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Sample records for racial minority groups

  1. Ethnic identity and racial attitudes in a minority group of mixed racial origin.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy B; Stratton, Joy; Stones, Christopher R; Naidoo, Anthony

    2003-02-01

    Limited information exists on the racial attitudes and ethnic identities of groups of mixed racial origin. The present research tested the hypotheses that the construct of ethnic identity is valid among such groups and that ethnic identity is related to out-group prejudice, as predicted by social identity theory. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, the Anti-White Scale, and the Subtle Racism Scale were administered to 70 South Africans of mixed racial descent, the so-called Coloureds. A factor analysis supported the structural validity of the 12-item measure of ethnic identity with this sample, but correlations between scales did not support the prediction that group identity would be positively associated with out-group prejudice. Group identity was positively related .27 to positive attitudes toward Whites consistent with the tenets of social dominance theory.

  2. Perception of racial discrimination and psychopathology across three U.S. ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Chou, Tina; Asnaani, Anu; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between the perception of racial discrimination and the lifetime prevalence rates of psychological disorders in the three most common ethnic minorities in the United States, we analyzed data from a sample consisting of 793 Asian Americans, 951 Hispanic Americans, and 2,795 African Americans who received the Composite International Diagnostic Interview through the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies. The perception of racial discrimination was associated with the endorsement of major depressive disorder, panic disorder with agoraphobia, agoraphobia without history of panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders in varying degrees among the three minority groups, independent of the socioeconomic status, level of education, age, and gender of participants. The results suggest that the perception of racial discrimination is associated with psychopathology in the three most common U.S. minority groups.

  3. Group Counseling with United States Racial Minority Groups: A 25-Year Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark-Rose, Rose M.; Livingston-Sacin, Tina M.; Merchant, Niloufer; Finley, Amanda C.

    2012-01-01

    A 25-year content analysis was conducted of published group work articles that focused on 5 racial groups (African American, Asian American/Pacific Islander, Latino/a, Native American, and Intercultural group). Articles were included if they described an intervention or conceptual model with 1 of the racial groups. The analysis revealed 15 content…

  4. Retention in Depression Treatment among Ethnic and Racial Minority Groups in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fortuna, Lisa R.; Alegria, Margarita; Gao, Shan

    2010-01-01

    Background Premature discontinuation of psychiatric treatment among ethnic-racial minorities is a persistent concern. Prior research on identifying factors associated with ethnic-racial disparities in depression treatment has been limited by the scarcity of national samples with adequate representation of minority groups and especially non-English speakers. In this article we aim to identify variations in the likelihood of retention in depression treatment among ethnic-racial minority groups in the US as compared to non-Latino whites. Secondly, we aim to identify factors which are related to treatment retention. Methods We use data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) to examine differences and correlates of depression treatment retention among a representative sample (n=564) of non-Latino whites, Latinos, African American and Asian respondents with last 12 month depressive disorder and who report receiving formal mental health treatment in the last year. We define retention as attending at least four visits or remaining in treatment over a 12 month period. Results Being seen by a mental health specialist as opposed to being seen by a generalist and having received medication are correlates of treatment retention for the entire sample. However, after adjusting for demographics, clinical factors including number of co-occurring psychiatric disorders and level of disability, African Americans are significantly less likely to be retained in depression treatment as compared to non-Latino whites. Conclusions Availability of specialized mental health services or comparable treatment within primary care could improve treatment retention. Low retention suggests persistent problems in the delivery of depression treatment for African Americans. PMID:20336808

  5. Creating Culturally Relevant Alzheimer's Support Groups for Racial and Ethnic Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Joseph Neil

    Although data indicate that Alzheimer's disease occurs among all racial and ethnic populations, the Alzheimer's disease support group system is used nationally primarily by white, middle-class caregivers. Developing a model ethnic-specific support group for Hispanics requires delineation of formal and informal health care networks in the ethnic…

  6. Research participation by low-income and racial/ethnic minority groups: how payment may change the balance.

    PubMed

    Walter, Jennifer K; Burke, James F; Davis, Matthew M

    2013-10-01

    Minorities are underenrolled in clinical research trials, and one-third of trials are underenrolled overall. The role of payment has not been studied at the national level as an explanation for enrollment patterns. Our objective was to examine the distribution of self-reported previous research participation across different sociodemographic groups; to assess the public's perception of fair payment for a low-risk medicine trial and the association between requested payment and sociodemographic characteristics; to estimate the amount of payment for a medication trial to achieve proportional representation of minorities and different socioeconomic groups. This was a cross-sectional study with nationally representative data collected in 2011 by the C.S. Mott Children's Hospital National Poll on Children's Health. To determine the relationship between perceived fair payment and individual-level characteristics, we used multivariable linear regression. With 60% participation rate, in a sample of 2,150 respondents 11% (n = 221) of the sample had previously participated in medical research. Requested payment differed significantly by racial/ethnic group with Hispanics requesting more payment than non-Hispanic whites (0.37 [95%CI 0.02, 0.72]) In contrast to payment at $49, $149, and $249, payment at $349 yielded proportional representation of racial/ethnic minority groups. Hispanics requested higher payment for research participation, suggesting a possible explanation for their underenrollment.

  7. Racial/Ethnic Minority Undergraduate Psychology Majors' Perceptions about School Psychology: Implications for Minority Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Newell, Markeda L.; Gubi, Aaron A.

    2016-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented within school psychology. Increased racial/ethnic diversity within university training programs has been shown to reduce prejudices and anxiety within students while increasing empathy for other racial/ethnic groups. The reduction of prejudices and anxiety and increased empathy for racial/ethnic…

  8. The Effect of Neighborhood Racial Composition on the Relationship Between Minority Group Status and Current Fertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcum, John P.

    Focusing on blacks, the study examined the effect of neighborhood racial composition on the relationship between socioeconomic status and current fertility. The sample of 611 black and 5,027 white once-married women aged 20-29 living with their husbands was drawn from the neighborhood characteristics files of the 1970 Public Use Samples of the…

  9. Tobacco Use among U.S. Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups--African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics: A Report of the Surgeon General. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (DHHS/CDC), Atlanta, GA.

    Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States and certain racial and ethnic minority groups are at higher risk for using tobacco. This is the first Surgeon General's report to focus on tobacco use among these four racial and ethnic minority groups. It provides a single, comprehensive source of data on each group's pattern…

  10. A Systematic Review of Community-Based Participatory Research to Enhance Clinical Trials in Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups

    PubMed Central

    De Las Nueces, Denise; Hacker, Karen; DiGirolamo, Ann; Hicks, LeRoi S

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the effectiveness of current community-based participatory research (CBPR) clinical trials involving racial and ethnic minorities. Data Source All published peer-reviewed CBPR intervention articles in PubMed and CINAHL databases from January 2003 to May 2010. Study Design We performed a systematic literature review. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Data were extracted on each study's characteristics, community involvement in research, subject recruitment and retention, and intervention effects. Principle Findings We found 19 articles meeting inclusion criteria. Of these, 14 were published from 2007 to 2010. Articles described some measures of community participation in research with great variability. Although CBPR trials examined a wide range of behavioral and clinical outcomes, such trials had very high success rates in recruiting and retaining minority participants and achieving significant intervention effects. Conclusions Significant publication gaps remain between CBPR and other interventional research methods. CBPR may be effective in increasing participation of racial and ethnic minority subjects in research and may be a powerful tool in testing the generalizability of effective interventions among these populations. CBPR holds promise as an approach that may contribute greatly to the study of health care delivery to disadvantaged populations. PMID:22353031

  11. The Relationship between Obesity and Psychiatric Disorders across Ethnic and Racial Minority Groups in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Alegría, Margarita; Chen, Chih-nan; Laderman, Mara; Roberts, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Context Epidemiologic studies of obesity have not examined the prevalence and relationship of mental-health conditions with obesity for diverse ethnic and racial populations in the United States. Objective (1) To assess whether obesity was associated with diverse psychiatric diagnoses across a representative sample of non-Latino whites, Latinos, Asians, African-Americans, and Afro-Caribbeans; and (2) to test whether physical health status, smoking, sociodemographic characteristics, and psychiatric comorbidities mediate any of the observed associations. Design Our analyses used pooled data from the NIMH Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES). Analyses tested the association between obesity and psychiatric disorders in a diverse sample of Americans (N=13,837), while adjusting for factors such as other disorders, age, gender, socioeconomic status, smoking and physical health status (as measured by chronic conditions and WHO-DAS scores) in different models. Results The relationship between obesity and last-year psychiatric disorders varied by ethnicity/race. The likelihood of having mood or anxiety disorder was positively associated with obesity for certain racial/ethnic groups, but was moderated by differences in physical health status. Substance-use disorders were associated with decreased odds for obesity in African-Americans. Conclusions The role of physical health status (as measured by chronic conditions and WHO-DAS scores) dramatically changes the pattern of associations between obesity and psychiatric disorders, suggesting the important role it plays in explaining differential patterns of association across racial and ethnic groups. PMID:21184966

  12. Counseling Racial and Ethnic Minorities in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vontress, Clemmont

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss in brief six racial and ethnic minority groups in the United States, in order to demonstrate how selected cultural variables may intrude in the counseling relationship. American Indians present such problems as language difficulties, taciturnity, and suspiciousness. In working with Americans of African…

  13. Residential Segregation and Birth Weight among Racial and Ethnic Minorities in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities are often residentially segregated from whites in urban settings, a fact which has important health consequences. Research on the relationship between residential segregation and health outcomes lacks national-level investigation of racial and ethnic minority groups other than African Americans. I use multilevel…

  14. California's racial and ethnic minorities more adversely affected by asthma.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ying-Ying; Babey, Susan H; Hastert, Theresa A; Brown, E Richard

    2007-02-01

    In California, nearly 2.8 million adults and children (8%) had active asthma in 2003. Of Californians with active asthma, 890,000 are children (ages 0-17) and 1.8 million are adults (age 18 and above). The prevalence of active asthma varies by racial and ethnic group, with racial and ethnic minority groups affected more adversely by asthma. They are more likely to go to the emergency department for asthma care, miss more school and work days because of asthma, and have poorer health status. They are also more likely to lack access to health care and to live in conditions associated with asthma exacerbations. Among California children, the prevalence of active asthma varies by racial and ethnic groups-with the highest prevalence among African Americans (17%) and American Indians/Alaska Natives (17%), followed by whites (10%), Latinos (7%) and Asians (7%; Exhibit 1). Among adults, American Indians/Alaska Natives have the highest prevalence of active asthma (13%), followed by African Americans (10%), whites (9%), Asians (5%) and Latinos (5%). The National data similarly show that both African Americans and American Indians have higher current asthma prevalence rates than non- Hispanic whites.

  15. Disparities in Healthcare for Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Joshua C.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter situates healthcare as a concern for the field of adult education through a critique of disparities in access to healthcare, quality of care received, and caregiver services for racial, ethnic, and sexual minorities.

  16. Conducting HIV Research in Racial and Ethnic Minority Communities: Building a Successful Interdisciplinary Research Team

    PubMed Central

    Polanco, Frinny R.; Dominguez, Dinora C.; Grady, Christine; Stoll, Pamela; Ramos, Catalina; Mican, JoAnn M.; Miranda-Acevedo, Robert; Morgan, Marcela; Aizvera, Jeasmine; Purdie, Lori; Koziol, Deloris; Rivera-Goba, Migdalia V.

    2011-01-01

    HIV infection occurs in disproportionately high rates among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, making it imperative that individuals from these groups be included in research studies. Unfortunately, it is often difficult to recruit HIV-infected Hispanics and African Americans into clinical trials, but a skilled interdisciplinary team that includes researchers with racial and ethnic diversity can help. This article describes a successful approach for building an interdisciplinary team that values the participation of racial and ethnic minorities in clinical trials and that has the skills to work with these groups. The success of the Adelante (a Spanish word meaning forward) Team can be attributed to team members who actively participate in decision-making, are empowered, and function in a cohesive manner. Successful research teams build relationships with research participants in order to increase the probability that racial and ethnic minorities will enroll and participate fully in research. PMID:21277228

  17. Conducting HIV research in racial and ethnic minority communities: building a successful interdisciplinary research team.

    PubMed

    Polanco, Frinny R; Dominguez, Dinora C; Grady, Christine; Stoll, Pamela; Ramos, Catalina; Mican, Joann M; Miranda-Acevedo, Robert; Morgan, Marcela; Aizvera, Jeasmine; Purdie, Lori; Koziol, Deloris; Rivera-Goba, Migdalia V

    2011-01-01

    HIV infection occurs in disproportionately high rates among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, making it imperative that individuals from these groups be included in research studies. However, it is often difficult to recruit HIV-infected Hispanics and African Americans in clinical trials, but a skilled interdisciplinary team that includes researchers with racial and ethnic diversity can help. This article describes a successful approach for building an interdisciplinary team that values the participation of racial and ethnic minorities in clinical trials and has the skills to work with these groups. The success of the Adelante (a Spanish word meaning forward) Team can be attributed to team members who actively participate in decision-making, are empowered, and function in a cohesive manner. Successful research teams build relationships with research participants to increase the probability that racial and ethnic minorities will enroll and participate fully in research.

  18. Rejection as a call to arms: inter-racial hostility and support for political action as outcomes of race-based rejection in majority and minority groups.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Fiona Kate; Sibley, Chris G; Hornsey, Matthew J

    2012-03-01

    Both majority and minority group members fear race-based rejection, and respond by disparaging the groups that they expect will reject them. It is not clear, however, how this process differs in minority and majority groups. Using large representative samples of White (N= 4,618) and Māori (N= 1,163) New Zealanders, we found that perceptions of race-based rejection predicted outgroup negativity in both groups, but in different ways and for different reasons. For White (but not Māori) New Zealanders, increased intergroup anxiety partially mediated the relationship between cognitions of rejection and outgroup negativity. Māori who expected to be rejected on the basis of their race reported increased ethnic identification and, in part through this, increased support for political action benefiting their own group. This finding supports collective-action models of social change in historically disadvantaged minority groups.

  19. Assessing Minority Group Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Beeman N., Ed.

    Contents of this book include the following collection of articles: "Assessing Minority Group Children: Challenges for School Psychologists," Thomas Oakland; "The NEA Testing Moratorium," Boyd Bosma; "Cultural Myopia: The Need for a Corrective Lens," Martin H. Gerry; "Assumptions Underlying Psychological Testing," T. Ernest Newland;…

  20. Ecodevelopmental contexts for preventing type 2 diabetes in Latino and other racial/ethnic minority populations.

    PubMed

    Castro, Felipe González; Shaibi, Gabriel Q; Boehm-Smith, Edna

    2009-02-01

    Diabetes is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States and it is now cited along with obesity as a global epidemic. Significant racial/ethnic disparities exist in the prevalence of diabetes within the US, with racial and ethnic minorities disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes and its complications. Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic factors influence the development and course of diabetes at multiple levels, including genetic, individual, familial, community and national. From an ecodevelopmental perspective, cultural variables assessed at one level (e.g., family level dietary practices) may interact with other types of variables examined at other levels (e.g., the availability of healthy foods within a low-income neighborhood), thus prompting the need for a clear analysis of these systemic relationships as they may increase risks for disease. Therefore, the need exists for models that aid in "mapping out" these relationships. A more explicit conceptualization of such multi-level relationships would aid in the design of culturally relevant interventions that aim to maximize effectiveness when applied with Latinos and other racial/ethnic minority groups. This paper presents an expanded ecodevelopmental model intended to serve as a tool to aid in the design of multi-level diabetes prevention interventions for application with racial/ethnic minority populations. This discussion focuses primarily on risk factors and prevention intervention in Latino populations, although with implications for other racial/ethnic minority populations that are also at high risk for type 2 diabetes.

  1. Ecodevelopmental contexts for preventing type 2 diabetes in Latino and other racial/ethnic minority populations

    PubMed Central

    Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Boehm-Smith, Edna

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States and it is now cited along with obesity as a global epidemic. Significant racial/ethnic disparities exist in the prevalence of diabetes within the US, with racial and ethnic minorities disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes and its complications. Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic factors influence the development and course of diabetes at multiple levels, including genetic, individual, familial, community and national. From an ecodevelopmental perspective, cultural variables assessed at one level (e.g., family level dietary practices) may interact with other types of variables examined at other levels (e.g., the availability of healthy foods within a low-income neighborhood), thus prompting the need for a clear analysis of these systemic relationships as they may increase risks for disease. Therefore, the need exists for models that aid in “mapping out” these relationships. A more explicit conceptualization of such multi-level relationships would aid in the design of culturally relevant interventions that aim to maximize effectiveness when applied with Latinos and other racial/ethnic minority groups. This paper presents an expanded ecodevelopmental model intended to serve as a tool to aid in the design of multi-level diabetes prevention interventions for application with racial/ethnic minority populations. This discussion focuses primarily on risk factors and prevention intervention in Latino populations, although with implications for other racial/ethnic minority populations that are also at high risk for type 2 diabetes. PMID:19101788

  2. Prevalence of Disabling Conditions among Diverse Racial/Ethnic Groups in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sylvia; And Others

    This study used data on 120,032 people from the 1991 National Health Interview Survey to assess prevalence of disabilities among racial and ethnic minority groups. It examined the status of racial/ethnic minority persons in the following four disability categories: (1) chronic health conditions; (2) physical, sensory, and language impairments; (3)…

  3. Depression Interventions among Racial and Ethnic Minority Older Adults: A Systematic Review across 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Dahlia; Aranda, María P.

    2012-01-01

    While there is strong evidence in support of geriatric depression treatments, much less is available with regard to older U.S. racial and ethnic minorities. The objectives of this review are to identify and appraise depression treatment studies tested with samples of U.S. racial and ethnic minority older adults. We include an appraisal of sociocultural adaptations made to the depression treatments in studies meeting our final criteria. Systematic search methods were utilized to identify research published between 1990 and 2010 that describe depression treatment outcomes for older adults by racial/ethnic group, or for samples of older adults that are primarily (i.e., >50%) racial/ethnic minorities. Twenty-three unduplicated articles included older adults and seven met all inclusion criteria. Favorable depression treatment effects were observed for older minorities across five studies based on diverse settings and varying levels of sociocultural adaptations. The effectiveness of depression care remains mixed although collaborative or integrated care shows promise for African Americans and Latinos. The degree to which the findings generalize to non-English-speaking, low acculturated, and low income older persons, and to other older minority groups (i.e., Asian and Pacific Islanders, and American Indian and Alaska Natives) remains unclear. Given the high disease burden among older minorities with depression, it is imperative to provide timely, accessible, and effective depression treatments. Increasing their participation in behavioral health research should be a national priority. PMID:22828202

  4. Reduced Psychological Distress in Racial and Ethnic Minority Students Practicing the Transcendental Meditation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Charles; Nidich, Sanford; Colbert, Robert; Hagelin, John; Grayshield, Lisa; Oviedo-Lim, Dynah; Nidich, Randi; Rainforth, Maxwell; Jones, Chris; Gerace, Denise

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing literature describing the stressful nature of students' school experience. Previous research has found that racial and ethnic minority groups are particularly subject to high levels of stress due to exposure to violence, pressures due to acculturation, and the schooling process. This is the first study to evaluate effects of the…

  5. Mentoring Matters: Racial Ethnic Minority Undergraduates' Cultural Fit, Mentorship, and College and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Jeanett; Gloria, Alberta M.; Besson, Doriane; Clark Harvey, Le Ondra

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which cultural fit (cultural congruity in combination with perception of the university environment) and the dimensional noncognitive processes of mentoring predicted college satisfaction and life satisfaction for 238 racial and ethnic minority undergraduates from two university contexts. Group differences as well…

  6. Protective Mechanisms for Depression among Racial/Ethnic Minority Youth: Empirical Findings, Issues, and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Scott, Sarah M; Wallander, Jan L; Cameron, Linda

    2015-12-01

    We (1) review empirical studies that report findings regarding putative protective mechanisms when exposed to risk of depression in African American and Hispanic adolescents; (2) identify key protective mechanisms for different risk contexts that garner empirical support; (3) synthesize the mechanisms identified as protective against depression among racial/ethnic minority adolescents; and (4) discuss improved methods for advancing understanding of resilience against depression in minority youth. The studies were selected from PsycINFO searches that met the following inclusion criteria: participants between 12 and 21 years of age, inclusions of racial/ethnic minority members, examining protection through an interaction with a risk factor, and outcome measures of depression, depressed mood, or depressive symptomatology. We found 39 eligible studies; 13 of which included multiple racial/ethnic groups. The following were supported as protective mechanisms, at least preliminarily, for at least one racial/ethnic group and in at least one risk context: employment, extracurricular activities, father-adolescent closeness, familism, maternal support, attending predominately minority schools, neighborhood composition, non-parent support, parental inductive reasoning, religiosity, self-esteem, social activities, and positive early teacher relationships. To investigate protective mechanisms more comprehensively and accurately across individual, social, and community levels of influence, we recommend incorporating multilevel modeling or multilevel growth curve analyses and large diverse samples.

  7. Health disparities in colorectal cancer among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Oman, Matthew; Patel, Aatish M.; Vega, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    In the 2010 Census, just over one-third of the United States (US) population identified themselves as being something other than being non-Hispanic white alone. This group has increased in size from 86.9 million in 2000 to 111.9 million in 2010, representing an increase of 29 percent over the ten year period. Per the American Cancer Society, racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to develop cancer and die from it when compared to the general population of the United States. This is particularly true for colorectal cancer (CRC). The primary aim of this review is to highlight the disparities in CRC among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. Despite overall rates of CRC decreasing nationally and within certain racial and ethnic minorities in the US, there continue to be disparities in incidence and mortality when compared to non-Hispanic whites. The disparities in CRC incidence and mortality are related to certain areas of deficiency such as knowledge of family history, access to care obstacles, impact of migration on CRC and paucity of clinical data. These areas of deficiency limit understanding of CRC’s impact in these groups and when developing interventions to close the disparity gap. Even with the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Healthcare Act, disparities in CRC screening will continue to exist until specific interventions are implemented in the context of each of racial and ethnic group. Racial and ethnic minorities cannot be viewed as one monolithic group, rather as different segments since there are variations in incidence and mortality based on natural history of CRC development impacted by gender, ethnicity group, nationality, access, as well as migration and socioeconomic status. Progress has been made overall, but there is much work to be done. PMID:27034811

  8. Ambient air pollution exposure and the incidence of related health effects among racial/ethnic minorities

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    Differences among racial and ethnic groups in morbidity and mortality rates for diseases, including diseases with environmental causes, have been extensively documented. However, documenting the linkages between environmental contaminants, individual exposures, and disease incidence has been hindered by difficulties in measuring exposure for the population in general and for minority populations in particular. After briefly discussing research findings on associations of common air pollutants with disease incidence, the authors summarize recent studies of radial/ethnic subgroup differences in incidence of these diseases in the US. They then present evidence of both historic and current patterns of disproportionate minority group exposure to air pollution as measured by residence in areas where ambient air quality standards are violated. The current indications of disproportionate potential exposures of minority and low-income populations to air pollutants represent the continuation of a historical trend. The evidence of linkage between disproportionate exposure to air pollution of racial/ethnic minorities and low-income groups and their higher rates of some air pollution-related diseases is largely circumstantial. Differences in disease incidence and mortality rates among racial/ethnic groups are discussed for respiratory diseases, cancers, and lead poisoning. Pollutants of concern include CO, Pb, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and particulates.

  9. Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Minorities. NCES 2007-039

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KewalRamani, Angelina; Gilbertson, Lauren; Fox, Mary Ann; Provasnik, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    "Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Minorities" examines the educational progress and challenges that racial and ethnic minorities face in the United States. This report shows that over time larger numbers of minorities have completed high school and continued their education in college. Despite these gains, progress…

  10. Examining differential treatment effects for depression in racial and ethnic minority women: a qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Earlise C.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine effectiveness of depression treatment in racial and ethnic minority women. REVIEW METHODS: Inclusion criteria: 1) the study examined treatment of depression among racial and ethnic minority women age > 17, 2) data analysis was separated by race and ethnicity, and 3) the study was conducted in the United States. Interventions considered were: psychotropic medications, psychotherapy (including cognitive-behavioral, interpersonal therapy and any type of psychotherapy adapted for minority populations) and any type of psychotherapy combined with case management or a religious focus. Individual and group psychotherapy were eligible. Each study was critically reviewed to identify treatment effectiveness specific to racial and ethnic minority women. RESULTS: Ten published studies met the inclusion criteria (racial and ethnic minority participants n = 2,136). Seven of these were randomized clinical trials, one was a retrospective cohort study, one was a case series, and the remaining one had an indeterminate study design. Participants' age ranged from 18-74 years, with a higher proportion > 40 years. Most were low income. Differences in treatment responses between African-American, Latino and white women were found. Adapted models of care, including quality improvement and collaborative care, were found to be more effective than usual care and community referral in treating depression. Although medication and psychotherapy were both effective in treating depression, low-income women generally needed case management to address other social issues. CONCLUSION: Adapted models that allow patients to select the treatment of their choice (medication or psychotherapy or a combination) while providing outreach and other supportive services (case management, childcare and transportation) appear to result in optimal clinical benefits. PMID:17393951

  11. Systematic Review of Interventions for Racial/Ethnic-Minority Pregnant Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Washio, Yukiko; Cassey, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Large disparities exist in smoking rates during pregnancy by racial/ethnic status. Aims The current review examined controlled studies that predominantly included racial/ethnic-minority pregnant smokers for providing smoking cessation treatment. Methods Two authors independently conducted the literature searches in the standard databases using a combination of the keywords with minority, pregnancy, smoking, and cessation identifiers. Results The searches identified nine articles that met the inclusion criteria. Only two studies exclusively targeted specific minority groups. Most of them provided some form of brief smoking cessation counseling, with two combining with incentives and one combining with pharmacotherapy. Two studies provided intensive cognitive interventions. Pregnant smokers of American Indian or Alaska Native, Hispanic subgroups, and Asian or Pacific Islander are under-studied. Conclusions Future studies to treat minority pregnant smokers could target under-studied minority groups and may need to directly and intensely target smoking behavior, address cultural and psychosocial issues in an individualized and comprehensive manner, and analyze cost-benefit of an intervention. PMID:26925170

  12. The Concerns about Counseling Racial Minority Clients scale.

    PubMed

    Wei, Meifen; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Botello-Zamarron, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Concerns about Counseling Racial Minority Clients (CCRMC) scale among counselor trainees. Sample 1 was used for an exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Four factors were identified, Managing Cultural Differences (α = .82), Offending or Hurting Clients (α = .87), Biased Thoughts and Behaviors (α = .81), and Client Perceptions (α = .77). The coefficient alpha for the CCRMC was .90. The results support the validity of the scale. The scores on the CCRMC and its subscales have positive associations with fear of negative evaluation from others (r = .19 to .40) and negative associations with general counseling self-efficacy (r = -.30 to -.46) and multicultural intervention self-efficacy (r = -.30 to -.64). The CCRMC significantly predicted fear of negative evaluation, session management self-efficacy, and multicultural intervention self-efficacy over and above multicultural social desirability. The validity evidence was not different between White and minority graduate trainees. In Sample 2, the estimated 1-week test-retest reliabilities ranged from .75 to .96 for the CCRMC and its four subscales.

  13. [Femicides in ethnic and racialized groups: syntheses].

    PubMed

    Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Lerma, Betty Ruth Lozano

    2017-01-01

    The text entitled "Femicides in ethnic and racialized groups: syntheses" presents some of the discussions that took place during a seminar on this topic in Buenaventura. Buenaventura is the main Colombian port on the Pacific, a region rich in minerals and a corridor for the movement of goods, which makes it a strategic territory and a center for disputes. At the seminar, the social and political determinants of femicide were discussed, understanding it as a tactic of waging war against women. The forum provided a space for academic discussion, but also for grievances over inter-personal violence, the manifestation of feelings and the elaboration of pain and grief through the medium of art. We believe that the dissemination of this experience to the Brazilian public, in a country with ethnic, social and racial vulnerability similar to that in Colombia, will be of value to social and health workers. The scope of this paper is therefore to provide the opinion of its authors on the determinants of femicides and on actions to tackle them, in addition to a synthesis of the discussions and debates that permeated the event.

  14. Colorectal Cancer Screening in 3 Racial Groups

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kimberly M.; Dickinson, Stephanie L.; DeGraffinreid, Cecilia R.; Tatum, Cathy M.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To understand predictors of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in African Americans, European Americans, and Native Americans as these groups differ in CRC incidence and mortality. Methods Participants were surveyed for knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors related to CRC. Results Predictive regression modeling found, after adjusting for race, CRC risk, and CRC worry, the odds of screening within guidelines were increased for men, those receiving doctor’s recommendation, those with polyp/tumor history, those under 70, those with more knowledge about CRC, and those with fewer barriers to screening. CRC screening rates did not differ by race. Conclusions These results reiterate the importance of knowledge, barriers, and physician recommendation for CRC screening in all racial groups. PMID:17555381

  15. Racial/ethnic differences in identity and mental health outcomes among young sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Kimberly F; Molina, Yamile; Blayney, Jessica A; Dillworth, Tiara; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-07-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual minorities are at greater risk for trauma exposure, mental health problems, and substance use. To date, few studies have examined racial/ethnic differences among sexual minorities in relation to health-related behaviors and outcomes. Furthermore, studies of racial/ethnic differences among young adult sexual minority women (SMW) are virtually nonexistent. The current study adds to the previous literature by exploring differences in trauma exposure, sexual identity, mental health, and substance use in a nonprobability national sample of young adult SMW. A total of 967 self- identified lesbian and bisexual women were recruited via the Internet using social networking sites to participate in a larger longitudinal study on young women's health behaviors. The present study included 730 (76%) White, 108 (10%) African American, 91 (9%) Latina, and 38 (4%) Asian women ages 18 to 25 years. Results revealed differences in socioeconomic variables, degree of outness to family, childhood sexual assault, and forcible rape, but not overall lifetime trauma exposure. Among mental health and health-related behavior variables, few differences between groups emerged. Our findings indicate that both researchers and clinicians should turn their attention to processes of resilience among young SMW, particularly young SMW of color.

  16. Racial/ethnic differences in identity and mental health outcomes among young sexual minority women

    PubMed Central

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Molina, Yamile; Blayney, Jessica A.; Dillworth, Tiara; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual minorities are at greater risk for trauma exposure, mental health problems, and substance use. To date, few studies have examined racial/ethnic differences among sexual minorities in relation to health-related behaviors and outcomes. Furthermore, studies of racial/ethnic differences among young adult sexual minority women (SMW) are virtually non-existent. The current study adds to the previous literature by exploring differences in trauma exposure, sexual identity, mental health, and substance use in a non-probability national sample of young adult SMW. A total of 967 self-identified lesbian and bisexual women were recruited via the internet using social networking sites to participate in a larger longitudinal study on young women’s health behaviors. The present study included 730 (76%) White, 108 (10%) African American, 91 (9%) Latina, and 38 (4%) Asian women ages 18 to 25. Results revealed differences in socioeconomic variables, degree of outness to family, childhood sexual assault, and forcible rape, but not overall lifetime trauma exposure. Among mental health and health-related behavior variables, few differences between groups emerged. Our findings indicate that both researchers and clinicians should turn their attention to processes of resilience among young SMW, particularly young SMW of color. PMID:25642782

  17. Pride and Prejudice: Racial Contacts Mediating the Change of In-Group and Out-Group Racial Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Ji

    2012-01-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen dataset, this study examined how students' within- and between-group racial contacts mediated the change of in-group and out-group racial perceptions across White, Black, Latino, and Asian students. This study was grounded in intergroup contact theory and employed multi-trait multi-method…

  18. Parental Ethnic-Racial Socialization and Social Attitudes Among Ethnic-Racial Minority and White American Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Tran, Alisia G T T; Mintert, Jeffrey S; Jew, Gilbert B

    2016-08-15

    This article utilizes moderated mediation analyses to explore whether the relations between parental ethnic-racial socialization (PERS) dimensions and social attitudes differ across ethnic-racial minority (n = 128) and White (n = 131) college-going emerging adults. We examined social dominance orientation (SDO) as an index of antiegalitarian intergroup attitudes and attitudes toward interpersonal harmony as an index of interpersonal attitudes. We tested whether there were ethnic-racial variations in mediation models in which each type of PERS dimension was expected to be linked to greater antiegalitarian attitudes (greater SDO), which, in turn, was predicted to be associated with less prosocial attitudes (lower harmony enhancement). Results indicated that more frequent cultural socialization and preparation for bias were linked to greater SDO for the White sample, but not for the ethnic-minority sample. Moderation results were nonsignificant for promotion of mistrust, with results indicating a positive link to SDO, regardless of racial-ethnic status. Moderated mediation analyses further revealed indirect effects of cultural socialization and preparation for bias on interpersonal attitudes through SDO for the White sample, but not for the ethnic-minority sample. Specifically, greater cultural socialization and preparation for bias each were linked to greater SDO, which, in turn, was associated with less positive perceptions of the value of maintaining interpersonal harmony for White respondents. Practical applications, including social justice implications, of the results and possibilities for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Racial groups and test fairness, considering history and construct validity.

    PubMed

    Newman, Daniel A; Hanges, Paul J; Outtz, James L

    2007-12-01

    According to Helms, "test fairness" is defined as "removal from test scores of systematic variance attributable to experiences of racial or cultural socialization." Some of Helms's reasoning is based on earlier work, which recommended that racial group or category variables be replaced entirely with individual-level constructs, to reflect racial socialization experiences that vary within racial groups. Treatment of the test fairness issue--a social and political issue--will benefit from explicitly considering historical events that contributed to group-level race differences. In light of this history, D. A. Newman et al suggest (a) retaining a group-level conceptualization of race/racial socialization and also (b) focusing on criterion-irrelevant variance in test scores that is attributable to race.

  20. Racial Groups and Test Fairness, Considering History and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Daniel A.; Hanges, Paul J.; Outtz, James L.

    2007-01-01

    According to Helms, "test fairness" is defined as "removal from test scores of systematic variance attributable to experiences of racial or cultural socialization." Some of Helms's reasoning is based on earlier work, which recommended that racial group or category variables be replaced entirely with individual-level constructs, to reflect racial…

  1. Disparity in disaster preparedness between racial/ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Bethel, Jeffrey W; Burke, Sloane C; Britt, Amber F

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the association between race/ethnicity (including language subgroups among Hispanics) and disaster preparedness among Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey respondents. Methods BRFSS data were obtained for eight states which implemented the optional general preparedness module from 2006 through 2010. Three dependent variables were analyzed including presence of four preparedness items (i.e., food, water, flashlight, and radio), emergency evacuation plan, and 3-d supply of medication. Primary independent variable included race/ethnicity accounting for language of survey. Data were analyzed in 2011 and accounted for BRFSS sampling design. Results Black (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.56, 0.79), English-speaking Hispanic (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.69) and Spanish-speaking Hispanic respondents (OR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.29) were less likely than non-Hispanic white respondents to live in a household in which all members requiring medication had a 3-d supply. Results varied regarding presence of four preparedness items and an emergency evacuation plan. Conclusions Racial/ethnic minority groups were less likely to have medication supplies but only Spanish-speaking Hispanics were less likely to have an emergency evacuation plan than white respondents. Public health officials can use these findings to support targeting racial/ethnic minorities to increase the presence of preparedness items important to mitigate the effects of disasters, with particular emphasis on medication supplies and Spanish-speaking Hispanics.

  2. Disparity in disaster preparedness between racial/ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Bethel, Jeffrey W; Burke, Sloane C; Britt, Amber F

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the association between race/ethnicity (including language subgroups among Hispanics) and disaster preparedness among Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey respondents. Methods BRFSS data were obtained for eight states which implemented the optional general preparedness module from 2006 through 2010. Three dependent variables were analyzed including presence of four preparedness items (i.e., food, water, flashlight, and radio), emergency evacuation plan, and 3-d supply of medication. Primary independent variable included race/ethnicity accounting for language of survey. Data were analyzed in 2011 and accounted for BRFSS sampling design. Results Black (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.56, 0.79), English-speaking Hispanic (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.69) and Spanish-speaking Hispanic respondents (OR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.29) were less likely than non-Hispanic white respondents to live in a household in which all members requiring medication had a 3-d supply. Results varied regarding presence of four preparedness items and an emergency evacuation plan. Conclusions Racial/ethnic minority groups were less likely to have medication supplies but only Spanish-speaking Hispanics were less likely to have an emergency evacuation plan than white respondents. Public health officials can use these findings to support targeting racial/ethnic minorities to increase the presence of preparedness items important to mitigate the effects of disasters, with particular emphasis on medication supplies and Spanish-speaking Hispanics. PMID:28228993

  3. Promoting Academic Persistence among Racial/Ethnic Minority and European American Freshman and Sophomore Undergraduates: Implications for College Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Kurpius, Sharon Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Factors influencing persistence decisions among 346 racial/ethnic minority and 813 European American freshman and sophomore undergraduates were explored. Gender and racial/ethnic differences were found in centrality and public regard of racial/ethnic identity. Perceptions of the university environment and self-beliefs predicted persistence…

  4. Barriers to racial/ethnic minority application and competition for NIH research funding.

    PubMed Central

    Shavers, Vickie L.; Fagan, Pebbles; Lawrence, Deirdre; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; McDonald, Paige; Browne, Doris; McLinden, Dan; Christian, Michaele; Trimble, Edward

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite recognition of the need to increase the pool of racial/ethnic minority investigators, racial/ethnic minority representation among National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded investigators remains low. Racial/ethnic minority investigators bring unique perspectives and experiences that enhance the potential for understanding factors that underlie racial/ethnic variation in health and health status. Identification of barriers to successful minority competition for NIH funding and suggestions for strategies to overcome them were obtained from a concept mapping project and a meeting of minority investigators and investigators at minority-serving institutions. METHODS: Concept mapping, a mixed-methods planning approach that integrates common data collection processes with multivariate statistical analyses, was used in this exploratory project. The concept mapping approach generated a series of related "concept maps" that were used for data interpretation and meeting discussions. RESULTS: Barriers to minority investigator competition for NIH funding identified by concept mapping participants include: (1) inadequate research infrastructure, training and development; (2) barriers to development as independent researchers; (3) inadequate mentoring; (4) insensitivity, misperceptions and miscommunication about the specific needs of investigators involved in research with minority communities; (5) institutional bias in NIH policies; (6) unfair competitive environment; (7) lack of institutional support; (8) lack of support for research topics/methods relevant to research with minority communities; and (9) social, cultural and environmental barriers. DISCUSSION: Data from both the concept mapping and the meeting discussions suggest the need to use a multilevel approach to increase minority representation among funded NIH investigators. Specifically, the NIH should use strategies that overcome barriers at the home institution, within NIH and at the investigator

  5. Race and imprisonments: vigilante violence, minority threat, and racial politics.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, David; Malone, Chad; Iles, Gale

    2012-01-01

    The effects of lynchings on criminal justice outcomes have seldom been examined. Recent findings also are inconsistent about the effects of race on imprisonments. This study uses a pooled time-series design to assess lynching and racial threat effects on state imprisonments from 1972 to 2000. After controlling for Republican strength, conservatism, and other factors, lynch rates explain the growth in admission rates. The findings also show that increases in black residents produce subsequent expansions in imprisonments that likely are attributable to white reactions to this purported menace. But after the percentage of blacks reaches a substantial threshold—and the potential black vote becomes large enough to begin to reduce these harsh punishments—reductions in prison admissions occur. These results also confirm a political version of racial threat theory by indicating that increased Republican political strength produces additional imprisonments.

  6. The Counseling of Minority Group Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Dwane R.; Collins, Myrtle T.

    1974-01-01

    This article maintains that the counseling of minority students is complicated and demands a high level of professional competence. Discusses needs, mores, and life styles of certain minority groups and includes suggestions for improving the counseling relationship. (HMV)

  7. Psychotherapists' outcomes with White and racial/ethnic minority clients: First, the good news.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Jeffrey A; McAleavey, Andrew A; Castonguay, Louis G; Locke, Benjamin D

    2016-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) investigate whether psychotherapists differ in their effectiveness with clients, (b) determine whether disparities exist within therapists' caseloads in their outcomes with White and racial and ethnic minority (REM) clients, (c) explore therapist factors that might contribute to observed therapist effects, and (d) identify whether treatment outcomes varied for REM and White clients. A sample of 3,825 clients seen by 251 therapists at 45 college counseling centers completed the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms at the beginning and end of individual psychotherapy. Therapists differed in their effectiveness at reducing general distress across clients, and evidence was found for disparities within therapists' caseloads in their effectiveness with REM and White clients. Effect sizes were small. Disparities within therapists' caseloads were not a function of any therapist variable that was studied. Therapy outcomes were similar for White and REM clients. Therapist multicultural competence can, and should, be considered in terms of measurable outcomes across client racial/ethnic groups. It is possible to identify multiculturally expert therapists who evidence competence with both REM and White clients and who might serve as models from whom the field could learn.

  8. Depression in Racial and Ethnic Minorities: the Impact of Nativity and Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Budhwani, Henna; Hearld, Kristine Ria; Chavez-Yenter, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    This research examines factors associated with lifetime major depressive disorder in racial and ethnic minorities residing in the USA, with an emphasis on the impact of nativity, discrimination, and health lifestyle behaviors. The Healthy Migrant Effect and Health Lifestyle Theory were used to inform the design of this project. The use of these frameworks not only provides insightful results but also expands their application in mental health disparities research. Logistic regression models were implemented to examine risk factors associated with lifetime major depressive disorder, comparing immigrants to their American-born counterparts as well as to American-born Whites. Data were derived from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (n = 17,249). Support was found for the hypothesis that certain immigrants, specifically Asian and Afro-Caribbean, have lower odds of depression as compared their non-immigrant counterparts. Although, Hispanic immigrants directionally had lower odds of depression, this finding was not statistically significant. Furthermore, engaging in excessive alcohol consumption was associated with higher rates of depression (odds ratio (OR) = 2.09, p < 0.001), and the effect of discrimination on depression was found to be significant, even when controlling for demographics. Of all racial and ethnic groups, foreign-born Afro-Caribbeans had the lowest rate of depression at 7 % followed by foreign-born Asians at 8 %.

  9. Racial and Ethnic Minority Graduate Student Experiences with Racial Microaggressions in CACREP-Accredited Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael-Makri, Stella

    2010-01-01

    Scholars have suggested that racism has not disappeared but has undergone a transformation into new subtle or symbolic forms. Since university life is a microcosm of United States society. racial prejudice can be found in most colleges and universities. The literature reveals three subtle forms of racism: modern racism, symbolic racism, and…

  10. On the precipice of a "majority-minority" America: perceived status threat from the racial demographic shift affects White Americans' political ideology.

    PubMed

    Craig, Maureen A; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2014-06-01

    The U.S. Census Bureau projects that racial minority groups will make up a majority of the U.S. national population in 2042, effectively creating a so-called majority-minority nation. In four experiments, we explored how salience of such racial demographic shifts affects White Americans' political-party leanings and expressed political ideology. Study 1 revealed that making California's majority-minority shift salient led politically unaffiliated White Americans to lean more toward the Republican Party and express greater political conservatism. Studies 2, 3a, and 3b revealed that making the changing national racial demographics salient led White Americans (regardless of political affiliation) to endorse conservative policy positions more strongly. Moreover, the results implicate group-status threat as the mechanism underlying these effects. Taken together, this work suggests that the increasing diversity of the nation may engender a widening partisan divide.

  11. When Societal Norms and Social Identity Collide: the Race Talk Dilemma for Racial Minority Children

    PubMed Central

    Pauker, Kristin; Apfelbaum, Evan P.; Spitzer, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Racial minorities face a unique “race talk” dilemma in contemporary American society: their racial background is often integral to their identity and how others perceive them, yet talk of race is taboo. This dilemma highlights the conflict between two fundamental social processes: social identity development and social norm adherence. To examine how, and with what costs, this dilemma is resolved, 9–12-year-old Latino, Asian, Black, and White children (n=108) completed a photo identification task in which acknowledging racial difference is beneficial to performance. Results indicate minority children are just as likely to avoid race as White children, and such avoidance exacted a cost to performance and nonverbal comfort. Results suggest that teachers are particularly important social referents for instilling norms regarding race. Norms that equate colorblindness with socially appropriate behavior appear more broadly influential than previously thought, stifling talk of race even among those for whom it may be most meaningful. PMID:26543521

  12. When Societal Norms and Social Identity Collide: the Race Talk Dilemma for Racial Minority Children.

    PubMed

    Pauker, Kristin; Apfelbaum, Evan P; Spitzer, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Racial minorities face a unique "race talk" dilemma in contemporary American society: their racial background is often integral to their identity and how others perceive them, yet talk of race is taboo. This dilemma highlights the conflict between two fundamental social processes: social identity development and social norm adherence. To examine how, and with what costs, this dilemma is resolved, 9-12-year-old Latino, Asian, Black, and White children (n=108) completed a photo identification task in which acknowledging racial difference is beneficial to performance. Results indicate minority children are just as likely to avoid race as White children, and such avoidance exacted a cost to performance and nonverbal comfort. Results suggest that teachers are particularly important social referents for instilling norms regarding race. Norms that equate colorblindness with socially appropriate behavior appear more broadly influential than previously thought, stifling talk of race even among those for whom it may be most meaningful.

  13. Racial/Ethnic Minority Vocational Research: A Content and Trend Analysis across 36 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Lisa Y.; Berkel, LaVerne A.; Nilsson, Johanna E.; Ojeda, Lizette; Jordan, Shiloh E.; Lynn, Ginger L.; Leal, Veronica M.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined 281 racial/ethnic minority (REM) career-related studies published in the "Journal of Vocational Behavior," "The Career Development Quarterly (CDQ)," the "Journal of Career Assessment (JCA)," and the "Journal of Career Development" between 1969 and 2004. Publication trends, article content and type, samples, and leading author…

  14. Ethical Principles and Standards: A Racial-Ethnic Minority Research Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casas, J. Manuel; Thompson, Chalmer E.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses American Psychological Association's (APA, 1990) "Ethical Principles" and American Association for Counseling and Development's (AACD, 1988) "Ethical Standards" as they relate to racial-ethnic minorities. Contends that philosophical premises that underlie these principles and standards reflect solely majority culture…

  15. Does High-Stakes Testing Increase Cultural Capital among Low-Income and Racial Minority Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Won-Pyo; Youngs, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This article draws on research from Texas and Chicago to examine whether highstakes testing enables low-income and racial minority students to acquire cultural capital. While students' performance on state or district tests rose after the implementation of high-stakes testing and accountability policies in Texas and Chicago in the 1990s, several…

  16. The Importance of Minority Teachers to the Racial and Ethnic Integration of American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Willis D.

    1989-01-01

    Racial and ethnic separation and isolation can be countered through significantly increasing the number of minority teachers. Students learn important societal lessons through the example of cooperative interracial and interethnic relationships among teachers. Discusses implications for teacher education, recruitment, assignment, and retention,…

  17. Barriers to Clinical Trial Enrollment in Racial and Ethnic Minority Patients With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Lauren M.; Penner, Louis A.; Albrecht, Terrance L.; Heath, Elisabeth; Gwede, Clement K.; Eggly, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical trials that study cancer are essential for testing the safety and effectiveness of promising treatments, but most people with cancer never enroll in a clinical trial — a challenge exemplified in racial and ethnic minorities. Underenrollment of racial and ethnic minorities reduces the generalizability of research findings and represents a disparity in access to high-quality health care. Methods Using a multilevel model as a framework, potential barriers to trial enrollment of racial and ethnic minorities were identified at system, individual, and interpersonal levels. Exactly how each level directly or indirectly contributes to doctor–patient communication was also reviewed. Selected examples of implemented interventions are included to help address these barriers. We then propose our own evidence-based intervention addressing barriers at the individual and interpersonal levels. Results Barriers to enrolling a diverse population of patients in clinical trials are complex and multilevel. Interventions focused at each level have been relatively successful, but multilevel interventions have the greatest potential for success. Conclusion To increase the enrollment of racial and ethnic minorities in clinical trials, future interventions should address barriers at multiple levels. PMID:27842322

  18. Racial and Ethnic Minority Clients' Utilization of a University Counseling Center: An Archival Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, M. Meghan; Yakushka, Oksana F.; Sanford-Martens, Tiffany C.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the utilization of a university counseling center's services by non-international racial and ethnic minority students via an archival approach. A total of 242 participants were included. Data were examined utilizing ANOVA, bivariate correlation, and chi-square analyses. Results support previous assertions that minority…

  19. Effective Counseling for Racial/Ethnic Minority Clients: Examining Changes Using a Practice Research Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockard, Allison J.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Graceffo, James M.; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that counseling decreases students' academic distress. These findings, however, are based primarily on European American students. This study explored the impact of counseling on academic distress for treatment-seeking racial/ethnic minority college students using the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological…

  20. Computer Access and Computer Use for Science Performance of Racial and Linguistic Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mido; Kim, Sunha

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of computer access and computer use on the science achievement of elementary school students, with focused attention on the effects for racial and linguistic minority students. The study used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K) database and conducted statistical analyses with proper weights and…

  1. Special Issue: Racial and Ethnic Minority Students' Success in STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Museus, Samuel D.; Palmer, Robert T.; Davis, Ryan J.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2011-01-01

    This monograph provides educational researchers, policymakers, and practitioners with an overview of existing knowledge regarding factors that influence success among racial and ethnic minority students in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) circuit. To accomplish this task, the authors reviewed more than four hundred…

  2. Differences in diffusion of FDA antidepressant risk warnings across racial-ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    DePetris, Andrea Elizabeth; Cook, Benjamin L

    2013-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Numerous articles have identified that medical technologies diffuse more rapidly among non-Latino whites compared with other racial-ethnic groups. However, whether health risk warnings also diffuse differentially across racial-ethnic minority groups is uncertain. This study assessed racial-ethnic variation in children's antidepressant use before and after the 2004 black-box warning concerning risks of antidepressants for youths. METHODS Data consisted of responses for white, black, and Latino youths ages five through 17 from the 2002-2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (N=44,422). The dependent variable was any antidepressant use in the prior year. Independent variables were race-ethnicity, year, psychological impairment, income, insurance status, region, and parents' education level. Logistic regression models were used to assess antidepressant use conditional on race-ethnicity, time, interaction between race-ethnicity and time, need, socioeconomic status, and Institute of Medicine-concordant estimates of disparities in predicted antidepressant use before and after the warning. RESULTS The warnings affected antidepressant use differentially for whites, blacks, and Latinos. Usage rates among whites decreased from 3.3 to 2.1 percentage points between prewarning and postwarning, whereas usage rates remained steady among Latinos and increased among blacks. Findings were significant in multiple regression analyses, in which predictions were adjusted for need. CONCLUSIONS The findings indicate that health safety information on antidepressant usage among children diffused faster among whites than nonwhites, suggesting the need to improve infrastructure for delivering important health messages to racial-ethnic minority populations.

  3. "Whose second life is this?" How avatar-based racial cues shape ethno-racial minorities' perception of virtual worlds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Eun Roselyn; Park, Sung Gwan

    2011-11-01

    Research on social identity contingencies suggests that situational cues, such as a numerical representation of social identities in a given social environment, can trigger identity-associated threat for individuals whose social identity is marginalized. Given that popular virtual worlds (e.g., Second Life [SL]) are often criticized for White-avatar dominance or White bias, we examined the psychological effects of the alleged White dominance in avatar-based virtual worlds by conducting two experiments in which participants read fictitious profiles of SL resident avatars. White and non-White participants were randomly assigned to view either a set of White-dominant avatar profiles or a set of racially diverse ones. After reading the profiles, participants had an opportunity to customize avatars using the SL interface. The findings of Experiment 1 (n=59) revealed that non-White participants exposed to the White-dominant avatar profiles, when compared with those exposed to the racially diverse profiles, reported significantly lower levels of sense of belonging and intention to participate in SL. Experiment 2 (n=64) demonstrated that non-White participants exposed to the White-dominant avatar profiles gave significantly higher estimation of the White user population within SL; the data also showed that exposure to the White-dominant avatar profiles resulted in a greater sense of limitation on skin customization among non-White participants than among White participants. The present research suggests that ethno-racial minorities, when exposed to avatar-based cues that signal White dominance, may perceive the virtual world as identity threatening, thereby feeling psychologically disconnected and detached from it. Implications regarding racial/ethnic diversity in virtual worlds are discussed.

