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  1. Racial segregation, income inequality, and mortality in US metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Nuru-Jeter, Amani M; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2011-04-01

    Evidence of the association between income inequality and mortality has been mixed. Studies indicate that growing income inequalities reflect inequalities between, rather than within, racial groups. Racial segregation may play a role. We examine the role of racial segregation on the relationship between income inequality and mortality in a cross-section of US metropolitan areas. Metropolitan areas were included if they had a population of at least 100,000 and were at least 10% black (N = 107). Deaths for the time period 1991-1999 were used to calculate age-adjusted all-cause mortality rates for each metropolitan statistical area (MSA) using direct age-adjustment techniques. Multivariate least squares regression was used to examine associations for the total sample and for blacks and whites separately. Income inequality was associated with lower mortality rates among whites and higher mortality rates among blacks. There was a significant interaction between income inequality and racial segregation. A significant graded inverse income inequality/mortality association was found for MSAs with higher versus lower levels of black-white racial segregation. Effects were stronger among whites than among blacks. A positive income inequality/mortality association was found in MSAs with higher versus lower levels of Hispanic-white segregation. Uncertainty regarding the income inequality/mortality association found in previous studies may be related to the omission of important variables such as racial segregation that modify associations differently between groups. Research is needed to further elucidate the risk and protective effects of racial segregation across groups.

  2. Mapping School Segregation: Using GIS to Explore Racial Segregation between Schools and Their Corresponding Attendance Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohoni, Deenesh; Saporito, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    We examine whether student enrollment in nonneighborhood schools changes levels of racial segregation in public schools across urban school districts by comparing the racial composition of schools and their corresponding attendance area. This comparison was made possible by using geographic information systems (GIS) to link maps of elementary,…

  3. Mapping School Segregation: Using GIS to Explore Racial Segregation between Schools and Their Corresponding Attendance Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohoni, Deenesh; Saporito, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    We examine whether student enrollment in nonneighborhood schools changes levels of racial segregation in public schools across urban school districts by comparing the racial composition of schools and their corresponding attendance area. This comparison was made possible by using geographic information systems (GIS) to link maps of elementary,…

  4. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in the Use of Mental Health Services in Poverty Areas

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Julian Chun-Chung; Jaffee, Kim; Snowden, Lonnie

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined racial/ethnic disparities in mental health service access and use at different poverty levels. Methods. We compared demographic and clinical characteristics and service use patterns of Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians living in low-poverty and high-poverty areas. Logistic regression models were used to assess service use patterns of minority racial/ethnic groups compared with Whites in different poverty areas. Results. Residence in a poverty neighborhood moderates the relationship between race/ethnicity and mental health service access and use. Disparities in using emergency and inpatient services and having coercive referrals were more evident in low-poverty than in high-poverty areas. Conclusions. Neighborhood poverty is a key to understanding racial/ethnic disparities in the use of mental health services. PMID:12721146

  5. Racial and Socioeconomic Variations in Preadolescent Area-Specific and General Self-esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Bruce R.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a study of two hundred and ten fifth-grade students, noting indications that children of varying backgrounds differ in their levels of general and area-specific self-esteem across both racial and socioeconomic lines but not significantly by sex. For availability see CS 704 480. (MH)

  6. Does the Racial/Ethnic Composition of Medicare Advantage Plans Reflect Their Areas of Operation?

    PubMed Central

    Weinick, Robin; Haviland, Amelia; Hambarsoomian, Katrin; Elliott, Marc N

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the extent to which the racial/ethnic composition of Medicare Advantage (MA) plans reflects the composition of their areas of operation, given the potential incentives created by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' Quality Bonus Payments for such plans to avoid enrolling racial/ethnic minority beneficiaries. Data Sources/Study Setting 2009 Medicare Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (MCAHPS) survey and administrative data from the Medicare Enrollment Database. Data Collection/Extraction Methods We defined each plan's area of operation as all counties in which it had MA enrollees, and we created a matrix of race/ethnicity by plan by county of residence to assess the racial/ethnic distribution of each plan's enrollees in comparison with the racial/ethnic composition of MA beneficiaries in its operational area. Principal Findings There is little evidence that health plans are selectively underenrolling blacks, Latinos, or Asians to a substantial degree. A small but potentially important subset of plans disproportionately serves minority beneficiaries. Conclusions These findings provide a baseline profile that will enable crucial ongoing monitoring to assess how the implementation of Quality Bonus Payments may affect MA plan coverage of minority populations. PMID:24032551

  7. THE EFFECT OF DENSITY ZONING ON RACIAL SEGREGATION IN U.S. URBAN AREAS.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, Jonathan; Massey, Douglas S

    2009-07-01

    We argue that anti-density zoning increases black residential segregation in U.S. metropolitan areas by reducing the quantity of affordable housing in white jurisdictions. Drawing on census data and local regulation indicators compiled by Pendall, we estimate a series of regression models to measure the effect of maximum density zoning on black segregation. Results estimated using ordinary least squares indicate a strong and significant cross-sectional relationship between low-density zoning and racial segregation, even after controlling for other zoning policies and a variety of metropolitan characteristics, a relationship that persists under two-stage least squares estimation. Both estimation strategies also suggest that anti-density zoning inhibits desegregation over time.

