Piccolo, Rebecca S.; Pearce, Neil; Araujo, Andre B.; McKinlay, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Racial/ethnic disparities in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are well documented and many researchers have proposed that biogeographical ancestry (BGA) may play a role in these disparities. However, studies examining the role of BGA on T2DM have produced mixed results to date. Therefore, the objective of this research is to quantify the contribution of BGA to racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM incidence controlling for the mediating influences of socioeconomic factors. Methods We analyzed data from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey, a prospective cohort with approximately equal numbers of Black, Hispanic, and White participants. We used Ancestry Informative Markers to calculate the percentages of West African and Native American ancestry of participants. We used logistic regression with g-computation to analyze the contribution of BGA and socioeconomic factors to racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM incidence. Results We found that socioeconomic factors accounted for 44.7% of the total effect of T2DM attributed to Black race and 54.9% of the effect attributed to Hispanic ethnicity. We found that BGA had almost no direct association with T2DM and was almost entirely mediated by self-identified race/ethnicity and socioeconomic factors. Conclusions It is likely that non-genetic factors, specifically socioeconomic factors, account for much of the reported racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM incidence. PMID:25088753

  5. The Biology of Cancer Health Disparities

    Cancer.gov

    These examples show how biology contributes to health disparities (differences in disease incidence and outcomes among distinct racial and ethnic groups, ), and how biological factors interact with other relevant factors, such as diet and the environment.

  6. Racialized geography, corporate activity, and health disparities: tobacco industry targeting of inner cities.

    PubMed

    Yerger, Valerie B; Przewoznik, Jennifer; Malone, Ruth E

    2007-11-01

    Industry has played a complex role in the rise of tobacco-related diseases in the United States. The tobacco industry's activities, including targeted marketing, are arguably among the most powerful corporate influences on health and health policy. We analyzed over 400 internal tobacco industry documents to explore how, during the past several decades, the industry targeted inner cities populated predominantly by low-income African American residents with highly concentrated menthol cigarette marketing. We study how major tobacco companies competed against one another in menthol wars fought within these urban cores. Little previous work has analyzed the way in which the inner city's complex geography of race, class, and place shaped the avenues used by tobacco corporations to increase tobacco use in low-income, predominantly African American urban cores in the 1970s-1990s. Our analysis shows how the industry's activities contributed to the racialized geography of today's tobacco-related health disparities.

  7. Racial and ethnic disparities in U.S. cancer screening rates

    Cancer.gov

    The percentage of U.S. citizens screened for cancer remains below national targets, with significant disparities among racial and ethnic populations, according to the first federal study to identify cancer screening disparities among Asian and Hispanic gr

  8. Acute infection contributes to racial disparities in stroke mortality.

    PubMed

    Levine, Deborah A; Langa, Kenneth M; Rogers, Mary A M

    2014-03-18

    It is unknown whether racial differences in exposure to acute precipitants of stroke, specifically infection, contribute to racial disparities in stroke mortality. Among participants in the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study with linked Medicare data (1991-2007), we conducted a case-crossover study employing within-person comparisons to study racial/ethnic differences in the risks of death and hospitalization from ischemic stroke following acute infection. There were 964 adults hospitalized for ischemic stroke. Acute infection increased the 30-day risks of ischemic stroke death (5.82-fold) and ischemic stroke hospitalization (1.87-fold). Acute infection was a more potent trigger of acute ischemic stroke death in non-Hispanic blacks (odds ratio [OR] 39.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] 9.26-166.00) than in non-Hispanic whites (OR 4.50; 95% CI 3.14-6.44) or Hispanics (OR 5.18; 95% CI 1.34-19.95) (race-by-stroke interaction, p = 0.005). When adjusted for atrial fibrillation, infection remained more strongly associated with stroke mortality in blacks (OR 34.85) than in whites (OR 3.58) and Hispanics (OR 3.53). Acute infection increased the short-term risk of incident stroke similarly across racial/ethnic groups. Infection occurred often before stroke death in non-Hispanic blacks, with 70% experiencing an infection in the 30 days before stroke death compared to a background frequency of 15%. Acute infection disproportionately increases the risk of stroke death for non-Hispanic blacks, independently of atrial fibrillation. Stroke incidence did not explain this finding. Acute infection appears to be one factor that contributes to the black-white disparity in stroke mortality.

  9. "More than skin deep": stress neurobiology and mental health consequences of racial discrimination.

    PubMed

    Berger, Maximus; Sarnyai, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority groups across the world face a complex set of adverse social and psychological challenges linked to their minority status, often involving racial discrimination. Racial discrimination is increasingly recognized as an important contributing factor to health disparities among non-dominant ethnic minorities. A growing body of literature has recognized these health disparities and has investigated the relationship between racial discrimination and poor health outcomes. Chronically elevated cortisol levels and a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis appear to mediate effects of racial discrimination on allostatic load and disease. Racial discrimination seems to converge on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and may impair the function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hence showing substantial similarities to chronic social stress. This review provides a summary of recent literature on hormonal and neural effects of racial discrimination and a synthesis of potential neurobiological pathways by which discrimination affects mental health.

  10. Racial and ethnic disparities in contraceptive method choice in California.

    PubMed

    Shih, Grace; Vittinghoff, Eric; Steinauer, Jody; Dehlendorf, Christine

    2011-09-01

    Unintended pregnancy, an important public health issue, disproportionately affects minority populations. Yet, the independent associations of race, ethnicity and other characteristics with contraceptive choice have not been well studied. Racial and ethnic disparities in contraceptive use among 3,277 women aged 18-44 and at risk for unintended pregnancy were assessed using 2006-2008 data from of the California Women's Health Survey. Sequential logistic regression analyses were used to examine the independent and cumulative associations of racial, ethnic, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics with method choice. Differences in contraceptive use persisted in analyses controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Blacks and foreign-born Asians were less likely than whites to use high-efficacy reversible methods-that is, hormonals or IUDs (odds ratio, 0.5 for each). No differences by race or ethnicity were found specifically for IUD use in the full model. Blacks and U.S.-born Hispanics were more likely than whites to choose female sterilization (1.9 and 1.7, respectively), while foreign-born Asians had reduced odds of such use (0.4). Finally, blacks and foreign-born Asians were less likely than whites to rely on male sterilization (0.3 and 0.1, respectively). Socioeconomic factors did not explain the disparities in method choice among racial and ethnic groups. Intervention programs that focus on improving contraceptive choice among black and, particularly, Asian populations need to be developed, as such programs have the potential to reduce the number of unintended pregnancies that occur among these high-risk groups. Copyright © 2011 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  11. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Contraceptive Method Choice in California

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Grace; Vittinghoff, Eric; Steinauer, Jody; Dehlendorf, Christine

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT Unintended pregnancy, an important public health issue, disproportionately affects minority populations. Yet, the independent associations of race, ethnicity and other characteristics with contraceptive choice have not been well studied. METHODS Racial and ethnic disparities in contraceptive use among 3,277 women aged 18–44 and at risk for unintended pregnancy were assessed using 2006–2008 data from of the California Women’s Health Survey. Sequential logistic regression analyses were used to examine the independent and cumulative associations of racial, ethnic, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics with method choice. RESULTS Differences in contraceptive use persisted in analyses controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Blacks and foreign-born Asians were less likely than whites to use high-efficacy reversible methods—that is, hormonals or IUDs (odds ratio, 0.5 for each). No differences by race or ethnicity were found specifically for IUD use in the full model. Blacks and U.S.-born Hispanics were more likely than whites to choose female sterilization (1.9 and 1.7, respectively), while foreign-born Asians had reduced odds of such use (0.4). Finally, blacks and foreign-born Asians were less likely than whites to rely on male sterilization (0.3 and 0.1, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Socioeconomic factors did not explain the disparities in method choice among racial and ethnic groups. Intervention programs that focus on improving contraceptive choice among black and, particularly, Asian populations need to be developed, as such programs have the potential to reduce the number of unintended pregnancies that occur among these high-risk groups. PMID:21884385

  12. Economic, racial and ethnic disparities in breast cancer in the US: towards a more comprehensive model.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Richard T; Li, Xue; Dolecek, Therese A; Barrett, Richard E; Weaver, Kathryn E; Warnecke, Richard B

    2009-09-01

    Using cancer registry data, we focus on racial and ethnic disparities in stage of breast cancer diagnosis in Cook County, IL. The county health system is the "last resort" health-care provider for low-income persons. Socioeconomic status is measured using empirical Bayes estimates of tract-level poverty, specific to non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks or Hispanics in one of three age groups. We use ordinal logistic regression with non-proportional odds to model stage. Blacks and Hispanics are at greater risk for regional and distant stage diagnosis, but the disparity declines with age. Women in high-poverty areas are at substantially greater risk for late-stage diagnosis. The effects of poverty do not differ by age or across racial and ethnic groups.

  13. Racial disparities in mortality among infants with Dandy-Walker syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salihu, Hamisu M; Kornosky, Jennifer L; Alio, Amina P; Druschel, Charlotte M

    2009-05-01

    Congenital malformations are the major cause of infant mortality in the United States, but their contribution to overall racial disparity--a major public health concern--is poorly understood. We sought to estimate the contribution of a congenitally acquired central nervous system lesion, Dandy-Walker Syndrome (DWS), to black-white disparity in infant mortality. Data were obtained from the New York State Congenital Malformations Registry, an ongoing population-based validated surveillance system. We compared black to white infants with respect to infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality using Cox proportional hazards regression models. A total of 196 live-born neonates were diagnosed with DWS in the state from 1992 to 2005 inclusive. Of these, 53 were non-Hispanic black and 76 were non-Hispanic white. Neonatal mortality was similar for non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites (adjusted hazards ratio [AHR], 1.42; 95% CI, 0.52-3.82), but non-Hispanic blacks had an 8-fold increased risk for postneonatal mortality (AHR, 8.26; 95% CI, 2.08-32.72). Adjustment for fetal growth and other maternal and infant characteristics resulted in a 10-fold increased risk of mortality for non-Hispanic black infants as compared to non-Hispanic whites. By contrast, adjustment for preterm birth attenuated the risk, but non-Hispanic black infants were still more than 6 times as likely to die during the postneonatal period than non-Hispanic whites (AHR, 6.36, 95% CI, 1.52-26.60). DWS has one of the largest black-white disparities in postneonatal survival. This underscores the importance of evaluating racial disparities in infant mortality by specific conditions in order to formulate targeted interventions to reduce disparities.

  14. Socioeconomic and Physician Supply Determinants of Racial Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Samir; Armstrong, Katrina; Asch, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Causes of racial disparities in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening may extend beyond individual-level characteristics. We examined how physician density, beyond socioeconomic factors, affected observed racial disadvantages in recent CRC screening for blacks and Hispanics. Methods: We obtained socioeconomic and CRC screening information on adults age ≥ 50 years from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1997 to 2008) and information on the number of primary care physicians and gastroenterologists from the American Medical Association Masterfile (1997 to 2008). We used fixed-effect multivariate logistic regression to model the probability of receiving a fecal occult blood test within the past year or endoscopic screening within the past 5 years as a function of individual-level socioeconomic factors and state-level physician supply. Results: In 2008, 60.6% of whites were current on CRC screening (95% CI, 60.6% to 61.0%) compared with 57.9% of blacks (95% CI, 56.7% to 59.2%) and 42.9% of Hispanics (95% CI, 41.0% to 44.8%). Inclusion of socioeconomic variables reversed black-white disparities (odds ratio [OR], 1.17; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.19) but did not explain disadvantage for Hispanics (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.92). Once interaction of race and physician supply was considered, likelihood of recent CRC screening became statistically indistinguishable for Hispanics and whites of similar socioeconomic status residing in states with high physician supplies. Conclusion: Socioeconomic factors and physician supply are key predictors of CRC screening. Adjustment for socioeconomic determinants explained black-white disparities; further adjustment for physician supply explained Hispanic-white disparities. Physician distribution is a potentially remediable contributor to ethnic/racial disparities in CRC screening. Whether the United States is able to equitably meet future demand for screening may depend on access, physician supply, and organization of the

  15. Socioeconomic and physician supply determinants of racial disparities in colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Soneji, Samir; Armstrong, Katrina; Asch, David A

    2012-09-01

    Causes of racial disparities in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening may extend beyond individual-level characteristics. We examined how physician density, beyond socioeconomic factors, affected observed racial disadvantages in recent CRC screening for blacks and Hispanics. We obtained socioeconomic and CRC screening information on adults age ≥ 50 years from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1997 to 2008) and information on the number of primary care physicians and gastroenterologists from the American Medical Association Masterfile (1997 to 2008). We used fixed-effect multivariate logistic regression to model the probability of receiving a fecal occult blood test within the past year or endoscopic screening within the past 5 years as a function of individual-level socioeconomic factors and state-level physician supply. In 2008, 60.6% of whites were current on CRC screening (95% CI, 60.6% to 61.0%) compared with 57.9% of blacks (95% CI, 56.7% to 59.2%) and 42.9% of Hispanics (95% CI, 41.0% to 44.8%). Inclusion of socioeconomic variables reversed black-white disparities (odds ratio [OR], 1.17; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.19) but did not explain disadvantage for Hispanics (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.92). Once interaction of race and physician supply was considered, likelihood of recent CRC screening became statistically indistinguishable for Hispanics and whites of similar socioeconomic status residing in states with high physician supplies. Socioeconomic factors and physician supply are key predictors of CRC screening. Adjustment for socioeconomic determinants explained black-white disparities; further adjustment for physician supply explained Hispanic-white disparities. Physician distribution is a potentially remediable contributor to ethnic/racial disparities in CRC screening. Whether the United States is able to equitably meet future demand for screening may depend on access, physician supply, and organization of the health care system.

  16. Application of the nonlinear Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition to study racial/ethnic disparities in antiobesity medication use in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Hemalkumar B; Rajan, Suja S; Aparasu, Rajender R; Johnson, Michael L

    2013-01-01

    The nonlinear Blinder-Oaxaca (BO) decomposition method is gaining popularity in health services research because of its ability to explain disparity issues. The present study demonstrates the use of this method for categorical variables by addressing antiobesity medication use disparity. To examine racial/ethnic disparity in antiobesity medication use and to quantify the observed factor contribution behind the disparity using the nonlinear BO decomposition. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data, 2002-2007, were used in this retrospective cross-sectional study. Adults with body mass index (BMI) >30, or BMI ≥27 and comorbidities such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia were included in the cohort (N=65,886,625). Multivariable logistic regression was performed to examine racial/ethnic disparity in antiobesity medication use controlling for predisposing, enabling, and need factors. The nonlinear BO decomposition was used to identify the contribution of each predisposing, enabling, and need factors in explaining the racial/ethnic disparity and to estimate the residual unexplained disparity. Non-Hispanic Blacks were 46% (odds ratio [OR]: 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.35-0.83) less likely to use antiobesity drugs compared with non-Hispanic Whites, whereas no difference was observed between Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites. A 0.22 percentage point of disparity existed between non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks. The nonlinear BO decomposition estimated a decomposition coefficient of -0.0013 indicating that the observed disparity would have been 58% higher (-0.0013/0.0022) if non-Hispanic Blacks had similar observed characteristics as non-Hispanic Whites. Age, gender, marital status, region, and BMI were significant factors in the decomposition model; only marital status explained the racial/ethnic disparity among all observed characteristics. The study revealed that differences in the predisposing, enabling, and need characteristics

  17. The neighborhood context of racial and ethnic disparities in arrest.

    PubMed

    Kirk, David S

    2008-02-01

    This study assesses the role of social context in explaining racial and ethnic disparities in arrest, with afocus on how distinct neighborhood contexts in which different racial and ethnic groups reside explain variations in criminal outcomes. To do so, I utilize a multilevel, longitudinal research design, combining individual-level data with contextual data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Findings reveal that black youths face multiple layers of disadvantage relative to other racial and ethnic groups, and these layers work to create differences in arrest. At the family level, results show that disadvantages in the form of unstable family structures explain much of the disparities in arrest across race and ethnicity. At the neighborhood level, black youths tend to reside in areas with both significantly higher levels of concentrated poverty than other youths as well as lower levels of collective efficacy than white youths. Variations in neighborhood tolerance of deviance across groups explain little of the arrest disparities, yet tolerance of deviance does influence the frequency with which a crime ultimately ends in an arrest. Even after accounting for relevant demographic, family, and neighborhood-level predictors, substantial residual arrest differences remain between black youths and youths of other racial and ethnic groups.

  18. The Neighborhood Context of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Arrest

    PubMed Central

    KIRK, DAVID S.

    2008-01-01

    This study assesses the role of social context in explaining racial and ethnic disparities in arrest, with a focus on how distinct neighborhood contexts in which different racial and ethnic groups reside explain variations in criminal outcomes. To do so, I utilize a multilevel, longitudinal research design, combining individual-level data with contextual data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Findings reveal that black youths face multiple layers of disadvantage relative to other racial and ethnic groups, and these layers work to create differences in arrest. At the family level, results show that disadvantages in the form of unstable family structures explain much of the disparities in arrest across race and ethnicity. At the neighborhood level, black youths tend to reside in areas with both significantly higher levels of concentrated poverty than other youths as well as lower levels of collective efficacy than white youths. Variations in neighborhood tolerance of deviance across groups explain little of the arrest disparities, yet tolerance of deviance does influence the frequency with which a crime ultimately ends in an arrest. Even after accounting for relevant demographic, family, and neighborhood-level predictors, substantial residual arrest differences remain between black youths and youths of other racial and ethnic groups. PMID:18390291

  19. Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Substance Abuse Treatment: The Role of Criminal History and Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Lê Cook, Benjamin; Alegría, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    Objective Among persons with substance use disorders, those from racial-ethnic minority groups have been found to receive substance abuse treatment at rates equal to or higher than those of non-Latino whites. Little is known about factors underlying this apparent lack of disparities. This study examines racial-ethnic disparities in treatment receipt and mechanisms that reduce or contribute to disparities. Methods Black-white and Latino-white disparities in any and in specialty substance abuse treatment were measured among adult respondents with substance use disorders from the 2005–2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (N=25,159). Three staged models were used to measure disparities concordant with the Institute of Medicine definition, assess the extent to which criminal history and socioeconomic indicators contributed to disparities, and identify correlates of treatment receipt. Results Treatment was rare (about 10%) for all racial-ethnic groups. Odds ratios for black-white and Latino-white differences decreased and became significantly less than 1 after adjustment for criminal history and socioeconomic status factors. Higher rates of criminal history and enrollment in Medicaid among blacks and Latinos and lower income were specific mechanisms that influenced changes in estimates of disparities across models. Conclusions The greater likelihood of treatment receipt among persons with a criminal history and lower socioeconomic status is a pattern unlike those seen in most other areas of medical treatment and important to the understanding of substance abuse treatment disparities. Treatment programs that are mandated by the criminal justice system may provide access to individuals resistant to care, which raises concerns about perceived coercion. PMID:22211205

  20. DSM-5 Insomnia and Short Sleep: Comorbidity Landscape and Racial Disparities.

    PubMed

    Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J Todd; Drake, Christopher L

    2016-12-01

    We estimated rates of cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric illness associated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) insomnia disorder (current and in remission) and habitual short sleep (fewer than 6 h), and examined the roles of insomnia and short sleep in racial disparities in disease burden between black and non-Hispanic white Americans. This epidemiological survey study was cross-sectional. The community-based sample consisted of 3,911 subjects (46.0 y ± 13.3; 65.4% female; 25.0% black) across six sleep groups based on DSM-5 insomnia classification ( never vs. remitted vs. current ) and self-reported habitual sleep duration ( normal vs. short ). Vascular events, cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric symptoms were self-reported. Short sleeping insomniacs were at elevated risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, treated hypertension, diabetes, chronic pain, back pain, depression, and anxiety, independent of sex, age, and obesity. Morbidity profiles for insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs, irrespective of sleep duration, were similar with elevations in treated hypertension, chronic pain, depression, and anxiety. Regarding racial disparities, cardiometabolic and psychiatric illness burden was greater for blacks, who were more likely to have short sleep and the short sleep insomnia phenotype. Evidence suggested that health disparities may be attributable in part to race-related differences in sleep. Insomnia disorder with short sleep is the most severe phenotype of insomnia and comorbid with many cardiometabolic and psychiatric illnesses, whereas morbidity profiles are highly similar between insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs. Short sleep endemic to black Americans increases risk for the short sleep insomnia phenotype and likely contributes to racial disparities in cardiometabolic disease and psychiatric illness. © 2016 Associated

  1. Gender and racial disparities in driving cessation among older adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Moon; Mezuk, Briana; Lohman, Matthew C; Edwards, Jerri D; Rebok, George W

    2012-12-01

    To longitudinally examine gender and racial disparities in driving cessation among older adults. Data came from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) Study (N = 1,789). Logistic generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to identify predictors of driving cessation; stratified analysis and interaction terms were used to determine whether factors differed by gender and race. Two hundred and five (11.5%) participants stopped driving over the study period. Education was associated with increased risk of cessation for men (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.10 to 1.78), but decreased risk for women (AOR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.82-0.98). Being married was associated with lower risk of cessation for men (AOR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.06-0.56) but was unrelated to cessation for women (AOR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.56-1.80). Results were consistent with the hypothesis that racial disparities in cessation widen with increasing age. Factors predictive of driving cessation vary by gender. Racial disparities in cessation are wider at older ages. Transportation policies and programs should account for social determinants and aim to address social disparities in driving mobility among older adults.

  2. Racial and ethnic differences in utilization of mental health services among high-risk youths.

    PubMed

    Garland, Ann F; Lau, Anna S; Yeh, May; McCabe, Kristen M; Hough, Richard L; Landsverk, John A

    2005-07-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in mental health service use have been identified as a major public health problem. However, the extent to which these disparities may be accounted for by other confounding sociodemographic or clinical predictors of service use (e.g., family income, functional impairment, caregiver strain) is relatively unexplored, especially for youth services. The goal of this study was to test for racial/ethnic disparities in use of a variety of outpatient, inpatient, and informal mental health services among high-risk youths, with the effects of other predictive factors controlled. Participants were 1,256 youths ages 6-18 years who received services in a large, publicly funded system of care (including the child welfare, juvenile justice, special education, alcohol and drug abuse, and mental health service sectors). Youths and caregivers were interviewed with established measures of mental health service use, psychiatric diagnoses, functional impairment, caregiver strain, and parental depression. Significant racial/ethnic group differences in likelihood of receiving any mental health service and, specifically, formal outpatient services were found after the effects of potentially confounding variables were controlled. Race/ethnicity did not exert a significant effect on the use of informal or 24-hour-care services. Racial/ethnic disparities in service use remain a public health problem.

  3. Reducing Disparities through Culturally Competent Health Care: An Analysis of the Business Case

    PubMed Central

    Brach, Cindy; Fraser, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Finding ways to deliver high-quality health care to an increasingly diverse population is a major challenge for the American health care system. The persistence of racial and ethnic disparities in health care access, quality, and outcomes has prompted considerable interest in increasing the cultural competence of health care, both as an end in its own right and as a potential means to reduce disparities. This article reviews the potential role of cultural competence in reducing racial and ethnic health disparities, the strength of health care organizations’ current incentives to adopt cultural competence techniques, and the limitations inherent in these incentives that will need to be overcome if cultural competence techniques are to become widely adopted. PMID:12938253

  4. Disparities in Treatment for Substance Use Disorders and Co-Occurring Disorders for Ethnic/Racial Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alegria, Margarita; Carson, Nicholas J.; Goncalves, Marta; Keefe, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on racial and ethnic disparities in behavioral health services and present recent data, focusing on services for substance use disorders (SUD) and comorbid mental health disorders for children and adolescents. Method: A literature review was conducted of behavioral health services for minority youth. Articles…

  5. Acute infection contributes to racial disparities in stroke mortality

    PubMed Central

    Langa, Kenneth M.; Rogers, Mary A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: It is unknown whether racial differences in exposure to acute precipitants of stroke, specifically infection, contribute to racial disparities in stroke mortality. Methods: Among participants in the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study with linked Medicare data (1991–2007), we conducted a case-crossover study employing within-person comparisons to study racial/ethnic differences in the risks of death and hospitalization from ischemic stroke following acute infection. Results: There were 964 adults hospitalized for ischemic stroke. Acute infection increased the 30-day risks of ischemic stroke death (5.82-fold) and ischemic stroke hospitalization (1.87-fold). Acute infection was a more potent trigger of acute ischemic stroke death in non-Hispanic blacks (odds ratio [OR] 39.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] 9.26–166.00) than in non-Hispanic whites (OR 4.50; 95% CI 3.14–6.44) or Hispanics (OR 5.18; 95% CI 1.34–19.95) (race-by-stroke interaction, p = 0.005). When adjusted for atrial fibrillation, infection remained more strongly associated with stroke mortality in blacks (OR 34.85) than in whites (OR 3.58) and Hispanics (OR 3.53). Acute infection increased the short-term risk of incident stroke similarly across racial/ethnic groups. Infection occurred often before stroke death in non-Hispanic blacks, with 70% experiencing an infection in the 30 days before stroke death compared to a background frequency of 15%. Conclusions: Acute infection disproportionately increases the risk of stroke death for non-Hispanic blacks, independently of atrial fibrillation. Stroke incidence did not explain this finding. Acute infection appears to be one factor that contributes to the black–white disparity in stroke mortality. PMID:24510494

  6. An Experimental Investigation of Possible Memory Biases Affecting Support for Racial Health Care Policy

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Ryan P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to test the theory that estimates of racial disparities may be based on small recalled samples of specific individuals (Black vs White), a strategy likely to lead to underestimates of true racial disparities and a corresponding opposition to race-focused health care policies. Methods. We asked a sample of White adults to list the first 5 Black and White individuals who came to mind, and then measured support for various race-focused health care policies. Results. Analyses indicated that the Black individuals recalled by participants tended to be more famous and wealthy than their White counterparts. Furthermore, the tendency to list wealthier Black individuals predicted opposition to progressive racial health care programs. A follow-up study demonstrated that support for certain race-focused health care policies could be increased by informing Whites of potential memory biases. Conclusions. The survival and success of minority health care policies depend partially on public acceptance. Education regarding continuing racial disparities may help to increase support for race-focused health care policies. PMID:22420789

  7. Examining the Impact of Structural Racism on Food Insecurity: Implications for Addressing Racial/Ethnic Disparities.

    PubMed

    Odoms-Young, Angela; Bruce, Marino A

    Food insecurity is defined as "a household-level economic and social condition of limited or uncertain access to adequate food." While, levels of food insecurity in the United States have fluctuated over the past 20 years; disparities in food insecurity rates between people of color and whites have continued to persist. There is growing recognition that discrimination and structural racism are key contributors to disparities in health behaviors and outcomes. Although several promising practices to reduce food insecurity have emerged, approaches that address structural racism and discrimination may have important implications for alleviating racial/ethnic disparities in food insecurity and promoting health equity overall.

  8. Racialized identity and health in Canada: results from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2009-08-01

    This article uses survey data to investigate health effects of racialization in Canada. The operative sample was comprised of 91,123 Canadians aged 25 and older who completed the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey. A "racial and cultural background" survey question contributed a variable that differentiated respondents who identified with Aboriginal, Black, Chinese, Filipino, Latin American, South Asian, White, or jointly Aboriginal and White racial/cultural backgrounds. Indicators of diabetes, hypertension and self-rated health were used to assess health. The healthy immigrant effect suppressed some disparity in risk for diabetes by racial/cultural identification. In logistic regression models also containing gender, age, and immigrant status, no racial/cultural identifications corresponded with significantly better health outcomes than those reported by survey respondents identifying as White. Subsequent models indicated that residential locale did little to explain the associations between racial/cultural background and health and that socioeconomic status was only implicated in relatively poor health outcomes for respondents identifying as Aboriginal or Aboriginal/White. Sizable and statistically significant relative risks for poor health for respondents identifying as Aboriginal, Aboriginal/White, Black, Chinese, or South Asian remained unexplained by the models, suggesting that other explanations for health disparities by racialized identity in Canada - perhaps pertaining to experiences with institutional racism and/or the wear and tear of experiences of racism and discrimination in everyday life - also deserve empirical investigation in this context.

  9. HIV Infection among People Who Inject Drugs: The Challenge of Racial/Ethnic Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Des Jarlais, Don C.; McCarty, Dennis; Vega, William A.; Bramson, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection, with minority groups typically having higher rates of infection, are a formidable public health challenge. In the United States, among both men and women who inject drugs, HIV infection rates are elevated among Hispanics and non-Hispanic Blacks. A meta-analysis of international research concluded that…

  10. Health Disparities | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... and health disparities? This is an issue of social justice. Racial and ethnic minorities and the working poor ... trials and observational studies, is an issue of social justice and of advancing knowledge. Without the inclusion of ...

  11. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Alcohol-related Problems: Differences by Gender and Level of Heavy Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Witbrodt, Jane; Mulia, Nina; Zemore, Sarah E.; Kerr, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective While prior studies have reported racial/ethnic disparities in alcohol-related problems at a given level of heavy drinking, particularly lower levels, it is unclear whether these occur in both genders and are an artifact of racial/ethnic differences in drink alcohol content. Such information is important to understanding disparities and developing specific, targeted interventions. This study addresses these questions and examines disparities in specific types of alcohol problems across racial-gender groups. Method Using 2005 and 2010 National Alcohol Survey data (N=7,249 current drinkers), gender-stratified regression analyses were conducted to assess black-white and Hispanic-white disparities in alcohol dependence and negative drinking consequences at equivalent levels of heavy drinking. Heavy drinking was measured using a gender-specific, composite drinking-patterns variable derived through factor analysis. Analyses were replicated using adjusted-alcohol consumption variables that account for group differences in drink alcohol content based on race/ethnicity, gender, age and alcoholic beverage. Results Compared to white men, black and Hispanic men had higher rates of injuries/accidents/health and social consequences, and marginally greater work/legal consequences (p< .10). Hispanic women had marginally higher rates of social consequences. In main effects models controlling for demographics, light drinking and heavy drinking, only black women and men had greater odds of alcohol-related problems relative to whites. Interaction models indicated that compared to whites, black women had greater odds of dependence at all levels of heavy drinking, while both black and Hispanic men had elevated risk of alcohol problems only at lower levels of heavy drinking. Drink alcohol content adjustments did not significantly alter findings for either gender. Conclusions This study highlights the gender-specific nature of racial/ethnic disparities. Interventions focused on

  12. Racial and ethnic disparities in discharge to rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Meagher, Ashley D; Beadles, Christopher A; Doorey, Jennifer; Charles, Anthony G

    2015-03-01

    Disparities in access to inpatient rehabilitation services after traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been identified, but less well described is the likelihood of discharge to a higher level of rehabilitation for Hispanic or black patients compared with non-Hispanic white patients. The authors investigate racial disparities in discharge destination (inpatient rehabilitation vs skilled nursing facility vs home health vs home) following TBI by using a nationwide database and methods to address racial differences in prehospital characteristics. Analysis of discharge destination for adults with moderate to severe TBI was performed using National Trauma Data Bank data for the years 2007-2010. The authors performed propensity score weighting followed by ordered logistic regression in their analytical sample and in a subgroup analysis of older adults with Medicare. Likelihood of discharge to a higher level of rehabilitation based on race/ethnicity accounting for prehospital and in-hospital variables was determined. The authors identified 299,205 TBI incidents: 232,392 non-Hispanic white, 29,611 Hispanic, and 37,202 black. Propensity weighting resulted in covariate balance among racial groups. Hispanic (adjusted OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.68-0.75) and black (adjusted OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.91-0.97) populations were less likely to be discharged to a higher level of rehabilitation than were non-Hispanic whites. The subgroup analysis indicated that Hispanic (adjusted OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.71-0.86) and black (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.81-0.94) populations were still less likely to receive a higher level of rehabilitation, despite uniform insurance coverage (Medicare). Adult Hispanic and black patients with TBI are significantly less likely to receive intensive rehabilitation than their non-Hispanic white counterparts; notably, this difference persists in the Medicare population (age ≥ 65 years), indicating that uniform insurance coverage alone does not account for the disparity. Given that insurance

  13. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Personal Capital During Pregnancy: Findings from the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) Study

    PubMed Central

    Wakeel, Fathima; Witt, Whitney P.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Lu, Michael C.; Chao, Shin M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine if racial and ethnic differences in personal capital during pregnancy exist and to estimate the extent to which any identified racial and ethnic differences in personal capital are related to differences in maternal sociodemographic and acculturation characteristics. Methods Data are from the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) study (n=3,716). Personal capital comprised internal resources (self-esteem and mastery) and social resources (partner, social network, and neighborhood support) during pregnancy. The relationships between race/ethnicity and personal capital were assessed using multivariable generalized linear models, examining the impact of sociodemographic and acculturation factors on these relationships. Results Significant racial and ethnic disparities in personal capital during pregnancy exist. However, socioeconomic status (i.e., income and education) and marital status completely explained Black-White disparities and Hispanic-White disparities in personal capital, whereas acculturation factors, especially nativity and language spoken at home, partially mediated the disparities in personal capital between Asian/Pacific Islander women and White women. Conclusions Findings suggest that the risks associated with low socioeconomic status, single motherhood, and low acculturation, rather than race or ethnicity, contribute to low personal capital for many pregnant women. As personal capital during pregnancy may influence subsequent maternal and child health outcomes, the development of interventions should consider addressing sociodemographic and acculturation factors in order to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in personal capital and ultimately in poor maternal and child health outcomes. PMID:23504131

  14. Health insurance disparities among racial/ethnic minorities in same-sex relationships: an intersectional approach.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Ortiz, Kasim

    2015-06-01

    We examined disparities in health insurance coverage for racial/ethnic minorities in same-sex relationships. We used data from the 2009 to 2011 American Community Survey on nonelderly adults (aged 25-64 years) in same-sex (n = 32 744), married opposite-sex (n = 2 866 636), and unmarried opposite-sex (n = 268 298) relationships. We used multinomial logistic regression models to compare differences in the primary source of health insurance while controlling for key demographic and socioeconomic factors. Adults of all races/ethnicities in same-sex relationships were less likely than were White adults in married opposite-sex relationships to report having employer-sponsored health insurance. Hispanic men, Black women, and American Indian/Alaska Native women in same-sex relationships were much less likely to have employer-sponsored health insurance than were their White counterparts in married opposite-sex relationships and their White counterparts in same-sex relationships. Differences in coverage by relationship type and race/ethnicity may worsen over time as states follow different paths to implementing health care reform and same-sex marriage.