  4. GUIDELINES FOR TESTING MINORITY GROUP CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FISHMAN, JOSHUA A.; AND OTHERS

    FACTORS INVOLVED IN THE TESTING OF MINORITY GROUP CHILDREN ARE PRESENTED. THE CONVENTIONAL INSTRUMENTS OF MENTAL TESTING ARE TOO OFTEN DEVELOPED FOR THE INTELLECTUAL AND SOCIAL WAYS OF MIDDLE-CLASS CHILDREN. AS A RESULT MINORITY GROUP CHILDREN ARE EXCLUDED FROM OPPORTUNITIES FOR TRAINING BECAUSE OF "CULTURAL DEPRIVATION." THE GUIDE…

  5. The Medicaid Expansion Gap and Racial and Ethnic Minorities With Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Erick G.; Wooten, Nikki R.; Lengnick-Hall, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    We compared the race and ethnicity of individuals residing in states that did and did not expand Medicaid in 2014. Findings indicated that African Americans and Native Americans with substance use disorders who met new federal eligibility criteria for Medicaid were less likely than those of other racial and ethnic groups to live in states that expanded Medicaid. These findings suggest that the uneven expansion of Medicaid may exacerbate racial and ethnic disparities in insurance coverage for substance use disorder treatment. PMID:25905851

  6. Payoffs of Participatory Action Research: Racial and Ethnic Minorities with Disabilities Reflect on their Research Experiences.

    PubMed

    Oden, Kristin; Hernandez, Brigida; Hidalgo, Marco A

    2010-01-01

    The disability community has experienced a long history of segregation and exclusion. With the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, discriminatory attitudes and behaviors would no longer be tolerated under law. In recent decades, disability researchers have also experienced a shift in how research projects are designed and conducted, with participatory action research (PAR) playing a prominent role. This paper provides an overview of these shifts and presents a qualitative study that explored the extent to which racial and ethnic minorities with disabilities were empowered by a PAR project that aimed to increase the physical accessibility of their communities. Content analysis of individual interviews revealed the following main themes: (1) increased knowledge of disability rights; (2) increased sense of independence; and (3) increased desire to advocate. Implications of this study include the important role that PAR may play in empowering racial and ethnic minorities with disabilities.

  7. Geographic access to food shelves among racial/ethnic minorities and foreign-born residents in the Twin Cities

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Amy Maheswaran; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Place-based disparities in access to affordable food sources (e.g., supermarkets) have been well documented, but geographic access to emergency food sources (e.g., food panties, also known as food shelves) is unknown. This study examined the geography of emergency food in the Twin Cities, MN. U.S. Census and American Community Survey data were used to estimate the average distance to the closest food shelf according to area racial/ethnic composition and foreign-born group composition. In adjusted models, areas with the highest proportion of minority groups had shorter distances to the nearest food shelf (0.13–1.03 log-transformed miles, p <0.05), as did census tracts with more residents born in East Africa and Latin America (0.29–0.31 log-transformed miles, p< 0.001). Areas with more racial/ethnic minorities and foreign-born groups may have access to emergency food, but efforts are needed to evaluate the healthfulness and culturally relevance of these offerings. PMID:27066158

  8. Geographic access to food shelves among racial/ethnic minorities and foreign-born residents in the Twin Cities.

    PubMed

    Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Lopez, Amy Maheswaran; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2016-01-01

    Place-based disparities in access to affordable food sources (e.g., supermarkets) have been well documented, but geographic access to emergency food sources (e.g., food panties, also known as food shelves) is unknown. This study examined the geography of emergency food in the Twin Cities, MN. U.S. Census and American Community Survey data were used to estimate the average distance to the closest food shelf according to area racial/ethnic composition and foreign-born group composition. In adjusted models, areas with the highest proportion of minority groups had shorter distances to the nearest food shelf (0.13-1.03 log-transformed miles, p <0.05), as did census tracts with more residents born in East Africa and Latin America (0.29-0.31 log-transformed miles, p< 0.001). Areas with more racial/ethnic minorities and foreign-born groups may have access to emergency food, but efforts are needed to evaluate the healthfulness and culturally relevance of these offerings.

  9. Availability of cord blood extends allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant access to racial and ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    Barker, Juliet N; Byam, Courtney E; Kernan, Nancy A; Lee, Sinda S; Hawke, Rebecca M; Doshi, Kathleen A; Wells, Deborah S; Heller, Glenn; Papadopoulos, Esperanza B; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Young, James W; van den Brink, Marcel R M

    2010-11-01

    Allogeneic transplant access can be severely limited for patients of racial and ethnic minorities without suitable sibling donors. Whether cord blood (CB) transplantation can extend transplant access because of the reduced stringency of required HLA-match is not proven. We prospectively evaluated availability of unrelated donors (URD) and CB according to patient ancestry in 553 patients without suitable sibling donors. URDs had priority if adequate donors were available. Otherwise ≥4/6 HLA-matched CB grafts were chosen utilizing double units to augment graft dose. Patients had highly diverse ancestries including 35% non-Europeans. In 525 patients undergoing combined searches, 10/10 HLA-matched URDs were identified in 53% of those with European ancestry, but only 21% of patients with non-European origins (P < .001). However, the majority of both groups had 5-6/6 CB units. The 269 URD transplant recipients were predominantly European, with non-European patients accounting for only 23%. By contrast, 56% of CB transplant recipients had non-European ancestries (P < .001). Of 26 patients without any suitable stem cell source, 73% had non-European ancestries (P < .001). Their median weight was significantly higher than CB transplant recipients (P <.001), partially accounting for their lack of a CB graft. Availability of CB significantly extends allo-transplant access, especially in non-European patients, and has the greatest potential to provide a suitable stem cell source regardless of race or ethnicity. Minority patients in need of allografts, but without suitable matched sibling donors, should be referred for combined URD and CB searches to optimize transplant access.

  10. RACIAL CONTACT, PERSONALITY, AND GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ABNER, EDWARD V.; LEWIT, DAVID W.

    THIS STUDY TESTS THE HYPOTHESIS THAT BIRACIAL GROUPS IN WHICH RACEMATES WERE PAIRED FOR DIRECT CONTACT WOULD PERFORM BETTER THAN THOSE IN WHICH RACEMATES WERE ISOLATED. IT ALSO ASSUMED THAT ETHNOCENTRIC SUBJECTS WOULD PERFORM BETTER WITH CONTACT WITH A RACEMATE, AND THAT AGGRESSIVE SUBJECTS WOULD GET ALONG WELL WITHOUT IT. THE SUBJECTS WERE BOYS…

  11. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity-associated hypertension in the racial ethnic minorities of the United States.

    PubMed

    Falkner, Bonita; Cossrow, Nicole D F H

    2014-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clinical condition that includes multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors, including obesity, high blood pressure or hypertension, dyslipidemia, and abnormal glucose metabolism. The core metabolic abnormality in MetS is insulin resistance, or impaired insulin-mediated glucose regulation that results in elevated plasma insulin concentration. MetS greatly increases the risk for diabetes, atherosclerosis, and adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes. The syndrome is present in over 25 % of adults in the U.S., with higher rates among racial/ethnic minority groups. Although commonly associated with adult diseases and aging, MetS has also been described in children and adolescents, but at a much lower prevalence of approximately 4-5 %. Because obesity is a key component of the syndrome, the growing childhood epidemic has raised awareness of MetS in children. The rate of MetS among obese children and adolescents is approximately 30 %, with similar racial/ethnic disparity among minority groups as among adults.

  12. How scholarly nursing literature addresses health disparities for racial/ethnic minority men.

    PubMed

    Dallas, Constance

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review conceptual/theoretical and review/agenda setting nursing literature on the health care of racial/ethnic minority men [specifically African American/Black, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian/Alaskan Native and Asian/Pacific Islander men] in one of the four targeted areas of health disparities. CINAHL and MEDLINE computer databases were searched from 1983 to the present using a combination of manual and computer-based methods to identify the nursing literature that included any racial/ethnic men in the sample and addressed at least one of the four areas of health disparities targeted by Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) that affect adults: heart disease, malignant neoplasms (cancer), diabetes mellitus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/AIDS. This review provides an overview of health disparities experienced by racial/ethnic minority men in the targeted areas and of the types of conceptual and agenda-setting articles published in scholarly nursing literature in those targeted areas.

  13. Crack in the Pipeline: Why Female Underrepresented Racial Minority College Students Leave Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez-Akim, Jenny Amanda

    Female and underrepresented racial minority (URM) students are indicating their interest in STEM fields at increasing rates, yet when examining the engineering discipline specifically disparities in degree completion rates between female URM students and others in the racial or gender majority are even more severe. This study explored female URM college student perceptions of school and classroom climate and the impact these factors had on their decision to persist or to leave engineering. Through a qualitative interview methodology grounded in Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), this study explored factors including self-efficacy, perceived barriers and supports, other-group orientation and outcome expectations that influenced students' academic decision-making. Interview participants consisted of 5 female URM students that matriculated into an engineering major at a top tier, private university but subsequently left the discipline in pursuit of another field of study. The perceptions of this target population were juxtaposed with interview data from 4 male non-URM, 4 female non-URM, and 4 male URM leavers in addition to 7 female URM engineering persisters. As a final component in the research design, 9 undergraduate engineering faculty were interviewed to understand their perceptions of why female URM students leave engineering in pursuit of other disciplines. With faculty being a central component of the academic environment, their perceptions of female URM students, as well as how they view their role in these students' retention, provided insight on this other side of retention question. Salient findings emerged that differentiated female URM leavers' experiences in engineering from other student populations. Female URM leavers were less likely to call upon self-directed learning strategies in response to academic challenges. Perceived academic barriers such as heavy course loads, lack of connection between material and application, and perceived academic

  14. Universalism, conservation and attitudes toward minority groups.

    PubMed

    Beierlein, Constanze; Kuntz, Anabel; Davidov, Eldad

    2016-07-01

    Findings from previous studies corroborate the hypothesis that universalism and conservation values are associated with negative attitudes toward immigration. In the current study we examine whether universalism and conservation values also play a critical role in the explanation of attitudes toward other minority groups. Drawing on previous research on group-focused enmity, we explore its relations with universalism and conservation values in a German sample. Employing structural equation modeling, we find that individuals who prioritize universalism values approve of various minorities more whereas those who prioritize conservation values exhibit more disapproval.

  15. Acculturation and enculturation as predictors of psychological help-seeking attitudes (HSAs) among racial and ethnic minorities: A meta-analytic investigation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shufang; Hoyt, William T; Brockberg, Dustin; Lam, Jaime; Tiwari, Dhriti

    2016-11-01

    Psychological services are culturally encapsulated for dominant cultural groups, and racial minorities underutilize treatment even though they suffer from more severe psychological distress. Sociocultural factors such as acculturation (one's adaptation into mainstream group) and enculturation (one's adherence to culture of heritage) are hypothesized to affect minorities' attitudes toward seeking psychological services. This meta-analysis examined 3 methods to assess acculturation/enculturation-unidimensional acculturation, bidimensional acculturation, and bidimensional enculturation as predictors of help-seeking attitudes (HSAs)-both positive and negative attitudes-among racial and ethnic minorities in 207 samples drawn from 111 research reports. The omnibus correlations between acculturation/enculturation variables and HSAs were quite small, but in the predicted direction. Moderator analyses suggested a more nuanced understanding of the association between bidimensional enculturation and positive HSAs: This association was significant (r = -.14 95% CI[-.18, -.09]) for Asians and Asian Americans, but very close to zero and nonsignificant for other racial minority groups (African Americans, Latino Americans, and others). In addition, the domain of acculturation/enculturation assessed was predictive of effect size, with enculturation measures containing a higher proportion of cognitive items (e.g., items that assess cultural values and beliefs) showing stronger (more negative) associations with positive HSAs. Post hoc analyses indicated that certain Asian cultural values, including emotional self-control, conformity to social norms, and collectivism, showed especially high negative associations with positive HSAs. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Satisfaction with Cancer Care Among Underserved Racial-Ethnic Minorities And Lower Income Patients Receiving Patient Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Jean-Pierre, Pascal; Cheng, Ying; Wells, Kristen J.; Freund, Karen M.; Snyder, Frederick R.; Fiscella, Kevin; Holden, Alan E.; Paskett, Electra; Dudley, Donald; Simon, Melissa A.; Valverde, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patient navigation is a barrier-focused program of care coordination designed to achieve timely and high quality cancer-related care for medically underserved racial-ethnic minorities and the poor. However, few studies have examined the relationship between satisfaction with navigators and cancer-related care. METHODS We included data from 1,345 patients with abnormal cancer screening or definitive cancer diagnosis who participated in the Patient Navigation Research Program to test the efficacy of patient navigation. Participants completed demographic questionnaires and measures of Patient Satisfaction with Cancer-related Care (PSCC) and Patient Satisfaction with Interpersonal Characteristics of Navigators (PSN-I). We obtained descriptive statistics to characterize the sample, and conducted regression analyses to assess the degree of association between PSN-I and PSCC, controlling for demographic and clinical factors. We conducted analysis of variance to examine group differences controlling for statistically significant covariates. RESULTS We found statistically significant relationships between the PSCC and PSN-I for patients with abnormal cancer screening (N=1040, r=0.4, p<0.001) and definitive cancer diagnosis (N=305, r=0.4, p<0.001). The regression analysis showed that having abnormal colorectal cancer screening in the abnormal screening group and increased age and minority race-ethnicity status in the cancer diagnosis group were associated with higher satisfaction with cancer care (p<0.01). CONCLUSION Satisfaction with navigators is significantly associated with satisfaction with cancer-related care. Information about the patient-navigator relationship should be integrated in patient navigation programs to maximize the likelihood of reducing caner disparities and mortality for medically underserved racial-ethnic minorities and the poor. PMID:26849163

  17. Oral health-related cultural beliefs for four racial/ethnic groups: Assessment of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Butani, Yogita; Weintraub, Jane A; Barker, Judith C

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess information available in the dental literature on oral health-related cultural beliefs. In the US, as elsewhere, many racial/ethnic minority groups shoulder a disproportionate burden of oral disease. Cultural beliefs, values and practices are often implicated as causes of oral health disparities, yet little is known about the breadth or adequacy of literature about cultural issues that could support these assertions. Hence, this rigorous assessment was conducted of work published in English on cultural beliefs and values in relation to oral health status and dental practice. Four racial/ethnic groups in the US (African-American, Chinese, Filipino and Hispanic/Latino) were chosen as exemplar populations. Methods The dental literature published in English for the period 1980–2006 noted in the electronic database PUBMED was searched, using keywords and MeSH headings in different combinations for each racial/ethnic group to identify eligible articles. To be eligible the title and abstract when available had to describe the oral health-related cultural knowledge or orientation of the populations studied. Results Overall, the majority of the literature on racial/ethnic groups was epidemiologic in nature, mainly demonstrating disparities in oral health rather than the oral beliefs or practices of these groups. A total of 60 relevant articles were found: 16 for African-American, 30 for Chinese, 2 for Filipino and 12 for Hispanic/Latino populations. Data on beliefs and practices from these studies has been abstracted, compiled and assessed. Few research-based studies were located. Articles lacked adequate identification of groups studied, used limited methods and had poor conceptual base. Conclusion The scant information available from the published dental and medical literature provides at best a rudimentary framework of oral health related ideas and beliefs for specific populations. PMID:18793438

  18. Disadvantages of Minority Group Membership: The Perspective of a "Nondeprived" Minority Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Abraham D.

    1975-01-01

    Utilizing a sample of Jewish undergraduate students, evidence is presented to indicate that a minority group which is not deprived materially can nonetheless perceive itself as receiving disadvantages from its minority group status. The most frequently perceived disadvantages (as well as advantages) are enumerated and discussed. (EH)

  19. Disparities in Completion of Substance Abuse Treatment between and within Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Erick G; Marsh, Jeanne C; Duan, Lei; Oh, Christine; Perron, Brian; Lee, Benedict

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate disparities in substance abuse treatment completion between and within racial and ethnic groups in publicly funded treatment in Los Angeles County, California. Data Source The Los Angeles County Participant Reporting System with multicross-sectional annual data (2006–2009) for adult participants (n = 16,637) who received treatment from publicly funded programs (n = 276) for the first time. Study Design Retrospective analyses of county discharge and admission data. Hierarchical linear regressions models were used to test the hypotheses. Data Collection Client data were collected during personal interviews at admission and discharge for most participants. Principal Findings African Americans and Latinos reported lower odds of completing treatment compared with Whites. Within-group analysis revealed significant heterogeneity within racial and ethnic groups, highlighting primary drug problem, days of drug use before admission, and homelessness as significant factors affecting treatment completion. Service factors, such as referral by the criminal justice system, enabled completion among Latinos and Whites only. Conclusions These findings have implications for reducing health disparities among members of racial and ethnic minorities by identifying individual and service factors associated with treatment adherence, particularly for first-time clients. PMID:23350871

  20. Identification of Gifted Minority Group Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Richard F.; And Others

    A study involving 12 elementary age Hispanic children identified as gifted and placed in a creative arts program investigated the issue of identifying gifted minority group children. Ss were administered the System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment (SOMPA) and the Cartoon Conservation Scales (CCS). Comparisons were made between teacher…

  1. [Mental health problems in ethnic minority groups].

    PubMed

    Kucharska, Justyna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the specificity of mental health issues as experienced by ethnic minority groups' representatives. A substantial body of evidence clearly indicates the differences in incidence of psychosis, affective disorders and suicidal tendencies in members of minority groups compared to the rest of the population. Relevant statistical data will be presented and examined from both a biological and socio-cultural point of view. Hoffman's Social Deafferentation Hypothesis will be introduced as a possible explanation of high incidence of psychotic disorders in immigrants. Subsequently, socio-cultural factors will receive attention. Acculturation and identity issues will be taken into account with regards to the data suggesting that these are second generation immigrants that suffer from mental health disorders most. The fact of being discriminated against and being exposed to negative social messages regarding one's group of reference will also be taken into consideration. Moreover, ethnic minorities will be compared on this dimension with other groups discriminated against, such as women and sexual minorities.

  2. Mobile Technology for Obesity Prevention A Randomized Pilot Study in Racial and Ethnic Minority Girls

    PubMed Central

    Nollen, Nicole L.; Mayo, Matthew S.; Carlson, Susan E.; Rapoff, Michael A.; Goggin, Kathy J.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mobile technologies have wide-scale reach and disseminability, but no known studies have examined mobile technologies as a stand-alone tool to improve obesity-related behaviors of at-risk youth. Purpose To test a 12-week mobile technology intervention for use and estimate effect sizes for a fully powered trial. Methods Fifty-one low-income, racial/ethnic minority girls aged 9–14 years were randomized to a mobile technology (n=26) or control (n=25) condition. Both conditions lasted 12 weeks and targeted fruits/vegetables (FV; weeks 1–4), sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB; weeks 5–8), and 2 screen time (weeks 9–12). The mobile intervention prompted real-time goal setting and self-monitoring and provided tips, feedback, and positive reinforcement related to the target behaviors. Controls received the same content in a written manual but no prompting. Outcomes included device utilization and effect sizes estimates of FV, SSB, screen time, and BMI. Data were collected and analyzed in 2011–2012. Results Mobile technology girls used the program on 63% of days and exhibited trends toward increased FVs (+0.88, p=0.08) and decreased SSBs (−0.33, p=0.09). The adjusted difference between groups of 1.0 servings of FV (p=0.13) and 0.35 servings of SSB (p=0.25) indicated small to moderate effects of the intervention (Cohen’s d=0.44 and −0.34, respectively). No differences were observed for screen time or BMI. Conclusions A stand-alone mobile app may produce small to moderate effects for FV and SSB. Given the extensive reach of mobile devices, this pilot study demonstrates the need for larger-scale testing of similar programs to address obesity-related behaviors in high-risk youth. PMID:24650843

  3. Ethnic identity, perceived support, and depressive symptoms among racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha

    2015-01-01

    Although racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents compose a rapidly growing sector of the U.S. population, few studies have examined the role of contextual factors in mental health among these youth. The present study examined the relationship between ethnic identity and depressive symptoms, the relationship between perceived social support and depressive symptoms, and the relationship between sociodemographic factors (ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status) and depressive symptoms, among a culturally diverse group of adolescents. In addition, the potential moderating role of nativity status (U.S. born vs. foreign born) was examined in these associations. Participants were 9th and 10th graders (N = 341; 141 foreign born and 200 U.S. born, from Asian, Latino(a), and Afro-Caribbean backgrounds), attending an urban high school. Consistent with previous research, ethnic identity was negatively associated with depressive symptomatology in the overall sample. Nativity status did not moderate the relationship between ethnic identity and depressive symptoms. Among the sociodemographic factors examined, only gender was associated with depressive symptoms, with girls reporting higher levels of depressive symptoms compared with boys. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in the degree of depressive symptomatology between U.S.-born and foreign-born adolescents, and perceived social support was not associated with fewer depressive symptoms. The findings suggest the importance of gender and ethnic identity in mental health and, more broadly, the complexity of social location in mental health outcomes among U.S.-born and foreign-born immigrant-origin adolescents. Implications for research and interventions with immigrant-origin adolescents are discussed.

  4. Intermittent and light daily smoking across racial/ethnic groups in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Emery, Sherry L.; White, Martha M.; Grana, Rachel A.; Messer, Karen S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Limited research exists examining the prevalence of intermittent (nondaily) and light daily (1–5 cigarettes/day) smoking across racial/ethnic groups in the United States using nationally representative data. These analyses would be informative in guiding targeted cessation strategies. Methods: Using logistic regression models controlling for age, gender, and education, we examined the prevalence of intermittent and light daily consumption among current smokers across racial/ethnic groups from the 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. We also examined the association of these demographic factors with consumption within each racial/ethnic group separately. Results: Black (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.59–2.07), Asian/Pacific Islander (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.29–2.04), and Hispanic/Latino (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 2.75–3.74) smokers were more likely to smoke intermittently compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Black (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 2.27–3.18), Asian/Pacific Islander (OR = 2.99, 95% CI = 2.13–4.19), and Hispanic/Latino (OR = 4.64, 95% CI = 3.85–5.58) smokers also were more likely to have light daily consumption compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Hispanic/Latino intermittent smokers smoked fewer days per month and fewer cigarettes per day compared with non-Hispanic White smokers. We found no significant gender differences across racial/ethnic groups in intermittent smoking, but male smokers were significantly less likely to have light daily consumption for all racial/ethnic groups. Discussion: These results have implications for the understanding of the tobacco dependence, the development of prevention and cessation strategies, and the applicability of harm-reduction techniques for racial/ethnic minorities. PMID:19246433

  5. Organizational implementation of evidence-based substance abuse treatment in racial and ethnic minority communities.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Erick G; He, Amy; Kim, Ahraemi; Aarons, Gregory A

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated organizational factors associated with the implementation of contingency management treatment (CMT) and medication-assisted treatment (MAT) in substance abuse treatment (SAT) programs serving racial and ethnic minority communities. Analysis of cross-sectional data collected in 2010-2011 from a random sample of 148 publicly funded SAT programs showed that accepting private insurance was positively associated with CMT and MAT implementation, whereas larger programs were associated with greater implementation of MAT. Supervisorial openness to and expectations about implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) and attributes for change were strongly associated with CMT, whereas the interactions between openness to EBPs and programs that accept private insurance and that are governed by parent organizations were positively associated with MAT. These external expectations and managerial attitudes supported the implementation of psychosocial and pharmacotherapy treatments in SAT. Implications for improving standards of care in minority communities are discussed.

  6. Racial and sexual identity-related maltreatment among minority YMSM: prevalence, perceptions, and the association with emotional distress.

    PubMed

    Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Phillips, Gregory; Jones, Karen C; Outlaw, Angulique Y; Fields, Sheldon D; Smith, Justin C

    2011-08-01

    Bullying is a form of violence characterized as an aggressive behavior that is unprovoked and intended to cause harm. Prior studies have found that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience high levels of bullying related to their sexuality and this harassment can lead to engagement in risk behaviors, depression, and suicide. Ethnic/racial minority young men who have sex with men (YMSM) may experience dual levels of stigma and maltreatment due to both their sexuality and their race. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence and perceptions of racial and sexual identity-based abuse among a sample of minority YMSM, and whether this maltreatment plays a role in the emotional distress of these youth. We found that overall 36% and 85% of participants experienced racial and sexuality-related bullying, respectively. There was a significant association between experiencing a high level of sexuality-related bullying and depressive symptomatology (p=0.03), having attempted suicide (p=0.03), and reporting parental abuse (p=0.05). We found no association between racial bullying and suicide attempts. In a multivariable logistic regression model, experiencing any racial bullying and high sexuality-related bullying were significant predictors of having a CES-D score ≥16; adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.83 and 2.29, respectively. These findings contribute to the existing literature regarding the negative experiences and daily stressors facing LGBT youth with regard to both their minority status and LGBT identities. Future interventions for racial/ethnic minority YMSM should provide assistance to achieve a positive view of self that encompasses both their racial and sexual identities.

  7. HIV Awareness and Knowledge among Viewers of a Documentary Film about HIV among Racial- or Ethnic-Minority Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Ebor, Megan; Murray, Ashley; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline

    2015-08-01

    A documentary film on HIV was developed based on social cognitive theory and entertainment educational methods in an effort to increase awareness and encourage protective behavior change related to HIV among older adults. The documentary includes perspectives from racial- or ethnic-minority older adults who are living with HIV and those of health care providers, and was screened in several venues. Authors of this article conducted thematic content analysis of anonymous, written, open-ended responses from 341 film viewers (clinicians and laypeople) who described what they learned about HIV after viewing the film. Four key themes emerged from the analysis: (1) increased awareness about the epidemiology of HIV among older, minority groups and about sexuality among older people; (2) improved general HIV knowledge, including risk reduction strategies and details about HIV testing; (3) awareness of lack of sexual health education among health care providers, and that a call to action is needed; and (4) awareness that HIV reinfection can occur in certain circumstances with people who are already infected. Findings suggest that an educational documentary can be used to effectively increase awareness and knowledge about the impact of HIV among minority older adults, and may also encourage HIV prevention action steps by providers.

  8. The Racial Identity Development of Male Student-Athletes when Blacks Are the Majority and Whites Are the Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Wilma J.; Closson, Rosemary B.

    2012-01-01

    Focus groups were used in the present study to explore the racial identity development of Black male and White male student-athletes on a predominantly Black, Division IA football team at a predominantly White institution (PWI). Findings indicate that the Black male football players demonstrated positive indicators of Black racial identity. The…

  9. Housework, children, and women's wages across racial-ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Heather Macpherson

    2014-07-01

    Motherhood affects women's household labor and paid employment, but little previous research has explored the extent to which hours of housework may explain per child wage penalties or differences in such penalties across racial-ethnic groups. In this paper, I use longitudinal Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) data to examine how variations in household labor affect the motherhood penalty for White, Black, and Hispanic women. In doing so, I first assess how children affect hours of household labor across these groups and then explore the extent to which this household labor mediates the relationship between children and wages for these women. I find that household labor explains a portion of the motherhood penalty for White women, who experience the most dramatic increases in household labor with additional children. Black and Hispanic women experience slight increases in housework with additional children, but neither children nor housework affects their already low wages.

  10. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures.

  11. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Blume, Arthur W.

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures. PMID:27159811

  12. Statistical Effects of Religious Participation and Marriage on Substance Use and Abuse in Racial and Ethnic Minorities.

    PubMed

    Hearld, Kristine Ria; Badham, Amy; Budhwani, Henna

    2016-11-29

    Substance use and abuse, which includes alcohol use, alcohol dependence, drug use, and drug dependence, inflicts a substantial toll on Americans. Although studies have demonstrated the protective effect of social support, such as religious participation and via marriage, understanding their influence on racial and ethnic minorities is limited. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the impact of social support on substance use and abuse in racial and ethnic minorities. The Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys, sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health, a repository of race, ethnicity, and mental health data, was leveraged to develop four models using multivariate analysis, specifically logistic regression to estimate the probability of meeting the criteria for substance use and abuse. Racial and ethnic minorities were found to have lower rates of substance use and abuse compared to Whites, and foreign-born individuals were consistently less likely to use or abuse substances compared to American-born minorities. Mental health conditions were highly associated with substance use and abuse, and social support by way of religious participation and marriage was protective against substance use and abuse. In racial and ethnic minorities, nativity and social support were protective against substance use and abuse; however, these protective factors did not completely eliminate risk. Thus, although race and ethnicity are important to understanding health outcomes and health behaviors, such as substance use and abuse, it is the intersection of multiple factors, representing internal and external forces, which may be more informative and offer a more comprehensive picture of the landscape influencing drug and alcohol use and dependence. Targeted interventions should consider leveraging religious spaces and bilingual materials when attempting to reach racial and ethnic minorities.

  13. Disparities in Treatment for Substance Use Disorders and Co-Occurring Disorders for Ethnic/Racial Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alegria, Margarita; Carson, Nicholas J.; Goncalves, Marta; Keefe, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on racial and ethnic disparities in behavioral health services and present recent data, focusing on services for substance use disorders (SUD) and comorbid mental health disorders for children and adolescents. Method: A literature review was conducted of behavioral health services for minority youth. Articles…

  14. Improving the Rate of Success for Underrepresented Racial Minorities in STEM Fields: Insights from a National Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtado, Sylvia; Newman, Christopher B.; Tran, Minh C.; Chang, Mitchell J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors report on research that aims to understand diversity in STEM and the principles of good practice in undergraduate science education that will improve rates of degree attainment and advancement into graduate studies in related fields among underrepresented racial minorities (URMs). Although students' precollege…

  15. Self-Regulated Learning and Ethnic/Racial Variables: Predicting Minority First-Generation College Students' Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John S., III.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how self-regulated learning and ethnic/racial variables predict minority first-generation college student persistence and related constructs. Participants were drawn nationally from the U.S. Department of Education funded TRiO Student Support Services Programs. Additional participants from the Talent…

  16. Less Socially Engaged? Participation in Friendship and Extracurricular Activities Among Racial/Ethnic Minority and Immigrant Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherng, Hua-Yu Sebastian; Turney, Kristin; Kao, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Prior research has linked social engagement, such as peer interaction and participation in school activities, to a host of positive outcomes for youth and adolescents. However, little research considers patterns of social engagement among racial/ethnic minority and immigrant adolescents, despite prior research suggesting…

  17. The role of a clinical director in developing an innovative assertive community treatment team targeting ethno-racial minority patients.

    PubMed

    Law, Samuel

    2007-09-01

    Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) is a well established, evidence-based approach for delivering psychiatric care to clients with severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI). Research shows that special populations such as refugees, recent immigrants, and persons from ethnic minorities with cultural and language barriers are among the hardest to serve and one of the most underserved groups of mental health patients. Focusing on examples of the Clinical Directors' three main task domains, this paper discusses the unique role of the Clinical Director in developing an ACT team that specifically serves ethno-racial minority patients. A program evaluation process to validate the effectiveness of the team illustrates the administrative role; a strategy to incorporate the culturally sensitive and competent "illness narrative" model in all clinical encounters of the team illustrates the direct service role; and clinical programming and research addressing the unique family psychoeducation and other needs of this special client population illustrates the clinical collaboration role. The role of the Clinical Director on this special ACT team fits well with that of a program level Clinical Director as described in literature. The role demands specialized clinical, administrative, advocacy, and evaluative skills emphasized in programs such as the Columbia University Public Psychiatry Fellowship.

  18. Associations Between Self-Reported Discrimination and Diurnal Cortisol Rhythms Among Young Adults: The Moderating Role of Racial-Ethnic Minority Status

    PubMed Central

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Hoyt, Lindsay T.; Adam, Emma K.

    2014-01-01

    Discrimination is theorized to set in motion a neuroendocrine response, which includes cortisol secretion from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Repeated exposure to perceived discrimination is thought to contribute to alterations in diurnal cortisol rhythms and to have implications for health. Discrimination may have particularly strong effects on racial/ethnic minority individuals, based on histories of past exposure and/or greater perceived implications of discriminatory events. Utilizing an ethnically and racially diverse sample of young adults (N = 140; Mage = 22.8 years) and a multiple-day naturalistic cortisol protocol, the present study examined associations between self-reported discrimination and cortisol diurnal rhythms, and whether this relation was moderated by racial/ethnic minority status. Results revealed that self-reported discrimination predicted flatter diurnal cortisol slopes for racial/ethnic minority individuals only. These findings align with theory suggesting that discrimination experiences are important among racial/ethnic minorities. PMID:25262035

  19. Associations between self-reported discrimination and diurnal cortisol rhythms among young adults: The moderating role of racial-ethnic minority status.

    PubMed

    Zeiders, Katharine H; Hoyt, Lindsay T; Adam, Emma K

    2014-12-01

    Discrimination is theorized to set in motion a neuroendocrine response, which includes cortisol secretion from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Repeated exposure to perceived discrimination is thought to contribute to alterations in diurnal cortisol rhythms and to have implications for health. Discrimination may have particularly strong effects on racial/ethnic minority individuals, based on histories of past exposure and/or greater perceived implications of discriminatory events. Utilizing an ethnically and racially diverse sample of young adults (N=140; Mage=22.8 years) and a multiple-day naturalistic cortisol protocol, the present study examined associations between self-reported discrimination and diurnal cortisol rhythms, and whether this relation was moderated by racial/ethnic minority status. Results revealed that self-reported discrimination predicted flatter diurnal cortisol slopes for racial/ethnic minority individuals only. These findings align with theory suggesting that discrimination experiences are important among racial/ethnic minorities.

  20. The associations of sexual and ethnic-racial identity commitment, conflicts in allegiances, and mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual racial and ethnic minority adults.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carlos E; VanDaalen, Rachel A

    2016-11-01

    We present results from a study exploring the associations of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) identity commitment and ethnic-racial identity commitment, conflicts in allegiances (CIA) between these 2 identities, and depression among LGB racial and ethnic minority people. LGB racial and ethnic minority adults (N = 208; Mage = 27.52, SD = 8.76), including 104 (50%) men, 93 (44.7%) women, and 11 (5.3%) other gender/ungendered, participated in an online survey. In terms of sexual orientation, 44 (21.2%) identified as lesbian, 90 (43.3%) identified as gay, 51 (24.5%) identified as bisexual women, 16 (7.7%) identified as bisexual men, and seven (3.4%) identified as bisexual gender/ungendered. In terms of race and ethnicity, 46 (22.1%) identified as African American, 49 (23.6%) identified as Asian American, 65 (31.3%) identified as Latinx, 6 (2.9%) identified as Native American, and 42 (20.2%) identified as being of other race/ethnicity or of mixed race. LGB identity commitment was associated with lower levels of depression, and CIA was associated with higher levels of depression. LGB identity commitment moderated the association between CIA and depression such that CIA was associated positively with depression among participants who reported low levels of LGB identity commitment, but this relation was nonsignificant among participants who reported high levels of LGB identity commitment. Implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. The Marginalized "Model" Minority: An Empirical Examination of the Racial Triangulation of Asian Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jun; Lee, Jennifer C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we propose a shift in race research from a one-dimensional hierarchical approach to a multidimensional system of racial stratification. Building upon Claire Kim's (1999) racial triangulation theory, we examine how the American public rates Asians relative to blacks and whites along two dimensions of racial stratification: racial…

  2. Adapting Minority Group Threat to Examine the Social Control of Sexual Orientation Bias.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Michele

    2016-02-24

    Blalock proposed that the threat of a minority group toward a majority in sheer size, economic competition, or power will result in an increase in discrimination toward that group. His original formulation of this theory of minority group threat, and its subsequent extensions, has focused almost exclusively on racial minority-majority relationships; however, Blalock asserted that his theory would apply to any minority-majority group relationship. Extensions to religious groups have shown this is likely the case. The current analysis assesses a further extension of minority group threat by reframing the arguments of the theory and adding two additional sources of threat to examine sexual orientation bias. Data from the Uniform Crime Reports Hate Crime Statistics program are used to assess whether the minority group threat hypotheses explain the reporting of sexual orientation bias crimes. The findings indicate that the original formulation of Blalock's theory does not suffice to explain the reporting of anti-Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual bias crime, but the proposed extensions may explain some of this variation.

  3. Strategies for research recruitment and retention of older adults of racial and ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Graham J; Simpson, Gaynell; Friend, Mary Louanne

    2015-05-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.4 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Strategies for Research Recruitment and Retention of Older Adults of Racial and Ethnic Minorities" found on pages 14-23, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until April 30, 2018. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVE 1. Identify strategies and barriers for the recruitment and retention of older adults of

  4. Behavior Change Interventions to Improve the Health of Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations: A Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Emma M; Liu, Jing Jing; Bhopal, Raj; White, Martin; Johnson, Mark RD; Netto, Gina; Wabnitz, Cecile; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Context Adapting behavior change interventions to meet the needs of racial and ethnic minority populations has the potential to enhance their effectiveness in the target populations. But because there is little guidance on how best to undertake these adaptations, work in this field has proceeded without any firm foundations. In this article, we present our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches as a framework for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers interested in delivering behavior change interventions to ethnically diverse, underserved populations in the United Kingdom. Methods We undertook a mixed-method program of research on interventions for smoking cessation, increasing physical activity, and promoting healthy eating that had been adapted to improve salience and acceptability for African-, Chinese-, and South Asian–origin minority populations. This program included a systematic review (reported using PRISMA criteria), qualitative interviews, and a realist synthesis of data. Findings We compiled a richly informative data set of 161 publications and twenty-six interviews detailing the adaptation of behavior change interventions and the contexts in which they were undertaken. On the basis of these data, we developed our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches, which contains (1) a forty-six-item Typology of Adaptation Approaches; (2) a Pathway to Adaptation, which shows how to use the Typology to create a generic behavior change intervention; and (3) RESET, a decision tool that provides practical guidance on which adaptations to use in different contexts. Conclusions Our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches provides the first evidence-derived suite of materials to support the development, design, implementation, and reporting of health behavior change interventions for minority groups. The Tool Kit now needs prospective, empirical evaluation in a range of intervention and population settings. PMID:24320170

  5. A Systematic Review of the Prevalence of Herb Usage Among Racial/Ethnic Minorities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, Julia; White, Laura F.; Filippelli, Amanda C.; Bharmal, Nazleen; Kaptchuk, Ted J.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies display a wide range of herb use prevalence among racial/ethnic minorities in the United States. We searched databases indexing the literature including CINAHL, EMBASE, Global Health, CAB Abstracts, and Medline. We included studies that reported herbal medicine prevalence among ethnic minorities, African American, Hispanic, or Asian adults living in the United States. Data from 108 included studies found the prevalence of herb use by African Americans was 17 % (range 1–46 %); for Hispanics, 30 % (4–100 %); and for Asians, 30 % (2–73 %). Smaller studies were associated with higher reported herb use (p = 0.03). There was a significant difference (p = 0.01) between regional and national studies with regional studies reporting higher use. While herb usage surveys in racial/ethnic minorities show great variability, indications suggest high prevalence. More research is needed to understand herb use among ethnic/racial minorities, reasons for use, and barriers to disclosure of use to clinicians. PMID:22723252

  6. Racial Group Regard, Barrier Socialization, and African American Adolescents' Engagement: Patterns and Processes by Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalls, Ciara; Cooper, Shauna M.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined gendered processes via 1) profiles of racial barrier socialization, regard for one's racial group (private regard), and behavioral engagement and grades and, 2) gender and private regard as a moderator in the link between barrier messages and academic engagement outcomes. One-hundred and twenty-five African American…

  7. Asian Americans and Campus Climate: Investigating Group Differences around a Racial Incident

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Marc P.; Yeung, Fanny P. F

    2014-01-01

    Racially biased incidents pervade college campuses warranting further attention to their influence on campus climate. This study examines one such incident that targeted Asian American students, who are the largest racial group at the compositionally diverse institution. Using the Diverse Learning Environments survey and the "naturally…

  8. Predictors of Career Indecision in Three Racial/Ethnic Groups of College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Ann-Yi, Sujin

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the contributions of career-related barrier and social support perceptions, barrier-related coping beliefs, and career decision-making self-efficacy beliefs to the prediction of career indecision in three racial/ethnic groups of college women. Results indicate that although there are no racial/ethnic differences across scores…

  9. A Longitudinal Examination of Perceived Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms in Ethnic Minority Youth: The Roles of Attributional Style, Positive Ethnic/Racial Affect, and Emotional Reactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Huq, Nadia; Dunbar, Angel S.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    Although perceived ethnic/racial discrimination is well established as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in ethnic minority youth, few studies have examined their longitudinal relationship over time. This study examined whether a negative attributional style, positive ethnic/racial affect, and emotional reactivity moderated the longitudinal…

  10. What Matters in College for Retaining Aspiring Scientists and Engineers from Underrepresented Racial Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mitchell J.; Sharkness, Jessica; Hurtado, Sylvia; Newman, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined factors that contribute to the persistence of underrepresented racial minority (URM) undergraduates in STEM fields. The primary source of data came from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program's 2004 "The Freshman Survey" (TFS) and 2008 "College Senior Survey" (CSS). The sample…

  11. The Experience of Ethnic and Racial Group Membership among Immigrant-Origin Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Sathasivam-Rueckert, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Immigrant-origin adolescents in the United States face a number of stressors across different social contexts (e.g., home, school), and yet, distress related to these stressors often goes unnoticed and access to resources is limited. This study examined how racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents in an urban setting construct and negotiate…

  12. Neuropsychological impairment in racial/ethnic minorities with HIV infection and low literacy levels: effects of education and reading level in participant characterization.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Elizabeth L; Baird, Reon; Mindt, Monica Rivera; Byrd, Desiree; Monzones, Jennifer; Bank, Susan Morgello

    2005-11-01

    Educational attainment is an important factor in the interpretation of cognitive test scores but years of education are not necessarily synonymous with educational quality among racial/ethnic minority populations. This study investigated the comparability of educational attainment with reading level and examined whether discrepancies in education and reading level accounted for differences in neuropsychological test performance between HIV+ racial/ethnic minority and nonminority participants. Study participants (N=200) were derived from the Manhattan HIV Brain Bank (MHBB) where 50% of the cohort had < or =8th grade reading level but only 5% had < or =8 years of education. Significantly lower reading ability and education was found among African Americans and Hispanics, and these participants were more likely to have discrepant reading and education levels compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Discrepancy in reading and education level was associated with worse neuropsychological performance while racial/ethnic minority status was not. As years of schooling overestimated racial/ethnic minority participants' educational quality, standard norms based on education may inflate impairment rates among racial/ethnic minorities. Identifying appropriate normative standards is and will continue to be important in the detection of cognitive impairment in racial/ethnic minorities with HIV.

  13. The Impacts of Friendship Groups' Racial Composition When Perceptions of Prejudice Threaten Students' Academic Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Brett

    2012-01-01

    Literature on racially prejudiced stereotypes suggests that students' academic self-concepts (ASC) can be damaged when a stereotype demeans the intelligence of their racial or ethnic group. There is little research on how students overcome this burden, but there is some evidence that the racial composition of friendship groups play a role. One…

  14. Ethnic Bilingual Education for Canada's Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, James Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Historical forces and factors affecting the development of Canada's bilingual programs for ethnic minorities include changing immigration policies, a decline in Anglo-conformism and growth in multiculturalism, fears about native language maintenance and second language learning, and language and cultural attitudes in second language learning. (MSE)

  15. The Contributions of Selected Diseases to Disparities in Death Rates and Years of Life Lost for Racial/Ethnic Minorities in the United States, 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Peace, Frederick; Howard, Virginia J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Differences in risk for death from diseases and other causes among racial/ethnic groups likely contributed to the limited improvement in the state of health in the United States in the last few decades. The objective of this study was to identify causes of death that are the largest contributors to health disparities among racial/ethnic groups. Methods Using data from WONDER system, we measured the relative (age-adjusted mortality ratio [AAMR]) and absolute (difference in years of life lost [dYLL]) differences in mortality risk between the non-Hispanic white population and the black, Hispanic, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Asian/Pacific Islander populations for the 25 leading causes of death. Results Many causes contributed to disparities between non-Hispanic whites and blacks, led by assault (AAMR, 7.56; dYLL, 4.5 million). Malignant neoplasms were the second largest absolute contributor (dYLL, 3.8 million) to black–white disparities; we also found substantial relative and absolute differences for several cardiovascular diseases. Only assault, diabetes, and diseases of the liver contributed substantially to disparities between non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics (AAMR ≥ 1.65; dYLL ≥ 325,000). Many causes of death, led by assault (AAMR, 3.25; dYLL, 98,000), contributed to disparities between non-Hispanic whites and American Indians/Alaska Natives; Asian/Pacific Islanders did not have a higher risk than non-Hispanic whites for death from any disease. Conclusion Assault was a substantial contributor to disparities in mortality among non-Asian racial/ethnic minority populations. Research and intervention resources need to target diseases (such as diabetes and diseases of the liver) that affect certain racial/ethnic populations. PMID:25078566

  16. Trends in the neuropsychological assessment of ethnic/racial minorities: a survey of clinical neuropsychologists in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Elbulok-Charcape, Milushka M; Rabin, Laura A; Spadaccini, Amanda T; Barr, William B

    2014-07-01

    Despite the importance of diversity variables to the clinical practice of neuropsychology, little is known about neuropsychologists' multicultural assessment practices and perspectives. The current study was the first to survey issues related to neuropsychologists' assessment of minority populations, proficiency in languages other than English, approaches to interpreting the cognitive scores of minorities, and perceived challenges associated with assessing ethnic/racial minority patients. We also surveyed respondents with regard to their own demographic backgrounds, as neuropsychologists who identify as ethnic/racial minorities are reportedly underrepresented in the field. Respondents were 512 (26% usable response rate; 54% female) doctorate-level psychologists affiliated with the International Neuropsychology Society or the National Academy of Neuropsychology who resided in the United States or Canada. Overall, results suggest that lack of appropriate norms, tests, and referral sources are perceived as the greatest challenges associated with assessment of ethnic/racial minorities, that multicultural training is not occurring for some practitioners, and that some are conducting assessments in foreign languages despite limited proficiency. In addition, ethnic/racial minorities appear to be grossly underrepresented in the field of neuropsychology. Findings are discussed in relation to the need for appropriate education and training of neuropsychologists in multicultural issues and the provision of more valid assessments for ethnic/racial minority individuals.

  17. Epidemiology of drinking, alcohol use disorders, and related problems in US ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Chartier, Karen G; Mills, Britain A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews selected epidemiologic studies on drinking and associated problems among US ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities and the White majority group exhibit important differences in alcohol use and related problems, including alcohol use disorders. Studies show a higher rate of binge drinking, drinking above guidelines, alcohol abuse, and dependence for major ethnic and racial groups, notably, Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. Other problems with a higher prevalence in certain minority groups are, for example, cancer (Blacks), cirrhosis (Hispanics), fetal alcohol syndrome (Blacks and American Indians/Alaskan Natives), drinking and driving (Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives). There are also considerable differences in rates of drinking and problems within certain ethnic groups such as Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. For instance, among Hispanics, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans drink more and have higher rates of disorders such as alcohol abuse and dependence than Cuban Americans. Disparities also affect the trajectory of heavy drinking and the course of alcohol dependence among minorities. Theoretic accounts of these disparities generally attribute them to the historic experience of discrimination and to minority socioeconomic disadvantages at individual and environmental levels.

  18. Intimate Partner Violence and Its Health Impact on Disproportionately Affected Populations, Including Minorities and Impoverished Groups

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hitomi; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the United States, intimate partner violence (IPV) against women disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Further, disparities related to socioeconomic and foreign-born status impact the adverse physical and mental health outcomes as a result of IPV, further exacerbating these health consequences. This article reviews 36 U.S. studies on the physical (e.g., multiple injuries, disordered eating patterns), mental (e.g., depression, post-traumatic stress disorder), and sexual and reproductive health conditions (e.g., HIV/STIs, unintended pregnancy) resulting from IPV victimization among ethnic minority (i.e., Black/African American, Hispanic/Latina, Native American/Alaska Native, Asian American) women, some of whom are immigrants. Most studies either did not have a sufficient sample size of ethnic minority women or did not use adequate statistical techniques to examine differences among different racial/ethnic groups. Few studies focused on Native American/Alaska Native and immigrant ethnic minority women and many of the intra-ethnic group studies have confounded race/ethnicity with income and other social determinants of health. Nonetheless, of the available data, there is evidence of health inequities associated with both minority ethnicity and IPV. To appropriately respond to the health needs of these groups of women, it is necessary to consider social, cultural, structural, and political barriers (e.g., medical mistrust, historical racism and trauma, perceived discrimination, immigration status) to patient–provider communication and help-seeking behaviors related to IPV, which can influence health outcomes. This comprehensive approach will mitigate the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities related to IPV and associated health outcomes and behaviors. PMID:25551432

  19. Do unto others as others have done unto you?: Perceiving sexism influences women's evaluations of stigmatized racial groups.

    PubMed

    Craig, Maureen A; Dehart, Tracy; Richeson, Jennifer A; Fiedorowicz, Luke

    2012-09-01

    The present research examines how making discrimination salient influences stigmatized group members' evaluations of other stigmatized groups. Specifically, three studies examine how salient sexism affects women's attitudes toward racial minorities. White women primed with sexism expressed more pro-White (relative to Black and Latino) self-report (Studies 1 and 3) and automatic (Study 2) intergroup bias, compared with White women who were not primed with sexism. Furthermore, group affirmation reduced the pro-White/antiminority bias White women expressed after exposure to sexism (Study 3), suggesting the mediating role of social identity threat. Overall, the results suggest that making discrimination salient triggers social identity threat, rather than a sense of common disadvantage, among stigmatized group members, leading to the derogation of other stigmatized groups. Implications for relations among members of different stigmatized groups are discussed.

  20. The Importance of Goals to Effective Schools and Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Keith C.

    This paper analyzes the importance of goals for the development of effective schools in general and for minority groups in particular. The first part of the paper reports on a study of the preferred goals of four minority groups in Nova Scotia and how they compared with the goals of the province's Department of Education. The study found that (1)…

  1. Redistricting in the 1990s: A Guide for Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, William P., Ed.

    This guide provides basic information for members of minority groups who wish to participate effectively in the reapportionment that will take place as a result of the 1990 Census. The guide focuses on Blacks and Hispanics--the largest minority groups and the only ones for which there are reliable population figures that are more recent than the…

  2. An Examination of the Impact of Racial and Ethnic Identity, Impostor Feelings, and Minority Status Stress on the Mental Health of Black College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Shannon; Beasley, Samuel T.; Jones, Bianca; Awosogba, Olufunke; Jackson, Stacey; Cokley, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This study examined ethnic identity, racial centrality, minority status stress, and impostor feelings as predictors of mental health in a sample of 218 Black college students. Ethnic identity was found to be a significant positive predictor of mental health, whereas minority status stress and impostor feelings were significant negative predictors.…

  3. A Model of Organizational Context and Shared Decision Making: Application to LGBT Racial and Ethnic Minority Patients.