  8. A Characterization of Areas of Racial Tension among First Year Students: A Focus Group Follow-Up to a Large Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, J. Paul

    This study examined areas of racial tension and racial attitudes among first-year students at York University in Ontario (Canada). A survey of 1,129 first-year students in 1993-94 indicated that the vast majority believed that visible minority students had been treated equally by professors, staff, and other students. However, the first year was…

  9. Ethnic density and area deprivation: neighbourhood effects on Māori health and racial discrimination in Aotearoa/New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Bécares, Laia; Cormack, Donna; Harris, Ricci

    2013-07-01

    Some studies suggest that ethnic minority people are healthier when they live in areas with a higher concentration of people from their own ethnic group, a so-called ethnic density effect. To date, no studies have examined the ethnic density effect among indigenous peoples, for whom connections to land, patterns of settlement, and drivers of residential location may differ from ethnic minority populations. The present study analysed the Māori sample from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey to examine the association between increased Māori ethnic density, area deprivation, health, and experiences of racial discrimination. Results of multilevel regressions showed that an increase in Māori ethnic density was associated with decreased odds of reporting poor self-rated health, doctor-diagnosed common mental disorders, and experienced racial discrimination. These associations were strengthened after adjusting for area deprivation, which was consistently associated with increased odds of reporting poor health and reports of racial discrimination. Our findings show that whereas ethnic density is protective of the health and exposure to racial discrimination of Māori, this effect is concealed by the detrimental effect of area deprivation, signalling that the benefits of ethnic density must be interpreted within the current socio-political context. This includes the institutional structures and racist practices that have created existing health and socioeconomic inequities in the first place, and maintain the unequal distribution of concentrated poverty in areas of high Māori density. Addressing poverty and the inequitable distribution of socioeconomic resources by ethnicity and place in New Zealand is vital to improving health and reducing inequalities. Given the racialised nature of access to goods, services, and opportunities within New Zealand society, this also requires a strong commitment to eliminating racism. Such commitment and action will allow the benefits

  10. Ethnic density and area deprivation: Neighbourhood effects on Māori health and racial discrimination in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Bécares, Laia; Cormack, Donna; Harris, Ricci

    2013-01-01

    Some studies suggest that ethnic minority people are healthier when they live in areas with a higher concentration of people from their own ethnic group, a so-called ethnic density effect. To date, no studies have examined the ethnic density effect among indigenous peoples, for whom connections to land, patterns of settlement, and drivers of residential location may differ from ethnic minority populations. The present study analysed the Māori sample from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey to examine the association between increased Māori ethnic density, area deprivation, health, and experiences of racial discrimination. Results of multilevel regressions showed that an increase in Māori ethnic density was associated with decreased odds of reporting poor self-rated health, doctor-diagnosed common mental disorders, and experienced racial discrimination. These associations were strengthened after adjusting for area deprivation, which was consistently associated with increased odds of reporting poor health and reports of racial discrimination. Our findings show that whereas ethnic density is protective of the health and exposure to racial discrimination of Māori, this effect is concealed by the detrimental effect of area deprivation, signalling that the benefits of ethnic density must be interpreted within the current socio-political context. This includes the institutional structures and racist practices that have created existing health and socioeconomic inequities in the first place, and maintain the unequal distribution of concentrated poverty in areas of high Māori density. Addressing poverty and the inequitable distribution of socioeconomic resources by ethnicity and place in New Zealand is vital to improving health and reducing inequalities. Given the racialised nature of access to goods, services, and opportunities within New Zealand society, this also requires a strong commitment to eliminating racism. Such commitment and action will allow the benefits

  11. Racial Differences in Cervical Cancer Survival in the Detroit Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Movva, Sujana; Noone, Anne-Michelle; Banerjee, Mousumi; Patel, Divya A.; Schwartz, Kendra; Yee, Cecilia L.; Simon, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND African-American (AA) women have lower survival rates from cervical cancer compared with white women. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) and other variables on racial disparities in overall survival among women with invasive cervical cancer. METHODS One thousand thirty-six women (705 white women and 331 AA women) who were diagnosed with primary invasive cancer of the cervix between 1988 and 1992 were identified through the Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System (MDCSS), a registry in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Pathology, treatment, and survival data were obtained through SEER. SES was categorized by using occupation, poverty, and educational status at the census tract level. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare overall survival between AA women and white women adjusting for sociodemographics, clinical presentation, and treatment. RESULTS AA women were more likely to present at an older age (P < .001), with later stage disease (P < .001), and with squamous histology (P = .01), and they were more likely to reside in a census tract categorized as Working Poor (WP) (P < .001). After multivariate adjustment, race no longer had a significant impact on survival. Women who resided in a WP census tract had a higher risk of death than women from a Professional census tract (P = .05). There was a significant interaction between disease stage and time with the effect of stage on survival attenuated after 6 years. CONCLUSIONS In this study, factors that affected access to medical care appeared to have a more important influence than race on the long-term survival of women with invasive cervical cancer. PMID:18257090

  12. Racial/Ethnic Minorities in Rural Areas: Progress and Stagnation, 1980-90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Linda L., Ed.