  15. Association Between Perceived Discrimination and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Problem Behaviors Among Preadolescent Youths

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Marc N.; Kanouse, David E.; Klein, David J.; Davies, Susan L.; Cuccaro, Paula M.; Banspach, Stephen W.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the contribution of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination to disparities in problem behaviors among preadolescent Black, Latino, and White youths. Methods. We used cross-sectional data from Healthy Passages, a 3-community study of 5119 fifth graders and their parents from August 2004 through September 2006 in Birmingham, Alabama; Los Angeles County, California; and Houston, Texas. We used multivariate regressions to examine the relationships of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and race/ethnicity to problem behaviors. We used values from these regressions to calculate the percentage of disparities in problem behaviors associated with the discrimination effect. Results. In multivariate models, perceived discrimination was associated with greater problem behaviors among Black and Latino youths. Compared with Whites, Blacks were significantly more likely to report problem behaviors, whereas Latinos were significantly less likely (a “reverse disparity”). When we set Blacks’ and Latinos’ discrimination experiences to zero, the adjusted disparity between Blacks and Whites was reduced by an estimated one third to two thirds; the reverse adjusted disparity favoring Latinos widened by about one fifth to one half. Conclusions. Eliminating discrimination could considerably reduce mental health issues, including problem behaviors, among Black and Latino youths. PMID:23597387

  16. Explaining Racial Disparities in Obesity Among Men: Does Place Matter?

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Roland J; Kelley, Elizabeth; Bowie, Janice V; Griffith, Derek M; Bruce, Marino; LaVeist, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    National data indicate that Black men have higher rates of obesity than White men. Black men also experience earlier onset of many chronic conditions and premature mortality linked to obesity. Explanations for these disparities have been underexplored, and existing national-level studies may be limited in their ability to explicate these long-standing patterns. National data generally do not account for race differences in risk exposures resulting from racial segregation or the confounding between race and socioeconomic status. Therefore, these differences in obesity may be a function of social environment rather than race. This study examined disparities in obesity among Black and White men living in the same social and environmental conditions, who have similar education levels and incomes using data from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities-SWB (EHDIC-SWB) study. The findings were compared with the 2003 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Logistic regression was used to examine the association between race and obesity adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic status, and health conditions. In the NHIS, Black men had a higher odds of obesity (odds ratio=1.29, 95% confidence interval=1.12-1.49) than White men. However in the EHDIC-SWB, which accounts for social and environmental conditions of where these men live, Black men had similar odds of obesity (odds ratio=1.06, 95% confidence interval=0.70-1.62) compared with White men. These data highlight the importance of the role that setting plays in understanding race disparities in obesity among men. Social environment may be a key determinant of health when seeking to understand race disparities in obesity among Black and White men. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Worry about racial discrimination: A missing piece of the puzzle of Black-White disparities in preterm birth?

    PubMed

    Braveman, Paula; Heck, Katherine; Egerter, Susan; Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Rinki, Christine; Marchi, Kristen S; Curtis, Michael

    2017-01-01

    chronic worry (PR 1.30, 95% CI 0.93-1.81); it appeared further attenuated after adding the covariates (PR 1.17, 95% CI 0.85-1.63). Chronic worry about racial discrimination may play an important role in Black-White disparities in PTB and may help explain the puzzling and repeatedly observed greater PTB disparities among more socioeconomically-advantaged women. Although the single measure of experiences of racial discrimination used in this study precluded examination of the role of other experiences of racial discrimination, such as overt incidents, it is likely that our findings reflect an association between one or more experiences of racial discrimination and PTB. Further research should examine a range of experiences of racial discrimination, including not only chronic worry but other psychological and emotional states and both subtle and overt incidents as well. These dramatic results from a large statewide-representative study add to a growing-but not widely known-literature linking racism-related stress with physical health in general, and shed light on the links between racism-related stress and PTB specifically. Without being causally definitive, this study's findings should stimulate further research and heighten awareness of the potential role of unmeasured social variables, such as diverse experiences of racial discrimination, in racial disparities in health.

  18. Worry about racial discrimination: A missing piece of the puzzle of Black-White disparities in preterm birth?

    PubMed Central

    Braveman, Paula; Heck, Katherine; Rinki, Christine; Curtis, Michael

    2017-01-01

    .09) appeared attenuated and became non-significant after adjustment for chronic worry (PR 1.30, 95% CI 0.93–1.81); it appeared further attenuated after adding the covariates (PR 1.17, 95% CI 0.85–1.63). Conclusions Chronic worry about racial discrimination may play an important role in Black-White disparities in PTB and may help explain the puzzling and repeatedly observed greater PTB disparities among more socioeconomically-advantaged women. Although the single measure of experiences of racial discrimination used in this study precluded examination of the role of other experiences of racial discrimination, such as overt incidents, it is likely that our findings reflect an association between one or more experiences of racial discrimination and PTB. Further research should examine a range of experiences of racial discrimination, including not only chronic worry but other psychological and emotional states and both subtle and overt incidents as well. These dramatic results from a large statewide-representative study add to a growing—but not widely known—literature linking racism-related stress with physical health in general, and shed light on the links between racism-related stress and PTB specifically. Without being causally definitive, this study’s findings should stimulate further research and heighten awareness of the potential role of unmeasured social variables, such as diverse experiences of racial discrimination, in racial disparities in health. PMID:29020025

  19. The effect of patient and contextual characteristics on racial/ethnic disparity in breast cancer mortality

    PubMed Central

    Sposto, Richard; Keegan, Theresa H. M.; Vigen, Cheryl; Kwan, Marilyn L.; Bernstein, Leslie; John, Esther M.; Cheng, Iona; Yang, Juan; Koo, Jocelyn; Kurian, Allison W.; Caan, Bette J.; Lu, Yani; Monroe, Kristine R.; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Wu, Anna H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Racial/ethnic disparity in breast cancer-specific mortality in the U.S. is well documented. We examined whether accounting for racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of clinical, patient, and lifestyle and contextual factors that are associated with breast cancer-specific mortality can explain this disparity. Methods The California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium combined interview data from six California-based breast cancer studies with cancer registry data to create a large racially diverse cohort of women with primary invasive breast cancer. We examined the contribution of variables in a previously reported Cox regression baseline model plus additional contextual, physical activity, body size, and comorbidity variables to the racial/ethnic disparity in breast cancer-specific mortality. Results The cohort comprised 12,098 women. Fifty-four percent were non-Latina Whites, 17% African Americans, 17% Latinas, and 12% Asian Americans. In a model adjusting only for age and study, breast cancer-specific hazard ratios relative to Whites were 1.69 (95% CI 1.46 -1.96), 1.00 (0.84 - 1.19), and 0.52 (0.33 - 0.85) for African Americans, Latinas, and Asian Americans respectively. Adjusting for baseline-model variables decreased disparity primarily by reducing the hazard ratio for African Americans to 1.13 (0.96 - 1.33). The most influential variables were related to disease characteristics, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and smoking status at diagnosis. Other variables had negligible impact on disparity. Conclusions While contextual, physical activity, body size, and comorbidity variables may influence breast cancer-specific mortality, they do not explain racial/ethnic mortality disparity. Impact Other factors besides those investigated here may explain the existing racial/ethnic disparity in mortality. PMID:27197297

  20. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease: Potential Role in Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Artaza, Jorge N.; Contreras, Sandra; Garcia, Leah A.; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Gibbons, Gary; Shohet, Ralph; Martins, David; Norris, Keith C.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes coronary artery disease and stroke, is the leading cause of mortality in the nation. Excess CVD morbidity and premature mortality in the African American community is one of the most striking examples of racial/ethnic disparities in health outcomes. African Americans also suffer from increased rates of hypovitaminosis D, which has emerged as an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. This overview examines the potential role of hypovitaminosis D as a contributor to racial and ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD). We review the epidemiology of vitamin D and CVD in African Americans and the emerging biological roles of vitamin D in key CVD signaling pathways that may contribute to the epidemiological findings and provide the foundation for future therapeutic strategies for reducing health disparities. PMID:22102304

  1. The Politics of Racial Disparities: Desegregating the Hospitals in Jackson, Mississippi

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David Barton

    2005-01-01

    As health care policymakers and providers focus on eliminating the persistent racial disparities in treatment, it is useful to explore how resistance to hospital desegregation was overcome. Jackson, Mississippi, provides an instructive case study of how largely concealed deliberations achieved the necessary concessions in a still rigidly segregated community. The Veterans Administration hospital, the medical school hospital, and the private nonprofit facilities were successively desegregated, owing mainly to the threatened loss of federal dollars. Many of the changes, however, were cosmetic. In contrast to the powerful financial incentives offered to hospitals to desegregate and ensure equal access in the early years of the Medicare program, current trends in federal reimbursement encourage segregation and disparities in treatment. PMID:15960771

  2. Racial and ethnic disparities in social engagement among US nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Cai, Xueya

    2014-04-01

    The numbers and proportions of racial and ethnic minorities have increased dramatically in US nursing homes in recent years. Concerns exist about whether nursing homes can serve appropriately the clinical and psychosocial needs of patients with increasingly diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds. This study determined racial and ethnic disparities in social engagement among nursing home long-term residents. We analyzed the 2008 national Minimum Data Set supplemented with the Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting File and the Area Resource File. We estimated multivariable logistic regressions to determine disparities and how disparities were explained by individual, facility, and geographic factors. Stratified analyses further determined persistent disparities within patient and facility subgroups. Compared with white residents (n = 690,228), black (n = 123,116), Hispanic (n = 37,099), and other (n = 17,568) residents showed lower social engagement, with overall scores (mean ± SD) being 2.5 ± 1.7, 2.2 ± 1.6, 2.0 ± 1.6, and 2.1 ± 1.6, respectively. Disparities were partially explained by variations in individual, facility, and geographic covariates, but persisted after multivariable adjustments. Stratified analyses confirmed that disparities were similar in magnitude across patient and facility subgroups. Although nursing home residents showed overall low social engagement levels, racial/ethnic minority residents were even less socially engaged than white residents. Efforts to address disparities in psychosocial well-being and quality of life of nursing home residents are warranted.

  3. Racial Disparities in HIV Care Extend to Common Comorbidities: Implications for Implementation of Interventions to Reduce Disparities in HIV Care.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Kelly K; Bokhour, Barbara; McInnes, D Keith; Yakovchenko, Vera; Okwara, Leonore; Midboe, Amanda M; Skolnik, Avy; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary; Asch, Steven M; Gifford, Allen L; Ohl, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have described racial disparities in the quality of care for persons with HIV infection, but it is unknown if these disparities extend to common comorbid conditions. To inform implementation of interventions to reduce disparities in HIV care, we examined racial variation in a set of quality measures for common comorbid conditions among Veterans in care for HIV in the United States. The cohort included 23,974 Veterans in care for HIV in 2013 (53.4% black; 46.6% white). Measures extracted from electronic health record and administrative data were receipt of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV viral control (serum RNA < 200 copies/ml among those on cART), hypertension control (blood pressure < 140/90 mm Hg among those with hypertension), diabetes control (hemoglobin A1C < 9% among those with diabetes), lipid monitoring, guideline-concordant antidepressant prescribing, and initiation and engagement in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Black persons were less likely than their white counterparts to receive cART (90.2% vs. 93.2%, p<.001), and experience viral control (84.6% vs. 91.3%, p<.001), hypertension control (61.9% vs. 68.3%, p<.001), diabetes control (85.5% vs. 89.5%, p<.001), and lipid monitoring (81.5% vs. 85.2%, p<.001). Initiation and engagement in SUD treatment were similar among blacks and whites. Differences remained after adjusting for age, comorbidity, retention in HIV care, and a measure of neighborhood social disadvantage created from census data. Implementation of interventions to reduce racial disparities in HIV care should comprehensively address and monitor processes and outcomes of care for key comorbidities. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Pharmacogenomics and the challenge of health disparities.

    PubMed

    Lee, S S

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines emerging technologies and recent research on population differences in pharmacogenomics and the perspectives of scientists, community advocates, policymakers, and social critics on the use of race as a proxy for genetic variation. The discussion focuses on how recent developments in genomic science impact social understandings of racial difference and the public health goal to eliminate ongoing health disparities among racially identified groups. This paper examines how factors such as governmental policies--requiring the use of racial and ethnic categories in genetic research and increasing interest in identifying untapped racial market niches by the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries--and weak governmental oversight of race-based therapeutics converge to create an 'infrastructure of racialization' that may alter the vision of personalized medicine that has been so highly anticipated. This paper argues that significant public investment in pharmacogenomics requires careful consideration of the emerging discourse that tethers racial justice to notions of racial biology and discusses the social and ethical implications for the pendulum shift towards a geneticization of race in drug development. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. A Review of Mental Health and Mental Health Care Disparities Research: 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Cook, Benjamin Lê; Hou, Sherry Shu-Yeu; Lee-Tauler, Su Yeon; Progovac, Ana Maria; Samson, Frank; Sanchez, Maria Jose

    2018-06-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities in the United States are more likely than Whites to have severe and persistent mental disorders and less likely to access mental health care. This comprehensive review evaluates studies of mental health and mental health care disparities funded by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) to provide a benchmark for the 2015 NIMH revised strategic plan. A total of 615 articles were categorized into five pathways underlying mental health care and three pathways underlying mental health disparities. Identified studies demonstrate that socioeconomic mechanisms and demographic moderators of disparities in mental health status and treatment are well described, as are treatment options that support diverse patient needs. In contrast, there is a need for studies that focus on community- and policy-level predictors of mental health care disparities, link discrimination- and trauma-induced neurobiological pathways to disparities in mental illness, assess the cost effectiveness of disparities reduction programs, and scale up culturally adapted interventions.

  6. Closing the Gap: Past Performance of Health Insurance in Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Access to Care Could Be an Indication of Future Results.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Susan L; Riley, Pamela; Radley, David C; McCarthy, Douglas

    2015-03-01

    This historical analysis shows that in the years just prior to the Affordable Care Act's expansion of health insurance coverage, black and Hispanic working-age adults were far more likely than whites to be uninsured, to lack a usual care provider, and to go without needed care because of cost. Among insured adults across all racial and ethnic groups, however, rates of access to a usual provider were much higher, and the proportion of adults going without needed care because of cost was much lower. Disparities between groups were narrower among the insured than the uninsured, even after adjusting for income, age, sex, and health status. With surveys pointing to a decline in uninsured rates among black and Hispanic adults in the past year, particularly in states extending Medicaid eligibility, the ACA's coverage expansions have the potential to reduce, though not eliminate, racial and ethnic disparities in access to care.

  7. Cultural context and a critical approach to eliminating health disparities.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Derek M; Johnson, Jonetta; Ellis, Katrina R; Schulz, Amy Jo

    2010-01-01

    The science of eliminating racial health disparities requires a clear understanding of the underlying social processes that drive persistent differences in health outcomes by self-identified race. Understanding these social processes requires analysis of cultural notions of race as these are instantiated in institutional policies and practices that ultimately contribute to health disparities. Racism provides a useful framework for understanding how social, political and economic factors directly and indirectly influence health outcomes. While it is important to capture how individuals are influenced by their psychological experience of prejudice and discrimination, racism is more than an intrapersonal or interpersonal variable. Considerable attention has focused on race-based residential segregation and other forms of institutional racism but less focus has been placed on how cultural values, frameworks and meanings shape institutional policies and practices. In this article, we highlight the intersection of cultural and institutional racism as a critical mechanism through which racial inequities in social determinants of health not only develop but persist. This distinction highlights and helps to explain processes and structures that contribute to racial disparities persisting across time and outcomes. Using two historical examples, the National Negro Health Movement and hospital desegregation during the Civil Rights Era, we identify key questions that an analysis of cultural racism might add to the more common focus on overt policy decisions and practices.

  8. Race, Racism, and Health Disparities: What Can I Do About It?

    PubMed

    Nelson, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Disparities based on race that target communities of color are consistently reported in the management of many diseases. Barriers to health care equity include the health care system, the patient, the community, and health care providers. This article focuses on the health care system as well as health care providers and how racism and our implicit biases affect our medical decision making. Health care providers receive little or no training on issues of race and racism. As a result, awareness of racism and its impact on health care delivery is low. I will discuss a training module that helps improve awareness around these issues. Until racial issues are honestly addressed by members of the health care team, it is unlikely that we will see significant improvements in racial health care disparities for Americans.

  9. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis from Kindergarten to Eighth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Staff, Jeremy; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur across early and middle childhood is currently unknown. We examined the over-time dynamics of race/ethnic disparities in diagnosis from kindergarten to eighth grade and disparities in treatment in fifth and eighth…

  10. Impact of fetal death reporting requirements on early neonatal and fetal mortality rates and racial disparities.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Crystal P; Grady, Sue C; Grigorescu, Violanda; Luke, Barbara; Todem, David; Paneth, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Racial disparities in infant and neonatal mortality vary substantially across the U.S. with some states experiencing wider disparities than others. Many factors are thought to contribute to these disparities, but state differences in fetal death reporting have received little attention. We examined whether such reporting requirements may explain national variation in neonatal and fetal mortality rates and racial disparities. We used data on non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black infants from the U.S. 2000-2002 linked birth/infant death and fetal death records to determine the degree to which state fetal death reporting requirements explain national variation in neonatal and fetal mortality rates and racial disparities. States were grouped depending upon whether they based the lower limit for fetal death reporting on birthweight alone, gestational age alone, both birthweight and gestational age, or required reporting of all fetal deaths. Traditional methods and the fetuses-at-risk approach were used to calculate mortality rates, 95% confidence intervals, and relative and absolute racial disparity measures in these four groups. States with birthweight-alone fetal death thresholds substantially underreported fetal deaths at lower gestations and slightly overreported neonatal deaths at older gestations. This finding was reflected by these states having the highest neonatal mortality rates and disparities, but the lowest fetal mortality rates and disparities. Using birthweight alone as a reporting threshold may promote some shift of fetal deaths to newborn deaths, contributing to racial disparities in neonatal mortality. The adoption of a uniform national threshold for reporting fetal deaths could reduce systematic differences in live birth and fetal death reporting.

  11. Population changes, racial/ethnic disparities, and birth outcomes in Louisiana after Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Harville, Emily W; Tran, Tri; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre

    2010-09-01

    To examine how the demographic and other population changes affected birth and obstetric outcomes in Louisiana, and the effect of the hurricane on racial disparities in these outcomes. Vital statistics data were used to compare the incidence of low birth weight (LBW) (<2500 g), preterm birth (PTB) (37 weeks' gestation), cesarean section, and inadequate prenatal care (as measured by the Kotelchuck index), in the 2 years after Katrina compared to the 2 years before, for the state as a whole, region 1 (the area around New Orleans), and Orleans Parish (New Orleans). Logistic models were used to adjust for covariates. After adjustment, rates of LBW rose for the state, but preterm birth did not. In region 1 and Orleans Parish, rates of LBW and PTB remained constant or fell. These patterns were all strongest in African American women. Rates of cesarean section and inadequate prenatal care rose. Racial disparities in birth outcomes remained constant or were reduced. Although risk of LBW/PTB remained higher in African Americans, the storm does not appear to have exacerbated health disparities, nor did population shifts explain the changes in birth and obstetric outcomes.

  12. Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Acute Stroke Care in the Florida-Puerto Rico Collaboration to Reduce Stroke Disparities Study.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Ralph L; Gardener, Hannah; Wang, Kefeng; Dong, Chuanhui; Ciliberti-Vargas, Maria A; Gutierrez, Carolina M; Asdaghi, Negar; Burgin, W Scott; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Garcia-Rivera, Enid J; Nobo, Ulises; Oluwole, Sofia; Rose, David Z; Waters, Michael F; Zevallos, Juan Carlos; Robichaux, Mary; Waddy, Salina P; Romano, Jose G; Rundek, Tatjana

    2017-02-14

    Racial-ethnic disparities in acute stroke care can contribute to inequality in stroke outcomes. We examined race-ethnic disparities in acute stroke performance metrics in a voluntary stroke registry among Florida and Puerto Rico Get With the Guidelines-Stroke hospitals. Seventy-five sites in the Florida Puerto Rico Stroke Registry (66 Florida and 9 Puerto Rico) recorded 58 864 ischemic stroke cases (2010-2014). Logistic regression models examined racial-ethnic differences in acute stroke performance measures and defect-free care (intravenous tissue plasminogen activator treatment, in-hospital antithrombotic therapy, deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis, discharge antithrombotic therapy, appropriate anticoagulation therapy, statin use, smoking cessation counseling) and temporal trends. Among ischemic stroke cases, 63% were non-Hispanic white (NHW), 18% were non-Hispanic black (NHB), 14% were Hispanic living in Florida, and 6% were Hispanic living in Puerto Rico. NHW patients were the oldest, followed by Hispanics, and NHBs. Defect-free care was greatest among NHBs (81%), followed by NHWs (79%) and Florida Hispanics (79%), then Puerto Rico Hispanics (57%) ( P <0.0001). Puerto Rico Hispanics were less likely than Florida whites to meet any stroke care performance metric other than anticoagulation. Defect-free care improved for all groups during 2010-2014, but the disparity in Puerto Rico persisted (2010: NHWs=63%, NHBs=65%, Florida Hispanics=59%, Puerto Rico Hispanics=31%; 2014: NHWs=93%, NHBs=94%, Florida Hispanics=94%, Puerto Rico Hispanics=63%). Racial-ethnic/geographic disparities were observed for acute stroke care performance metrics. Adoption of a quality improvement program improved stroke care from 2010 to 2014 in Puerto Rico and all Florida racial-ethnic groups. However, stroke care quality delivered in Puerto Rico is lower than in Florida. Sustained support of evidence-based acute stroke quality improvement programs is required to improve stroke care and

  13. Preparing the Underprepared: An Analysis of Racial Disparities in Postsecondary Mathematics Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Peter Riley

    2010-01-01

    In this study, I examine racial disparities in successful remediation in math. I first quantify a previously unidentified racial gap in successful remediation and then seek to explain this gap through a set of mediating and moderating variables. In addition, I test the relative efficacy of remediation across racial groups. (Contains 6 tables and 5…

  14. Disparities in Healthcare for Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Joshua C.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter situates healthcare as a concern for the field of adult education through a critique of disparities in access to healthcare, quality of care received, and caregiver services for racial, ethnic, and sexual minorities.

  15. Racial/Ethnic Disparity in NICU Quality of Care Delivery.

    PubMed

    Profit, Jochen; Gould, Jeffrey B; Bennett, Mihoko; Goldstein, Benjamin A; Draper, David; Phibbs, Ciaran S; Lee, Henry C

    2017-09-01

    Differences in NICU quality of care provided to very low birth weight (<1500 g) infants may contribute to the persistence of racial and/or ethnic disparity. An examination of such disparities in a population-based sample across multiple dimensions of care and outcomes is lacking. Prospective observational analysis of 18 616 very low birth weight infants in 134 California NICUs between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2014. We assessed quality of care via the Baby-MONITOR, a composite indicator consisting of 9 process and outcome measures of quality. For each NICU, we calculated a risk-adjusted composite and individual component quality score for each race and/or ethnicity. We standardized each score to the overall population to compare quality of care between and within NICUs. We found clinically and statistically significant racial and/or ethnic variation in quality of care between NICUs as well as within NICUs. Composite quality scores ranged by 5.26 standard units (range: -2.30 to 2.96). Adjustment of Baby-MONITOR scores by race and/or ethnicity had only minimal effect on comparative assessments of NICU performance. Among subcomponents of the Baby-MONITOR, non-Hispanic white infants scored higher on measures of process compared with African Americans and Hispanics. Compared with whites, African Americans scored higher on measures of outcome; Hispanics scored lower on 7 of the 9 Baby-MONITOR subcomponents. Significant racial and/or ethnic variation in quality of care exists between and within NICUs. Providing feedback of disparity scores to NICUs could serve as an important starting point for promoting improvement and reducing disparities. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Racial and Ethnic Disparity in Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhili; Richie, William D; Bailey, Rahn Kennedy

    2016-12-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common and disabling psychiatric disorders in the USA. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are extremely important to prevent disability and improve quality of life. Recent studies have demonstrated racial and ethnic disparities in the diagnosis and treatment of MDD. African Americans (AA), Hispanics, and Asian Americans were significantly less likely to receive a depression diagnosis from a health-care provider than were non-Hispanic whites. The underdiagnosis of MDD in minority groups may be due to differences in socioeconomic status (SES), care affordability, cultural beliefs about depression, help-seeking patterns, access to culturally and linguistically appropriate care, patient-physician relationship, clinical presentation of depression, etc. Meanwhile, the likelihood of both having access to and receiving adequate care for depression was significantly low for AA, Hispanics, and Asian Americans, in contrast to whites. Similar disparities also exist in treatment outcomes. Besides the reasons for MDD underdiagnosis, additional contributing factors include access barriers to preferred mode of treatment, cultural concerns about antidepressants and different metabolism of antidepressants, etc. There are many ways to address these disparities and improve MDD care in minority populations, including universal depression screening, public financial incentives to ensure access to care in low-income and minority neighborhoods, quality improvement programs, cultural competency of mental health professionals, collaborative care management, community engagement and planning, and enhanced participation of minorities in clinical research.

  17. Racial disparities in cancer care in the Veterans Affairs health care system and the role of site of care.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Cleo A; Landrum, Mary Beth; McNeil, Barbara J; Bozeman, Samuel R; Williams, Christina D; Keating, Nancy L

    2014-09-01

    We assessed cancer care disparities within the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system and whether between-hospital differences explained disparities. We linked VA cancer registry data with VA and Medicare administrative data and examined 20 cancer-related quality measures among Black and White veterans diagnosed with colorectal (n = 12,897), lung (n = 25,608), or prostate (n = 38,202) cancer from 2001 to 2004. We used logistic regression to assess racial disparities for each measure and hospital fixed-effects models to determine whether disparities were attributable to between- or within-hospital differences. Compared with Whites, Blacks had lower rates of early-stage colon cancer diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.72, 0.90), curative surgery for stage I, II, or III rectal cancer (AOR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.41, 0.78), 3-year survival for colon cancer (AOR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.62, 0.89) and rectal cancer (AOR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.87), curative surgery for early-stage lung cancer (AOR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.41, 0.60), 3-dimensional conformal or intensity-modulated radiation (3-D CRT/IMRT; AOR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.47, 0.59), and potent antiemetics for highly emetogenic chemotherapy (AOR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.78, 0.98). Adjustment for hospital fixed-effects minimally influenced racial gaps except for 3-D CRT/IMRT (AOR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.65, 0.87) and potent antiemetics (AOR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.82, 1.10). Disparities in VA cancer care were observed for 7 of 20 measures and were primarily attributable to within-hospital differences.

  18. Racial Disparities in Cancer Care in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System and the Role of Site of Care

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Cleo A.; Landrum, Mary Beth; McNeil, Barbara J.; Bozeman, Samuel R.; Williams, Christina D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed cancer care disparities within the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system and whether between-hospital differences explained disparities. Methods. We linked VA cancer registry data with VA and Medicare administrative data and examined 20 cancer-related quality measures among Black and White veterans diagnosed with colorectal (n = 12 897), lung (n = 25 608), or prostate (n = 38 202) cancer from 2001 to 2004. We used logistic regression to assess racial disparities for each measure and hospital fixed-effects models to determine whether disparities were attributable to between- or within-hospital differences. Results. Compared with Whites, Blacks had lower rates of early-stage colon cancer diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.72, 0.90), curative surgery for stage I, II, or III rectal cancer (AOR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.41, 0.78), 3-year survival for colon cancer (AOR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.62, 0.89) and rectal cancer (AOR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.87), curative surgery for early-stage lung cancer (AOR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.41, 0.60), 3-dimensional conformal or intensity-modulated radiation (3-D CRT/IMRT; AOR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.47, 0.59), and potent antiemetics for highly emetogenic chemotherapy (AOR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.78, 0.98). Adjustment for hospital fixed-effects minimally influenced racial gaps except for 3-D CRT/IMRT (AOR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.65, 0.87) and potent antiemetics (AOR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.82, 1.10). Conclusions. Disparities in VA cancer care were observed for 7 of 20 measures and were primarily attributable to within-hospital differences. PMID:25100422

  19. Explaining Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Use of High-Volume Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Bradford H.; Schlesinger, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities are less likely to use higher-quality hospitals than whites. We propose that a higher level of information-related complexity in their local hospital environments compounds the effects of discrimination and more limited access to services, contributing to racial/ethnic disparities in hospital use. While minorities live closer than whites to high-volume hospitals, minorities also face greater choice complexity and live in neighborhoods with lower levels of medical experience. Our empirical results reveal that it is generally the overall context associated with proximity, choice complexity, and local experience, rather than differential sensitivity to these factors, that provides a partial explanation of the disparity gap in high-volume hospital use. PMID:25316717

  20. Trends in racial and ethnic-specific rates for the health status indicators: United States, 1990-98.

    PubMed

    Keppel, Kenneth G; Pearcy, Jeffrey N; Wagener, Diane K

    2002-01-01

    The Health Status Indicators (HSIs) were developed as part of the Healthy People 2000 process to facilitate the comparison of health status measures at national, State,and local levels. In this report national trends in racial and ethnic-specific rates for 17 HSIs are examined for the period from 1990-8. One of three overarching goals of Healthy People 2000 was to reduce health disparities. Examination of trends in the HSIs indicates that rates for most racial/ethnic groups improved. Rates for American Indian or Alaska Natives did not improve for six of the HSIs. An index of disparity, a summary measure of disparity among race/ethnic-specific rates, was used to measure changes in disparity between 1990 and 1998. The index of disparity decreased for 12 of the HSIs. Based on this index, racial/ethnic disparity in the percent of low birthweight infants declined by 19 percent, disparity in the percent of children under 18 years of age in poverty and in the syphilis case rate declined by 13 percent, and disparity in the stroke death rate declined by 11 percent. The index declined by less than 10 percent for eight other indicators. The index of disparity increased between 1990 and 1998 for the other five HSIs examined here. The index of disparity increased by more than 10 percent for work-related injury death rates, motor vehicle crash death rates, and suicide death rates. While rates for the HSIs have improved, not all groups have benefited equally and substantial differences among racial/ethnic groups persist.

  1. Racial/ethnic disparities in the associations between environmental quality and mortality in the contiguous U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Understanding racial/ethnic disparities in mortality is an important goal for public health in the U.S. We examined the role environmental quality may have on mortality across race/ethnicity. Methods: The Environmental Quality Index (EQI) and its domain indices (air...