    PubMed

    DeMeester, Rachel H; Lopez, Fanny Y; Moore, Jennifer E; Cook, Scott C; Chin, Marshall H

    2016-06-01

    Shared decision making (SDM) occurs when patients and clinicians work together to reach care decisions that are both medically sound and responsive to patients' preferences and values. SDM is an important tenet of patient-centered care that can improve patient outcomes. Patients with multiple minority identities, such as sexual orientation and race/ethnicity, are at particular risk for poor SDM. Among these dual-minority patients, added challenges to clear and open communication include cultural barriers, distrust, and a health care provider's lack of awareness of the patient's minority sexual orientation or gender identity. However, organizational factors like a culture of inclusion and private space throughout the visit can improve SDM with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender ("LGBT") racial/ethnic minority patients who have faced stigma and discrimination. Most models of shared decision making focus on the patient-provider interaction, but the health care organization's context is also critical. Context-an organization's structure and operations-can strongly influence the ability and willingness of patients and clinicians to engage in shared decision making. SDM is most likely to be optimal if organizations transform their contexts and patients and providers improve their communication. Thus, we propose a conceptual model that suggests ways in which organizations can shape their contextual structure and operations to support SDM. The model contains six drivers: workflows, health information technology, organizational structure and culture, resources and clinic environment, training and education, and incentives and disincentives. These drivers work through four mechanisms to impact care: continuity and coordination, the ease of SDM, knowledge and skills, and attitudes and beliefs. These mechanisms can activate clinicians and patients to engage in high-quality SDM. We provide examples of how specific contextual changes could make SDM more effective for LGBT

  4. Minority Group Identification and Societal Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Donald L.

    Strong positive identification with a specific group is potentially both functional and dysfunctional for the solidarity of an encompassing larger social system. The impact of strong ethnic group identification upon societal integration is here explored by analyzing data obtained from 515 Negroes as part of the Cornell Studies in Intergroup…

  5. On General Issues of Bilingual Education for Minority Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingyuan, Gu

    2014-01-01

    Minority language literacy is an important issue in national education policy for any multi-nationality country. China sticks to the policy of safeguarding the rights and interests of ethnic minority groups to use their own languages and writing systems. In education, considering communications among different nationalities and the development of…

  6. What Lies Beneath? Minority Group Members' Suspicion of Whites' Egalitarian Motivation Predicts Responses to Whites' Smiles.

    PubMed

    Kunstman, Jonathan W; Tuscherer, Taylor; Trawalter, Sophie; Lloyd, E Paige

    2016-09-01

    Antiprejudice norms and attempts to conceal racial bias have made Whites' positive treatment of racial minorities attributionally ambiguous. Although some minorities believe Whites' positivity is genuine, others are suspicious of Whites' motives and believe their kindness is primarily motivated by desires to avoid appearing prejudiced. For those suspicious of Whites' motives, Whites' smiles may paradoxically function as threat cues. To the extent that Whites' smiles cue threat among suspicious minorities, we hypothesized that suspicious minorities would explicitly perceive Whites' smiles as threatening (Study 1), automatically orient to smiling White-as opposed to smiling Black-targets (Study 2), and accurately discriminate between Whites' real and fake smiles (Study 3). These results provide convergent evidence that cues typically associated with acceptance and affiliation ironically function as threat cues among suspicious racial minorities.

  7. Lay Conceptions of Sexual Minority Groups.

    PubMed

    Burke, Sara E; LaFrance, Marianne

    2016-04-01

    Bisexual people are often implored to "pick a side," implying that bisexuality is both more controllable and less desirable than heterosexuality or homosexuality. Bisexual people's status as a social group perceived to fall between a traditionally advantaged group and a traditionally disadvantaged group may have the potential to clarify lay conceptions of sexual orientation. We examined participants' views of groups varying in sexual orientation by randomly assigning participants (including heterosexual men and women as well as gay men and lesbian women) from four samples to evaluate heterosexual, bisexual, or homosexual targets (N = 1379). Results provided strong evidence for the previously untested theoretical argument that bisexuality is perceived as less stable than heterosexuality or homosexuality. In addition, participants low in Personal Need for Structure rated female (but not male) bisexuality as relatively stable, suggesting that a preference for simple, binary thinking can partially explain a negative conception of an ostensibly "intermediate" identity. Bisexual targets were perceived as falling between heterosexual and homosexual targets in terms of gender nonconformity, and less decisive, less monogamous, and lacking in positive traits that were associated with homosexual targets. In sum, views of bisexual people were both more negative than and qualitatively different from views of gay men and lesbian women. We discuss the results as an illustration of the complex ways that perceivers' attitudes can differ depending on which target groups they are considering, suggesting that intergroup bias cannot be fully understood without attending to social categories viewed as intermediate.

  8. Social learning of fear and safety is determined by the demonstrator's racial group.

    PubMed

    Golkar, Armita; Castro, Vasco; Olsson, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Social learning offers an efficient route through which humans and other animals learn about potential dangers in the environment. Such learning inherently relies on the transmission of social information and should imply selectivity in what to learn from whom. Here, we conducted two observational learning experiments to assess how humans learn about danger and safety from members ('demonstrators') of an other social group than their own. We show that both fear and safety learning from a racial in-group demonstrator was more potent than learning from a racial out-group demonstrator.

  9. Role of Referrals in Mental Health Service Disparities for Racial and Ethnic Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alegria, Margarita; Lin, Julia Y.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Sampson, Nancy A.; Gruber, Michael J.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate racial/ethnic differences in teachers' and other adults' identification and/or encouragement of parents to seek treatment for psychiatric problems in their children and to evaluate if and whether identification/encouragement is associated with service use. Method: Data on identification/encouragement to seek treatment for…

  10. Medical assistant coaching to support diabetes self-care among low-income racial/ethnic minority populations: Randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Laurie; Riley, Barth B.; Hernandez, Rosalba; Quinn, Lauretta T.; Gerber, Ben S.; Castillo, Amparo; Day, Joseph; Ingram, Diana; Wang, Yamin; Butler, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Innovative, culturally tailored strategies are needed to extend diabetes education and support efforts in low-resourced primary care practices serving racial/ethnic minority groups. A randomized controlled trial examined the effect of a diabetes self-care coaching intervention delivered by medical assistants and the joint effect of intervention and ethnicity over time. The randomized repeated-measures design included 270 low-income African American and Hispanic/Latino patients with type 2 diabetes. The one-year clinic- and telephone-based medical assistant coaching intervention was culturally tailored and guided by theoretical frameworks. A1C was obtained, and a self-care measure was completed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Data were analyzed using mixed-effects models with and without adjustment for covariates. There was significant overall improvement in mean self-care scores across time, but no intervention effect. Results revealed differences in self-care patterns across racial/ethnic subgroups. No differences were found for A1C levels across time or group. PMID:24569698

  11. Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21): psychometric analysis across four racial groups.

    PubMed

    Norton, Peter J

    2007-09-01

    Growing cross-cultural awareness has led researchers to examine frequently used research instruments and assessment tools in racially diverse populations. The present study was conducted to assess the psychometric characteristics of the 21-item version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21) among different racial groups. The DASS-21 was chosen because it appears to be a reliable and easy to administer measure, ideal for both clinical and research purposes. Results suggest that the internal consistency, and convergent and divergent validity of the DASS-21 are similar across racial groups. Multigroup CFA, however, indicated that item loadings were invariant, while scale covariances were not invariant. This suggests that, although the items may load similarly on the depression, anxiety and stress constructs, these constructs may be differentially inter-related across groups. Implications for application in clinical practice are discussed.

  12. Strategies for Managing Racism and Homophobia among U.S. Ethnic and Racial Minority Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Han, Chong-suk; Paul, Jay; Ayala, George

    2011-01-01

    Despite widespread recognition that experiences of social discrimination can lead to poor physical and mental health outcomes for members of minority groups, little is known about how U.S. ethnic minority men who have sex with men (MSM) manage their experiences of racism and homophobia. We conducted six focus group discussions (n = 50) and 35…

  13. The Generalizability of Substance Use Predictors Across Racial Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tamara L.; Miller, Joshua D.; Clayton, Richard R.

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have examined the predictors of substance use for ethnic minority adolescents. The current longitudinal study investigated whether factors predictive of substance use for Caucasian adolescents were also predictive for African American adolescents. Results indicated which predictors of substance use actually differ across African…

  14. Chicago's Two Public School Systems: Standardized Test Results Compared by Racial/Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, James H.

    Throughout the Chicago Public Schools systematic differences exist between the performance of children of different racial and ethnic groups. In most schools where students of more than one group are found, Asians and Whites test at higher levels than Blacks and Hispanics. When income level and school type are controlled, small differences are…

  15. Developing a More Inclusive Sociology Curriculum: Racial and Ethnic Group Coverage in Thirty Introductory Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennick-Brecht, M. Kathryn

    1993-01-01

    Argues that research and teaching in sociology should reflect increased commitment achievements and contributions of culturally diverse groups. Discusses content analysis of 30 introductory sociology texts to determine quantity and quality of their coverage of U.S. ethnic and racial groups. Concludes that, although substantial progress has been…

  16. Intelligence Testing and Minority Students: Foundations, Performance Factors, and Assessment Issues. Racial and Ethnic Minority Psychology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Richard R.; Suzuki, Lisa A.

    This book examines intelligence assessment among ethnic minority children. Part 1, "Foundations," includes: (1) "Historical Issues" (e.g., emergence of intelligence testing in Europe and ideology of the intelligence testing movement); and (2) "Multicultural Perspective of Intelligence: Theory and Measurement Issues"…

  17. Taking pictures to take control: Photovoice as a tool to facilitate empowerment among poor and racial/ethnic minority women with HIV.

    PubMed

    Teti, Michelle; Pichon, Latrice; Kabel, Allison; Farnan, Rose; Binson, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Poor and racial/ethnic minority women comprise the majority of women living with HIV (WLH) in the United States. Race, gender, class, and HIV-based stigmas and inequities limit women's powers over their health and compromise their quality of life. To help WLH counter this powerlessness, we implemented a Photovoice project, called Picturing New Possibilities (PNP), and explored how women experienced empowerment through Photovoice. PNP participants (n = 30) photographed their life experiences, attended 3 group discussions and a community exhibit of their photos, and completed a follow-up interview. We used strategies of Grounded Theory to identify key empowerment themes. Participants described empowerment through enhanced self-esteem, self-confidence, critical thinking skills, and control. Our findings suggest that Photovoice is an important tool for WLH. It offers women a way to access internal strengths and use these resources to improve their quality of life and health.

  18. Minors travelling alone: a risk group for human trafficking?

    PubMed

    Derluyn, Ilse; Lippens, Valesca; Verachtert, Tony; Bruggeman, Willy; Broekaert, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Minors travelling without their parent(s) or guardian are an increasing phenomenon. Although their travel objectives might differ importantly, varying from holiday purposes to migration objectives, an important subgroup of them might be at risk to fall into exploitative circumstances, such as human trafficking. Studying the group of minors travelling alone arriving at Brussels Airport (Belgium), this research investigates the population's characteristics, the procedures used, and the risks some of these minors run of falling into exploitative situations. Firstly, registration revealed that tens of thousands minors travelling alone arrive at Brussels Airport each year, with an important part of them coming from African countries. Secondly, participant observations showed that detection of possible cases of human trafficking is a very complex issue, resulting in the alarming hypothesis that many cases of trafficking of minors travelling alone might not be detected during their journey or at their arrival at the airport.

  19. Differences in characteristics of US hematopoietic stem cell transplantation centers by proportion of racial or ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    Schwake, Christopher J; Eapen, Mary; Lee, Stephanie J; Freytes, César O; Giralt, Sergio A; Navarro, Willis H; Rizzo, J Douglas; van Besien, Koen; Loberiza, Fausto R

    2005-12-01

    Racial or ethnic minorities with leukemia who receive HLA-identical sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCTs) are reported to have worse survival when compared with whites. Characteristics of US HSCT centers according to the proportion of ethnic minorities who undergo transplantation were compared to explore systematic differences among centers; the association with 100-day mortality was evaluated to determine whether center factors may explain the observed discrepant survival among ethnic minorities. One hundred sixteen US transplantation centers that performed HLA-identical sibling transplantations for leukemia were analyzed. We compared physician and health care provider staffing, transplantation unit procedure and resources, and medical center organization according to the volume procedure ratio of ethnic minorities who underwent transplantation and also according to the ratio of Hispanics who underwent transplantation. Centers that performed transplantation in a higher proportion of ethnic minorities were more likely to perform fewer transplantations per year, to have fewer devoted transplant beds, to be in an urban setting, to have a lower physician to patient volume ratio, and to follow up survivors 1 year after transplantation. Centers that performed transplantation in a higher proportion of Hispanics were more likely to perform fewer transplantations per year and to have fewer devoted transplantation beds, were less likely to perform outpatient transplantations, were more likely to be in an urban setting, and were less likely to have posttransplantation immunization protocols. Observed differences in center factors were not associated with 100-day mortality after adjustment for disease severity. Our results suggest that the inferior survival reported in ethnic minorities after HSCT may not be readily explained by center effects.

  20. Minority Dissent and Social Acceptance in Collaborative Learning Groups

    PubMed Central

    Curşeu, Petru L.; Schruijer, Sandra G. L.; Fodor, Oana C.

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to test the extent to which social acceptance moderates the impact of minority dissent on group cognitive complexity (GCC). We hypothesize that divergent views expressed by a minority increase GCC especially when the group climate is open to divergent contributions (e.g., a socially accepting group climate). We also hypothesize that group size has a non-linear association with GCC in such a way that GCC increases as group size increases from low to average and then GCC decreases as group size further increases from average to high. We test these hypotheses in a sample of 537 students (258 women, with an average age of 23.35) organized in 92 groups that have worked together in the same group throughout the semester, and show that: (1) group size has a decreasing positive association with GCC, (2) both minority dissent and social acceptance are beneficial for GCC and (3) groups with the highest GCC are those that experience minority dissent and develop a socially accepting climate (in which group members can equally participate to the task), allowing the majority to process the dissenting views extensively.

  1. Biomarkers of Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Racial/Ethnic Groups at High Risk for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Pebbles; Moolchan, Eric T.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus; Cassel, Kevin D.; Pagano, Ian; Franke, Adrian A.; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Sy, Angela; Alexander, Linda A.; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Johnson, C. Anderson; Antonio, Alyssa; Jorgensen, Dorothy; Lynch, Tania; Kawamoto, Crissy; Clanton, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure among Native Hawaiians, Filipinos, and Whites, groups that have different lung cancer risk. Methods We collected survey data and height, weight, saliva, and carbon monoxide (CO) levels from a sample of daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 179). Mean measures of nicotine, cotinine, cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, trans 39 hydroxycotinine, the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), and expired CO were compared among racial/ethnic groups. Results The geometric means for cotinine, the cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, and CO did not significantly differ among racial/ethnic groups in the adjusted models. After adjusting for gender, body mass index, menthol smoking, Hispanic ethnicity, and number of cigarettes smoked per day, the NMR was significantly higher among Whites than among Native Hawaiians and Filipinos (NMR = 0.33, 0.20, 0.19, P ≤ .001). The NMR increased with increasing White parental ancestry. The NMR was not significantly correlated with social–environmental stressors. Conclusions Racial/ethnic groups with higher rates of lung cancer had slower nicotine metabolism than Whites. The complex relationship between lung cancer risk and nicotine metabolism among racial/ethnic groups needs further clarification. PMID:25880962

  2. Disordered gambling among racial and ethnic groups in the US: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Alegría, Analucía A.; Petry, Nancy M.; Hasin, Deborah S.; Liu, Shang-Min; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Prior research suggests that racial minority groups in the US are more vulnerable to develop a gambling disorder than Whites. However, no national survey on gambling disorders exists that has focused on ethnic differences. Methods Analyses of this study were based on the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a large (n=43,093) nationally representative survey of the adult (18+ years) population residing in households during 2001–2002 period. DSM-IV diagnoses of pathological gambling, mood, anxiety, drug use and personality disorders were based on the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version (AUDADIS-IV). Results Prevalence rates of disordered gambling among Blacks (2.2%) and Native/Asian Americans (2.3%) were higher than that of Whites (1.2%). Demographic characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity differed among Black, Hispanic and White disordered gamblers. However, all racial and ethnic groups evidenced similarities with respect to symptom patterns, time course and treatment seeking for pathological gambling. Conclusions The prevalence of disordered gambling, but not its onset or course of symptoms, varies by racial and ethnic group. These varying prevalence rates may reflect, at least in part, cultural differences in gambling and its acceptability and accessibility. These data may inform the need for targeted prevention strategies for high-risk racial and ethnic groups. PMID:19407710

  3. Racial/Ethnic Minorities in Rural Areas: Progress and Stagnation, 1980-90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Linda L., Ed.

    Rural minorities lag behind rural Whites and urban minorities on many crucial economic and social measures. This collection of 10 papers examines rural Black, Hispanic, Native American, and Asian and Pacific Islander populations and their economic well-being in the 1980s, an economically difficult decade for rural areas. Results show minimal…

  4. Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups. NCES 2010-015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aud, Susan; Fox, Mary Ann; KewalRamani, Angelina

    2010-01-01

    "Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups" examines the educational progress and challenges of students in the United States by race/ethnicity. This report shows that over time, the numbers of students of each race/ethnicity who have completed high school and continued their education in college have increased.…

  5. Health Service Access across Racial/Ethnic Groups of Children in the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Rebecca; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Bai, Yu; Belue, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examined health service access among children of different racial/ethnic groups in the child welfare system in an attempt to identify and explain disparities. Methods: Data were from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW). N for descriptive statistics = 2,505. N for multiple regression model = 537.…

  6. Psychometric Properties of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire for DSM-IV Among Four Racial Groups

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Christina M.; Klenck, Suzanne C.; Norton, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-IV (GAD-Q-IV) is a self-report diagnostic measure of generalized anxiety disorder. Previous studies have established the psychometric properties of the GAD-Q-IV revealing excellent diagnostic specificity and sensitivity as well as good test-retest reliability and convergent and discriminant validity (Newman et al., 2002). Recent analyses with other measures of anxiety symptoms have revealed differences across racial or national groups. Given that the GAD-Q-IV was tested primarily on Caucasian (78%) participants, the purpose of this study was to demonstrate the psychometric properties of the GAD-Q-IV across four racial groups: African American, Caucasian, Hispanic/Latino, and Asian. A student sample of 585 undergraduate psychology students completed the GAD-Q-IV as well as other measures of anxiety symptoms. A clinical replication sample was obtained from 188 clinical participants who completed the GAD-Q-IV as part of a larger psychotherapy study. Results indicated excellent and very similar factor structures in the student sample, and similar psychometric properties across both samples across the racial groups. Implications for the use of the GAD-Q-IV across racial groups are discussed. PMID:20830629

  7. Racial Group Membership and Multicultural Training: Examining the Experiences of Counseling and Counseling Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Lee, Minsun; Fetzer, Alexa

    2016-01-01

    This study documents various process elements of multicultural training from the perspective of counseling and counseling psychology students within the United States (US). Using a mixed-methods approach, findings indicate that racial group membership is an important variable that differentially impacts White students and students of Color while…

  8. Measurement Equivalence across Racial/Ethnic Groups of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire for Childhood Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banh, My K.; Crane, Paul K.; Rhew, Isaac; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Stoep, Ann Vander; Lyon, Aaron; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    As research continues to document differences in the prevalence of mental health problems such as depression across racial/ethnic groups, the issue of measurement equivalence becomes increasingly important to address. The Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ) is a widely used screening tool for child and adolescent depression. This study applied a…

  9. Perceived discrimination among racial and ethnic minority drug users and the association with health care utilization.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Courtney; Shumway, Martha; Masson, Carmen L; Pouget, Enrique R; Jordan, Ashly E; Des Jarlais, Don C; Sorensen, James L; Perlman, David C

    2017-03-17

    People who use drugs (PWUDs) are at increased risk for several medical conditions, yet they delay seeking medical care and utilize emergency departments (EDs) as their primary source of care. Limited research regarding perceived discrimination and PWUDs' use of health care services exists. This study explores the association between interpersonal and institutional racial/ethnic and drug use discrimination in health care settings and health care utilization among respondents (N = 192) recruited from methadone maintenance treatment programs (36%), HIV primary care clinics (35%), and syringe exchange programs (29%) in New York City (n = 88) and San Francisco (n = 104). The Kaiser Family Foundation Survey of Race, Ethnicity, and Medical Care questionnaire was utilized to assess perceived institutional racial/ethnic and drug use discrimination. Perceived institutional discrimination was examined across race/ethnicity and by regular use of ERs, having a regular doctor, and consistent health insurance. Perceived interpersonal discrimination was examined by race/ethnicity. Perceived interpersonal drug use discrimination was the most common type of discrimination experienced in health care settings. Perceptions of institutional discrimination related to race/ethnicity and drug use among non-Hispanic Whites did not significantly differ from those among non-Hispanic Blacks or Hispanics. A perception of less frequent institutional racial/ethnic and drug use discrimination in health care settings was associated with increased odds of having a regular doctor. Awareness of perceived interpersonal and institutional discrimination in certain populations and the effect on health care service utilization should inform future intervention development to help reduce discrimination and improve health care utilization among PWUDs.

  10. Status Value, Group Learning, and Minority Achievement in College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beilin, Robert; Rabow, Jerome

    1981-01-01

    Tested the relationship between interracial group learning and academic achievement in college. Results indicated White students participating in Learning Through Discussion (LTD) groups scored higher on the final essay. There was no difference in minority achievement. Findings support the proposition that status equalization is an essential…

  11. Knowing and Understanding the Socially Disadvantaged Ethnic Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Staten W.

    This collection of essays deals with those ethnic minority groups which can be classified as being among the socially disadvantaged in America. Here, the socially disadvantaged are described as persons or groups whose chances for the complete maximization of their talents or potentials are limited by societal factors related to poverty and/or…

  12. Social-Cognitive Predictors of STEM Career Interests and Goal Persistence in College Students with Disabilities from Racial and Ethnic Minority Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Silva Cardoso, Elizabeth; Dutta, Alo; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Johnson, Ebonee T.; Kundu, Madan; Chan, Fong D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relations of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics's (STEM) self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, and contextual supports and barriers to STEM educational goals in college students with disabilities from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds. Design: Quantitative descriptive research design using…

  13. Comparison of Long-Term Safety and Efficacy Outcomes after Drug-Eluting and Bare-Metal Stent Use across Racial Groups: insights from NHLBI Dynamic Registry

    PubMed Central

    Olafiranye, Oladipupo; Vlachos, Helen; Mulukutla, Suresh R.; Marroquin, Oscar; Selzer, Faith; Kelsey, Sheryl F.; Williams, David O.; Strollo, Patrick J.; Reis, Steven E.; Lee, Joon S.; Smith, AJ. Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term data on outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stent (DES) and bare-metal stent (BMS) across racial groups are limited, and minorities are under-represented in existing clinical trials. Whether DES has better long-term clinical outcomes compared to BMS across racial groups remains to be established. Accordingly, we assessed whether longer-term clinical outcomes are better with DES compared to BMS across racial groups. Methods Using the multicenter National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)-sponsored Dynamic Registry, 2-year safety (death, MI) and efficacy (repeat revascularization) outcomes of 3,326 patients who underwent PCI with DES versus BMS were evaluated. Results With propensity-score adjusted analysis, the use of DES, compared to BMS, was associated with a lower risk for death or MI at 2 years for both blacks (adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR)=0.41, 95% CI 0.25–0.69, p<0.001) and whites (aHR=0.67, 95% CI 0.51–0.90, p=0.007). DES use was associated with a significant 24% lower risk of repeat revascularization in whites (aHR=0.76, 95% CI 0.60–0.97, p=0.03) and with nominal 34% lower risk in blacks (aHR=0.66, 95% CI 0.39–1.13, p=0.13). Conclusion Use of DES in PCI was associated with better long-term safety outcomes across racial groups. Compared to BMS, DES was more effective in reducing repeat revascularization in whites and blacks, but this benefit was attenuated after statistical adjustment in blacks. These findings indicate that DES is superior to BMS in all patients regardless of race. Further studies are needed to determine long-term outcomes across racial groups with newer generation stents. PMID:25697874

  14. Attitudes, Behaviors, and Effectiveness of Black and White Leaders of Simulated Problem Solving Groups of Varying Size and Racial Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Walter A.; Allen, William R.

    A field experiment was used to investigate the effects, if any, of changing group size and racial composition on the attitudes, behaviors, and effectiveness of black and white leaders. Subjects were 288 naval recruits, half black and half white, performing two tasks which were watched by a pair of racially mixed observers through a one-way mirror.…

  15. Research Project Concerning Students From Minority Groups. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, John H.

    The motivation of this project was a desire on the part of the Harvard Business School to augment equality of career opportunities in management for minority group members and to insure expanded managerial training so that new capabilities would be developed to match new opportunities. This document describes programs undertaken by the faculty and…

  16. Cultural Rejection and Re-identification in Minority Group Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diller, Jerry V.

    There is little consistent research available on cultural rejection and re-identification in minority group members, but this report uses case study material to extrapolate three general factors precipitating rejection: self-hatred and negative chauvinism, quality of ethnic experience and rejection of religious experience. A four-step model for…

  17. Intrametropolitan Migration of White and Minority Group Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Jay

    This study focuses on the relationship between the home and job location of the household within the metropolitan area. The primary question asked is what are the important factors in explaining the decentralization of the metropolitan population and, secondly, are there behavioral differences between white and minority group households. A model…

  18. The multigroup ethnic identity measure-revised: measurement invariance across racial and ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Brown, Susan D; Unger Hu, Kirsten A; Mevi, Ashley A; Hedderson, Monique M; Shan, Jun; Quesenberry, Charles P; Ferrara, Assiamira

    2014-01-01

    The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R), a brief instrument assessing affiliation with one's ethnic group, is a promising advance in the ethnic identity literature. However, equivalency of its measurement properties across specific racial and ethnic groups should be confirmed before using it in diverse samples. We examined (a) the psychometric properties of the MEIM-R, including factor structure, measurement invariance, and internal consistency reliability, and (b) levels of and differences in ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups and subgroups. Asian (n = 630), Black/African American (n = 58), Hispanic (n = 240), multiethnic (n = 160), and White (n = 375) women completed the MEIM-R as part of the "Gestational diabetes' Effect on Moms" diabetes prevention trial in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health care setting (N = 1,463; M age = 32.5 years, SD = 4.9). Multiple-groups confirmatory factor analyses provided provisional evidence of measurement invariance, i.e., an equal, correlated 2-factor structure, equal factor loadings, and equal item intercepts across racial and ethnic groups. Latent factor means for the 2 MEIM-R subscales, exploration and commitment, differed across groups; effect sizes ranging from small to large generally supported the notion of ethnic identity as more salient among people of color. Pending replication, good psychometric properties in this large and diverse sample of women support the future use of the MEIM-R. Preliminary evidence of measurement invariance suggests that the MEIM-R could be used to measure and compare ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups.

  19. Are Teachers' Expectations Different for Racial Minority than for European American Students? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenbaum, Harriet R.; Ruck, Martin D.

    2007-01-01

    Four quantitative meta-analyses examined whether teachers' expectations, referrals, positive and neutral speech, and negative speech differed toward ethnic minority students (i.e., African American, Asian American, and Latino/a) as compared with European American students. Teachers were found to hold the highest expectations for Asian American…

  20. Polarisation, Public Housing, and Racial Minorities in U.S. Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, William H.; Schill, Michael H.; Wachter, Susan M.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the concentration of poor and minority populations in public housing in the United States, and examines the relationship between the location of public housing and changes in neighborhood poverty rates through a longitudinal database for four large U.S. cities. In each city, a significant relationship can be traced. (SLD)

  1. Structural and Predictive Equivalency of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale across Three Racial/Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Businelle, Michael S.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS) is a valid and reliable scale among non-Latino Whites but has not been validated for use among other racial/ethnic groups despite increasing use with these populations. The current study examined the structural invariance and predictive equivalency of the WSWS across three racial/ethnic groups. Methods: The WSWS scores of 424 African American, Latino, and White smokers receiving smoking cessation treatment were analyzed in a series of factor analyses and multiple-group analyses. Additionally, hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether WSWS scores differentially predicted smoking relapse across racial/ethnic groups. These analyses were consistent with a step-down hierarchical regression procedure for examination of test bias. Results: The 7-factor structure of the WSWS was largely confirmed in the current study, with the exception of the removal of two offending items. Evidence of full invariance across race/ethnicity was found in multiple-group analyses. The WSWS total score and subscales measuring anger, anxiety, concentration, and sadness predicted relapse, whereas the hunger, craving, and sleep subscales did not. None of these scales displayed differential predictive ability across race/ethnicity. The WSWS sleep subscale showed a significant interaction with race/ethnicity such that it was a significant predictor of relapse among Whites but not African Americans or Latinos. Conclusions: Overall, the WSWS is similar in structure and predictive of relapse across racial/ethnic groups. Caution should be exercised when using the WSWS sleep subscale with African Americans and Latinos. PMID:21454912

  2. Language, Ethnicity and Education: Case Studies on Immigrant Minority Groups and Immigrant Minority Languages. Multilingual Matters 111.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broeder, Peter; Extra, Guus

    Immigrant minority groups and immigrant minority languages in Europe are viewed from three perspectives (demographic, sociolinguistic, and educational) through case studies. The first part, using a demographic approach, includes research on immigrant minority groups in population statistics of both European Union and English-dominant countries…

  3. Immigrant Generation and Sexual Initiation Among a Diverse Racial/Ethnic Group of Urban Youth.

    PubMed

    Coleman-Minahan, Kate; Chavez, Marisol; Bull, Sheana

    2016-04-21

    Foreign-born youth have a lower risk of sexual initiation than native born youth, yet most research has focused on Latinos. An ethnically diverse sample of 200, 14-21 year-old youth were surveyed in Denver in 2014. We used logistic regression models to predict the odds of intentions to have sex and sexual experience, adding covariates that could account for differences in outcomes by immigrant generation. First generation youth were less likely to intend to have sex and to have sexual experience than third generation youth after controlling for racial/ethnic group, suggesting that first generation immigrants of multiple racial/ethnic groups, not just Latinos alone, have a lower risk for sexual initiation. Having a supportive community reduced the odds of sexual intentions and sexual experience. Our findings support future research using a larger sample of black, white, and Asian immigrant youth to corroborate and to explore reasons behind these associations.

  4. The Impact and Racial Identity on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulzac, Anica Camela

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that academic achievement among racial minority groups, particularly African Americans, and the majority Caucasian group is profoundly disproportionate. A number of variables have been shown to influence the academic achievement of students, such as stereotype threat, racial identity, and academic self-concept (Awad, 2007;…

  5. Perceived racial and ethnic prejudice and discrimination experiences of minority migrant nurses: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Tuttas, Carol A

    2015-11-01

    Every day minority migrant nurses (MMNs) work shoulder to shoulder with domestic nurses in health care settings worldwide. Published studies offer reports of research where work-life experiences of MMNs have been explored. The following literature review focuses on experiences of perceived prejudice and discrimination as described by MMNs. Background and significance of the topic are described and the purpose of the review is presented, followed by definitions of relevant terms, search strategy, and theoretical considerations. Feagin and Eckberg's discrimination typology is the framework used to organize MMNs' reported experiences of perceived prejudice and discrimination. A theory-linked summary, including policy, practice, and research implications, concludes the article.

  6. Underrepresented Racial/Ethnic Minority Graduate Students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Disciplines: A Cross Institutional Analysis of their Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Tanya

    Considering the importance of a diverse science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) research workforce for our country's future, it is troubling that many underrepresented racial minority (URM) students start graduate STEM programs, but do not finish. However, some institutional contexts better position students for degree completion than others. The purpose of this study was to uncover the academic and social experiences, power dynamics, and programmatic/institutional structures URM students face within their graduate STEM programs that hinder or support degree progression. Using a critical socialization framework applied in a cross-comparative qualitative study, I focused on how issues of race, ethnicity, and underrepresentation within the educational contexts shape students' experiences. Data was collected from focus group interviews involving 53 URM graduate students pursuing STEM disciplines across three institution types -- a Predominately White Institution, a Hispanic-Serving Institution, and a Historically Black University. Results demonstrate that when students' relationships with faculty advisors were characterized by benign neglect, students felt lost, wasted time and energy making avoidable mistakes, had less positive views of their experiences, and had more difficulty progressing through classes or research, which could cause them to delay time to degree completion or to leave with a master's degree. Conversely, faculty empowered students when they helped them navigate difficult processes/milestones with regular check-ins, but also allowed students room to make decisions and solve problems independently. Further, faculty set the tone for the overall interactional culture and helping behavior in the classroom and lab contexts; where faculty modeled collaboration and concern for students, peers were likely to do the same. International peers sometimes excluded domestic students both socially and academically, which had a negative affect on

  7. Encouraging and Attracting Underrepresented Racial Minorities to the Field of Geosciences-A Latin American Graduate Student Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero Gill, R. P.; Herbert, T.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that interactions between same-race and same-gender faculty and graduate students are reported to have a greater impact on the future success of those students. In the same manner, I believe graduate students can play a pivotal role in training and attracting underrepresented racial minorities (URMs) at the high school and undergraduate level to pursue a career in geosciences. Working at Brown University for the last couple of years, I have been involved in a number of initiatives aimed at solidifying ties with the community. Most of my social work has revolved around mentoring underrepresented local minorities, as I feel that this area is where I can contribute the most. This year I began participating in the NSF funded Brown GK-12: "Physical Processes in the Environment" program. As a Latin American female graduate student in the geological sciences, I hope to teach the students-by example-that being a minority is not necessarily an obstacle, but rather an advantage that can offer a different, valuable point of view when pursuing their professional goals. I think that sharing part of my experiences and knowledge as a researcher with young minds contributes to the way they imagine themselves in the future, allowing them to believe that a career in science is within their reach and that higher education is a realistic option worth pursuing if they have the interest in doing so. From my short time as a graduate student, to have a greater impact in attracting URMs, it is critical to have the support of advisors and committee members. One must keep in mind that a graduate career is a time consuming commitment; therefore, it is necessary to undertake activities that will have the most impact on minority students in the short time available. The experience becomes even more effective if advisors are actively involved, particularly financially. Faculty advisors who can allocate funds to, for example support summer activities designed to involve

  8. Methodological and logistical considerations to study design and data collection in racial/ethnic minority populations evaluating outcome disparity in hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Loberiza, Fausto R; Lee, Stephanie J; Freytes, Cesar O; Giralt, Sergio A; Van Besien, Koen; Kurian, Seira; del Cerro, Paula; Toro, Juan J; Williams, Loretta A; Ketelsen, Seth W; Navarro, Willis H; Rizzo, J Douglas

    2009-08-01

    Outcome disparity associated with race or ethnicity in the United States has been observed in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The underlying reasons for such disparity are not known. In the United States, an optimal study of health care disparity by race or ethnicity involves consideration of both biologic and psychosocial determinants, which requires an adequately powered, prospective cohort study design. To better characterize the nature and quantify the magnitude of the many impediments relevant to conducting a successful prospective study involving racial or ethnic minorities in HCT, we conducted a feasibility study to help guide planning of a larger scale outcome and disparity study in HCT. The primary questions to be addressed in the study were: (1) can we establish a racially or ethnically diverse patient sample that will respond to a survey focused on sociodemographic, economic, health insurance, cultural, spiritual, and religious well-being, and social support information? (2) What is the retention rate in the study over time? (3) What is the quality of the data collected from the patients over time? The challenges we faced in conducting this multicenter feasibility study are summarized in this report. Despite the difficulty in conducting disparity studies in racial and ethnic minorities, such studies are essential to ensure that people of all ethnic and racial backgrounds have the best chance possible of benefiting from HCT.

  9. The Importance of Networking in the Academic and Professional Experiences of Racial Minority Students in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dannielle Joy; Warfield, Markeba

    2011-01-01

    Through examination of the experiences of minority undergraduate doctoral aspirants in the United States, this study points to the importance of academic and professional influences of networking, as well as its role in the academic attainment and professional experiences of underrepresented groups in academe. The findings suggest that networking…

  10. A Characterization of Areas of Racial Tension among First Year Students: A Focus Group Follow-Up to a Large Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, J. Paul

    This study examined areas of racial tension and racial attitudes among first-year students at York University in Ontario (Canada). A survey of 1,129 first-year students in 1993-94 indicated that the vast majority believed that visible minority students had been treated equally by professors, staff, and other students. However, the first year was…

  11. Prevalence and Mortality of Melanoma in Oklahoma Among Racial Groups, 2000-2008

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Jonathan; Janitz, Amanda E.; Erb-Alvarez, Julie; Snider, Cuyler; Campbell, Janis E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study assessed the period prevalence (2000-2008) and mortality rates of melanoma, in Oklahoma, among different racial/ethnic strata. Methods We analyzed incident cases of melanoma from 2000-2008 from the Oklahoma Central Cancer Registry and determined disease duration using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to calculate period prevalence of melanoma in Oklahoma. Using a series of Chi-Square tests, we compared period prevalence and mortality rates among the racial groups and compared mortality between Oklahoma and the US. Results White non-Hispanics in Oklahoma have the highest period prevalence (p<0.0001) among the racial strata. American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) individuals have the second highest period prevalence in Oklahoma (p<0.0001). Furthermore, white non-Hispanics (p<0.0001) and AI/AN individuals (p=0.0003) in Oklahoma had higher mortality rates compared to the US. Conclusions There are disparities in the prevalence and mortality of melanoma among the AI/AN population in Oklahoma, and prevention and education programs should focus on this population. PMID:27885301

  12. Racial group regard, barrier socialization, and African American adolescents' engagement: patterns and processes by gender.

    PubMed

    Smalls, Ciara; Cooper, Shauna M

    2012-08-01

    The current study examined gendered processes via 1) profiles of racial barrier socialization, regard for one's racial group (private regard), and behavioral engagement and grades and, 2) gender and private regard as a moderator in the link between barrier messages and academic engagement outcomes. One-hundred and twenty-five African American adolescents (ages 10-14, M = 12.39, SD = 1.07) completed measures of socialization, private regard, grades and behavioral engagement. Latent Profile Analysis revealed a 2-cluster solution fit the data best - 1) High Engagement-Race Salient (HERS) cluster and 2) Low Engagement-Non-Salient cluster (LENS). Girls had higher representation in the HERS cluster. When private regard was examined as a moderator, girls' grades were unrelated to barrier socialization and private regard. In contrast, barrier socialization was associated with lower grades for low private regard boys. Findings are discussed in the context of gendered racial school contexts that African American youth must navigate to be academically successful.

  13. Gendered racial exclusion among White internet daters.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, Cynthia; Robnett, Belinda; Komaie, Golnaz

    2009-03-01

    Acceptance by the dominant group reveals the current standing of racial groups in the U.S. hierarchy, as well as the possibility for assimilation. However, few researchers have addressed the gendered nature of racial preferences by whites. We examine whites' exclusion of blacks, Latinos, Asians, Middle Easterners, East Indians and Native Americans as possible dates, using a sample of profiles collected from an internet dating website. We find that white men are more willing than white women to date non-whites in general, yet, with the exception of their top two preferences for dates, whites and Latinos, the racial hierarchies of males and females differ. Among daters with stated racial preferences, white men are more likely to exclude blacks as possible dates, while white women are more likely to exclude Asians. We argue that exclusion relates to racialized images of masculinity and femininity, and shapes dating and marriage outcomes, and thus minority groups' possibilities for full social incorporation.

  14. Racial and ethnic distribution of faculty, students, and fellows in US epidemiology degree programs, 1992. Committee on Minority Affairs of the American College of Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Schoenbach, V J; Reynolds, G H; Kumanyika, S K

    1994-07-01

    The American College of Epidemiology Committee on Minority Affairs assessed the racial/ethnic distribution of faculty, students, and postdoctoral fellows in epidemiology degree programs in the United States in 1992. Fifty-six programs in schools of public health, medicine, or veterinary medicine completed a one-page anonymous questionnaire (85% response rate). Of 711 faculty members (median of 8 per program), 46 (6%) were minorities (US black, Hispanic, or Asian/Pacific Islander). Of 2142 students (1206 masters, 862 doctoral, 74 postdoctoral: median of 17 per program), 293 (14% of all students; 17% of US citizen students) were minorities. In the 46 doctoral programs, there were 36 black students (in 20 doctoral programs), 15 Hispanic students (in 9 programs), and no Native Americans. There were three minority postdoctoral fellows, all blacks (4% of all postdoctoral fellows). Determined, consistent, and sustained efforts will be required to boost the representation of blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans in epidemiology.

  15. Impostor feelings as a moderator and mediator of the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health among racial/ethnic minority college students.

    PubMed

    Cokley, Kevin; Smith, Leann; Bernard, Donte; Hurst, Ashley; Jackson, Stacey; Stone, Steven; Awosogba, Olufunke; Saucer, Chastity; Bailey, Marlon; Roberts, Davia

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated whether impostor feelings would both moderate and mediate the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health in a sample of diverse ethnic minority college students (106 African Americans, 102 Asian Americans, 108 Latino/a Americans) at an urban public university. African American students reported higher perceived discrimination than Asian American and Latino/a American students, while no racial/ethnic group differences were reported for impostor feelings. Analyses revealed that among African American students, high levels of impostor feelings moderated the perceived discrimination and depression relationship and mediated the perceived discrimination and anxiety relationship. Among Asian American students, impostor feelings mediated the relationship between perceived discrimination and both depression and anxiety. Among Latino/a American students low levels of impostor feelings moderated the relationship between perceived discrimination and both depression and anxiety, and partially mediated the relationship between perceived discrimination and anxiety. Multigroup path analyses revealed a significantly stronger impact of impostor feelings on depression among African American students and a stronger impact of perceived discrimination on impostor feelings among African American and Latino/a American students. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Neighborhood Context and Substance Use Disorders: A Comparative Analysis of Racial and Ethnic Groups in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Kristine M.; Alegría, Margarita; Chen, Chih-Nan

    2012-01-01

    Background There is evidence that ethnic/racial minorities are conferred differential risk for substance use problems based on where they live. Despite a burgeoning of research focusing on the role of neighborhood characteristics on health, limited findings are available on substance use. Our study uses nationally representative data (N= 13, 837) to examine: (1) What neighborhood characteristics are associated with risk of substance use disorders?; (2) Do the associations between neighborhood characteristics and substance use disorders remain after adjusting for individual-level factors?; and (3) Do neighborhood characteristics associated with substance use disorders differ by race/ethnicity after adjusting for individual-level factors? Methods Data were drawn from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies (CPES-Geocode file) with 836 Census tracts. Analyses included African Americans, Asians, Caribbean Blacks, Latinos, and non-Latino whites. Separate logistic regression models were fitted for any past-year substance use disorder, alcohol use disorder, and drug use disorder. Results Living in more affluent and residentially unstable census tracts was associated with decreased risk of past-year substance use disorder, even after adjusting for individual-level factors. However, when we investigated the interaction of race/ethnicity and census latent factors with past-year substance use disorders, we found different associations for the different racial/ethnic groups. We also found different associations between neighborhood affluence, residential instability and any past-year substance use and alcohol disorders by nativity. Conclusions Characteristics of the environment might represent differential risk for substance disorders depending on a person’s ethnicity/race and nativity status. PMID:22699095

  17. Identity Development in a Transracial Environment: Racial/Ethnic Minority Adoptees in Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Emma R.; Samek, Diana R.; Keyes, Margaret; McGue, Matthew K.; Iacono, William G.

    2015-01-01

    It has been argued that transracial adopted children have increased risk for problems related to self-esteem and ethnic identity development. We evaluated this hypothesis across four groups of transracial adoptees: Asian (N = 427), Latino (N = 28), Black (N = 6), Mixed/Other (N = 20), and same-race white adoptees (N = 126) from 357 adoptive families. No mean differences were found in adoptee’s ratings of affect about adoption, or of curiosity about birthparents. Some differences were found in general identity development and adjustment. There were notable differences in communication about race/ethnicity across groups and between parent and child report. PMID:26300622

  18. Identity Development in a Transracial Environment: Racial/Ethnic Minority Adoptees in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Emma R; Samek, Diana R; Keyes, Margaret; McGue, Matthew K; Iacono, William G

    It has been argued that transracial adopted children have increased risk for problems related to self-esteem and ethnic identity development. We evaluated this hypothesis across four groups of transracial adoptees: Asian (N = 427), Latino (N = 28), Black (N = 6), Mixed/Other (N = 20), and same-race white adoptees (N = 126) from 357 adoptive families. No mean differences were found in adoptee's ratings of affect about adoption, or of curiosity about birthparents. Some differences were found in general identity development and adjustment. There were notable differences in communication about race/ethnicity across groups and between parent and child report.

  19. Promoting Racial and Ethnic Diversity among Canadian Academic Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandiuk, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This study examines racial and ethnic diversity among Canadian academic librarians and discusses the findings of a nationwide survey. The survey posed questions related to equity plans and programs as well as recruitment practices for academic librarians from equity-seeking groups with a focus on Aboriginal and visible/racial minority librarians.…

  20. Examining Racial Disparities in Teacher Perceptions of Student Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooc, North

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: The overrepresentation of some minority groups in special education in the United States raises concerns about racial inequality and stratification within schools. While many actors and mechanisms within the school system may contribute to racial disparities in special education, the role of teachers is particularly important…

  1. Emergence of grouping in multi-resource minority game dynamics.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zi-Gang; Zhang, Ji-Qiang; Dong, Jia-Qi; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Complex systems arising in a modern society typically have many resources and strategies available for their dynamical evolutions. To explore quantitatively the behaviors of such systems, we propose a class of models to investigate Minority Game (MG) dynamics with multiple strategies. In particular, agents tend to choose the least used strategies based on available local information. A striking finding is the emergence of grouping states defined in terms of distinct strategies. We develop an analytic theory based on the mean-field framework to understand the "bifurcations" of the grouping states. The grouping phenomenon has also been identified in the Shanghai Stock-Market system, and we discuss its prevalence in other real-world systems. Our work demonstrates that complex systems obeying the MG rules can spontaneously self-organize themselves into certain divided states, and our model represents a basic and general mathematical framework to address this kind of phenomena in social, economical and political systems.

  2. Emergence of grouping in multi-resource minority game dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zi-Gang; Zhang, Ji-Qiang; Dong, Jia-Qi; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2012-10-01

    Complex systems arising in a modern society typically have many resources and strategies available for their dynamical evolutions. To explore quantitatively the behaviors of such systems, we propose a class of models to investigate Minority Game (MG) dynamics with multiple strategies. In particular, agents tend to choose the least used strategies based on available local information. A striking finding is the emergence of grouping states defined in terms of distinct strategies. We develop an analytic theory based on the mean-field framework to understand the ``bifurcations'' of the grouping states. The grouping phenomenon has also been identified in the Shanghai Stock-Market system, and we discuss its prevalence in other real-world systems. Our work demonstrates that complex systems obeying the MG rules can spontaneously self-organize themselves into certain divided states, and our model represents a basic and general mathematical framework to address this kind of phenomena in social, economical and political systems.

  3. PATTERNS OF MINORITY RELATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUSTER, TROY S.; MACK, RAYMOND W.

    ACCORDING TO SOCIAL SCIENTISTS AND BIOLOGISTS, ALL RACES ARE EQUAL IN ABILITY, NEVERTHELESS, RACIAL DISCRIMINATION EXISTS WHEN THE CULTURE OF A SOCIETY ALLOWS PEOPLE TO EXPRESS THEIR AGRESSIONS IN A SOCIALLY ACCEPTABLE WAY. ONE WAY TO DEFINE GROUP BOUNDARIES IS TO SINGLE OUT A CHARACTERISTIC OF A MINORITY GROUP AND TO INSTITUTIONALIZE THIS…

  4. Insights into the pan-microbiome: skin microbial communities of Chinese individuals differ from other racial groups

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Marcus H. Y.; Wilkins, David; Lee, Patrick K. H.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have characterized microbiomes of western individuals. However, studies involving non-westerners are scarce. This study characterizes the skin microbiomes of Chinese individuals. Skin-associated genera, including Propionibacterium, Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, and Enhydrobacter were prevalent. Extensive inter-individual microbiome variations were detected, with core genera present in all individuals constituting a minority of genera detected. Species-level analyses presented dominance of potential opportunistic pathogens in respective genera. Host properties including age, gender, and household were associated with variations in community structure. For all sampled sites, skin microbiomes within an individual is more similar than that of different co-habiting individuals, which is in turn more similar than individuals living in different households. Network analyses highlighted general and skin-site specific relationships between genera. Comparison of microbiomes from different population groups revealed race-based clustering explained by community membership (Global R = 0.968) and structure (Global R = 0.589), contributing to enlargement of the skin pan-microbiome. This study provides the foundation for subsequent in-depth characterization and microbial interactive analyses on the skin and other parts of the human body in different racial groups, and an appreciation that the human skin pan-microbiome can be much larger than that of a single population. PMID:26177982

  5. Racial Healthcare Disparities: A Social Psychological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Penner, Louis A.; Hagiwara, Nao; Eggly, Susan; Gaertner, Samuel L.; Albrecht, Terrance L.; Dovidio, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Around the world, members of racial/ethnic minority groups typically experience poorer health than members of racial/ethnic majority groups. The core premise of this article is that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors related to race and ethnicity play a critical role in healthcare disparities. Social psychological theories of the origins and consequences of these thoughts, feelings, and behaviors offer critical insights into the processes responsible for these disparities and suggest interventions to address them. We present a multilevel model that explains how societal, intrapersonal, and interpersonal factors can influence ethnic/racial health disparities. We focus our literature review, including our own research, and conceptual analysis at the intrapersonal (the race-related thoughts and feelings of minority patients and non-minority physicians) and interpersonal levels (intergroup processes that affect medical interactions between minority patients and non-minority physicians). At both levels of analysis, we use theories of social categorization, social identity, contemporary forms of racial bias, stereotype activation, stigma, and other social psychological processes to identify and understand potential causes and processes of health and healthcare disparities. In the final section, we identify theory-based interventions that might reduce ethnic/racial disparities in health and healthcare. PMID:25197206

  6. Talking "among us": how women from different racial-ethnic groups define and discuss menopause.

    PubMed

    Dillaway, Heather; Byrnes, Mary; Miller, Sara; Rehan, Sonica

    2008-08-01

    Against a backdrop of scant literature on commonalities and differences among diverse groups of menopausal women within the United States, and little attempt by scholars in any country to study the ways in which both privilege and oppression can shape women's ideas and experiences of menopause, in this study, 61 menopausal women of varied racial-ethnic and class locations in a Midwestern state were asked about the different meanings and experiences of menopause. African American women and Chicanas, particularly working-class women, viewed menopause as a positive experience, whereas many middle-class European American women discussed more negative feelings. Women of color were more likely than European Americans to report talking about menopause with same-race, same-sex friends only. While women of color discussed their knowledge of European American women's menopause, the latter lacked knowledge of other women's experiences. Women's lived experiences with privilege and oppression also surfaced in the interviews. The authors argue that when scholars listen to how women discuss menopause experiences, commonalities among women by gender, and differences among women by race, and class are exposed. The presence of racial-ethnic differences in these pilot data suggests the importance of more comparative studies on reproductive aging both in the United States and abroad.

  7. Integration or fragmentation? Racial diversity and the American future.

    PubMed

    Lichter, Daniel T

    2013-04-01

    Over the next generation or two, America's older, largely white population will increasingly be replaced by today's disproportionately poor minority children. All future growth will come from populations other than non-Hispanic whites as America moves toward a majority-minority society by 2043. This so-called Third Demographic Transition raises important implications about changing racial boundaries in the United States, that is, about the physical, economic, and sociocultural barriers that separate different racial and ethnic groups. America's racial transformation may place upward demographic pressure on future poverty and inequality as today's disproportionately poor and minority children grow into adult roles. Racial boundaries will be reshaped by the changing meaning of race and ethnicity, shifting patterns of racial segregation in neighborhoods and the workplace, newly integrating (or not) friendship networks, and changing rates of interracial marriage and childbearing. The empirical literature provides complicated lessons and offers few guarantees that growing racial diversity will lead to a corresponding breakdown in racial boundaries-that whites and minorities will increasingly share the same physical and social spaces or interact as coequals. How America's older population of elected officials and taxpayers responds today to America's increasingly diverse population will provide a window to the future, when today's children successfully transition (or not) into productive adult roles. Racial and ethnic inclusion will be reshaped by changing ethnoracial inequality, which highlights the need to invest in children-now.