    Rural minorities lag behind rural Whites and urban minorities on many crucial economic and social measures. This collection of 10 papers examines rural Black, Hispanic, Native American, and Asian and Pacific Islander populations and their economic well-being in the 1980s, an economically difficult decade for rural areas. Results show minimal…

  13. The contribution of biogeographical ancestry and socioeconomic status to racial/ethnic disparities in type 2 diabetes mellitus: results from the Boston Area Community Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Rebecca S; Pearce, Neil; Araujo, Andre B; McKinlay, John B

    2014-09-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are well documented, and many researchers have proposed that biogeographical ancestry (BGA) may play a role in these disparities. However, studies examining the role of BGA on T2DM have produced mixed results to date. Therefore, the objective of this research was to quantify the contribution of BGA to racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM incidence controlling for the mediating influences of socioeconomic factors. We analyzed data from the Boston Area Community Health Survey, a prospective cohort with approximately equal numbers of black, Hispanic, and white participants. We used 63 ancestry-informative markers to calculate the percentages of participants with West African and Native American ancestry. We used logistic regression with G-computation to analyze the contribution of BGA and socioeconomic factors to racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM incidence. We found that socioeconomic factors accounted for 44.7% of the total effect of T2DM attributed to black race and 54.9% of the effect attributed to Hispanic ethnicity. We found that BGA had almost no direct association with T2DM and was almost entirely mediated by self-identified race/ethnicity and socioeconomic factors. It is likely that nongenetic factors, specifically socioeconomic factors, account for much of the reported racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM incidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Contribution of Biogeographic Ancestry and Socioeconomic Status to Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey

    PubMed Central

    Piccolo, Rebecca S.; Pearce, Neil; Araujo, Andre B.; McKinlay, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Racial/ethnic disparities in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are well documented and many researchers have proposed that biogeographical ancestry (BGA) may play a role in these disparities. However, studies examining the role of BGA on T2DM have produced mixed results to date. Therefore, the objective of this research is to quantify the contribution of BGA to racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM incidence controlling for the mediating influences of socioeconomic factors. Methods We analyzed data from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey, a prospective cohort with approximately equal numbers of Black, Hispanic, and White participants. We used Ancestry Informative Markers to calculate the percentages of West African and Native American ancestry of participants. We used logistic regression with g-computation to analyze the contribution of BGA and socioeconomic factors to racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM incidence. Results We found that socioeconomic factors accounted for 44.7% of the total effect of T2DM attributed to Black race and 54.9% of the effect attributed to Hispanic ethnicity. We found that BGA had almost no direct association with T2DM and was almost entirely mediated by self-identified race/ethnicity and socioeconomic factors. Conclusions It is likely that non-genetic factors, specifically socioeconomic factors, account for much of the reported racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM incidence. PMID:25088753

  15. Racial disparities in travel time to radiotherapy facilities in the Atlanta metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Peipins, Lucy A; Graham, Shannon; Young, Randall; Lewis, Brian; Flanagan, Barry

    2013-07-01

    Low-income women with breast cancer who rely on public transportation may have difficulty in completing recommended radiation therapy due to inadequate access to radiation facilities. Using a geographic information system (GIS) and network analysis we quantified spatial accessibility to radiation treatment facilities in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. We built a transportation network model that included all bus and rail routes and stops, system transfers and walk and wait times experienced by public transportation system travelers. We also built a private transportation network to model travel times by automobile. We calculated travel times to radiation therapy facilities via public and private transportation from a population-weighted center of each census tract located within the study area. We broadly grouped the tracts by low, medium and high household access to a private vehicle and by race. Facility service areas were created using the network model to map the extent of areal coverage at specified travel times (30, 45 and 60 min) for both public and private modes of transportation. The median public transportation travel time to the nearest radiotherapy facility was 56 min vs. approximately 8 min by private vehicle. We found that majority black census tracts had longer public transportation travel times than white tracts across all categories of vehicle access and that 39% of women in the study area had longer than 1 h of public transportation travel time to the nearest facility. In addition, service area analyses identified locations where the travel time barriers are the greatest. Spatial inaccessibility, especially for women who must use public transportation, is one of the barriers they face in receiving optimal treatment.

  16. The role of neighborhood characteristics in racial/ethnic disparities in type 2 diabetes: Results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey

    PubMed Central

    Piccolo, Rebecca S.; Duncan, Dustin T.; Pearce, Neil; McKinlay, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are well documented and until recently, research has focused almost exclusively on individual-based determinants as potential contributors to these disparities (health behaviors, biological/genetic factors, and individual-level sociodemographics). Research on the role of neighborhood characteristics in relation to racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM is very limited. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify and estimate the contribution of specific aspects of neighborhoods that may be associated with racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM. Data from the Boston Area Community Health III Survey (N = 2,764) was used in this study, which is a community-based random-sample survey of adults in Boston, Massachusetts from three racial/ethnic groups (Black, Hispanic, and White). We applied two-level random intercepts logistic regression to assess the associations between race/ethnicity, neighborhood characteristics (census tract socioeconomic status, racial composition, property and violent crime, open space, geographic proximity to grocery stores, convenience stores, and fast food, and neighborhood disorder) and prevalent T2DM (fasting glucose > 125 mg/dL, HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, or self-report of a T2DM diagnosis). Black and Hispanic participants had 2.89 times and 1.48 times the odds of T2DM as White participants, respectively. Multilevel models indicated a significant between-neighborhood variance estimate of 0.943, providing evidence of neighborhood variation. Individual demographics (race/ethnicity, age and gender) explained 22.3% of the neighborhood variability in T2DM. The addition of neighborhood-level variables to the model had very little effect on the magnitude of the racial/ethnic disparities and on the between-neighborhood variability. For example, census tract poverty explained less than 1% and 6% of the excess odds of T2DM among Blacks and Hispanics and only 1.8% of the neighborhood