  2. The military oral health care system as a model for eliminating disparities in oral health.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Jeffrey J; Reid, Britt C; Mongeau, Susan W; York, Andrew K

    2006-03-01

    Healthy People (HP) 2010 is a national health promotion and disease prevention initiative of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The HP 2010 report highlighted a range of racial/ethnic disparities in dental health. A substantial portion of these disparities appear to be explained by differences in access to care. Members of the U.S. military have universal access to care that also has a compulsory component. The authors conducted a study to investigate the extent to which disparities in progress toward achievement of HP 2010 objectives were lower among the military population and to compare the oral health of the military population with that of the civilian population. The participants in this study were non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black males aged 18 to 44 years. They were drawn from the Tri-Service Comprehensive Oral Health Survey (10,869 including 899 recruits who participated in the TSCOHS Recruit Study) and the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (4,779). We found no disparities between black and white adults in untreated caries and recent dental visit rates in the military population. Disparities in missing teeth were much lower among military personnel than among civilians. A universal access-to-care system that incorporated an aspect of compulsory treatment displayed little to no racial disparity in relevant oral health outcomes. This demonstrates that it is possible for large, diverse populations to have much lower levels of disparities in oral health even when universal access to care is not provided until the patient is 18 or 19 years of age.

  3. The Impact of Health Literacy and Socioeconomic Status on Asthma Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Laura M.; Wolf, Michael S.; Weiss, Kevin B.; Grammer, Leslie C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Racial/ethnic disparities have been well documented in asthma. While socioeconomic status (SES) has been repeatedly implicated as a root cause, the role of limited health literacy has not been extensively studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent contributions of SES and health literacy in explaining asthma disparities. Methods A cohort study was conducted in a Chicago-based sample of 353 adults aged 18–40 years with persistent asthma from 2004 to 2007. Health literacy, SES, and asthma outcomes including disease control, quality of life, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations were assessed in person at baseline, and asthma outcomes were measured every 3 months for 2 years by phone. Multivariate models were used to assess racial/ethnic disparities in asthma outcomes and the effect of health literacy and SES on these estimates. Results Compared with White participants, African American adults fared significantly worse in all asthma outcomes (p < .05) and Latino participants had lower quality of life (β = −0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI]= −0.79, −0.14; p = .01) and worse asthma control (risk ratio [RR] = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.41, 0.98; p = .04). Differences in SES partially explained these disparities. Health literacy explained an additional 20.2% of differences in quality of life between Latinos and Whites, but differences in hospitalization rates between African American and White adults remained (RR = 2.97; 95% CI = 1.09, 8.12, p = .03). Conclusions Health literacy appears to be an overlooked factor explaining racial and ethnic disparities in asthma. Evidence-based low literacy strategies for patient education and counseling should be included in comprehensive interventions. PMID:22277072

  4. Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Use of Primary Care Providers and Preventive Health Services at a Midwestern University.

    PubMed

    Focella, Elizabeth S; Shaffer, Victoria A; Dannecker, Erin A; Clark, Mary J; Schopp, Laura H

    2016-06-01

    Many universities seek to improve the health and wellbeing of their faculty and staff through employer wellness programs but racial/ethnic disparities in health care use may still persist. The purpose of this research was to identify racial/ethnic disparities in the use of preventive health services at a Midwestern university. A record review was conducted of self-reported health data from University employees, examining the use of primary care and common screening procedures collected in a Personal Health Assessment conducted by the University's wellness program. Results show that there were significant racial/ethnic differences in the use of primary care and participation in screening. Notably, Asian employees in this sample were less likely to have a primary care provider and participate in routine cancer screenings. The observed racial/ethnic differences in screening behavior were mediated by the use of primary care. Together, these data show that despite equal access to care, racial and ethnic disparities in screening persist and that having a primary care provider is an important predictor of screening behavior. Results suggest that health communications designed to increase screening among specific racial/ethnic minority groups should target primary care use.

  5. Lifecourse social conditions and racial disparities in incidence of first stroke.

    PubMed

    Glymour, M Maria; Avendaño, Mauricio; Haas, Steven; Berkman, Lisa F

    2008-12-01

    Some previous studies found excess stroke rates among black subjects persisted after adjustment for socioeconomic status (SES), fueling speculation regarding racially patterned genetic predispositions to stroke. Previous research was hampered by incomplete SES assessments, without measures of childhood conditions or adult wealth. We assess the role of lifecourse SES in explaining stroke risk and stroke disparities. Health and Retirement Study participants age 50+ (n = 20,661) were followed on average 9.9 years for self- or proxy-reported first stroke (2175 events). Childhood social conditions (southern state of birth, parental SES, self-reported fair/poor childhood health, and attained height), adult SES (education, income, wealth, and occupational status) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors were used to predict first stroke onset using Cox proportional hazards models. Black subjects had a 48% greater risk of first stroke incidence than whites (95% confidence interval, 1.33-1.65). Childhood conditions predicted stroke risk in both blacks and whites, independently of adult SES. Adjustment for both childhood social conditions and adult SES measures attenuated racial differences to marginal significance (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.00-1.28). Childhood social conditions predict stroke risk in black and White American adults. Additional adjustment for adult SES, in particular wealth, nearly eliminated the disparity in stroke risk between black and white subjects.

  6. Does Medicare Managed Care reduce racial/ethnic disparities in diabetes preventive care and healthcare expenditures?

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Elham; Tarraf, Wassim; Maroukis, Brianna L; Levy, Helen G

    2016-10-01

    Large and persistent racial/ethnic disparities exist in diabetes care. Considering the rapid rate of growth of Medicare Managed Care (MMC) plans among minority populations, our aim was to investigate whether disparities in diabetes management and healthcare expenditures are smaller in MMC versus Medicare fee-for-service (MFFS) plans. We hypothesized that racial/ethnic disparities in diabetes care and in health expenditures would be less pronounced in MMC compared with MFFS plans. Nationally representative data from the 2006 to 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey on white, African American, and Hispanic seniors with diabetes were analyzed. We examined 4 measures of diabetes care-regular foot check, eye exam, cholesterol check, and flu vaccine-and total and out-of-pocket (OOP) healthcare expenditures. We implemented the Institute of Medicine's definition of disparity, applied propensity score weighting to adjust for potential differential selection, and used a difference-in-differences generalized linear framework to estimate outcome measures. For African Americans, MMC was associated with a $1183 (P <.036) reduction and a $547 (P <.001) increase in disparities in total and OOP healthcare expenditures, respectively. For Hispanics, disparities in foot exam, flu shot, and cholesterol check decreased by 5, 10, and 7 percentage points (P <.001); additionally, disparities in total and OOP healthcare expenditures were reduced by $3588 and $276 (P <.001), respectively. MMC plans spend less on everyone, including whites. Hispanic/white disparities in diabetes management and healthcare expenditures were smaller in MMC than in MFFS plans. African American/white disparities were not consistently larger in 1 setting than the other.

  7. Health Insurance Disparities Among Racial/Ethnic Minorities in Same-Sex Relationships: An Intersectional Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Kasim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined disparities in health insurance coverage for racial/ethnic minorities in same-sex relationships. Methods. We used data from the 2009 to 2011 American Community Survey on nonelderly adults (aged 25–64 years) in same-sex (n = 32 744), married opposite-sex (n = 2 866 636), and unmarried opposite-sex (n = 268 298) relationships. We used multinomial logistic regression models to compare differences in the primary source of health insurance while controlling for key demographic and socioeconomic factors. Results. Adults of all races/ethnicities in same-sex relationships were less likely than were White adults in married opposite-sex relationships to report having employer-sponsored health insurance. Hispanic men, Black women, and American Indian/Alaska Native women in same-sex relationships were much less likely to have employer-sponsored health insurance than were their White counterparts in married opposite-sex relationships and their White counterparts in same-sex relationships. Conclusions. Differences in coverage by relationship type and race/ethnicity may worsen over time as states follow different paths to implementing health care reform and same-sex marriage. PMID:25880954

  8. Racial/ethnic disparities in obesity among US-born and foreign-born adults by sex and education.

    PubMed

    Barrington, Debbie S; Baquero, Maria C; Borrell, Luisa N; Crawford, Natalie D

    2010-02-01

    This study examines sex and education variations in obesity among US- and foreign-born whites, blacks, and Hispanics utilizing 1997-2005 data from the National Health Interview Survey on 267,585 adults aged > or =18 years. After adjusting for various demographic, health, and socioeconomic factors via logistic regression, foreign-born black men had the lowest odds for obesity relative to US-born white men. The largest racial/ethnic disparity in obesity was between US-born black and white women. High educational attainment diminished the US-born black-white and Hispanic-white disparities among women, increased these disparities among men, and had minimal effect on foreign-born Hispanic-white disparities among women and men. Comprehension of these relationships is vital for conducting effective obesity research and interventions within an increasingly diverse United States.

  9. Promoting Health Equity And Eliminating Disparities Through Performance Measurement And Payment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Andrew C; O'Rourke, Erin; Chin, Marshall H; Ponce, Ninez A; Bernheim, Susannah M; Burstin, Helen

    2018-03-01

    Current approaches to health care quality have failed to reduce health care disparities. Despite dramatic increases in the use of quality measurement and associated payment policies, there has been no notable implementation of measurement strategies to reduce health disparities. The National Quality Forum developed a road map to demonstrate how measurement and associated policies can contribute to eliminating disparities and promote health equity. Specifically, the road map presents a four-part strategy whose components are identifying and prioritizing areas to reduce health disparities, implementing evidence-based interventions to reduce disparities, investing in the development and use of health equity performance measures, and incentivizing the reduction of health disparities and achievement of health equity. To demonstrate how the road map can be applied, we present an example of how measurement and value-based payment can be used to reduce racial disparities in hypertension among African Americans.

  10. Neighborhood disadvantage and racial disparities in colorectal cancer incidence: a population-based study in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Danos, Denise M; Ferguson, Tekeda F; Simonsen, Neal R; Leonardi, Claudia; Yu, Qingzhao; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Scribner, Richard A

    2018-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) continues to demonstrate racial disparities in incidence and survival in the United States. This study investigates the role of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage in racial disparities in CRC incidence in Louisiana. Louisiana Tumor Registry and U.S. Census data were used to assess the incidence of CRC diagnosed in individuals 35 years and older between 2008 and 2012. Neighborhood concentrated disadvantage index (CDI) was calculated based on the PhenX Toolkit protocol. The incidence of CRC was modeled using multilevel binomial regression with individuals nested within neighborhoods. Our study included 10,198 cases of CRC. Adjusting for age and sex, CRC risk was 28% higher for blacks than whites (risk ratio [RR] = 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22-1.33). One SD increase in CDI was associated with 14% increase in risk for whites (RR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.10-1.18) and 5% increase for blacks (RR = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.02-1.09). After controlling for differential effects of CDI by race, racial disparities were not observed in disadvantaged areas. CRC incidence increased with neighborhood disadvantage and racial disparities diminished with mounting disadvantage. Our results suggest additional dimensions to racial disparities in CRC outside of neighborhood disadvantage that warrants further research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Disparities in breast cancer treatment and outcomes: biological, social, and health system determinants and opportunities for research.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Stephanie B; Reeder-Hayes, Katherine E; Carey, Lisa A

    2013-01-01

    Racial disparities in breast cancer mortality have been widely documented for several decades and persist despite advances in receipt of mammography across racial groups. This persistence leads to questions about the roles of biological, social, and health system determinants of poor outcomes. Cancer outcomes are a function not only of innate biological factors but also of modifiable characteristics of individual behavior and decision making as well as characteristics of patient-health system interaction and the health system itself. Attempts to explain persistent racial disparities have mostly been limited to discussion of differences in insurance coverage, socioeconomic status, tumor stage at diagnosis, comorbidity, and molecular subtype of the tumor. This article summarizes existing literature exploring reasons for racial disparities in breast cancer mortality, with an emphasis on treatment disparities and opportunities for future research. Because breast cancer care requires a high degree of multidisciplinary team collaboration, ensuring that guideline recommended treatment (such as endocrine therapy for hormone receptor positive patients) is received by all racial/ethnic groups is critical and requires coordination across multiple providers and health care settings. Recognition that variation in cancer care quality may be correlated with race (and socioeconomic and health system factors) may assist policy makers in identifying strategies to more equally distribute clinical expertise and health infrastructure across multiple user populations.

  12. CANCER HEALTH DISPARITIES PERSIST AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS IN WISCONSIN

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Nathan R.; Williamson, Amy; Foote, Mary; Creswell, Paul; Strickland, Rick; Remington, Patrick; Cleary, James; Adams, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Background Cancer incidence and mortality rates have decreased over the last few decades, yet not all groups have benefited equally from these successes. This has resulted in increased disparities in cancer burden among various population groups. Objective This study examined trends in absolute and relative disparities in overall cancer incidence and mortality rates between African American and white residents of Wisconsin during 1995 to 2006. Methods Cancer incidence data were obtained from the Wisconsin Cancer Reporting System. Mortality data were accessed from the National Center for Health Statistics’ public use mortality file. Trends in incidence and mortality rates during 1995–2006 for African Americans and whites were calculated and changes in relative disparity were measured using rate ratios. Results With few exceptions, African American incidence and mortality rates were higher than white rates in every year of the period 1995–2006. Although cancer mortality and incidence declined for both groups over the period, relative racial disparities in rates persisted over the period and account for about a third of African American cancer deaths. Conclusions Elimination of cancer health disparities will require further research into the many contributing factors, as well as into effective interventions to address them. In Wisconsin, policy makers, health administrators, and healthcare providers need to balance resources carefully and set appropriate priorities to target racial inequities in cancer burden. PMID:21066932

  13. Visiting Black Patients: Racial Disparities in Security Standby Requests.

    PubMed

    Green, Carmen R; McCullough, Wayne R; Hawley, Jamie D

    2018-02-01

    Structural inequalities exist within healthcare. Racial disparities in hospital security standby requests (SSRs) have not been previously explored. We speculated hospital SSRs varied based upon race with black patients and their visitors negatively impacted. An 8-year retrospective study of hospital security dispatch information was performed. Data were analyzed to determine demographic information, and service location patterns for SSRs involving patients and their visitors. The race of the patient's visitors was imputed using the patient's race. The observed and expected (using hospital census data) number of patients impacted by SSRs was compared. Descriptive statistics were computed. Categorical data were analyzed using chi-square or Fisher exact test statistic. A p < 0.05 was statistically significant. The majority of the 1023 SSRs occurred for visitors of patients who were white (N = 642; 63%), female (56%), or < 21 years old (50.7%). However, SSRs differed significantly based upon the patient's race. Although Black patients represent 12% of the hospital population, they and their visitors were more than twice as likely (p < 0.0001) to have a SSR generated (N = 275; 27%) when compared to the visitors of both White and other (i.e., race unknown) patients (N = 106; 10%) combined (p < 0.0001). This study adds to the medical errors and healthcare disparities literature by being the first to describe racial disparities in SSRs for Black patients and their visitors. It also introduces the concept of "security intervention errors in healthcare environments." New metrics and continuous quality improvement initiatives are needed to understand and eliminate racial/ethnic based disparities in SSRs. Copyright © 2018 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Devising, Implementing, and Evaluating Interventions to Eliminate Health Care Disparities in Minority Children

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Despite an accumulating body of literature addressing racial/ethnic disparities in children’s health and health care, there have been few published studies of interventions that have been successful in eliminating these disparities. The objectives of this article, therefore, are to (1) describe 3 interventions that have been successful in eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in children’s health and health care, (2) high-light tips and pitfalls regarding devising, implementing, and evaluating pediatric disparities interventions, and (3) propose a research agenda for pediatric disparities interventions. Key characteristics of the 3 successful interventions include rigorous study designs; large sample sizes; appropriate comparison groups; community-based interventions that are culturally and linguistically sensitive and involve collaboration with participants; research staff from the same community as the participants; appropriate blinding of outcomes assessors; and statistical adjustment of outcomes for relevant covariates. On the basis of these characteristics, I propose tips, pitfalls, an approach, and a research agenda for devising, implementing, and evaluating successful pediatric disparities interventions. Examination of 3 successful interventions indicates that pediatric health care disparities can be eliminated. Achievement of this goal requires an intervention that is rigorous, evidence-based, and culturally and linguistically appropriate. The intervention must also include community collaboration, minimize attrition, adjust for potential confounders, and incorporate mechanisms for sustainability. PMID:19861473

  15. Devising, implementing, and evaluating interventions to eliminate health care disparities in minority children.

    PubMed

    Flores, Glenn

    2009-11-01

    Despite an accumulating body of literature addressing racial/ethnic disparities in children's health and health care, there have been few published studies of interventions that have been successful in eliminating these disparities. The objectives of this article, therefore, are to (1) describe 3 interventions that have been successful in eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in children's health and health care, (2) highlight tips and pitfalls regarding devising, implementing, and evaluating pediatric disparities interventions, and (3) propose a research agenda for pediatric disparities interventions. Key characteristics of the 3 successful interventions include rigorous study designs; large sample sizes; appropriate comparison groups; community-based interventions that are culturally and linguistically sensitive and involve collaboration with participants; research staff from the same community as the participants; appropriate blinding of outcomes assessors; and statistical adjustment of outcomes for relevant covariates. On the basis of these characteristics, I propose tips, pitfalls, an approach, and a research agenda for devising, implementing, and evaluating successful pediatric disparities interventions. Examination of 3 successful interventions indicates that pediatric health care disparities can be eliminated. Achievement of this goal requires an intervention that is rigorous, evidence-based, and culturally and linguistically appropriate. The intervention must also include community collaboration, minimize attrition, adjust for potential confounders, and incorporate mechanisms for sustainability.

  16. Racial and ethnic disparity in food allergy in the United States: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Greenhawt, Matthew; Weiss, Christopher; Conte, Marisa L; Doucet, Marlie; Engler, Amy; Camargo, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is rising among US children. Little is known about racial/ethnic disparities in food allergy. We performed a systematic literature review to understand racial/ethnic disparities in food allergy in the United States. We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus for original data about racial/ethnic disparities in the diagnosis, prevalence, treatment, or clinical course of food allergy or sensitization, with a particular focus on black (African American) race. Articles were analyzed by study methodology, racial/ethnic composition, food allergy definition, outcomes, summary statistic used, and covariate adjustment. Twenty of 645 identified articles met inclusion criteria. The studies used multiple differing criteria to define food allergy, including self-report, sensitization assessed by serum food-specific IgE to selected foods without corroborating history, discharge codes, clinic chart review, and event-reporting databases. None used oral food challenge. In 12 studies, black persons (primarily children) had significantly increased adjusted odds of food sensitization or significantly higher proportion or odds of food allergy by self-report, discharge codes, or clinic-based chart review than white children. Major differences in study methodology and reporting precluded calculation of a pooled estimate of effect. Sparse and methodologically limited data exist about racial/ethnic disparity in food allergy in the United States. Available data lack a common definition for food allergy and use indirect measures of allergy, not food challenge. Although data suggest an increased risk of food sensitization, self-reported allergy, or clinic-based diagnosis of food allergy among black children, no definitive racial/ethnic disparity could be found among currently available studies. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Racial disparities in postmastectomy breast reconstruction: National trends in utilization from 2005 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Sherise; Tran, Bao N; Cohen, Justin B; Lin, Samuel J; Singhal, Dhruv; Lee, Bernard T

    2018-04-16

    Evidence of racial disparities in the receipt of postmastectomy breast reconstruction is well documented. The objective of this study was to describe trends in racial disparities overall and by reconstructive technique. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to identify women who underwent mastectomy and/or breast reconstruction from 2005 to 2014. Patient demographics were recorded, and cases were grouped by reconstructive status and technique. Trends were assessed with the Cochran-Armitage test and the index of disparity. Over the study period, 92,960 postmastectomy patients were identified (77,049 white women, 10,396 black women, 4939 Asian women, and 576 Native American women), of whom 46,931 underwent reconstruction. Of these, 7692 women underwent autologous reconstructions (3913 free flaps and 3696 pedicled flaps). From 2005 to 2014, receipt of breast reconstruction by postmastectomy patients rose from 33.2% to 60.0%, receipt of autologous reconstruction by patients who underwent breast reconstruction fell from 30.4% to 15.9%, and receipt of free-flap reconstruction by patients who underwent autologous reconstruction rose from 15.0% to 70.8%. These trends were significant in all racial subgroups (P < .001), except for Native Americans (P = .269). The index of disparity decreased from 51.4% to 22.6% for overall receipt of breast reconstruction, decreased from 10.7% to 7.0% for tissue expander and implant-based reconstruction, increased from 18.0% to 27.3% for autologous reconstruction, and decreased from 66.7% to 4.3% for free-flap reconstruction. The use of postmastectomy breast reconstruction is steadily rising in the United States. Racial disparities persist, but progress has been made. Further efforts are needed to reduce racial disparities. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  18. Dental Care in an Equal Access System Valuing Equity: Are There Racial Disparities?

    PubMed

    Boehmer, Ulrike; Glickman, Mark; Jones, Judith A; Orner, Michelle B; Wheler, Carolyn; Berlowitz, Dan R; Kressin, Nancy R

    2016-11-01

    Racial disparities in dental care have previously been shown in the Veterans Health Administration (VA)-a controlled access setting valuing equitable, high-quality care. The aim of this study is to examine current disparities in dental care by focusing on the receipt of root canal therapy (RCT) versus tooth extraction. This is a retrospective analysis of data contained in the VA's electronic health records. We performed logistic regressions on the independent measures along with a facility-specific random effect, using dependent binary variables that distinguished RCT from tooth extraction procedures. VA outpatients who had at least 1 tooth extraction or RCT visit in the VA in fiscal year 2011. A dependent binary measure of tooth extraction or RCT. Other measures are medical record data on medical comorbidities, dental morbidity, prior dental utilization, and demographic characteristics. The overall rate of preferred tooth-preserving RCT was 18.1% during the study period. Black and Asian patients were most dissimilar with respect to dental morbidity, medical and psychological disorders, and black patients had the least amount of eligibility for comprehensive dental care. After adjustment for known confounding factors of RCT, black patients had the lowest RCT rates, whereas Asians had the highest. Current quality improvement efforts and a value to improve the equity of care are not sufficient to address racial/ethnic disparities in VA dental care; rather more targeted efforts will be needed to achieve equity for all.

  19. Under the Radar: How Unexamined Biases in Decision-Making Processes in Clinical Interactions Can Contribute to Health Care Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    Several aspects of social psychological science shed light on how unexamined racial/ethnic biases contribute to health care disparities. Biases are complex but systematic, differing by racial/ethnic group and not limited to love–hate polarities. Group images on the universal social cognitive dimensions of competence and warmth determine the content of each group's overall stereotype, distinct emotional prejudices (pity, envy, disgust, pride), and discriminatory tendencies. These biases are often unconscious and occur despite the best intentions. Such ambivalent and automatic biases can influence medical decisions and interactions, systematically producing discrimination in health care and ultimately disparities in health. Understanding how these processes may contribute to bias in health care can help guide interventions to address racial and ethnic disparities in health. PMID:22420809

  20. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Structural Disadvantage and Crime: White, Black, and Hispanic Comparisons*

    PubMed Central

    Ulmer, Jeffery T.; Harris, Casey T.; Steffensmeier, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study is to advance knowledge on racial/ethnic disparities in violence and the structural sources of those disparities. We do so by extending scarce and limited research exploring the relationship between race/ethnic gaps in disadvantage and differences in violent crime across groups. Methods Using census place-level data from California and New York, we construct White, Black, and Hispanic “gap” measures that take as a given the existence of disparities across race/ethnic groups in structural disadvantage and crime and subsequently utilize seemingly unrelated regression models to assess the extent to which gaps in disadvantage are predictive of gaps in homicide and index violence. Results Our results suggest that (1) there is considerable heterogeneity in the size of White-Black, White-Hispanic, and Black-Hispanic gaps in structural disadvantage and crime and (2) that race/ethnic disparities in structural disadvantage, particularly poverty and female headship, are positively associated with race/ethnic gaps in homicide and index violence. Conclusion In light of recent scholarship on the racial invariance hypothesis and on the relationship between structural inequality and crime, the current study demonstrates that disparities in disadvantage, particularly family structure and poverty, are important in driving racial and ethnic disparities in crime. PMID:25035523

  1. Bioavailable insulin-like growth factor-I as mediator of racial disparity in obesity-relevant breast and colorectal cancer risk among postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Jung, Su Yon; Barrington, Wendy E; Lane, Dorothy S; Chen, Chu; Chlebowski, Rowan; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Hou, Lifang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Paek, Min-So; Crandall, Carolyn J

    2017-03-01

    Bioavailable insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) interacts with obesity and exogenous estrogen (E) in a racial disparity in obesity-related cancer risk, yet their interconnected pathways are not fully characterized. We investigated whether circulating bioavailable IGF-I acted as a mediator of the racial disparity in obesity-related cancers such as breast and colorectal (CR) cancers and how obesity and E use regulate this relationship. A total of 2,425 white and 164 African American (AA) postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study were followed from October 1, 1993 through August 29, 2014. To assess bioactive IGF-I as a mediator of race-cancer relationship, we used the Baron-Kenny method and quantitative estimation of the mediation effect. Compared with white women, AA women had higher IGF-I levels; their higher risk of CR cancer, after accounting for IGF-I, was no longer significant. IGF-I was associated with breast and CR cancers even after controlling for race. Among viscerally obese (waist/hip ratio >0.85) and overall nonobese women (body mass index <30), IGF-I was a strong mediator, reducing the racial disparity in both cancers by 30% and 60%, respectively. In E-only users and nonusers, IGF-I explained the racial disparity in CR cancer only modestly. Bioavailable IGF-I is potentially important in racial disparities in obesity-related breast and CR cancer risk between postmenopausal AA and white women. Body fat distribution and E use may be part of the interconnected hormonal pathways related to racial difference in IGF-I levels and obesity-related cancer risk.

  2. Understanding Cross-Sectional Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Disparities in Antiretroviral Use and Viral Suppression Among HIV Patients in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Beer, Linda; Mattson, Christine L.; Bradley, Heather; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To examine racial/ethnic and gender disparities in antiretroviral (ART) use and viral suppression among HIV-infected persons in care and identify factors that might account for observed disparities. The Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) is a complex sample survey of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States. We used weighted interview and medical record data collected 06/2009 to 05/2012 to estimate the prevalence of ART use and viral suppression among gender-stratified racial/ethnic groups. We used χ2 tests to identify significant differences in outcomes between white men versus other groups, and logistic regression models to identify the most parsimonious set of factors that could account for each observed difference. We found no significant disparity in ART use between white and Hispanic men, and no disparities between white men and white and Hispanic women after adjustment for disease stage, age, and poverty. Disparities in ART use between white men and black persons persisted after adjusting for other factors, but the observed differences were relatively small. Differences in ART use and adherence, demographic characteristics, and social determinants of health such as poverty, education, and insurance accounted for the observed disparities in viral suppression between white men and all groups except black men. In our model, accounting for these factors reduced the prevalence difference in viral suppression between white and black men by almost half. We found that factors associated with disparities differed among men and women of the same race/ethnicity, lending support to the assertion that gender affects access to care and health status among HIV-infected patients. In addition to supporting efforts to increase ART use and adherence among persons living with HIV, our analysis provides evidence for the importance of social determinants of health in understanding racial/ethnic and gender differences in ART use and viral suppression

  3. Meta-analysis of racial disparities in survival in association with socioeconomic status among men and women with colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Du, Xianglin L; Meyer, Tamra E; Franzini, Luisa

    2007-06-01

    Few studies have addressed racial disparities in survival for colon cancer by adequately incorporating both treatment and socioeconomic factors, and the findings from those studies have been inconsistent. The objectives of the current study were to systematically review the existing literature and provide a more stable estimate of the measures of association between socioeconomic status and racial disparities in survival for colon cancer by undertaking a meta-analysis. For this meta-analysis, the authors searched the MEDLINE database to identify articles published in English from 1966 to August 2006 that met the following inclusion criteria: original research articles that addressed the association between race/ethnicity and survival in patients with colon or colorectal cancer after adjusting for socioeconomic status. In total, 66 full articles were reviewed, and 56 of those articles were excluded, which left 10 studies for the final analysis. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) for African Americans compared with Caucasians was 1.14 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.00-1.29) for all-cause mortality and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.01-1.28) for colon cancer-specific mortality. The test for homogeneity of the HR was statistically significant across the studies for all-cause mortality (Q=31.69; P<.001) but was not significant across the studies for colon cancer-specific mortality (Q=7.45; P=.114). Racial disparities in survival for colon cancer between African Americans and Caucasians were only marginally significant after adjusting for socioeconomic factors and treatment. Attempts to modify treatment and socioeconomic factors with the objective of reducing racial disparities in health outcomes may have important clinical and public health implications. (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.

  4. Life Course Pathways to Racial Disparities in Cognitive Impairment among Older Americans*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenmei; Hayward, Mark D.; Yu, Yan-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Blacks are especially hard hit by cognitive impairment at older ages compared to whites. Here, we take advantage of the Health and Retirement Study (1998–2010) to assess how this racial divide in cognitive impairment is associated with the racial stratification of life course exposures and resources over a 12-year period among 8,946 non-Hispanic whites and blacks aged 65 and older in 1998. We find that blacks suffer from a higher risk of moderate/severe cognitive impairment at baseline and during the follow-up. Blacks are also more likely to report childhood adversity and to have grown up in the segregated South, and these early-life adversities put blacks at a significantly higher risk of cognitive impairment. Adulthood socioeconomic status is strongly associated with the risk of cognitive impairment, net of childhood conditions. However, racial disparities in cognitive impairment, though substantially reduced, are not eliminated when controlling for these life course factors. PMID:27247126

  5. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Preventable Hospitalizations for Chronic Disease: Prevalence and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Riddhi P; Aseltine, Robert H; Sabina, Alyse B; Graham, Garth N

    2017-12-01

    Hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) result in high morbidity and economic burden on the American healthcare system. Admissions due to chronic ACSCs, in particular, cost the American healthcare system over 30 billion dollars annually. This paper presents the current research on racial and ethnic disparities in the burden of hospitalizations due to chronic ACSCs. For this narrative review, we evaluated over 800 abstracts from MEDLINE and Google Scholar and cited 62 articles. Since 1998, racial and ethnic disparities in hospitalizations from chronic ACSCs have increased resulting in over 430,000 excess hospitalizations among non-Hispanic Blacks compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Racial disparities in chronic ACSCs hospitalizations are pervasive in the USA. There is need for more research on the pathways through which an individual's race modifies the risk for hospitalizations due to chronic ACSCs.

  6. African Americans: Disparities in Health Care Access and Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Valire Carr

    2005-01-01

    Despite remarkable improvements in the overall health of the nation during the past two decades, compelling evidence suggests that the nation's racial and ethnic minority Americans suffer increasing disparities in the incidence, prevalence, mortality, and burden of diseases and adverse health outcomes compared with white Americans. The 1998…

  7. Health Disparities: Bridging the Gap. From Cells to Selves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This document details the strategic plan of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development to address disparities in health and developmental outcomes among Americans, particularly between and among racial and ethnic groups. Following a description of the plan's development, scientific areas of interest, and important themes, the…

  8. Evaluating the Population Impact on Racial/Ethnic Disparities in HIV in Adulthood of Intervening on Specific Targets: A Conceptual and Methodological Framework.

    PubMed

    Howe, Chanelle J; Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Cole, Stephen R; Hogan, Joseph W; Lau, Bryan; Moore, Richard D; Mathews, W Christopher; Crane, Heidi M; Drozd, Daniel R; Geng, Elvin; Boswell, Stephen L; Napravnik, Sonia; Eron, Joseph J; Mugavero, Michael J

    2018-02-01

    Reducing racial/ethnic disparities in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease is a high priority. Reductions in HIV racial/ethnic disparities can potentially be achieved by intervening on important intermediate factors. The potential population impact of intervening on intermediates can be evaluated using observational data when certain conditions are met. However, using standard stratification-based approaches commonly employed in the observational HIV literature to estimate the potential population impact in this setting may yield results that do not accurately estimate quantities of interest. Here we describe a useful conceptual and methodological framework for using observational data to appropriately evaluate the impact on HIV racial/ethnic disparities of interventions. This framework reframes relevant scientific questions in terms of a controlled direct effect and estimates a corresponding proportion eliminated. We review methods and conditions sufficient for accurate estimation within the proposed framework. We use the framework to analyze data on 2,329 participants in the CFAR [Centers for AIDS Research] Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (2008-2014) to evaluate the potential impact of universal prescription of and ≥95% adherence to antiretroviral therapy on racial disparities in HIV virological suppression. We encourage the use of the described framework to appropriately evaluate the potential impact of targeted interventions in addressing HIV racial/ethnic disparities using observational data. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. PERCEIVED RACIAL DISCRIMINATION AMONG HOME HEALTH AIDES: EVIDENCE FROM A NATIONAL SURVEY.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doohee; Muslin, Ivan; McInerney, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    Home health aides are one of our essential human resources in the U.S. long-term care industry but understanding whether home health aides experience racial discrimination in the workplace and, if so, which personal/organizational factors are associated at the national level has been unnoticed. Using a nationally representative sample (n=3377), we attempt to investigate the association between racial discrimination and personal and organizational factors. The study found the 13.5% prevalence rate of racial discrimination. The study findings from multiple regression analysis reveal that black home care aides are more likely than white aides to experience racial discrimination in the workplace, suggesting that racial disparity may be an additional barrier to our home health care industry. National chain affiliation and low income were also found to be associated with perceived racial discrimination.