  8. Strategies for managing racism and homophobia among U.S. ethnic and racial minority men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Han, Chong-suk; Paul, Jay; Ayala, George

    2011-04-01

    Despite widespread recognition that experiences of social discrimination can lead to poor physical and mental health outcomes for members of minority groups, little is known about how U.S. ethnic minority men who have sex with men (MSM) manage their experiences of racism and homophobia. We conducted six focus group discussions (n = 50) and 35 in-depth interviews with African American, Latino, and Asian and Pacific Islander MSM (aged 18 or older) recruited in Los Angeles. This process revealed five strategies that MSM of color employed in order to mitigate the impact of racism and homophobia. To minimize opportunities for stigmatization, men used (a) concealment of homosexuality and (b) disassociation from social settings associated with stigmatization. To minimize the impact of experienced stigma, men (c) dismissed the stigmatization and (d) drew strength and comfort from external sources. Men also actively countered stigmatization by (e) direct confrontation. More research is needed to understand the efficacy of these coping strategies in mitigating negative health consequences of stigmatization and discrimination.

  9. 75 FR 61489 - Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Minority Health

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Minority Health AGENCY: Office of Minority Health... Minority Health (ACMH) will hold a meeting. This meeting is open to the public. Preregistration is required... Assistant Secretary for Minority Health in improving the health of each racial and ethnic minority group...

  10. 77 FR 18248 - Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Minority Health

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Minority Health AGENCY: Office of Minority Health... Minority Health (ACMH) will hold a meeting. The meeting is open to the public. Preregistration is required... Secretary for Minority Health in improving the health of each racial and ethnic minority group and on...

  11. 78 FR 36783 - Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Minority Health

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Minority Health AGENCY: Office of Minority Health... hereby giving notice that the Advisory Committee on Minority Health (ACMH) will hold a meeting. This... Secretary for Minority Health in improving the health of each racial and ethnic minority group and on...

  12. 76 FR 39107 - Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Minority Health

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Minority Health AGENCY: Office of Minority Health... Minority Health (ACMH) will hold a meeting. This meeting is open to the public. Preregistration is required... Assistant Secretary for Minority Health in improving the health of each racial and ethnic minority group...

  13. 75 FR 80055 - Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Minority Health

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Committee on Minority Health AGENCY: Office of Minority Health... Minority Health (ACMH) will hold a meeting. This meeting is open to the public. Preregistration is required... Assistant Secretary for Minority Health in improving the health of each racial and ethnic minority group...

  14. Fecal microbes, short chain fatty acids, and colorectal cancer across racial/ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Hester, Christina M; Jala, Venkatakrishna R; Langille, Morgan GI; Umar, Shahid; Greiner, K Allen; Haribabu, Bodduluri

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate differences in microbes and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels in stool samples from Hispanic and non-Hispanic African American, American Indian, and White participants. METHODS: Stool samples from twenty participants were subjected to analysis for relative levels of viable bacteria and for SCFA levels. Additionally, the samples were subjected to 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing for identification of bacteria present in the stool. We used a metagenome functional prediction technique to analyze genome copy numbers and estimate the abundance of butyrate kinase in all samples. RESULTS: We found that African Americans had significantly lower levels of acetate, butyrate, and total SCFAs than all other racial/ethnic groups. We also found that participant microbial profiles differed by racial/ethnic group. African Americans had significantly more Firmicutes than Whites, with enriched Ruminococcaceae. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was also significantly higher for African Americans than for Whites (P = 0.049). We found Clostridium levels to be significantly and inversely related to total SCFA levels (P = 0.019) and we found Bacteroides to be positively associated (P = 0.027) and Clostridium to be negatively associated (P = 0.012) with levels of butyrate. We also identified a correlation between copy number for a butyrate kinase predicted from 16S rRNA gene abundance and levels of butyrate in stool. CONCLUSION: The identified differences in gut flora and SCFA levels may relate to colorectal cancer mortality differentials and may be useful as targets for future clinical and behavioral interventions. PMID:25759547

  15. Ten Guidelines for Recruiting, Hiring and Retraining Minority Group School Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Association of School Administrators, East Lansing.

    To carry out an affirmative action policy, school districts should base hiring practices on educational goals that aim at acceptance of people as human beings not as minority group members. The hiring practices should employ minority group people to recruit minority candidates for professional and nonprofessional positions, clearly defining…

  16. Training for Research in Mental Health and HIV/AIDS Among Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations: Meeting the Needs of New Investigators

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    My experiences as a mentor of young investigators, along with conversations with a diverse pool of mentees, led me to question the ability of conventional research methods, problem formulation, and instruments to address the unique challenges of studying racial and ethnic minorities. Training of new investi-gators should prepare them to explore alternative research paradigms and atypical research strategies, such as community-based participatory research and Photovoice technique. Unconventional approaches to research may challenge common explanations for unmet needs, noncompliance with treatments, and poor service outcomes. Mentors may need to develop broader theoretical insights that will facilitate unconventional problem formulation. The teaching of scientific research and mentoring of young investigators who study minority populations should evolve along with the changing research environment. PMID:19246670

  17. "More than skin deep": stress neurobiology and mental health consequences of racial discrimination.

    PubMed

    Berger, Maximus; Sarnyai, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority groups across the world face a complex set of adverse social and psychological challenges linked to their minority status, often involving racial discrimination. Racial discrimination is increasingly recognized as an important contributing factor to health disparities among non-dominant ethnic minorities. A growing body of literature has recognized these health disparities and has investigated the relationship between racial discrimination and poor health outcomes. Chronically elevated cortisol levels and a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis appear to mediate effects of racial discrimination on allostatic load and disease. Racial discrimination seems to converge on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and may impair the function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hence showing substantial similarities to chronic social stress. This review provides a summary of recent literature on hormonal and neural effects of racial discrimination and a synthesis of potential neurobiological pathways by which discrimination affects mental health.

  18. Racially Minoritized Students at U.S. Four-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Dafina-Lazarus

    2013-01-01

    Racially minoritized students attending U.S. colleges and universities are often compared to their White peers in research studies, generally emphasizing their cultural deficits, masking minority group achievement, and homogenizing within group variations. This article reports data for racially minoritized students who participated in the national…

  19. Positionings of Racial, Ethnic, and Linguistic Minority Students in High School Biology Class: Implications for Science Education in Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Minjung

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, I analyze ethnographic data from a year-long study of two Advanced Placement (AP) Biology classes that enrolled students with diverse racial, ethnic, and linguistic backgrounds. Specifically, I consider participation, positioning, and learning of newcomer Korean students in the focal classes. Building on the notion of figured…

  20. Nicotine metabolism in three ethnic/racial groups with different risks of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Derby, Kiersten S; Cuthrell, Kristine; Caberto, Christian; Carmella, Steven G; Franke, Adrian A; Hecht, Stephen S; Murphy, Sharon E; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2008-12-01

    Previously, we documented that smoking-associated lung cancer risk is greater in Hawaiians and lower in Japanese compared with Whites. Nicotine metabolism by cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) varies across ethnicity/race and is hypothesized to affect smoking behavior. We investigated whether higher CYP2A6 activity results in the smoker extracting more nicotine (adjusting for cigarettes per day) and being exposed to higher levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamine [4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)] and pyrene, a representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 585 smokers among the three main ethnic/racial groups in Hawaii and examined whether differences in CYP2A6 activity correlate with the ethnic/racial differences in lung cancer risk. We assessed CYP2A6 activity by nicotine metabolite ratio (total trans-3-hydroxycotinine/total cotinine) and caffeine metabolite ratio (1,7-dimethyl uric acid/1,7-dimethylxanthine) in 12 h urine. We also measured urinary nicotine equivalents (sum of nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3-hydroxycotinine and their respective glucuronides), a marker of nicotine dose, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronide, markers of NNK exposure, and 1-hydroxypyrene, a marker of pyrene exposure. The nicotine metabolite ratio was higher in Whites than in Japanese and intermediate in Hawaiians (P values < 0.05). Cigarettes per day-adjusted nicotine equivalents were lower in Japanese compared with Hawaiians or Whites (P = 0.005 and P < 0.0001, respectively) and greater in men than women (P < 0.0001). Nicotine equivalents and total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol increased with CYP2A6 activity, indicating that smokers with greater nicotine metabolism smoke more extensively and have a higher internal NNK dose. The particularly low nicotine metabolism of Japanese smokers may contribute to their previously described decreased lung cancer risk.

  1. Skin-Color Prejudice and Within-Group Racial Discrimination: Historical and Current Impact on Latino/a Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez-Dueñas, Nayeli Y.; Adames, Hector Y.; Organista, Kurt C.

    2014-01-01

    The psychological literature on colorism, a form of within-group racial discrimination, is sparse. In an effort to contribute to this understudied area and highlight its significance, a concise and selective review of the history of colorism in Latin America is provided. Specifically, three historical eras (i.e., conquest, colonization, and…

  2. HIV Infection Among People Who Inject Drugs in the United States: Geographically Explained Variance Across Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Hannah L. F.; Kelley, Mary E.; Karnes, Conny C.; Ross, Zev; Wolfe, Mary E.; Jarlais, Don Des; Semaan, Salaam; Tempalski, Barbara; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Finlayson, Teresa; Sionean, Catlainn; Wejnert, Cyprian; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We explored how variance in HIV infection is distributed across multiple geographical scales among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the United States, overall and within racial/ethnic groups. Methods. People who inject drugs (n = 9077) were recruited via respondent-driven sampling from 19 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 2009 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system. We used multilevel modeling to determine the percentage of variance in HIV infection explained by zip codes, counties, and MSAs where PWID lived, overall and for specific racial/ethnic groups. Results. Collectively, zip codes, counties, and MSAs explained 29% of variance in HIV infection. Within specific racial/ethnic groups, all 3 scales explained variance in HIV infection among non-Hispanic/Latino White PWID (4.3%, 0.2%, and 7.5%, respectively), MSAs explained variance among Hispanic/Latino PWID (10.1%), and counties explained variance among non-Hispanic/Latino Black PWID (6.9%). Conclusions. Exposure to potential determinants of HIV infection at zip codes, counties, and MSAs may vary for different racial/ethnic groups of PWID, and may reveal opportunities to identify and ameliorate intraracial inequities in exposure to determinants of HIV infection at these geographical scales. PMID:26469638

  3. Where people shop is not associated with the nutrient quality of packaged foods for any racial-ethnic group in the United States12

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Dalia; Robinson, Whitney R; Popkin, Barry M

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the literature, it has been suggested that there are race-ethnic disparities in what Americans eat. In addition, some studies have shown that residents of African American and low-income neighborhoods have less access to grocery stores and supermarkets, which tend to stock healthier foods. However, it is unclear whether differences in food shopping patterns contribute to the poorer nutrient profile of food purchases made by racial-ethnic minorities. Objectives: We examined whether the mix of food stores where people shop (i.e., food-shopping patterns) was associated with the nutrient profile of packaged food purchases (PFPs) and the types of foods and beverages purchased, and we determined whether these associations differ across racial-ethnic groups. Design: We used PFPs by US households (Nielsen National Consumer Panel) from 2007 to 2012 and implemented a cluster analysis to categorize households according to their food-shopping patterns. Longitudinal random-effects linear regression models were used to examine the association between food shopping patterns and the nutrient qualities and types of packaged foods and beverages purchased by race-ethnicity in US households. Results: Shopping primarily at grocery chains was not associated with a better nutrient profile of household PFPs or the food and beverages that households purchased than was shopping primarily at mass merchandisers (value-oriented stores that sell merchandise lines in multiple departments) or at a combination of large and small stores. These results were consistent across racial-ethnic groups. Regardless of where households shopped, non-Hispanic African American households purchased foods with higher energy, total sugar, and sodium densities than did non-Hispanic white and Hispanic households. Conclusion: Policy initiatives that focus on increasing physical access to stores or helping stores sell healthier products to encourage healthier purchases may be ineffective because other

  4. Development of racial-ethnic identity among First Nation children.

    PubMed

    Corenblum, Barry

    2014-03-01

    Elements of racial-ethnic identity, often found among adolescents from racial-ethnic minority groups, have their origins in middle childhood and pre-adolescence. The present study explored the developmental trajectory of some of those components among Native Canadian children living on relatively remote First Nation communities. Children and young adolescents (N = 414,209 female) between the ages of 6-11 completed measures assessing their level of racial-ethnic identity, concrete operational thought, implicit and explicit self-esteem, implicit and explicit in-group attitudes, and the importance of their racial-ethnic identity each year for 5 years. Consistent with predictions from cognitive developmental theory, trajectory modeling revealed significant increases over time in explicit and implicit in-group attitudes, level of concrete operational thought and the importance of children's racial-ethnic identity. However, level of racial-ethnic identity remained unchanged over time. The results are discussed in terms of cognitive-developmental theory, and the influence of living in a racially homogeneous environment on the development of racial-ethnic identity among minority group children. Studies are also suggested for future research.

  5. A Preliminary Investigation of a Special Education Program for Minority Group University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensema, Carl J.

    1972-01-01

    Minority group students were compared with a matched group, whose performance on the Washington Pre-College test battery indicated they were high risk students. It was found that those in the special minority group program did far better than WPC scores had predicted, while the matched group did about as expected. (Author/BY)

  6. Social cognitive predictors of academic and life satisfaction: Measurement and structural equivalence across three racial/ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Hung-Bin; Mejia, Araceli; Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Primé, Dominic R; Chong, Shiqin Stephanie

    2016-07-01

    Data of 306 Caucasian American, 284 Asian American, and 259 Latino/a American college students were analyzed in this study to test a modified version of Lent and Brown's (2006, 2008) satisfaction model in the academic context. In addition to the full set of variables hypothesized in the original model, the modified academic satisfaction model also included independent and interdependent self-construals to represent one's cultural orientations. Comparisons between the hypothesized model and 2 alternative models showed that direct paths from extraversion and emotional stability added significantly to the predictions of academic satisfaction and life satisfaction for all 3 racial/ethnic groups while those from independent and interdependent self-construals also had the same effects for Latino/a American students. The hypothesized model offered excellent fit to the data of all 3 racial/ethnic groups. Consistent with theoretical prediction, academic supports, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, or goal progress formed pathways that mediated the relations of personality traits and self-construals to academic satisfaction or life satisfaction across 3 groups. Although full measurement equivalence (configural invariance and metric invariance) was observed, 4 structural paths and 16 indirect effects differed significantly by race/ethnicity. Most of these differences in structural paths and indirect effects occurred between Caucasian Americans and Asian Americans. On balance, findings of the study provided evidence for the cross-racial/ethnic validity of the modified academic satisfaction model while identifying racial/ethnic differences that might have useful clinical implications. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Sociodemographic and environmental correlates of racial socialization by black parents.

    PubMed

    Thornton, M C; Chatters, L M; Taylor, R J; Allen, W R

    1990-04-01

    The present study focused on the content and practice of racial socialization by black parents. Sociodemographic correlates of patterns of racial socialization were examined using data from a national probability sample of 2,107 respondents (National Study of Black Americans). Multivariate analysis revealed that gender, age, marital status, region, and racial composition of neighborhood predicted whether or not black parents imparted racial socialization messages to their children. Black parents envision racial socialization as involving several components, including messages regarding their experience as minority group members, themes emphasizing individual character and goals, and information related to black cultural heritage. The findings highlighted the critical importance of sociodemographic and environmental influences on the socialization process. Implications for future research on racial socialization are discussed.

  8. Students from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups entering the dental hygiene profession.

    PubMed

    Sandino, Alma H; Rowe, Dorothy J

    2014-03-01

    African American, Hispanic/Latina, and American Indian/Alaska Native persons are markedly underrepresented racial and ethnic groups (UREG) in the dental hygiene profession. The purpose of this study was to survey UREG dental hygiene students to determine their perceptions of the barriers and facilitators that influenced their decision to enter the dental hygiene profession. Participants were eighty-four UREG students attending entry-level dental hygiene programs across the state of California. We conducted face-to-face interviews using a survey guide that consisted of forty-two mostly closed-ended questions. Most (57 percent) participants reported that they had either perceived or experienced barriers: primarily costs associated with the program and the lack of role models in their race/ethnicity. Almost all participants reported that there had been a person, mainly a dental professional, who influenced them to become a dental hygienist; 62 percent of these individuals were reported to be from a similar UREG group as the participant. Funding (57 percent) and emotional support from family and friends (87 percent) were the predominant facilitators employed by the participants to overcome barriers. Based on these results, we recommend three strategies to recruit more UREG students into the dental hygiene profession: more extensive outreach programs, enhanced mentoring by UREG dental professionals, and a modified admission process.

  9. Racial and Ethnic Barriers in Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    There are numerous problems involved in counseling minority group members. Rapport is difficult to establish because of the racial and/or cultural attitudes client and counselor have toward one another; consequently the client often finds his own goals in opposition to those of counseling. The existing cultural gap also leads to different patterns…

  10. Disparities in health, poverty, incarceration, and social justice among racial groups in the United States: a critical review of evidence of close links with neoliberalism.

    PubMed

    Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Agbanu, Samuel Kwami; Miller, Reuben Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Problems of poverty, poor health, and incarceration are unevenly distributed among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. We argue that this is due, in part, to the ascendance of United States-style neoliberalism, a prevailing political and economic doctrine that shapes social policy, including public health and anti-poverty intervention strategies. Public health research most often associates inequalities in health outcomes, poverty, and incarceration with individual and cultural risk factors. Contextual links to structural inequality and the neoliberal doctrine animating state-sanctioned interventions are given less attention. The interrelationships among these are not clear in the extant literature. Less is known about public health and incarceration. Thus, the authors describe the linkages between neoliberalism, public health, and criminal justice outcomes. We suggest that neoliberalism exacerbates racial disparities in health, poverty, and incarceration in the United States. We conclude by calling for a new direction in public health research that advances a pro-poor public health agenda to improve the general well-being of disadvantaged groups.

  11. Unaccompanied Refugee Minors; A Challenging Group to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Tammy; Eurelings-Bontekoe, Elisabeth; Spinhoven, Philip

    2006-01-01

    Unaccompanied Refugee Minors (URM), like all adolescents, have the right to be able to develop emotionally and cognitively to their fullest potential in host countries (Article 6, Convention of the Rights of the Child, 1991). URM make up a very special and vulnerable population of young people under the age of 18 who have been separated from their…

  12. Impact of Menthol Smoking on Nicotine Dependence for Diverse Racial/Ethnic Groups of Daily Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Soulakova, Julia N.; Danczak, Ryan R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aims of this study were to evaluate whether menthol smoking and race/ethnicity are associated with nicotine dependence in daily smokers. Methods: The study used two subsamples of U.S. daily smokers who responded to the 2010–2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. The larger subsample consisted of 18,849 non-Hispanic White (NHW), non-Hispanic Black (NHB), and Hispanic (HISP) smokers. The smaller subsample consisted of 1112 non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN), non-Hispanic Asian (ASIAN), non-Hispanic Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (HPI), and non-Hispanic Multiracial (MULT) smokers. Results: For larger (smaller) groups the rates were 45% (33%) for heavy smoking (16+ cig/day), 59% (51%) for smoking within 30 min of awakening (Sw30), and 14% (14%) for night-smoking. Overall, the highest prevalence of menthol smoking corresponded to NHB and HPI (≥65%), followed by MULT and HISP (31%–37%), and then by AIAN, NHW, and ASIAN (22%–27%) smokers. For larger racial/ethnic groups, menthol smoking was negatively associated with heavy smoking, not associated with Sw30, and positively associated with night-smoking. For smaller groups, menthol smoking was not associated with any measure, but the rates of heavy smoking, Sw30, and night-smoking varied across the groups. Conclusions: The diverse associations between menthol smoking and nicotine dependence maybe due to distinction among the nicotine dependence measures, i.e., individually, each measure assesses a specific smoking behavior. Menthol smoking may be associated with promoting smoking behaviors. PMID:28085040

  13. Inequalities in dementia incidence between six racial and ethnic groups over 14 years

    PubMed Central

    Mayeda, Elizabeth Rose; Glymour, M Maria; Quesenberry, Charles P; Whitmer, Rachel A

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Reducing racial/ethnic disparities is a primary objective of the National Alzheimer’s Plan (NAPA), yet direct comparisons within large samples representing diversity of the United States are lacking. METHODS Dementia incidence from 1/1/2000-12/31/2013 and 25-year cumulative risk in 274,283 healthcare members aged 64+ (n=18,778 African-American, n=4,543 American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN), n=21,000 Latino, n=440 Pacific Islander, n=206,490 White, n=23,032 Asian-Americans). Cox proportional hazard models were adjusted for age, sex, medical utilization, and comorbidities. RESULTS Dementia incidence (N=59,555) was highest for African-Americans (26.6/1,000 person-years) and AIANs (22.2/1,000 person-years); intermediate for Latinos (19.6/1,000 person-years), Pacific Islanders (19.6/1,000 person-years), and Whites (19.3/1,000 person-years); and lowest among Asian-Americans (15.2/1,000 person-years). Risk was 65% greater for African-Americans (hazard ratio=1.65; 95% confidence interval=1.58-1.72) versus Asian-Americans. Cumulative 25-year risk at age 65 was: 38% African-Americans, 35% AIANs, 32% Latino, 25% Pacific Islanders, 30% White, and 28% Asian-Americans. DISCUSSION Dementia rates varied over 60% between groups, providing a comprehensive benchmark for the NAPA goal of reducing disparities. PMID:26874595

  14. An Automated Detection System for Microaneurysms That Is Effective across Different Racial Groups

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Su; Hu, Yin; Da Cruz, Lyndon; Smith, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Patients without diabetic retinopathy (DR) represent a large proportion of the caseload seen by the DR screening service so reliable recognition of the absence of DR in digital fundus images (DFIs) is a prime focus of automated DR screening research. We investigate the use of a novel automated DR detection algorithm to assess retinal DFIs for absence of DR. A retrospective, masked, and controlled image-based study was undertaken. 17,850 DFIs of patients from six different countries were assessed for DR by the automated system and by human graders. The system's performance was compared across DFIs from the different countries/racial groups. The sensitivities for detection of DR by the automated system were Kenya 92.8%, Botswana 90.1%, Norway 93.5%, Mongolia 91.3%, China 91.9%, and UK 90.1%. The specificities were Kenya 82.7%, Botswana 83.2%, Norway 81.3%, Mongolia 82.5%, China 83.0%, and UK 79%. There was little variability in the calculated sensitivities and specificities across the six different countries involved in the study. These data suggest the possible scalability of an automated DR detection platform that enables rapid identification of patients without DR across a wide range of races. PMID:28074155

  15. Disproportionate Minority Contact.

    PubMed

    Fix, Rebecca L; Cyperski, Melissa A; Burkhart, Barry R

    2017-04-01

    The overrepresentation of racial/ethnic minorities within the criminal justice system relative to their population percentage, a phenomenon termed disproportionate minority contact, has been examined within general adult and adolescent offender populations; yet few studies have tested whether this phenomenon extends to juvenile sexual offenders (JSOs). In addition, few studies have examined whether offender race/ethnicity influences registration and notification requirements, which JSOs are subject to in some U.S. states. The present study assessed for disproportionate minority contact among general delinquent offenders and JSOs, meaning it aimed to test whether the criminal justice system treats those accused of sexual and non-sexual offenses differently by racial/ethnic group. Furthermore, racial/ethnic group differences in risk, legal classification, and sexual offending were examined for JSOs. Results indicated disproportionate minority contact was present among juveniles with non-sexual offenses and JSOs in Alabama. In addition, offense category and risk scores differed between African American and European American JSOs. Finally, registration classifications were predicted by offending characteristics, but not race/ethnicity. Implications and future directions regarding disproportionate minority contact among JSOs and social and legal policy affecting JSOs are discussed.

  16. "Hopwood v. Texas": Racial Preferences in Higher Education Upheld and Endorsed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graglia, Lino A.

    1995-01-01

    A federal court decision in which the University of Texas was supported in preferential admissions treatment of minority law school applicants is criticized as perpetuating racial discrimination by a state institution. The suit was brought by four white applicants who would likely have been admitted if they were of a preferred racial group but…

  17. Development of Positive Racial Attitudes, Knowledges, and Activities in Pre-Service Social Studies Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.; Lamb, Morris L.

    Information on aspects of social studies teachers' racial attitudes, knowledges, and skill in implementing relevant ethnic-racial activities in the classroom are presented. Major research studies that have examined teacher attitudes toward black and other minority group children are discussed along with information on programs that have attempted…

  18. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Adults in Randomized Clinical Trials of Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franko, Debra L.; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Thompson, Douglas R.; Boisseau, Christina L.; Davis, Angela; Forbush, Kelsie T.; Roehrig, James P.; Bryson, Susan W.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Crow, Scott J.; Devlin, Michael J.; Gorin, Amy A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Kristeller, Jean L.; Masheb, Robin M.; Mitchell, James E.; Peterson, Carol B.; Safer, Debra L.; Striegel, Ruth H.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies suggest that binge eating disorder (BED) is as prevalent among African American and Hispanic Americans as among Caucasian Americans; however, data regarding the characteristics of treatment-seeking individuals from racial and ethnic minority groups are scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate racial/ethnic…

  19. Racial Differences in the Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence against Women and Associated Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyunkag

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence against women (IPV) affects all populations, but significant variations among these groups have been suggested. However, research results on racial differences in IPV are not only inconclusive, they are also limited--particularly with regard to racial minorities. As a result, it has been challenging for practitioners and…

  20. An examination of how women and underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities experience barriers in biomedical research and medical programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraverty, Devasmita

    Women in medicine and biomedical research often face challenges to their retention, promotion, and advancement to leadership positions (McPhillips et al., 2007); they take longer to advance their careers, tend to serve at less research-intensive institutions and have shorter tenures compared to their male colleagues (White, McDade, Yamagata, & Morahan, 2012). Additionally, Blacks and Hispanics are the two largest minority groups that are vastly underrepresented in medicine and biomedical research in the United States (AAMC, 2012; NSF, 2011). The purpose of this study is to examine specific barriers reported by students and post-degree professionals in the field through the following questions: 1. How do women who are either currently enrolled or graduated from biomedical research or medical programs define and make meaning of gender-roles as academic barriers? 2. How do underrepresented groups in medical schools and biomedical research institutions define and make meaning of the academic barriers they face and the challenges these barriers pose to their success as individuals in the program? These questions were qualitatively analyzed using 146 interviews from Project TrEMUR applying grounded theory. Reported gender-role barriers were explained using the "Condition-Process-Outcome" theoretical framework. About one-third of the females (across all three programs; majority White or Black between 25-35 years of age) reported gender-role barriers, mostly due to poor mentoring, time constraints, set expectations and institutional barriers. Certain barriers act as conditions, causing gender-role issues, and gender-role issues influence certain barriers that act as outcomes. Strategies to overcome barriers included interventions mostly at the institutional level (mentor support, proper specialty selection, selecting academia over medicine). Barrier analysis for the two largest URM groups indicated that, while Blacks most frequently reported racism, gender barriers

  1. Recruitment Strategies and the Retention of Obese Urban Racial/Ethnic Minority Adolescents in Clinical Trials: The FIT Families Project, Michigan, 2010–2014

    PubMed Central

    Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Naar-King, Sylvie; Ellis, Deborah A.; Jen, Kai-Lin Catherine; Marshall, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The successful recruitment and retention of participants is integral to the translation of research findings. We examined the recruitment and retention rates of racial/ethnic minority adolescents at a center involved in the National Institutes of Health Obesity Research for Behavioral Intervention Trials (ORBIT) initiative by the 3 recruitment strategies used: clinic, informatics, and community. Methods During the 9-month study, 186 family dyads, each composed of an obese African American adolescent and a caregiver, enrolled in a 6-month weight-loss intervention, a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial. We compared recruitment and retention rates by recruitment strategy and examined whether recruitment strategy was related to dyad baseline characteristics. Results Of the 186 enrolled families, 110 (59.1%) were recruited through clinics, 53 (28.5%) through informatics, and 23 (12.4%) through community. Of those recruited through community, 40.4% enrolled in the study, compared with 32.7% through clinics and 8.2% through informatics. Active refusal rate was 3%. Of the 1,036 families identified for the study, 402 passively refused to participate: 290 (45.1%) identified through informatics, 17 (29.8%) through community, and 95 (28.3%) through clinics. Recruitment strategy was not related to the age of the adolescent, adolescent comorbidities, body mass index of the adolescent or caregiver, income or education of the caregiver, or retention rates at 3 months, 7 months, or 9 months. Study retention rate was 87.8%. Conclusion Using multiple recruitment strategies is beneficial when working with racial/ethnic minority adolescents, and each strategy can yield good retention. Research affiliated with health care systems would benefit from the continued specification, refinement, and dissemination of these strategies. PMID:25695260

  2. Language Needs of Minority Group Children. Learners of English As a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrick, June

    This review is intended to expand on the issues of: (1) the cultural and linguistic identity of children of minority groups in Britain, and (2) the teaching of English to these children. The review relates these issues to the broader questions of policy in the education of minority group children and highlights some areas where research is needed.…

  3. A Model Minority? The Misrepresentation and Underrepresentation of Asian Pacific Americans in Introductory American Government Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeda, Okiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Asian Pacific Americans are a racial group that is often viewed in stereotypes, most notably, as a "model minority"--a view that this group is naturally hardworking and successful unlike "other" racial and ethnic groups. Quite often, they are also neglected as U.S. citizens, whose presence and influence in American politics are…

  4. Recent trends in survival of adult patients with acute leukemia: overall improvements, but persistent and partly increasing disparity in survival of patients from minority groups.

    PubMed

    Pulte, Dianne; Redaniel, Maria Theresa; Jansen, Lina; Brenner, Hermann; Jeffreys, Mona

    2013-02-01

    The survival of younger patients with acute leukemia has improved in the early 21(st) century, but it is unknown whether people of all ethnic and racial backgrounds have benefited equally. Using cancer registry data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program, we assessed trends in 5-year relative survival for patients aged 15 years or more with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloblastic leukemia divided by racial and ethnic group, including non-Hispanic whites, African-Americans, Hispanics, and Asian-Pacific Islanders in the 1990s and the early 21(st) century. Modeled period analysis was used to obtain the most up-to-date estimates of survival. Overall, the 5-year survival increased from 31.6% in 1997-2002 to 39.0% in 2003-2008 for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and from 15.5% in 1991-1996 to 22.5% in 2003-2008 for those with acute myeloblastic leukemia. Nevertheless, among patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, age-adjusted 5-year relative survival rates remained lower for African-Americans and Hispanics than for non-Hispanic whites. Among patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia, the increase in survival was greatest (from 32.6% in 1991-1996 to 47.1% in 2003-2008) for younger patients (15-54 years), and was more pronounced for non-Hispanic whites (+16.4% units) than for other patients (+10.8% units). Increases in survival are observed in all ethnic or racial groups. Nevertheless, among patients with acute leukemias, disparities in survival persist between non-Hispanic white people and people of other ethnic or racial groups. Disparities are increasing in younger patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia. Improvements in access to treatment, especially for minority patients, may improve outcomes.

  5. Clinician Descriptions of Communication Strategies to Improve Treatment Engagement by Racial/Ethnic Minorities in Mental Health Services: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan; Pieh, Matthew C.; Dixon, Lisa; Guarnaccia, Peter; Alegría, Margarita; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe studies on clinician communication and the engagement of racial/ethnic minority patients in mental health treatment. Methods Authors conducted electronic searches of published and grey literature databases from inception to November 2014, forward citation analyses, and backward bibliographic sampling of included articles. Included studies reported original data on clinician communication strategies to improve minority treatment engagement, defined as initiating, participating, and continuing services. Results Twenty-three studies met inclusion criteria. Low treatment initiation and high treatment discontinuation were related to patient views that the mental health system did not address their understandings of illness, care or stigma. Treatment participation was based more on clinician language use, communication style, and discussions of patient-clinician differences. Conclusion Clinicians may improve treatment initiation and continuation by incorporating patient views of illness into treatment and targeting stigma. Clinicians may improve treatment participation by using simple language, tailoring communication to patient preferences, discussing differences, and demonstrating positive affect. Practice implications Lack of knowledge about the mental health system and somatic symptoms may delay treatment initiation. Discussions of clinician backgrounds, power, and communication style may improve treatment participation. Treatment continuation may improve if clinicians tailor communication and treatment plans congruent with patient expectations. PMID:26365436

  6. The Effect of Financial Aid on Students' College Choice: Differences by Racial Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongbin

    2004-01-01

    This study analyzed the impact of specific types of financial aid on students' college choice, with particular focus on racial differences. For overall student populations, the receipt of grants or a combination of grants with loans had a positive impact on attending first choice institutions. In contrast, having loans only had no significant…

  7. Brain Size, IQ, and Racial-Group Differences: Evidence from Musculoskeletal Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, J. Philippe; Rushton, Elizabeth W.

    2003-01-01

    Correlated brain size differences with 37 musculoskeletal variables shown in evolutionary textbooks to change with brain size. Findings from a sample of more than 6,000 U.S. military personnel indicate that racial differences in brain size are securely established and are the most likely biological mediators of race differences in intelligence.…

  8. Current Research Findings on End-of-Life Decision Making among Racially or Ethnically Diverse Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwak, Jung; Haley, William E.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We reviewed the research literature on racial or ethnic diversity and end-of-life decision making in order to identify key findings and provide recommendations for future research. Design and Methods: We identified 33 empirical studies in which race or ethnicity was investigated as either a variable predicting treatment preferences or…

  9. Is All Classroom Conduct Equal?: Teacher Contact with Parents of Racial/Ethnic Minority and Immigrant Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherng, Hua-Yu Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Parental involvement is a key ingredient in the educational success of students and an integral component of involvement is teacher-parent communication. One body of research finds that minority immigrant parents face barriers in interacting with schools, and communicate less with schools than native-born White parents.…

  10. The What, the Why, and the How: A Review of Racial Microaggressions Research in Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Derthick, Annie O.; David, E. J. R.; Saw, Anne; Okazaki, Sumie

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of Sue et al. (Am Psychol 62:271–286, 2007a, b) seminal article, there has been an enormous scholarly interest in psychology on this construct of racial microaggressions—subtle everyday experiences of racism. In this paper, we provide a review of racial microaggressions research literature in psychology since 2007, following the publication of the first comprehensive taxonomy of racial microaggressions, which provided a conceptual framework and directions for research related to racial microaggressions. However, our review suggests that important conceptual and methodological issues remain to be addressed in the three domains: (1) what are racial microaggressions and who do they impact; (2) why are racial microaggressions important to examine; and (3) how are racial microaggressions currently studied and how might we improve the methodologies used to study racial microaggressions. We propose recommendations to further facilitate racial microaggressions research, improve the scientific rigor of racial microaggressions research, and contribute toward a more complete and sophisticated understanding of the concept and consequences of racial microaggressions—a construct that is undoubtedly salient and psychologically relevant among many members of racial minority groups. PMID:26913088

  11. Attitude Differences and Task Performance for Black and White Naval Recruits in Problem-Solving Groups of Differing Size and Racial Composition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A field study was made in which 288 black and white naval personnel (224 recruits and 64 squad leaders) in groups of varying size and racial composition performed two problem-solving tasks (knot tying and ship-routing). Black and white leaders, subordinates and group types (25% black tetrads, 75% black tetrads, racially balanced dyads and tetrads) were compared in measures of self - esteem , duration of speech, locus of control, job and general satisfaction, Bales IPA behavior, and performance on the tasks.

  12. Neighborhood Foreclosures, Racial/Ethnic Transitions, and Residential Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew; Crowder, Kyle; Spring, Amy

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we use data on virtually all foreclosure events between 2005 and 2009 to calculate neighborhood foreclosure rates for nearly all block groups in the United States to assess the impact of housing foreclosures on neighborhood racial/ethnic change and on broader patterns of racial residential segregation. We find that the foreclosure crisis was patterned strongly along racial lines: black, Latino, and racially integrated neighborhoods had exceptionally high foreclosure rates. Multilevel models of racial/ethnic change reveal that foreclosure concentrations were linked to declining shares of whites and expanding shares of black and Latino residents. Results further suggest that these compositional shifts were driven by both white population loss and minority growth, especially from racially mixed settings with high foreclosure rates. To explore the impact of these racially selective migration streams on patterns of residential segregation, we simulate racial segregation assuming that foreclosure rates remained at their 2005 levels throughout the crisis period. Our simulations suggest that the foreclosure crisis increased racial segregation between blacks and whites by 1.1 dissimilarity points, and between Latinos and whites by 2.2 dissimilarity points. PMID:26120142

  13. Neighborhood Foreclosures, Racial/Ethnic Transitions, and Residential Segregation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Matthew; Crowder, Kyle; Spring, Amy

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we use data on virtually all foreclosure events between 2005 and 2009 to calculate neighborhood foreclosure rates for nearly all block groups in the United States to assess the impact of housing foreclosures on neighborhood racial/ethnic change and on broader patterns of racial residential segregation. We find that the foreclosure crisis was patterned strongly along racial lines: black, Latino, and racially integrated neighborhoods had exceptionally high foreclosure rates. Multilevel models of racial/ethnic change reveal that foreclosure concentrations were linked to declining shares of whites and expanding shares of black and Latino residents. Results further suggest that these compositional shifts were driven by both white population loss and minority growth, especially from racially mixed settings with high foreclosure rates. To explore the impact of these racially selective migration streams on patterns of residential segregation, we simulate racial segregation assuming that foreclosure rates remained at their 2005 levels throughout the crisis period. Our simulations suggest that the foreclosure crisis increased racial segregation between blacks and whites by 1.1 dissimilarity points, and between Latinos and whites by 2.2 dissimilarity points.

  14. Association of social isolation and health across different racial and ethnic groups of older Americans.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Christina E

    2015-11-01

    Social isolation is a social and public health problem that affects people of all ages, especially elders. Previous studies have found that social isolation across numerous industrialised countries is associated with negative health outcomes. However, it is unknown whether and how this association differs by race/ethnicity and age. To begin to address this gap, this study examines the association of social isolation and physical and mental health among Black, White and Hispanic elders in the United States of America. Building on Cornwell and Waite's perceived isolation and social disconnectedness dimension model of social isolation, the author used multi-stage survey data from a nationally representative sample of 3,005 community-residing adults aged 57-85 from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Tests for association were conducted on health by age, gender, marital status, education and race/ethnicity separately. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to test the association of social isolation and health exclusively and separately among these three groups. Results showed that social isolation is strongly associated with physical and mental health. Both perceived isolation and social disconnectedness had a significant negative association with physical and mental health among White elders. For Blacks, social disconnectedness is negatively associated with their physical health while perceived isolation had a negative association with mental health. Among Hispanic elders, there seemed to be no association between social isolation and physical health, but a significant negative association was found with their mental health. Despite various associated patterns, however, social isolation overall was associated with health outcomes that were similar across three elder groups. By identifying factors influencing social isolation and health among minority older Americans, this study has relevance to the development of culturally sensitive health

  15. Association of social isolation and health across different racial and ethnic groups of older Americans

    PubMed Central

    MIYAWAKI, CHRISTINA E.

    2015-01-01

    Social isolation is a social and public health problem that affects people of all ages, especially elders. Previous studies have found that social isolation across numerous industrialised countries is associated with negative health outcomes. However, it is unknown whether and how this association differs by race/ethnicity and age. To begin to address this gap, this study examines the association of social isolation and physical and mental health among Black, White and Hispanic elders in the United States of America. Building on Cornwell and Waite's perceived isolation and social disconnectedness dimension model of social isolation, the author used multi-stage survey data from a nationally representative sample of 3,005 community-residing adults aged 57–85 from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Tests for association were conducted on health by age, gender, marital status, education and race/ethnicity separately. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to test the association of social isolation and health exclusively and separately among these three groups. Results showed that social isolation is strongly associated with physical and mental health. Both perceived isolation and social disconnectedness had a significant negative association with physical and mental health among White elders. For Blacks, social disconnectedness is negatively associated with their physical health while perceived isolation had a negative association with mental health. Among Hispanic elders, there seemed to be no association between social isolation and physical health, but a significant negative association was found with their mental health. Despite various associated patterns, however, social isolation overall was associated with health outcomes that were similar across three elder groups. By identifying factors influencing social isolation and health among minority older Americans, this study has relevance to the development of culturally sensitive health

  16. Concerns for Minority Groups in Communication Disorders. ASHA Reports No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, Fred H., Ed.; And Others

    This monograph addresses topical issues in training, service delivery, and research for minorities in communication disorders. It presents extended versions of papers that were delivered at the conference, "Concerns for Minority Groups in Communication Disorders," held in Nashville, Tennessee on September 17-19, 1984. Papers include: "The First…

  17. The Assessment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Minority Vietnam Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDue, Robin A.

    Vietnam veterans from racial or ethnic minority groups have a "double minority" status; clinicians treating these veterans should distinguish between behaviors resulting from experiences in Vietnam and those due to experiences as members of minority groups. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) affects an estimated 20% of all Vietnam…

  18. Additive Bilingualism, Schooling, and Special Education: A Minority Group Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of schooling on the acquisition of an additive type of bilingualism is examined, focusing on additive bilingualism's relation to the ethnolinguistic vitality of linguistic groups and contributions of individual networks of linguistic contacts. A special and regular education merger without domination by a single cultural perspective is…

  19. Using the Risk Ratio to Assess Racial/Ethnic Disproportionality in Special Education at the School-District Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollmer, Julie; Bethel, James; Garrison-Mogren, Roberta; Brauen, Marsha

    2007-01-01

    The issue of the disproportionate identification and placement of racial/ethnic minorities in special education has been investigated extensively. One of the most useful tools in this research is the risk ratio, which compares one racial/ethnic group's risk of receiving special education and related services to that of all other students. The risk…

  20. Asymmetrical effects of contact between minority groups: Asian and Black students in a small college.

    PubMed

    Bikmen, Nida

    2011-04-01

    Recent meta-analyses of intergroup contact research revealed that majority members' attitudes toward minorities are improved to a greater degree by contact compared to those of minority members (Tropp & Pettigrew, 2005). While previous research focused on contact between majority and minority groups, this study explored effects of intergroup contact between two minority groups that differ in status: Black and Asian college students. Because of different stereotypes and social status, the college experiences of the two groups were expected to differ in the extent to which they felt their group was respected by others (public regard). A survey conducted with 104 Black and Asian American students in a small, Midwestern liberal arts college demonstrated that the two groups differed in public regard, which led to differences in attitudes toward the majority Whites, contact with Whites, experiences of discrimination, and trust in college authorities. Further, while contact with Black students was positively associated with more favorable attitudes toward Blacks for Asians (higher status minority), contact with Asian students was not related to attitudes toward Asians for Blacks (lower status minority). The role of public regard and attitudes toward the majority as potential moderators of the relationship between contact with Asians and Blacks' attitudes toward Asians were explored. Implications for multicultural solidarity between targeted groups were discussed.

  1. Key issues in mentoring in HIV prevention and mental health for new investigators from underrepresented racial/ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Andrew D; Stoff, David M

    2009-04-01

    We examine the challenges and barriers to quality mentoring for new investigators from underrepresented racial/ethnic groups and propose solutions for establishing a robust pipeline of early-career scientists who are well equipped to conduct research on disparities in HIV and mental health. In addition, we review contributions to this special supplement on mentoring and advocate a multilevel strategy that targets funding agencies, academic and research institutions, mentors, and mentees to enhance the diversity of the nation's scientific workforce and ensure that the public health system benefits from innovations derived from the optimal use of existing human capital.

  2. Minority acculturation and peer rejection: Costs of acculturation misfit with peer-group norms.

    PubMed

    Celeste, Laura; Meeussen, Loes; Verschueren, Karine; Phalet, Karen

    2016-09-01

    How do minority adolescents' personal acculturation preferences and peer norms of acculturation affect their social inclusion in school? Turkish and Moroccan minority adolescents (N = 681) reported their preferences for heritage culture maintenance, mainstream culture adoption, and their experiences of peer rejection as a key indicator of adjustment problems. Additionally, we aggregated peer acculturation norms of maintenance and adoption within ethnically diverse classrooms (N = 230 in 50 Belgian schools), distinguishing between co-ethnic (Turkish or Moroccan classmates only, N = 681) and cross-ethnic norms (also including N = 1,930 other classmates). Cross-ethnic peer-group norms (of adoption and maintenance) and co-ethnic norms (of maintenance, marginally) predicted minority experiences of peer rejection (controlling for ethnic composition). Moreover, misfit of minorities' own acculturation preferences with both cross-ethnic and co-ethnic peer-group norms was harmful. When cross-ethnic norms stressed adoption, 'integrationist' minority youth - who combined culture adoption with maintenance - experienced most peer rejection. Yet, when co-ethnic peers stressed maintenance, 'assimilationist' minority youth experienced most rejection. In conclusion, acculturation misfit with peer-group norms is a risk factor for minority inclusion in ethnically diverse environments.

  3. Asian and Pacific Islander women scientists and engineers: A narrative exploration of model minority, gender, and racial stereotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2002-04-01

    This qualitative study uses narrative methodology to understand what becoming a scientist or engineer entails for women stereotyped as model minorities. Interviews with four Chinese and Japanese women focused on the social contexts in which science is encountered in classrooms, families, and community. Interpretation was guided by theories that individuals construct personal narratives mediated by cultural symbolic systems to make meaning of experiences. Narratives revealed that Confucian cultural scripts shaped gender expectations even in families several generations in America. Regardless of parents' level of education, country of birth, and number of children, educational expectations, and resources were lower for daughters. Parents expected daughters to be compliant, feminine, and educated enough to be marriageable. Findings suggest K-12 gender equity science practices encouraged development of the women's interests and abilities but did not affect parental beliefs. The author's 1999 study of Hawaiians/Pacific Islander and Filipina female engineers is included in implications for teacher education programs sensitive to gender, culture, ethnicity, and language.

  4. Developing critical consciousness or justifying the system? A qualitative analysis of attributions for poverty and wealth among low-income racial/ethnic minority and immigrant women

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Erin B.; Wolf, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Economic inequality is a growing concern in the United States and globally. The current study uses qualitative techniques to (1) explore the attributions low-income racial/ethnic minority and immigrant women make for poverty and wealth in the U.S., and (2) clarify important links between attributions, critical consciousness development and system justification theory. Methods In-depth interview transcripts from 19 low-income immigrant Dominican and Mexican and native African-American mothers in a large Northeastern city were analyzed using open coding techniques. Interview topics included perceptions of current economic inequality and mobility and experiences of daily economic hardships. Results Almost all respondents attributed economic inequality to individual factors (character flaws, lack of hard work). Structural explanations for poverty and wealth were expressed by less than half the sample and almost always paired with individual explanations. Moreover, individual attributions included system-justifying beliefs such as the belief in meritocracy and equality of opportunity and structural attributions represented varying levels of critical consciousness. Conclusions Our analysis sheds new light on how and why individuals simultaneously hold individual and structural attributions and highlights key links between system justification and critical consciousness. It shows that critical consciousness and system justification do not represent opposite stances along a single underlying continuum, but are distinct belief systems and motivations. It also suggests that the motive to justify the system is a key psychological process impeding the development of critical consciousness. Implications for scholarship and intervention are discussed. PMID:25915116

  5. Impacts of Grouping and Time on the Math Learning of Language Minority Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Rachel; Hong, Guanglei

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated benefits and potential pitfalls of within-class homogeneous and heterogeneous ability grouping for elementary math learning. However, there has been scant evidence with regard to the impacts of grouping for language minority kindergartners who may experience the small group setting differentially due to their…

  6. Differential associations between Social Anxiety Disorder, family cohesion, and suicidality across racial/ethnic groups: Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent (NCS-A).

    PubMed

    Rapp, Amy M; Lau, Anna; Chavira, Denise A

    2016-09-20

    The proposed research seeks to introduce a novel model relating Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and suicide outcomes (i.e., passive suicidal ideation, active suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts) in diverse adolescents. This model posits that family cohesion is one pathway by which suicide risk is increased for socially anxious youth, and predicts that the relationships between these variables may be of different strength in Latino and White subgroups and across gender. Data from a sample of Latino (n=1922) and non-Hispanic White (hereafter referred to as White throughout) (n=5648) male and female adolescents who participated in the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent were used for this study. Analyses were conducted using generalized structural equation modeling. Results showed that the mediation model held for White females. Further examination of direct pathways highlighted SAD as a risk factor unique to Latinos for active suicidal ideation and suicide attempt, over and above comorbid depression and other relevant contextual factors. Additionally, family cohesion showed a strong association with suicide outcomes across groups, with some inconsistent findings for White males. Overall, it appears that the mechanism by which SAD increases risk for suicidality is different across groups, indicating further need to identify relevant mediators, especially for racial/ethnic minority youth.

  7. Parent-Child Interaction and the Development of Racial Group Identity and Self Concepts of Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdoo, Harriette; McAdoo, John L.

    This study focuses on three areas: (1) mother-child and father-child verbal and nonverbal interactions; (2) racial differences in parent-child interactions, children's self esteem and children's racial attitudes; and (3) relationships between parenting style and children's feelings of self-worth and racial preferences. Subjects were 40 black and…

  8. Self-esteem: a comparative study of adolescents from mainstream and minority religious groups in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ahmad, Riaz; Ayub, Nadia

    2013-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the level of self-esteem among religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) by making a comparison with their dominant counterparts (Muslims) in Pakistan. It was hypothesized that adolescents of religious minorities would have lower level of self-esteem than their dominant counterparts. In the present study 320 adolescents participated, in which 160 adolescents belonged to minority religious groups (i.e. 76 Christians and 84 Hindus) and 160 adolescents belonged to dominant religious group i.e. Muslims. To assess self-esteem of the participants, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg in Society and the adolescent self image, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1965) was used. One Way Analysis of Variance reveals that religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) inclined to have lower self-esteem as compared to their dominant counterpart (Muslim adolescents).

  9. Relative rates of AIDS among racial/ethnic groups by exposure categories.

    PubMed Central

    Haverkos, H. W.; Turner, J. F.; Moolchan, E. T.; Cadet, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    The relative rates of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were calculated among racial/ethnic populations using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)/Surveillance reports assuming that racial/ethnic distributions reflect that of the US Census Data from 1990. For comparison, a rate of 1 was assigned to whites in each calculation. The overall relative rates were whites--1, African Americans--4.7, Hispanics--3, Asian/Pacific Islanders--0.4, and Native Americans--0.5. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome surveillance data show higher rates of AIDS for African Americans and Hispanics compared with whites, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans. The relative rates for African Americans and Hispanics compared with whites were highest for injecting drug users, heterosexual contact, and pediatric patients. These results led us to explore possible explanations for increased AIDS reporting in African Americans and Hispanics. We then explored available national datasets regarding those variables. The analyses indicate that variables such as access and receptivity to HIV prevention and treatment efforts, race/ethnicity, sexual behaviors, sexually transmitted diseases, socioeconomic status, and substance abuse interact in a complex fashion to influence HIV transmission and progression to AIDS in affected communities. PMID:10063784

  10. The Abbreviated Dimensions of Temperament Survey: Factor Structure and Construct Validity Across Three Racial/Ethnic Groups.

    PubMed

    Windle, Michael; Wiesner, Margit; Elliott, Marc N; Wallander, Jan L; Kanouse, David E; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of an abbreviated version of the Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey (DOTS-R) were evaluated across Black, Hispanic, and White early adolescents. Primary caregivers reported on 5 dimensions of temperament for 4,701 children. Five temperament dimensions were identified via maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis and were labeled flexibility, general activity level, positive mood, task orientation, and sleep rhythmicity. Multigroup mean and covariance structures analysis provided partial support for strong factorial invariance across these racial/ethnic groups. Mean level comparisons indicated that relative to Hispanics and Blacks, Whites had higher flexibility, greater sleep regularity, and lower activity. They also reported higher positive mood than Blacks. Blacks, relative to Hispanics, had higher flexibility and lower sleep regularity. Construct validity was supported as the 5 temperament dimensions were significantly correlated with externalizing problems and socioemotional competence. This abbreviated version of the DOTS-R could be used across racial/ethnic groups of early adolescents to assess significant dimensions of temperament risk that are associated with mental health and competent (healthy) functioning.