  17. The role of neighborhood characteristics in racial/ethnic disparities in type 2 diabetes: results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Rebecca S; Duncan, Dustin T; Pearce, Neil; McKinlay, John B

    2015-04-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are well documented and until recently, research has focused almost exclusively on individual-based determinants as potential contributors to these disparities (health behaviors, biological/genetic factors, and individual-level socio-demographics). Research on the role of neighborhood characteristics in relation to racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM is very limited. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify and estimate the contribution of specific aspects of neighborhoods that may be associated with racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM. Data from the Boston Area Community Health III Survey (N = 2764) was used in this study, which is a community-based random-sample survey of adults in Boston, Massachusetts from three racial/ethnic groups (Black, Hispanic, and White). We applied two-level random intercepts logistic regression to assess the associations between race/ethnicity, neighborhood characteristics (census tract socioeconomic status, racial composition, property and violent crime, open space, geographic proximity to grocery stores, convenience stores, and fast food, and neighborhood disorder) and prevalent T2DM (fasting glucose > 125 mg/dL, HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, or self-report of a T2DM diagnosis). Black and Hispanic participants had 2.89 times and 1.48 times the odds of T2DM as White participants, respectively. Multilevel models indicated a significant between-neighborhood variance estimate of 0.943, providing evidence of neighborhood variation. Individual demographics (race/ethnicity, age and gender) explained 22.3% of the neighborhood variability in T2DM. The addition of neighborhood-level variables to the model had very little effect on the magnitude of the racial/ethnic disparities and on the between-neighborhood variability. For example, census tract poverty explained less than 1% and 6% of the excess odds of T2DM among Blacks and Hispanics and only 1.8% of the neighborhood

  18. "Racializing" Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatt-Echeverria, Beth; Urrieta, Luis, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to explore how racial and class oppressions intersect, the authors use their autobiographical narratives to depict cultural and experiential continuity and discontinuity in growing up white working class versus Chicano working class. They specifically focus on "racializing class" due to the ways class is often used as a copout by…

  19. Pursuing bariatric surgery in an urban area: Gender and racial disparities and risk for psychiatric symptoms.

    PubMed

    Miller-Matero, Lisa Renee; Tobin, Erin T; Clark, Shannon; Eshelman, Anne; Genaw, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is effective for weight loss; however, only a small percentage of those who qualify choose to pursue it. Additionally, although psychiatric symptoms appear to be common among candidates, the risk factors for symptoms are not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of those who are pursuing bariatric surgery in an urban area, whether demographic disparities continue to exist, and identify characteristics of those who may be at higher risk for experiencing psychiatric symptoms. There were 424 bariatric candidates who completed a required psychological evaluation prior to bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery candidates tended to be middle-aged, Caucasian females, which was unexpected when compared to the rates of obesity among these groups. Therefore, it appears that there are disparities in who chooses to seek out bariatric surgery compared to those who may qualify due to their obesity status. Cultural factors may play a role in why males and African Americans seek out bariatric surgery less frequently. Psychiatric symptoms among candidates are also common, with depression symptoms increasing with age and BMI. Perhaps the compounding effects of medical comorbidities over time are contributing to greater depressive symptoms in the older patients. Findings from this study suggest that we may need to explore ways of encouraging younger patients, males, and ethnic minorities to pursue bariatric surgery to increase weight loss success and decrease medical comorbidities. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cultural humility and racial microaggressions in counseling.

    PubMed

    Hook, Joshua N; Farrell, Jennifer E; Davis, Don E; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Utsey, Shawn O

    2016-04-01

    Racial microaggressions may contribute to poor counseling outcomes in racial/ethnic minority clients. The present study examined the occurrence of racial microaggressions in counseling using a large and diverse sample and explored the association between perceived cultural humility of the counselor and racial microaggressions. Racial/ethnic minority participants (N = 2,212) answered questions about the frequency and impact of racial microaggressions in counseling and the characteristics of their counselor. The majority of clients (81%) reported experiencing at least 1 racial microaggression in counseling. Participants most commonly reported racial microaggressions involving denial or lack of awareness of stereotypes and bias and avoidance of discussing cultural issues. There were few differences in racial microaggression frequency or impact based on client race/ethnicity and counselor race/ethnicity. Racially matched clients viewed racial microaggressions as more impactful than did clients who were not racially matched. Client-perceived cultural humility of the counselor was associated with fewer microaggressions experienced in counseling. We conclude by discussing limitations, areas for future research, and implications for counseling. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Examining Racial Bias in Education: A New Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warikoo, Natasha; Sinclair, Stacey; Fei, Jessica; Jacoby-Senghor, Drew

    2016-01-01

    In this article we argue that social-psychological research on implicit racial associations--relatively unconscious associations based on race--is a fruitful area to explore for a greater understanding of how racial bias affects children in schools. We highlight the key insights of research on implicit racial associations and their implications…