  10. Racial gaps in child health insurance coverage in four South American countries: the role of wealth, human capital, and other household characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wehby, George L; Murray, Jeffrey C; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Castilla, Eduardo E

    2011-12-01

    OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the extent of racial gaps in child health insurance coverage in South America and study the contribution of wealth, human capital, and other household characteristics to accounting for racial disparities in insurance coverage. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING. Primary data collected between 2005 and 2006 in 30 pediatric practices in Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, and Chile. DESIGN. Country-specific regression models are used to assess differences in insurance coverage by race. A decomposition model is used to quantify the extent to which wealth, human capital, and other household characteristics account for racial disparities in insurance coverage. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS. In-person interviews were conducted with the mothers of 2,365 children. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. The majority of children have no insurance coverage except in Chile. Large racial disparities in insurance coverage are observed. Household wealth is the single most important household-level factor accounting for racial disparities in coverage and is significantly and positively associated with coverage, followed by maternal education and employment/occupational status. Geographic differences account for the largest part of racial disparities in insurance coverage in Argentina and Ecuador. CONCLUSIONS. Increasing the coverage of children in less affluent families is important for reducing racial gaps in health insurance coverage in the study countries. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  11. Healthy Mothers, Healthy Infants: Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This Kids Count issue brief details the strides made in Rhode Island over the last 10 years to improve maternal and child health, focusing on efforts to reduce racial and ethnic disparities. The brief notes that Rhode Island has made significant progress in several areas of maternal and infant care, most notably in access to insurance and early…

  12. Global ovarian cancer health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chornokur, Ganna; Amankwah, Ernest K.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Phelan, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this article is to broadly review the scientific literature and summarize the most up-to-date findings on ovarian cancer health disparities worldwide and in the United States (U.S.). Methods The present literature on disparities in ovarian cancer was reviewed. Original research and relevant review articles were included. Results Ovarian cancer health disparities exist worldwide and in the U.S. Ovarian cancer disproportionately affect African American women at all stages of the disease, from presentation through treatment, and ultimately increased mortality and decreased survival, compared to non-Hispanic White women. Increased mortality is likely to be explained by unequal access to care and non-standard treatment regimens frequently administered to African American women, but may also be attributed to genetic susceptibility, acquired co-morbid conditions and increased frequency of modifiable risk factors, albeit to substantially lesser extent. Unequal access to care is, in turn, largely a consequence of lower socioeconomic status and lack of private health insurance coverage among the African American population. Conclusions Our findings suggest the need for policy changes aimed at facilitating equal access to quality medical care. At the same time, further research is necessary to fully resolve racial disparities in ovarian cancer. PMID:23266352

  13. Racial and ethnic disparities in human papillomavirus-associated cancer burden with first-generation and second-generation human papillomavirus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Burger, Emily A; Lee, Kyueun; Saraiya, Mona; Thompson, Trevor D; Chesson, Harrell W; Markowitz, Lauri E; Kim, Jane J

    2016-07-01

    In the United States, the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers varies by racial/ethnic group. HPV vaccination may provide opportunities for primary prevention of these cancers. Herein, the authors projected changes in HPV-associated cancer burden among racial/ethnic groups under various coverage assumptions with the available first-generation and second-generation HPV vaccines to evaluate changes in racial/ethnic disparities. Cancer-specific mathematical models simulated the burden of 6 HPV-associated cancers. Model parameters, informed using national registries and epidemiological studies, reflected sex-specific, age-specific, and racial/ethnic-specific heterogeneities in HPV type distribution, cancer incidence, stage of disease at detection, and mortality. Model outcomes included the cumulative lifetime risks of developing and dying of 6 HPV-associated cancers. The level of racial/ethnic disparities was evaluated under each alternative HPV vaccine scenario using several metrics of social group disparity. HPV vaccination is expected to reduce the risks of developing and dying of HPV-associated cancers in all racial/ethnic groups as well as reduce the absolute degree of disparities. However, alternative metrics suggested that relative disparities would persist and in some scenarios worsen. For example, when assuming high uptake with the second-generation HPV vaccine, the lifetime risk of dying of an HPV-associated cancer for males decreased by approximately 60%, yet the relative disparity increased from 3.0 to 3.9. HPV vaccines are expected to reduce the overall burden of HPV-associated cancers for all racial/ethnic groups and to reduce the absolute disparity gap. However, even with the second-generation vaccine, relative disparities will likely still exist and may widen if the underlying causes of these disparities remain unaddressed. Cancer 2016;122:2057-66. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  14. Racial Disparities in Seeking Care for Help Getting Pregnant

    PubMed Central

    Chin, HB; Howards, PP; Kramer, MR; Mertens, AC; Spencer, JB

    2015-01-01

    Background Fertility counseling and treatment can help women achieve their desired family size, however, disparities exist in the utilization of this care. Methods This study examines the persistence of a racial disparity in visiting a doctor for help getting pregnant by estimating the direct effect of this association using data from the FUCHSIA Women’s Study, a population-based cohort study. This cohort included 1073 reproductive age women (22-45 years) with 28% reporting infertility. We fit log binomial models to quantify the magnitude of the racial difference in reported care seeking after adjustment for hypothesized mediators using inverse probability weighting. Results Compared with white women, black women were less likely to visit a doctor in the total population [adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.41, 0.80] and in the subgroup of women with infertility [aRR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.99]. In addition, black women waited twice as long on average before seeking help compared with white women. Conclusions There were notable racial differences in visiting a doctor for help getting pregnant in this study although reports of infertility were similar by race. These differences may be mitigated through improved communication about the range of counseling and treatment options available. PMID:26201443

  15. Racial/ethnic disparities in self-reported short sleep duration among US-born and foreign-born adults.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Wheaton, Anne G; Ford, Earl S; Croft, Janet B

    2016-12-01

    Racial/ethnic health disparities are infrequently considered by nativity status in the United States, although the immigrant population has practically doubled since 1990. We investigated the modifying role of nativity status (US- vs. foreign-born) on racial/ethnic disparities in short sleep duration (<7 h), which has serious health consequences. Cross-sectional data from 23,505 US-born and 4,326 foreign-born adults aged ≥ 18 years from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey and multivariable log-linear regression were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) for reporting short sleep duration and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). After controlling for sociodemographic covariates, short sleep was more prevalent among blacks (PR 1.29, 95% CI: 1.21-1.37), Hispanics (PR 1.18, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.29), and Asians (PR 1.37, 95% CI: 1.16-1.61) than whites among US-born adults. Short sleep was more prevalent among blacks (PR 1.71, 95% CI: 1.38, 2.13) and Asians (PR 1.23, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.47) than whites among the foreign-born. Among both US- and foreign-born adults, blacks and Asians had a higher likelihood of short sleep compared to whites. US-born Hispanics, but not foreign-born Hispanics, had a higher likelihood than their white counterparts. Future research should aim to uncover mechanisms underlying these disparities.

  16. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Use of Health Care Services for Diabetes Management.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Raeven Faye; Monnat, Shannon M

    2015-12-01

    Research demonstrates consistent racial/ethnic disparities in access to and use of health care services for a variety of chronic conditions. Yet we know little about whether these disparities exist for use of health care services for diabetes management. Racial/ethnic minorities disproportionately suffer from diabetes, complications from diabetes, and diabetes-related mortality. Proper diabetes management can reduce the risk of complications and premature mortality. Using a large national data set (N = 37,705) of White, Black, Hispanic, Asian, and Native American U.S. adults aged 65 years and older who have been diagnosed with diabetes, we examine three specific types of health care provider (HCP) use for diabetes management: number of times seen by a health care professional for diabetes, number of times feet have been checked by a health care professional, and number of visits for a glycosylated hemoglobin check. We found that net of controls for a variety of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, Blacks and Hispanics had significantly more visits to a HCP for their diabetes and significantly more glycosylated hemoglobin checks than Whites, and Blacks and Native Americans had significantly more HCP feet checks than Whites. Our results suggest that the reduced access to health care services traditionally found among racial/ethnic minorities does not hold for access to health care services for diabetes management, where racial/ethnic minority diabetics are actually more likely to use care than are White diabetics. Future research should examine whether higher use of health care services for diabetes among racial/ethnic minorities is due to greater disease severity among racial/ethnic minorities than among non-Hispanic Whites. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  17. Impact of age at diagnosis on racial disparities in endometrial cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Tarney, Christopher M; Tian, Chunqiao; Wang, Guisong; Dubil, Elizabeth A; Bateman, Nicholas W; Chan, John K; Elshaikh, Mohamed A; Cote, Michele L; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Shriver, Craig D; Conrads, Thomas P; Hamilton, Chad A; Maxwell, G Larry; Darcy, Kathleen M

    2018-04-01

    Although black patients with endometrial cancer (EC) have worse survival compared with white patients, the interaction between age/race has not been examined. The primary objective was to evaluate the impact of age at diagnosis on racial disparities in disease presentation and outcome in EC. We evaluated women diagnosed with EC between 1991 and 2010 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results. Mutation status for TP53 or PTEN, or with the aggressive integrative, transcript-based, or somatic copy number alteration-based molecular subtype were acquired from the Cancer Genome Atlas. Logistic regression model was used to estimate the interaction between age and race on histology. Cox regression model was used to estimate the interaction between age and race on survival. 78,184 white and 8518 black patients with EC were analyzed. Median age at diagnosis was 3-years younger for black vs. white patients with serous cancer and carcinosarcoma (P<0.0001). The increased presentation of non-endometrioid histology with age was larger in black vs. white patients (P<0.0001). The racial disparity in survival and cancer-related mortality was more prevalent in black vs. white patients, and in younger vs. older patients (P<0.0001). Mutations in TP53, PTEN and the three aggressive molecular subtypes each varied by race, age and histology. Aggressive histology and molecular features were more common in black patients and older age, with greater impact of age on poor tumor characteristics in black vs. white patients. Racial disparities in outcome were larger in younger patients. Intervention at early ages may mitigate racial disparities in EC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of health information technology on disparity of process of care.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinhyung

    2015-04-01

    Disparities in the quality of health care and treatment among racial or ethnic groups can result from unequal access to medical care, disparate treatments for similar severities of symptoms, and wide divergence in general health status among individuals. Such disparities may be eliminated through better use of health information technology (IT). Investment in health IT could foster better coordinated care, improve guideline compliance, and reduce the likelihood of redundant testing, thereby encouraging more equitable treatment for underprivileged populations. However, there is little research exploring the impact of health IT investment on disparities of process of care. This study examines the impact of health IT investment on waiting times - from admission to the date of first principle procedure - among different racial and ethnic groups, using patient and hospital data for the state of California collected from 2001 to 2007. The final sample includes 14,056,930 patients admitted with medical diseases to 316 unique, acute-care hospitals over a seven-year period. The linear random intercept and slope model was employed to examine the impacts of health IT investment on waiting time, while controlling for patient, disease, and hospital characteristics. Greater health IT investment was associated with shorter waiting times, and the reduction in waiting times was greater for non-White than for White patients. This indicates that minority populations could benefit from health IT investment with regard to process of care. Investments in health IT may reduce disparities in process of care.

  19. Primary care provider cultural competence and racial disparities in HIV care and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Saha, Somnath; Korthuis, P Todd; Cohn, Jonathan A; Sharp, Victoria L; Moore, Richard D; Beach, Mary Catherine

    2013-05-01

    Health professional organizations have advocated for increasing the "cultural competence" (CC) of healthcare providers, to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in patient care. It is unclear whether provider CC is associated with more equitable care. To evaluate whether provider CC is associated with quality of care and outcomes for patients with HIV/AIDS. Survey of 45 providers and 437 patients at four urban HIV clinics in the U.S. Providers' self-rated CC was measured using a novel, 20-item instrument. Outcome measures included patients' receipt of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, self-efficacy in managing medication regimens, complete 3-day ARV adherence, and viral suppression. Providers' mean age was 44 years; 56 % were women, and 64 % were white. Patients' mean age was 45; 67 % were men, and 77 % were nonwhite. Minority patients whose providers scored in the middle or highest third on self-rated CC were more likely than those with providers in the lowest third to be on ARVs, have high self-efficacy, and report complete ARV adherence. Racial disparities were observed in receipt of ARVs (adjusted OR, 95 % CI for white vs. nonwhite: 6.21, 1.50-25.7), self-efficacy (3.77, 1.24-11.4), and viral suppression (13.0, 3.43-49.0) among patients of low CC providers, but not among patients of moderate and high CC providers (receipt of ARVs: 0.71, 0.32-1.61; self-efficacy: 1.14, 0.59-2.22; viral suppression: 1.20, 0.60-2.42). Provider CC was associated with the quality and equity of HIV care. These findings suggest that enhancing provider CC may reduce racial disparities in healthcare quality and outcomes.

  20. Racial Disparities in Early Criminal Justice Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Crutchfield, Robert D.; Skinner, Martie L.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; McGlynn, Anne; Catalano, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    Criminologists have long reported the existence of racial disparity in the criminal justice system, but the important question is why. While some argue that observed differences are a consequence of more criminal behavior among minorities, the weight of the evidence indicates that this is but a partial explanation. In this paper we study data from a sample of juveniles to examine how racial differences in early police contact, and important social environments—family, school, and neighborhoods—affect later contact and arrests, controlling for self-reported delinquency. We find that early (in middle school) contact with police is an important predictor of later (high school) arrests. Also we found that, in addition to being male and living in a low-income family, children who have parents who have a history of arrest, who have experienced school disciplinary actions, who have delinquent peers, and who are in networks with deviant adults are more likely to have problems with law enforcement. These factors help to explain racial differences in police contacts and arrests. PMID:20190860

  1. Beware of being unaware: racial/ethnic disparities in chronic illness in the USA.

    PubMed

    Chatterji, Pinka; Joo, Heesoo; Lahiri, Kajal

    2012-09-01

    We study racial/ethnic disparities in awareness of chronic diseases using biomarker data from the 2006 Health and Retirement Study. We explore two alternative definitions of awareness and estimate a trivariate probit model with selection, which accounts for common, unmeasured factors underlying the following: (1) self-reporting chronic disease; (2) participating in biomarker collection; and (3) having disease, conditional on participating in biomarker collection. Our findings suggest that current estimates of racial/ethnic disparities in chronic disease are sensitive to selection, and also to the definition of disease awareness used. We find that African-Americans are less likely to be unaware of having hypertension than non-Latino whites, but the magnitude of this effect falls appreciably after we account for selection. Accounting for selection, we find that African-Americans and Latinos are more likely to be unaware of having diabetes compared to non-Latino whites. These findings are based on a widely used definition of awareness - the likelihood of self-reporting disease among those who have disease. When we use an alternative definition of awareness, which considers an individual to be unaware if he or she actually has the disease conditional on self-reporting not having it, we find higher levels of unawareness among racial/ethnic minorities versus non-Latino whites for both hypertension and diabetes. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Bioavailable Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I as Mediator of Racial Disparity in Obesity-Relevant Breast and Colorectal Cancer Risk among Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Su Yon; Barrington, Wendy E.; Lane, Dorothy S.; Chen, Chu; Chlebowski, Rowan; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Hou, Lifang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Paek, Min-So; Crandall, Carolyn J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Bioavailable insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I interacts with obesity and exogenous estrogen in a racial disparity in obesity-related cancer risk, yet their interconnected pathways are not fully characterized. We investigated whether circulating bioavailable IGF-I acted as a mediator of the racial disparity in obesity-related cancers such as breast and colorectal (CR) cancers and how obesity and estrogen use regulate this relationship. Methods A total of 2,425 white and 164 African American (AA) postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study were followed from October 1, 1993, through August 29, 2014. To assess bioactive IGF-I as a mediator of race–cancer relationship, we used the Baron-Kenny method and quantitative estimation of the mediation effect. Results Compared with white women, AA women had higher IGF-I levels; their higher risk of CR cancer, after accounting for IGF-I, was no longer significant. IGF-I was associated with breast and CR cancers even after controlling for race. Among viscerally obese (waist/hip ratio >0.85) and overall non-obese women (body mass index <30), IGF-I was a strong mediator, reducing the racial disparity in both cancers by 30% and 60%, respectively. In estrogen-only users and nonusers, IGF-I explained the racial disparity in CR cancer only modestly. Conclusions Bioavailable IGF-I is potentially important in racial disparities in obesity-related breast and CR cancer risk between postmenopausal AA and white women. Body fat distribution and estrogen use may be part of the interconnected hormonal pathways related to racial difference in IGF-I levels and obesity-related cancer risk. PMID:27749737

  3. Reducing Health Disparities: The Role of Sleep Deficiency and Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Van Cauter, Eve; Diez-Roux, Ana V.

    2015-01-01

    Decrements in sleep health, including insufficient sleep duration, irregular timing of sleep, poor sleep quality, and sleep/circadian disorders are wide-spread in modern society and are associated with an array of disease risks and outcomes, including those contributing to health disparities (e.g. cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes, psychiatric illness and cancer). Recent findings have uncovered racial/ethnic and socioeconomic position differences in sleep health, however the contribution of sleep deficiency to health disparities remains largely unexplored, and understanding the underlying causes of disparities in sleep health is only beginning to emerge. In 2011, the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute convened a workshop, bringing together sleep and health disparities investigators, to identify research gaps and opportunities to advance sleep and health disparities science. This article provides a brief background and rationale for the workshop, and disseminates the research recommendations and priorities resulting from the working group discussions. PMID:26431756

  4. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Insurance Coverage: Dynamics of Gaining and Losing Coverage over the Life-Course

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Heeju

    2016-01-01

    Health insurance coverage varies substantially between racial and ethnic groups in the United States. Compared to non-Hispanic whites, African Americans and people of Hispanic origin had persistently lower insurance coverage rates at all ages. This article describes age- and group-specific dynamics of insurance gain and loss that contribute to inequalities found in traditional cross-sectional studies. It uses the longitudinal 2008 Panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (N=114,345) to describe age-specific patterns of disparity prior to the Affordable Care Act (ACA). A formal decomposition on increment-decrement life-tables of insurance gain and loss shows that coverage disparities are predominately driven by minority groups’ greater propensity to lose the insurance that they already have. Uninsured African Americans were faster to gain insurance than non-Hispanic whites but their high rates of insurance loss more than negated this advantage. Disparities from greater rates of loss among minority groups emerge rapidly at the end of childhood and persist throughout adulthood. This is especially true for African Americans and Hispanics and their relative disadvantages again heighten in their 40s and 50s. PMID:28366968

  5. Differences in placental telomere length suggest a link between racial disparities in birth outcomes and cellular aging

    PubMed Central

    JONES, Christopher W.; GAMBALA, Cecilia; ESTEVES, Kyle C.; WALLACE, Maeve; SCHLESINGER, Reid; O’QUINN, Marguerite; KIDD, Laura; THEALL, Katherine P.; DRURY, Stacy S.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Health disparities begin early in life and persist across the life course. Despite current efforts Black women exhibit greater risk for pregnancy complications and negative perinatal outcomes compared to White women. The placenta, a complex multi-tissue organ, serves as the primary transducer of bidirectional information between the mother and fetus. Altered placental function is linked to multiple racially disparate pregnancy complications, however little is known about racial differences in molecular factors within the placenta. Several pregnancy complications, including preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction, exhibit racial disparities and are associated with shorter placental telomere length, an indicator of cellular stress and aging. Cellular senescence and telomere dynamics are linked to the molecular mechanisms associated with the onset of labor and parturition. Further, racial differences in telomere length are found in a range of different peripheral tissues. Together these factors suggest that exploration of racial differences in telomere length of the placenta may provide novel mechanistic insight into racial disparities in birth outcomes. OBJECTIVE This study examined whether telomere length measured in four distinct fetally-derived tissues were significantly different between Blacks and Whites. The study had two hypotheses: (1) that telomere length measured in different placental tissue types would be correlated and (2) that across all sampled tissues telomere length would differ by race. STUDY DESIGN In a prospective study, placental tissue samples were collected from the amnion, chorion, villus, and umbilical cord from Black and White singleton pregnancies (N=46). Telomere length was determined using monochrome multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in each placental tissue. Demographic and pregnancy-related data were also collected. Descriptive statistics characterized the sample overall and among Black and White

  6. Racial/ethnic differences in obesity and comorbidities between safety-net- and non safety-net integrated health systems

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Bijal A.; Garcia, Michael P.; Corley, Douglas A.; Doubeni, Chyke A.; Haas, Jennifer S.; Kamineni, Aruna; Quinn, Virginia P.; Wernli, Karen; Zheng, Yingye; Skinner, Celette Sugg

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Previous research shows that patients in integrated health systems experience fewer racial disparities compared with more traditional healthcare systems. Little is known about patterns of racial/ethnic disparities between safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems. We evaluated racial/ethnic differences in body mass index (BMI) and the Charlson comorbidity index from 3 non safety-net- and 1 safety-net integrated health systems in a cross-sectional study. Multinomial logistic regression modeled comorbidity and BMI on race/ethnicity and health care system type adjusting for age, sex, insurance, and zip-code-level income The study included 1.38 million patients. Higher proportions of safety-net versus non safety-net patients had comorbidity score of 3+ (11.1% vs. 5.0%) and BMI ≥35 (27.7% vs. 15.8%). In both types of systems, blacks and Hispanics were more likely than whites to have higher BMIs. Whites were more likely than blacks or Hispanics to have higher comorbidity scores in a safety net system, but less likely to have higher scores in the non safety-nets. The odds of comorbidity score 3+ and BMI 35+ in blacks relative to whites were significantly lower in safety-net than in non safety-net settings. Racial/ethnic differences were present within both safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems, but patterns differed. Understanding patterns of racial/ethnic differences in health outcomes in safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems is important to tailor interventions to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. PMID:28296752

  7. Racial and ethnic disparities associated with knowledge of symptoms of heart attack and use of 911: National Health Interview Survey, 2001.

    PubMed

    McGruder, Henraya E; Greenlund, Kurt J; Malarcher, Ann M; Antoine, Theresa L; Croft, Janet B; Zheng, Zhi-Jie

    2008-01-01

    Heart attacks are more prevalent among Hispanics and Blacks than among Whites. Bystanders must be able to recognize heart attack symptoms and activate the emergency response system in order to receive time-dependent therapies that increase survival. This study estimated racial/ethnic disparities in awareness of heart attack symptoms in a sample of the US population. We evaluated data from 33,059 adult participants in the 2001 National Health Interview Survey. Respondents indicated their awareness of five heart attack symptoms and the need to call 911 in the presence of such symptoms. Hispanics and Blacks were less likely to recognize each heart attack symptom than were Whites (P<.05). Hispanics (25.6%), people aged 18-24 years (33.6%), men (39.1%), and those with less than a high school education (31.3%) were less likely to recognize all five heart attack symptoms and report that they would call 911 than were Whites (45.8%), Blacks (36.1%), respondents aged 45-64 years (47.7%) and >65 years (43.9%), and those with a high school education (41.0%) or more (45.6%). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, Blacks (OR .73, 95% CI .66-.80) and Hispanics (OR .49, 95% CI .45-.54) were less likely than were Whites to recognize all five heart attack symptoms and the need to call 911 if someone had these symptoms. One Healthy People 2010 goal is to eliminate health disparities. Racial/ethnic disparities exist in knowledge of heart attack symptoms and the need to call 911. Special educational efforts should focus on Black and Hispanic populations and highlight the importance of symptoms and time-dependent therapies.

  8. How will the 'cancer moonshot' impact health disparities?

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Thompson, Ian M

    2017-09-01

    In 1971, President Nixon signed into law the National Cancer Act (NCA), colloquially known as the "War on Cancer", which pushed cancer onto the national agenda and is credited for many subsequent increases in the knowledge of the molecular, cellular, and genetic causes and effects of cancer. But even though cancer mortality has declined overall in intervening years after the NCA, cancer health disparities persist in the form of higher cancer incidence and mortality rates among certain cancer types and certain populations. Breast and cervical cancers disproportionately affect African American, Hispanic, and American Indian Women. Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death for Latinos (with men and women combined). Forty-five years after the NCA, how will the next enormous cancer initiatives-President Barack Obama's Cancer Moonshot and the All of Us Research Program (formerly the Precision Medicine Initiative Cohort Program)-impact cancer health disparities? The emergence of precision medicine and the sharing of information across sectors are at the heart of these large national initiatives and hold vast potential to address complex health disparities that remain in incidence reporting, incidence, treatment, prognoses, and mortality among certain cancer types and racial/ethnic minorities, including African Americans and Hispanics/Latinos, compared to Whites. But clinical research efforts and data collection have historically lacked diverse representation for various reasons, posing a large risk to these national initiatives in their ability to develop diverse cohorts that adequately represent racial/ethnic minorities. Efforts to reduce disparities and increase diversity in study cohorts have emerged, from patient navigation, to use of mobile technology to collect data, to national consortiums dedicated to including diverse groups, to university training on health disparities. These efforts point to the need for the Cancer Moonshot and precision medicine

  9. There Still Be Dragons: Racial Disparity in School Funding Is No Myth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Raegen; Epstein, Diana

    2011-01-01

    It's hard to debunk a myth that's not a myth, but Jason Richwine of the Heritage Foundation has given it a try in his recent backgrounder, "The Myth of Racial Disparities in Public School Financing." The report suggests that public education spending is broadly similar across racial and ethnic groups, and it has found a predictably receptive…

  10. Racial disparities in colorectal cancer survival: to what extent are racial disparities explained by differences in treatment, tumor characteristics, or hospital characteristics?

    PubMed

    White, Arica; Vernon, Sally W; Franzini, Luisa; Du, Xianglin L

    2010-10-01

    Racial/ethnic differences in colorectal cancer (CRC) survival have been documented throughout the literature. However, the reasons for these disparities are difficult to decipher. The objective of this analysis was to determine the extent to which racial/ethnic disparities in survival are explained by differences in sociodemographics, tumor characteristics, diagnosis, treatment, and hospital characteristics. A cohort of 37,769 Medicare beneficiaries who were diagnosed with American Joint Committee on Cancer stages I, II, and III CRC from 1992 to 2002 and resided in 16 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) regions of the United States was identified in the SEER-Medicare linked database. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of mortality and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Black patients had worse CRC-specific survival than white patients, but the difference was reduced after adjustment (adjusted HR [aHR], 1.24; 95% CI, 1.14-1.35). Asian patients had better survival than white patients after adjusting for covariates (aHR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.70-0.92) for stages I, II, and III CRC. Relative to Asians, blacks and whites had worse survival after adjustment (blacks: aHR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.33-1.82; whites: aHR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.10-1.44). Comorbidities and socioeconomic Status were associated with a reduction in the mortality difference between blacks and whites and blacks and Asians. Comorbidities and SES appeared to be more important factors contributing to poorer survival among black patients relative to white and Asian patients. However, racial/ethnic differences in CRC survival were not fully explained by differences in several factors. Future research should further examine the role of quality of care and the benefits of treatment and post-treatment surveillance in survival disparities. Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.

  11. The increasing racial disparity in infant mortality rates: composition and contributors to recent US trends.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Greg R; Wingate, Martha S; Bader, Deren; Kogan, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    We examined trends in birthweight-gestational age distributions and related infant mortality for African American and white women and calculated the estimated excess annual number of African American infant deaths. Live births to US-resident mothers with a maternal race of white or African American were selected from the National Center for Health Statistics' linked live birth-infant death cohort files (1985-1988 and 1995-2000). The racial disparity in infant mortality widened despite an increasing rate of white low-birthweight infants. White preterm infants had relatively greater gains in survival and the white advantage in survival at term increased. Annually, African American women experience approximately 3300 more infant deaths than would be expected. The increasing US racial disparity in infant mortality is largely influenced by changes in birthweight-gestational age-specific mortality, rather than the birthweight-gestational age distribution. Improvement in the survival of white preterm and low-birthweight infants, probably reflecting advances in and changing access to medical technology, contributed appreciably to this trend.

  12. Racial Differences in Prenatal Care Use in the United States: Are Disparities Decreasing?

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Greg R.; Kogan, Michael D.; Nabukera, Sara

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. We examined trends and racial disparities (White, African American) in trimester of prenatal care initiation and adequacy of prenatal care utilization for US women and specific high-risk subgroups, e.g., unmarried, young, or less-educated mothers. Methods. Data from 1981–1998 US natality files on singleton live births to US resident mothers were examined. Results. Overall, early and adequate use of care improved for both racial groups, and racial disparities in prenatal care use have been markedly reduced, except for some young mothers. Conclusions. While improvements are evident, it is doubtful that the Healthy People 2000 objective for prenatal care will soon be attained for African Americans or Whites. Further efforts are needed to understand influences on and to address barriers to prenatal care. PMID:12453818

  13. Racial and ethnic disparities in meeting MTM eligibility criteria among patients with asthma.

    PubMed

    Lu, Degan; Qiao, Yanru; Johnson, Karen C; Wang, Junling

    2017-06-01

    Asthma is one of the most frequently targeted chronic diseases in the medication therapy management (MTM) programs of the Medicare prescription drug (Part D) benefits. Although racial and ethnic disparities in meeting eligibility criteria for MTM services have been reported, little is known about whether there would be similar disparities among adults with asthma in the United States. Adult patients with asthma (age ≥ 18) from Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2011-2012) were analyzed. Bivariate analyses were conducted to compare the proportions of patients who would meet Medicare MTM eligibility criteria between non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks), Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites (Whites). Survey-weighted logistic regression was performed to adjust for patient characteristics. Main and sensitivity analyses were conducted to cover the entire range of the eligibility thresholds used by Part D plans in 2011-2012. The sample included 4,455 patients with asthma, including 2,294 Whites, 1,218 Blacks, and 943 Hispanics. Blacks and Hispanics had lower proportions of meeting MTM eligibility criteria than did Whites (P < 0.001). According to the main analysis, Blacks and Hispanics had 36% and 32% lower, respectively, likelihood of MTM eligibility than Whites (odds ratio [OR]: 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45-0.90; OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.47-0.98, respectively). Similar results were obtained in sensitivity analyses. There are racial and ethnic disparities in meeting Medicare Part D MTM eligibility criteria among adult patients with asthma. Future studies should examine the implications of such disparities on health outcomes of patients with asthma and explore alternative MTM eligibility criteria.

  14. Race, racism and health: disparities, mechanisms, and interventions.

    PubMed

    Brondolo, Elizabeth; Gallo, Linda C; Myers, Hector F

    2009-02-01

    The goals of this special section are to examine the state-of-the-science regarding race/ethnicity and racism as they contribute to health disparities and to articulate a research agenda to guide future research. In the first paper, Myers presents an integrative theoretical framework for understanding how racism, poverty, and other major stressors relate to health through inter-related psychosocial and bio-behavioral pathways. Williams and Mohammed review the evidence concerning associations between racism and health, addressing the multiple levels at which racism can operate and commenting on important methodological issues. Klonoff provides a review and update of the literature concerning ethnicity-related disparities in healthcare, and addresses factors that may contribute to these disparities. Brondolo and colleagues consider racism from a stress and coping perspective, and review the literature concerning racial identity, anger coping, and social support as potential moderators of the racism-health association. Finally, Castro and colleagues describe an ecodevelopmental model that can serve as an integrative framework to examine multi-level social-cultural influences on health and health behavior. In aggregate, the special section papers address theoretical and methodological issues central to understanding the determinants of health disparities, with the aim of providing direction for future research critical to developing effective interventions to reduce these disparities.