  11. The Abbreviated Dimensions of Temperament Survey: Factor Structure and Construct Validity Across Three Racial/Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Windle, Michael; Wiesner, Margit; Elliott, Marc N.; Wallander, Jan L.; Kanouse, David E.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    The factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of an abbreviated version of the Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey (DOTS–R) were evaluated across Black, Hispanic, and White early adolescents. Primary caregivers reported on 5 dimensions of temperament for 4,701 children. Five temperament dimensions were identified via maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis and were labeled flexibility, general activity level, positive mood, task orientation, and sleep rhythmicity. Multigroup mean and covariance structures analysis provided partial support for strong factorial invariance across these racial/ethnic groups. Mean level comparisons indicated that relative to Hispanics and Blacks, Whites had higher flexibility, greater sleep regularity, and lower activity. They also reported higher positive mood than Blacks. Blacks, relative to Hispanics, had higher flexibility and lower sleep regularity. Construct validity was supported as the 5 temperament dimensions were significantly correlated with externalizing problems and socioemotional competence. This abbreviated version of the DOTS–R could be used across racial/ethnic groups of early adolescents to assess significant dimensions of temperament risk that are associated with mental health and competent (healthy) functioning. PMID:25932505

  12. Minority carrier device comprising a passivating layer including a Group 13 element and a chalcogenide component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barron, Andrew R. (Inventor); Hepp, Aloysius F. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip P. (Inventor); MacInnes, Andrew N. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A minority carrier device includes at least one junction of at least two dissimilar materials, at least one of which is a semiconductor, and a passivating layer on at least one surface of the device. The passivating layer includes a Group 13 element and a chalcogenide component. Embodiments of the minority carrier device include, for example, laser diodes, light emitting diodes, heterojunction bipolar transistors, and solar cells.

  13. Being white helps: intersections of self-concealment, stigmatization, identity formation, and psychological distress in racial and sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Shannon L; Antonucci, Erica A; Haden, Sara C

    2014-01-01

    This study had two objectives: (1) examine the impact of self-concealment on identity formation and on degree of psychological distress and (2) examine the impact of perceived stigma on identity formation and on degree of psychological distress. Analyses were conducted on a diverse sample of 166 women, ages 18-32 (white lesbian, non-white lesbian, white heterosexual, and non-white heterosexual). Findings revealed that self-concealment was positively associated with psychological distress in stigmatized women, but unrelated to psychological distress in the non-stigmatized group. Furthermore, although perceived stigma negatively impacted identity formation in the heterosexual groups, it did not impact either group of lesbians. Finally, non-white heterosexual women's perception of stigma was associated with psychological distress. Implications and specific psychological health disparities between groups are discussed.

  14. The downsides of national identification for minority groups in intergroup conflicts in assimilationist societies.

    PubMed

    Bilali, Rezarta

    2014-03-01

    The current study considered the downsides of national identification for minority groups in intergroup conflicts in assimilationist societies. This study examined how, in the Turkish national context, the national and ethnic identifications of ethnic Turks (N = 103) and ethnic Kurds (N = 58) predict construals (i.e., conflict frames, attributions of responsibility, and severity of harm) of Turkish-Kurdish conflict. The results indicated that, across groups, a shared national identification was associated with similar conflict construals in line with the official Turkish narrative, whereas ethnic identification was associated with opposing conflict construals that might help maintain the conflict. However, the conflict narrative related to national identification might produce a shared understanding of the conflict (i.e., more intergroup harmony) at the cost of neglecting the minority group's grievances in the conflict and legitimizing the status-quo, thus hindering efforts to enhance the minority group's disadvantaged status.

  15. End-of-life care for people with dementia from ethnic minority groups: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Amanda; Sampson, Elizabeth L; Purandare, Nitin

    2012-02-01

    A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine the relationship between ethnic minority status and provision of end-of-life care for people with dementia. It included all empirical research on people with dementia or severe cognitive impairment or their caregivers and with ethnic minority people as a subgroup in examining an outcome involving end-of-life care processes or attitudes toward end-of-life care. Two authors independently rated quality of included studies; 20 studies met eligibility criteria and were included in the review: 19 quantitative and one qualitative. All articles were based in the United States, with African American, Hispanic, and Asian groups being the ethnic minorities. Artificial nutrition and other life-sustaining treatments were more frequent and decisions to withhold treatment less common in African American and Asian groups. The qualitative evidence, albeit limited, found that attitudes toward end-of-life care were more similar than different between different ethnic groups. Differences in hospice usage patterns were less consistent and potentially influenced by factors such as study setting and dementia severity. Caregivers' experiences differed between ethnic groups, whereas levels of strain experienced were similar. Disparities in end-of-life care for people with dementia from ethnic minority groups appear to exist and may be due to the double disadvantage of dementia and ethnic minority status. Further research is needed in other western multicultural countries, with a focus on prospective qualitative studies to understand the underlying reasons for these differences, not just their occurrence.

  16. Recent Litigation in the Placement of Minority Group Children in the Southwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra, Viola

    Reviewed are some of the legal challenges aimed against the misplacement of minority group children in low ability groups in southwestern states. Court cases covered include Ruiz vs. State Board of Education, Spangles vs. Board of Education, Diana vs. Board of Education, Arreola vs. Board of Education, Covarrubias vs. San Diego, Larry P. vs.…

  17. Immigrant differences in school-age children's verbal trajectories: a look at four racial/ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Tama; Xue, Yange; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    This study explored inter- and intraindividual immigrant group differences in children's English verbal ability over ages 6-16 in 4 racial/ethnic groups-White Americans, Black Americans, Mexican Americans, and Puerto Ricans (N=2,136). Although all children's mean verbal scores increased with age, immigrant children (except for Black Americans) had lower scores than respective nonimmigrant children. In contrast, immigrant children (except for Mexican Americans) had more persistent verbal growth into adolescence than respective nonimmigrant children. Family resources moderately accounted for immigrant differences in children's mean verbal scores only. The findings support different theoretical models for understanding inter- and intraindividual immigrant differences in achievement. Mexican-American immigrants and Black American nonimmigrants were struggling and merit policy attention.

  18. Genes, race, and culture in clinical care: racial profiling in the management of chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Linda M; Truesdell, Nicole D; Kreiner, Meta J

    2013-06-01

    Race, although an unscientific concept, remains prominent in health research and clinical guidelines, and is routinely invoked in clinical practice. In interviews with 58 primary care clinicians we explored how they understand and apply concepts of racial difference. We found wide agreement that race is important to consider in clinical care. They explained the effect of race on health, drawing on common assumptions about the biological, class, and cultural characteristics of racial minorities. They identified specific race-based clinical strategies for only a handful of conditions and were inconsistent in the details of what they said should be done for minority patients. We conclude that using race in clinical medicine promotes and maintains the illusion of inherent racial differences and may result in minority patients receiving care aimed at presumed racial group characteristics, rather than care selected as specifically appropriate for them as individuals.

  19. Moving from rhetoric to reality: adapting Housing First for homeless individuals with mental illness from ethno-racial groups

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The literature on interventions addressing the intersection of homelessness, mental illness and race is scant. The At Home/Chez Soi research demonstration project is a pragmatic field trial investigating a Housing First intervention for homeless individuals with mental illness in five cities across Canada. A unique focus at the Toronto site has been the development and implementation of a Housing First Ethno-Racial Intensive Case Management (HF ER-ICM) arm of the trial serving 100 homeless individuals with mental illness from ethno-racial groups. The HF ER-ICM program combines the Housing First approach with an anti-racism/anti-oppression framework of practice. This paper presents the findings of an early implementation and fidelity evaluation of the HF ER-ICM program, supplemented by participant narrative interviews to inform our understanding of the HF ER-ICM program theory. Methods Descriptive statistics are used to describe HF ER-ICM participant characteristics. Focus group interviews, key informant interviews and fidelity assessments were conducted between November 2010 and January 2011, as part of the program implementation evaluation. In-depth qualitative interviews with HF ER-ICM participants and control group members were conducted between March 2010 and June 2011. All qualitative data were analysed using grounded theory methodology. Results The target population had complex health and social service needs. The HF ER-ICM program enjoyed a high degree of fidelity to principles of both anti-racism/anti-oppression practice and Housing First and comprehensively addressed the housing, health and sociocultural needs of participants. Program providers reported congruence of these philosophies of practice, and program participants valued the program and its components. Conclusions Adapting Housing First with anti-racism/anti-oppression principles offers a promising approach to serving the diverse needs of homeless people from ethno-racial groups and

  20. Career Coaches as a Source of Vicarious Learning for Racial and Ethnic Minority PhD Students in the Biomedical Sciences: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Simon N.; Thakore, Bhoomi K.; McGee, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Many recent mentoring initiatives have sought to help improve the proportion of underrepresented racial and ethnic minorities (URMs) in academic positions across the biomedical sciences. However, the intractable nature of the problem of underrepresentation suggests that many young scientists may require supplemental career development beyond what many mentors are able to offer. As an adjunct to traditional scientific mentoring, we created a novel academic career “coaching” intervention for PhD students in the biomedical sciences. Objective To determine whether and how academic career coaches can provide effective career-development-related learning experiences for URM PhD students in the biomedical sciences. We focus specifically on vicarious learning experiences, where individuals learn indirectly through the experiences of others. Method The intervention is being tested as part of a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT). Here, we describe a nested qualitative study, using a framework approach to analyze data from a total of 48 semi-structured interviews from 24 URM PhD students (2 interviews per participant, 1 at baseline, 1 at 12-month follow-up) (16 female, 8 male; 11 Black, 12 Hispanic, 1 Native-American). We explored the role of the coach as a source of vicarious learning, in relation to the students’ goal of being future biomedical science faculty. Results Coaches were resources through which most students in the study were able to learn vicariously about how to pursue, and succeed within, an academic career. Coaches were particularly useful in instances where students’ research mentors are unable to provide such vicarious learning opportunities, for example because the mentor is too busy to have career-related discussions with a student, or because they have, or value, a different type of academic career to the type the student hopes to achieve. Implications Coaching can be an important way to address the lack of structured career

  1. Identifying with More than One Ethnic and/or Racial Group: Another Examination of the Impact on Differential Item Functioning Statistics. Statistical Report 2016-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Anita; Zhang, Xiuyuan; Hendrickson, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The classification of test-takers into ethnic and racial groups ensures individuals and groups, identified in Title VI and VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the 14th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, are protected from adverse treatment (Camilli, 2006). The United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) suggests that…

  2. Bullying and Cyberbullying in Minorities: Are They More Vulnerable than the Majority Group?

    PubMed Central

    Llorent, Vicente J.; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario; Zych, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion in education of all the children is necessary for the success, equality and peace among individuals and societies. In this context, special attention needs to be paid to the minorities. These groups might encounter additional difficulties which make them more vulnerable to be involved in bullying and cyberbullying. The current study was conducted with the objective of describing the involvement in bullying and cyberbullying of students from the majority group and also from sexual and ethnic-cultural minorities. The second objective was to explore if the implication is predicted by the interaction with gender, grade and the size of the population where the schools are located. It is an ex post facto transversal descriptive study with a survey on a representative sample of adolescents enrolled in the Compulsory Secondary Education in the south of Spain (Andalusia). The survey was answered by 2139 adolescents (50.9% girls) in 22 schools. These participants were selected through the random multistage cluster sampling with the confidence level of 95% and a sampling error of 2.1%. The results show that the minority groups, especially sexual minorities, are more involved in bullying and cyberbullying. Regression analyses show that being in the majority or a minority group predicts a small but significant percentage of variance of being involved in bullying and cyberbullying. Results are discussed taking into account the social vulnerability of being a part of a minority group and the need of designing educational programs which would prevent this vulnerability thorough the inclusion in education. There is a need for an educational policy that focuses on convivencia and ciberconvivencia which would promote the social and educational development of all the students. PMID:27803677

  3. Bullying and Cyberbullying in Minorities: Are They More Vulnerable than the Majority Group?

    PubMed

    Llorent, Vicente J; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario; Zych, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion in education of all the children is necessary for the success, equality and peace among individuals and societies. In this context, special attention needs to be paid to the minorities. These groups might encounter additional difficulties which make them more vulnerable to be involved in bullying and cyberbullying. The current study was conducted with the objective of describing the involvement in bullying and cyberbullying of students from the majority group and also from sexual and ethnic-cultural minorities. The second objective was to explore if the implication is predicted by the interaction with gender, grade and the size of the population where the schools are located. It is an ex post facto transversal descriptive study with a survey on a representative sample of adolescents enrolled in the Compulsory Secondary Education in the south of Spain (Andalusia). The survey was answered by 2139 adolescents (50.9% girls) in 22 schools. These participants were selected through the random multistage cluster sampling with the confidence level of 95% and a sampling error of 2.1%. The results show that the minority groups, especially sexual minorities, are more involved in bullying and cyberbullying. Regression analyses show that being in the majority or a minority group predicts a small but significant percentage of variance of being involved in bullying and cyberbullying. Results are discussed taking into account the social vulnerability of being a part of a minority group and the need of designing educational programs which would prevent this vulnerability thorough the inclusion in education. There is a need for an educational policy that focuses on convivencia and ciberconvivencia which would promote the social and educational development of all the students.

  4. Monoracial and biracial children: effects of racial identity saliency on social learning and social preferences.

    PubMed

    Gaither, Sarah E; Chen, Eva E; Corriveau, Kathleen H; Harris, Paul L; Ambady, Nalini; Sommers, Samuel R

    2014-01-01

    Children prefer learning from, and affiliating with, their racial in-group but those preferences may vary for biracial children. Monoracial (White, Black, Asian) and biracial (Black/White, Asian/White) children (N = 246, 3-8 years) had their racial identity primed. In a learning preferences task, participants determined the function of a novel object after watching adults (White, Black, and Asian) demonstrate its uses. In the social preferences task, participants saw pairs of children (White, Black, and Asian) and chose with whom they most wanted to socially affiliate. Biracial children showed flexibility in racial identification during learning and social tasks. However, minority-primed biracial children were not more likely than monoracial minorities to socially affiliate with primed racial in-group members, indicating their in-group preferences are contextually based.

  5. Structural and racial barriers to health care.

    PubMed

    Burnes Bolton, Linda; Giger, Joyce Newman; Georges, C Alicia

    2004-01-01

    Limited access to health care and a system fraught with discriminatory practices inhibit some racial and ethnic minorities from gaining access to health care and assurance of equal treatment once they enter the health care system. The purpose of this chapter is to critically and systematically analyze the research literature to determine what impact individual and institutional racism has had on the prevailing health disparities across racial and ethnic minority groups. The chapter includes the following: (1) a review of the term racism and a brief overview of the history of racism in health care; (2) a review of the research literature analyzing the impact of racism on health disparities; and (3) recommendations to end the systematic institutional racism in scientific research, which is necessary to end health disparities.

  6. Majority, Minority, and Parity: Effects of Gender and Group Size on Perceived Group Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voci, Alberto; Hewstone, Miles; Crisp, Richard J.; Rubin, Mark

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of gender and group size on perceptions of group variability, using groups of students taking different majors that varied in the proportion of men and women (female-majority, parity, and male-majority). We found that both group size and gender had consistent effects on perceived out-group variability, even when…

  7. Recruitment of Dental Hygiene Students from Underrepresented Minority Groups: A National Survey of U.S. Dental Hygiene Programs.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Jennifer M; Kinney, Janet S; Inglehart, Marita R

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how U.S. undergraduate dental hygiene programs recruit students, especially students from underrepresented minority (URM) groups, and how the program directors value recruiting those students, how satisfied they are with their efforts, which practices they use, and which challenges they encounter. Relationships between diversity-related recruitment motivation and satisfaction and the program and recruitment characteristics were also explored. Survey data were collected from 56 of the 287 programs that could be successfully contacted with individual emails to their directors (response rate: 20%). The majority of responding programs recruited students into their programs by using written materials (91%), websites (91%), on-campus events (77%), and high school visits (52%). However, only 20% had written materials and 13% special events for recruiting students from URM groups. While 75% of the responding program directors considered high grade point averages (GPAs) to be a priority and 85% thought high GPAs were important/very important when recruiting students, only 17% considered it a priority to recruit URM students, and only 35% reported thinking it was important/very important to do so. The more of a priority it was to have a diverse student body and the more important the respondents considered it, the more likely they were to have written URM-specific recruitment materials (r=0.34; p<0.05/r=0.39; p<0.01). The more the respondents valued ACT scores, the less likely they were to engage in URM-specific recruitment efforts (r=-0.38; p<0.05/r=-0.34; p<0.05). If the dental hygiene profession is to better reflect the racial/ethnic makeup of the U.S. population, dental hygiene programs' considerations and efforts related to the recruitment of URM students need to be reconsidered.

  8. Normativity and Friendship Choices among Ethnic Majority- and Minority-Group Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.; Ben-Hmeda, Malak; Cox, Jo; Loucas, Christina; Seltzer-Eade, Sophia; Hine, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Two-hundred-and-fifty-eight White British (ethnic majority) and British South Asian (minority) children (5, 9 and 13 years old) chose potential friends from descriptions of peers who had traits and preferences that were either consistent (normative) or inconsistent (deviant) with ethnic group membership. White children chose peers from the ethnic…

  9. Beta-WAIS Comparisons with Low Functioning Minority Group Offenders: A Cautionary Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiltonsmith, Robert W.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated the utility of the Revised Beta as a screening device for low-functioning minority-group criminal offenders. Mean scores for this sample were correlated only mildly. This finding contradicts prior research and creates the need for caution in using the Beta as a screening device with this population. (Author)

  10. The Use of Standardized Instruments with Urban and Minority-Group Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgibbon, Thomas J.

    The position of the Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Test Department is set forth for the use of standardized instruments with urban and minority group pupils. Concern is with the effectiveness and usability of the instruments by the organization that published them. Renewed and intensified attention is given to certain aspects of the traditional…

  11. CULTURE IN AMERICAN EDUCATION--ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO MINORITY AND DOMINANT GROUPS IN THE SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LANDES, RUTH

    THIS BOOK DESCRIBES AN EXPERIMENTAL TEACHER AND SOCIAL WORKER TRAINING PROGRAM WHICH COMBINED THE TENETS OF ANTHROPOLOGY AND EDUCATION IN AN EFFORT TO SOLVE THE SCHOOL AND WELFARE PROBLEMS OF MINORITY GROUPS IN CALIFORNIA, ESPECIALLY THOSE OF NEGROES AND MEXICAN AMERICANS. THIS CULTURAL APPROACH IS DISCUSSED IN CHAPTERS ON THE CULTURE CLASH IN THE…

  12. Minority population group status and QOL change: The case of older Israelis.

    PubMed

    Damri, Noam; Litwin, Howard

    2016-12-01

    This study explores minority group status in relation to change in Quality of Life (QOL) among three population groups in Israel-Veteran Jews, Arab-Israelis and immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU)-controlling for a set of known predictors. The study uses panel data from two waves (2009/10 and 2013) of the Israeli component of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, (N=1,590). A set of Ordinary Least Squares regressions is used to predict positive QOL change over the two waves. Interaction terms in a number of selected areas are considered. The results show that minority group status (Arab-Israelis and FSU immigrants) is negatively related to positive QOL change, compared to the majority group (Veteran Jews). Moreover, being employed was found to improve QOL for older FSU immigrants, underscoring the realm of work in the well-being of this population group. In comparison, it was exchange with family members that had a positive effect on QOL change among the Arab-Israelis, emphasizing the importance of that particular aspect of their lives in older age. In sum, the results highlight the risk of minority group status to well-being in late life and confirms the observation that positive QOL change correlates with characteristically different factors among different population groups.

  13. Workplace discrimination predicting racial/ethnic socialization across African American, Latino, and Chinese families.

    PubMed

    Hagelskamp, Carolin; Hughes, Diane L

    2014-10-01

    Informed by Kohn and Schooler's (1969) occupational socialization framework, this study examined linkages between racial/ethnic minority mothers' perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination in the workplace and adolescents' accounts of racial/ethnic socialization in the home. Data were collected from 100 mother-early adolescent dyads who participated in a longitudinal study of urban adolescents' development in the Northeastern United States, including African American, Latino, and Chinese families. Mothers and adolescents completed surveys separately. We found that when mothers reported more frequent institutional discrimination at work, adolescents reported more frequent preparation for bias messages at home, across racial/ethnic groups. Mothers' experiences of interpersonal prejudice at work were associated with more frequent cultural socialization messages among African American and Latino families. Chinese youth reported fewer cultural socialization messages when mothers perceived more frequent interpersonal prejudice at work. Findings are discussed in the context of minority groups' distinct social histories and economic status in the United States.

  14. Latino College Students at Highly Selective Institutions: A Comparison of Their College Experiences and Outcomes to Other Racial/Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young K.; Rennick, Liz A.; Franco, Marla A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines unique patterns of college engagement and outcomes among Latino undergraduate students attending highly selective institutions in comparison with those from other racial/ethnic groups. The study also identifies predictors of select college outcomes--that is, cognitive, affective, and civic outcomes--for this population.…

  15. Prevalence of Eating Disturbance and Body Image Dissatisfaction in Young Girls: An Examination of the Variance across Racial and Socioeconomic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeel, Marissa L.; Hughes, Tammy L.; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Hipwell, Alison; Theodore, Lea A.

    2009-01-01

    Eating disorder research has predominantly focused on White adolescent females. More recent research suggests that eating disorders occur in various racial and age groups. The current study examines prevalence and stability of body image dissatisfaction and eating disturbance in 9- and 10-year-old girls and whether there is variability by racial…

  16. Women and Minorities in Administration. NAESP School Leadership Digest Series Number 11. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coursen, David

    Literature on the role of women and minorities in school administration indicates that they both suffer from role stereotypes, although the stereotypes are somewhat different. Current literature on minority groups is limited almost entirely to discussion of blacks; the status of other racial minorities has been largely ignored. The role of blacks…

  17. The Effect of a Personalized Dementia Care Intervention for Caregivers From Australian Minority Groups.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lily Dongxia; De Bellis, Anita; Kyriazopoulos, Helena; Draper, Brian; Ullah, Shahid

    2016-02-01

    Most caregiver interventions in a multicultural society are designed to target caregivers from the mainstream culture and exclude those who are unable to speak English. This study addressed the gap by testing the hypothesis that personalized caregiver support provided by a team led by a care coordinator of the person with dementia would improve competence for caregivers from minority groups in managing dementia. A randomised controlled trial was utilised to test the hypothesis. Sixty-one family caregivers from 10 minority groups completed the trial. Outcome variables were measured prior to the intervention, at 6 and 12 months after the commencement of trial. A linear mixed effect model was used to estimate the effectiveness of the intervention. The intervention group showed a significant increase in the caregivers' sense of competence and mental components of quality of life. There were no significant differences in the caregivers' physical components of quality of life.

  18. Women and Minority Ph.D.'s in the 1970's: A Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilford, Dorothy M.; Snyder, Joan

    Selected data from the Commission on Human Resources data base are reported for two major groups that have been underrepresented in doctoral education in the past: minorities and women. A wide selection of tabulations of data on doctorate holders by sex and racial/ethnic group membership is presented. Characteristics of minority and women Ph.D.…

  19. Informal and Formal Support Groups Retain Women and Minorities in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Maria

    2005-10-01

    Ten U.S. minority female undergraduates who aspire to become physicists were followed over an 8-year period. Participant observation and in-depth interviews recorded the strategies they used to earn bachelor's degrees in physics or physics-related fields, and then go on to graduate school and/or careers in science. One significant strategy these women of color employed was participating in small subcommunities with other women or underrepresented ethnic minorities at the margins of their local physics community. The study found that informal peer groups offered safe spaces to counter negative experiences, to normalize their social realities, and to offer practical guidance for persevering in the field. Formal women- and minority-serving programs in physics provided foundations for community building, stronger curriculum and instruction, networking, and role models. The positive effects of informal and formal support groups on these students' experiences challenge a standard application of Pierre Bourdieu's framework of social and cultural capital. Women of color in the study initially lacked traditional capital of "acceptable" appearance, cultural background and habits, and networks that are more easily acquired by white males and are rewarded by the U.S. physics culture. However, instead of failing or leaving, as Bourdieu's theory would predict, the minority women persisted and achieved in science. The marginal communities contributed to their retention by offering safe spaces in which they could learn and share alternative ways of "accruing capital." Moreover, as these women made strides along their academic and career paths, they also engaged in social justice work in efforts to change the physics culture to be more welcoming of nontraditional members. The outcomes of the study offer empirical confirmation of the critical need for informal and institutionally supported women's and minorities' support groups to promote diversity in science.

  20. Forgotten Americans and the National Pastime: Literature on Baseball's Ethnic, Racial, and Religious Diversity--Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjarkman, Peter C.

    1992-01-01

    Continues the discussion of the contributions of racial and ethnic minorities to baseball history, focusing on African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Jews. Nonfiction and fiction works dealing with minority groups in baseball are briefly reviewed for their portrayal of the American experience. (SLD)

  1. National Institute of Nursing Research working group on "Optimizing pregnancy outcomes in minority populations".

    PubMed

    Grady, Patricia A

    2005-05-01

    The growing complexity of biomedical research requires new methods of discovery; scientists must use an interdisciplinary approach and explore new models of team science, as underscored in the Roadmap of the National Institutes of Health. In March 2003, the National Institute of Nursing Research convened a working group of scientists and clinicians with a wide range of backgrounds to address "Optimizing Pregnancy Outcomes in Minority Populations." The 2-day meeting included a variety of presentations on the current state of research on pregnancy in minority populations. Many participants provided specific insights regarding biobehavioral issues in human-environment interaction, stress and health status relationships to risk, maternal-fetal interactions, and the complications of pregnancy. This supplement presents articles from several participants at this interdisciplinary meeting. The National Institute of Nursing Research looks forward to further collaborations across the National Institutes of Health and other agencies to achieve the vital aims of this working group.

  2. See no evil: color blindness and perceptions of subtle racial discrimination in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Offermann, Lynn R; Basford, Tessa E; Graebner, Raluca; Jaffer, Salman; De Graaf, Sumona Basu; Kaminsky, Samuel E

    2014-10-01

    Workplace discrimination has grown more ambiguous, with interracial interactions often perceived differently by different people. The present study adds to the literature by examining a key individual difference variable in the perception of discrimination at work, namely individual color-blind attitudes. We examined relationships between 3 dimensions of color-blind attitudes (Racial Privilege, Institutional Discrimination, and Blatant Racial Issues) and perceptions of racial microaggressions in the workplace as enacted by a White supervisor toward a Black employee (i.e., discriminatory actions ranging from subtle to overt). Findings showed that observer views on institutional discrimination fully mediated, and blatant racial issues partially mediated, the relationships between racial group membership and the perception of workplace microaggressions. Non-Hispanic Whites endorsed color blindness as institutional discrimination and blatant racial issues significantly more than members of racioethnic minority groups, and higher levels of color-blind worldviews were associated with lower likelihoods of perceiving microaggressions. Views on racial privilege did not differ significantly between members of different racial groups or affect microaggression perceptions. Implications for organizations concerned about promoting more inclusive workplaces are discussed.

  3. Ethnic minority groups in regional and local labour markets in Britain: a review of data sources and associated issues.

    PubMed

    Green, A E; Owen, D W

    1995-12-01

    "This paper outlines the context of, and discusses the need for, local information on the demographic patterns and labour market experience of ethnic minority groups in many parts of Britain. The specific focus is on the identification and assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of particular data sources providing spatially disaggregated information on the economic position of ethnic minority groups."

  4. The political downside of dual identity: group identifications and religious political mobilization of Muslim minorities.

    PubMed

    Martinovic, Borja; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2014-12-01

    Research on the political mobilization of ethnic minorities has shown that dual ethno-national identification facilitates involvement in political action on behalf of the ethnic group. This study extends this research by proposing that a dual identity can impede political mobilization on behalf of another relevant in-group--the religious community - especially if this in-group is not accepted by the wider society. Using a sample of 641 Muslims of Turkish origin living in Germany and the Netherlands, dual ethno-national identity (Turkish-German/Turkish-Dutch) was examined in relation to religious Muslim identification and religious political mobilization. Dual identity was expected to be indirectly related to lower mobilization via decreased religious group identification. Further, this mediating process was predicted to be stronger for Turkish Muslims who perceived relatively high religious group discrimination. In both countries we found support for the mediating hypothesis, however, the moderating role of discrimination was confirmed only for the Netherlands. Turkish-Dutch identification was associated with lower support for religious political mobilization because of lower Muslim identification only for Turkish-Dutch participants who perceived high levels of discrimination. These findings indicate that a strong dual (ethno-national) identity can undermine minority members' support for political rights and actions on behalf of a third relevant in-group, and therefore qualify the social psychological benefits of the dual identity model.

  5. Ethnic Minorities and Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Hull, Marion

    Developments in communications technology should become a major concern of minorities (native Americans and Americans of African, Asian, and Hispanic racial or ethnic origin). Although minorities are disillusioned with broadcast television because television decision makers have not been sensitive to minority needs, they have shown interest…

  6. Rethinking diabetes prevention and control in racial and ethnic communities.

    PubMed

    Liburd, Leandris C; Vinicor, Frank

    2003-11-01

    The growing and disproportionate burden of type 2 diabetes experienced by racial and ethnic minority groups in the United States demands a refocusing of public health research and interventions if health outcomes are to improve. Public health research and practice must address the social production of diabetes, broaden the boundaries of how diabetes risk and causation are understood and articulated, and establish community health models that reflect the changing complexion and sociopolitical dynamics of contemporary urban communities. Relying on the traditional one-on-one clinical relationship that has characterized diabetes care in the past will not eliminate the diabetes epidemic in racial and ethnic communities.

  7. Mental Health Treatment Barriers among Racial/Ethnic Minority versus White Young Adults 6 Months after Intake at a College Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Regina; Soffer, Ariella; Polanco-Roman, Lillian; Wheeler, Alyssa; Moore, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined mental health treatment barriers following intake at a counseling center among racially/ethnically diverse college students. Methods: College students (N = 122) seen for intake at a college counseling center in 2012-2013 completed self-reports of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and mental health treatment…

  8. The Effect of Computer-Based Tests on Racial-Ethnic and Gender Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Ann; Bridgeman, Brent; Cahalan, Cara

    2002-01-01

    Examined data from several national testing programs to determine whether the change from paper-based administration to computer-based tests influences group differences in performance. Results from four college and graduate entrance examinations and a professional licensing test show that African Americans and, to a lesser degree, Hispanics,…

  9. Deaf Ethnic Minorities: Have They a Double Liability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLeod-Gallinger, Janet

    In an effort to ascertain whether being deaf and also being a member of an ethnic minority group engenders dual disadvantages, the educational, labor force participation, occupations, earnings, and socioeconomic status of adults with deafness (n=6430) were compared by race. Comparisons were also done with racial groups in the general population.…

  10. Exploring Experiences and Perceptions of Aging and Cognitive Decline Across Diverse Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Schuh, Holly; Sherzai, Dean; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore how older adults from three prominent ethnoracial groups experience cognitive decline and aging. Method: Semistructured key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus groups (FGs) were conducted with caregivers, experts, and older adults. Results: (N = 75). Fifteen KIIs regarding cognitive aging issues were conducted among health care professionals and community-based agencies serving older adults. Eight FGs included family caregivers and physicians, and six FGs with Latino, African American, and White older adult community members. Major themes included (a) personal expectations about aging, (b) societal value of older adults, (c) model of care preferred, and (d) community concerns. An overarching theme was a sense of loss associated with aging; however, how this loss was experienced and dealt with varied. Discussion: Distinct patterns of concerns and views are important to understand for the development of programs aimed at meeting the needs of diverse older adult community members to improve health outcomes. PMID:26925436

  11. The global challenge of type 2 diabetes and the strategies for response in ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Lirussi, Flavio

    2010-09-01

    Ethnic minorities living in high-income countries usually exhibit a greater risk of developing diabetes along with higher morbidity and mortality rates. We evaluated the effectiveness of interventions to improve glycaemic control in ethnic minority groups. Results of major controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses were included in the review. Only 1/47 studies addressing diet and exercise interventions reported details on the ethnicity of the studied population. Self-management education was successful if associated with increased self-efficacy; delivered over a longer period; of high intensity; culturally tailored; and when using community educators. Strategies adopted in community-gathering places, family-based, multifaceted, and those tackling the social context were likely to be more effective. A positive relationship was found between social support and self-management behaviour as well as quality of life, but there is little evidence about the impact of organizational changes within health-care services on diabetes control. More research is needed to strengthen the evidence on effective strategies for response to diabetes in ethnic minorities. Also, there is a need to take into account diabetes beliefs and communication difficulties, as well as potential protective factors. Globally, many health-care systems are inadequately equipped to improve diabetes prevention and disease outcomes in these communities.

  12. Genetic polymorphisms of 54 mitochondrial DNA SNP loci in Chinese Xibe ethnic minority group

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chun-Mei; Hu, Li; Yang, Chun-Hua; Yin, Cai-Yong; Li, Zhi-Dan; Meng, Hao-Tian; Guo, Yu-Xin; Mei, Ting; Chen, Feng; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of 54 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants in Chinese Xibe ethnic minority group. A total of 137 unrelated healthy volunteers from Chinese Xibe group were the objects of our study. Among the selected loci, there were 51 variable positions including transitions and transversions, and single nucleotide transitions were common (83.93%) versus transversions. These variations defined 64 different mtDNA haplotypes exclusive of (CA)n and 9 bp deletion variation. The haplotype diversity and discrimination power in Xibe population were 0.9800 ± 0.004 and 0.9699, respectively. Besides, we compared Xibe group with 18 other populations and reconstructed a phylogenetic tree using Neighbor-Joining method. The result revealed that Xibe group was a close to Xinjiang Han and Yanbian Korean groups. Our data also indicated that Xibe group has a close relationship with Daur and Ewenki groups, which is reflected by the history that Xibe was influenced by Daur and Ewenki groups during the development of these groups. In conclusion, the variants we studied are polymorphic and could be used as informative genetic markers for forensic and population genetic application. PMID:28327596

  13. Minority-Serving Institutions and the Education of U.S. Underrepresented Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Ginelle; Stage, Frances K.

    2014-01-01

    Numbers of students of color enrolling in higher educational institutions is expected to increase across all racial groups. With continued increases in minority enrollments, minority-serving institutions have and will continue to play a major role in educating student of color. A large national data set was used to examine the numbers of…

  14. Minority Coaches Are Still Scarce in Big-Time College Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2007-01-01

    The number of minority coaches leading the nation's largest collegiate football programs remains low, with 13 of the 241 head-coaching positions in Divisions I-A and I-AA held by members of minority racial or ethnic groups, a report on hiring practices released last week by the organization Black Coaches & Administrators (BCA) says. Only two…

  15. The effects of racial/ethnic segregation on Latino and Black homicide.

    PubMed

    Feldmeyer, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Racial/ethnic residential segregation has been shown to contribute to violence and have harmful consequences for minority groups. However, research examining the segregation–crime relationship has focused almost exclusively on blacks and whites while largely ignoring Latinos and other race/ethnic groups and has rarely considered potential mediators (e.g., concentrated disadvantage) in segregation–violence relationships. This study uses year 2000 arrest data for California and New York census places to extend segregation–crime research by comparing the effects of racial/ethnic residential segregation from whites on black and Latino homicide. Results indicate that (1) racial/ethnic segregation contributes to both Latino and black homicide, and (2) the effects for both groups are mediated by concentrated disadvantage. Implications for segregation–violence relationships, the racial-invariance position, and the Latino paradox are discussed.

  16. Measurement Invariance of the Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 Across Gender and Racial Groups.

    PubMed

    Carr, Meagan M; Catak, Pelin D; Pejsa-Reitz, Megan C; Saules, Karen K; Gearhardt, Ashley N

    2016-11-28

    Food addiction describes a psychological and behavioral eating pattern that is similar to the experience of those compulsively taking drugs of abuse. Recent developments related to food addiction, including the development and validation of an updated measure (Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0; Gearhardt, Corbin, & Brownell, 2016), have increased knowledge as to the prevalence and associated correlates of food addiction. However, less is known about the phenomenological experience of food addiction in diverse samples or how the existing measure of food addiction performs in heterogeneous samples. In a cross-sectional survey design, using a diverse sample of undergraduate students (N = 642) tests of measurement invariance were performed. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized factor structure, indicating a single latent construct of food addiction modeled by 11 dichotomous indicators, in samples of White and Black participants as well as samples of men and women. Measurement invariance testing across the various demographic groups broadly provided good psychometric support for use of the measure. However, a single indicator related to attempts to cut down on highly palatable food varied across men and women. Thus, when using the measure in mixed gender samples researchers may consider obtaining additional information regarding gender and its relative impact on the experience of food addiction, particularly with respect to efforts to quit or cut down intake of highly palatable foods. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. The language barrier?: context, identity, and support for political goals in minority ethnolinguistic groups.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Andrew G; Manstead, Antony S R; Spears, Russell; Bowen, Dafydd

    2011-12-01

    In two studies, we tested the hypothesis that not having a potentially group-defining attribute (e.g., in-group language) can affect social identification and support for group goals (e.g., national autonomy). Focusing on the Welsh minority in the UK, Study 1 provided evidence that Welsh language fluency predicted Welsh identification and support for national autonomy, and that identification accounted for the language-autonomy association. Study 2 extended this by (1) examining British and English as well as Welsh identification; and (2) quasi-manipulating the surrounding context (Welsh speaking vs. non-Welsh speaking). As predicted, low Welsh language fluency predicted stronger British and English identification, but only where language was criterial (Welsh-speaking regions). British identification, in turn, predicted lower support for national autonomy. Implications and prospects for future research are discussed.

  18. "Racializing" Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatt-Echeverria, Beth; Urrieta, Luis, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to explore how racial and class oppressions intersect, the authors use their autobiographical narratives to depict cultural and experiential continuity and discontinuity in growing up white working class versus Chicano working class. They specifically focus on "racializing class" due to the ways class is often used as a copout by…

  19. Intergroup Contact Effects via Ingroup Distancing among Majority and Minority Groups: Moderation by Social Dominance Orientation.

    PubMed

    Kauff, Mathias; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Hewstone, Miles

    2016-01-01

    Five studies tested whether intergroup contact reduces negative outgroup attitudes through a process of ingroup distancing. Based on the deprovincialization hypothesis and Social Dominance Theory, we hypothesized that the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup identification is moderated by individuals' Social Dominance Orientation (SDO), and occurs only for members of high status majority groups. We tested these predictions in three different intergroup contexts, involving conflictual relations between social groups in Germany (Study 1; N = 150; longitudinal Study 2: N = 753), Northern Ireland (Study 3: N = 160; Study 4: N = 1,948), and England (Study 5; N = 594). Cross-group friendship was associated with reduced ingroup identification and the link between reduced ingroup identification and improved outgroup attitudes was moderated by SDO (the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup only occurred for individuals scoring high, but not low, in SDO). Although there was a consistent moderating effect of SDO in high-status majority groups (Studies 1-5), but not low-status minority groups (Studies 3, 4, and 5), the interaction by SDO was not reliably stronger in high- than low-status groups. Findings are discussed in terms of better understanding deprovincialization effects of contact.

  20. Intergroup Contact Effects via Ingroup Distancing among Majority and Minority Groups: Moderation by Social Dominance Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Kauff, Mathias; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Hewstone, Miles

    2016-01-01

    Five studies tested whether intergroup contact reduces negative outgroup attitudes through a process of ingroup distancing. Based on the deprovincialization hypothesis and Social Dominance Theory, we hypothesized that the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup identification is moderated by individuals’ Social Dominance Orientation (SDO), and occurs only for members of high status majority groups. We tested these predictions in three different intergroup contexts, involving conflictual relations between social groups in Germany (Study 1; N = 150; longitudinal Study 2: N = 753), Northern Ireland (Study 3: N = 160; Study 4: N = 1,948), and England (Study 5; N = 594). Cross-group friendship was associated with reduced ingroup identification and the link between reduced ingroup identification and improved outgroup attitudes was moderated by SDO (the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup only occurred for individuals scoring high, but not low, in SDO). Although there was a consistent moderating effect of SDO in high-status majority groups (Studies 1–5), but not low-status minority groups (Studies 3, 4, and 5), the interaction by SDO was not reliably stronger in high- than low-status groups. Findings are discussed in terms of better understanding deprovincialization effects of contact. PMID:26751203

  1. Variables affecting racial-identity salience among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Thompson, V L

    1999-12-01

    The author clarified the African American racial-group identification process by addressing the issue of salience and its relationship to racial-group attitudes. A sample of 409 African American adults responded to surveys pertaining to their racial-group salience, racial-group attitudes, racial socialization, racial-group interaction, political activism, experiences of discrimination, and demographic data (e.g., sex, age, and income). The author tested 3 hypotheses: (a) Racial socialization and interaction with other African Americans are predictive of African American racial-identity salience; (b) discriminatory experiences are predictive of African American racial-identity salience; and (c) racial-identity salience is a stronger predictor of African American racial-group identification than are previously identified predictive variables (D. H. Demo & H. Hughes, 1990; V. L. Thompson Sanders, 1991, 1995). The results supported the 1st and 3rd hypotheses.

  2. Determination of Neutrophil Antigen HNA-3a and HNA-3b Genotype Frequencies in Six Racial Groups by High-Throughput 5’ Exonuclease Assay

    PubMed Central

    Bowens, Krista L.; Sullivan, Mia J.; Curtis, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND People with the human neutrophil antigen (HNA)-3b/3b type can make HNA-3a antibodies, which have been reported to cause immune neutropenia disorders, and are especially prone to cause severe cases of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). However, knowledge of HNA-3 allele frequencies outside Caucasian populations is limited. We developed a high-throughput genotyping assay and determined the HNA-3a/3b genotype frequencies in 6 different racial and ethnic groups. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Genotyping utilized Taqman 5’ exonuclease chemistry and real-time PCR. A total of 742 DNA samples from 6 different racial and ethnic groups were genotyped for HNA-3a and HNA-3b. RESULTS The genotyping assay showed 100% sensitivity and specificity compared to sequencing and phenotyping and had high throughput. A significant percentage of Caucasians (6.5%), Han Chinese (16%), and Asian Indians (6%) typed HNA-3b/3b, but only a small percentage of Hispanics (1%) and no African or Native Americans. CONCLUSIONS The HNA-3 genotyping assay had high sensitivity, specificity, and sample throughput. HNA-3b/b genotype results determined for 742 individuals representing 6 different racial and ethnic groups showed that there could be a significant risk of producing anti-HNA-3a in Chinese, as well as in Caucasian and Asian Indian blood donor populations, but a very low risk in Hispanic, African or Native American populations. PMID:22414054

  3. Effects of Racial Prejudice on the Health of Communities: A Multilevel Survival Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Muennig, Peter; Kawachi, Ichiro; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether and how racial prejudice at both the individual and community levels contributes to mortality risk among majority as well as minority group members. Methods. We used data on racial attitudes from the General Social Survey (1993–2002) prospectively linked to mortality data from the National Death Index through 2008. Results. Whites and Blacks living in communities with higher levels of racial prejudice were at an elevated risk of mortality, independent of individual and community sociodemographic characteristics and individually held racist beliefs (odds ratio = 1.24; 95% confidence interval = 1.04, 1.49). Living in a highly prejudiced community had similar harmful effects among both Blacks and Whites. Furthermore, the interaction observed between individual- and community-level racial prejudice indicated that respondents with higher levels of racial prejudice had lower survival rates if they lived in communities with low degrees of racial prejudice. Community-level social capital explained the relationship between community racial prejudice and mortality. Conclusions. Community-level racial prejudice may disrupt social capital, and reduced social capital is associated with increased mortality risk among both Whites and Blacks. Our results contribute to an emerging body of literature documenting the negative consequences of prejudice for population health. PMID:26378850

  4. Racial discrimination and racial socialization as predictors of African American adolescents' racial identity development using latent transition analysis.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Eleanor K; Yip, Tiffany; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio; Sellers, Robert M

    2012-03-01

    The present study examined perceptions of racial discrimination and racial socialization on racial identity development among 566 African American adolescents over 3 years. Latent class analyses were used to estimate identity statuses (Diffuse, Foreclosed, Moratorium, and Achieved). The probabilities of transitioning from one stage to another were examined with latent transition analyses to determine the likelihood of youth progressing, regressing, or remaining constant. Racial socialization and perceptions of racial discrimination were examined as covariates to assess the association with changes in racial identity status. The results indicated that perceptions of racial discrimination were not linked to any changes in racial identity. Youth who reported higher levels of racial socialization were less likely to be in Diffuse or Foreclosed compared with the Achieved group.

  5. Racial Prejudice in College Students: A Cross-Sectional Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassner, Breanna; McGuigan, William

    2014-01-01

    Racial prejudice is based upon negative preconceived notions of select racial groups with the assumption that all members of a particular racial group can be categorized with the same negative characteristics. Social categorization allows for quick sorting of individuals into racial groups saturated with a common flavor. Allport's Principle of…

  6. Triple grouping and period-three oscillations in minority-game dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jia-Qi; Huang, Zi-Gang; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Dynamical systems based on the minority game (MG) have been a paradigm for gaining significant insights into a variety of social and biological behaviors. Recently, a grouping phenomenon has been unveiled in MG systems of multiple resources (strategies) in which the strategies spontaneously break into an even number of groups, each exhibiting an identical oscillation pattern in the attendance of game players. Here we report our finding of spontaneous breakup of resources into three groups, each exhibiting period-three oscillations. An analysis is developed to understand the emergence of the striking phenomenon of triple grouping and period-three oscillations. In the presence of random disturbances, the triple-group/period-three state becomes transient, and we obtain explicit formula for the average transient lifetime using two methods of approximation. Our finding indicates that, period-three oscillation, regarded as one of the most fundamental behaviors in smooth nonlinear dynamical systems, can also occur in much more complex, evolutionary-game dynamical systems. Our result also provides a plausible insight for the occurrence of triple grouping observed, for example, in the U.S. housing market.

  7. Mutual Partner Violence: Mental Health Symptoms among Female and Male Victims in Four Racial/Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prospero, Moises; Kim, Miseong

    2009-01-01

    This study examines racial/ethnic and sex differences in the prevalence of mutual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health symptoms. The authors asked 676 university students in heterosexual relationships if they had experienced IPV, coercive victimization, and/or perpetration as well as symptoms of depression, anxiety, hostility, and…

  8. Genetic profile characterization and population study of 21 autosomal STR in Chinese Kazak ethnic minority group.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing-Yi; Wang, Xiao-Ye; Shen, Chun-Mei; Liu, Wen-Juan; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Wang, Hong-Dan; Pu, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yan-Li; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Meng, Hao-Tian; Jing, Hang; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2014-02-01

    Short tandem repeat loci have been recognized as useful tools in the routine forensic application and in recent decades, more and more new short tandem repeat (STR) loci have been constantly discovered, studied, and applied in forensic caseworks. In this study, we investigated the genetic polymorphisms of 21 STR loci in the Kazak ethnic minority as well as the genetic relationships between the Kazak ethnic minority and other populations. Allelic frequencies of 21 STR loci were obtained from 114 unrelated healthy Kazak individuals in the Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region of China. We observed a total of 159 alleles in the group with the allelic diversity values ranging from 0.0044 to 0.5088. The highest polymorphism was found at D19S433 locus and the lowest was found at D1S1627. Statistical analysis of the generated data indicated no deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibriums at all 21 STR loci. In order to estimate the population differentiation, allelic frequencies of all STR loci of the Kazak were compared with those of other neighboring populations using analysis of molecular variance method. Statistically significant differences were found between the studied population and other populations at 2-7 STR loci. A neighbor-joining tree was constructed based on allelic frequencies of the 21 STR loci and phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Kazak has a close genetic relationship with the Uigur ethnic group. The present results may provide useful information for forensic sciences and population genetics studies, and can also increase our understanding of the genetic background of this group. The present findings showed that all the 21 STR loci are highly genetically polymorphic in the Kazak group, which provided valuable population genetic data for the genetic information study, forensic human individual identification, and paternity tests.

  9. Effects of Minority Stress, Group-Level Coping, and Social Support on Mental Health of German Gay Men

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, Frank A.; Wagner, Ulrich; Christiansen, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Objective According to epidemiological studies, gay men are at a higher risk of mental disorders than heterosexual men. In the current study, the minority stress theory was investigated in German gay men: 1) it was hypothesized that minority stressors would positively predict mental health problems and that 2) group-level coping and social support variables would moderate these predictions negatively. Methods Data from 1,188 German self-identified gay men were collected online. The questionnaire included items about socio-demographics, minority stress (victimization, rejection sensitivity, and internalized homonegativity), group-level coping (disclosure of sexual orientation, homopositivity, gay affirmation, gay rights support, and gay rights activism), and social support (gay social support and non-gay social support). A moderated multiple regression was conducted. Results Minority stressors positively predicted mental health problems. Group-level coping did not interact with minority stressors, with the exception of disclosure and homopositivity interacting marginally with some minority stressors. Further, only two interactions were found for social support variables and minority stress, one of them marginal. Gay and non-gay social support inversely predicted mental health problems. In addition, disclosure and homopositivity marginally predicted mental health problems. Conclusions The findings imply that the minority stress theory should be modified. Disclosure does not have a relevant effect on mental health, while social support variables directly influence mental health of gay men. Group-level coping does not interact with minority stressors relevantly, and only one relevant interaction between social support and minority stress was found. Further longitudinal or experimental replication is needed before transferring the results to mental health interventions and prevention strategies for gay men. PMID:26943785

  10. Racial differences in sexual prejudice and its correlates among heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Daboin, Irene; Peterson, John L; Parrott, Dominic J

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has consistently found sexual prejudice to be a predictor of antigay aggression and has also revealed specific correlates and antecedents of sexual prejudice. However, extant literature reveals mixed findings about potential racial group differences in sexual prejudice, and few studies have examined racial differences in the correlates of sexual prejudice. The aims of this descriptive study were to determine whether there are (a) racial group differences in reports of sexual prejudice and (b) racial group differences in previously identified correlates of sexual prejudice. Participants were 195 heterosexual males, ages 18 to 30 (98 Blacks and 97 Whites), recruited from a large metropolitan city in the southeastern United States. Based on cultural differences in the influence of religion and in attitudes about male sexuality, it was hypothesized that Black participants would report higher sexual prejudice than White participants. Additionally, based on cultural differences in racial views on masculinity and in sociocultural experiences of male gender roles, it was hypothesized that Blacks would report greater endorsement of religious fundamentalism and the traditional male role norm of status than Whites. Results confirmed all of the hypothesized racial differences and revealed additional differences, including a differential effect of the traditional male role norm of status on sexual prejudice, which explains, at least in part, the racial differences found in sexual prejudice. These findings may reflect underlying cultural differences between Black and White males and may aid in the development of future efforts to reduce sexual prejudice and consequently antigay aggression toward sexual minorities.

  11. Sharing stories: complex intervention for diabetes education in minority ethnic groups who do not speak English

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Collard, Anna; Begum, Noorjahan

    2005-01-01

    Objective To develop and refine a complex intervention for diabetes support and education in minority ethnic groups, delivered through bilingual health advocates. Design Action research framework—a variety of methods used in an emergent and developmental manner, in partnership with clinicians, managers, and service users, drawing especially but not exclusively on narrative methods. Setting Deprived inner London district. Interventions Development and evaluation of three components of the complex intervention: a group based learning set for bilingual health advocates, in which stories about clients with diabetes formed the basis for action learning; advocate led support and education groups for people with diabetes, which used personal stories as the raw material for learning and action; organisational support to help to develop these new models and embed them within existing services. Results Both advocate groups and user groups were popular and well evaluated. Through storytelling, advocates identified and met their own educational needs in relation to diabetes and the unmet needs of service users. In the advocate led user groups, story fragments were exchanged in a seemingly chaotic way that the research team initially found difficult to facilitate or follow. Stories were not so much told as enacted and were often centred on discussion of “what to do.” Whereas some organisations welcomed, successfully implemented, and sustained the advocate led groups, others failed to do so. A key component of the complex intervention was organisational support. Conclusions An action research approach allowed engagement with an underserved group of health service staff and with hard to reach service users. The study produced subjective benefits to these groups locally as well as a worked-up complex intervention that will now be formally tested in a randomised controlled trial. PMID:15774990

  12. Victimization among female and male sexual minority status groups: evidence from the British Crime Survey 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Bere; Davies, Michelle; Scurlock-Evans, Laura

    2014-01-01

    International surveys of victims show crime rates in England and Wales, including hate crimes, are among the highest in Europe. Nevertheless, sexual minority status is a less considered risk factor in general victimization research. This study used sexual minority status and sex to predict victimization across British Crime Surveys from 2007-2010. Logistic regression analyses showed sexual minority status groups were more likely than heterosexuals to be victimized from any and some specific crimes. However, bisexuals rather than lesbians or gay men were more consistently victimized, notably by sexual attacks and within the household. Implications for understanding victimization among these groups are discussed.