  2. Relationship of Adolescent Perceptions of Racial Socialization to Racial Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Howard C. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the relationship between racial socialization attitudes and racial identity stages. The Scale of Racial Socialization for Adolescents and the Racial Identity Attitude Scale administered to 287 black adolescents show that specific factors of racial socialization differentially predict all the racial identity stages for females and the…

  3. Environmental Racial Inequality in Detroit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Liam

    2006-01-01

    This study uses industrial pollution data from the Environmental Protection Agency's Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and tract-level demographic data from the 2000 U.S. census to determine whether environmental racial inequality existed in the Detroit metropolitan area in the year 2000. This study differs from prior environmental inequality…

  4. Environmental Racial Inequality in Detroit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Liam

    2006-01-01

    This study uses industrial pollution data from the Environmental Protection Agency's Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and tract-level demographic data from the 2000 U.S. census to determine whether environmental racial inequality existed in the Detroit metropolitan area in the year 2000. This study differs from prior environmental inequality…

  5. Seeds of Racial Explosion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuran, Timur

    1993-01-01

    Social pathologies at the root of many racial disparities in achievement are serious and widespread, but at least frank debate on racial issues is emerging. Contemporary racial issues, including white backlash, are explored; and it is suggested that the eventual emergence of a multiracial consensus for cooperation is possible. (SLD)

  6. Persistent Racial/Ethnic Disparities in AIDS Diagnosis Rates Among People Who Inject Drugs in U.S. Metropolitan Areas, 1993–2007

    PubMed Central

    West, Brooke S.; Tempalski, Barbara; Cooper, Hannah L.F.; Hall, H. Irene; Hu, Xiaohong; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We estimated race/ethnicity-specific incident AIDS diagnosis rates (IARs) among people who inject drugs (PWID) in U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) over time to assess the change in disparities after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) dissemination. Methods We compared IARs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for black/African American and Hispanic/Latino PWID with those of white PWID in 93 of the most populous MSAs. We selected two three-year periods from the years immediately preceding HAART (1993–1995) and the years with the most recent available data (2005–2007). To maximize stability, we aggregated data across three-year periods, and we aggregated data for black/African American and Hispanic/Latino PWID for most comparisons with data for white PWID. We assessed disparities by comparing IAR 95% CIs for overlap. Results IARs were significantly higher for black/African American and Hispanic/Latino PWID than for white PWID in 81% of MSAs in 1993–1995 and 77% of MSAs in 2005–2007. MSAs where disparities became non-significant over time were concentrated in the West. Significant differences were more frequent in comparisons between black/African American and white PWID (85% of MSAs in 1993–1995, 79% of MSAs in 2005–2007) than in comparisons between Hispanic/Latino and white PWID (53% of MSAs in 1993–1995, 56% of MSAs in 2005–2007). IARs declined modestly across racial/ethnic groups in most MSAs. Conclusions AIDS diagnosis rates continue to be substantially higher for black/African American and Hispanic/Latino PWID than for white PWID in most large MSAs. This finding suggests a need for increased targeting of prevention and treatment programs, as well as research on MSA-level conditions that may serve to maintain the disparities. PMID:24791025

  7. 33 CFR 162.200 - Marina del Rey, Calif.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marina del Rey, Calif.; restricted area. 162.200 Section 162.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.200...

  8. 33 CFR 162.200 - Marina del Rey, Calif.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marina del Rey, Calif.; restricted area. 162.200 Section 162.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.200...

  9. Racial residential segregation: a fundamental cause of racial disparities in health.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D. R.; Collins, C.

    2001-01-01

    Racial residential segregation is a fundamental cause of racial disparities in health. The physical separation of the races by enforced residence in certain areas is an institutional mechanism of racism that was designed to protect whites from social interaction with blacks. Despite the absence of supportive legal statutes, the degree of residential segregation remains extremely high for most African Americans in the United States. The authors review evidence that suggests that segregation is a primary cause of racial differences in socioeconomic status (SES) by determining access to education and employment opportunities. SES in turn remains a fundamental cause of racial differences in health. Segregation also creates conditions inimical to health in the social and physical environment. The authors conclude that effective efforts to eliminate racial disparities in health must seriously confront segregation and its pervasive consequences. PMID:12042604

  10. Prior experiences of racial discrimination and racial differences in health care system distrust.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Katrina; Putt, Mary; Halbert, Chanita H; Grande, David; Schwartz, Jerome Sanford; Liao, Kaijun; Marcus, Noora; Demeter, Mirar B; Shea, Judy A

    2013-02-01

    Factors contributing to racial differences in health care system distrust (HCSD) are currently unknown. Proposed potential contributing factors are prior experiences of racial discrimination and racial residential segregation. Random digit dialing survey of 762 African American and 1267 white adults living in 40 US metropolitan statistical areas. Measures included the Revised Health Care System Distrust scale, the Experiences of Discrimination scale, metrics of access to care, sociodemographic characteristics, and the level of racial residential segregation in the city (using the isolation index). In unadjusted analyses, African Americans had higher levels of HCSD, particularly values distrust, and greater experiences of discrimination. Experience of discrimination was also strongly associated with HCSD. Adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, health care access, and residential segregation had little effect on the association between African American race and overall HCSD or values distrust. In contrast, adjusting for experiences of racial discrimination reversed the association so that distrust was lower among African Americans than whites (odds ratio 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.85 for the overall measure). The Sobel test for mediation was strongly significant (P<0.001). Higher HCSD among African Americans is explained by a greater burden of experiences of racial discrimination than whites. Reasons for higher distrust among whites after adjusting for experiences of racial discrimination are not known. Efforts to eliminate racial discrimination and restore trust given prior discrimination are needed.