  15. Socioeconomic factors explain racial disparities in invasive community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus disease rates

    PubMed Central

    See, Isaac; Wesson, Paul; Gualandi, Nicole; Dumyati, Ghinwa; Harrison, Lee H.; Lesher, Lindsey; Nadle, Joelle; Petit, Susan; Reisenauer, Claire; Schaffner, William; Tunali, Amy; Mu, Yi; Ahern, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Invasive community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) incidence in the United States is higher among black persons than white persons. We explored the extent to which socioeconomic factors might explain this racial disparity. Methods A retrospective cohort was based on CDC’s Emerging Infections Program surveillance data for invasive community-associated MRSA cases (isolated from a normally sterile site of an outpatient or on hospital admission day ≤3 in a patient without specified major healthcare exposures) from 2009–2011 in 33 counties of 9 states. We used generalized estimating equations to determine census tract-level factors associated with differences in MRSA incidence and inverse odds ratio weighted mediation analysis to determine the proportion of racial disparity mediated by socioeconomic factors. Results Annual invasive community-associated MRSA incidence was 4.59/100,000 among whites and 7.60/100,000 among blacks (rate ratio: 1.66, 95% CI, 1.52–1.80). In the mediation analysis, after accounting for census tract-level measures of federally-designated medically underserved areas, education, income, housing value, and rural status, 91% of the original racial disparity was explained; no significant association of black race with community-associated MRSA remained (rate ratio: 1.05, 95% CI, 0.92–1.20). Conclusions The racial disparity in invasive community-associated MRSA rates was almost entirely mediated by socioeconomic factors. The specific factors that underlie the association between tract-level socioeconomic measures and MRSA incidence, which may include modifiable social (e.g., poverty, crowding) and biological factors (not explored in this analysis), should be elucidated to define strategies for reducing racial disparities in community-associated MRSA rates. PMID:28362911

  16. Integrating the 3Ds—Social Determinants, Health Disparities, and Health-Care Workforce Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Pierre, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    The established relationships among social determinants of health (SDH), health disparities, and race/ethnicity highlight the need for health-care professionals to adequately address SDH in their encounters with patients. The ethnic demographic transition slated to occur during the next several decades in the United States will have numerous effects on the health-care sector, particularly as it pertains to the need for a more diverse and culturally aware workforce. In recent years, a substantial body of literature has developed, exploring the extent to which diversity in the health-care workforce may be used as a tool to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care in the U.S. We explore existing literature on this topic, propose a conceptual framework, and identify next steps in health-care policy for reducing and eliminating health disparities by addressing SDH and diversification of the health-care workforce. PMID:24385659

  17. Integrating the 3Ds--social determinants, health disparities, and health-care workforce diversity.

    PubMed

    LaVeist, Thomas A; Pierre, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    The established relationships among social determinants of health (SDH), health disparities, and race/ethnicity highlight the need for health-care professionals to adequately address SDH in their encounters with patients. The ethnic demographic transition slated to occur during the next several decades in the United States will have numerous effects on the health-care sector, particularly as it pertains to the need for a more diverse and culturally aware workforce. In recent years, a substantial body of literature has developed, exploring the extent to which diversity in the health-care workforce may be used as a tool to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care in the U.S. We explore existing literature on this topic, propose a conceptual framework, and identify next steps in health-care policy for reducing and eliminating health disparities by addressing SDH and diversification of the health-care workforce.

  18. Racial and ethnic disparities in educational achievement and aspirations: findings from a statewide survey from 1998 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Nitardy, Charlotte M; Duke, Naomi N; Pettingell, Sandra L; Borowsky, Iris W

    2015-01-01

    Educational achievement and attainment are associated with health outcomes across the entire life span. The objective of this study was to determine whether racial/ethnic disparities in academic achievement and educational aspirations have changed over time. The study used data from the Minnesota Student Survey (MSS) from 1998, 2001, 2004, 2007, and 2010. The MSS is administered to adolescents in public secondary schools, charter schools, and tribal schools. Measures of academic achievement and educational aspirations were examined by race/ethnicity, poverty status, and family structure. Chi square tests evaluated differences in the above proportions. The analytic sample included 351,510 adolescents (1998, N = 67,239; 2001, N = 69,177; 2004, N = 71,084; 2007, N = 72,312; and 2010, N = 71,698). Study participants ranged in age from 13 to 19 years (mean = 15.9, SD = 1.6). Most were white (81.7 %), followed by 5.4 % Asian American/Pacific Islander, 4.3 % Black/African American, 2.7 % Hispanic/Latino, 1 % American Indian, and 4.9 % mixed race. Results showed that academic achievement fluctuated amongst all the racial/ethnic groups, but there were significant race/ethnic disparities at every time point. Overall, academic aspirations increased over time among the adolescents. Poverty was associated with poorer academic indicators for white youth, but not consistently for other racial/ethnic groups of youth. Family structure, however, was significantly associated with the educational indicators across all racial and ethnic groups. Despite many efforts to improve educational outcomes, there remain significant disparities in educational achievement and aspirations related to race-ethnicity and social status. Findings have implications for efforts to improve adolescent health at both individual and community levels.

  19. Racial disparities: disruptive genes in prostate carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Savita; Plaga, Alexis; Shukla, Girish C

    2017-06-01

    Population specific studies in prostate cancer (PCa) reveal a unique heterogeneous etiology. Various factors, such as genetics, environment and dietary regimen seems to determine disease progression, therapeutic resistance and rate of mortality. Enormous disparity documented in disease incidences, aggressiveness and mortality in PCa among AAs (African Americans) and CAs (Caucasian Americans) is attributed to the variations in genetics, epigenetics and their association with metabolism. Scientific and clinical evidences have revealed the influence of variations in Androgen Receptor (AR), RNAse L, macrophage scavenger receptor 1 ( MRS1 ), androgen metabolism by cytochrome P450 3A4, differential regulation of microRNAs, epigenetic alterations and diet in racial disparity in PCa incidences and mortality. Concerted efforts are needed to identify race specific prognostic markers and treatment regimen for a better management of the disease.

  20. Neighborhood Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities in the Food and Alcohol Environment: Are There Differences by Commercial Data Sources?

    PubMed

    Mendez, Dara D; Kim, Kevin H; Hardaway, Cecily R; Fabio, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    This study examined neighborhood racial and socioeconomic disparities and the density of food and alcohol establishments. We also examined whether these disparities differed by data source. This study included commercial data for 2003 and 2009 from InfoUSA and Dun and Bradstreet (D&B) in 416 census tracts in Allegheny County, PA. Food and alcohol establishment densities were calculated by using area and population data from the 2000 US census. Differences between InfoUSA and D&B of food and alcohol densities across neighborhood racial and socioeconomic characteristics were tested using correlations and two-way mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA). There were differences by data source in the association between neighborhood racial and socioeconomic characteristics and food/alcohol establishment density. There was a positive correlation between grocery store/supermarket density and percentage black, poverty, and percentage without a car among D&B data but not in InfoUSA. Alcohol outlet density (AOD) increased as neighborhood poverty increased for both data sources, but the mean difference in AOD between InfoUSA and D&B was highest among neighborhoods with 25-50 % poverty (Cohen's d -0.49, p < 0.001) compared to neighborhoods with lower or higher poverty (2003 data). Mean grocery store density increased as percentage poverty increased, but only among D&B (2009 data). Differences in commercial data in the location and numeration of food and alcohol establishments are associated with neighborhood racial and socioeconomic characteristics and may introduce biases concerning neighborhood food and alcohol environments, racial and socioeconomic disparities, and health.

  1. Disparities in health, poverty, incarceration, and social justice among racial groups in the United States: a critical review of evidence of close links with neoliberalism.

    PubMed

    Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Agbanu, Samuel Kwami; Miller, Reuben Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Problems of poverty, poor health, and incarceration are unevenly distributed among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. We argue that this is due, in part, to the ascendance of United States-style neoliberalism, a prevailing political and economic doctrine that shapes social policy, including public health and anti-poverty intervention strategies. Public health research most often associates inequalities in health outcomes, poverty, and incarceration with individual and cultural risk factors. Contextual links to structural inequality and the neoliberal doctrine animating state-sanctioned interventions are given less attention. The interrelationships among these are not clear in the extant literature. Less is known about public health and incarceration. Thus, the authors describe the linkages between neoliberalism, public health, and criminal justice outcomes. We suggest that neoliberalism exacerbates racial disparities in health, poverty, and incarceration in the United States. We conclude by calling for a new direction in public health research that advances a pro-poor public health agenda to improve the general well-being of disadvantaged groups.

  2. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Mental Health Care Utilization among U.S. College Students: Applying the Institution of Medicine Definition of Health Care Disparities.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Justin B; Eisenberg, Daniel; Lu, Liya; Gathright, Molly

    2015-10-01

    The authors apply the Institute of Medicine's definition of health care disparities to college students. The analysis pools data from the first two waves of the Healthy Minds Study, a multicampus survey of students' mental health (N = 13,028). A probit model was used for any past-year service utilization, and group differences in health status were adjusted by transforming the entire distribution for each minority population to approximate the white distribution. Disparities existed between whites and all minority groups. Compared to other approaches, the predicted service disparities were greater because this method included the effects of mediating SES variables. Health care disparities persist in the college setting despite improved access and nearly universal insurance coverage. Our findings emphasize the importance of investigating potential sources of disparities beyond geography and coverage.

  3. Disparities in Attention to HIV-Prevention Information

    PubMed Central

    Crause, Candi; Vaid, Awais; Albarracín, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Compared to European-Americans, African-Americans have greater probability of becoming infected with HIV, as well as worse outcomes when they become infected. Therefore, adequate health communications should ensure that they capture the attention of African-Americans and do not perpetuate disadvantages relative to European-Americans. The objective of this report was to examine if racial disparities in attention to health information parallel racial disparities in health outcomes. Participants were clients of a public health clinic (Study 1 n = 64; Study 2 n = 55). Unobtrusive observation in a public health waiting room, message reading times, and response-time on a modified flanker task were used to examine attention to HIV- and flu-information across racial groups. In Study 1, participants were observed for the duration of their time in a public health clinic waiting room (average duration 31 minutes). In Study 2, participants completed tasks in a private room at the public health clinic (average duration 21 minutes). Across all attention measures, results suggest an interaction between race and information type on attention to health information. In particular, African-Americans differentially attended to information as a function of information type, with decreased attention to HIV versus flu information. In contrast, European-Americans attended equally to both HIV and flu information. As such, disparities in attention yielded less access to certain health information for African- than European-Americans in a health setting. The identified disparities in attention are particularly problematic because they disadvantage African-Americans at a time of great effort to correct racial disparities. Modifying the framing of health information in ways that ensure attention by all racial groups may be a strategy to increase attention, and thereby reduce disparities in health outcomes. Future research should find solutions that increase attentional access to health

  4. Disparities in attention to HIV-prevention information.

    PubMed

    Earl, Allison; Crause, Candi; Vaid, Awais; Albarracín, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Compared to European-Americans, African-Americans have greater probability of becoming infected with HIV, as well as worse outcomes when they become infected. Therefore, adequate health communications should ensure that they capture the attention of African-Americans and do not perpetuate disadvantages relative to European-Americans. The objective of this report was to examine if racial disparities in attention to health information parallel racial disparities in health outcomes. Participants were clients of a public health clinic (Study 1 n = 64; Study 2 n = 55). Unobtrusive observation in a public health waiting room, message reading times, and response-time on a modified flanker task were used to examine attention to HIV- and flu-information across racial groups. In Study 1, participants were observed for the duration of their time in a public health clinic waiting room (average duration: 31 min). In Study 2, participants completed tasks in a private room at the public health clinic (average duration: 21 min). Across all attention measures, results suggest an interaction between race and information type on attention to health information. In particular, African-Americans differentially attended to information as a function of information type, with decreased attention to HIV- versus flu-information. In contrast, European-Americans attended equally to both HIV- and flu-information. As such, disparities in attention yielded less access to certain health information for African- than European-Americans in a health setting. The identified disparities in attention are particularly problematic because they disadvantage African-Americans at a time of great effort to correct racial disparities. Modifying the framing of health information in ways that ensure attention by all racial groups may be a strategy to increase attention, and thereby reduce disparities in health outcomes. Future research should find solutions that increase attentional access to health

  5. Achieving Health Equity: Closing The Gaps In Health Care Disparities, Interventions, And Research.

    PubMed

    Purnell, Tanjala S; Calhoun, Elizabeth A; Golden, Sherita H; Halladay, Jacqueline R; Krok-Schoen, Jessica L; Appelhans, Bradley M; Cooper, Lisa A

    2016-08-01

    In the United States, racial/ethnic minority, rural, and low-income populations continue to experience suboptimal access to and quality of health care despite decades of recognition of health disparities and policy mandates to eliminate them. Many health care interventions that were designed to achieve health equity fall short because of gaps in knowledge and translation. We discuss these gaps and highlight innovative interventions that help address them, focusing on cardiovascular disease and cancer. We also provide recommendations for advancing the field of health equity and informing the implementation and evaluation of policies that target health disparities through improved access to care and quality of care. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  6. Disparities in Cardiac Rehabilitation Among Individuals from Racial and Ethnic Groups and Rural Communities-A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Luis R; Viramontes, Omar; Bains, Nainjot K; Zepeda, Ignacio A

    2018-03-13

    Despite the well-described benefits of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on long-term health outcomes, CR is a resource that is underutilized by a significant proportion of patients that suffer from cardiovascular diseases. The main purpose of this study was to examine disparities in CR referral and participation rates among individuals from rural communities and racial and ethnic minority groups with coronary heart disease (CHD) when compared to the general population. A systematic search of standard databases including MedlLine, PubMed, and Cochrane databases was conducted using keywords that included cardiac rehabilitation, women, race and ethnicity, disparities, and rural populations. Twenty-eight clinical studies from 1990 to 2017 were selected and included 478,955 patients with CHD. The majority of available clinical studies showed significantly lower CR referral and participation rates among individuals from rural communities, women, and racial and ethnic groups when compared to the general population. Similar to geographic region, socioeconomic status (SES) appears to directly impact the use of CR programs. Patients of lower SES have significantly lower CR referral and participation rates than patients of higher SES. Data presented underscores the need for systematic referrals using electronic health records for patients with CHD in order to increase overall CR referral and participation rates of minority populations and other vulnerable groups. Educational programs that target healthcare provider biases towards racial and ethnic groups may help attenuate observed disparities. Alternative modalities such as home-based and internet-based CR programs may also help improve CR participation rates among vulnerable populations.

  7. Socioeconomic and Racial Disparities in Parental Perception and Experience of Having a Medical Home, 2007 to 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Diao, Kristen; Tripodis, Yorghos; Long, Webb E; Garg, Arvin

    To evaluate whether socioeconomic (SES) and racial disparities in the parental perception and experience of having a medical home decreased from 2007 to 2011-2012. We used nationally representative samples of children aged 1 to 17 from the 2007 (n = 83,293) and 2011-2012 (n = 87,774) National Surveys of Children's Health. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test associations between SES (income, employment, and education) and race/ethnicity to the medical home and its subcomponents (personal doctor or nurse, usual source of care, family-centered care, referrals, care coordination), controlling for a priori identified covariates. From 2007 to 2011-2012, fewer children overall had access to a medical home (56.9% vs 54.0%, aOR = 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.86-0.96). There were no significant changes in SES and racial trends in access to the medical home during this time period. For example, parents of children <100% federal poverty level (FPL) were significantly less likely to report having a medical home than parents of children ≥400% FPL in 2007 and 2011-2012; however, this disparity did not significantly change during the time period (aOR = 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.75-1.27). There were also no significant changes in SES and racial/ethnic disparities over time for each medical home subcomponent. Despite widespread efforts to promote the medical home for all children, large SES and racial disparities in the parental perception and experience of having a medical home persisted from 2007 to 2011-2012. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Differences in placental telomere length suggest a link between racial disparities in birth outcomes and cellular aging.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher W; Gambala, Cecilia; Esteves, Kyle C; Wallace, Maeve; Schlesinger, Reid; O'Quinn, Marguerite; Kidd, Laura; Theall, Katherine P; Drury, Stacy S

    2017-03-01

    Health disparities begin early in life and persist across the life course. Despite current efforts, black women exhibit greater risk for pregnancy complications and negative perinatal outcomes compared with white women. The placenta, which is a complex multi-tissue organ, serves as the primary transducer of bidirectional information between the mother and fetus. Altered placental function is linked to multiple racially disparate pregnancy complications; however, little is known about racial differences in molecular factors within the placenta. Several pregnancy complications, which include preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction, exhibit racial disparities and are associated with shorter placental telomere length, which is an indicator of cellular stress and aging. Cellular senescence and telomere dynamics are linked to the molecular mechanisms that are associated with the onset of labor and parturition. Further, racial differences in telomere length are found in a range of different peripheral tissues. Together these factors suggest that exploration of racial differences in telomere length of the placenta may provide novel mechanistic insight into racial disparities in birth outcomes. This study examined whether telomere length measured in 4 distinct fetally derived tissues were significantly different between black and white women. The study had 2 hypotheses: (1) that telomere length that is measured in different placental tissue types would be correlated and (2) that across all sampled tissues telomere length would differ by race. In a prospective study, placental tissue samples were collected from the amnion, chorion, villus, and umbilical cord from black and white singleton pregnancies (N=46). Telomere length was determined with the use of monochrome multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in each placental tissue. Demographic and pregnancy-related data were also collected. Descriptive statistics characterized the sample overall and among

  9. Does Neighborhood Risk Explain Racial Disparities in Low Birth Weight among Infants Born to Adolescent Mothers?

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Tracy R.; Rulison, Kelly L.; Aronson, Robert E.; Brown-Jeffy, Shelly L.; Morrison, Sharon D.

    2015-01-01

    Study objective To test associations and interactions between racial identification, neighborhood risk, and low birth weight disparities between infants born to African-American and White adolescent mothers. Design Retrospective cross-sectional study. Birth cases were geocoded and linked to census-tract information from the 2010 United States Census and the 2007-2011 American Community Survey. A “neighborhood risk” index was created through principal component analysis, and mothers were grouped into three neighborhood risk levels (low, medium, high). Multilevel models with cross-level interactions were used to identify variation in racial differences in low birth weight outcomes across neighborhood risk levels when controlling for maternal demographics and pregnancy behaviors (smoking, prenatal care use). Setting North Carolina, United States. Participants 7,923 cases of singleton infants born to non-Hispanic African-American and White adolescent mothers from the North Carolina State Center of Health Statistics for 2011. Main outcome measures Low birth weight. Results African-American mothers were significantly more likely to have infants of low birth weight than White mothers in this sample [OR 1.89, CI (1.53, 2.34)]. Mothers that resided in areas of high neighborhood risk were significantly more likely to have infants of low birth weight than mothers residing in areas of low neighborhood risk [OR 1.55, 95% CI (1.25, 1.93)]. Even when controlling for confounding factors, racial disparities in low birth weight odds did not significantly vary by neighborhood risk level. Conclusions Racial disparities can remain in low birth weight odds among infants born to adolescent mothers when controlling for maternal characteristics, pregnancy behaviors, and neighborhood risk. PMID:26307240

  10. Socioeconomic Factors Explain Racial Disparities in Invasive Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Disease Rates.

    PubMed

    See, Isaac; Wesson, Paul; Gualandi, Nicole; Dumyati, Ghinwa; Harrison, Lee H; Lesher, Lindsey; Nadle, Joelle; Petit, Susan; Reisenauer, Claire; Schaffner, William; Tunali, Amy; Mu, Yi; Ahern, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Invasive community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) incidence in the United States is higher among black persons than white persons. We explored the extent to which socioeconomic factors might explain this racial disparity. A retrospective cohort was based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infections Program surveillance data for invasive community-associated MRSA cases (isolated from a normally sterile site of an outpatient or on hospital admission day ≤3 in a patient without specified major healthcare exposures) from 2009 to 2011 in 33 counties of 9 states. We used generalized estimating equations to determine census tract-level factors associated with differences in MRSA incidence and inverse odds ratio-weighted mediation analysis to determine the proportion of racial disparity mediated by socioeconomic factors. Annual invasive community-associated MRSA incidence was 4.59 per 100000 among whites and 7.60 per 100000 among blacks (rate ratio [RR], 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52-1.80). In the mediation analysis, after accounting for census tract-level measures of federally designated medically underserved areas, education, income, housing value, and rural status, 91% of the original racial disparity was explained; no significant association of black race with community-associated MRSA remained (RR, 1.05; 95% CI, .92-1.20). The racial disparity in invasive community-associated MRSA rates was largely explained by socioeconomic factors. The specific factors that underlie the association between census tract-level socioeconomic measures and MRSA incidence, which may include modifiable social (eg, poverty, crowding) and biological factors (not explored in this analysis), should be elucidated to define strategies for reducing racial disparities in community-associated MRSA rates. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US

  11. A simulation model approach to analysis of the business case for eliminating health care disparities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Purchasers can play an important role in eliminating racial and ethnic disparities in health care. A need exists to develop a compelling "business case" from the employer perspective to put, and keep, the issue of racial/ethnic disparities in health care on the quality improvement agenda for health plans and providers. Methods To illustrate a method for calculating an employer business case for disparity reduction and to compare the business case in two clinical areas, we conducted analyses of the direct (medical care costs paid by employers) and indirect (absenteeism, productivity) effects of eliminating known racial/ethnic disparities in mammography screening and appropriate medication use for patients with asthma. We used Markov simulation models to estimate the consequences, for defined populations of African-American employees or health plan members, of a 10% increase in HEDIS mammography rates or a 10% increase in appropriate medication use among either adults or children/adolescents with asthma. Results The savings per employed African-American woman aged 50-65 associated with a 10% increase in HEDIS mammography rate, from direct medical expenses and indirect costs (absenteeism, productivity) combined, was $50. The findings for asthma were more favorable from an employer point of view at approximately $1,660 per person if raising medication adherence rates in African-American employees or dependents by 10%. Conclusions For the employer business case, both clinical scenarios modeled showed positive results. There is a greater potential financial gain related to eliminating a disparity in asthma medications than there is for eliminating a disparity in mammography rates. PMID:21418594

  12. A simulation model approach to analysis of the business case for eliminating health care disparities.

    PubMed

    Nerenz, David R; Liu, Yung-wen; Williams, Keoki L; Tunceli, Kaan; Zeng, Huiwen

    2011-03-19

    Purchasers can play an important role in eliminating racial and ethnic disparities in health care. A need exists to develop a compelling "business case" from the employer perspective to put, and keep, the issue of racial/ethnic disparities in health care on the quality improvement agenda for health plans and providers. To illustrate a method for calculating an employer business case for disparity reduction and to compare the business case in two clinical areas, we conducted analyses of the direct (medical care costs paid by employers) and indirect (absenteeism, productivity) effects of eliminating known racial/ethnic disparities in mammography screening and appropriate medication use for patients with asthma. We used Markov simulation models to estimate the consequences, for defined populations of African-American employees or health plan members, of a 10% increase in HEDIS mammography rates or a 10% increase in appropriate medication use among either adults or children/adolescents with asthma. The savings per employed African-American woman aged 50-65 associated with a 10% increase in HEDIS mammography rate, from direct medical expenses and indirect costs (absenteeism, productivity) combined, was $50. The findings for asthma were more favorable from an employer point of view at approximately $1,660 per person if raising medication adherence rates in African-American employees or dependents by 10%. For the employer business case, both clinical scenarios modeled showed positive results. There is a greater potential financial gain related to eliminating a disparity in asthma medications than there is for eliminating a disparity in mammography rates. © 2011 Nerenz et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  13. Racial Disparity in Police Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Crutchfield, Robert D.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; McGlynn, Anne; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Criminologists agree the race disparity in arrests cannot be fully explained by differences in criminal behavior. We examine social environment factors that may lead to racial differences in police contact in early adolescence, including family, peers, school, and community. Data are from 331 8th-grade students. Blacks were almost twice as likely as Whites to report a police contact. Blacks reported more property crime but not more violent crime than Whites. Police contacts were increased by having a parent who had been arrested, a sibling involved in criminal activity, higher observed reward for negative behavior, having school disciplinary actions, and knowing adults who engaged in substance abuse or criminal behavior. Race differences in police contacts were partially attributable to more school discipline. PMID:24363956

  14. Racial disparity in colorectal cancer: Gut microbiome and cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Sachin; Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Farhana, Lulu; Yu, Yingjie; Majumdar, Adhip Pn

    2016-09-26

    Over the past two decades there has been remarkable progress in cancer diagnosis, treatment and screening. The basic mechanisms leading to pathogenesis of various types of cancers are also understood better and some patients, if diagnosed at a particular stage go on to lead a normal pre-diagnosis life. Despite these achievements, racial disparity in some cancers remains a mystery. The higher incidence, aggressiveness and mortality of breast, prostate and colorectal cancers (CRCs) in African-Americans as compared to Caucasian-Americans are now well documented. The polyp-carcinoma sequence in CRC and easy access to colonic epithelia or colonic epithelial cells through colonoscopy/colonic effluent provides the opportunity to study colonic stem cells early in course of natural history of the disease. With the advent of metagenomic sequencing, uncultivable organisms can now be identified in stool and their numbers correlated with the effects on colonic epithelia. It would be expected that these techniques would revolutionize our understanding of the racial disparity in CRC and pave a way for the same in other cancers as well. Unfortunately, this has not happened. Our understanding of the underlying factors responsible in African-Americans for higher incidence and mortality from colorectal carcinoma remains minimal. In this review, we aim to summarize the available data on role of microbiome and cancer stem cells in racial disparity in CRC. This will provide a platform for further research on this topic.

  15. Racial disparity in colorectal cancer: the role of equal treatment.

    PubMed

    Laryea, Jonathan A; Siegel, Eric; Klimberg, Suzanne

    2014-03-01

    Racial disparity exists in colorectal cancer outcomes. The reasons for this are multifactorial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of equal treatment of blacks and whites in the elimination of racial disparity in colorectal cancer outcomes. A retrospective cohort study of 878 patients with colorectal cancer diagnosed between 1998 and 2008 was done at a University tertiary referral center. Demographic variables including age, sex, and race were abstracted. Tumor-specific variables including American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, anatomic tumor location, vital status, and survival were obtained. Treatment-specific variables including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and follow-up were also obtained. Racial differences in these variables were studied and their effect on overall survival was determined by using univariate and multivariate analyses. The findings were then compared with previous data from our institution. University tertiary referral center. The primary outcomes measured were overall survival and cancer-specific mortality. A total of 878 patients met the inclusion criteria, 186 (21.2%) of whom were black. Blacks were significantly younger at diagnosis in comparison with whites, with a median (quartiles) age of 55 years (28-87) compared with 59 years (23-94) (p = 0.0012). Equal proportions of blacks (78.5%) and whites (79.2%) underwent surgery (p = 0.84), similar proportions of blacks (55.4%) and whites (60.8%) received chemotherapy (p = 0.18), and similar proportions of blacks (17.2%) and whites (20.5%) received radiation therapy (p = 0.31). There was no difference in overall survival or cancer-specific mortality between the 2 racial groups. Univariate analysis showed American Joint Committee on Cancer stage and surgery as the only statistically significant factors for overall survival. On multivariate analysis, stage, surgery, and chemotherapy were the only statistically significant factors. Race was not an independent determinant of

  16. Cost of Racial Disparity in Preterm Birth: Evidence from Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao; Grigorescu, Violanda; Siefert, Kristine A.; Lori, Jody R.; Ransom, Scott B.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the economic costs associated with racial disparity in preterm birth and preterm fetal death in Michigan. Linked 2003 Michigan vital statistics and hospital discharge data were used for data analysis. Thirteen percent of the singleton births among non-Hispanic Blacks were before 37 completed weeks of gestation, compared to only 7.7% among non-Hispanic Whites (risk ratio = 1.66, 95% confidence interval: 1.59-1.72; p<0.0001). One thousand one hundred and eighty four non-Hispanic Black, singleton preterm births and preterm fetal deaths would have been avoided in 2003 had their preterm birth rate been the same as Michigan non-Hispanic Whites. Economic costs associated with these excess Black preterm births and preterm fetal deaths amounted to $329 million (range: $148 million - $598 million) across their lifespan over and above the costs if they were born at term, including costs associated with the initial hospitalization, productivity loss due to perinatal death, and major developmental disabilities. Hence, racial disparity in preterm birth and preterm fetal death has substantial cost implications for society. Improving pregnancy outcomes for African American women and reducing the disparity between Blacks and Whites should continue to be a focus of future research and interventions. PMID:19648701

  17. Healthcare disparities in critical illness.

    PubMed

    Soto, Graciela J; Martin, Greg S; Gong, Michelle Ng

    2013-12-01

    To summarize the current literature on racial and gender disparities in critical care and the mechanisms underlying these disparities in the course of acute critical illness. MEDLINE search on the published literature addressing racial, ethnic, or gender disparities in acute critical illness, such as sepsis, acute lung injury, pneumonia, venous thromboembolism, and cardiac arrest. Clinical studies that evaluated general critically ill patient populations in the United States as well as specific critical care conditions were reviewed with a focus on studies evaluating factors and contributors to health disparities. Study findings are presented according to their association with the prevalence, clinical presentation, management, and outcomes in acute critical illness. This review presents potential contributors for racial and gender disparities related to genetic susceptibility, comorbidities, preventive health services, socioeconomic factors, cultural differences, and access to care. The data are organized along the course of acute critical illness. The literature to date shows that disparities in critical care are most likely multifactorial involving individual, community, and hospital-level factors at several points in the continuum of acute critical illness. The data presented identify potential targets as interventions to reduce disparities in critical care and future avenues for research.

  18. Does social selection explain the association between state-level racial animus and racial disparities in self-rated health in the United States?

    PubMed

    McKetta, Sarah; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Pratt, Charissa; Bates, Lisa; Link, Bruce G; Keyes, Katherine M

    2017-08-01

    Racism, whether defined at individual, interpersonal, or structural levels, is associated with poor health among Blacks. This association may arise because exposure to racism causes poor health, but geographic mobility patterns pose an alternative explanation-namely, Black individuals with better health and resources can move away from racist environments. We examine the evidence for selection effects using nationally representative, longitudinal data (1990-2009) from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics (n = 33,852). We conceptualized state-level racial animus as an ecologic measure of racism and operationalized it as the percent of racially-charged Google search terms in each state. Among those who move out of state, Blacks reporting good self-rated health (SRH) are more likely to move to a state with less racial animus than Blacks reporting poor SRH (P = .01), providing evidence for at least some selection into environments with less racial animus. However, among Blacks who moved states, over 80% moved to a state within the same quartile of racial animus, and fewer than 5% resided in states with the lowest level of racial animus. Geographic mobility patterns are therefore likely to explain only a small part of the relationship between racial animus and SRH. These results require replication with alternative measures of racist attitudes and health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dialysis facility staff perceptions of racial, gender, and age disparities in access to renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lipford, Kristie J; McPherson, Laura; Hamoda, Reem; Browne, Teri; Gander, Jennifer C; Pastan, Stephen O; Patzer, Rachel E

    2018-01-10

    Racial/ethnic, gender, and age disparities in access to renal transplantation among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients have been well documented, but few studies have explored health care staff attitudes towards these inequalities. Staff perceptions can influence patient care and outcomes, and identifying staff perceptions on disparities could aid in the development of potential interventions to address these health inequities. The objective of this study was to investigate dialysis staff (n = 509), primarily social workers and nurse managers, perceptions of renal transplant disparities in the Southeastern United States. This is a mixed methods study that uses both deductive and inductive qualitative analysis of a dialysis staff survey conducted in 2012 using three open-ended questions that asked staff to discuss their perceptions of factors that may contribute to transplant disparities among African American, female, and elderly patients. Study results suggested that the majority of staff (n = 255, 28%) perceived patients' low socioeconomic status as the primary theme related to why renal transplant disparities exist between African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Staff cited patient perception of old age as a primary contributor (n = 188, 23%) to the disparity between young and elderly patients. The dialysis staff responses on gender transplant disparities suggested that staff were unaware of differences due to limited experience and observation (n = 76, 14.7%) of gender disparities. These findings suggest that dialysis facilities should educate staff on existing renal transplantation disparities, particularly gender disparities, and collaboratively work with transplant facilities to develop strategies to actively address modifiable patient barriers for transplant.