  13. Metabolic syndrome between two ethnic minority groups (Circassians and Chechens) and the original inhabitants of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Dajani, Rana; Khader, Yousef S; Hakooz, Nancy; Fatahalla, Raja; Quadan, Farouk

    2013-02-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide and exhibits variation among ethnic groups. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components between two ethnic groups (Circassians and Chechens) in Jordan and the original inhabitants of Jordan. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study of Circassian (n = 436), Chechen (n = 355), and Jordanian (n = 3234) population aged 18 years and older. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to International Diabetes Federation criteria. Age-standardized prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome was Jordanians 38.0 %, Circassians 32.0 %, and Chechens 33.7 %. Compared to Jordanians, both minority groups had lower means of body mass index, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, and triglycerides. The means of high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein were significantly higher among Circassians compared to Jordanians and Chechens. The odds of BMI defined by overweight and obesity and diabetes were less common among Circassians and Chechens compared to Jordanians. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its individual components is relatively high in the three ethnic groups compared to world. Variation in components between groups may relate to ethnicity. Therefore, a community-based integrated approach is needed that would include behavioral, social changes that would lead to the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome.

  14. Racial Integration and Learners from Limited Income Families--An Essay for American Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, James B.

    The challenge of educating learners from limited-income families, combined with the challenge of racial integration in the schools, is discussed in this essay. Some learning problems among impoverished children are attributed to segregation, prejudice, and the class-caste system. The inadequacies of segregated schools serving minority groups as…

  15. Strategic Plan To Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education. 2002 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Board of Governors for Higher Education, Hartford.

    This report describes progress made on Connecticut's strategic plan to ensure racial and ethnic diversity. Connecticut's public colleges and universities are becoming more diverse every year, and 2001 was no exception. The overall numbers of students, graduates, and professional employees from minority groups are higher than ever, although…

  16. Stereotype Threat and School Belonging in Adolescents from Diverse Racial/Ethnic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Zena R.; Mallett, Robyn K.; Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we extend research on stereotype threat to adolescents and to school belonging. Stereotype threat refers to the impact of societal stereotypes on individual performance. Participants included adolescents from marginalized racial/ethnic minority groups including African Americans, American Indians, and Latinos and nonmarginalized…

  17. HIV Infection among People Who Inject Drugs: The Challenge of Racial/Ethnic Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Des Jarlais, Don C.; McCarty, Dennis; Vega, William A.; Bramson, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection, with minority groups typically having higher rates of infection, are a formidable public health challenge. In the United States, among both men and women who inject drugs, HIV infection rates are elevated among Hispanics and non-Hispanic Blacks. A meta-analysis of international research concluded that…

  18. Intimidation and Violence: Racial and Religious Bigotry in America. Clearinghouse Publication 77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    This is a study of recent acts of violence perpetrated against racial, ethnic, and religious minorities in the United States, based upon information provided by State civil rights advisory committees and data from publications, reports, and the news media. At the outset, it is noted that the Ku Klux Klan, neo-Nazi, and other extremist groups which…

  19. The Black Woman Worker: A Minority Group Perspective on Women at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    1986-01-01

    Being black and female is a double disadvantage in the labor market. Black women work in higher proportions than other women, but their wages are less and many have undesirable jobs. Some black women are experiencing more employment success, but as racial discrimination lessens, they face sexism. (VM)

  20. Pathways to Hazardous Drinking Among Racially and Socioeconomically Diverse Lesbian Women: Sexual Minority Stress, Rumination, Social Isolation, and Drinking to Cope.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Robin J; Mason, Tyler B; Winstead, Barbara A; Gaskins, Melissa; Irons, Lance B

    2016-01-01

    Lesbian women engage in more hazardous drinking than heterosexual women yet we know relatively little about what explains this disparity. In the present study, race, socioeconomic status, minority stress, general psychological processes and distress were examined as pathways to hazardous drinking among young (18-35 years) Black and non-Hispanic White lesbian women. We used the psychological mediation framework adaptation of minority stress theory and the reserve capacity model as theoretical underpinnings of the conceptual model in the current study. Self-identified lesbian participants (N= 867) completed a one-time online survey that assessed race, socioeconomic status, perceived sexual minority discrimination, proximal minority stress (concealment, internalized homophobia, lack of connection to lesbian community), rumination, social isolation, psychological distress, drinking to cope, and hazardous drinking. Cross-sectional results demonstrated that being Black was associated with hazardous drinking via sequential mediators of rumination, psychological distress, and drinking to cope. Socioeconomic status was associated with hazardous drinking via sequential mediators of sexual minority discrimination, proximal minority stress, rumination, social isolation, psychological distress, and drinking to cope. Understanding these pathways can aid researchers and clinicians studying and working with lesbians who are at risk for hazardous drinking.

  1. Patterns of Mental Health Care Utilization Among Sexual Orientation Minority Groups.

    PubMed

    Platt, Lisa F; Wolf, Julia Kay; Scheitle, Christopher P

    2017-03-27

    Prior studies of the utilization of mental health professionals by sexual minority populations have relied on data that are now dated and\\or not nationally representative. These studies have also provided mixed findings regarding gender differences in the utilization of mental health professionals among sexual minority individuals. Using data from the 2013-2015 National Health Interview Surveys, this study investigates (1) how sexual minority individuals compare to heterosexual participants in their utilization of mental health professionals and (2) gender differences in that utilization. The results indicate sexual minority individuals utilize mental health care professionals at higher rates than heterosexual individuals even after controlling for measures of mental health and other demographic characteristics; this is true for both men and women. However, gender moderates the sexual minority effect on utilization rates. Sexual minority men utilize mental health professionals at a high rate, such that their utilization rates are similar to sexual minority women, contrary to the gender seen gap among heterosexuals.

  2. Liking is not the opposite of disliking: the functional separability of positive and negative attitudes toward minority groups.

    PubMed

    Pittinsky, Todd L; Rosenthal, Seth A; Montoya, R Matthew

    2011-04-01

    Two studies tested the hypotheses that positive and negative attitudes toward minority groups are not interchangeable in predicting positive versus negative behaviors toward those groups. In Study 1, positive attitudes about Latinos were a better predictor of a positive behavior toward Latinos than were negative attitudes or stereotyped positive attitudes. In Study 2, positive attitudes about African Americans were a better predictor of positive behavioral intentions toward that group than were negative attitudes, whereas negative attitudes were better predictors of negative behavioral intentions than were positive attitudes. Taken together, the studies support the perspective that positive and negative attitudes toward minority groups are theoretically and functionally distinct constructs. We conclude that it is important to measure both positive and negative attitudes to understand and predict behaviors toward minority groups.

  3. Group Identity and Peer Relations: A Longitudinal Study of Group Identity, Perceived Peer Acceptance, and Friendships amongst Ethnic Minority English Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Jugert, Philipp; Nigbur, Dennis; Brown, Rupert; Watters, Charles; Hossain, Rosa; Landau, Anick; Le Touze, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    This research examined whether peer relationships amongst ethnic minority status children reflect the social groups to which children belong and the degree to which they identify with these groups. A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the influence of group identities (i.e., ethnic and national) on children's perceived peer acceptance…

  4. The Impact of Education on Inter-Group Attitudes: A Multiracial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wodtke, Geoffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    How does education affect racial attitudes? Past studies focus almost exclusively on Whites’ attitudes toward Blacks, neglecting important minority populations. This study extends previous research by analyzing the effects of education on beliefs about racial stereotypes, discrimination, and affirmative action policies among Whites, Asians, Hispanics, and Blacks. Results indicate that Whites, Hispanics, and Blacks with higher levels of education are more likely to reject negative stereotypes, but these effects are less consistent among Asians. And, although education has consistent positive effects on awareness of discrimination against minorities, a more advanced education is not associated with greater support for racial preferences among any respondent group. Education is, however, related to more favorable attitudes toward race-targeted job training. These results are partly consistent with a revised group conflict perspective positing that education unevenly promotes different elements of the dominant racial ideology among nonwhite minorities, depending on their position in the racial hierarchy. PMID:24409004

  5. The Impact of Education on Inter-Group Attitudes: A Multiracial Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wodtke, Geoffrey T

    2012-03-01

    How does education affect racial attitudes? Past studies focus almost exclusively on Whites' attitudes toward Blacks, neglecting important minority populations. This study extends previous research by analyzing the effects of education on beliefs about racial stereotypes, discrimination, and affirmative action policies among Whites, Asians, Hispanics, and Blacks. Results indicate that Whites, Hispanics, and Blacks with higher levels of education are more likely to reject negative stereotypes, but these effects are less consistent among Asians. And, although education has consistent positive effects on awareness of discrimination against minorities, a more advanced education is not associated with greater support for racial preferences among any respondent group. Education is, however, related to more favorable attitudes toward race-targeted job training. These results are partly consistent with a revised group conflict perspective positing that education unevenly promotes different elements of the dominant racial ideology among nonwhite minorities, depending on their position in the racial hierarchy.

  6. Engineering and Technology Degrees, 1980. Part II - By Minorities. Detailed Data for Minority Groups, Women, and Foreign Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Barbara Ann; Bonadonna, Rosanna

    Data on 1980 engineering and technology degree graduates are presented for six categories of students. Tables appear for each of the following: women, foreign nationals, blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, and Asian/Pacific groups. Data are presented for four degree levels in engineering, four in engineering technology, and four in industrial…

  7. Decomposing School Resegregation: Social Closure, Racial Imbalance, and Racial Isolation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiel, Jeremy E.

    2013-01-01

    Today's typical minority student attends school with fewer whites than his counterpart in 1970. This apparent resegregation of U.S. schools has sparked outrage and debate. Some blame a rollback of desegregation policies designed to distribute students more evenly among schools; others blame the changing racial composition of the student…

  8. Strategies for managing impressions of racial identity in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Laura Morgan; Cha, Sandra E; Kim, Sung Soo

    2014-10-01

    This article deepens understanding of the workplace experiences of racial minorities by investigating racial identity-based impression management (RIM) by Asian American journalists. Racial centrality, directly or indirectly, predicted the use of 4 RIM strategies (avoidance, enhancement, affiliation, and racial humor). Professional centrality also predicted strategy use, which was related to life satisfaction and perceived career success. By shedding light on proactive strategies that individuals use to influence colleagues' impressions of their racial identity, we contribute to research on diversity in organizations, impression management, and racial identity.

  9. Perceptions of racial confrontation: the role of color blindness and comment ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Zou, Linda X; Dickter, Cheryl L

    2013-01-01

    Because of its emphasis on diminishing race and avoiding racial discourse, color-blind racial ideology has been suggested to have negative consequences for modern day race relations. The current research examined the influence of color blindness and the ambiguity of a prejudiced remark on perceptions of a racial minority group member who confronts the remark. One hundred thirteen White participants responded to a vignette depicting a White character making a prejudiced comment of variable ambiguity, after which a Black target character confronted the comment. Results demonstrated that the target confronter was perceived more negatively and as responding less appropriately by participants high in color blindness, and that this effect was particularly pronounced when participants responded to the ambiguous comment. Implications for the ways in which color blindness, as an accepted norm that is endorsed across legal and educational settings, can facilitate Whites' complicity in racial inequality are discussed.

  10. Literacy Crisis and Color-Blindness: The Problematic Racial Dynamics of Mid-1970s Language and Literacy Instruction for "High-Risk" Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamos, Steve

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that mid-1970s discourses of literacy crisis prompted a problematic shift toward color-blind ideologies of language and literacy within both disciplinary and institutional discussions of writing instruction for "high-risk" minority students. It further argues that this shift has continuing import for contemporary…

  11. Racial Inequity in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losen, Daniel J., Ed.; Orfield, Gary, Ed.

    This collection of papers discusses issues related to the overidentification of minority students in special education. After a "Foreword" (Senator James M. Jeffords) and an introduction, "Racial Inequality in Special Education" (Daniel J. Losen and Gary Orfield), 11 chapters include: (1) "Community and School Predictors…

  12. The reported views and experiences of cancer service users from minority ethnic groups: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Elkan, R; Avis, M; Cox, K; Wilson, E; Patel, S; Miller, S; Deepak, N; Edwards, C; Staniszewska, S; Kai, J

    2007-03-01

    There is growing evidence of inequalities in access to high-quality cancer services between minority and majority ethnic groups. However, little research has been carried out from the perspective of users from minority ethnic groups themselves. This paper reports a review of the British literature exploring the views and experiences of cancer service users from minority ethnic groups. We reviewed 25 qualitative studies that reported the experiences of people from minority ethnic groups. The studies highlighted significant issues and challenges, including comprehension and communication barriers, a lack of awareness of the existence of services and a perceived failure by providers to accommodate religious and cultural diversity. This paper critically discusses some of the explanations commonly invoked for ethnic inequalities in access to high-quality care, such as the belief that the lack of use of services reflects a lack of need. Despite positive initiatives to respond better to the needs of minority groups, we suggest the impact of these remains highly variable. Institutional racism within services is still much in evidence.

  13. "Not Designed for Us": How Science Museums and Science Centers Socially Exclude Low-income, Minority Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how people from low-income, minority ethnic groups perceive and experience exclusion from informal science education (ISE) institutions, such as museums and science centers. Drawing on qualitative data from four focus groups, 32 interviews, four accompanied visits to ISE institutions, and field notes, this paper presents an…

  14. Social Integration and Religious Identity Expression among Dutch Muslims: The Role of Minority and Majority Group Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maliepaard, Mieke; Phalet, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Against the background of contrasting religious versus secular norms in immigrant communities and in Dutch society, this study examines how religious identity expression is related to the social integration of Dutch Muslims within (a) Turkish or Moroccan minority groups and (b) Dutch majority groups. Using nationally representative survey data (N…

  15. Racial Socialization in Transracial Adoptive Families: Does It Help Adolescents Deal with Discrimination Stress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Leigh A.; Smith, Jocelyn R.; Hrapczynski, Katie M.; Riley, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Racial socialization protects minority adolescents from stress associated with racial discrimination. The process of racial socialization, however, may be challenging in transracial adoptive families. White parents may struggle with preparing their children for discrimination and fostering the development of racial pride. Thus, transracially…

  16. Screening for cognitive impairment among older people in black and minority ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Parker, Chris; Philp, Ian

    2004-09-01

    There is a well-documented tendency for cognitive tests to underestimate the abilities of older people in black and minority ethnic groups. This gives rise to a substantially higher risk of mistaken diagnosis of dementia. Reasons include differences in extent or focus of formal education, lack of familiarity with English, lack of literacy in own first language, and culture-specific factors related to individual test items. Attempts to improve the accuracy of screening for these groups have included adaptation of existing tests, including adjustment of cut-points, translation and replacement of culture-specific items. So-called 'culture-free' tests have also been developed, which are less dependent on language, literacy and other skills developed during formal education. Cultural modifications and evidence of cross-cultural performance are summarized here for traditional tests (Mini-Mental State Examination, Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire, Short Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test, Abbreviated Mental Test Score, Clifton Assessment Procedures for the Elderly), and for culture-free tests (Clock Drawing Test, Mini-Cog, 7-minute screening battery, Time and Change Test). The evidence on unadapted traditional tests shows that short ones perform at least as well as longer ones, and are more consistent across cultural and educational groups. Cut-point adjustments have not been universally found successful in improving accuracy, and do not address issues of acceptability. Translated and/or culturally adapted versions exist for a number of tests: it is important to establish cut-points appropriate to the target populations. There are promising results on culture-free tests, which are seen as less threatening and require little language interpretation, but they require further evaluation.

  17. The Status and Future of Minority Group Representation in the Graduate and Professional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Merrill-Jean

    Minority representation in the graduate and professional schools is not in parity with the proportion of minorities in the overall population at this point in the history of American higher education. There are definite reasons for the lack of participation, reasons that have a profound philosophical, sociological, and economic basis. These…

  18. The Social Fabric of Japan: Case Studies of Selected Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Selena

    This curriculum unit introduces students to the topic of minority identity issues in the context of Japanese society, and it is expected that teachers will use this as an opportunity to segue into classroom discussions of minority issues in their own society. The curriculum unit broaches some sensitive and controversial topics that challenge…

  19. Objective and subjective assessment of long-term community integration in minority groups following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Mascialino, Guido; Hirshson, Chari; Egan, Mathew; Cantor, Joshua; Ashman, Teresa; Tsaousides, Theodore; Spielman, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies that used objective measures of community integration found that in the first year after injury, minority groups with traumatic brain injury (TBI) exhibit lower levels of community integration than White participants. The objective of this study was to determine if this discrepancy persists beyond one year post injury, and if assessing subjective components of community integration helps understand these differences. Participants were 360 community dwelling adults with TBI including 29% from minority backgrounds. Mean time post injury was 8.66 years (SD = 9.94). Main outcome measure utilized was the Participation Objective Participation Subjective (POPS). Multiple regression indicated that minority status predicted levels of transportation use (p < 0.01), with white participants reporting less use, after controlling for demographic and injury variables. When looking at subjective indicators, minority status predicted levels of dissatisfaction with community, civic, life and leisure participation (p < 0.01), and total levels of participation (p < 0.0125), with White participants reporting significantly less dissatisfaction. Findings indicate that differences between minorities and white participants in objective aspects of community integration after one year post-injury are only evident in levels of transportation use. However, when looking at subjective indicators differences between groups are present in other areas. These findings underscore the importance of considering the consumer's subjective experience when providing services to minorities in a rehabilitation setting.

  20. Nest-Gallery Development and Caste Composition of Isolated Foraging Groups of the Drywood Termite, Incisitermes minor (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae)

    PubMed Central

    Himmi, S. Khoirul; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Yanase, Yoshiyuki; Oya, Masao; Torigoe, Toshiyuki; Akada, Masanori; Imadzu, Setsuo

    2016-01-01

    An X-ray computed-tomographic examination of nest-gallery development from timbers naturally infested by foraging groups of Incisitermes minor colonies was conducted. This study documents the colonization process of I. minor to new timbers and how the isolated groups maintain their nest-gallery system. The results suggested that development of a nest-gallery within a suitable wood item is not random, but shows selection for softer substrate and other adaptations to the different timber environments. Stigmergic coordinations were expressed in dynamic changes of the nest-gallery system; indicated by fortification behavior in sealing and re-opening a tunnel approaching the outer edge of the timber, and accumulating fecal pellets in particular chambers located beneath the timber surface. The study also examines the caste composition of isolated groups to discover how I. minor sustains colonies with and without primary reproductives. PMID:27455332

  1. Nest-Gallery Development and Caste Composition of Isolated Foraging Groups of the Drywood Termite, Incisitermes minor (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Himmi, S Khoirul; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Yanase, Yoshiyuki; Oya, Masao; Torigoe, Toshiyuki; Akada, Masanori; Imadzu, Setsuo

    2016-07-22

    An X-ray computed-tomographic examination of nest-gallery development from timbers naturally infested by foraging groups of Incisitermes minor colonies was conducted. This study documents the colonization process of I. minor to new timbers and how the isolated groups maintain their nest-gallery system. The results suggested that development of a nest-gallery within a suitable wood item is not random, but shows selection for softer substrate and other adaptations to the different timber environments. Stigmergic coordinations were expressed in dynamic changes of the nest-gallery system; indicated by fortification behavior in sealing and re-opening a tunnel approaching the outer edge of the timber, and accumulating fecal pellets in particular chambers located beneath the timber surface. The study also examines the caste composition of isolated groups to discover how I. minor sustains colonies with and without primary reproductives.

  2. A Moderated Mediation Model: Racial Discrimination, Coping Strategies, and Racial Identity among Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Upton, Rachel; Gilbert, Adrianne; Volpe, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a moderated mediation model among 314 Black adolescents aged 13-18. The model included general coping strategies (e.g., active, distracting, avoidant, and support-seeking strategies) as mediators and racial identity dimensions (racial centrality, private regard, public regard, minority, assimilationist, and humanist ideologies)…

  3. Ethnicity matters: the experiences of minority groups in public health programs.

    PubMed

    Pardasani, Manoj; Bandyopadhyay, Subir

    2014-01-01

    The minority population in the US is expected to overtake the nonHispanic Caucasian population by 2050. Compounding this demographic shift are the significant disparities between Caucasian and non Caucasian groups especially with regard to income, living standards, health and access to healthcare and vital services. Thus, healthcare and social service programs are being charged with identifying barriers and providing effective, culturally competent care to reduce these disparities in health and quality of life. But the issue of poverty and access is global and disparities affect communities worldwide. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to assess the service concerns of 137 low-income or poor consumers receiving healthcare and social services in publicly funded facilities. Utilizing a modified cultural competence assessment tool, this study evaluates the impact of race/ethnicity on the experiences of receiving vital services and identifies factors that impact the help-seeking decisions made by consumers. Recommendations for practitioners and organizations to help promote effective models of services for a vulnerable, diverse population are provided.

  4. Part II: Multisystemic Therapy--Addressing Racial Disparity and Its Effectiveness with Families from Diverse Racial and Ethnic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Kirstin; Scannapieco, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Disparities in health and mental health care delivered to racial and ethnic minorities became a focus of national policy following reports of the Institute of Medicine (IOM, 2002) and the Surgeon General (USDHHS, 2001). The Surgeon General (USDHHS, 2001) reported racial and ethnic minorities experience disparities in availability and quality of…

  5. DISC Predictive Scales (DPS): Factor structure and uniform differential item functioning across gender and three racial/ethnic groups for ADHD, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Margit; Windle, Michael; Kanouse, David E; Elliott, Marc N; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    The factor structure and potential uniform differential item functioning (DIF) among gender and three racial/ethnic groups of adolescents (African American, Latino, White) were evaluated for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptom scores of the DISC Predictive Scales (DPS; Leung et al., 2005; Lucas et al., 2001). Primary caregivers reported on DSM-IV ADHD, CD, and ODD symptoms for a probability sample of 4,491 children from three geographical regions who took part in the Healthy Passages study (mean age = 12.60 years, SD = 0.66). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the expected 3-factor structure was tenable for the data. Multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) modeling revealed uniform DIF for three ADHD and 9 ODD item scores, but not for any of the CD item scores. Uniform DIF was observed predominantly as a function of child race/ethnicity, but minimally as a function of child gender. On the positive side, uniform DIF had little impact on latent mean differences of ADHD, CD, and ODD symptomatology among gender and racial/ethnic groups. Implications of the findings for researchers and practitioners are discussed.

  6. Disparities in type 2 diabetes prevalence among ethnic minority groups resident in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Meeks, Karlijn A C; Freitas-Da-Silva, Deivisson; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Beune, Erik J A J; Modesti, Pietro A; Stronks, Karien; Zafarmand, Mohammad H; Agyemang, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Many ethnic minorities in Europe have a higher type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence than their host European populations. The risk size differs between ethnic groups, but the extent of the differences in the various ethnic minority groups has not yet been systematically quantified. We conducted a meta-analysis of published data on T2D in various ethnic minority populations resident in Europe compared to their host European populations. We systematically searched MEDLINE (using PUBMED) and EMBASE for papers on T2D prevalence in ethnic minorities in Europe published between 1994 and 2014. The ethnic minority groups were classified into five population groups by geographical origin: South Asian (SA), Sub-Saharan African (SSA), Middle Eastern and North African (MENA), South and Central American (SCA), and Western Pacific (WP). Pooled odds ratios with corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated using Review Manager 5.3. Twenty articles were included in the analysis. Compared with the host populations, SA origin populations had the highest odds for T2D (3.7, 95 % CI 2.7-5.1), followed by MENA (2.7, 95 % CI 1.8-3.9), SSA (2.6, 95 % CI 2.0-3.5), WP (2.3, 95 % CI 1.2-4.1), and lastly SCA (1.3, 95 % CI 1.1-1.6). Odds ratios were in all ethnic minority populations higher for women than for men except for SCA. Among SA subgroups, compared with Europeans, Bangladeshi had the highest odds ratio of 6.2 (95 % CI 3.9-9.8), followed by Pakistani (5.4, 95 % CI 3.2-9.3) and Indians (4.1, 95 % CI 3.0-5.7). The risk of T2D among ethnic minority groups living in Europe compared to Europeans varies by geographical origin of the group: three to five times higher among SA, two to four times higher among MENA, and two to three times higher among SSA origin. Future research and policy initiatives on T2D among ethnic minority groups should take the interethnic differences into account.

  7. Community Mental Health Services to Minority Groups: Some Optimism, Some Pessimism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sue, Stanley

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested that a time may well come when minority clients receive equal but unresponsive services and that primary attention should be placed upon the delivery of responsive services rather than upon the demonstration of inequities. (Author/AM)

  8. Review of Gender and Racial Diversity in Radiation Protection.

    PubMed

    Gillenwalters, Elizabeth; Martinez, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    The rapidly changing demographics of the United States workforce include a large number of women and members of minority groups that are currently underrepresented in science and engineering-related education and careers. Recent research indicates that while singular incidents of sexism do exist, gender bias more often affects women in various subtle ways. The effects of stereotype threat and the lack of appropriate mentoring and female role models are samples of the possible factors contributing to performance and longevity for women in math-intensive fields. To address how this issue affects those in radiation protection, the current status of women in the field is reviewed as a progression through the scientific pipeline, from education and employment to positions in scientific bodies and professional recognition, with primary focus on American women and institutions. Racial diversity demographics are reviewed where available. Findings indicate women and minority racial groups are underrepresented in multiple aspects of education, research, and leadership. While gender diversity across the field has not yet reached gender parity, trending indicates that the percentage of women earning degrees in radiation protection has consistently increased over the last four decades. Diversity of racial groups, however, has remained fairly consistent and is well below national averages. Diverse perspectives have been documented in collective problem-solving to lead to more innovative solutions.

  9. Unpacking Racial Socialization: Considering Female African American Primary Caregivers' Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scottham, Krista Maywalt; Smalls, Ciara P.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between female African American primary caregivers' racial identity and their racial socialization emphases was examined. Three components of racial identity were evaluated: (1) the importance of race to the self-concept (centrality), (2) affective feelings toward group membership (private regard), and (3) perceptions of how group…

  10. Late Byzantine mineral soda high alumina glasses from Asia Minor: a new primary glass production group.

    PubMed

    Schibille, Nadine

    2011-04-19

    The chemical characterisation of archaeological glass allows the discrimination between different glass groups and the identification of raw materials and technological traditions of their production. Several lines of evidence point towards the large-scale production of first millennium CE glass in a limited number of glass making factories from a mixture of Egyptian mineral soda and a locally available silica source. Fundamental changes in the manufacturing processes occurred from the eight/ninth century CE onwards, when Egyptian mineral soda was gradually replaced by soda-rich plant ash in Egypt as well as the Islamic Middle East. In order to elucidate the supply and consumption of glass during this transitional period, 31 glass samples from the assemblage found at Pergamon (Turkey) that date to the fourth to fourteenth centuries CE were analysed by electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The statistical evaluation of the data revealed that the Byzantine glasses from Pergamon represent at least three different glass production technologies, one of which had not previously been recognised in the glass making traditions of the Mediterranean. While the chemical characteristics of the late antique and early medieval fragments confirm the current model of glass production and distribution at the time, the elemental make-up of the majority of the eighth- to fourteenth-century glasses from Pergamon indicate the existence of a late Byzantine glass type that is characterised by high alumina levels. Judging from the trace element patterns and elevated boron and lithium concentrations, these glasses were produced with a mineral soda different to the Egyptian natron from the Wadi Natrun, suggesting a possible regional Byzantine primary glass production in Asia Minor.

  11. Late Byzantine Mineral Soda High Alumina Glasses from Asia Minor: A New Primary Glass Production Group

    PubMed Central

    Schibille, Nadine

    2011-01-01

    The chemical characterisation of archaeological glass allows the discrimination between different glass groups and the identification of raw materials and technological traditions of their production. Several lines of evidence point towards the large-scale production of first millennium CE glass in a limited number of glass making factories from a mixture of Egyptian mineral soda and a locally available silica source. Fundamental changes in the manufacturing processes occurred from the eight/ninth century CE onwards, when Egyptian mineral soda was gradually replaced by soda-rich plant ash in Egypt as well as the Islamic Middle East. In order to elucidate the supply and consumption of glass during this transitional period, 31 glass samples from the assemblage found at Pergamon (Turkey) that date to the fourth to fourteenth centuries CE were analysed by electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The statistical evaluation of the data revealed that the Byzantine glasses from Pergamon represent at least three different glass production technologies, one of which had not previously been recognised in the glass making traditions of the Mediterranean. While the chemical characteristics of the late antique and early medieval fragments confirm the current model of glass production and distribution at the time, the elemental make-up of the majority of the eighth- to fourteenth-century glasses from Pergamon indicate the existence of a late Byzantine glass type that is characterised by high alumina levels. Judging from the trace element patterns and elevated boron and lithium concentrations, these glasses were produced with a mineral soda different to the Egyptian natron from the Wadi Natrun, suggesting a possible regional Byzantine primary glass production in Asia Minor. PMID:21526144

  12. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Obesity during the Transition to Adulthood: The Contingent and Nonlinear Impact of Neighborhood Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Lisa M.; Browning, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Neighborhood disadvantage in early adolescence may help explain racial and ethnic disparities in obesity during the transition to adulthood; however the processes may work differently for males and females and for minority groups compared to Whites. The present study examines the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and young adult…

  13. Not just for stereotyping anymore: racial essentialism reduces domain-general creativity.

    PubMed

    Tadmor, Carmit T; Chao, Melody M; Hong, Ying-yi; Polzer, Jeffrey T

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who believe that racial groups have fixed underlying essences use stereotypes more than do individuals who believe that racial categories are arbitrary and malleable social-political constructions. Would this essentialist mind-set also lead to less creativity? We suggest that the functional utility derived from essentialism induces a habitual closed-mindedness that transcends the social domain and hampers creativity. Across studies, using both individual difference measures (in a pilot test) and experimental manipulations (Experiments 1, 2a, and 2b), we found that an essentialist mind-set is indeed hazardous for creativity, with the relationship mediated by motivated closed-mindedness (Experiments 2a and 2b). These results held across samples of majority cultural-group members (Caucasian Americans, Israelis) and minority-group members (Asian Americans), as well as across different measures of creativity (flexibility, association, insight). Our findings have important implications for understanding the connection between racial intolerance and creativity.

  14. The Education of Native and Minority Groups--A Bibliography, 1923-1932. Bulletin, 1933, No. 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Katherine M.; Reynolds, Florence E.

    1933-01-01

    The purpose of this bulletin is to present a selected working bibliography of practical usefulness to students and others interested in the education of native and minority groups. The field is a relatively new one in American education, and so far as information is available, this is the first effort to formulate a bibliography concerned with it.…

  15. Rockefeller Foundation Program for Training Minority-Group School Administrators at the Superintendent Level: Perceptions of Skills and Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Hilbert Dennis

    The focus of this descriptive study was on the perceptions of participants in a program for Training Minority-Group School Administrators at the Superintendent Level (STP). The purpose of the study was to identify those administrative skills that program participants perceived to have developed; to identify some opinions of the value of the STP…

  16. Early Childhood Education for the San in Namibia: The Working Group of Indigenous Minorities Early Childhood Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haraseb, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    The Working Group of Indigenous Minorities in Southern Africa (WIMSA) has been working to improve conditions for San communities since 1996. San communities in Namibia have an extremely high dropout rate compared to all other populations in the country, and one of WIMSA's most important areas of focus is education. Early Childhood Development…

  17. The Over-Education of UK Immigrants and Minority Ethnic Groups: Evidence from the Labour Force Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    The paper explores the incidence of over and under education and the effect on earnings for immigrants and natives who hold UK qualifications, drawn from the Quarterly Labour Force Survey 1993-2003. The paper also compares earnings penalties associated with over and under education across immigrant and minority ethnic groups for men and women. The…

  18. Case Finding and Medical Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes among Different Ethnic Minority Groups: The HELIUS Study

    PubMed Central

    Agyemang, Charles; Peters, Ron J.; Stronks, Karien; Ujcic-Voortman, Joanna K.; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.

    2017-01-01

    Aims. Prevention of diabetes complications depends on the level of case finding and successful treatment of diabetes, which may differ between ethnicities. Therefore, we studied the prevalence by age, awareness, treatment, and control of type 2 diabetes, among a multiethnic population. Methods. We included 4,541 Dutch, 3,032 South-Asian Surinamese, 4,109 African Surinamese, 2,323 Ghanaian, 3,591 Turkish, and 3,887 Moroccan participants (aged 18–70 y) from the HELIUS study. The prevalence of diabetes was analysed by sex, ethnicity, and 10-year age groups. Ethnic differences in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes were studied by logistic regression. Results. From the age of 31–40 years and older, the prevalence of diabetes was 3 to 12 times higher among ethnic minority groups than that among the Dutch host population. Awareness and medical treatment of diabetes were 2 to 5 times higher among ethnic minorities than that among Dutch. Among those medically treated, only 37–53% had HbA1c levels on target (≤7.0%); only Dutch men had HbA1c levels on target more often (67%). Conclusions. Our results suggest that the age limit for case finding among ethnic minority groups should be lower than that for the general population. Importantly, despite higher awareness and treatment among ethnic minorities, glycemic control was low, suggesting a need for increased efforts to improve the effectiveness of treatment in these groups. PMID:28154830

  19. Case Finding and Medical Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes among Different Ethnic Minority Groups: The HELIUS Study.

    PubMed

    Snijder, Marieke B; Agyemang, Charles; Peters, Ron J; Stronks, Karien; Ujcic-Voortman, Joanna K; van Valkengoed, Irene G M

    2017-01-01

    Aims. Prevention of diabetes complications depends on the level of case finding and successful treatment of diabetes, which may differ between ethnicities. Therefore, we studied the prevalence by age, awareness, treatment, and control of type 2 diabetes, among a multiethnic population. Methods. We included 4,541 Dutch, 3,032 South-Asian Surinamese, 4,109 African Surinamese, 2,323 Ghanaian, 3,591 Turkish, and 3,887 Moroccan participants (aged 18-70 y) from the HELIUS study. The prevalence of diabetes was analysed by sex, ethnicity, and 10-year age groups. Ethnic differences in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes were studied by logistic regression. Results. From the age of 31-40 years and older, the prevalence of diabetes was 3 to 12 times higher among ethnic minority groups than that among the Dutch host population. Awareness and medical treatment of diabetes were 2 to 5 times higher among ethnic minorities than that among Dutch. Among those medically treated, only 37-53% had HbA1c levels on target (≤7.0%); only Dutch men had HbA1c levels on target more often (67%). Conclusions. Our results suggest that the age limit for case finding among ethnic minority groups should be lower than that for the general population. Importantly, despite higher awareness and treatment among ethnic minorities, glycemic control was low, suggesting a need for increased efforts to improve the effectiveness of treatment in these groups.

  20. Experiences of racism, racial/ethnic attitudes, motivated fairness and mental health outcomes among primary and secondary school students.

    PubMed

    Priest, Naomi; Perry, Ryan; Ferdinand, Angeline; Paradies, Yin; Kelaher, Margaret

    2014-10-01

    While studies investigating the health effects of racial discrimination for children and youth have examined a range of effect modifiers, to date, relationships between experiences of racial discrimination, student attitudes, and health outcomes remain unexplored. This study uniquely demonstrates the moderating effects of vicarious racism and motivated fairness on the association between direct experiences of racism and mental health outcomes, specifically depressive symptoms and loneliness, among primary and secondary school students. Across seven schools, 263 students (54.4% female), ranging from 8 to 17 years old (M = 11.2, SD = 2.2) reported attitudes about other racial/ethnic groups and experiences of racism. Students from minority ethnic groups (determined by country of birth) reported higher levels of loneliness and more racist experiences relative to the majority group students. Students from the majority racial/ethnic group reported higher levels of loneliness and depressive symptoms if they had more friends from different racial/ethnic groups, whereas the number of friends from different groups had no effect on minority students' loneliness or depressive symptoms. Direct experiences of racism were robustly related to higher loneliness and depressive symptoms in multivariate regression models. However, the association with depressive symptoms was reduced to marginal significance when students reported low motivated fairness. Elaborating on the negative health effects of racism in primary and secondary school students provides an impetus for future research and the development of appropriate interventions.

  1. Racial Differences in Communication Apprehension and Interprofessional Socialization in Fourth-Year Doctor of Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Karpinski, Aryn C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To examine racial differences in communication apprehension and interprofessional socialization in fourth-year PharmD students and to investigate the relationship between the two constructs. Methods. Two measures with reliability and validity psychometric evidence were administered to fourth-year pharmacy students at a single historically black university with a large racial minority population. The Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA-24) measures level of fear or anxiety associated with communication. The Interprofessional Socialization and Valuing Scale (ISVS) measures beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors towards interprofessional collaborative practice. Results. One hundred fourteen students completed the survey. This produced a 77.4% response rate and 45.6% of the participants were African American. There were significant differences between races (ie, White, African-American, and Asian) on both measures. The PCRA-24 and ISVS were significantly correlated in each racial group. Conclusion. As pharmacy education moves to more interprofessional collaborations, the racial differences need to be considered and further explored. Pharmacy curricula can be structured to promote students’ comfort when communicating interprofessionally across racial groups. Understanding of culture and early education in cultural competence may need to be emphasized to navigate racial or cultural differences. PMID:26941434

  2. Reducing Health Disparities Through a Culturally Centered Mentorship Program for Minority Faculty: The Southwest Addictions Research Group (SARG) Experience

    PubMed Central

    Viets, Vanessa Lopez; Baca, Catherine; Verney, Steven P.; Venner, Kamilla; Parker, Tassy; Wallerstein, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Ethnic minority faculty members are vastly underrepresented in academia. Yet, the presence of these individuals in academic institutions is crucial, particularly because their professional endeavors often target issues of health disparities. One promising way to attract and retain ethnic minority faculty is to provide them with formal mentorship. This report describes a culturally centered mentorship program, the Southwest Addictions Research Group (SARG, 2003–2007), at the University of New Mexico (UNM) that trained a cadre of minority researchers dedicated to reducing health disparities associated with substance abuse. Method The SARG was based at UNM’s School of Medicine’s Institute for Public Health, in partnership with the UNM’s Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse, and Addictions. The program consisted of regular research meetings, collaboration with the Community Advisory Board, monthly symposia with renowned professionals, pilot projects, and conference support. The authors collected data on mentee research productivity as outcomes and conducted separate mentee and mentor focus-group interviews to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the SARG program. Results The SARG yielded positive outcomes as evidenced by mentee increase in grant submissions, publications, and professional presentations. Focus-group qualitative data highlighted program and institutional barriers as well as successes that surfaced during the program. Based on this evaluation, a Culturally Centered Mentorship Model (CCMM) emerged. Conclusions The CCMM can help counter institutional challenges by valuing culture, community service, and community-based participatory research to support the recruitment and advancement of ethnic minority faculty members in academia. PMID:19638783

  3. Effects of Poverty and Lack of Insurance on Perceptions of Racial and Ethnic Bias in Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Stepanikova, Irena; Cook, Karen S

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether poverty and lack of insurance are associated with perceived racial and ethnic bias in health care. Data Source 2001 Survey on Disparities in Quality of Health Care, a nationally representative telephone survey. We use data on black, Hispanic, and white adults who have a regular physician (N=4,556). Study Design We estimate multivariate logistic regression models to examine the effects of poverty and lack of health insurance on perceived racial and ethnic bias in health care for all respondents and by racial, ethnic, and language groups. Principal Findings Controlling for sociodemographic and other factors, uninsured blacks and Hispanics interviewed in English are more likely to report racial and ethnic bias in health care compared with their privately insured counterparts. Poor whites are more likely to report racial and ethnic bias in health care compared with other whites. Good physician–patient communication is negatively associated with perceived racial and ethnic bias. Conclusions Compared with their more socioeconomically advantaged counterparts, poor whites, uninsured blacks, and some uninsured Hispanics are more likely to perceive that racial and ethnic bias operates in the health care they receive. Providing health insurance for the uninsured may help reduce this perceived bias among some minority groups. PMID:18546546

  4. Minority group members' theories of intergroup contact: a case study of British Muslims' conceptualizations of 'Islamophobia' and social change.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Nick; Kahani-Hopkins, Vered

    2006-06-01

    Much research in intergroup relations concerns the potential for interventions (e.g. intergroup contact) to reduce majorities' discrimination against minorities. In this paper we focus on how minority group members construe such interventions, especially as they affect their abilities to act in terms of their collective identity to realize social change. In addressing this issue, we focus on a minority's beliefs and theories concerning the intergroup dynamics lying behind their marginalization. Our data are qualitative and concern British Muslims' analyses of the dynamics of Islamophobia. Specifically, we explore two theorizations of Muslims' marginalization. Both share a concern with improving Muslims' collective position in Britain. However, they construe the dynamics to Islamophobia in very different ways, and this shapes their approach to intergroup contact and dialogue. Our analysis is informed by, and seeks to complement, social psychological theorizing on social change and intergroup contact.

  5. Of Jewel Heritage: racial socialization and racial identity attitudes amongst adolescents of mixed African-Caribbean/White parentage.

    PubMed

    Fatimilehin, I A

    1999-06-01

    Mixed parentage adolescents form an increasing proportion of ethnic minority adolescents in Britain. Few studies have investigated their views and perceptions of their racial identity in terms of their Black heritage. This exploratory study investigated their attitudes towards Blackness, and examined the relationship that this might have with their reported experiences of racial socialization as well as with their self-esteem. Older adolescents were more likely to have positive racial identity attitudes, and a positive relationship was found between racial identity attitudes and self-esteem. Reported frequency of certain types of racial socialization messages increased with age. This was especially pronounced with messages relating to the development of racial pride and messages relating to issues around racism. Those adolescents who lived with both parents reported receiving more proactive racial socialization messages. Tentative conclusions include the possibility that dual identification and multicultural environments are associated with a positive sense of racial identity. These issues need to be investigated further.

  6. A Psycho-Educational Profile of Gifted Minority Group Students Identified Without Reliance on Aptitude Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Romeria

    This study provides psycho-educational information about Afro-American, Asian American, Anglo-American and Hispanic-American secondary students identified for the California Mentally Gifted Minor program by the non-test method. Five self-report affective instruments given to the 193 tenth grade students participating in the study are described.…

  7. School Support Groups, Other School Factors, and the Safety of Sexual Minority Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodenow, Carol; Szalacha, Laura; Westheimer, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Sexual minority adolescents--those self-identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) or with same-sex desires or sexual experiences--report higher rates of victimization and suicidality than their heterosexual peers, yet little empirical research has examined school factors associated with these risks. This study used data from the Massachusetts…

  8. Breast cancer in ethnic minority groups in developed nations: Case studies of the United Kingdom and Australia.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Meagan

    2017-05-01

    Recent research from the United Kingdom (UK) has highlighted some of the differences in breast cancer presentations between women of different ethnic groups. Analysis of a large database showed that Black women of African or Caribbean heritage living in England and Wales are more likely to present with stage 3 or 4 cancer than White British women and less likely to have their cancer detected through screening. In many countries around the world, migrant and cultural minority groups experience social and economic disadvantage and this is reflected in their health outcomes. With world migration at record levels, it is timely to reflect on ethnic disparities and to consider how developed nations can care for their minority groups, which are increasing in number and diversity. These issues and challenges are discussed, using the UK's migrant population and Australia's Indigenous and migrant populations as case studies.

  9. Lifecourse Approach to Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Childhood Obesity123

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Brittany; Peña, Michelle-Marie; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2012-01-01

    Eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care is a national priority, and obesity is a prime target. During the last 30 y in the United States, the prevalence of obesity among children has dramatically increased, sparing no age group. Obesity in childhood is associated with adverse cardio-metabolic outcomes such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and type II diabetes and with other long-term adverse outcomes, including both physical and psychosocial consequences. By the preschool years, racial/ethnic disparities in obesity prevalence are already present, suggesting that disparities in childhood obesity prevalence have their origins in the earliest stages of life. Several risk factors during pregnancy are associated with increased risk of offspring obesity, including excessive maternal gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes, smoking during pregnancy, antenatal depression, and biological stress. During infancy and early childhood, rapid infant weight gain, infant feeding practices, sleep duration, child’s diet, physical activity, and sedentary practices are associated with the development of obesity. Studies have found substantial racial/ethnic differences in many of these early life risk factors for childhood obesity. It is possible that racial/ethnic differences in early life risk factors for obesity might contribute to the high prevalence of obesity among minority preschool-age children and beyond. Understanding these differences may help inform the design of clinical and public health interventions and policies to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity and eliminate disparities among racial/ethnic minority children. PMID:22332105

  10. Ethnicity and children's diets: the practices and perceptions of mothers in two minority ethnic groups in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-10-01

    This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers of children between 4 months and 2 and a half years who were descendants of Turkish or Pakistani immigrants. The focus groups investigated: (1) everyday feeding practices; (2) values and concerns behind food choice; (3) social and cultural norms influencing feeding and eating practices; (4) experienced dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm that ethnic distinctions do matter in the concerns and dilemmas mothers experience when feeding their children, but they also challenge the health authorities' reliance on dichotomies in promoting health among immigrant families. The participants' ethnic self-identification through food practices did not refer primarily to the birthplaces of their parents. Rather, it was context dependent and directed simultaneously towards majority and minority culture.

  11. Integration of ethnic minorities during group-work for vocational teachers-in-training in health studies

    PubMed Central

    Bergsli, Oddhild; Johanesen, Else Marie

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine how to enhance integration of minority students in health education, and thereby improve intercultural communication skills and cultural sensitivity in a sample of health teacher students in Norway. Methods After a group-work intervention and for a period of six months afterwards we followed an “action research” approach and observed 47 health teachers-in-training in their first year at the Oslo and Akershus University College during classroom interactions. Data were qualitative and comprised student self-reports and survey results along with observations from three teachers, the authors of the study. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative approach with opinion categorization and an open coding procedure, with separate analyses performed on observations from minority students, majority students, and teachers. Results Both ethnic majority and minority students experienced an increase in intercultural knowledge and problem-solving ability after the experience of an early intervention in their first academic year of tertiary education. Students reacted favorably to the intervention and noted in class assessments both the challenges and rewards of overcoming cultural barriers. Teacher observation notes confirmed that early intervention led to an increase in interaction and cross-cultural engagement between minority and majority students compared to previous years’ classes without the intervention. Conclusions Early classroom intervention to promote intercultural engagement can prevent clique formation along majority/minority lines. The method used here, tailored group assignments in ethnically diverse working groups at the very beginning of students’ tertiary academic career, can be an effective approach to cultivating attitudes and skills fostering intercultural awareness and sensitivity. PMID:28132033

  12. Use of complementary and alternative medical therapies among racial and ethnic minority adults: results from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Robert E.; Ahn, Andrew C.; Davis, Roger B.; O'Connor, Bonnie B.; Eisenberg, David M.; Phillips, Russell S.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among ethnic minority populations is poorly understood. We sought to examine CAM use in Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Alternative Health Supplement to the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), including information on 19 different CAM therapies used in the past 12 months. RESULTS: An estimated 34% of Hispanic, non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white adults in the United States used at least one CAM therapy (excluding prayer) during the prior 12 months (2002). CAM use was highest for non-Hispanic whites (36%), followed by Hispanics (27%) and non-Hispanic blacks (26%). Non-Hispanic whites were more likely to use herbal medicine, relaxation techniques and chiropractic more frequently than Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks. After controlling for other sociodemographic factors, Hispanic and non-Hispanic black races/ethnicities were associated with less CAM use, with adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 0.78 (0.70, 0.87) and 0.71 (0.65, 0.78), respectively. Hispanics cited using CAM because conventional medical treatments were too expensive more frequently than non-Hispanic blacks or whites. Hispanics had the highest provider nondisclosure rates (68.5%), followed by non-Hispanic blacks (65.1%) and non-Hispanic whites (58.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Excluding prayer, Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks used CAM less frequently than non-Hispanic whites and were less likely to disclose their use to their healthcare provider. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of the disparities in CAM use. PMID:15868773

  13. Racial Variation in the Effect of Incarceration on Neighborhood Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Massoglia, Michael; Firebaugh, Glenn; Warner, Cody

    2013-01-01

    Each year, more than 700,000 convicted offenders are released from prison and reenter neighborhoods across the country. Prior studies have found that minority ex-inmates tend to reside in more disadvantaged neighborhoods than do white ex-inmates. However, because these studies do not control for pre-prison neighborhood conditions, we do not know how much (if any) of this racial variation is due to arrest and incarceration, or if these observed findings simply reflect existing racial residential inequality. Using a nationally representative dataset that tracks individuals over time, we find that only whites live in significantly more disadvantaged neighborhoods after prison than prior to prison. Blacks and Hispanics do not, nor do all groups (whites, blacks, and Hispanics) as a whole live in worse neighborhoods after prison. We attribute this racial variation in the effect of incarceration to the high degree of racial neighborhood inequality in the United States: because white offenders generally come from much better neighborhoods, they have much more to lose from a prison spell. In addition to advancing our understanding of the social consequences of the expansion of the prison population, these findings demonstrate the importance of controlling for preprison characteristics when investigating the effects of incarceration on residential outcomes. PMID:24367134

  14. Impulsivity moderates the association between racial discrimination and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Latzman, Robert D; Chan, Wing Yi; Shishido, Yuri

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol use among university students is a serious public health concern, particularly among minority students who may use alcohol to cope with experiences of racial discrimination. Although the impact of racial discrimination on alcohol use has been well-established, individual differences in factors that may act to either attenuate or exacerbate the negative effects of racial discrimination are largely unknown. One potentially fruitful individual differences trait that has repeatedly been found to predict alcohol problems is the multidimensional personality trait of impulsivity. Nonetheless, the ways in which various aspects of impulsivity interact with racial discrimination is yet unknown. The current study, therefore, examined the joint and interactive contribution of racial discrimination and impulsivity in the prediction of alcohol consumption among racial minority university students. Participants included 336 Black/African-American and Asian/Asian-American university students. Results revealed both racial discrimination and impulsivity to be significantly associated with alcohol problems. Further, individuals' responses to racial discrimination were not uniform. Specifically, the association between racial discrimination and alcohol problems was moderated by lack of Premeditation; racial discrimination was most strongly predictive of alcohol problems for those who reported low level of premeditation. Findings from the present study highlight the importance of investigating risk factors for alcohol problems across multiple levels of the ecology as individual personality traits appear to relate to how one might respond to the experience of racial discrimination.

  15. Target marketing of tobacco and alcohol-related products to ethnic minority groups in the United States.

    PubMed

    Moore, D J; Williams, J D; Qualls, W J

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines whether increased consumption of tobacco and alcohol products by minority groups is a function of the target marketing campaigns directed at these groups by marketers, and whether such contributes to the perpetuation of racism. First, a description of the tobacco and alcohol consumption rates of blacks and Hispanics compared to whites is presented, including a comparative analysis of the health effects and mortality rates resulting from the consumption of tobacco and alcohol. Second, the paper examines specific marketing strategies of targeting tobacco and alcohol products to ethnic minority consumers. This is followed by a discussion of whether these practices are a deliberate strategy driven by racism or just the pursuit of profit. A framework for answering the question is provided. Finally, the paper assesses the prospects for change in the future, and analyzes specific needs for future research.