  11. Scandinavia: A Racial Utopia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbord, Robert G.

    1972-01-01

    Isolated personal observations have shaped the racial image of the Nordic countries--that Scandinavia is a racial paradise; this image is, however, simplistic, superficial, and one-dimensional. There is no gainsaying that prejudice against certain ethnic groups exists in Scandinavia. (Author)

  12. Unnaturalised racial naturalism.

    PubMed

    Hochman, Adam

    2014-06-01

    Quayshawn Spencer (2014) misunderstands my treatment of racial naturalism. I argued that racial naturalism must entail a strong claim, such as "races are subspecies", if it is to be a substantive position that contrasts with anti-realism about biological race. My recognition that not all race naturalists make such a strong claim is evident throughout the article Spencer reviews (Hochman, 2013a). Spencer seems to agree with me that there are no human subspecies, and he endorses a weaker form of racial naturalism. However, he supports his preferred version of 'racial naturalism' with arguments that are not well described as 'naturalistic'. I argue that Spencer offers us an unnaturalised racial naturalism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Geographic Scale of Metropolitan Racial Segregation

    PubMed Central

    REARDON, SEAN F.; MATTHEWS, STEPHEN A.; O’SULLIVAN, DAVID; LEE, BARRETT A.; FIREBAUGH, GLENN; FARRELL, CHAD R.; BISCHOFF, KENDRA

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses an aspect of racial residential segregation that has been largely ignored in prior work: the issue of geographic scale. In some metropolitan areas, racial groups are segregated over large regions, with predominately white regions, predominately black regions, and so on, whereas in other areas, the separation of racial groups occurs over much shorter distances. Here we develop an approach—featuring the segregation profile and the corresponding macro/micro segregation ratio—that offers a scale-sensitive alternative to standard methodological practice for describing segregation. Using this approach, we measure and describe the geographic scale of racial segregation in the 40 largest U.S. metropolitan areas in 2000. We find considerable heterogeneity in the geographic scale of segregation patterns across both metropolitan areas and racial groups, a heterogeneity that is not evident using conventional “aspatial” segregation measures. Moreover, because the geographic scale of segregation is only modestly correlated with the level of segregation in our sample, we argue that geographic scale represents a distinct dimension of residential segregation. We conclude with a brief discussion of the implications of our findings for investigating the patterns, causes, and consequences of residential segregation at different geographic scales. PMID:18939658

  14. Racial resentment and smoking.

    PubMed

    Samson, Frank L

    2015-02-01

    Racial resentment (also known as symbolic racism) is among the most widely tested measures of contemporary prejudice in political science and social psychological research over the past thirty years. Proponents argue that racial resentment reflects anti-black emotion obtained through pre-adult socialization. In light of affect-based models of substance use, this paper examined the association between racial resentment and smoking in a national sample of non-Hispanic white, black, and Hispanic respondents. Data come from the 2012 American National Election Study, which contained two measures of smoking. The results of ordinal logistic regression models indicate a positive association between racial resentment and smoking among non-Hispanic whites (N = 2133) that is not present among blacks (N = 693) or Hispanics (N = 660). Models controlled for age, education, income, gender, political ideology, region, and mode of interview. Furthermore, analyses indicated that a measure of race-related affect, admiration and sympathy towards blacks, partially mediated the association between racial resentment and smoking. For non-Hispanic whites, racial resentment appears to constitute a risk factor for smoking. Future studies should further specify the conditions linking substance use to the race-related affective component of racial resentment.

  15. Racial Identity and Media Orientation: Exploring the Nature of Constraint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jessica L.; Gandy, Oscar H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the nature of racial group identity in an effort to determine its role in the formation of African-American media evaluations. Views racial identity as one of many forms of individual identity that help to shape our relations with others. Focuses on areas of domestic violence and the image of Black men. (MMU)

  16. Racial Identity and Media Orientation: Exploring the Nature of Constraint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jessica L.; Gandy, Oscar H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the nature of racial group identity in an effort to determine its role in the formation of African-American media evaluations. Views racial identity as one of many forms of individual identity that help to shape our relations with others. Focuses on areas of domestic violence and the image of Black men. (MMU)

  17. Racial Discrimination, Racial Identity, and Impostor Phenomenon: A Profile Approach.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Donte L; Hoggard, Lori S; Neblett, Enrique W

    2017-04-17

    This study examined the association between racial discrimination and the impostor phenomenon (IP) and the moderating influence of racial identity on this relationship. One hundred fifty-seven African American college students (68% female; mean age = 18.63) completed measures of racial discrimination, racial identity, and IP during 2 waves of data collection. Utilizing latent profile analyses, 4 patterns of racial identity were identified: Undifferentiated, Multiculturalist, Race-Focused, and Humanist. Racial discrimination predicted higher subsequent levels of IP. Racial identity did not moderate the impact of racial discrimination; however, students in the Multiculturalist and Humanist groups reported the lowest and highest levels of IP at Wave 2, respectively. IP is influenced by racial discrimination experiences as well as by the significance and meaning that individuals ascribe to being African American. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Coloring outside the Lines: Racial Segregation in Public Schools and Their Attendance Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saporito, Salvatore; Sohoni, Deenesh