  20. Moving Toward Paradigm-Shifting Research in Health Disparities Through Translational, Transformational, and Transdisciplinary Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Kyu B.; Stoff, David M.; Pohlhaus, Jennifer Reineke; Sy, Francisco S.; Stinson, Nathaniel; Ruffin, John

    2010-01-01

    Translational, transdisciplinary, and transformational research stands to become a paradigm-shifting mantra for research in health disparities. A windfall of research discoveries using these 3 approaches has increased our understanding of the health disparities in racial, ethnic, and low socioeconomic status groups. These distinct but related research spheres possess unique environments, which, when integrated, can lead to innovation in health disparities science. In this article, we review these approaches and propose integrating them to advance health disparities research through a change in philosophical position and an increased emphasis on community engagement. We argue that a balanced combination of these research approaches is needed to inform evidence-based practice, social action, and effective policy change to improve health in disparity communities. PMID:20147662

  1. Health Care Segregation, Physician Recommendation, and Racial Disparities in BRCA1/2 Testing Among Women With Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Anne Marie; Bristol, Mirar; Domchek, Susan M; Groeneveld, Peter W; Kim, Younji; Motanya, U Nkiru; Shea, Judy A; Armstrong, Katrina

    2016-08-01

    Racial disparities in BRCA1/2 testing have been documented, but causes of these disparities are poorly understood. The study objective was to investigate whether the distribution of black and white patients across cancer providers contributes to disparities in BRCA1/2 testing. We conducted a population-based study of women in Pennsylvania and Florida who were 18 to 64 years old and diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 2007 and 2009, linking cancer registry data, the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile, and patient and physician surveys. The study included 3,016 women (69% white, 31% black), 808 medical oncologists, and 732 surgeons. Black women were less likely to undergo BRCA1/2 testing than white women (odds ratio [OR], 0.40; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.48; P < .001). This difference was attenuated but not eliminated by adjustment for mutation risk, clinical factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and attitudes about testing (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.81; P < .001). The care of black and white women was highly segregated across surgeons and oncologists (index of dissimilarity 64.1 and 61.9, respectively), but adjusting for clustering within physician or physician characteristics did not change the size of the testing disparity. Black women were less likely to report that they had received physician recommendation for BRCA1/2 testing even after adjusting for mutation risk (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.82; P < .001). Adjusting for physician recommendation further attenuated the testing disparity (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.57 to 1.02; P = .06). Although black and white patients with breast cancer tend to see different surgeons and oncologists, this distribution does not contribute to disparities in BRCA1/2 testing. Instead, residual racial differences in testing after accounting for patient and physician characteristics are largely attributable to differences in physician recommendations. Efforts to address these disparities should focus on ensuring

  2. Racial Disparities in Palliative Care for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    analysis is complete. The manuscript reporting the results of the spinal cord compression study is published ( Spencer BA, Shim JJ, Hershman DL...to ureteral obstruction ( Spencer BA, Insel BJ, Hershman DL, Benson MC, Neugut AI. 2013. Racial disparities in the use of palliative therapy for...and men who received a PCN were 55% more likely to die than those who were untreated for ureteral obstruction. See Table 3 (page 20-21) in Spencer

  3. Organizational Change Management For Health Equity: Perspectives From The Disparities Leadership Program.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Joseph R; Tan-McGrory, Aswita; Kenst, Karey S; Phan, Thuy Hoai; Lopez, Lenny

    2017-06-01

    Leaders of health care organizations need to be prepared to improve quality and achieve equity in today's health care environment characterized by a focus on achieving value and addressing disparities in a diverse population. To help address this need, the Disparities Solutions Center at Massachusetts General Hospital launched the Disparities Leadership Program in 2007. The leadership program is an ongoing, year-long, executive education initiative that trains leaders from hospitals, health plans, and health centers to improve quality and eliminate racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Feedback from participating organizations demonstrates that health care leaders seem to possess knowledge about what disparities are and about what should be done to eliminate them. Data collection, performance measurement, and multifaceted interventions remain the tools of the trade. However, the barriers to success are lack of leadership buy-in, organizational prioritization, energy, and execution, which can be addressed through organizational change management strategies. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  4. What Makes African American Health Disparities Newsworthy? An Experiment among Journalists about Story Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinnant, Amanda; Oh, Hyun Jee; Caburnay, Charlene A.; Kreuter, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    News stories reporting race-specific health information commonly emphasize disparities between racial groups. But recent research suggests this focus on disparities has unintended effects on African American audiences, generating negative emotions and less interest in preventive behaviors (Nicholson RA, Kreuter MW, Lapka C "et al." Unintended…

  5. Health Disparities in Pediatric Asthma: Comprehensive Tertiary Care Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Laurens; Kalle, Fanta; Grinstead, Laura; Jimenez, Maritza; Murphy, Meghan; Oceanic, Pat; Fitzgerald, Diane; Dabney, Kirk

    2015-03-01

    Study conducted at Nemours /Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE 19803 BACKGROUND: Although the treatment and management of asthma hasimproved over time, incidence and prevalence among children continues to rise in the United States. Asthma prevalence, health services utilization, and mortality rate demonstrate remarkable disparities. The underlying causes of these disparities are not fully understood. We aimed to examine racial/ethnic variances in pediatric asthma prevalence/admission. We retrospectively reviewed data on 1070 patients and applied a cross-sectional design to assess asthma admission between 2010 and 2011. Information was available on race/ethnicity, sex, insurance status, severity of illness (SOI), and length of stay/hospitalization (LOS).Chi-square statistic was used for the association between race and other variables in an attempt to explain the racial/ethnic variance. The proportionate morbidity of asthma was highest amongCaucasians (40.92%) and African Americans (40.54%), intermediate among others (16.57%), and lowest among Asian (0.56%), American Indian/Alaska Native (0.28%), and Hawaiian Native/Pacific Islander (0.28%). Overall there were disparities by sex, with more boys (61.80%) diagnosed with asthma than girls (38.20%), χ2(7)=20.1, p=0.005. Insurance status, and SOI varied by race/ethnicity, but not LOS. Caucasian children were more likely to have private insurance, while African Americans and Hispanics were more likely to have public insurance (p<0.005). Asthma was more severe among non-Hispanic children, χ2(14)=154.6, p<0.001. While the overall readmission proportion was 2.8%, readmission significantly varied by race/ethnicity. Racial/ethnic disparities in asthma admission exist among children in the Delaware Valley. There were racial/ethnic disparities in insurance status, asthma severity, and sex differed by race/ethnicity, but not in length of hospitalization. © 2015 National Medical Association. Published by

  6. Racial Disparities in New Millennium Schools: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBeauf, Ireon

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the role of race in new millennium schools and its impact on students. Multicultural, psycho-social, and academic issues are addressed, and interventions for school counselors are discussed. Racially correlated disparities in K-12 education are apparent in: test scores, grades, retention and drop-out rates, identification for…

  7. Health Disparities and Delayed Health care among Older Adults in California: A Perspective from Race, Ethnicity, and Immigration.

    PubMed

    Du, Yan; Xu, Qingwen

    2016-09-01

    To examine racial/ethnic/immigration disparities in health and to investigate the relationships among race/ethnic/immigration status, delayed health care, and health of the elderly. Responses from 13,508 people aged 65 and above were analyzed based on the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) 2011-2012. Key variables include race/ethnicity/immigration status, health outcome, and delayed health care. Age, gender, education, work status, and annual family income are used as covariates. The findings indicate that Whites (regardless of country of birth) and U.S.-born Asians enjoy better health than Latinos, African-Americans, and Foreign-born Asians. Foreign-born Asians and foreign-born Latinos have the poorest self-reported health and mental health, respectively. Delayed use of health care is negatively associated with both self-reported health and mental health status. Health disparities exist among older adult populations; the combined effects of minority and immigrant status can be approximated from the results in this study. Health care accessibility and the quality of care should be promoted in minority/immigrant populations. Public health nurses have a strong potential to aide in reducing health disparities among an aging American population that continues to exhibit increasing racial/ethnic diversity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Age and racial/ethnic disparities in arthritis-related hip and knee surgeries.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Dorothy D; Manheim, Larry M; Song, Jing; Sohn, Min-Woong; Feinglass, Joseph M; Chang, Huan J; Chang, Rowland W

    2008-02-01

    Nearly 18 million Americans experience limitations due to their arthritis. Documented disparities according to racial/ethnic groups in the use of surgical interventions such as knee and hip arthroplasty are largely based on data from Medicare beneficiaries age 65 or older. Whether there are disparities among younger adults has not been previously addressed. This study assesses age-specific racial/ethnic differences in arthritis-related knee and hip surgeries. Longitudinal (1998-2004) Health and Retirement Study. National probability sample of US community-dwelling adults. A total of 2262 black, 1292 Hispanic, and 13,159 white adults age 51 and older. The outcome is self-reported 2-year use of arthritis-related hip or knee surgery. Independent variables are demographic (race/ethnicity, age, gender), health needs (arthritis, chronic diseases, obesity, physical activity, and functional limitations), and medical access (income, wealth, education, and health insurance). Longitudinal data methods using discrete survival analysis are used to validly account for repeated (biennial) observations over time. Analyses use person-weights, stratum, and sampling error codes to provide valid inferences to the US population. Black adults under the age of 65 years report similar age/gender adjusted rates of hip/knee arthritis surgeries [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.87-2.38] whereas older blacks (age 65+) have significantly lower rates (HR = 0.38, CI = 0.16-0.55) compared with whites. These relationships hold controlling for health and economic differences. Both under age 65 years (HR = 0.64, CI = 0.12-1.44) and older (age 65+) Hispanic adults (HR = 0.60, CI = 0.32-1.10) report lower utilization rates, although not statistically different than whites. A large portion of the Hispanic disparity is explained by economic differences. These national data document lower rates of arthritis-related hip/knee surgeries for older black versus white adults age 65 or

  9. Population Care Management and Team-Based Approach to Reduce Racial Disparities among African Americans/Blacks with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bartolome, Rowena E; Chen, Agnes; Handler, Joel; Platt, Sharon Takeda; Gould, Bernice

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: At Kaiser Permanente, national Equitable Care Health Outcomes (ECHO) Reports with a baseline measurement of 16 Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set measures stratified by race and ethnicity showed a disparity of 8.1 percentage points in blood pressure (BP) control rates between African- American/black (black) and white members. The aims of this study were to describe a population care management team-based approach to improve BP control for large populations and to explain how a culturally tailored, patient-centered approach can address this racial disparity. Methods: These strategies were implemented through: 1) physician-led educational programs on treatment intensification, medication adherence, and consistent use of clinical practice guidelines; 2) building strong care teams by defining individual roles and responsibilities in hypertension management; 3) redesign of the care delivery system to expand access; and 4) programs on culturally tailored communication tools and self-management. Results: At a physician practice level where 65% of patients with hypertension were black, BP control rates (< 140/90 mmHg) for blacks improved from 76.6% to 81.4%, and control rates for whites increased from 82.9% to 84.2%. The racial gap narrowed from 6.3% to 2.8%. As these successful practices continue to spread throughout the program, the health disparity gap in BP control has decreased by 50%, from 8.1% to 3.9%. Conclusion: A sustainable program to collect self-reported race, ethnicity, and language preference data integrated with successful population care management programs provided the foundation for addressing health disparities. Cultural tailoring of a multilevel team-based approach closed the gap for blacks with hypertension. PMID:26824963

  10. Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Opioid Prescriptions at Emergency Department Visits for Conditions Commonly Associated with Prescription Drug Abuse.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Astha; Tien, Yu-Yu; Hsia, Renee Y

    2016-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem nationally. In an effort to curb this problem, emergency physicians might rely on subjective cues such as race-ethnicity, often unknowingly, when prescribing opioids for pain-related complaints, especially for conditions that are often associated with drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies that examined racial-ethnic disparities in opioid dispensing at emergency departments (EDs) did not differentiate between prescriptions at discharge and drug administration in the ED. We examined racial-ethnic disparities in opioid prescription at ED visits for pain-related complaints often associated with drug-seeking behavior and contrasted them with conditions objectively associated with pain. We hypothesized a priori that racial-ethnic disparities will be present among opioid prescriptions for conditions associated with non-medical use, but not for objective pain-related conditions. Using data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for 5 years (2007-2011), the odds of opioid prescription during ED visits made by non-elderly adults aged 18-65 for 'non-definitive' conditions (toothache, back pain and abdominal pain) or 'definitive' conditions (long-bone fracture and kidney stones) were modeled. Opioid prescription at discharge and opioid administration at the ED were the primary outcomes. We found significant racial-ethnic disparities, with non-Hispanic Blacks being less likely (adjusted odds ratio ranging from 0.56-0.67, p-value < 0.05) to receive opioid prescription at discharge during ED visits for back pain and abdominal pain, but not for toothache, fractures and kidney stones, compared to non-Hispanic whites after adjusting for other covariates. Differential prescription of opioids by race-ethnicity could lead to widening of existing disparities in health, and may have implications for disproportionate burden of opioid abuse among whites. The findings have important implications for medical provider education

  11. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Diabetes Care and Impact of Vendor-Based Disease Management Programs.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ying-Ying; Diamant, Allison; Jones, Jenna; Lin, Wenjiao; Chen, Xiao; Wu, Shang-Hua; Pourat, Nadereh; Roby, Dylan; Kominski, Gerald F

    2016-05-01

    We examined the existence of disparities in receipt of appropriate diabetes care among California's fee-for-service Medicaid beneficiaries and the effectiveness of a telephonic-based disease management program delivered by a disease management vendor on the reduction of racial/ethnic disparities in diabetes care. We conducted an intervention-control cohort study to test the effectiveness of a 3-year-long disease management program delivered to Medicaid fee-for-service beneficiaries aged 22 to 75 with a diagnosis of diabetes in Los Angeles and Alameda counties. The outcome measures were the receipt of at least one hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test, LDL cholesterol test, and retinal examination each year. We used generalized estimating equations models with logit link to analyze the claims data for a cohort of beneficiaries in two intervention counties (n = 2,933) and eight control counties (n = 2,988) from September 2005 through August 2010. Racial/ethnic disparities existed in the receipt of all three types of testing in the intervention counties before the program. African Americans (0.66; 95% CI 0.62-0.70) and Latinos (0.77; 95% CI 0.74-0.80) had lower rates of receipt for HbA1c testing than whites (0.83; 95% CI 0.81-0.85) in the intervention counties. After the intervention, the disparity among African Americans and Latinos compared with whites persisted in the intervention counties. For Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, the disparity in testing rates decreased. We did not find similar disparities in the control counties. This disease management program was not effective in reducing racial/ethnic disparities in diabetes care in the most racially/ethnically diverse counties in California. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  12. The Contributions of Selected Diseases to Disparities in Death Rates and Years of Life Lost for Racial/Ethnic Minorities in the United States, 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Peace, Frederick; Howard, Virginia J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Differences in risk for death from diseases and other causes among racial/ethnic groups likely contributed to the limited improvement in the state of health in the United States in the last few decades. The objective of this study was to identify causes of death that are the largest contributors to health disparities among racial/ethnic groups. Methods Using data from WONDER system, we measured the relative (age-adjusted mortality ratio [AAMR]) and absolute (difference in years of life lost [dYLL]) differences in mortality risk between the non-Hispanic white population and the black, Hispanic, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Asian/Pacific Islander populations for the 25 leading causes of death. Results Many causes contributed to disparities between non-Hispanic whites and blacks, led by assault (AAMR, 7.56; dYLL, 4.5 million). Malignant neoplasms were the second largest absolute contributor (dYLL, 3.8 million) to black–white disparities; we also found substantial relative and absolute differences for several cardiovascular diseases. Only assault, diabetes, and diseases of the liver contributed substantially to disparities between non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics (AAMR ≥ 1.65; dYLL ≥ 325,000). Many causes of death, led by assault (AAMR, 3.25; dYLL, 98,000), contributed to disparities between non-Hispanic whites and American Indians/Alaska Natives; Asian/Pacific Islanders did not have a higher risk than non-Hispanic whites for death from any disease. Conclusion Assault was a substantial contributor to disparities in mortality among non-Asian racial/ethnic minority populations. Research and intervention resources need to target diseases (such as diabetes and diseases of the liver) that affect certain racial/ethnic populations. PMID:25078566

  13. Racial Disparities in Low Birthweight Risk: an Examination of Stress Predictors.

    PubMed

    Clay, Shondra Loggins; Andrade, Flavia Cristina Drumond

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes racial disparities in low birthweight (LBW) risk between Black women and White women and examines the relationship between race and stressors such as socioeconomic factors, access to health care, and social and health characteristics. We analyzed data from the National Survey of Family Growth dataset collected in the USA between 2006 and 2010 (N = 1516). Multivariate logistic regression models were performed. Prevalence of LBW was 5.6 % for pregnancies among White women and 12.2 % among Black women. Black women who had a LBW baby had a lower socioeconomic status (e.g., received assistance to pay for delivery of the baby and public assistance in the prior year). Black women who had a LBW baby were more likely to have reported having good health compared with White women (67.8 vs. 45.1 %, p < .10). Pregnancies of Black women were 2.6 times more likely (odds ratio (OR) = 2.33; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.12-6.04) to result in a LBW baby than pregnancies among White women. Pregnancies of women in the income group of 300 % or higher than the poverty level were less likely to be associated with a LBW baby than those among women in the 150-299 % income group (p < .10). Obese women were less likely to have LBW children than those who were underweight or normal weight (p < .10). Among pregnancies of White mothers (n = 943), the only significant variable was self-reported health status. White women who reported having poorer health were 3.7 times more likely to have LBW than those who reported having better health (p < .10). Among Black mothers, the only predictor that was negatively associated with an increased likelihood of having a LBW baby was the SES stressor related to receiving public assistance. Racial differences between Black and White women were observed in LBW risk based on socioeconomic factors. We analyzed a large number of stressors, but racial differences remained even after taking these stressors

  14. Miles to go before we sleep: racial inequities in health.

    PubMed

    Williams, David R

    2012-09-01

    Large, pervasive, and persistent racial inequalities exist in the onset, courses, and outcomes of illness. A comprehensive understanding of the patterning of racial disparities indicates that racism in both its institutional and individual forms remains an important determinant. There is an urgent need to build the science base that would identify how to trigger the conditions that would facilitate needed societal change and to identify the optimal interventions that would confront and dismantle the societal conditions that create and sustain health inequalities.

  15. Social Engagement After Nursing Home Admission: Racial and Ethnic Disparities and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Donna; Harms, Susan; Eberly, Lynn E; Savik, Kay; Gurvich, Olga; Mueller, Christine; Wyman, Jean F; Virnig, Beth

    2017-11-01

    Older adults admitted to nursing homes (NHs) are at risk for low social engagement, which has associations with medical, psychological, and social well-being. Minorities may be at a disadvantage for social engagement because of their racial or ethnic group identity. This study assessed whether there were racial/ethnic disparities in social engagement among older adults ( N = 15,927) at 1 year after their NH admission using multi-level predictors. No racial or ethnic-based disparities in social engagement were found; hence, an analysis of risk factors at NH admission that predicted low social engagement at 1 year for all residents was conducted. Significant risk factors for low social engagement were low social engagement at admission, deficits in activities in daily living and cognition, problems with vision and communication, and residing in an NH in an urban community. Results highlight the importance of initiating interventions to increase social engagement at the time of NH admission.

  16. Gender and Racial Disparities in Life-Space Constriction Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Moon; O'Connor, Melissa L; Mingo, Chivon A; Mezuk, Briana

    2016-12-01

    "Life-space" is the spatial area through which a person experiences and interacts with the world. Life-space constriction, the shrinking of the spatial area that a person traverses, is associated with negative health outcomes in later life. Racial and gender disparities in mobility as indicated by life-space constriction are thought to contribute to broader disparities in health and functioning among older adults. Data come from the 5-year follow-up of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) Study (N = 2,765; mean age = 73.6; 75.8% women; 73.7% White). Life-space constriction was defined as "not traveling beyond one's town." A series of logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate risk for incident life-space constriction by race and gender. Blacks and women had greater likelihood of life-space constriction at baseline. Women were more likely to experience incident life-space constriction at follow-up relative to men (Hazard ratio [HR]: 1.89, 95% Confidence interval [CI]: 1.26-2.83). Blacks were associated with lower risk of life-space constriction over time (HR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.45-0.99) relative to Whites. Disparities in life-space constriction by gender and race exist in later life. Understanding the processes underlying these mobility restrictions is important to developing intervention programs to enhance health and functioning for older adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. "No-Show": Therapist Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Client Unilateral Termination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jesse; Imel, Zac; Adelson, Jill; Rodolfa, Emil

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the authors examined the source of racial/ethnic minority (REM) disparities in unilateral termination (i.e., the client ending therapy without informing the therapist)--a form of dropout that is associated with poor alliance and outcome. First, the authors tested whether some therapists were more likely to have clients who…

  18. Linking Obesity Prevention and Mental Health Promotion to Address Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Claydon, Elizabeth; Austin, Anna; Smith, Megan V

    2016-05-01

    Considerable racial health disparities exist, especially in mental health and obesity. However, few approaches exist to address obesity and mental health simultaneously in minority groups. An intervention to address mental health in a low-income, minority group of urban mothers was designed using results from a needs assessment. Participating women were asked to rank their top health concerns and personal goals. Along with mental health concerns and basic needs, the majority of mothers desired assistance with improving their physical well-being. These results are surprising, but lend credence to creating interventions that aim to address both mental health and obesity concerns simultaneously.

  19. Trends in family ratings of experience with care and racial disparities among Maryland nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Ye, Zhiqiu; Glance, Laurent G; Temkin-Greener, Helena

    2014-07-01

    Providing equitable and patient-centered care is critical to ensuring high quality of care. Although racial/ethnic disparities in quality are widely reported for nursing facilities, it is unknown whether disparities exist in consumer experiences with care and how public reporting of consumer experiences affects facility performance and potential racial disparities. We analyzed trends of consumer ratings publicly reported for Maryland nursing homes during 2007-2010, and determined whether racial/ethnic disparities in experiences with care changed during this period. Multivariate longitudinal regression models controlled for important facility and county characteristics and tested changes overall and by facility groups (defined based on concentrations of black residents). Consumer ratings were reported for: overall care; recommendation of the facility; staff performance; care provided; food and meals; physical environment; and autonomy and personal rights. Overall ratings on care experience remained relatively high (mean=8.3 on a 1-10 scale) during 2007-2010. Ninety percent of survey respondents each year would recommend the facility to someone who needs nursing home care. Ratings on individual domains of care improved among all nursing homes in Maryland (P<0.01), except for food and meals (P=0.827 for trend). However, site-of-care disparities existed in each year for overall ratings, recommendation rate, and ratings on all domains of care (P<0.01 in all cases), with facilities more predominated by black residents having lower scores; such disparities persisted over time (P>0.2 for trends in disparities). Although Maryland nursing homes showed maintained or improved consumer ratings during the first 4 years of public reporting, gaps persisted between facilities with high versus low concentrations of minority residents.

  20. Toward a Fourth Generation of Disparities Research to Achieve Health Equity

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Stephen B.; Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Butler, James; Fryer, Craig S.; Garza, Mary A.

    2011-01-01

    Achieving health equity, driven by the elimination of health disparities, is a goal of Healthy People 2020. In recent decades, the improvement in health status has been remarkable for the U.S. population as a whole. However, racial and ethnic minority populations continue to lag behind whites with a quality of life diminished by illness from preventable chronic diseases and a life span cut short by premature death. We examine a conceptual framework of three generations of health disparities research to understand (a) data trends, (b) factors driving disparities, and (c) solutions for closing the gap. We propose a new, fourth generation of research grounded in public health critical race praxis, utilizing comprehensive interventions to address race, racism, and structural inequalities and advancing evaluation methods to foster our ability to eliminate disparities. This new generation demands that we address the researcher’s own biases as part of the research process. PMID:21219164

  1. Racial and socioeconomic disparities in body mass index among college students: understanding the role of early life adversity.

    PubMed

    Curtis, David S; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Doan, Stacey N; Zgierska, Aleksandra E; Ryff, Carol D

    2016-10-01

    The role of early life adversity (ELA) in the development of health disparities has not received adequate attention. The current study examined differential exposure and differential vulnerability to ELA as explanations for socioeconomic and racial disparities in body mass index (BMI). Data were derived from a sample of 150 college students (M age  = 18.8, SD = 1.0; 45 % African American; 55 % European American) who reported on parents' education and income as well as on exposure to 21 early adverse experiences. Body measurements were directly assessed to determine BMI. In adjusted models, African American students had higher BMI than European Americans. Similarly, background socioeconomic status was inversely associated with BMI. Significant mediation of group disparities through the pathway of ELA was detected, attenuating disparities by approximately 40 %. Furthermore, ELA was more strongly associated with BMI for African Americans than for European Americans. Efforts to achieve health equity may need to more fully consider early adversity.

  2. Healthcare Disparities in Critical Illness

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Graciela J.; Martin, Greg S.; Gong, Michelle Ng

    2013-01-01

    Objective To summarize the current literature on racial and gender disparities in critical care and the mechanisms underlying these disparities in the course of acute critical illness. Data Sources MEDLINE search on the published literature addressing racial, ethnic, or gender disparities in acute critical illness such as sepsis, acute lung injury, pneumonia, venous thromboembolism, and cardiac arrest. Study Selection Clinical studies that evaluated general critically ill patient populations in the United States as well as specific critical care conditions were reviewed with a focus on studies evaluating factors and contributors to health disparities. Data Extraction Study findings are presented according to their association with the incidence, clinical presentation, management, and outcomes in acute critical illness. Data Synthesis This review presents potential contributors for racial and gender disparities related to genetic susceptibility, comorbidities, preventive health services, socioeconomic factors, cultural differences, and access to care. The data is organized along the course of acute critical illness. Conclusions The literature to date shows that disparities in critical care are most likely multifactorial involving individual, community, and hospital-level factors at several points in the continuum of acute critical illness. The data presented identify potential targets as interventions to reduce disparities in critical care and future avenues for research. PMID:24121467

  3. An overview of racial disparities in preterm birth rates: caused by infection or inflammatory response?

    PubMed Central

    MENON, RAMKUMAR; DUNLOP, ANNE L.; KRAMER, MICHAEL R.; FORTUNATO, STEPHEN J.; HOGUE, CAROL J.

    2017-01-01

    Infection has been hypothesized to be one of the factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) and with the racial disparity in rates of PTB between African American and Caucasian women. However, recent findings refute the generalizability of the role of infection and inflammation. African Americans have an increased incidence of PTB in the setting of intraamniotic infection, periodontal disease, and bacterial vaginosis compared to Caucasians. Herein we report variability in infection- and inflammation-related factors based on race/ethnicity. For African American women, an imbalance in the host proinflammatory response seems to contribute to infection-associated PTB, as evidenced by a greater presence of inflammatory mediators with limited or reduced presence of immune balancing factors. This may be attributed to differences in the genetic variants associated with PTB between African Americans and Caucasians. We argue that infection may not be a cause of racial disparity but in association with other risk factors such as stress, nutritional deficiency, and differences in genetic variations in PTB, pathways and their complex interactions may produce differential inflammatory responses that may contribute to racial disparity. PMID:21615712

  4. The Role of Neighborhood Characteristics and the Built Environment in Understanding Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Mona; Sequist, Thomas D; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Melly, Steven J; Duncan, Dustin T; Horan, Christine M; Smith, Renata L; Marshall, Richard; Taveras, Elsie M

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity prevalence remains high and racial/ethnic disparities may be widening. Studies have examined the role of health behavioral differences. Less is known regarding neighborhood and built environment mediators of disparities. The objective of this study is to examine the extent to which racial/ethnic disparities in elevated child body mass index (BMI) are explained by neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and built environment. Methods We collected and analyzed race/ethnicity, BMI, and geocoded address from electronic health records of 44,810 children 4 to 18 years-old seen at 14 Massachusetts pediatric practices in 2011–2012. Main outcomes were BMI z-score and BMI z-score change over time. We used multivariable linear regression to examine associations between race/ethnicity and BMI z-score outcomes, sequentially adjusting for neighborhood SES and the food and physical activity environment. Results Among 44,810 children, 13.3% were black, 5.7% Hispanic, and 65.2% white. Compared to white children, BMI z-scores were higher among black (0.43 units [95% CI: 0.40–0.45]) and Hispanic (0.38 [0.34–0.42]) children; black (0.06 [0.04–0.08]), but not Hispanic, children also had greater increases in BMI z-score over time. Adjusting for neighborhood SES substantially attenuated BMI z-score differences among black (0.30 [0.27–0.34]) and Hispanic children (0.28 [0.23–0.32]), while adjustment for food and physical activity environments attenuated the differences but to a lesser extent than neighborhood SES. Conclusions Neighborhood SES and the built environment may be important drivers of childhood obesity disparities. To accelerate progress in reducing obesity disparities, interventions must be tailored to the neighborhood contexts in which families live. PMID:27404577

  5. Measurement Issues in Health Disparities Research

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Mildred; Ford, Marvella E; Stewart, Anita L; A Teresi, Jeanne

    2005-01-01

    Background Racial and ethnic disparities in health and health care have been documented; the elimination of such disparities is currently part of a national agenda. In order to meet this national objective, it is necessary that measures identify accurately the true prevalence of the construct of interest across diverse groups. Measurement error might lead to biased results, e.g., estimates of prevalence, magnitude of risks, and differences in mean scores. Addressing measurement issues in the assessment of health status may contribute to a better understanding of health issues in cross-cultural research. Objective To provide a brief overview of issues regarding measurement in diverse populations. Findings Approaches used to assess the magnitude and nature of bias in measures when applied to diverse groups include qualitative analyses, classic psychometric studies, as well as more modern psychometric methods. These approaches should be applied sequentially, and/or iteratively during the development of measures. Conclusions Investigators performing comparative studies face the challenge of addressing measurement equivalence, crucial for obtaining accurate results in cross-cultural comparisons. PMID:16179000

  6. Assessing the Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Breast Cancer Mortality in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Yedjou, Clement G.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Payton, Marinelle; Miele, Lucio; Fonseca, Duber D.; Lowe, Leroy; Alo, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths among women aged 40–55 in the United States and currently affects more than one in ten women worldwide. It is also one of the most diagnosed cancers in women both in wealthy and poor countries. Fortunately, the mortality rate from breast cancer has decreased in recent years due to increased emphasis on early detection and more effective treatments in White population. Although the mortality rates have declined in some ethnic populations, the overall cancer incidence among African American and Hispanic populations has continued to grow. The goal of the present review article was to highlight similarities and differences in breast cancer morbidity and mortality rates primarily among African American women compared to White women in the United States. To reach our goal, we conducted a search of articles in journals with a primary focus on minority health, and authors who had published articles on racial/ethnic disparity related to breast cancer patients. A systematic search of original research was conducted using MEDLINE, PUBMED and Google Scholar databases. We found that racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer may be attributed to a large number of clinical and non-clinical risk factors including lack of medical coverage, barriers to early detection and screening, more advanced stage of disease at diagnosis among minorities, and unequal access to improvements in cancer treatment. Many African American women have frequent unknown or unstaged breast cancers than White women. These risk factors may explain the differences in breast cancer treatment and survival rate between African American women and White women. New strategies and approaches are needed to promote breast cancer prevention, improve survival rate, reduce breast cancer mortality, and ultimately improve the health outcomes of racial/ethnic minorities. PMID:28475137

  7. Assessing the Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Breast Cancer Mortality in the United States.

    PubMed

    Yedjou, Clement G; Tchounwou, Paul B; Payton, Marinelle; Miele, Lucio; Fonseca, Duber D; Lowe, Leroy; Alo, Richard A

    2017-05-05

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths among women aged 40-55 in the United States and currently affects more than one in ten women worldwide. It is also one of the most diagnosed cancers in women both in wealthy and poor countries. Fortunately, the mortality rate from breast cancer has decreased in recent years due to increased emphasis on early detection and more effective treatments in White population. Although the mortality rates have declined in some ethnic populations, the overall cancer incidence among African American and Hispanic populations has continued to grow. The goal of the present review article was to highlight similarities and differences in breast cancer morbidity and mortality rates primarily among African American women compared to White women in the United States. To reach our goal, we conducted a search of articles in journals with a primary focus on minority health, and authors who had published articles on racial/ethnic disparity related to breast cancer patients. A systematic search of original research was conducted using MEDLINE, PUBMED and Google Scholar databases. We found that racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer may be attributed to a large number of clinical and non-clinical risk factors including lack of medical coverage, barriers to early detection and screening, more advanced stage of disease at diagnosis among minorities, and unequal access to improvements in cancer treatment. Many African American women have frequent unknown or unstaged breast cancers than White women. These risk factors may explain the differences in breast cancer treatment and survival rate between African American women and White women. New strategies and approaches are needed to promote breast cancer prevention, improve survival rate, reduce breast cancer mortality, and ultimately improve the health outcomes of racial/ethnic minorities.

  8. (En)gendering Racial Disparities in Health Trajectories: A Life Course and Intersectional Analysis.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Liana J; Brown, Tyson H

    2016-12-01

    Historically, intersectionality has been an underutilized framework in sociological research on racial/ethnic and gender inequalities in health. To demonstrate its utility and importance, we conduct an intersectional analysis of the social stratification of health using the exemplar of hypertension-a health condition in which racial/ethnic and gender differences have been well-documented. Previous research has tended to examine these differences separately and ignore how the interaction of social status dimensions may influence health over time. Using seven waves of data from the Health and Retirement Study and multilevel logistic regression models, we found a multiplicative effect of race/ethnicity and gender on hypertension risk trajectories, consistent with both an intersectionality perspective and persistent inequality hypothesis. Group differences in past and contemporaneous socioeconomic and behavioral factors did not explain this effect.