  16. National newspaper coverage of minority health disparities.

    PubMed Central

    Amzel, Anouk; Ghosh, Chandak

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess American newspaper coverage regarding racial and ethnic minority health disparities (MHDs). METHODS: LexisNexis was queried with specific word combinations to elicit all MHD articles printed in 257 newspapers from 2000-2004. The full texts were read and articles categorized by racial/ethnic group and specific MHD topics mentioned. RESULTS: In the five years from 2000-2004, 1188 MHD articles were published, representing 0.09% of all articles about health. Newspapers gave much attention to MHD when discussed in conferences and meetings and speeches by senior health officials and politicians. Cancer, cardiovascular disease and HIV/AIDS were most frequent among disease-specific mentions. Articles about African Americans comprised 60.4% of all race/ethnicity-mentioning articles. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the release of major organizational reports and the publication of many studies confirming the prevalence of MHD, few newspaper articles have been published explaining MHD to the public. Because of the general public's low rate of health literacy, the health world should collaborate with the media to present a consistent, simple message concerning gaps in care experienced by all racial/ethnic minority groups. In a time of consumer-directed healthcare, if Americans understand that MHDs exist, they may galvanize to advocate for disparity elimination and quality improvement. PMID:17987915

  17. Gifted Programming for Poor or Minority Urban Students: Issues and Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Thomson, Dana L.

    2010-01-01

    Gaps in the achievement between poor and more advantaged children and minority and nonminority students of all ages continue to be the most central problem in the field of education. Achievement differences by racial/ethnic group and socioeconomic status (SES) level are especially pronounced and pervasive within the major urban school districts in…

  18. Racial and Ethnic Identities in American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.

    The investigation of race relations, of social problems related to race and ethnicity, and of different racial and social groups, all presume prior information about the definition of racial or ethnic group identity, about the formation, maintenance, and dissolution of such identities, and about the importance of such identities in American…

  19. Measuring Puerto Ricans' Perceptions of Racial Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginorio, Angela B.; Berry, Paul C.

    To measure how Puerto Ricans classify each other into racial groups by physical appearance, a stimulus set of 60 color slides was prepared. Two hundred and fifty secondary students sorted these portraits into four, three, and finally two groups. Although subjects placed both the pictures and themselves in a color continuum of racial types with…

  20. 50 CFR Table 1b to Part 660... - 2009, Harvest Guidelines for Minor Rockfish by Depth Sub-groups (weights in metric tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 2009, Harvest Guidelines for Minor Rockfish by Depth Sub-groups (weights in metric tons) 1b Table 1b to Part 660, Subpart G Wildlife and... 660, Subpart G—2009, Harvest Guidelines for Minor Rockfish by Depth Sub-groups (weights in metric...

  1. "Everyone Has to Find Themselves in the Story": Exploring Minority Group Representation in the Citizenship Curriculum in Northern Ireland and Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This article explores understandings of minority group representation in citizenship education in Northern Ireland and Israel, from the point of view of students, teachers, and policy makers. It is set against the background of the minority-majority group dichotomy within societies divided along ethnonational lines, and the challenge of delivering…

  2. The Perception of Neighborhood Disorder in Flemish Belgium: Differences between Ethnic Majority and Minority Group Members and Bearing on Fear of Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vancluysen, Kris; Van Craen, Maarten; Ackaert, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The present research examines whether the perception of neighborhood disorder differs between ethnic majority and minority group members and whether perceived disorder has the same impact on fear of crime among ethnic minorities as among the majority group. To answer the research questions, data are used from a survey among persons of Moroccan,…

  3. Racialized Space: Framing Latino and Latina Experience in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barajas, Heidi Lasley; Ronnkvist, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Educational research shows differences in experience, access, and outcomes across racial groups with some groups advantaged and others disadvantaged. One of the concepts used to explain racial differences, racialization, is a taken-for-granted term that is yet to be fully defined in the context of the school. We differentiate the term…

  4. It Just Happens: Colorblind Ideology and Undergraduate Explanations of Racial Interaction on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Regine; Sweeney, Kathryn; Welcher, Adria

    2014-01-01

    This article examines student perceptions of racial segregation on campus in terms of interaction across racial groups. Theories of colorblind racial ideology are used to interpret data from 14 group interviews focusing on 1.) the degree to which cross-group interaction is desired, 2.) perceptions of racial separation among students at a…

  5. A Review of Tobacco Use Treatments in U.S. Ethnic Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Okuyemi, Kolawole; Choi, Won S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of disease and death in the United States. Among racial and ethnic minorities, disparities in tobacco use, knowledge of health risks and treatment resources, access to and utilization of treatment contribute to a disproportionate disease burden from tobacco use. Furthermore, racial and ethnic minorities have been under-represented within tobacco treatment studies. Purpose/Objective This paper provides a review of published studies examining tobacco treatment interventions among ethnic and minority populations in the United States. Study Design/Methods Literature searches were used to identify smoking cessation interventions involving racial/ethnic minority populations. Identified studies were published between 1985 and 2009 involving African American, Latino, Native American, Asian or Pacific Islander smokers. Studies included in the review a) targeted one or more ethnic minority group or had at least 10 percent of study participants from ethnic minority groups and b) reported abstinence outcomes. Results Sixty-four studies were included in this review. Of studies meeting inclusion criteria, 28 included a primary focus on African Americans, 10 focused on Latinos, 4 focused on Native Americans, and 3 focused on Asian American smokers. An additional 19 studies reported samples including participants from more than one minority group. Sample inclusion criteria, intervention content and duration, follow-up, abstinence assessment, and limitations of these studies were reviewed. Conclusions Individuals from racial and ethnic minority populations are interested in stopping smoking and willing to participate in treatment research. Variations in the content of treatment intervention and study design produced a range of abstinence outcomes across studies. Additional research is needed for all groups, including African American smokers, and special attention is warranted for Latino, Native American, and Asian groups

  6. Social Engagement After Nursing Home Admission: Racial and Ethnic Disparities and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Donna; Harms, Susan; Eberly, Lynn E; Savik, Kay; Gurvich, Olga; Mueller, Christine; Wyman, Jean F; Virnig, Beth

    2015-11-26

    Older adults admitted to nursing homes (NHs) are at risk for low social engagement, which has associations with medical, psychological, and social well-being. Minorities may be at a disadvantage for social engagement because of their racial or ethnic group identity. This study assessed whether there were racial/ethnic disparities in social engagement among older adults (N = 15,927) at 1 year after their NH admission using multi-level predictors. No racial or ethnic-based disparities in social engagement were found; hence, an analysis of risk factors at NH admission that predicted low social engagement at 1 year for all residents was conducted. Significant risk factors for low social engagement were low social engagement at admission, deficits in activities in daily living and cognition, problems with vision and communication, and residing in an NH in an urban community. Results highlight the importance of initiating interventions to increase social engagement at the time of NH admission.

  7. Minorities in the Armed Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Anthony

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the findings of the Congressional Black Caucus and the specially formed task force; reports that high ranking officers have pledged to attack racial discrimination; and describes an association of minority officers whose purpose is to enhance the image of the armed forces within the minority community. (Author/JM)

  8. Group identity and peer relations: a longitudinal study of group identity, perceived peer acceptance, and friendships amongst ethnic minority English children.

    PubMed

    Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Jugert, Philipp; Nigbur, Dennis; Brown, Rupert; Watters, Charles; Hossain, Rosa; Landau, Anick; Le Touze, Dominique

    2012-06-01

    This research examined whether peer relationships amongst ethnic minority status children reflect the social groups to which children belong and the degree to which they identify with these groups. A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the influence of group identities (i.e., ethnic and national) on children's perceived peer acceptance and preference for same-ethnic friendships. Measures of ethnic and English identification, perceived peer acceptance, and friendship choice were administered to 207 south-Asian English children, aged between 5 and 11, at two time points 6 months apart. In line with predictions, longitudinal analysis showed that bicultural identification (i.e., higher ethnic and English identity) was related to higher perceived peer acceptance and less preference for same-ethnic friendships. Importantly, as hypothesized, this finding was limited to the older children with more advanced social-cognitive abilities. The results suggest that older children who adopted a bicultural identity were able to strategically 'flag' their multiple group identities, within their multicultural peer groups, to obtain acceptance amongst the maximum number of peers and show less preference for same-ethnic friendships. This study extends previous peer relations research, which has typically focused on individual social deficits or classroom norms, by showing that group identities influence peer relationships amongst ethnic minority status children.

  9. Improving pathways into mental health care for black and ethnic minority groups: a systematic review of the grey literature.

    PubMed

    Moffat, Joanne; Sass, Bernd; McKenzie, Kwame; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2009-01-01

    Black and ethnic minorities show different pathways to care services and different routes out of care. These often involve non-statutory sector services. In order to improve access to services, and to develop appropriate and effective interventions, many innovations are described but the knowledge about how to improve pathways to recovery has not been synthesized. Much of this work is not formally published. Hence, this paper addresses this oversight and undertakes a review of the grey literature. The key components of effective pathway interventions include specialist services for ethnic minority groups, collaboration between sectors, facilitating referral routes between services, outreach and facilitating access into care, and supporting access to rehabilitation and moving out of care. Services that support collaboration, referral between services, and improve access seem effective, but warrant further evaluation. Innovative services must ensure that their evaluation frameworks meet minimum quality standards if the knowledge gained from the service is to be generalized, and if it is to inform policy.

  10. Direct-to-Consumer Racial Admixture Tests and Beliefs About Essential Racial Differences

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Jo C.; Link, Bruce G.; Zelner, Sarah; Yang, Lawrence H.

    2015-01-01

    Although at first relatively disinterested in race, modern genomic research has increasingly turned attention to racial variations. We examine a prominent example of this focus—direct-to-consumer racial admixture tests—and ask how information about the methods and results of these tests in news media may affect beliefs in racial differences. The reification hypothesis proposes that by emphasizing a genetic basis for race, thereby reifying race as a biological reality, the tests increase beliefs that whites and blacks are essentially different. The challenge hypothesis suggests that by describing differences between racial groups as continua rather than sharp demarcations, the results produced by admixture tests break down racial categories and reduce beliefs in racial differences. A nationally representative survey experiment (N = 526) provided clear support for the reification hypothesis. The results suggest that an unintended consequence of the genomic revolution may be to reinvigorate age-old beliefs in essential racial differences. PMID:25870464

  11. Racial and ethnic disparities in renal transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Churak, Joanne M.

    2005-01-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities exist in renal transplantation. The causes are multifactorial and include but are not limited to racism, socioeconomic status and class, unfavorable geographical location, lack of organ donation by minority groups, and differences in social networks, health beliefs culture and HLA typing. These disparities affect blacks, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, Alaskan natiives and Asians. Elimination of these disparities is difficult, since many of the causes are intertwined, and it is difficult todiscern attributable disparity risk associated with the various factors. The possible solutions and recommendations are numerous. Since it is difficult to identify which may be successsful, thorough evaluation is required to determine which should be implemented. Some recommendations may not be easily implemented. Those selected for implementation must be continuously monitored for the expected results and effects. PMID:15712778

  12. Assessment of relative exposure of minority and low-income groups to outdoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1996-05-01

    A diverse research effort, conducted by both federal agencies and scholars in academia, has addressed the issue of environmental justice. Recent environmental justice studies have generally focused on the demographics of areas close to hazardous waste facilities; landfills; Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) sites; and Superfund sites. Recent efforts at the federal and state levels to determine risk-related priorities in allocating resources for research and remediation have found that hazardous wastes present much lower health effect risks than air pollution does. Past research findings, funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), showed disproportionately high levels of substandard air quality exposure for minority and low-income populations. This study is a continuation of that earlier research.

  13. Eugenics, genetics, and the minority group model of disabilities: implications for social work advocacy.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Gerald V

    2011-10-01

    In the United States, genetic research, as well as policy and practice innovations based on this research, has expanded greatly over the past few decades. This expansion is indicated, for example, by the mapping of the human genome, an expansion of genetic counseling, and other biogenetic research. Also, a disability rights movement that in many ways parallels other "minority" rights campaigns has expanded. The coexistence of these developments poses intriguing challenges for social work that the profession has yet to address in a meaningful way. These issues are especially pertinent for social work professionals in the crucial role as advocates for marginalized populations. This article describes some ofthe concerns of disability rights activists relative to genetic innovations and goals as well as the instrumental role of the social work community in this important debate.

  14. Hawaii Census 2000 Block Groups

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This data layer represents Census 2000 demographic data derived from the PL94-171 redistricting files and SF3. Census geographic entities include blocks, blockgroups and tracts. Tiger line files are the source of the geometry representing the Census blocks. Attributes include total population counts, racial/ethnic, and poverty/income information. Racial/ethnic classifications are represented in units of blocks, blockgroups and tracts. Poverty and income data are represented in units of blockgroups and tracts. Percentages of each racial/ethnic group have been calculated from the population counts. Total Minority counts and percentages were compiled from each racial/ethnic non-white category. Categories compiled to create the Total Minority count includes the following: African American, Asian, American Indian, Pacific Islander, White Hispanic, Other and all mixed race categories. The percentage poverty attribute represents the percent of the population living at or below poverty level. The per capita income attribute represents the sum of all income within the geographic entity, divided by the total population of that entity. Special fields designed to be used for EJ analysis have been derived from the PL data and include the following: Percentage difference of block, blockgroup and total minority from the state and county averages, percentile rank for each percent total minority within state and county entitie

  15. Associations of racial discrimination and parental discrimination coping messages with African American adolescent racial identity.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M

    2015-06-01

    Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization.

  16. The Racial and Ethnic Representation of Faculty in US Pharmacy Schools and Colleges.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Angela M; Campbell, Hope E; Gaither, Caroline A

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To describe the representation of racial and ethnic minorities among faculty members (faculty) in schools and colleges of pharmacy (COP) compared to US Census Bureau data; to evaluate the representation of racial and ethnic minorities in historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), newer doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs, and PharmD programs with a religious affiliation compared with all pharmacy programs; and to compare racial and ethnic pharmacy faculty data to trends in medical and dental schools, and all higher education. Methods. Information was obtained from national databases and published reports; data was comparatively evaluated. Results. Compared to the general population, Asians are overrepresented in pharmacy, while all other minority groups are underrepresented. The HBCUs, newer schools, and religious-affiliated institutions have greater numbers of African American/Black faculty. Newer schools also have better representation of Hispanic faculty. Pharmacy has been more successful than medicine and dentistry in recruiting African American/Black faculty, but lag behind dental schools in their representation of Hispanic faculty. Conclusion. To meet the health care needs of the population, we recommend the implementation of short-term and long-term diversity and inclusion strategies that address minority representation in COP.

  17. The Racial and Ethnic Representation of Faculty in US Pharmacy Schools and Colleges

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Hope E.; Gaither, Caroline A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To describe the representation of racial and ethnic minorities among faculty members (faculty) in schools and colleges of pharmacy (COP) compared to US Census Bureau data; to evaluate the representation of racial and ethnic minorities in historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), newer doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs, and PharmD programs with a religious affiliation compared with all pharmacy programs; and to compare racial and ethnic pharmacy faculty data to trends in medical and dental schools, and all higher education. Methods. Information was obtained from national databases and published reports; data was comparatively evaluated. Results. Compared to the general population, Asians are overrepresented in pharmacy, while all other minority groups are underrepresented. The HBCUs, newer schools, and religious-affiliated institutions have greater numbers of African American/Black faculty. Newer schools also have better representation of Hispanic faculty. Pharmacy has been more successful than medicine and dentistry in recruiting African American/Black faculty, but lag behind dental schools in their representation of Hispanic faculty. Conclusion. To meet the health care needs of the population, we recommend the implementation of short-term and long-term diversity and inclusion strategies that address minority representation in COP. PMID:27667845

  18. Making Cross-Racial Therapy Work: A Phenomenological Study of Clients' Experiences of Cross-Racial Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Doris F.; Berk, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    A phenomenological and consensual qualitative study of clients' lived experiences of cross-racial therapy was conducted to enhance the understanding of whether, how, and under what conditions race matters in the therapy relationship. The sample consisted of 16 racial and/or ethnic minority clients who received treatment from 16 White, European…

  19. Hate Crimes on Campus: Racial/Ethnic Diversity and Campus Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotzer, Rebecca L.; Hossellman, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Colleges and universities across the US have prioritized minority enrollments in their recruitment strategies, but theories offer to possible outcomes of increasing diversity on campus--increased racial harmony or increased racial tension. This study examines the impact of racial diversity on the reported number of hate crimes that occur on…

  20. Minority Versus Majority Group Performance on an Aptitude Test Battery. Project Access Research Report No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaugher, Ronald L.

    Black students from two cities and Mexican-American students, both male and female, showed small but consistent tendencies to perform better, relative to White groups, on three nontraditional measures: tests of inductive reasoning, spatial scanning, and associative memory. These measures showed somewhat less discrepancy between the groups than did…

  1. Gut microbiome analysis of type 2 diabetic patients from the Chinese minority ethnic groups the Uygurs and Kazaks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ye; Luo, Xin; Mao, Xinmin; Tao, Yicun; Ran, Xinjian; Zhao, Haixia; Xiong, Jianhui; Li, Linlin

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiome may have an important influence on the development of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). To better understand the DM2 pandemic in ethnic minority groups in China, we investigated and compared the composition and richness of the gut microbiota of healthy, normal glucose tolerant (NGT) individuals and DM2 patients from two ethnic minority groups in Xinjiang, northwest China, the Uygurs and Kazaks. The conserved V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR from the isolated DNA. The amplified DNA was sequenced and analyzed. An average of 4047 high quality reads of unique tag sequences were obtained from the 40 Uygurs and Kazaks. The 3 most dominant bacterial families among all participants, both healthy and DM2 patients, were the Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Enterobacteriaceae. Significant differences in intestinal microbiota were found between the NGT individuals and DM2 patients, as well as between the two ethnic groups. Our findings shed new light on the gut microbiome in relation to DM2. The differentiated microbiota data may be used for potential biomarkers for DM2 diagnosis and prevention. PMID:28328990

  2. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Katherine M.; Queenan, John T.; Schulkin, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article's aim is to review the literature on racial and ethnic disparities in breastfeeding rates and practices, address barriers to breastfeeding among minority women, conduct a systematic review of breastfeeding interventions, and provide obstetrician-gynecologists with recommendations on how they can help increase rates among minority women. In order to do so, the literature of racial and ethnic disparities in breastfeeding rates and barriers among minority women was reviewed, and a systematic review of breastfeeding interventions among minority women on PubMed and MEDLINE was conducted. Racial and ethnic minority women continue to have lower breastfeeding rates than white women and are not close to meeting the Healthy People 2020 goals. Minority women report many barriers to breastfeeding. Major efforts are still needed to improve breastfeeding initiation and duration rates among minority women in the United States. Obstetrician-gynecologists have a unique opportunity to promote and support breastfeeding through their clinical practices and public policy, and their efforts can have a meaningful impact on the future health of the mother and child. PMID:25831234

  3. Health Behaviors of Minority Childhood Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Stolley, Melinda R.; Sharp, Lisa K.; Tangney, Christy; Schiffer, Linda; Arroyo, Claudia; Kim, Yoonsang; Campbell, Richard; Schmidt, Mary Lou; Breen, Kathleen; Kinahan, Karen E.; Dilley, Kim; Henderson, Tara; Korenblit, Allen D.; Seligman, Katya

    2015-01-01

    Background Available data suggest that childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) are comparable to the general population on many lifestyle parameters. However, little is known about minority CCSs. This cross-sectional study describes and compares the body mass index (BMI) and health behaviors of African-American, Hispanic and White survivors to each other and to non-cancer controls. Methods Participants included 452 adult CCS (150 African-American, 152 Hispanic, 150 white) recruited through four childhood cancer treating institutions and 375 ethnically-matched non-cancer controls (125 in each racial/ethnic group) recruited via targeted digit dial. All participants completed a 2-hour in-person interview. Results Survivors and non-cancer controls reported similar health behaviors. Within survivors, smoking and physical activity were similar across racial/ethnic groups. African-American and Hispanic survivors reported lower daily alcohol use than whites, but consumed unhealthy diets and were more likely to be obese. Conclusions This unique study highlights that many minority CCSs exhibit lifestyle profiles that contribute to increased risk for chronic diseases and late effects. Recommendations for behavior changes must consider the social and cultural context in which minority survivors may live. PMID:25564774

  4. 50 CFR Table 2b to Part 660... - 2010, and Beyond, Harvest Guidelines for Minor Rockfish by Depth Sub-groups (weights in metric tons)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 2010, and Beyond, Harvest Guidelines for Minor Rockfish by Depth Sub-groups (weights in metric tons) 2b Table 2b to Part 660, Subpart G Wildlife... Part 660, Subpart G—2010, and Beyond, Harvest Guidelines for Minor Rockfish by Depth...

  5. Implications for Minority Groups of the Movement Toward Minimum-Competency Testing. A Symposium presented at the 1979 Annual Meeting of the National Council on Measurement in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Tests, Measurement, and Evaluation, Princeton, NJ.

    Proceedings of the symposium on Implications for Minority Groups of the Movement Toward Minimum-Competency Testing (MCT) include the following papers: (1) "Implications of Minimum-Competency Testing for Minority Students" by A. Graham Down, who asserts that MCT offers more hope than any development in public school policy since 1954 for realizing…

  6. The Racial, Cultural and Social Makeup of Hispanics as a potential Profile Risk for Intensifying the Need for Including this Ethnic Group in Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    López-Candales, Angel; Aponte Rodríguez, Jaime; Harris, David

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension not only is the most frequently listed cause of death worldwide; but also a well-recognized major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke. Based on the latest published statistics published by the American Heart Association, hypertension is very prevalent and found in one of every 3 US adults. Furthermore, data from NHANES 2007 to 2010 claims that almost 6% of US adults have undiagnosed hypertension. Despite this staggering statistic, previous US guidelines for the prevention, detection, and treatment of hypertension (The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure 7 [JNC 7]), released in 2003, stated that; "unfortunately, sufficient numbers of Mexican Americans and other Hispanic Americans... have not been included in most of the major clinical trials to allow reaching strong conclusions about their responses to individual antihypertensive therapies." However, the recently published JNC 8 offers no comment regarding recommendations or guideline treatment suggestions on Hispanics. The purpose of this article not only is to raise awareness of the lack of epidemiological data and treatment options regarding high blood pressure in the US Hispanic population; but also to make a case of the racial, cultural and social makeup of this ethnic group that places them at risk of cardiovascular complications related to hypertension.

  7. Racial disparities in hate crime reporting.

    PubMed

    Zaykowski, Heather

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the influence of the victim's race in reporting hate crimes to the police. Data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) concentrated incident-level files (1992-2005) were used to (a) analyze how the victim's race influences the likelihood of reporting and (b) explore differences between reporting racial hate crimes and non-racial hate crimes. Controlling for other demographic and incident characteristics, the results indicate that minority victimizations are less likely to be reported for both racial and nonracial hate crimes; however, the magnitude of this effect was greater for racial hate crimes. Failure to report to the police has serious consequences for the victim and the criminal justice system. Implications and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  8. Racial differences in knowledge and beliefs about Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Connell, Cathleen M; Scott Roberts, J; McLaughlin, Sara J; Akinleye, Dapo

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a growing public health problem that disproportionately affects racial and ethnic minorities, including African Americans. Given that the perceptions of illness can influence response to treatment options and coping with disease burden, we examined differences between African Americans and whites with regard to their attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge about AD. A total of 301 participants (mean age = 57 y; 80% female; 47% African American) were surveyed by telephone, with overrepresentation of caregivers and first-degree relatives of people with AD (62% of sample). After controlling for potentially confounding covariates, the 2 groups differed in terms of the following: (1) their knowledge about the disease (eg, recognizing that AD is not a part of normal aging); (2) concern about AD (eg, worry about developing the disease); (3) beliefs about putative causes of AD (eg, stress); and 4) beliefs about the effectiveness of various options for reducing risk of and treating AD (eg, physical activity). Findings suggest that AD outreach and education efforts may do well to take into account divergent illness perceptions across racial and ethnic groups. Further research is needed to confirm these findings in more representative samples and to identify factors that explain these racial differences.

  9. A Racial Equity Toolkit for Midwifery Organizations.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Wendy M

    2016-11-01

    Midwifery associations are increasing awareness and commitment to racial equity in the profession and in the communities we serve. Moving these commitments from words into action may be facilitated by a racial equity toolkit to help guide midwifery organizations to consider all policies, initiatives, and actions with a racial equity lens. Racial equity impact analyses have been used in recent years by various governmental agencies in the United States and abroad with positive results, and emerging literature indicates that nonprofit organizations are having similarly positive results. This article proposes a framework for midwifery organizations to incorporate a racial equity toolkit, starting with explicit intentions of the organization with regard to racial equity in the profession. Indicators of success are elucidated as the next step, followed by the use of a racial equity impact analysis worksheet. This worksheet is applied by teams or committees when considering new policies or initiatives to examine those actions through a racial equity lens. An organizational change team and equity advisory groups are essential in assisting organizational leadership to forecast potential negative and positive impacts. Examples of the components of a midwifery-specific racial equity toolkit are included.

  10. Exploring the Emotional Correlates of White Racial Identity Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Matthew Philip

    2010-01-01

    Given sources such as autobiography, theory, and research, there is reason to believe that there are emotional consequences to White people's racial outlooks. White racial identity theory (Helms, 1990) describes how various emotions could be related to White people's psychological orientation to their racial group. Yet little empirical evidence…

  11. Promise and Dilemma: Perspectives on Racial Diversity and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Eugene Y., Jr., Ed.

    The essays and commentaries in this volume on racial diversity and higher education are grouped into three parts. The first offers a broad perspective and an historical review of the complex history of the United States' effort to achieve racial diversity; the second notes empirical studies of the extent of racial disparities in academic…

  12. Development of Children's Racial Awareness and Intergroup Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Phyllis A.

    Ways in which children learn about race and form attitudes towards groups other than their own are described and the processes underlying the development of racial awareness and racial attitudes are delineated. The first three sections of the paper discuss the age at which racial attitudes begin to form, the developmental antecedents of racial…

  13. “Not Designed for Us”: How Science Museums and Science Centers Socially Exclude Low-Income, Minority Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how people from low-income, minority ethnic groups perceive and experience exclusion from informal science education (ISE) institutions, such as museums and science centers. Drawing on qualitative data from four focus groups, 32 interviews, four accompanied visits to ISE institutions, and field notes, this paper presents an analysis of exclusion from science learning opportunities during visits alongside participants’ attitudes, expectations, and conclusions about participation in ISE. Participants came from four community groups in central London: a Sierra Leonean group (n = 21), a Latin American group (n = 18), a Somali group (n = 6), and an Asian group (n = 13). Using a theoretical framework based on the work of Bourdieu, the analysis suggests ISE practices were grounded in expectations about visitors’ scientific knowledge, language skills, and finances in ways that were problematic for participants and excluded them from science learning opportunities. It is argued that ISE practices reinforced participants preexisting sense that museums and science centers were “not for us.” The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings in relation to previous research on participation in ISE and the potential for developing more inclusive informal science learning opportunities. PMID:25574059

  14. "Not Designed for Us": How Science Museums and Science Centers Socially Exclude Low-Income, Minority Ethnic Groups.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Emily

    2014-11-01

    This paper explores how people from low-income, minority ethnic groups perceive and experience exclusion from informal science education (ISE) institutions, such as museums and science centers. Drawing on qualitative data from four focus groups, 32 interviews, four accompanied visits to ISE institutions, and field notes, this paper presents an analysis of exclusion from science learning opportunities during visits alongside participants' attitudes, expectations, and conclusions about participation in ISE. Participants came from four community groups in central London: a Sierra Leonean group (n = 21), a Latin American group (n = 18), a Somali group (n = 6), and an Asian group (n = 13). Using a theoretical framework based on the work of Bourdieu, the analysis suggests ISE practices were grounded in expectations about visitors' scientific knowledge, language skills, and finances in ways that were problematic for participants and excluded them from science learning opportunities. It is argued that ISE practices reinforced participants preexisting sense that museums and science centers were "not for us." The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings in relation to previous research on participation in ISE and the potential for developing more inclusive informal science learning opportunities.

  15. Strangers in a strange land: coping with imprisonment as a racial or ethnic foreign national inmate.

    PubMed

    Kruttschnitt, Candace; Dirkzwager, Anja; Kennedy, Liam

    2013-09-01

    A wide range of scholarship examining the global effects of neo-liberalism draws attention to the precarious position of individuals who are not seen as part of the social body. While immigrants, racial minorities, and common criminals are central to this discourse, relatively little research has examined how the experiences of these individuals may vary based on statuses other than citizenship when they are imprisoned. Our research focuses on the interactions (between prisoners and between prisoners and correctional staff) of a racially diverse group of Dutch foreign national prisoners incarcerated in England. Although all of these prisoners clearly saw themselves as 'outsiders,' visible minorities faced a unique set of challenges relative to their White counterparts. We consider both the practical and theoretical import of these findings.

  16. Pain Management Programmes for Non-English-Speaking Black and Minority Ethnic Groups With Long-Term or Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Burton, A E; Shaw, R L

    2015-12-01

    Increasing ethnic diversity in the UK means that there is a growing need for National Health Service care to be delivered to non-English-speaking patients. The aims of the present systematic review were to: (1) better understand the outcomes of chronic pain management programmes (PMPs) for ethnic minority and non-English-speaking patients and (2) explore the perspectives on and experiences of chronic pain for these groups. A systematic review identified 26 papers meeting the inclusion criteria; no papers reported on the outcomes of PMPs delivered in the UK. Of the papers obtained, four reported on PMPs conducted outside the UK; eight reported on ethnic differences in patients seeking support from pain management services in America; and the remaining papers included literature reviews, an experimental pain study, a collaborative enquiry, and a survey of patient and clinician ratings of pain. The findings indicate a lack of research into UK-based pain management for ethnic minorities and non-English-speaking patients. The literature suggests that effective PMPs must be tailored to meet cultural experiences of pain and beliefs about pain management. There is a need for further research to explore these cultural beliefs in non-English-speaking groups in the UK. Culturally sensitive evaluations of interpreted PMPs with long-term follow-up are needed to assess the effectiveness of current provision. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Relationship of Adolescent Perceptions of Racial Socialization to Racial Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Howard C. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the relationship between racial socialization attitudes and racial identity stages. The Scale of Racial Socialization for Adolescents and the Racial Identity Attitude Scale administered to 287 black adolescents show that specific factors of racial socialization differentially predict all the racial identity stages for females and the…

  18. Racial Discrimination and Health Among Asian Americans: Evidence, Assessment, and Directions for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Gilbert C.; Ro, Annie; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Chae, David

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that racial discrimination is related to illness among diverse racial and ethnic populations. Studies of racial discrimination and health among Asian Americans, however, remain underdeveloped. In this paper, the authors review evidence on racial discrimination and health among Asian Americans, identify gaps in the literature, and provide suggestions for future research. They identified 62 empirical articles assessing the relation between discrimination and health among Asian Americans. The majority of articles focused on mental health problems, followed by physical and behavioral problems. Most studies find that discrimination was associated with poorer health, although the most consistent findings were for mental health problems. This review suggests that future studies should continue to investigate the following: 1) the measurement of discrimination among Asian Americans, whose experiences may be qualitatively different from those of other racial minority groups; 2) the heterogeneity among Asian Americans, including those factors that are particularly salient in this population, such as ethnic ancestry and immigration history; and 3) the health implications of discrimination at multiple ecologic levels, ranging from the individual level to the structural level. PMID:19805401

  19. Drugs and Minorities. Research Issues 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory A., Ed.; And Others

    This volume contains summaries of the latest research focusing on the issue of the extent of drug use and abuse among racial and ethnic minorities and the factors influencing it. Taken into consideration are age and sex differences among users, narcotics addiction, socioeconomic influences, cultural factors, racial factors, demographic factors,…

  20. The Lumad and Moro of Mindanao. Minority Rights Group International Report 93/2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodil, B. R.

    This document analyzes the two main indigenous groups in the south of the Philippines. It outlines the history of the Lumad and Moro communities of Mindanao. The document discusses the effects of development and business interests in the region, and their campaigns around land issues. The Lumad and Moro accept the need to develop new sources of…

  1. The Afton Falls Case. Multiculture Education. A Study in Equalizing Educational Opportunities for Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witcher, William W.; Baptiste, H. Prentice, Jr.

    This learning module instruction booklet provides guidelines for the use of a kit designed to teach students nondiscriminatory social attitudes and to heighten general awareness of cultural differences. Intended for use with a film followed by group discussion, the kit provides samples of attitude pretest and an attitude posttest related to the…

  2. Racialized customer service in restaurants: a quantitative assessment of the statistical discrimination explanatory framework.

    PubMed

    Brewster, Zachary W

    2012-01-01

    Despite popular claims that racism and discrimination are no longer salient issues in contemporary society, racial minorities continue to experience disparate treatment in everyday public interactions. The context of full-service restaurants is one such public setting wherein racial minority patrons, African Americans in particular, encounter racial prejudices and discriminate treatment. To further understand the causes of such discriminate treatment within the restaurant context, this article analyzes primary survey data derived from a community sample of servers (N = 200) to assess the explanatory power of one posited explanation—statistical discrimination. Taken as a whole, findings suggest that while a statistical discrimination framework toward understanding variability in servers’ discriminatory behaviors should not be disregarded, the framework’s explanatory utility is limited. Servers’ inferences about the potential profitability of waiting on customers across racial groups explain little of the overall variation in subjects’ self-reported discriminatory behaviors, thus suggesting that other factors not explored in this research are clearly operating and should be the focus of future inquires.

  3. Impact of Racism on Ethnic Minority Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-01-01

    A problem in ethnic minority mental health that can be solved in the foreseeable future is understanding how subtle and covert forms of racism affect psychological health of racial minorities. Although scientific psychology has generated a large body of literature on racial prejudice, stereotypes, intergroup attitudes, and racial bias and their often implicit and automatic nature, relatively little is known about the effects of these subtle racial bias on minority individuals. Following a selective review of recent developments in experimental psychology and multicultural psychology, I suggest some promising approaches and opportunities for future integration that would advance the field.

  4. The Racial Trajectory of the Western Hero.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxton, Alexander

    1984-01-01

    Argues that the frequently negative representations of racial or ethnic minorities in American film are related to the ideology embodied in the "Western Hero." Focuses on ideology and race relations in Cooper's "Leatherstocking Tales" and three films: "The Vanishing American" (1925); "Bad Day at Black Rock"…

  5. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Services and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Abdus, Salam; Mistry, Kamila B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined prereform patterns in insurance coverage, access to care, and preventive services use by race/ethnicity in adults targeted by the coverage expansions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Methods. We used pre-ACA household data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to identify groups targeted by the coverage provisions of the Act (Medicaid expansions and subsidized Marketplace coverage). We examined racial/ethnic differences in coverage, access to care, and preventive service use, across and within ACA relevant subgroups from 2005 to 2010. The study took place at the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality in Rockville, Maryland. Results. Minorities were disproportionately represented among those targeted by the coverage provisions of the ACA. Targeted groups had lower rates of coverage, access to care, and preventive services use, and racial/ethnic disparities were, in some cases, widest within these targeted groups. Conclusions. Our findings highlighted the opportunity of the ACA to not only to improve coverage, access, and use for all racial/ethnic groups, but also to narrow racial/ethnic disparities in these outcomes. Our results might have particular importance for states that are deciding whether to implement the ACA Medicaid expansions. PMID:26447920

  6. Racial and ethnic socialization as moderators of racial discrimination and school adjustment of adopted and nonadopted Korean American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Seol, Kyoung Ok; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Lee, Richard M; Park, Ji Eun; Kyeong, Yena

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the roles of racial and ethnic socialization in the link between racial discrimination and school adjustment among a sample of 233 adopted Korean American adolescents from White adoptive families and 155 nonadopted Korean American adolescents from immigrant Korean families. Adopted Korean American adolescents reported lower levels of racial discrimination, racial socialization, and ethnic socialization than nonadopted Korean American adolescents. However, racial discrimination was negatively related to school belonging and school engagement, and ethnic socialization was positively related to school engagement for both groups. Racial socialization also had a curvilinear relationship with school engagement for both groups. A moderate level of racial socialization predicted positive school engagement, whereas low and high levels of racial socialization predicted negative school engagement. Finally, ethnic socialization moderated the link between racial discrimination and school belonging, which differed between groups. In particular, ethnic socialization exacerbated the relations between racial discrimination and school belonging for adopted Korean American adolescents, whereas ethnic socialization buffered this link for nonadopted Korean American adolescents. The findings illustrate the complex relationship between racial and ethnic socialization, racial discrimination, and school adjustment.

  7. Serum vitamin D insufficiency and diabetes status in three ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Shaban, Lamya H; Zarini, Gustavo G; Exebio, Joel C; Sukhram, Shiryn D; Huffman, Fatma G

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and diabetes status in three ethnicities. This cross sectional study included Cuban Americans (n = 199), Haitian Americans (n = 253) and African Americans (n = 248) with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D) from Florida, U.S. Recruitment of participants was through mailing lists (Cuban Americans and African Americans) and community based sources (Haitian Americans). Adjusted logistic regression analysis indicated significant differences in the odds of having insufficient 25(OH)D levels by ethnicity [P < 0.001], diabetes status [P < 0.001], and their interaction [P < 0.001]. Holm's modified Bonferroni method showed that only Cuban Americans without T2D had significantly lower odds of having insufficient 25(OH)D compared to all other groups. Haitian American and African American participants and participants having T2D had the greatest risk of 25(OH)D insufficiency. Future studies should focus on the role of vitamin D supplementation and diabetes outcomes across ethnic groups.

  8. Racial Differences in the Prevalence and Outcomes of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients Hospitalized With Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Subir; Qazi, Mohammad; Erande, Ashwini; Shah, Kunjan; Amin, Alpesh; Patel, Pranav; Malik, Shaista

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that roughly 15% to 30% of those with heart failure (HF) develop atrial fibrillation (AF). Although studies have shown variations in the incidence of AF in patients with HF, there has been no evidence of mortality differences by race. The purpose of this study was to assess AF prevalence and inhospital mortality in patients with HF among different racial groups in the United States. Using the National Inpatient Sample registry, the largest publicly available all-payer inpatient care database representing >95% of the US inpatient population, we analyzed subjects hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of HF from 2001 to 2011 (n = 11,485,673) using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition (ICD 9) codes 428.0-0.1, 428.20-0.23, 428.30-0.33, 428.40-0.43, and 428.9; patients with AF were identified using the ICD 9 code 427.31. We assessed prevalence and mortality among racial groups. Using logistic regression, we examined odds of mortality adjusted for demographics and co-morbidity using Elixhauser co-morbidity index. We also examined utilization of procedures by race. Of the 11,485,673 patients hospitalized with HF in our study, 3,939,129 (34%) had AF. Patients with HF and AF had greater inhospital mortality compared with those without AF (4.6% vs 3.3% respectively, p <0.0001). Additionally, black, Hispanic, Asian, and white patients with HF and AF had a 24%, 17%, 13%, and 6% higher mortality, respectively, than if they did not have AF. Among patients with HF and AF, minority racial groups had underutilization of catheter ablation and cardioversion compared with white patients. In conclusion, minority patients with HF and AF had a disproportionately higher risk of inpatient death compared with white patients with HF. We also found a significant underutilization of cardioversion and catheter ablation in minority racial groups compared with white patients. PMID:26970814

  9. Racial Variation in Perceptual Differentiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shade, Barbara J.

    1981-01-01

    In Study 1, upper-division university students took the Witkin Group Embedded Figures Test. Neither race nor sex differences were found. In Study 2, Black and Euro-American freshmen completed that test, a modified Kohs Black Design Test, and the WAIS Picture Completion Test. Racial differences on embedded figures appeared. (Author/SJL)

  10. Genetic determinants of CYP2A6 activity across racial/ethnic groups with different risks of lung cancer and effect on their smoking intensity.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungshim L; Tiirikainen, Maarit I; Patel, Yesha M; Wilkens, Lynne R; Stram, Daniel O; Le Marchand, Loic; Murphy, Sharon E

    2016-03-01

    Genetic variation in cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) gene is the primary contributor to the intraindividual and interindividual differences in nicotine metabolism and has been found to influence smoking intensity. However, no study has evaluated the relationship between CYP2A6 genetic variants and the CYP2A6 activity ratio (total 3-hydroxycotinine/cotinine) and their influence on smoking intensity [total nicotine equivalents (TNE)], across five racial/ethnic groups found to have disparate rates of lung cancer. This study genotyped 10 known functional CYP2A6 genetic or copy number variants in 2115 current smokers from the multiethnic cohort study [African Americans (AA) = 350, Native Hawaiians (NH) = 288, Whites = 413, Latinos (LA) = 437 and Japanese Americans (JA) = 627] to conduct such an investigation. Here, we found that LA had the highest CYP2A6 activity followed by Whites, AA, NH and JA, who had the lowest levels. Adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity and body mass index, we found that CYP2A6 diplotypes were predictive of TNE levels, particularly in AA and JA (P trend < 0.0001). However, only in JA did the association remain after accounting for cigarettes per day. Also, it is only in this population that the lower activity ratio supports lower TNE levels, carcinogen exposure and thereby lower risk of lung cancer. Despite the association between nicotine metabolism (CYP2A6 activity phenotype and diplotypes) and smoking intensity (TNE), CYP2A6 levels did not correlate with the higher TNE levels found in AA nor the lower TNE levels found in LA, suggesting that other factors may influence smoking dose in these populations. Therefore, further study in these populations is recommended.

  11. Healthier lives for European minority groups: school and health care, lessons from the Roma.

    PubMed

    Flecha, Ainhoa

    2013-07-24

    On average, the Roma in Europe can expect to die 10 years earlier than the rest of the population, given the health conditions they experience. EU-funded research has informed on successful actions (SA) that when implemented among the Roma provide them new forms of educational participation which have a direct impact on improving their health status, regardless of their educational level. The findings from this research, unanimously endorsed by the European Parliament, have been included in several European Union recommendations and resolutions as part of the EU strategy on Roma inclusion. To analyze these SA, as well as the conditions that promote them and their impact on reducing health inequalities, communicative fieldwork has been conducted with Roma people from a deprived neighbourhood in the South of Spain, who are participating in the previously identified SA. The analysis reveals that these SA enable Roma people to reinforce and enrich specific strategies like improving family cohesion and strengthening their identity, which allow them to improve their overall health. These findings may inform public policies to improve the health condition of the Roma and other vulnerable groups, one goal of the Europe 2020 strategy for a healthier Europe.

  12. Healthier Lives for European Minority Groups: School and Health Care, Lessons from the Roma

    PubMed Central

    Flecha, Ainhoa

    2013-01-01

    On average, the Roma in Europe can expect to die 10 years earlier than the rest of the population, given the health conditions they experience. EU-funded research has informed on successful actions (SA) that when implemented among the Roma provide them new forms of educational participation which have a direct impact on improving their health status, regardless of their educational level. The findings from this research, unanimously endorsed by the European Parliament, have been included in several European Union recommendations and resolutions as part of the EU strategy on Roma inclusion. To analyze these SA, as well as the conditions that promote them and their impact on reducing health inequalities, communicative fieldwork has been conducted with Roma people from a deprived neighbourhood in the South of Spain, who are participating in the previously identified SA. The analysis reveals that these SA enable Roma people to reinforce and enrich specific strategies like improving family cohesion and strengthening their identity, which allow them to improve their overall health. These findings may inform public policies to improve the health condition of the Roma and other vulnerable groups, one goal of the Europe 2020 strategy for a healthier Europe. PMID:23887619

  13. Cultural perspectives of interventions for managing diabetes and asthma in children and adolescents from ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Mc Manus, V; Savage, E

    2010-09-01

    Both diabetes and asthma are increasingly being recognized as health problems for ethnic groups. Because of cultural differences, ethnicity is reported to be a risk factor for poorer quality in health care, disease management and disease control. Ethnic groups are at risk for poorer quality of life and increased disease complications when compared with non-ethnic counterparts living in the same country. There is little known about how culture is addressed in interventions developed for ethnic groups. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the cultural perspectives of interventions for managing diabetes and asthma in children, adolescents and/or their families from ethnic minority groups. A total of 92 records were identified that were potentially relevant to this review following which, 61 papers were excluded. The full texts of remaining papers (n= 31) were then read independently by both authors, and agreement was reached to exclude a further 27 papers that did not meet inclusion criteria. A total of four papers were eligible for inclusion in this review. Findings indicate that despite growing concerns about health disparities between ethnic and non-ethnic groups in relation to both asthma and diabetes in childhood, there has been little effort to develop cultural specific interventions for ethnic groups. By systematically reviewing asthma and diabetes interventions we have highlighted that few interventions have been developed from a cultural perspective. There are a limited number of interventions published that add knowledge on the specific elements of intervention that is needed to effectively and sensitively educate other cultures. More work is required into identifying which strategies or components of cultural interventions are most effective in achieving positive health outcomes for children, adolescents and/or their families from ethnic groups.

  14. Racial and ethnic differences in response to medicines: towards individualized pharmaceutical treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Burroughs, Valentine J.; Maxey, Randall W.; Levy, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    It is now well documented that substantial disparities exist in the quality and quantity of medical care received by minority Americans, especially those of African, Asian and Hispanic heritage. In addition, the special needs and responses to pharmaceutical treatment of these groups have been undervalued or ignored. This article reviews the genetic factors that underlie varying responses to medicines observed among different ethnic and racial groups. Pharmacogenetic research in the past few decades has uncovered significant differences among racial and ethnic groups in the metabolism, clinical effectiveness, and side-effect profiles of many clinically important drugs. These differences must be taken into account in the design of cost management policies such as formulary implementation, therapeutic substitution and step-care protocols. These programs should be broad and flexible enough to enable rational choices and individualized treatment for all patients, regardless of race or ethnic origin. Images Figure 3 PMID:12401060

  15. Investigating the Role of a Racially Biased Incident on Changes in Culture and Climate Indicators across Targeted and Non-Targeted Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Fanny P.; Johnston, Marc P.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the influences of a racially biased incident targeting Asian students at a compositionally diverse public research institution on the U.S. West coast after an unplanned incident that occurred during data collection of the Diverse Learning Environments survey. This occurrence created a unique opportunity to explore how 2 cohorts…

  16. Unpacking racial socialization: Considering female African American primary caregivers' racial identity.

    PubMed

    Scottham, Krista Maywalt; Smalls, Ciara P

    2009-11-01

    The relationship between female African American primary caregivers' racial identity and their racial socialization emphases was examined. Three components of racial identity were evaluated: (1) the importance of race to the self-concept (centrality); (2) affective feelings towards group membership (private regard); and, (3) perceptions of how group members are perceived by nonmembers (public regard). Latent class cluster analysis was used to identify racial identity profiles, or dominant combinations of racial centrality, private regard, and public regard among a sample of 208 female African American primary caregivers. Mean differences in the content of caregivers' socialization emphases by profile group were then assessed. Findings indicated that caregivers' with different identity profiles emphasized different messages. These findings and their implications are discussed.

  17. Racial bias shapes social reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Björn; Selbing, Ida; Molapour, Tanaz; Olsson, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Both emotional facial expressions and markers of racial-group belonging are ubiquitous signals in social interaction, but little is known about how these signals together affect future behavior through learning. To address this issue, we investigated how emotional (threatening or friendly) in-group and out-group faces reinforced behavior in a reinforcement-learning task. We asked whether reinforcement learning would be modulated by intergroup attitudes (i.e., racial bias). The results showed that individual differences in racial bias critically modulated reinforcement learning. As predicted, racial bias was associated with more efficiently learned avoidance of threatening out-group individuals. We used computational modeling analysis to quantitatively delimit the underlying processes affected by social reinforcement. These analyses showed that racial bias modulates the rate at which exposure to threatening out-group individuals is transformed into future avoidance behavior. In concert, these results shed new light on the learning processes underlying social interaction with racial-in-group and out-group individuals.

  18. Partner Preference Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: Potential Contribution to Spread of HIV Within Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Birkett, Michelle; Hammond, Sydney; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disproportionately affects men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. Most prior research into drivers of HIV transmission has focused on individual characteristics rather than on dyadic-level behaviors such as sex partner selection. This article explores racial/ethnic preferences in sex and relationship partner selection among MSM to further contextualize the spread of HIV within minority groups. Methods: Participants were recruited through a mobile application (app) for men to meet other men in 2015 and completed an online survey on behaviors related to HIV risk. All analyses on the sample of 530 MSM were conducted in 2015. Results: There was significant homophily in partner selection within racial/ethnic minorities, but not for white MSM. In general, mobile app-using MSM reported a general preference for white and Hispanic men and a dispreference for black and Asian men, both for sex and relationship partners. Conclusion: Racial/ethnic preferences were found to drive intentions to form partnerships within this sample. Combined with the stigma many of these racial/ethnic minorities may also feel from homophobic attitudes within their own racial/ethnic communities, these MSM may be at particular risk for social isolation. These partner preferences likely affect the structure of the sexual networks of MSM and may contribute to increased clustering within high HIV incident sexual networks. PMID:26907954

  19. Racial and ethnic stratification in the relationship between homeownership and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Finnigan, Ryan

    2014-08-01

    Social scientists have long demonstrated that socioeconomic resources benefit health. More recently, scholars have begun to examine the potential stratification in the health returns different groups receive for a given resource. Motivated by fundamental cause theory, this paper examines homeownership as a salient health resource with potentially stratified benefits. Homeowners have significantly greater housing quality, wealth, neighborhood quality and integration, and physical and mental health than renters. However, there are compelling theoretical reasons to expect the health advantage of homeownership to be unequally distributed across racial and ethnic groups. Regression analyses of 71,874 household heads in the United States from the 2012 March Current Population Survey initially suggest all homeowners experience a significant health advantage. Further examination finds robust evidence for a homeowner health advantage among Whites, on par with the difference between the married and divorced. The advantage among minority households is considerably smaller, and not significant among Latinos or Asians. Conditioning on a broad array of observable characteristics, White homeowners emerge as exceptionally healthy compared to White renters and all minority groups. This leads to the unexpected finding that racial/ethnic differences in health are concentrated among homeowners. The findings demonstrate the interactive nature of racial/ethnic stratification in health through both access to and returns from socioeconomic resources.

  20. Deficiencies In Care At Nursing Homes And Racial & Ethnic Disparities Across Homes Declined, 2006–11

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Harrington, Charlene; Temkin-Greener, Helena; Kai, You; Cai, Xueya; Cen, Xi; Mukamel, Dana B.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increased use of nursing homes by minority residents, nursing home care remains highly segregated. Compared to whites, racial/ethnic minorities tend to be cared for in facilities with limited clinical and financial resources, low nurse staffing levels, and a relatively high number of care deficiency citations. We assessed the trends from 2006 to 2011 in those citations and in disparities across facilities with four different concentrations of racial/ethnic minority residents. We found that the number of health care–related deficiencies and the percentage of facilities with serious deficiencies decreased over time for all four facility groups. From 2006 to 2011, the average annual number of health care–related deficiencies declined from 7.4 to 6.8 for facilities with low minority concentrations (< 5 percent) and from 10.6 to 9.4 for facilities with high minority concentrations (≥ 35 percent). In multivariable analyses, across-site disparities in health care-related deficiencies and in life-safety deficiencies narrowed over time. We also found that increasing the Medicaid payment rate might help improve both overall quality and disparities, but state case-mix payment approaches might worsen both. These results suggest the need to reevaluate quality improvement and cost containment efforts to better foster quality and equity of nursing home care. PMID:26153308

  1. From Racial Discrimination to Substance Use: The Buffering Effects of Racial Socialization.

    PubMed

    Neblett, Enrique W; Terzian, Mary; Harriott, Valencia

    2010-07-15

    The experience of race-based discrimination may place African American youth at risk for substance use initiation and substance use disorders. This article examines the potential of parental racial socialization-a process by which parents convey messages to their children about race-to protect against the impact of racial discrimination on substance use outcomes. Focusing on stress as a major precipitating factor in substance use, the article postulates several possible mechanisms by which racial socialization might reduce stress and the subsequent risk for substance use. It discusses future research directions with the goal of realizing the promise of racial socialization as a resilience factor in African American and ethnic minority youth mental health.