    2006-01-01

    Scholars have debated whether students' enrollment in private schools changes levels of racial segregation across urban school districts. The authors examine this issue by comparing the actual racial composition of schools with the racial composition of school-aged children living in the corresponding attendance areas. They do so by linking maps…

  19. Racial socialization, racial identity, and Black students' adjustment to college.

    PubMed

    Anglin, Deidre M; Wade, Jay C

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of racial socialization and racial identity on adjustment in Black college students. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 141 Black college students from a predominantly White university and racially diverse college. The findings suggest that racial socialization positively contributes to academic adjustment. An internalized-multicultural identity positively contributed to overall college adjustment, and pre-encounter miseducated racial identity negatively contributed. Internalized Afrocentric racial identity was negatively related to overall college adjustment. Implications for multicultural social scientists and directions for future research are discussed.

  20. Uncovering Racial Bias in Nursing Fundamentals Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Michelle M.

    2001-01-01

    The portrayal of African Americans in nursing fundamentals textbooks was analyzed, resulting in 11 themes in the areas of history, culture, and physical assessment. Few African American leaders were included, and racial bias and stereotyping were apparent. Differences were often discussed using Eurocentric norms, and language tended to minimize…

  1. Fall 1972 University Racial Census.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Glenwood C., Jr.; Sedlacek, William E.

    This document reports the results of the fall 1972 racial census at the University of Maryland. Only new freshmen, transfer students, and readmitted students filled out the racial census cards. All returning students constituted the data base of the student body. By adding new and deleting old racial census cards, counts could be made. Results of…

  2. Analisis del contenido curricular de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia para la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico: 1993-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila Montanez, Melissa

    Esta investigacion de naturaleza cualitativa se ocupo de realizar un analisis de contenido documental de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia de la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico del periodo 1993-2012. Los documentos analizados fueron: Guia Curricular, 1995; Marco Curricular, 2003; Estandares de Excelencia, 1996, 2000 y Estandares de Contenido y Expectativas de Grado, 2007. Se indago si hubo cambios en significados en los Componentes Estructurales: Naturaleza de la ciencia, Paradigmas para la ensenanza de la ciencia, Funcion del curriculo formal, Mision de la ensenanza de la ciencia; Contenidos, destrezas y competencias, Estrategias de ensenanza y Evaluacion/Assessment del aprendizaje. El analisis sugiere que no hubo cambios sustanciales en los significados de los Componentes Estructurales. Los documentos estudiados muestran mayormente caracteristicas similares, aunque los documentos mas recientes eran mas descriptivos, explicativos y especificos.

  3. Oxytocin receptor gene and racial ingroup bias in empathy-related brain activity.

    PubMed

    Luo, Siyang; Li, Bingfeng; Ma, Yina; Zhang, Wenxia; Rao, Yi; Han, Shihui

    2015-04-15

    The human brain responds more strongly to racial ingroup than outgroup individuals' pain. This racial ingroup bias varies across individuals and has been attributed to social experiences. What remains unknown is whether the racial ingroup bias in brain activity is associated with a genetic polymorphism. We investigated genetic associations of racial ingroup bias in the brain activity to racial ingroup and outgroup faces that received painful or non-painful stimulations by scanning A/A and G/G homozygous of the oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism (OXTR rs53576) using functional MRI. We found that G/G compared to A/A individuals showed stronger activity in the anterior cingulate and supplementary motor area (ACC/SMA) in response to racial ingroup members' pain, whereas A/A relative to G/G individuals exhibited greater activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in response to racial outgroup members' pain. Moreover, the racial ingroup bias in ACC/SMA activity positively predicted participants' racial ingroup bias in implicit attitudes and NAcc activity to racial outgroup individuals' pain negatively predicted participants' motivations to reduce racial outgroup members' pain. Our results suggest that the two variants of OXTR rs53576 are associated with racial ingroup bias in brain activities that are linked to implicit attitude and altruistic motivation, respectively.

  4. White Men's Racial Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lensmire, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Increasingly, researchers and educators have argued that alternative conceptions of Whiteness and White racial identity are needed because current conceptions have undermined, rather than strengthened, our critical pedagogies with White people. Grounded in critical Whiteness studies, and drawing especially on the writings of…

  5. White Men's Racial Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lensmire, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Increasingly, researchers and educators have argued that alternative conceptions of Whiteness and White racial identity are needed because current conceptions have undermined, rather than strengthened, our critical pedagogies with White people. Grounded in critical Whiteness studies, and drawing especially on the writings of…

  6. Racial Inequality in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troyna, Barry, Ed.

    Contributors to this book are united in their commitment to combating racial inequality in education and in outlining the extent and manner in which racism and its associated practices have become embedded in the institutional and sociopolitical structures of the United Kingdom. The following chapters are included: (1) "A Conceptual Overview…

  7. Racial Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Patricia A.

    1976-01-01

    Racial social work is defined by four alternative models: For One Race Only, For One Race Mainly, Cosmopolitanism, and Egalitarianism. The construct and its conceptual models can be used as guides to curriculum modification and practice innovation in social work addressing the social ill of racism and those abused by it. (Editor/JT)