  9. Health disparities and advertising content of women's magazines: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Duerksen, Susan C; Mikail, Amy; Tom, Laura; Patton, Annie; Lopez, Janina; Amador, Xavier; Vargas, Reynaldo; Victorio, Maria; Kustin, Brenda; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2005-01-01

    Background Disparities in health status among ethnic groups favor the Caucasian population in the United States on almost all major indicators. Disparities in exposure to health-related mass media messages may be among the environmental factors contributing to the racial and ethnic imbalance in health outcomes. This study evaluated whether variations exist in health-related advertisements and health promotion cues among lay magazines catering to Hispanic, African American and Caucasian women. Methods Relative and absolute assessments of all health-related advertising in 12 women's magazines over a three-month period were compared. The four highest circulating, general interest magazines oriented to Black women and to Hispanic women were compared to the four highest-circulating magazines aimed at a mainstream, predominantly White readership. Data were collected and analyzed in 2002 and 2003. Results Compared to readers of mainstream magazines, readers of African American and Hispanic magazines were exposed to proportionally fewer health-promoting advertisements and more health-diminishing advertisements. Photographs of African American role models were more often used to advertise products with negative health impact than positive health impact, while the reverse was true of Caucasian role models in the mainstream magazines. Conclusion To the extent that individual levels of health education and awareness can be influenced by advertising, variations in the quantity and content of health-related information among magazines read by different ethnic groups may contribute to racial disparities in health behaviors and health status. PMID:16109157

  10. Health disparities and advertising content of women's magazines: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Duerksen, Susan C; Mikail, Amy; Tom, Laura; Patton, Annie; Lopez, Janina; Amador, Xavier; Vargas, Reynaldo; Victorio, Maria; Kustin, Brenda; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2005-08-18

    Disparities in health status among ethnic groups favor the Caucasian population in the United States on almost all major indicators. Disparities in exposure to health-related mass media messages may be among the environmental factors contributing to the racial and ethnic imbalance in health outcomes. This study evaluated whether variations exist in health-related advertisements and health promotion cues among lay magazines catering to Hispanic, African American and Caucasian women. Relative and absolute assessments of all health-related advertising in 12 women's magazines over a three-month period were compared. The four highest circulating, general interest magazines oriented to Black women and to Hispanic women were compared to the four highest-circulating magazines aimed at a mainstream, predominantly White readership. Data were collected and analyzed in 2002 and 2003. Compared to readers of mainstream magazines, readers of African American and Hispanic magazines were exposed to proportionally fewer health-promoting advertisements and more health-diminishing advertisements. Photographs of African American role models were more often used to advertise products with negative health impact than positive health impact, while the reverse was true of Caucasian role models in the mainstream magazines. To the extent that individual levels of health education and awareness can be influenced by advertising, variations in the quantity and content of health-related information among magazines read by different ethnic groups may contribute to racial disparities in health behaviors and health status.

  11. Addressing Health Disparities through Multi-institutional, Multidisciplinary Collaboratories

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Erik S.; Perkins, James; Easa, David; Conde, José G.; Baker, Richard S.; Southerland, William M.; Dottin, Robert; Benabe, Julio E.; Ofili, Elizabeth O.; Bond, Vincent C.; McClure, Shelia A.; Sayre, Michael H.; Beanan, Maureen J.; Norris, Keith C.

    2009-01-01

    The national research leadership has recently become aware of the tremendous potential of translational research as an approach to address health disparities. The Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI) Translational Research Network (RTRN) is a research network that supports multi-institutional, multidisciplinary collaboration with a focus on key diseases and conditions for which disproportionately adverse racial and ethnic health disparities exist. The RTRN is designed to facilitate the movement of scientific advances across the translational research spectrum by providing researchers at different institutions with the infrastructure and tools necessary to collaborate on interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research projects relating to specific health outcomes for which major racial/ethnic disparities exist. In the past, the difficulty of overcoming the restrictions imposed by time and space have made it difficult to carry out this type of large-scale, multilevel collaboration efficiently. To address this formidable challenge, the RTRN will deploy a translational research cluster system that uses “cyber workspaces” to bring researchers with similar interests together by using online collaboratory technology. These virtual meeting environments will provide a number of tools, including videoconferences (seminars, works in progress, meetings); project management tools (WebCT, Microsoft Share Point); and posting areas for projects, concepts, and other research and educational activities. This technology will help enhance access to resources across institutions with a common mission, minimize many of the logistical hurdles that impede intellectual exchange, streamline the planning and implementation of innovative interdisciplinary research, and assess the use of protocols and practices to assist researchers in interacting across and within cyber workspaces. PMID:18646341

  12. Addressing health disparities through multi-institutional, multidisciplinary collaboratories.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Erik S; Perkins, James; Easa, David; Conde, José G; Baker, Richard S; Southerland, William M; Dottin, Robert; Benabe, Julio E; Ofili, Elizabeth O; Bond, Vincent C; McClure, Shelia A; Sayre, Michael H; Beanan, Maureen J; Norris, Keith C

    2008-01-01

    The national research leadership has recently become aware of the tremendous potential of translational research as an approach to address health disparities. The Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI) Translational Research Network (RTRN) is a research network that supports multi-institutional, multidisciplinary collaboration with a focus on key diseases and conditions for which disproportionately adverse racial and ethnic health disparities exist. The RTRN is designed to facilitate the movement of scientific advances across the translational research spectrum by providing researchers at different institutions with the infrastructure and tools necessary to collaborate on interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research projects relating to specific health outcomes for which major racial/ethnic disparities exist. In the past, the difficulty of overcoming the restrictions imposed by time and space have made it difficult to carry out this type of large-scale, multilevel collaboration efficiently. To address this formidable challenge, the RTRN will deploy a translational research cluster system that uses "cyber workspaces" to bring researchers with similar interests together by using online collaboratory technology. These virtual meeting environments will provide a number of tools, including videoconferences (seminars, works in progress, meetings); project management tools (WebCT, Microsoft Share Point); and posting areas for projects, concepts, and other research and educational activities. This technology will help enhance access to resources across institutions with a common mission, minimize many of the logistical hurdles that impede intellectual exchange, streamline the planning and implementation of innovative interdisciplinary research, and assess the use of protocols and practices to assist researchers in interacting across and within cyber workspaces.

  13. Geographical, temporal and racial disparities in late-stage prostate cancer incidence across Florida: A multiscale joinpoint regression analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although prostate cancer-related incidence and mortality have declined recently, striking racial/ethnic differences persist in the United States. Visualizing and modelling temporal trends of prostate cancer late-stage incidence, and how they vary according to geographic locations and race, should help explaining such disparities. Joinpoint regression is increasingly used to identify the timing and extent of changes in time series of health outcomes. Yet, most analyses of temporal trends are aspatial and conducted at the national level or for a single cancer registry. Methods Time series (1981-2007) of annual proportions of prostate cancer late-stage cases were analyzed for non-Hispanic Whites and non-Hispanic Blacks in each county of Florida. Noise in the data was first filtered by binomial kriging and results were modelled using joinpoint regression. A similar analysis was also conducted at the state level and for groups of metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties. Significant racial differences were detected using tests of parallelism and coincidence of time trends. A new disparity statistic was introduced to measure spatial and temporal changes in the frequency of racial disparities. Results State-level percentage of late-stage diagnosis decreased 50% since 1981; a decline that accelerated in the 90's when Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) screening was introduced. Analysis at the metropolitan and non-metropolitan levels revealed that the frequency of late-stage diagnosis increased recently in urban areas, and this trend was significant for white males. The annual rate of decrease in late-stage diagnosis and the onset years for significant declines varied greatly among counties and racial groups. Most counties with non-significant average annual percent change (AAPC) were located in the Florida Panhandle for white males, whereas they clustered in South-eastern Florida for black males. The new disparity statistic indicated that the spatial extent of

  14. Geographical, temporal and racial disparities in late-stage prostate cancer incidence across Florida: a multiscale joinpoint regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Goovaerts, Pierre; Xiao, Hong

    2011-12-05

    Although prostate cancer-related incidence and mortality have declined recently, striking racial/ethnic differences persist in the United States. Visualizing and modelling temporal trends of prostate cancer late-stage incidence, and how they vary according to geographic locations and race, should help explaining such disparities. Joinpoint regression is increasingly used to identify the timing and extent of changes in time series of health outcomes. Yet, most analyses of temporal trends are aspatial and conducted at the national level or for a single cancer registry. Time series (1981-2007) of annual proportions of prostate cancer late-stage cases were analyzed for non-Hispanic Whites and non-Hispanic Blacks in each county of Florida. Noise in the data was first filtered by binomial kriging and results were modelled using joinpoint regression. A similar analysis was also conducted at the state level and for groups of metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties. Significant racial differences were detected using tests of parallelism and coincidence of time trends. A new disparity statistic was introduced to measure spatial and temporal changes in the frequency of racial disparities. State-level percentage of late-stage diagnosis decreased 50% since 1981; a decline that accelerated in the 90's when Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) screening was introduced. Analysis at the metropolitan and non-metropolitan levels revealed that the frequency of late-stage diagnosis increased recently in urban areas, and this trend was significant for white males. The annual rate of decrease in late-stage diagnosis and the onset years for significant declines varied greatly among counties and racial groups. Most counties with non-significant average annual percent change (AAPC) were located in the Florida Panhandle for white males, whereas they clustered in South-eastern Florida for black males. The new disparity statistic indicated that the spatial extent of racial disparities reached a

  15. Decomposing Racial Disparities in Obesity Prevalence: Variations in Retail Food Environment.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Chelsea R; Affuso, Olivia; Sen, Bisakha

    2016-03-01

    Racial disparities in obesity exist at the individual and community levels. Retail food environment has been hypothesized to be associated with racial disparities in obesity prevalence. This study aimed to quantify how much food environment measures explain racial disparities in obesity at the county level. Data from 2009 to 2010 on 3,135 U.S. counties were extracted from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Environment Atlas and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and analyzed in 2013. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition was used to quantify the portion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high and low proportion of African-American residents is explained by food environment measures (e.g., proximity to grocery stores, per capita fast-food restaurants). Counties were considered to have a high African-American population if the percentage of African-American residents was >13.1%, which represents the 2010 U.S. Census national estimate of percentage African-American citizens. There were 665 counties (21%) classified as a high African-American county. The total gap in mean adult obesity prevalence between high and low African-American counties was found to be 3.35 percentage points (32.98% vs 29.63%). Retail food environment measures explained 13.81% of the gap in mean age-adjusted adult obesity prevalence. Retail food environment explains a proportion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high proportion of African-American residents and counties with a low proportion of African-American residents. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Shedding Light on the Mechanisms Underlying Health Disparities Through Community Participatory Methods: The Stress Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Schafer, Peter; Lanzi, Robin Gaines; Clark-Kauffman, Elizabeth; Raju, Tonse N. K.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.

    2015-01-01

    Health disparities are large and persistent gaps in the rates of disease and death between racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status subgroups in the population. Stress is a major pathway hypothesized to explain such disparities. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development formed a community/research collaborative—the Community Child Health Network—to investigate disparities in maternal and child health in five high-risk communities. Using community participation methods, we enrolled a large cohort of African American/Black, Latino/Hispanic, and non-Hispanic/White mothers and fathers of newborns at the time of birth and followed them over 2 years. A majority had household incomes near or below the federal poverty level. Home interviews yielded detailed information regarding multiple types of stress such as major life events and many forms of chronic stress including racism. Several forms of stress varied markedly by racial/ethnic group and income, with decreasing stress as income increased among Caucasians but not among African Americans; other forms of stress varied by race/ethnicity or poverty alone. We conclude that greater sophistication in studying the many forms of stress and community partnership is necessary to uncover the mechanisms underlying health disparities in poor and ethnic-minority families and to implement community health interventions. PMID:26173227

  17. The Clinical Examination and Socially At-Risk Populations: The Examination Matters for Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Karly A; Ellison-Barnes, Alejandra; Johnson, Erica N; Cooper, Lisa A

    2018-05-01

    Data from the United States show that persons from low socioeconomic backgrounds, those who are socially isolated, belong to racial or ethnic minority groups, or identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender experience health disparities at a higher rate. Clinicians must transition from a biomedical to a biopsychosocial framework within the clinical examination to better address social determinants of health that contribute to health disparities. We review the characteristics of successful patient-clinician interactions. We describe strategies for relationship-centered care within routine encounters. Our goal is to train clinicians to mitigate differences and reduce disparities in health care delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Racial and Gender Disparities in Patients with Gout

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jasvinder A.

    2012-01-01

    Gout affects 8.3 million Americans according to NHANES 2007–2008, roughly 3.9% of the U.S. population. Gout has significant impact on physical function, productivity, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and health care costs. Uncontrolled gout is also associated with significant utilization of emergent care services. Women are less likely to have gout than men, but in the postmenopausal years the gender difference in disease incidence decreases. Compared to Whites, racial/ethnic minorities, especially blacks, have higher prevalence of gout. On the other hand, blacks are less likely to receive quality gout care, leading to a disproportionate morbidity. Women are less likely than men to receive allopurinol, less likely to get joint aspirations for crystal analyses for establishing diagnosis, but those on urate-lowering therapy are as/more likely as men to get serum urate check within 6-months of initiation. While a few studies provide the knowledge related to gender and race/ethnicity disparities in gout, several knowledge gaps exist in gout epidemiology and outcomes differences by gender and race/ethnicity. These should be explored in future studies. PMID:23315156

  19. We are Not Hard-to-Reach: Community Competent Research to Address Racial Tobacco-Related Disparities

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Webb Hooper is Associate Director for Cancer Disparities Research and Director of the Office of Cancer Disparities Research in the Case Comprehensive Cancer Center at Case Western Reserve University. She is also Professor of Oncology, Family Medicine & Community Health and Psychological Sciences. Dr. Webb Hooper is a licensed clinical health psychologist whose research interests are in chronic illness prevention and cancer risk behaviors, with an emphasis on minority health and racial/ethnic disparities. Much of her research focuses on tobacco use and weight management interventions, the development of culturally specific approaches, and understanding relationships between behavior change and race/ethnicity, cultural variables, modifiable risk factors, and the biological stress response. Dr. Webb Hooper has received international recognition for her contributions to nicotine and tobacco research, and is a leader in the field of cancer health disparities. Her research goal is to make a significant public health impact by reducing the prevalence of cancer and cancer health disparities in high-risk populations. Her long-term goal is to help eliminate disparities in chronic diseases. Dr. Webb Hooper’s research has been funded with over $9 million dollars by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), American Cancer Society (ACS), CVS Health Foundation, and the Florida Department of Health James and Esther King Biomedical Research Program.  In addition, Dr. Webb Hooper serves on committees for the NIH, several peer-reviewed journal editorial boards, is an Associate Editor of the Ethnicity & Disease Journal, and is Co-Chair of the Health Disparities Network of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. WebEx When it's time, join the meeting. Meeting number (access code):  857 862 211 Meeting password:  Colloqu1@ Join by phone 1-650-479-3207 Call-in toll number (US/Canada) Can't join the meeting? IMPORTANT NOTICE:  Please note that this WebEx service allows

  20. Trends in Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Infant Mortality Rates in the United States, 1989–2006

    PubMed Central

    Rossen, Lauren M.; Schoendorf, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to measure overall disparities in pregnancy outcome, incorporating data from the many race and ethnic groups that compose the US population, to improve understanding of how disparities may have changed over time. Methods. We used Birth Cohort Linked Birth–Infant Death Data Files from US Vital Statistics from 1989–1990 and 2005–2006 to examine multigroup indices of racial and ethnic disparities in the overall infant mortality rate (IMR), preterm birth rate, and gestational age–specific IMRs. We calculated selected absolute and relative multigroup disparity metrics weighting subgroups equally and by population size. Results. Overall IMR decreased on the absolute scale, but increased on the population-weighted relative scale. Disparities in the preterm birth rate decreased on both the absolute and relative scales, and across equally weighted and population-weighted indices. Disparities in preterm IMR increased on both the absolute and relative scales. Conclusions. Infant mortality is a common bellwether of general and maternal and child health. Despite significant decreases in disparities in the preterm birth rate, relative disparities in overall and preterm IMRs increased significantly over the past 20 years. PMID:24028239

  1. The effects of telemedicine on racial and ethnic disparities in access to acute stroke care.

    PubMed

    Lyerly, Michael J; Wu, Tzu-Ching; Mullen, Michael T; Albright, Karen C; Wolff, Catherine; Boehme, Amelia K; Branas, Charles C; Grotta, James C; Savitz, Sean I; Carr, Brendan G

    2016-03-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities have been previously reported in acute stroke care. We sought to determine the effect of telemedicine (TM) on access to acute stroke care for racial and ethnic minorities in the state of Texas. Data were collected from the US Census Bureau, The Joint Commission and the American Hospital Association. Access for racial and ethnic minorities was determined by summing the population that could reach a primary stroke centre (PSC) or telemedicine spoke within specified time intervals using validated models. TM extended access to stroke expertise by 1.5 million residents. The odds of providing 60-minute access via TM were similar in Blacks and Whites (prevalence odds ratios (POR) 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.000), even after adjustment for urbanization (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.001). The odds of providing access via TM were also similar for Hispanics and non-Hispanics (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.000), even after adjustment for urbanization (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.000). We found that telemedicine increased access to acute stroke care for 1.5 million Texans. While racial and ethnic disparities exist in other components of stroke care, we did not find evidence of disparities in access to the acute stroke expertise afforded by telemedicine. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Cross-Sectional Analysis on Racial and Economic Disparities Affecting Mortality in Preterm Infants with Posthemorrhagic Hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Jin, Diana L; Christian, Eisha A; Attenello, Frank; Melamed, Edward; Cen, Steven; Krieger, Mark D; McComb, J Gordon; Mack, William J

    2016-04-01

    Despite major advances in medicine, racial and socioeconomic disparities continue to affect health care outcomes. Higher overall infant mortality has been reported for black neonates compared with their Hispanic and white counterparts. The underlying basis for these differences remains unclear. A potential influencing factor is the management of premature neurologic complications in this disadvantaged group. This study examines racial and socioeconomic disparities on mortality in preterm infants with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH). Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and Kids Inpatient Database were combined from 2000 to 2010. Discharges with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes for preterm births with intraventricular hemorrhage and PHH were included. Relative risk (RR) ratios for mortality, complications, length of stay, and hospital costs were obtained with multivariate analysis after controlling for patient-level, hospital-level, and admission-level factors. When controlling for patient and hospital factors, black neonates had increased mortality compared with whites and Hispanics (RR = 1.47; P < 0.01). This association existed despite lower rates of congenital cardiac defects (RR = 0.84; P < 0.01), gastrointestinal complications (RR = 0.84; P < 0.01), and general complications of prematurity (RR = 0.95; P = 0.04) in the black cohort. Preterm infants insured by Medicaid had increased mortality compared with those with private insurance (RR = 1.2; P = 0.04) after adjusting for patient and hospital factors. Among preterm infants with intraventricular hemorrhage and resultant PHH, black infants and those insured by Medicaid have significantly increased mortality but these 2 effects are independent. Further studies are needed to fully understand the factors affecting these racial and socioeconomic disparities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Has Medicare Part D Reduced Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Prescription Drug Use and Spending?

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Elham; Jensen, Gail A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether Medicare Part D has reduced racial/ethnic disparities in prescription drug utilization and spending. Data Nationally representative data on white, African American, and Hispanic Medicare seniors from the 2002–2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey are analyzed. Five measures are examined: filling any prescriptions during the year, the number of prescriptions filled, total annual prescription spending, annual out-of-pocket prescription spending, and average copay level. Study Design We apply the Institute of Medicine's definition of a racial/ethnic disparity and adopt a difference-in-difference-in-differences (DDD) estimator using a multivariate regression framework. The treatment group consists of Medicare seniors, the comparison group, adults without Medicare aged 55–63 years. Principal Findings Difference-in-difference-in-differences estimates suggest that for African Americans Part D increased the disparity in annual spending on prescription drugs by $258 (p = .011), yet had no effect on other measures of prescription drug disparities. For Hispanics, DDD estimates suggest that the program reduced the disparities in annual number of prescriptions filled, annual total and out-of-pocket spending on prescription drugs by 2.9 (p = .077), $282 (p = .019) and $143 (p < .001), respectively. Conclusion Medicare Part D had mixed effects. Although it reduced Hispanic/white disparities related to prescription drugs among seniors, it increased the African American/white disparity in total annual spending on prescription drugs. PMID:24102408

  4. Racial and ethnic disparities in parent-reported diagnosis of ADHD: National Survey of Children's Health (2003, 2007, and 2011).

    PubMed

    Collins, Kevin P; Cleary, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed mental disorder among children in the United States. While overall ADHD prevalence continues to rise, few have examined difference by race/ethnicity. To examine trends in parent-reported ADHD prevalence between 2003 and 2011 across racial/ethnic groups and the role of sociodemographic factors in observed differences in ADHD. Data were from 3 waves of the National Survey of Children's Health (2003, 2007, and 2011), including 190,408 children aged 5-17 years. Independent variables included race/ethnicity (white non-Hispanic, black non-Hispanic, Hispanic, other non-Hispanic), gender, age, poverty level, primary language, insurance status, parental marital status, and neighborhood safety. Sociodemographic factors and year were compared among those diagnosed with ADHD and between racial/ethnic groups using χ(2) tests. Adjusted logistic regression models, stratified by race/ethnicity, were fit to examine the association between identified risk factors and ADHD across racial/ethnic groups. Parental report of an ADD or ADHD diagnosis for a child aged 5-17 years was the dependent variable. If the household included more than 1 child aged 5-17 years, 1 was selected at random. Increasing trends were observed over the past decade in the prevalence of parent-reported ADHD overall (43%, P < .001), among children aged 10-14 years (47%, P < .001), and adolescents aged 15-17 years (52%, P < .001). Although the ADHD prevalence was still highest among whites, increasing trends were observed for all racial/ethnic groups, most notably among Hispanics, increasing 83% from 2003 to 2011 (P < .001). A greater increase in ADHD was also observed among females (55%, P < .001) than among males (40%). Economics, family status, non-English language in the home, and neighborhood safety factors differentially impacted diagnosed ADHD across racial/ethnic groups. Although new insights into the role of economic, family

  5. A Systematic Review of Interventions to Improve Initiation of Mental Health Care Among Racial-Ethnic Minority Groups.

    PubMed

    Lee-Tauler, Su Yeon; Eun, John; Corbett, Dawn; Collins, Pamela Y

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to identify interventions to improve the initiation of mental health care among racial-ethnic minority groups. The authors searched three electronic databases in February 2016 and independently assessed eligibility of 2,065 titles and abstracts on the basis of three criteria: the study design included an intervention, the participants were members of racial-ethnic minority groups and lived in the United States, and the outcome measures included initial access to or attitudes toward mental health care. The qualitative synthesis involved 29 studies. Interventions identified included collaborative care (N=10), psychoeducation (N=7), case management (N=5), colocation of mental health services within existing services (N=4), screening and referral (N=2), and a change in Medicare medication reimbursement policy that served as a natural experiment (N=1). Reduction of disparities in the initiation of antidepressants or psychotherapy was noted in seven interventions (four involving collaborative care, two involving colocation of mental health services, and one involving screening and referral). Five of these disparities-reducing interventions were tested among older adults only. Most (N=23) interventions incorporated adaptations designed to address social or cultural barriers to care. Interventions that used a model of integrated care reduced racial-ethnic disparities in the initiation of mental health care.

  6. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Services and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Abdus, Salam; Mistry, Kamila B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined prereform patterns in insurance coverage, access to care, and preventive services use by race/ethnicity in adults targeted by the coverage expansions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Methods. We used pre-ACA household data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to identify groups targeted by the coverage provisions of the Act (Medicaid expansions and subsidized Marketplace coverage). We examined racial/ethnic differences in coverage, access to care, and preventive service use, across and within ACA relevant subgroups from 2005 to 2010. The study took place at the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality in Rockville, Maryland. Results. Minorities were disproportionately represented among those targeted by the coverage provisions of the ACA. Targeted groups had lower rates of coverage, access to care, and preventive services use, and racial/ethnic disparities were, in some cases, widest within these targeted groups. Conclusions. Our findings highlighted the opportunity of the ACA to not only to improve coverage, access, and use for all racial/ethnic groups, but also to narrow racial/ethnic disparities in these outcomes. Our results might have particular importance for states that are deciding whether to implement the ACA Medicaid expansions. PMID:26447920

  7. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Services and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Abdus, Salam; Mistry, Kamila B; Selden, Thomas M

    2015-11-01

    We examined prereform patterns in insurance coverage, access to care, and preventive services use by race/ethnicity in adults targeted by the coverage expansions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). We used pre-ACA household data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to identify groups targeted by the coverage provisions of the Act (Medicaid expansions and subsidized Marketplace coverage). We examined racial/ethnic differences in coverage, access to care, and preventive service use, across and within ACA relevant subgroups from 2005 to 2010. The study took place at the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality in Rockville, Maryland. Minorities were disproportionately represented among those targeted by the coverage provisions of the ACA. Targeted groups had lower rates of coverage, access to care, and preventive services use, and racial/ethnic disparities were, in some cases, widest within these targeted groups. Our findings highlighted the opportunity of the ACA to not only to improve coverage, access, and use for all racial/ethnic groups, but also to narrow racial/ethnic disparities in these outcomes. Our results might have particular importance for states that are deciding whether to implement the ACA Medicaid expansions.

  8. Translating Disparities Research to Policy: A Qualitative Study of State Mental Health Policymakers' Perceptions of Mental Health Care Disparities Report Cards

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, Anne; DeAngelo, Darcie; Alegría, Margarita; Cook, Benjamin L.

    2014-01-01

    Report cards have been used to increase accountability and quality of care in health care settings, and to improve state infrastructure for providing quality mental health care services. However, to date, report cards have not been used to compare states on racial/ethnic disparities in mental health care. This qualitative study examines reactions of mental health care policymakers to a proposed mental health care disparities report card generated from population-based survey data of mental health and mental health care utilization. We elicited feedback about the content, format, and salience of the report card. Interviews were conducted with nine senior advisors to state policymakers and one policy director of a national non-governmental organization from across the U.S. Four primary themes emerged: fairness in state-by-state comparisons; disconnect between the goals and language of policymakers and researchers; concerns about data quality and; targeted suggestions from policymakers. Participant responses provide important information that can contribute to making evidence-based research more accessible to policymakers. Further, policymakers suggested ways to improve the structure and presentation of report cards to make them more accessible to policymakers and to foster equity considerations during the implementation of new health care legislation. To reduce mental health care disparities, effort is required to facilitate understanding between researchers and relevant stakeholders about research methods, standards for interpretation of research-based evidence and its use in evaluating policies aimed at ameliorating disparities. PMID:25383993

  9. Addressing health and health-care disparities: the role of a diverse workforce and the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Chazeman S; Gracia, J Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Despite major advances in medicine and public health during the past few decades, disparities in health and health care persist. Racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States are at disproportionate risk of being uninsured, lacking access to care, and experiencing worse health outcomes from preventable and treatable conditions. As reducing these disparities has become a national priority, insight into the social determinants of health has become increasingly important. This article offers a rationale for increasing the diversity and cultural competency of the health and health-care workforce, and describes key strategies led by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Office of Minority Health to promote cultural competency in the health-care system and strengthen community-level approaches to improving health and health care for all.

  10. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Grounded Theory Research

    PubMed Central

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Al-Khattab, Halima; Hines, Dana D.; Mazurczyk, Jill; Russell, Anne C.; Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Draucker, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    National initiatives in the United States call for health research that addresses racial/ethnic disparities. Although grounded theory (GT) research has the potential to contribute much to the understanding of the health experiences of people of color, the extent to which it has contributed to health disparities research is unclear. In this article we describe a project in which we reviewed 44 GT studies published in Qualitative Health Research within the last five years. Using a framework proposed by Green, Creswell, Shope, and Clark (2007), we categorized the studies at one of four levels based on the status and significance afforded racial/ethnic diversity. Our results indicate that racial/ethnic diversity played a primary role in five studies, a complementary role in one study, a peripheral role in five studies, and an absent role in 33 studies. We suggest that GT research could contribute more to health disparities research if techniques were developed to better analyze the influence of race/ethnicity on health-related phenomena. PMID:26401523

  11. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Grounded Theory Research.

    PubMed

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Al-Khattab, Halima; Hines, Dana D; Mazurczyk, Jill; Russell, Anne C; Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Draucker, Shannon

    2014-04-28

    National initiatives in the United States call for health research that addresses racial/ethnic disparities. Although grounded theory (GT) research has the potential to contribute much to the understanding of the health experiences of people of color, the extent to which it has contributed to health disparities research is unclear. In this article we describe a project in which we reviewed 44 GT studies published in Qualitative Health Research within the last five years. Using a framework proposed by Green, Creswell, Shope, and Clark (2007), we categorized the studies at one of four levels based on the status and significance afforded racial/ethnic diversity. Our results indicate that racial/ethnic diversity played a primary role in five studies, a complementary role in one study, a peripheral role in five studies, and an absent role in 33 studies. We suggest that GT research could contribute more to health disparities research if techniques were developed to better analyze the influence of race/ethnicity on health-related phenomena.

  12. Cumulative Effects of Growing Up in Separate and Unequal Neighborhoods on Racial Disparities in Self-rated Health in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kravitz-Wirtz, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Evidence suggests that living in a socioeconomically deprived neighborhood is associated with worse health. Yet most research relies on cross-sectional data, which implicitly ignore variation in longer-term exposure that may be more consequential for health. Using data from the 1970 to 2011 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics merged with census data on respondents’ neighborhoods (N = 1,757), this study estimates a marginal structural model with inverse probability of treatment and censoring weights to examine: (1) whether cumulative exposure to neighborhood disadvantage from birth through age 17 affects self-rated health in early adulthood, and (2) the extent to which variation in such exposure helps to explain racial disparities therein. Findings reveal that prolonged exposure to neighborhood disadvantage throughout childhood and adolescence is strikingly more common among nonwhite versus white respondents and is associated with significantly greater odds of experiencing an incidence of fair or poor health in early adulthood. PMID:27799591

  13. Long term trends and racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence of obesity.

    PubMed

    Wong, Robert J; Chou, Christina; Ahmed, Aijaz

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an epidemic associated with higher rates of hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. However, significant racial disparities in the prevalence of obesity have been reported. To evaluate racial disparities and trends in the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases. A population-based retrospective cohort study utilized data from the 1985 to 2011 California Behavioral Risk Factor Survey. Trends in obesity prevalence were stratified by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic factors. Multivariate logistic regression models evaluated independent predictors of obesity. The prevalence of obesity in significantly increased from 1985 to 2011 (8.6 vs. 22.8%, p < 0.001). This increase was seen among men and women, and among all race/ethnic, age, and socioeconomic groups. Hypertension and diabetes also increased during this time period (hypertension 20.7-35.9%; diabetes 4.2-11.2%). Obesity prevalence was highest in blacks and Hispanics, and lowest in Asians (blacks 33.3%; Hispanics 28.8%; Asians 9.0%; p < 0.001). Obesity prevalence was associated with lower education level, lower income, and unemployment status. After adjustments for age, sex, co morbidities, and surrogates of socioeconomic status, the increased risk of obesity in blacks and Hispanics persisted (blacks OR 1.51; Hispanics OR 1.18), whereas Asians were less likely to be obese (OR 0.37). While the overall prevalence of obesity increased from 1985 to 2011, significant racial/ethnic disparities in obesity have developed, with the highest prevalence seen in blacks and Hispanics, and the lowest seen in Asians.

  14. Social Determinants of Racial Disparities in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Jenna M.; Moxey-Mims, Marva M.; Eggers, Paul W.; Narva, Andrew S.; Star, Robert A.; Rodgers, Griffin P.