  2. From Racial Discrimination to Substance Use: The Buffering Effects of Racial Socialization

    PubMed Central

    Neblett, Enrique W.; Terzian, Mary; Harriott, Valencia

    2010-01-01

    The experience of race-based discrimination may place African American youth at risk for substance use initiation and substance use disorders. This article examines the potential of parental racial socialization—a process by which parents convey messages to their children about race—to protect against the impact of racial discrimination on substance use outcomes. Focusing on stress as a major precipitating factor in substance use, the article postulates several possible mechanisms by which racial socialization might reduce stress and the subsequent risk for substance use. It discusses future research directions with the goal of realizing the promise of racial socialization as a resilience factor in African American and ethnic minority youth mental health. PMID:23750178

  3. Racially mixed neighborhoods, perceived neighborhood social cohesion, and adolescent health in Canada.

    PubMed

    Abada, Teresa; Hou, Feng; Ram, Bali

    2007-11-01

    Using data from the Canadian Census and the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, we examine the effects of neighborhood concentration of racial minorities on general health status and depressive symptoms of Canadian adolescents. We also examine the role of perceived neighborhood cohesion and the extent to which it contributes to adolescent health. Our findings show that the racial concentration of ethnic minorities represents a health disadvantage for visible minority youth while perceived neighborhood cohesion is found to be a protective factor for both health outcomes. Perceived neighborhood cohesion is beneficial for the general health status (but not depression) of adolescents residing in neighborhoods with a high concentration of racial minorities.

  4. Minority nursing student success: A grounded theory case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mister, Brenda J.

    There has been a dramatic increase in the nation's racial and ethnic minority populations over recent years. This increase is placing a higher demand on the health care industry to provide culturally competent care to these diverse populations. This challenge is met with yet another problem as the nation faces a critical shortage of nurses, particularly minority nurses. This shortage is only expected to worsen over the next several years. As schools of nursing across the country are being asked to increase the number of nursing program graduates, specifically minorities, they are confronted with a double edged sword as retention rates are decreasing, and attrition rates are increasing. This is particularly troublesome when many racial and ethnic minority nursing students do not graduate. This qualitative study was implemented to assess and understand the perceived educational experiences of racial and ethnic minority nursing students enrolled in a rural community college nursing program on the Eastern Shore of Maryland. Eight voluntary nursing students who identified themselves as either a racial or ethnic minority participated in the study. Data were collected by: individual audio-taped interview sessions; audio-taped focus group sessions; and documentation of field notes. Participants also provided demographic information and were asked to provide a brief written response to a scenario regarding increasing the recruitment and retention rates of minority nursing students. All data were analyzed utilizing the constant comparative method. Results of the study revealed six different themes: personal support systems and peer relationships; college services and academic resources; faculty support; cultural understanding versus cultural insensitivity; personal attributes of self-efficacy/advice for future nursing students; and suggestions for college and nursing program improvement. After the major themes were examined one central theme, a grounded theory, was born. The

  5. Beyond racial and ethnic analyses in clinical research: a proposed model for Institutional Review Boards.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the Food and Drug Administration's approval of BiDil for use only in self-identified African Americans brought to the fore the longstanding debate about the use of race and ethnicity in medical research and practice. While this issue has received considerable attention in science and social science literature, thus far there has been little consideration about the legal and regulatory implications of "race-based medicine." This paper seeks to fill this gap by advocating the use of Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) in balancing the social and medical implications of race-based research. To assist them in this role, I propose a model to guide IRB approval of clinical trials based on the role of race or ethnicity in the study design. That is, whether a study includes racial and ethnic minorities (1) with no specific analyses of racial or ethnic variability (race-inclusive research); (2) for the purpose of studying potential differences between racial or ethnic groups (race-targeted research) or (3) for the purpose of studying specific racial or ethnic groups (race-exclusive research). Compliance with such a model could significantly improve the process for developing any future race-based drugs.

  6. Paying for positive group esteem: how inequity frames affect whites' responses to redistributive policies.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Brian S; Chow, Rosalind M; Knowles, Eric D; Unzueta, Miguel M

    2012-02-01

    This article finds that, when faced with racial inequity framed as White advantage, Whites' desire to think well of their racial group increases their support for policies perceived to harm Whites. Across 4 studies, the article provides evidence that (a) relative to minority disadvantage, White advantage increases Whites' support for policies perceived to reduce their group's economic opportunities, but does not increase support for policies perceived to increase minority opportunities; and (b) the effect of White advantage on Whites' esteem for their ingroup drives the effect of inequity frame on support for policies perceived to reduce Whites' opportunities.

  7. Sustained Dialogue: How Students Are Changing Their Own Racial Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Priya Narayan

    2006-01-01

    Across American campuses, racial tension and other issues of diversity remain a major challenge. The majority of this country's institutions demonstrate that they value and promote diversity through efforts in affirmative action, minority student and faculty recruitment, minority retention, administration of special scholarships, diversity Web…

  8. The Impact of Homogeneity on Intra-Group Cohesion: A Macro-Level Comparison of Minority Communities in a Western Diaspora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deffa, Oromiya-Jalata

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to earlier studies dealing with the cultural identity development of diasporic minorities, this paper assesses the impact of homogeneity on intra-group cohesion and ethnic orientation. To this end, Oromo-Americans, an ethnic group originally located within the national borders of Ethiopia, will be compared to Armenian-Americans,…

  9. Maternal experiences of racial discrimination and child weight status in the first 3 years of life.

    PubMed

    Dixon, B; Rifas-Shiman, S L; James-Todd, T; Ertel, K; Krieger, N; Kleinman, K P; Rich-Edwards, J W; Gillman, M W; Taveras, E M

    2012-12-01

    Among US racial/ethnic minority women, we examined associations between maternal experiences of racial discrimination and child growth in the first 3 years of life. We analyzed data from Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study. We restricted analyses to 539 mother-infant pairs; 294 were Black, 127 Hispanic, 110 Asian and 8 from additional racial/ethnic groups. During pregnancy, mothers completed the Experiences of Discrimination survey that measured lifetime experiences of racial discrimination in diverse domains. We categorized responses as 0, 1-2 or ≥3 domains. Main outcomes were birth weight for gestational age z-score; weight for age (WFA) z-score at 6 months of age; and at 3 years of age, body mass index (BMI) z-score. In multivariable analyses, we adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, nativity, education, age, pre-pregnancy BMI, household income and child sex and age. Among this cohort of mostly (58.2%) US-born and economically non-impoverished mothers, 33% reported 0 domains of discrimination, 33% reported discrimination in 1-2 domains and 35% reported discrimination in ≥3 domains. Compared with children whose mothers reported no discrimination, those whose mothers reported ≥3 domains had lower birth weight for gestational age z-score (β -0.25; 95% CI: -0.45, -0.04), lower 6 month WFA z-score (β -0.34; 95% CI: -0.65, -0.03) and lower 3-year BMI z-score (β -0.33; 95% CI: -0.66, 0.00). In conclusion, we found that among this cohort of US racial/ethnic minority women, mothers' report of experiencing lifetime discrimination in ⩾ 3 domains was associated with lower fetal growth, weight at 6 months and 3-year BMI among their offspring.

  10. Childhood Cancer Survivorship Research in Minority Populations: A Position Paper from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Smita; Gibson, Todd M; Ness, Kirsten K; Liu, Qi; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Krull, Kevin R; Nathan, Paul C; Neglia, Joseph P; Leisenring, Wendy; Yasui, Yutaka; Robison, Leslie L; Armstrong, Gregory T

    2016-01-01

    By the middle of this century, racial/ethnic minority populations will collectively constitute 50% of the US population. This temporal shift in the racial/ethnic make-up of the US population demands a close look at the race/ethnicity-specific burden of morbidity and premature mortality among childhood cancer survivors. To optimize targeted long-term follow-up care, it is essential to understand whether the burden of morbidity borne by survivors of childhood cancer differs by race/ethnicity. This is challenging because the number of minority participants is often limited in current childhood cancer survivorship research, resulting in a paucity of race/ethnicity-specific recommendations and/or interventions. We show that while the overall childhood cancer incidence increased between 1973 and 2003, the mortality rate declined; however these changes did not differ appreciably by race/ethnicity. We speculate that any racial/ethnic differences in outcome are likely to be multifactorial, and draw upon data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study to illustrate the various contributors (socioeconomic characteristics, health behaviors and comorbidities) that could explain any observed differences in key treatment-related complications. Finally, we outline challenges in conducting race/ethnicity-specific childhood cancer survivorship research, showing that there are limited absolute numbers of children who are diagnosed and survive cancer in any one racial/ethnic minority population, precluding a rigorous evaluation of adverse events among specific primary cancer diagnoses and treatment exposure groups. PMID:27253866

  11. College Graduation Rates for Minority Students in a Selective Technical University: Will Participation in a Summer Bridge Program Contribute to Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Terrence E.; Gaughan, Monica; Hume, Robert; Moore, S. Gordon, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    There are many approaches to solving the problem of underrepresentation of some racial and ethnic groups and women in scientific and technical disciplines. Here, the authors evaluate the association of a summer bridge program with the graduation rate of underrepresented minority (URM) students at a selective technical university. They demonstrate…

  12. Allelic frequency distributions of 21 non-combined DNA index system STR loci in a Russian ethnic minority group from Inner Mongolia, China*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-dan; Shen, Chun-mei; Liu, Wen-juan; Zhang, Yu-dang; Yang, Guang; Yan, Jiang-wei; Qin, Hai-xia; Zhu, Bo-feng

    2013-01-01

    We studied the allelic frequency distributions and statistical forensic parameters of 21 new short tandem repeat (STR) loci and the amelogenin locus, which are not included in the combined DNA index system (CODIS), in a Russian ethnic minority group from the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. A total of 114 bloodstain samples from unrelated individuals were extracted and co-amplified with four fluorescence-labeled primers in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system. Using capillary electrophoresis, the PCR products of the 21 STR loci were separated and genotyped. A total of 161 alleles were observed in the Russian ethnic minority group, and corresponding allelic frequencies ranged from 0.0044 to 0.5965. The 21 non-CODIS STR loci of the Russian ethnic minority group were characterized by high genetic diversity and therefore may be useful for elucidating the population’s genetic background, for individual identification, and for paternity testing in forensic practice. PMID:23733431

  13. The Racial/Ethnic Distribution of Heat Risk–Related Land Cover in Relation to Residential Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Cushing, Lara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We examined the distribution of heat risk–related land cover (HRRLC) characteristics across racial/ethnic groups and degrees of residential segregation. Methods: Block group–level tree canopy and impervious surface estimates were derived from the 2001 National Land Cover Dataset for densely populated urban areas of the United States and Puerto Rico, and linked to demographic characteristics from the 2000 Census. Racial/ethnic groups in a given block group were considered to live in HRRLC if at least half their population experienced the absence of tree canopy and at least half of the ground was covered by impervious surface (roofs, driveways, sidewalks, roads). Residential segregation was characterized for metropolitan areas in the United States and Puerto Rico using the multigroup dissimilarity index. Results: After adjustment for ecoregion and precipitation, holding segregation level constant, non-Hispanic blacks were 52% more likely (95% CI: 37%, 69%), non-Hispanic Asians 32% more likely (95% CI: 18%, 47%), and Hispanics 21% more likely (95% CI: 8%, 35%) to live in HRRLC conditions compared with non-Hispanic whites. Within each racial/ethnic group, HRRLC conditions increased with increasing degrees of metropolitan area-level segregation. Further adjustment for home ownership and poverty did not substantially alter these results, but adjustment for population density and metropolitan area population attenuated the segregation effects, suggesting a mediating or confounding role. Conclusions: Land cover was associated with segregation within each racial/ethnic group, which may be explained partly by the concentration of racial/ethnic minorities into densely populated neighborhoods within larger, more segregated cities. In anticipation of greater frequency and duration of extreme heat events, climate change adaptation strategies, such as planting trees in urban areas, should explicitly incorporate an environmental justice framework that addresses

  14. The effect of context on responses to racially ambiguous faces: changes in perception and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Reactions to individuals who possess features associated with multiple racial groups may be particularly susceptible to external contextual influences, leading to meaningfully different racial perceptions and judgments in different situations. In the present study, we found that an extrinsic race-label cue not only changed evaluative associations activated by a racially ambiguous face, but also changed quickly occurring neural responses sensitive to racial perception. Behaviorally, prototypical Black faces and racially ambiguous faces labeled as Black activated more negative implicit associations than prototypical White faces and racially ambiguous faces labeled as White. Neurally, prototypical faces and racially ambiguous faces cued with the same race elicited similar responses. Specifically, prototypical Black and racially ambiguous faces labeled as Black elicited larger P200s but smaller N200s than prototypical White and racially ambiguous faces labeled as White. These results show that racial perception can be changed by an external cue and this, in turn, influences subsequent evaluative reactions. PMID:25344946

  15. Exploring racial/ethnic differences in substance use: a preliminary theory-based investigation with juvenile justice-involved youth

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Racial/ethnic differences in representation, substance use, and its correlates may be linked to differential long-term health outcomes for justice-involved youth. Determining the nature of these differences is critical to informing more efficacious health prevention and intervention efforts. In this study, we employed a theory-based approach to evaluate the nature of these potential differences. Specifically, we hypothesized that (1) racial/ethnic minority youth would be comparatively overrepresented in the juvenile justice system, (2) the rates of substance use would be different across racial/ethnic groups, and (3) individual-level risk factors would be better predictors of substance use for Caucasian youth than for youth of other racial/ethnic groups. Methods To evaluate these hypotheses, we recruited a large, diverse sample of justice-involved youth in the southwest (N = 651; M age = 15.7, SD = 1.05, range = 14-18 years); 66% male; 41% Hispanic, 24% African American, 15% Caucasian, 11% American Indian/Alaska Native). All youth were queried about their substance use behavior (alcohol, marijuana, tobacco, illicit hard drug use) and individual-level risk factors (school involvement, employment, self-esteem, level of externalizing behaviors). Results As predicted, racial/ethnic minority youth were significantly overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. Additionally, Caucasian youth reported the greatest rates of substance use and substance-related individual-level risk factors. In contrast, African American youth showed the lowest rates for substance use and individual risk factors. Contrary to predictions, a racial/ethnic group by risk factor finding emerged for only one risk factor and one substance use category. Conclusions This research highlights the importance of more closely examining racial/ethnic differences in justice populations, as there are likely to be differing health needs, and subsequent treatment approaches, by racial/ethnic group

  16. Hate crimes on campus: racial/ethnic diversity and campus safety.

    PubMed

    Stotzer, Rebecca L; Hossellman, Emily

    2012-03-01

    Colleges and universities across the US have prioritized minority enrollments in their recruitment strategies, but theories offer to possible outcomes of increasing diversity on campus-increased racial harmony or increased racial tension. This study examines the impact of racial diversity on the reported number of hate crimes that occur on campus. Findings suggest that those schools that are most successful in recruiting the hardest to recruit minorities (Black and Latino students) report fewer hate crimes on campus. Implications for campus climate and racial dynamics on campus, as well as future research, are discussed.

  17. Fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol content of foods commonly consumed by ethnic minority groups in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Prichard, Rebeca; Rossi, Megan; Muir, Jane; Yao, Ck; Whelan, Kevin; Lomer, Miranda

    2016-06-01

    Dietary restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) is an effective management approach for functional bowel disorders; however, its application is limited by the paucity of food composition data available for ethnic minority groups. The aim was to identify and measure the FODMAP content of these commonly consumed foods. According to their perceived importance to clinical practise, the top 20 ranked foods underwent FODMAP analysis using validated analytical techniques (total fructans, Megazyme hexokinase (HK) assay; all others, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detectors). Of the 20 foods analysed, five were identified as significant sources of at least one FODMAP. Fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides were the major FODMAPs in these foods, including channa dal (0.13 g/100 g; 0.36 g/100 g), fenugreek seeds (1.11 g/100 g; 1.27 g/100 g), guava (0.41 g/100 g; not detected), karela (not detected; 1.12 g/100 g) and tamarind (2.35 g/100 g; 0.02 g/100 g). Broadening the availability of FODMAP composition data will increase the cultural application of low FODMAP dietary advice.

  18. Sequence-specific high mobility group box factors recognize 10-12-base pair minor groove motifs.

    PubMed

    van Beest, M; Dooijes, D; van De Wetering, M; Kjaerulff, S; Bonvin, A; Nielsen, O; Clevers, H

    2000-09-01

    Sequence-specific high mobility group (HMG) box factors bind and bend DNA via interactions in the minor groove. Three-dimensional NMR analyses have provided the structural basis for this interaction. The cognate HMG domain DNA motif is generally believed to span 6-8 bases. However, alignment of promoter elements controlled by the yeast genes ste11 and Rox1 has indicated strict conservation of a larger DNA motif. By site selection, we identify a highly specific 12-base pair motif for Ste11, AGAACAAAGAAA. Similarly, we show that Tcf1, MatMc, and Sox4 bind unique, highly specific DNA motifs of 12, 12, and 10 base pairs, respectively. Footprinting with a deletion mutant of Ste11 reveals a novel interaction between the 3' base pairs of the extended DNA motif and amino acids C-terminal to the HMG domain. The sequence-specific interaction of Ste11 with these 3' base pairs contributes significantly to binding and bending of the DNA motif.

  19. Racial Disparities in Colorectal Carcinoma Incidence, Severity and Survival Times Over 10 Years: A Retrospective Single Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Hafiz Muhammad Sharjeel; Tetangco, Eula; Shah, Natasha; Kabir, Christopher; Raddawi, Hareth

    2016-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Although studies have been performed on malignancy behavior in African Americans and Caucasians, scant data are present on other minority racial groups. Methods A retrospective single center study was performed where 1,860 patient charts with a diagnosis of CRC from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2014 were reviewed. Data collected on each patient included age, gender, ethnicity, primary site and histological stage at the time of diagnosis. Survival time over the course of 5 years was documented for patients from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2009. Comparisons were made amongst different racial groups for the above mentioned factors. Results Study population consisted of 27.09% African Americans, 65.61% Caucasians, 3.86% Hispanics, 0.54% South Asians, 1.03% Arabs, 0.54% Asians and 0.22% American Indians. Mean age of CRC presentation was found to be significantly different (P < 0.05) between the three largest racial groups: 71 years for Caucasians, 69 years for African Americans, and 61 years for Hispanics. African Americans (27.09%) and Hispanics (28.79%) presented predominantly at stage IV in comparison to other racial groups. Caucasians presented predominantly at stage III (24.84%). The rectum was the most common site of CRC across all racial groups with the exception of Asians, where sigmoid colon was the predominant site (30%). Adenocarcinoma remained the predominant cancer type in all groups. Hispanics had relatively higher incidence rate of carcinoid tumor (12.68%). Survival time analysis showed that Caucasians tend to have better survival probability over 5 years after initial diagnosis as compared to African Americans and Hispanic (P < 0.05). Conclusion There is lack of studies performed on minority racial groups in North America. Our study highlighted some important clinical differences of CRC presentation in different racial groups which are not

  20. Sociocultural Issues in African American and Hispanic Minorities Seeking Care for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jaquez-Gutierrez, Marisela C.; Madhoo, Manisha

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To review the sociocultural factors that may affect the diagnosis and management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in African American and Hispanic minorities seen in the primary care setting in the United States. Data Sources: Searches on MEDLINE and PubMed were conducted in April and September 2012 on ADHD and its related problems and disabilities. A general search was conducted using the terms (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder OR attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder OR ADHD OR AD/HD) AND (ethnicity OR cultural OR culture). Issues of particular relevance to racial and ethnic minorities utilizing health care services were researched using the string (black OR African OR Hispanic OR Latino OR minority OR racial) combined with terms relating to access, insurance, comorbidity, high-risk behavior, treatment compliance, and nonpharmacologic modalities. Searches were limited to English-language citations, and no date parameters were used. References identified as pertinent to this review were selected for citation. Study Selection/Data Extraction: Information revealing contrasts between minorities and the US non-Hispanic white population was organized in distinct categories, such as access to medical care and insurance, cultural attitudes, and the effects of stigmatization. The authors also provide perspectives for the primary care physician from their own clinical experience. Data Synthesis: Rates of diagnosis of in the United States are higher for non-Hispanic whites than for minorities, yet true prevalence is probably similar across racial-ethnic groups. When the stigma of mental illness is added to the challenges faced by racial/ethnic minorities or immigrant status, patients may be especially sensitive. Underuse of clinical services may reflect economic limitations on access to care, cultural attitudes toward mental illness, and the effects of real or perceived prejudice and stigmatization. Conclusions: Primary care

  1. Genetic diversities of 21 non-CODIS autosomal STRs of a Chinese Tibetan ethnic minority group in Lhasa.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo-feng; Shen, Chun-mei; Wang, Hong-dan; Yang, Guang; Yan, Jiang-wei; Qin, Hai-xia; Guo, Jian-xin; Huang, Jing-feng; Jing, Hang; Liu, Xin-she

    2011-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated 21 short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D6S474, D12ATA63, D22S1045, D10S1248, D1S1677, D11S4463, D1S1627, D3S4529, D2S441, D6S1017, D4S2408, D19S433, D17S1301, D1GATA113, D18S853, D20S482, D14S1434, D9S1122, D2S1776, D10S1435, D5S2500), which are not included in the Combined DNA Index System and Amelogenin locus in 104 randomly selected healthy autochthonous individuals from the Tibetan ethnic minority group residing in the Lhasa region, Tibet Autonomous Region of China. Allelic frequencies, common forensic statistical parameters, and the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in this population were calculated with a modified PowerState V12.xls. A total of 143 alleles were found in the Tibetan group with corresponding allelic frequencies ranging from 0.005 to 0.582. The observed heterozygosity, the expected heterozygosity, the power of discrimination, the power of exclusion, and the polymorphic information content ranged from 0.615 to 0.817, 0.559 to 0.787, 0.727 to 0.926, 0.310 to 0.632, and 0.488 to 0.760, respectively. Chi-square tests of the observed genotype frequencies and expected genotype frequencies in the samples showed no departure from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at all loci except for D5S2500. Our results demonstrate that these 21 STRs are highly polymorphic and suitable for anthropological research, population genetics, and forensic paternity testing and human individual identification in this region, and can enrich Chinese ethnical genetic informational resources.

  2. Mediators of the relationship between racial identity and life satisfaction in a community sample of African American women and men.

    PubMed

    Yap, Stevie C Y; Settles, Isis H; Pratt-Hyatt, Jennifer S

    2011-01-01

    Few empirical studies have explored the mechanisms through which racial identity, the importance of racial group membership, affects well-being for racial/ethnic minorities. Using a community sample of 161 African American adults, the present study examined whether the association between racial identity (centrality, public regard, and private regard) and life satisfaction is mediated by two identity functions, belongingness and discrimination. Our results indicated that the relationships of centrality and private regard with life satisfaction were mediated by perceptions of belongingness. Furthermore, gender moderated the strength of each of these mediating effects, such that belongingness mediated these relationships for women but not for men. Our results also indicated that the relationship between public regard and life satisfaction was mediated by perceptions of discrimination. Furthermore, higher public regard was related to lower perceptions of discrimination for women but not men. However, a combined model for public regard and life satisfaction as mediated by discrimination failed to show moderated mediation. We discuss these results in relation to research and theory on racial identity and intersectionality.

  3. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Primary Care Quality Among Type 2 Diabetes Patients, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ruwei; Shi, Leiyu; Liang, Hailun; Haile, Geraldine Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Racial and ethnic disparities exist in diabetes prevalence, access to diabetes care, diabetes-related complications and mortality rates, and the quality of diabetes care among Americans. We explored racial and ethnic disparities in primary care quality among Americans with type 2 diabetes. Methods We analyzed data on adults with type 2 diabetes derived from the household component of the 2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Multiple regression and multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the association between race/ethnicity and primary care attributes related to first contact, longitudinality, comprehensiveness, and coordination, and clusters of confounding factors were added sequentially. Results Preliminary findings indicated differences in primary care quality between racial/ethnic minorities and whites across measures of first contact, longitudinality, comprehensiveness, and coordination. After controlling for confounding factors, these differences were no longer apparent; all racial/ethnic categories showed similar rates of primary care quality according to the 4 primary care domains of interest in the study. Conclusion Results indicate equitable primary care quality for type 2 diabetes patients across 4 key domains of primary care after controlling for socioeconomic characteristics. Additional research is necessary to support these findings, particularly when considering smaller racial/ethnic groups and investigating outcomes related to diabetes. PMID:27490365

  4. Dollar for Dollar: Racial and ethnic inequalities in health and health-related outcomes among persons with very high income.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kanetha B; Thorpe, Roland J; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2017-03-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in health have been well-documented, and low SES is widely considered to be a driver of this relationship. However, the race-social class-health interrelationship is complex, as several studies have found race disparities between racial/ethnic minorities and whites at middle- income levels. Research on higher income persons is complicated by the lack of data for persons with incomes about $75,000. Most national datasets collect income data in categories with the highest income category being $75,000 and above. In our study, we examined racial/ethnic disparities in health status and behaviors among persons of very high income, reported income of $175,000 or above per year. Data are from the Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys (MEPS). Our findings revealed health disparities in 10 of the 16 health-related outcomes selected. African Americans were most dissimilar to whites at this income and with disadvantages on 6 health outcomes relative to whites. While results also showed some disparities for Asian Americans and Hispanic Americans relative to whites, these groups were advantaged, relative to whites on several health outcomes. Our findings indicate that income does not fully explain racial/ethnic disparities in health. Most public interventions are targeted to low income persons. However, public health interventions should target minority individuals of very high income as well, especially African Americans.

  5. Imaging surveillance programs for women at high breast cancer risk in Europe: Are women from ethnic minority groups adequately included? (Review).

    PubMed

    Belkić, Karen; Cohen, Miri; Wilczek, Brigitte; Andersson, Sonia; Berman, Anne H; Márquez, Marcela; Vukojević, Vladana; Mints, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Women from ethnic minority groups, including immigrants and refugees are reported to have low breast cancer (BC) screening rates. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is vital for increasing participation of these women in BC screening programs. Women at high BC risk and who belong to an ethnic minority group are of special concern. Such women could benefit from ongoing trials aimed at optimizing screening strategies for early BC detection among those at increased BC risk. Considering the marked disparities in BC survival in Europe and its enormous and dynamic ethnic diversity, these issues are extremely timely for Europe. We systematically reviewed the literature concerning European surveillance studies that had imaging in the protocol and that targeted women at high BC risk. The aim of the present review was thereby to assess the likelihood that women at high BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. Twenty-seven research groups in Europe reported on their imaging surveillance programs for women at increased BC risk. The benefit of strategies such as inclusion of magnetic resonance imaging and/or more intensive screening was clearly documented for the participating women at increased BC risk. However, none of the reports indicated that sufficient outreach was performed to ensure that women at increased BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. On the basis of this systematic review, we conclude that the specific screening needs of ethnic minority women at increased BC risk have not yet been met in Europe. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is needed to identify minority women at increased BC risk and to facilitate their inclusion in on-going surveillance programs. It is anticipated that these efforts would be most effective if coordinated with the development of European-wide, population-based approaches to BC screening.

  6. Race, region and risk: An examination of minority proximity to noxious facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, A.L. |; Nieves, L.A.

    1996-04-01

    The past decade has given rise to terms like environmental racism, eco-racism, and environmental inequities to characterize a disproportional distribution of environmental disamenities among minority communities. Much of the literature supports the contention that racial and ethnic minorities and low-income groups bear a disproportionate burden of risk from hazardous activities and substances in the environment. This study expands the scope of prior studies by employing county-level data for the entire nation and including a broad range of facility types associated with environmental disamenities. In addition, it addresses the issue of the distribution of noxious facilities among white and non-white populations in an attempt to determine the relative exposure to risk among different racial and ethnic groups. In addition, the authors also explore the relative importance of nonurban versus urban residence.

  7. Racial pride and religiosity among African American boys: implications for academic motivation and achievement.

    PubMed

    Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Williams, Terrinieka T; Chavous, Tabbye M

    2012-04-01

    The persistent underachievement among African American boys has led to increased empirical inquiry, yet little research considers within-group variation in achievement nor positive youth characteristics that help explain positive achievement outcomes. This study conceptualized culturally-based factors (racial pride and religiosity) as adolescent assets that would promote African American boys' achievement and also enhance positive effects of other youth assets (positive educational utility beliefs) on achievement. Our sample included 158 adolescent boys (M = 17.08) from a large, socioeconomically diverse suburban community context. Accounting for demographic background variables, educational utility beliefs were positively associated with academic grade performance. A significant educational utility beliefs and racial pride interaction indicated a stronger, positive association of educational utility beliefs with grade performance among boys with higher racial pride relative to those with lower racial pride. Also, there was a stronger positive association between educational utility beliefs and grades for boys reporting lower religious importance, but boys endorsing both lower educational utility beliefs and religious importance were at highest risk for low grade performance. Overall results suggest the importance of considering culturally-based factors in studying achievement motivation processes among ethnic minority adolescents.

  8. Racial Disparities in the Quality of Prostate Cancer Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    treatment). Minority men are less likely to receive active treatment but the reasons for this haven’t been evaluated in younger men. Since black men with...and ultimately received, little is known about racial differences in which treatments are offered to minority vs nonminority men and why. Nor are...there data explaining younger minority men’s lower rates of active treatment in circumstances when active surveillance does not achieve the same

  9. Patient Centered Medical Home Care Among Near-Old and Older Race/Ethnic Minorities in the US: Findings from the Medical Expenditures Panel Survey.

    PubMed

    Tarraf, Wassim; Jensen, Gail; González, Hector M

    2016-09-21

    Access to Patient Centered Medical Home (PCMH) care has not been explored among older racial/ethnic minorities. We used data on adults 55-years and older from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2008-2013). We account for five features of PCMH experiences and focus on respondents self-identifying as Non-Latino White, Black, and Latino. We used regression models to examine associations between PCMH care and its domains and race/ethnicity and decomposition techniques to assess contribution to differences by predisposing, enabling and health need factors. We found low overall access and significant racial/ethnic variations in experiences of PCMH. Our results indicated strong deficiencies in access to a personal primary care physician provided healthcare. Factors contributing to differences in reported PCMH experiences relative to Whites differed by racial/ethnic grouping. Policy initiatives aimed at addressing accessibility to personal physician directed healthcare could potentially reduce racial/ethnic differences while increasing national access to PCMH care.

  10. Acute Alcohol Intoxication and Suicide Among U.S. Ethnic/Racial Groups: Findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Kaplan, Mark S.; Huguet, Nathalie; McFarland, Bentson H.; Conner, Kenneth; Giesbrecht, Norman; Nolte, Kurt B.

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of suicide involving acute alcohol intoxication among U.S. ethnic minorities. Methods Data were derived from the restricted 2003–2009 National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). The study focused on the sociodemographic and toxicological information of 59,384 male and female suicide decedents for 16 states of the U.S. Acute alcohol intoxication was defined as having a blood alcohol content (BAC) ≥ 0.08 g/dl. Overall, 76% of decedents were tested for the presence of alcohol. Results The proportion of suicide decedents with a positive BAC ranged from 47% among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AIs/ANs) to 23% among Asians/Pacific Islanders (PIs). Average BAC was highest among AIs/ANs. Among those who were tested for BAC, the proportion of decedents legally intoxicated prior to suicide was: Blacks, 15%; AIs/ANs, 36%; Asians/PIs, 13%; Hispanics, 28%. Bivariate associations showed that most suicide decedents who were legally intoxicated were male, younger than 30 years of age, with a high school education, not married, non-veterans, lived in metropolitan areas, and used a firearm to complete suicide. However, with the exception of Whites, most of these associations became not statistically significant in multivariate analysis. Conclusions Alcohol use and legal intoxication prior to completing suicide are common among U.S. ethnic groups, especially among males and those who are younger than 30 years of age. The AI/AN group had the highest mean BAC, the highest rate of legal intoxication and decedents who were particularly young. Suicide prevention strategies should address alcohol use as a risk factor. Alcohol problems prevention strategies should focus on suicide as a consequence of alcohol use, especially among AI/AN youth and young adults. PMID:23384174

  11. Factors that Promote High Post-16 Participation of Some Minority Ethnic Groups in England: A Systematic Review of the UK-Based Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    See, Beng Huat; Torgerson, Carole; Gorard, Stephen; Ainsworth, Hannah; Low, Graham; Wright, Kath

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to identify those factors that drive the high participation in immediate post-16 and higher education of some minority ethnic groups in the UK. What could we learn from these examples to encourage higher aspirations more generally? The article reports a summary of a formal and systematic review of 1678 studies dated 1997…

  12. Can Scottish Public Library Services Claim They Are Socially Inclusive of All Minority Groups when Lesbian Fiction Is Still so Inaccessible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldthorp, Jacqueline D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores how Scottish public library services have responded to providing a service to a virtually invisible minority group, i.e. lesbians who enjoy reading lesbian fiction. The evidence that provides the foundation for the results discussed in this paper was drawn from the following sources: a study of the 32 public library services in…

  13. One-group fission cross sections for plutonium and minor actinides inserted in calculated neutron spectra of fast reactor cooled with lead-208 or lead-bismuth eutectic

    SciTech Connect

    Khorasanov, G. L.; Blokhin, A. I.

    2012-07-01

    The paper is dedicated to one-group fission cross sections of Pu and MA in LFRs spectra with the aim to increase these values by choosing a coolant which hardens neutron spectra. It is shown that replacement of coolant from Pb-Bi with Pb-208 in the fast reactor RBEC-M, designed in Russia, leads to increasing the core mean neutron energy. As concerns fuel Pu isotopes, their one-group fission cross sections become slightly changed, while more dramatically Am-241 one-group fission cross section is changed. Another situation occurs in the lateral blanket containing small quantities of minor actinides. It is shown that as a result of lateral blanket mean neutron energy hardening the one-group fission cross sections of Np-237, Am-241 and Am-243 increases up to 8-11%. This result allows reducing the time of minor actinides burning in FRs. (authors)

  14. Racial and ethnic differences in reported criminal justice referral at treatment admission.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Said, Manal; Owens, Darlene

    2012-01-01

    In the U.S. and elsewhere, the criminal justice system is a frequent referral source for substance abuse treatment admission. To expand and improve pathways to treatment, outreach efforts need additional information about different demographic groups. Locally, clinicians observed racial and ethnic differences between minority groups in self-identifying criminal justice as the referral sources for admission. To test this clinical observation, reported criminal justice referral was examined by race/ethnicity and gender in multiple years of both national and local treatment admissions. Confirming the clinical observations, racial/ethnic referral source by gender systematically differed across years nationally (p < .001) and in an examination of verbatim recorded presenting problems locally (p < .001). African Americans and Puerto Ricans were less likely to have criminal justice referral sources than the White reference group, whereas American Indians, Arab Americans, Asian Americans, and other Hispanic ethnicities were more likely to have criminal justice referral sources. Racial/ethnic groups systematically differed in reported criminal justice involvement, suggesting hypotheses potentially impacting clinical treatment and outreach. Published primary referral sources may underestimate criminal justice involvement in treatment admissions.

  15. Does Racial/Ethnic Identity Influence the Effectiveness of a Community Health Worker Intervention for African American and Latino Adults With Type 2 Diabetes?

    PubMed

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Spencer, Michael S; Sinco, Brandy R; Palmisano, Gloria; Kieffer, Edith C

    2016-12-08

    Background Community health worker (CHW) interventions are known to be an effective strategy to improve health behaviors and outcomes in relation to diabetes, particularly for racial/ethnic communities. Although understanding the function of identity with same race/ethnicity among clients of CHW interventions could contribute to more effective program design, few studies have explored whether levels of racial/ethnic identity among participants can influence the effectiveness of CHW interventions. Aims We tested the relationship between level of racial/ethnic identity and changes in hemoglobin A1c and diabetes self-efficacy among low-income African American and Latino adults with type 2 diabetes who participated in a CHW intervention. Methods Data came from a randomized controlled trial of the CHW intervention with a 6-month delayed control group design for 164 African American and Latino adults in Detroit, Michigan. Racial/ethnic identity was created from two items and classified into high, moderate, and low. We combined the two arms (immediate and delayed) into one because there was no significant difference in baseline characteristics, other than age and postintervention self-efficacy, and multivariable linear regression models were applied in the analysis. Results Possession of high racial/ethnic identity was associated with greater improvement both in hemoglobin A1c and diabetes self-efficacy at 6 months. Moreover, among those with high hemoglobin A1c at preintervention, higher racial/ethnic identity had a greater impact on hemoglobin A1c improvement, compared with those with lower identity. Conclusions This study suggests the importance of considering racial/ethnic identity of the participants in designing and operating the CHW intervention for racial/ethnic minority population.

  16. Racial resentment and smoking.

    PubMed

    Samson, Frank L

    2015-02-01

    Racial resentment (also known as symbolic racism) is among the most widely tested measures of contemporary prejudice in political science and social psychological research over the past thirty years. Proponents argue that racial resentment reflects anti-black emotion obtained through pre-adult socialization. In light of affect-based models of substance use, this paper examined the association between racial resentment and smoking in a national sample of non-Hispanic white, black, and Hispanic respondents. Data come from the 2012 American National Election Study, which contained two measures of smoking. The results of ordinal logistic regression models indicate a positive association between racial resentment and smoking among non-Hispanic whites (N = 2133) that is not present among blacks (N = 693) or Hispanics (N = 660). Models controlled for age, education, income, gender, political ideology, region, and mode of interview. Furthermore, analyses indicated that a measure of race-related affect, admiration and sympathy towards blacks, partially mediated the association between racial resentment and smoking. For non-Hispanic whites, racial resentment appears to constitute a risk factor for smoking. Future studies should further specify the conditions linking substance use to the race-related affective component of racial resentment.

  17. SPATIAL MISMATCH OR RACIAL MISMATCH?*

    PubMed Central

    Hellerstein, Judith K.; Neumark, David; McInerney, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    We contrast the spatial mismatch hypothesis with what we term the racial mismatch hypothesis – that the problem is not a lack of jobs, per se, where blacks live, but a lack of jobs where blacks live into which blacks are hired. We first report new evidence on the spatial mismatch hypothesis, using data from Census Long-Form respondents. We construct direct measures of the presence of jobs in detailed geographic areas, and find that these job density measures are related to employment of black male residents in ways that would be predicted by the spatial mismatch hypothesis – in particular that spatial mismatch is primarily an issue for low-skilled black male workers. We then look at mismatch along not only spatial lines but racial lines as well, by estimating the effects of job density measures that are disaggregated by race. We find that it is primarily black job density that influences black male employment, whereas white job density has little if any influence on their employment. The evidence implies that space alone plays a relatively minor role in low black male employment rates. PMID:19727422

  18. The Relations of Majority-Minority Group Status and Having an Other-Religion Friend to Indonesian Youths' Socioemotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Sallquist, Julie; French, Doran C.; Purwono, Urip; Suryanti, Telie Ari; Pidada, Sri

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the relations of Indonesian adolescents' socioemotional functioning to their majority-minority status and the presence of cross-religion friendships and whether sex moderated these relations. At Time 1, 1,254 7th graders and their peers in Bandung, Indonesia, reported on their friendships, prosocial behavior,…

  19. Affirmative Action Plan for Improvement of Equal Opportunities for Members of Minority Groups, Women, and Physically Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Hawk Coll., Moline, IL.

    This document presents the affirmative action plan developed by Black Hawk College to assure the development and maintenance of educational programs, services, and employment practices that are sensitive to the needs of minorities, women, and the physically handicapped. Part I deals with employment, outlining a specific plan for improving equal…

  20. Faculty Development to Meet Minority Group Needs: Recruitment, Retention, and Curriculum Change, 1971-74. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, Marie

    A proposal to assist some Western Council on Higher Education for Nusing (WCHEN) schools in the development of programs for the inclusion of minorities was designed to impact on nursing education in the West by assisting schools of nursing faculty in the formation and expansion of programs for the recruitment and retention of ethnic students of…

  1. Cross-ethnic friendships, perceived discrimination, and their effects on ethnic activism over time: a longitudinal investigation of three ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Tropp, Linda R; Hawi, Diala R; Van Laar, Colette; Levin, Shana

    2012-06-01

    This research examines cross-ethnic friendships as a predictor of perceived discrimination and support for ethnic activism over time among African American, Latino American, and Asian American undergraduate participants from a multi-year, longitudinal study conducted in the United States. Our research builds on prior cross-sectional research by testing effects longitudinally and examining how relationships among these variables may differ across ethnic minority groups. Results indicate that, over time, greater friendships with Whites predict both lower perceptions of discrimination and less support for ethnic activism among African Americans and Latino Americans, but not among Asian Americans. Implications of these findings for future research on inter-group contact, minority-majority relations, and ethnic group differences in status are discussed.

  2. Marketing health care to minorities: tapping an emerging market.

    PubMed

    Harris, M S

    2000-01-01

    A number of myths have prevented the development of a formal health care marketing strategy for the 100 million-plus racial and ethnic group members in the United States, despite their relatively greater need for health services. This market continues to grow in numbers, resources, and influence as the majority market level off. Marketers must look to minorities for new business, but traditional health care marketers have a long way to go before they are in a position to truly maximize this opportunity.

  3. Racial socialization and racial identity: can they promote resiliency for African American adolescents?

    PubMed

    Miller, D B

    1999-01-01

    Although there is a rich body of research on resiliency, much of the literature fails to include minority youths or does not take into consideration their distinctive racial and environmental circumstances. Additionally, limited attention has been given to protective factors that are unique to nonmajority populations. This article posits that racial socialization and racial identity protect urban African American adolescents against some of the harmful effects of a discriminatory environment. These factors are hypothesized to influence academic achievement-an indicator of resiliency that has been used in many studies. A theoretical framework is provided that combines character development in a hostile environment, bicultural identity, and urban stress models. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  4. Racial and Ethnic Socialization as Moderators of Racial Discrimination and School Adjustment of Adopted and Non-adopted Korean American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Seol, Kyoung Ok; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Lee, Richard M.; Park, Ji Eun; Kyeong, Yena

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated roles of racial and ethnic socialization in the link between racial discrimination and school adjustment among a sample of 233 adopted Korean American adolescents from White adoptive families and 155 non-adopted Korean American adolescents from immigrant Korean families. Adopted Korean American adolescents reported lower levels of racial discrimination, racial socialization, and ethnic socialization than non-adopted Korean American adolescents. However, racial discrimination was negatively related to school belonging and school engagement, and ethnic socialization was positively related to school engagement for both groups. Racial socialization also had a curvilinear relationship with school engagement for both groups. Moderate level of racial socialization predicted positive school engagement, whereas low and high levels of racial socialization predicted negative school engagement. Finally, ethnic socialization moderated the link between racial discrimination and school belonging, which differed between groups. In particular, ethnic socialization exacerbated the relations between racial discrimination and school belonging for adopted Korean American adolescents, whereas, ethnic socialization buffered this link for non-adopted Korean American adolescents. Findings illustrate the complex relationship between racial and ethnic socialization, racial discrimination, and school adjustment. PMID:26479418

  5. Implicit Racial Biases in Preschool Children and Adults From Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Qian, Miao K; Heyman, Gail D; Quinn, Paul C; Messi, Francoise A; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2016-01-01

    This research used an Implicit Racial Bias Test to investigate implicit racial biases among 3- to 5-year-olds and adult participants in China (N = 213) and Cameroon (N = 257). In both cultures, participants displayed high levels of racial biases that remained stable between 3 and 5 years of age. Unlike adults, young children's implicit racial biases were unaffected by the social status of the other-race groups. Also, unlike adults, young children displayed overt explicit racial biases, and these biases were dissociated from their implicit biases. The results provide strong evidence for the early emergence of implicit racial biases and point to the need to reduce them in early childhood.

  6. Brief Report: Increasing Acceptance of Homosexuality in the United States Across Racial and Ethnic Subgroups.

    PubMed

    Glick, Sara Nelson; Cleary, Sean D; Golden, Matthew R

    2015-11-01

    After recent civil rights expansions for sexual minorities in the United States, we updated previous findings on population-level attitudes toward homosexuality measured in the General Social Survey. In 2014, 40.1% of respondents reported that homosexuality was "always wrong" compared with 54.8% in 2008 (P < 0.001). Although black and Hispanic respondents consistently reported more negative attitudes regarding homosexuality than white respondents throughout 2008 to 2014, the percentage declined among all racial/ethnic groups. Among MSM, more positive attitudes were associated with HIV testing. Research shows a potential association between homophobia and HIV risk; thus, these population-level changes may promote better health among MSM.

  7. Life After Juvenile Detention Isn't Easy, Especially for Minorities

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162625.html Life After Juvenile Detention Isn't Easy, Especially for Minorities Only ... lives back on track after being released from juvenile detention, especially those from racial and ethnic minorities, ...

  8. Dual Minority Stress and Asian American Gay Men's Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…

  9. Protests Centering on Racial Issues Erupt on Many Campuses This Fall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Christopher

    1992-01-01

    The fact that student protests over racial issues have arisen early in the academic year and at a time when most college administrators affirm protesters' goals (improved minority recruitment and services) may be partly attributable to students' rising expectations. Some protests are a result of overt racial incidents, often in fraternities. (MSE)

  10. The Foundations of Teaching Racial Tolerance: 3 Myths About Racism in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, James

    1997-01-01

    Success of programs aimed at teaching racial tolerance depends on ability to confront three misconceptions about racism: life is good for racial minorities; racism is declining; and America can be a color-blind society. These myths have been absorbed into beliefs and attitudes of well-educated, open-minded people. Today's Gallup Polls actually…

  11. Considering the Impact of Racial Stigmas and Science Identity: Persistence among Biomedical and Behavioral Science Aspirants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mitchell J.; Eagan, M. Kevin; Lin, Monica H.; Hurtado, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether the combination of having negative racial interactions and identifying with one's domain of study affects underrepresented racial minority freshmen. In line with stereotype threat theory, students reporting higher levels of this combination of experiences and attributes were significantly less likely to…

  12. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Therapist Effectiveness: A Conceptualization and Initial Study of Cultural Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Zac E.; Baldwin, Scott; Atkins, David C.; Owen, Jesse; Baardseth, Tim; Wampold, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    As a result of mental health disparities between White and racial/ethnic minority clients, researchers have argued that some therapists may be generally competent to provide effective services but lack cultural competence. This distinction assumes that client racial/ethnic background is a source of variability in therapist effectiveness. However,…

  13. Racial and Spatial Equity in Welfare Programs: Interstate and Intercounty Differences in Welfare Spending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Mark

    1999-01-01

    States where a large proportion of the poor are rural residents or racial/ethnic minorities provided less welfare support per poor child under Aid to Families with Dependent Children than did other states. No corresponding rural or racial/ethnic disadvantage was observed for the Food Stamp program, which has nationwide eligibility criteria and…

  14. Health and Social Issues Associated with Racial, Ethnic, and Cultural Disparities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jerry C.; Smith, Nancy H.

    2002-01-01

    The evidence of racial and ethnic disparities in health outcomes is overwhelming. Excess rates of death, morbidity, and disability are prevalent among racial and ethnic minority elders. Effective collaboration with community organizations is a crucial component of efforts to reduce and eliminate disparities. (Contains 39 references.) (Author/JOW)

  15. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Use of Health Care Services for Diabetes Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Raeven Faye; Monnat, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Research demonstrates consistent racial/ethnic disparities in access to and use of health care services for a variety of chronic conditions. Yet we know little about whether these disparities exist for use of health care services for diabetes management. Racial/ethnic minorities disproportionately suffer from diabetes, complications from diabetes,…

  16. Trends in exposure to industrial air toxins for different racial and socioeconomic groups: A spatial and temporal examination of environmental inequality in the U.S. from 1995 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Ard, Kerry

    2015-09-01

    In recent decades there have been dramatic declines in industrial air toxins. However, there has yet to be a national study investigating if the drop has mitigated the unequal exposure to industrial toxins by race and social class. This paper addresses this by developing a unique dataset of air pollution exposure estimates, by aggregating the annual fall-out location of 415 air toxins, from 17,604 facilities, for the years 1995 to 2004 up to census block groups (N=216,159/year). These annual estimates of exposure were matched with census data to calculate trends in exposure for different racial and socioeconomic groups. Results show that exposure to air toxins has decreased for everyone, but African-Americans are consistently more exposed than Whites and Hispanics and socioeconomic status is not as protective for African-Americans. These results by race were further explored using spatially specified multilevel models which examine trends over time and across institutional boundaries.

  17. The Geographic Scale of Metropolitan Racial Segregation

    PubMed Central

    REARDON, SEAN F.; MATTHEWS, STEPHEN A.; O’SULLIVAN, DAVID; LEE, BARRETT A.; FIREBAUGH, GLENN; FARRELL, CHAD R.; BISCHOFF, KENDRA

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses an aspect of racial residential segregation that has been largely ignored in prior work: the issue of geographic scale. In some metropolitan areas, racial groups are segregated over large regions, with predominately white regions, predominately black regions, and so on, whereas in other areas, the separation of racial groups occurs over much shorter distances. Here we develop an approach—featuring the segregation profile and the corresponding macro/micro segregation ratio—that offers a scale-sensitive alternative to standard methodological practice for describing segregation. Using this approach, we measure and describe the geographic scale of racial segregation in the 40 largest U.S. metropolitan areas in 2000. We find considerable heterogeneity in the geographic scale of segregation patterns across both metropolitan areas and racial groups, a heterogeneity that is not evident using conventional “aspatial” segregation measures. Moreover, because the geographic scale of segregation is only modestly correlated with the level of segregation in our sample, we argue that geographic scale represents a distinct dimension of residential segregation. We conclude with a brief discussion of the implications of our findings for investigating the patterns, causes, and consequences of residential segregation at different geographic scales. PMID:18939658

  18. The relations of majority-minority group status and having an other-religion friend to Indonesian youths' socioemotional functioning.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Sallquist, Julie; French, Doran C; Purwono, Urip; Suryanti, Telie Ari; Pidada, Sri

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the relations of Indonesian adolescents' socioemotional functioning to their majority-minority status and the presence of cross-religion friendships and whether sex moderated these relations. At Time 1, 1,254 7th graders and their peers in Bandung, Indonesia, reported on their friendships, prosocial behavior, and peer likability; months later, a selected sample of 250 youths and their teachers and parents rated the youths' social functioning and (mal)adjustment. When controlling for socioeconomic status and initial sociometric status, girls were generally higher in measures of adjustment, whereas majority children were lower in externalizing problems and, for boys, loneliness. For minority children's social competence and prosocial behavior at school, there was evidence of a buffering effect of having a cross-religion friend.

  19. The Development of a Minority Recruitment Plan for Cancer Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Trevino, Monica; Padalecki, Susan; Karnad, Anand; Parra, Alberto; Weitman, Steve; Nashawati, Melissa; Pollock, Brad H.; Ramirez, Amelie; Thompson, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer does not occur in all ethnic and racial groups at similar rates. In addition, responses to treatment also vary in certain ethnic and racial groups. For Hispanics, the overall cancer incidence is generally lower yet for some specific tumor types, the incidence rates are higher compared to other populations. Objectives Although disparities are recognized for treatment outcomes and prevention methodologies for Hispanics and other minority populations, specific recruiting and reporting of minorities remains a challenge. In order to circumvent this problem, the Cancer Therapy and Research Center (CTRC) has developed a new minority recruitment plan for all cancer related clinical trials at this Institute. The overall goal of this initiative is to increase the accrual of minorities in cancer clinical trials by implementing several key interventions. Method The Cancer Therapy & Research Center (CTRC) at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio established the Clinical Trials Accrual Task Force to develop and monitor interventions designed to increase accrual to cancer clinical trials, specifically the accrual of minorities with a focus on the Hispanic population that makes up 68% of the CTRC's catchment area. Results A Minority Accrual Plan (MAP) was implemented in March 2013 as part of the process for initiating and conducting cancer-related clinical trials at the CTRC. The Minority Accrual Plan focuses on Hispanic enrollment due to the characteristics of the South Texas population served by the CTRC but could be easily adapted to other populations. Conclusions The CTRC has designed a process to prospectively address the challenge of deliberately enrolling minority subjects and accurately accounting for the results by implementing a Minority Accrual Plan for every cancer-related clinical trial at CTRC. PMID:25152846

  20. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Anchorage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Scott; Frazier, Rosyland

    In the spring of 2001, the mayor of Anchorage (Alaska) created a task force to develop recommendations to help heal racism in Anchorage. A series of focus groups were held throughout the community to obtain an assessment of attitudes and opinions about the quality of life in Anchorage from the perspective of different racial groups and to solicit…