    2016-01-01

    Significant disparities in CKD rates and outcomes exist between black and white Americans. Health disparities are defined as health differences that adversely affect disadvantaged populations, on the basis of one or more health outcomes. CKD is the complex result of genetic and environmental factors, reflecting the balance of nature and nurture. Social determinants of health have an important role as environmental components, especially for black populations, who are disproportionately disadvantaged. Understanding the social determinants of health and appreciating the underlying differences associated with meaningful clinical outcomes may help nephrologists treat all their patients with CKD in an optimal manner. Altering the social determinants of health, although difficult, may embody important policy and research efforts, with the ultimate goal of improving outcomes for patients with kidney diseases, and minimizing the disparities between groups. PMID:27178804

  15. Miles to Go Before We Sleep: Racial Inequities in Health

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Large, pervasive and persistent racial inequalities exist in the onset, course and outcomes of illness. A comprehensive understanding of the patterning of racial disparities indicates that racism in both its institutional and individual forms remains an important determinant. Despite our extensive knowledge of the magnitude, trends and determinants of these social inequalities in health, there is still much that we need to learn about the forces that drive them. There is also an even greater opportunity to build the science base that would identify how to trigger the conditions that would facilitate needed societal change, and identify the optimal interventions that would confront and dismantle the societal conditions that create and sustain health inequalities. PMID:22940811

  16. Relationship Between General Illness and Mental Health Service Use and Expenditures Among Racially-Ethnically Diverse Adults ≥65 Years.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Daniel E; Cook, Benjamin Lê; Kim, Giyeon; Reynolds, Charles F; Alegría, Margarita; Coe-Odess, Sarah; Bartels, Stephen J

    2015-07-01

    The association of general medical illness and mental health service use among older adults from racial-ethnic minority groups is an important area of study given the disparities in mental health and general medical services and the low use of mental health services in this population. The purpose of this report is to describe the impact of comorbid general medical illness on mental health service use and expenditures among older adults and to evaluate disparities in mental health service use and expenditures in a racially-ethnically diverse sample of older adults with and without comorbid general medical illness. Data were obtained from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (years 2004-2011). The sample included 1,563 whites, 519 African Americans, and 642 Latinos (N=2,724) age ≥65 with probable mental illness. Two-part generalized linear models were used to estimate and compare mental health service use among adults with and without a comorbid general medical illness. Mental health service use was more likely for older adults with comorbid general medical illness than for those without it. Once mental health services were accessed, no differences in mental health expenditures were found. Comorbid general medical illness increased the likelihood of mental health service use by older whites and Latinos. However, the presence of comorbidity did not affect racial-ethnic disparities in mental health service use. This study highlighted the important role of comorbid general medical illness as a potential contributor to using mental health services and suggests intervention strategies to enhance engagement in mental health services by older adults from racial-ethnic minority groups.

  17. Racial/Ethnic, socioeconomic, and geographic disparities of cervical cancer advanced-stage diagnosis in Texas.

    PubMed

    Zhan, F Benjamin; Lin, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Advanced-stage diagnosis is among the primary causes of mortality among cervical cancer patients. With the wide use of Pap smear screening, cervical cancer advanced-stage diagnosis rates have decreased. However, disparities of advanced-stage diagnosis persist among different population groups. A challenging task in cervical cancer disparity reduction is to identify where underserved population groups are. Based on cervical cancer incidence data between 1995 and 2008, this study investigated advanced-stage cervical cancer disparities in Texas from three social domains: Race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and geographic location. Effects of individual and contextual factors, including age, tumor grade, race/ethnicity, as well as contextual SES, spatial access to health care, sociocultural factors, percentage of African Americans, and insurance expenditures, on these disparities were examined using multilevel logistic regressions. Significant variations by race/ethnicity and SES were found in cervical cancer advanced-stage diagnosis. We also found a decline in racial/ethnic disparities of advanced cervical cancer diagnosis rate from 1995 to 2008. However, the progress was slower among African Americans than Hispanics. Geographic disparities could be explained by age, race/ethnicity, SES, and the percentage of African Americans in a census tract. Our findings have important implications for developing effective cervical cancer screening and control programs. We identified the location of underserved populations who need the most assistance with cervical cancer screening. Cervical cancer intervention programs should target Hispanics and African Americans, as well as individuals from communities with lower SES in geographic areas where higher advanced-stage diagnosis rates were identified in this study. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Racial Disparities in the Prevalence of Arthritis among Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, Whites, and Asians.

    PubMed

    Obana, Kyle K; Davis, James

    2016-06-01

    The health disparities of Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) are well established for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but less is known about disparities in arthritis. This study examined possible disparities in the prevalence of arthritis by age, sex, and severity comparing NHPI, Whites, and Asians. The study population included adult Hawai'i participants in the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey. NHPI males had a significantly higher prevalence of arthritis, which peaked twenty years earlier, than White and Asian males (P<.001). The prevalence of arthritis peaked at 65-79 years in males and females in all racial groups, except in NHPI males where it peaked at 45-54 years. The mean ages (years) for males with arthritis were 46.2 for NHPI, 59.1 for Whites, and 60.5 for Asians; the respective ages for females were 54.2, 60.5, and 58.8. NHPI males body mass index averaged 2.4 kg/m(2) greater than White males (P<.001), and obese NHPI males had twice the age-adjusted odds of arthritis than obese White males. Although NHPI females had a greater body mass index than White females (P=.05), the prevalence of arthritis was only slightly and not significantly higher. NHPI males and females reported high pain scores more frequently than Whites did, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Diabetes was a comorbidity more than twice as often in NHPI and Asians of both sexes than among Whites. This study demonstrated racial disparities in the prevalence of arthritis among NHPI, Whites, and Asians.

  19. Racial and ethnic disparities in influenza vaccinations among community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junling; Munshi, Kiraat D; Hong, Song Hee

    2014-01-01

    Since 2009, pharmacists in all 50 states in the U.S. have been authorized to administer vaccinations. This study examined racial and ethnic disparities in the reported receipt of influenza vaccinations within the past year among noninstitutionalized community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents. The 2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey was analyzed. The sample consisted of respondents aged 50 years or older, as per the 2009 recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the influenza vaccination rates and disparities in receiving influenza vaccinations within past year between non-Hispanic Whites (Whites), non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks) and Hispanics. The influenza vaccination rates between community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents were also examined. Bivariate analyses found that among the community pharmacy patients, a greater proportion of Whites reported receiving influenza vaccinations compared to Blacks (60.9% vs. 49.1%; P < 0.0001) and Hispanics (60.9% vs. 51.7%; P < 0.0001). Among non-community pharmacy respondents, differences also were observed in reported influenza vaccination rates among Whites compared to Blacks (41.0% vs. 24.3%; P < 0.0001) and Hispanics (41.0% vs. 26.0%; P < 0.0001). Adjusted logistic regression analyses found significant racial disparities between Blacks and Whites in receiving influenza vaccinations within the past year among both community pharmacy patients (odds ratio [OR]: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.69-0.95) and non-community pharmacy respondents (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46-0.94). Sociodemographic characteristics and health status accounted for the disparities between Hispanics and Whites. Overall, community pharmacy patients reported higher influenza vaccination rates compared to non-community pharmacy respondents (59.0% vs. 37.2%; P < 0.0001). Although influenza vaccination rates were

  20. The Effect of Neighborhood Disadvantage on the Racial Disparity in Ovarian Cancer-Specific Survival in a Large Hospital-Based Study in Cook County, Illinois

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Caryn E.; Rauscher, Garth H.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Kirschner, Carolyn V.; Freels, Sally; Barrett, Richard E.; Kim, Seijeoung; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Joslin, Charlotte E.; Davis, Faith G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on racial disparities in ovarian cancer-specific survival. Despite treatment advances for ovarian cancer, survival remains shorter for African-American compared to White women. Neighborhood disadvantage is implicated in racial disparities across a variety of health outcomes and may contribute to racial disparities in ovarian cancer-specific survival. Data were obtained from 581 women (100 African-American and 481 White) diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer between June 1, 1994, and December 31, 1998 in Cook County, IL, USA, which includes the city of Chicago. Neighborhood disadvantage score at the time of diagnosis was calculated for each woman based on Browning and Cagney’s index of concentrated disadvantage. Cox proportional hazard models measured the association of self-identified African-American race with ovarian cancer-specific survival after adjusting for age, tumor characteristics, surgical debulking, and neighborhood disadvantage. There was a statistically significant negative association (−0.645) between ovarian cancer-specific survival and neighborhood disadvantage (p = 0.008). After adjusting for age and tumor characteristics, African-American women were more likely than Whites to die of ovarian cancer (HR = 1.59, p = 0.003). After accounting for neighborhood disadvantage, this risk was attenuated (HR = 1.32, p = 0.10). These findings demonstrate that neighborhood disadvantage is associated with ovarian cancer-specific survival and may contribute to the racial disparity in survival. PMID:25657992

  1. Racial disparities in paediatric kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Grace, Blair S; Kennedy, Sean E; Clayton, Philip A; McDonald, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Transplantation is the preferred treatment for children with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Pre-emptive transplants, those from live donors and with few human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatches provide the best outcomes. Studies into disparities in paediatric transplantation to date have not adequately disentangled different transplant types. We studied a retrospective cohort of 823 patients aged <18 years who started renal replacement therapy (RRT) in Australia 1990-2011, using the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry (ANZDATA). The primary outcomes were time to first kidney transplant and kidney donor type (deceased or living), analysed using competing risk regression. Caucasian patients were most likely to receive any transplant, due largely to disparities in live donor transplantation. No Indigenous patients received a pre-emptive transplant. Indigenous patients were least likely to receive a transplant from a live donor (sub-hazard ratio 0.41, 95 % confidence interval 0.20-0.82, compared to Caucasians). Caucasian recipients had fewer HLA mismatches, were less sensitised and were more likely to have kidney diseases that could be diagnosed early or progress slowly. Caucasian paediatric patients are more likely to receive optimum treatment--a transplant from a living donor and fewer HLA mismatches. Further work is required to identify and address barriers to live donor transplantation among minority racial groups.

  2. Shedding Light on the Mechanisms Underlying Health Disparities Through Community Participatory Methods: The Stress Pathway.

    PubMed

    Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Schafer, Peter; Lanzi, Robin Gaines; Clark-Kauffman, Elizabeth; Raju, Tonse N K; Hillemeier, Marianne M

    2013-11-01

    Health disparities are large and persistent gaps in the rates of disease and death between racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status subgroups in the population. Stress is a major pathway hypothesized to explain such disparities. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development formed a community/research collaborative-the Community Child Health Network-to investigate disparities in maternal and child health in five high-risk communities. Using community participation methods, we enrolled a large cohort of African American/Black, Latino/Hispanic, and non-Hispanic/White mothers and fathers of newborns at the time of birth and followed them over 2 years. A majority had household incomes near or below the federal poverty level. Home interviews yielded detailed information regarding multiple types of stress such as major life events and many forms of chronic stress including racism. Several forms of stress varied markedly by racial/ethnic group and income, with decreasing stress as income increased among Caucasians but not among African Americans; other forms of stress varied by race/ethnicity or poverty alone. We conclude that greater sophistication in studying the many forms of stress and community partnership is necessary to uncover the mechanisms underlying health disparities in poor and ethnic-minority families and to implement community health interventions. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Racial, Ethnic, and Socioeconomic Disparities in the Prevalence of Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Guibo; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Danielson, Beate; Smith, Lloyd H.; Gilbert, William M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Racial and ethnic disparities in cerebral palsy have been documented, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. We determined whether low birth weight accounts for ethnic disparities in the prevalence of cerebral palsy and whether socioeconomic factors impact cerebral palsy within racial and ethnic groups. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort of 6.2 million births in California between 1991 and 2001, we compared maternal and infant characteristics among 8397 infants with cerebral palsy who qualified for services from the California Department of Health Services and unaffected infants. RESULTS: Overall, black infants were 29% more likely to have cerebral palsy than white infants (relative risk: 1.29 [95% confidence interval: 1.19–1.39]). However, black infants who were very low or moderately low birth weight were 21% to 29% less likely to have cerebral palsy than white infants of comparable birth weight. After we adjusted for birth weight, there was no difference in the risk of cerebral palsy between black and white infants. In multivariate analyses, women of all ethnicities who did not receive any prenatal care were twice as likely to have infants with cerebral palsy relative to women with an early onset of prenatal care. Maternal education was associated with cerebral palsy in a dose-response fashion among white and Hispanic women. Hispanic adolescent mothers (aged <18 years) had increased risk of having a child with cerebral palsy. CONCLUSIONS: The increased risk of cerebral palsy among black infants is primarily related to their higher risk of low birth weight. Understanding how educational attainment and use of prenatal care impact the risk of cerebral palsy may inform new prevention strategies. PMID:21339278

  4. Stormy weather: race, gene expression, and the science of health disparities.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy

    2005-12-01

    In the current US political climate, conservative foundations are seeking to frame debates over determinants of racial/ethnic health disparities as a matter of "politically correct" unscientific ideology (concerning the health impacts of discrimination) vs scientific yet "politically incorrect" expertise rooted in biological facts (concerning genes). I draw on historical and contemporary examples to place conservative polemics in context, and also highlight fundamental flaws in their arguments involving the use of spurious categories (e.g., Caucasian), logical fallacies, temporal fallacies, and an erroneous emphasis on gene frequency over gene expression. The larger goal is to strengthen development of a more critical, reflexive, and rigorous science capable of generating evidence useful for rectifying--rather than perpetuating--social disparities in health.

  5. Assessing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Treatment across Episodes of Mental Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Benjamin Lê; Zuvekas, Samuel H; Carson, Nicholas; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Vesper, Andrew; McGuire, Thomas G

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate disparities in mental health care episodes, aligning our analyses with decisions to start or drop treatment, and choices made during treatment. Study DesignWe analyzed whites, blacks, and Latinos with probable mental illness from Panels 9–13 of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, assessing disparities at the beginning, middle, and end of episodes of care (initiation, adequate care, having an episode with only psychotropic drug fills, intensity of care, the mixture of primary care provider (PCP) and specialist visits, use of acute psychiatric care, and termination). FindingsCompared with whites, blacks and Latinos had less initiation and adequacy of care. Black and Latino episodes were shorter and had fewer psychotropic drug fills. Black episodes had a greater proportion of specialist visits and Latino episodes had a greater proportion of PCP visits. Blacks were more likely to have an episode with acute psychiatric care. ConclusionsDisparities in adequate care were driven by initiation disparities, reinforcing the need for policies that improve access. Many episodes were characterized only by psychotropic drug fills, suggesting inadequate medication guidance. Blacks’ higher rate of specialist use contradicts previous studies and deserves future investigation. Blacks’ greater acute mental health care use raises concerns over monitoring of their treatment. PMID:23855750

  6. Racial and Gender Disparities in the Physician Assistant Profession.

    PubMed

    Smith, Darron T; Jacobson, Cardell K

    2016-06-01

    To examine whether racial, gender, and ethnic salary disparities exist in the physician assistant (PA) profession and what factors, if any, are associated with the differentials. We use a nationally representative survey of 15,105 PAs from the American Academy of Physician Assistants (AAPA). We use bivariate and multivariate statistics to analyze pay differentials from the 2009 AAPA survey. Women represent nearly two-thirds of the profession but receive approximately $18,000 less in primary compensation. The differential reduces to just over $9,500 when the analysis includes a variety of other variables. According to AAPA survey, minority PAs tend to make slightly higher salaries than White PAs nationally, although the differences are not statistically significant once the control variables are included in the analysis. Despite the rough parity in primary salary, PAs of color are vastly underrepresented in the profession. The salaries of women lag in comparison to their male counterparts. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  7. Blacks' Death Rate Due to Circulatory Diseases Is Positively Related to Whites' Explicit Racial Bias.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Jordan B; Hehman, Eric; Ayduk, Ozlem; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo

    2016-10-01

    Perceptions of racial bias have been linked to poorer circulatory health among Blacks compared with Whites. However, little is known about whether Whites' actual racial bias contributes to this racial disparity in health. We compiled racial-bias data from 1,391,632 Whites and examined whether racial bias in a given county predicted Black-White disparities in circulatory-disease risk (access to health care, diagnosis of a circulatory disease; Study 1) and circulatory-disease-related death rate (Study 2) in the same county. Results revealed that in counties where Whites reported greater racial bias, Blacks (but not Whites) reported decreased access to health care (Study 1). Furthermore, in counties where Whites reported greater racial bias, both Blacks and Whites showed increased death rates due to circulatory diseases, but this relationship was stronger for Blacks than for Whites (Study 2). These results indicate that racial disparities in risk of circulatory disease and in circulatory-disease-related death rate are more pronounced in communities where Whites harbor more explicit racial bias.

  8. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Mode of Anesthesia for Cesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Butwick, Alexander J; Blumenfeld, Yair J; Brookfield, Kathleen F.; Nelson, Lorene M; Weiniger, Carolyn F

    2015-01-01

    Background Racial and ethnic disparities have been identified in the provision of neuraxial labor analgesia. These disparities may exist in other key aspects of obstetric anesthesia care. We sought to determine if racial/ethnic disparities exist in mode of anesthesia for cesarean delivery (CD). Methods Women who underwent CD between 1999 and 2002 at 19 different obstetric centers in the United States were identified from the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network Cesarean Registry. Race/ethnicity was categorized as: Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, Non-Hispanic Others (NHOs). Mode of anesthesia was classified as neuraxial anesthesia (spinal, epidural or combined spinal-epidural anesthesia) or general anesthesia. To account for obstetric and nonobstetric covariates that may have influenced mode of anesthesia, multiple logistic regression analyses were performed using sequential sets of covariates. Results The study cohort comprised 50,974 women who underwent CD. Rates of general anesthesia among racial/ethnic groups were: 5.2% for Caucasians, 11.3% for African Americans, 5.8% for Hispanics and 6.6% for NHOs. After adjustment for obstetric and nonobstetric covariates, African Americans had the highest odds of receiving general anesthesia compared to Caucasians (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.5 – 1.8; P<0.001). The odds of receiving general anesthesia were also higher among Hispanics (aOR = 1.1; 95% CI: 1.0 – 1.3; P=0.02) and NHOs (aOR = 1.2; 95% CI: 1.0 – 1.4; P=0.03) compared to Caucasians, respectively. In our sensitivity analysis, we reconstructed the models after excluding women who underwent neuraxial anesthesia prior to general anesthesia. The adjusted odds of receiving general anesthesia were similar to those in the main analysis: African-Americans (aOR=1.7; 95% CI=1.5 – 1.9; P<0.001; Hispanics (aOR=1.2; 95% CI=1.1 – 1.4; P=0.006); and NHOs (aOR=1.2; 95% CI=1.0 – 1.5; P=0.05). Conclusion Based on data from the Cesarean Registry

  9. Racial Disparity in Renal Transplantation: Alemtuzumab the Great Equalizer?

    PubMed

    Smith, Alison A; John, Mira M; Dortonne, Isabelle S; Paramesh, Anil S; Killackey, Mary; Jaffe, Bernard M; Buell, Joseph F

    2015-10-01

    Racial disparity as a barrier to successful outcomes in renal transplants for African Americans has been well described. Numerous unsuccessful attempts have been made to identify specific immunologic and socioeconomic factors. The objective of our study was to determine whether alemtuzumab (AL) induction abolishes this discrepancy and improves allograft survival in African American recipients. A retrospective chart review of consecutive adult renal transplants was conducted between 2006 and 2014. Kaplan-Meier analysis and hazard ratios were calculated for the African Americans (AA) and white groups. Multiple linear regressions were performed to assess independent variables (race, retransplant, sex, donor type, induction agent) on allograft survival. A significant difference in allograft survival was identified between whites (n = 272) and AA (n = 445), with AA experiencing more graft losses (18.2% vs 12.1%, P = 0.0351). Induction with AL improved outcomes in all transplant recipients. Multiple linear regression identified that the strongest predictor of allograft failure was induction without AL (P < 0.0001). The data for a subset analysis matched for follow-up length demonstrated that whites compared with AA (n = 157, 67 whites and 90 AA) had lower rates of allograft failure in the absence of AL induction (14.9% vs 44.4%, P = 0.0156, hazard ratio = 2.077). In contrast, AL induction (n = 275, 105 whites and 170 AA) eliminated the racial disparity in allograft failure (5.7% vs 9.4%, P = 0.8248, hazard ratio = 1.504). This is the first study to describe the effects of AL induction therapy on AA renal transplant recipients beyond the first posttransplant year. Our early results suggest that AL induction therapy abolishes the disparity in renal allograft failure.

  10. Educating clinicians about cultural competence and disparities in health and health care.

    PubMed

    Like, Robert C

    2011-01-01

    An extensive body of literature has documented significant racial and ethnic disparities in health and health care. Cultural competency interventions, including the training of physicians and other health care professionals, have been proposed as a key strategy for helping to reduce these disparities. The continuing medical education (CME) profession can play an important role in addressing this need by improving the quality and assessing the outcomes of multicultural education programs. This article provides an overview of health care policy, legislative, accreditation, and professional initiatives relating to these subjects. The status of CME offerings on cultural competence/disparities is reviewed, with examples provided of available curricular resources and online courses. Critiques of cultural competence training and selected studies of its effectiveness are discussed. The need for the CME profession to become more culturally competent in its development, implementation, and evaluation of education programs is examined. Future challenges and opportunities are described, and a call for leadership and action is issued. Copyright © 2010 The Alliance for Continuing Medical Education, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on CME, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  11. Neighbourhood economic deprivation explains racial/ethnic disparities in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in the U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Rossen, Lauren M

    2014-02-01

    Low-income and some racial and ethnic subpopulations are more likely to suffer from obesity. Inequities in the physical and social environment may contribute to disparities in paediatric obesity, but there is little empirical evidence to date. This study explored whether neighbourhood-level socioeconomic factors attenuate racial and ethnic disparities in obesity among youth in the U.S.A. and whether individual-level socioeconomic status (SES) interacts with neighbourhood deprivation. This analysis used data from 17,100 youth ages 2-18 years participating in the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey linked to census tract-level socioeconomic characteristics. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to examine neighbourhood deprivation in association with odds of obesity (age-specific and sex-specific body mass index percentile ≥95). The unadjusted prevalence of obesity was 15% among non-Hispanic white children and 21% among non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American children. Adjustment for individual-level SES neighbourhood deprivation and the interaction between these two factors resulted in a 74% attenuation of the disparity in obesity between non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white children and a 49% attenuation of the disparity between Mexican-American and non-Hispanic white children. There was a significant interaction between individual-level SES and neighbourhood deprivation where higher individual-level income was protective for children living in low-deprivation neighbourhoods, but not for children who lived in high-deprivation areas. Conversely, area deprivation was associated with higher odds of obesity, but only among children who were above the poverty threshold. Future research on disparities in obesity and other health outcomes should examine broader contextual factors and social determinants of inequities.

  12. The State of Research on Racial/Ethnic Discrimination in The Receipt of Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Pebbles; Jones, Dionne; Klein, William M. P.; Boyington, Josephine; Moten, Carmen; Rorie, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted a review to examine current literature on the effects of interpersonal and institutional racism and discrimination occurring within health care settings on the health care received by racial/ethnic minority patients. Methods. We searched the PsychNet, PubMed, and Scopus databases for articles on US populations published between January 1, 2008 and November 1, 2011. We used various combinations of the following search terms: discrimination, perceived discrimination, race, ethnicity, racism, institutional racism, stereotype, prejudice or bias, and health or health care. Fifty-eight articles were reviewed. Results. Patient perception of discriminatory treatment and implicit provider biases were the most frequently examined topics in health care settings. Few studies examined the overall prevalence of racial/ethnic discrimination and none examined temporal trends. In general, measures used were insufficient for examining the impact of interpersonal discrimination or institutional racism within health care settings on racial/ethnic disparities in health care. Conclusions. Better instrumentation, innovative methodology, and strategies are needed for identifying and tracking racial/ethnic discrimination in health care settings. PMID:22494002

  13. Racial disparities in stage-specific colorectal cancer mortality: 1960-2005.

    PubMed

    Soneji, Samir; Iyer, Shally Shalini; Armstrong, Katrina; Asch, David A

    2010-10-01

    We examined whether racial disparities in stage-specific colorectal cancer survival changed between 1960 and 2005. We used US Mortality Multiple-Cause-of-Death Data Files and intercensal estimates to calculate standardized mortality rates by gender and race from 1960 to 2005. We used Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data to estimate stage-specific colorectal cancer survival. To account for SEER sampling uncertainty, we used a bootstrap resampling procedure and fit a Cox proportional hazards model. Between 1960-2005, patterns of decline in mortality rate as a result of colorectal cancer differed greatly by gender and race: 54% reduction for White women, 14% reduction for Black women, 39% reduction for White men, and 28% increase for Black men. Blacks consistently experienced worse rates of stage-specific survival and life expectancy than did Whites for both genders, across all age groups, and for localized, regional, and distant stages of the disease. The rates of stage-specific colorectal cancer survival differed among Blacks when compared with Whites during the 4-decade study period. Differences in stage-specific life expectancy were the result of differences in access to care or quality of care. More attention should be given to racial disparities in colorectal cancer management.

  14. The role of public policies in reducing mental health status disparities for people of color.

    PubMed

    Alegría, Margarita; Pérez, Debra Joy; Williams, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Ethnic and racial disparities in mental health are driven by social factors such as housing, education, and income. Many of these social factors are different for minorities than they are for whites. Policies that address gaps in these social factors therefore can address mental health status disparities. We analyze three policies and their impact on minorities: the Individuals with Disability Education Act, Section 8 housing vouchers, and the Earned Income Tax Credit. Two of the three policies appear to have been effective in reducing social inequalities between whites and minorities. Expansion of public policies can be the mechanism to eliminate mental health status disparities for minorities.

  15. Race matters: a systematic review of racial/ethnic disparity in Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology reported outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wellons, Melissa F; Fujimoto, Victor Y; Baker, Valerie L; Barrington, Debbie S; Broomfield, Diana; Catherino, William H; Richard-Davis, Gloria; Ryan, Mary; Thornton, Kim; Armstrong, Alicia Y

    2012-08-01

    To systematically review the reporting of race/ethnicity in Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) Clinic Outcome Reporting System (CORS) publications. Systematic review using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) methodology of literature published in PubMed on race/ethnicity that includes data from SART CORS. Not applicable. Not applicable. In vitro fertilization cycles reported to SART. Any outcomes reported in SART CORS. Seven publications were identified that assessed racial/ethnic disparities in IVF outcomes using SART data. All reported a racial/ethnic disparity. However, more than 35% of cycles were excluded from analysis because of missing race/ethnicity data. Review of current publications of SART data suggests significant racial/ethnic disparities in IVF outcomes. However, the potential for selection bias limits confidence in these findings, given that fewer than 65% of SART reported cycles include race/ethnicity. Our understanding of how race/ethnicity influences ART outcome could be greatly improved if information on race/ethnicity was available for all reported cycles. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Racial disparities in patient survival and tumor mutation burden, and the association between tumor mutation burden and cancer incidence rate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wensheng; Edwards, Andrea; Flemington, Erik K; Zhang, Kun

    2017-10-20

    The causes underlying racial disparities in cancer are multifactorial. In addition to socioeconomic issues, biological factors may contribute to these inequities, especially in disease incidence and patient survival. To date, there have been few studies that relate the disparities in these aspects to genetic aberrations. In this work, we studied the impacts of race on the patient survival and tumor mutation burden using the data released by the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). The potential relationship between mutation burden and disease incidence is further inferred by an integrative analysis of TCGA data and the data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. The results show that disparities are present (p < 0.05) in patient survival of five cancers, such as head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The numbers of tumor driver mutations are differentiated (p < 0.05) over the racial groups in five cancers, such as lung adenocarcinoma. By treating a specific cancer type and a racial group as an "experimental unit", driver mutation numbers demonstrate a significant (r = 0.46, p < 0.002) positive correlation with cancer incidence rates, especially when the five cancers with mutational disparities are exclusively focused (r = 0.88, p < 0.00002). These results enrich our understanding of racial disparities in cancer and carcinogenic process.

  17. Racial disparities in hypertension awareness and management: Are there differences among African Americans and Whites living in similar social and healthcare resource environments?

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, R. J.; Bowie, J. V.; Smolen, J. R.; Bell, C. N.; Jenkins, M. L.; Jackson, J.; LaVeist, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although racial disparities in hypertension awareness and management are well documented, studies have not accounted for the differing social contexts in which whites and African Americans live. Objective To examine the nature of disparities in hypertension awareness, treatment, and control within a sample of whites and African Americans living in the same social context and with access to the same healthcare environment. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants 949 hypertensive African American and white adults in the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities-Southwest Baltimore (EHDIC-SWB) Study. Measurements Logistic regression models were conducted to estimate the association between race and hypertension awareness, treatment and control adjusting for potential confounders. Results African Americans had greater odds of being aware of their hypertension than whites (odds ratio=1.44; 95% confidence interval 1:04, 2.01). However, African Americans and whites had similar odds of being treated for hypertension, and having their hypertension under control. Discussion Within this racially integrated sample of hypertensive adults who share similar healthcare market, race differences in treatment and control of hypertension were eliminated. Accounting for the social context should be considered in public health campaigns targeting hypertension awareness and management. PMID:25065066

  18. Health disparities in awareness of physical activity and cancer prevention: findings from the National Cancer Institute's 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS).

    PubMed

    Oh, April; Shaikh, Abdul; Waters, Erika; Atienza, Audie; Moser, Richard P; Perna, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This national study examines differences between racial/ethnic groups on awareness of physical activity and reduced cancer risk and explores correlates of awareness including trust, demographic, and health characteristics within racial/ethnic groups. The 2007 Health Information and National Trends Survey (HINTS) provided data for this study. After exclusions, 6,809 adults were included in analyses. Awareness of physical activity in reduced cancer risk was the main outcome. Logistic regression models tested relationships. Non-Hispanic Blacks had a 0.71 (0.54,0.93) lower odds of being aware of physical activity in reduced cancer risk than non-Hispanic Whites. Current attempts to lose weight were associated with greater odds for awareness among non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics (p < .01). Among non-Hispanic Blacks, trust in traditional and Internet media was associated with greater odds of awareness (p < .01). This study is the first national study to examine racial/ethnic disparities in awareness of physical activity and cancer risk. Comparisons between racial/ethnic groups found Black-White disparities in awareness. Variables associated with awareness within racial/ethnic groups identify potential subgroups to whom communication efforts to promote awareness may be targeted.

  19. Movement Advocacy, Personal Relationships, and Ending Health Care Disparities.

    PubMed

    Chin, Marshall H

    2017-01-01

    Deep-rooted structural problems drive health care disparities. Compounding the difficulty of attaining health equity, solutions in clinics and hospitals require the cooperation of clinicians, administrators, patients, and the community. Recent protests over police brutality and racism on campuses across America have opened fresh wounds over how best to end racism, with lessons for achieving health equity. Movement advocacy, the mobilizing of the people to raise awareness of an injustice and to advocate for reform, can break down ingrained structural barriers and policies that impede health equity. However, simultaneously advocates, clinicians, and health care organizations must build trusting relationships and resolve conflict with mutual respect and honesty. Tension is inherent in discussions about racial and ethnic disparities. Yet, tension can be constructive if it forces self-examination and spurs systems change and personal growth. We must simultaneously advocate for policy reform, build personal relationships across diverse groups, and honestly examine our biases. Copyright © 2016 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Movement Advocacy, Personal Relationships, and Ending Health Care Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Marshall H.

    2017-01-01

    Deep-rooted structural problems drive health care disparities. Compounding the difficulty of attaining health equity, solutions in clinics and hospitals require the cooperation of clinicians, administrators, patients, and the community. Recent protests over police brutality and racism on campuses across America have opened fresh wounds over how best to end racism, with lessons for achieving health equity. Movement advocacy, the mobilizing of the people to raise awareness of an injustice and to advocate for reform, can break down ingrained structural barriers and policies that impede health equity. However, simultaneously advocates, clinicians, and health care organizations must build trusting relationships and resolve conflict with mutual respect and honesty. Tension is inherent in discussions about racial and ethnic disparities. Yet, tension can be constructive if it forces self-examination and spurs systems change and personal growth. We must simultaneously advocate for policy reform, build personal relationships across diverse groups, and honestly examine our biases. PMID:28259213

  1. Racial disparities in primary prevention of incontinence among older adults at nursing home admission.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Donna Z; Gurvich, Olga V; Eberly, Lynn E; Savik, Kay; Harms, Susan; Wyman, Jean F; Mueller, Christine; Virnig, Beth; Wiltzen, Kjerstie

    2017-04-01

    Maintaining continence of nursing home (NH) residents promotes dignity and well-being and may reduce morbidity and healthcare treatment costs. To determine the prevalence of older continent adults who received primary prevention of incontinence at NH admission, assess whether there were racial or ethnic disparities in incontinence prevention, and describe factors associated with any disparities. The design was an observational cross-sectional study of a nation-wide cohort of older adults free of incontinence at NH admission (n = 42,693). Four US datasets describing NH and NH resident characteristics, practitioner orders for NH treatment/care, and socioeconomic and sociodemographic status of the community surrounding the NHs were analyzed. Disparities were analyzed for four minority groups identified on the minimum data set using the Peters-Belson method and covariates at multiple levels. Twelve percent of NH admissions received incontinence prevention. There was a significant disparity (2%) in incontinence prevention for Blacks (P < 0.05): Fewer Black admissions (8.6%) were observed to receive incontinence prevention than was expected had they been part of the White group (10.6%). The percentage of White admissions receiving incontinence prevention was 10.6%. Significant factors associated with disparity in receiving incontinence prevention were having greater deficits in ADL function and cognition and more comorbidities. No disparity disadvantaging the other minority groups was found. Greater efforts for instituting incontinence prevention at the time of NH admission are needed. Eliminating racial disparities in incontinence prevention seems an attainable goal. Appropriate staff training, organizational commitment, and monitoring progress toward equitable outcomes can help achieve this goal. Neurourol.