  8. Racial Inequality in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troyna, Barry, Ed.

    Contributors to this book are united in their commitment to combating racial inequality in education and in outlining the extent and manner in which racism and its associated practices have become embedded in the institutional and sociopolitical structures of the United Kingdom. The following chapters are included: (1) "A Conceptual Overview…

  9. SPATIAL MISMATCH OR RACIAL MISMATCH?*

    PubMed Central

    Hellerstein, Judith K.; Neumark, David; McInerney, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    We contrast the spatial mismatch hypothesis with what we term the racial mismatch hypothesis – that the problem is not a lack of jobs, per se, where blacks live, but a lack of jobs where blacks live into which blacks are hired. We first report new evidence on the spatial mismatch hypothesis, using data from Census Long-Form respondents. We construct direct measures of the presence of jobs in detailed geographic areas, and find that these job density measures are related to employment of black male residents in ways that would be predicted by the spatial mismatch hypothesis – in particular that spatial mismatch is primarily an issue for low-skilled black male workers. We then look at mismatch along not only spatial lines but racial lines as well, by estimating the effects of job density measures that are disaggregated by race. We find that it is primarily black job density that influences black male employment, whereas white job density has little if any influence on their employment. The evidence implies that space alone plays a relatively minor role in low black male employment rates. PMID:19727422

  10. Seismic and Gravity Investigations of the Caja del Rio Geothermal Area, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braile, L. W.; Burke, B.; Butler, E.; Harper, C.; Livermore, J.; McGlannan, A.; Wasik, A.; Baldridge, W. S.; Biehler, S.; Ferguson, J. F.; McPhee, D. K.; Snelson, C. M.; Sussman, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    The SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience) program collected new seismic and gravity data in 2012 in the Caja del Rio area of northern New Mexico. The area, about 25 km NW of Santa Fe, has been identified as a potential geothermal resources area based on relatively high temperature gradients in drill holes. The SAGE 2012 data collection was part of an integrated geophysical study of the area initiated in 2011. Seismic data consisted of a 6.4 km SE to NW profile (80 three-component stations, 20 m station spacing, using a Vibroseis source - 20 m spacing for reflection VPs; 800 m spacing for refraction VPs) with both refraction and CMP reflection coverage. The surface conditions (dry unconsolidated cover over a thin volcanic layer) increased surface wave energy and limited the signal-to-noise level of the refraction and reflection arrivals. The refraction data were modeled with first arrival travel time methods. The reflection data were processed to produce a CMP stacked record section. Strong, NW-dipping reflectors, interpreted as from the Espinaso formation, are visible at about 1.4 seconds two-way time. One hundred and sixty-four new gravity measurements (detailed data at 500 m spacing along the seismic profile and regional stations) were collected and combined with existing regional data for modeling. Interpretation of the seismic and gravity data was aided by refraction velocities, the existence of a nearby regional seismic reflection profile from industry, and lithologies and well-logs from a deep well. The sedimentary basin interpreted from the seismic and gravity data, along with existing geological and geophysical information, consists of a thick section of Tertiary rift fill (capped by a thin layer of volcanic rocks), over Mesozoic and Paleozoic rocks, with a total basin thickness of about 3 km.

  11. Sintacs Aquifer Vulnerability in the Definition of the Natural Protected Area Los Chorros Del Varal, Los Reyes, Michoacan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J.; Ramiro, R.; Estrada, F.; Ochoa, S.

    2006-12-01

    In Michoacan State, Mexico, the use of aquifer vulnerability assessment is been incorporated in the regional policies of aquifer protection. A hydrogeological evaluation and aquifer vulnerability assessment using the SINTACS method was done in the natural protected area, NPA, Los Chorros del Varal in Michoacan State, Central Mexico. This place is a discharge area. An spectacular spring is feeding a stream. The predominant rocks are volcanic. By means of the SINTACS method a contamination risk zoning was obtained. The research permitted the expansion of the protection area of Los Chorros del Varal: a surrounding area to avoid anthropogenic impacts. This NPA is the preferential recharge area of the regional aquifer. This aquifer is the main water supply source for more than 200,000 inhabitants. A high to medium vulnerability was calculated. These vulnerable parts must be protected impeding risky projects such as dumps or industries producing wastewaters. Low values were obtained in clayey environments and also in volcanic rocks with scarce fracturing.

  12. Bryophyte-Cyanobacteria Associations during Primary Succession in Recently Deglaciated Areas of Tierra del Fuego (Chile)

    PubMed Central

    Arróniz-Crespo, María; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; De los Ríos, Asunción; Green, T. G. Allan; Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl; Casermeiro, Miguel Ángel; de la Cruz, María Teresa; Pintado, Ana; Palacios, David; Rozzi, Ricardo; Tysklind, Niklas; Sancho, Leopoldo G.

    2014-01-01

    Bryophyte establishment represents a positive feedback process that enhances soil development in newly exposed terrain. Further, biological nitrogen (N) fixation by cyanobacteria in association with mosses can be an important supply of N to terrestrial ecosystems, however the role of these associations during post-glacial primary succession is not yet fully understood. Here, we analyzed chronosequences in front of two receding glaciers with contrasting climatic conditions (wetter vs drier) at Cordillera Darwin (Tierra del Fuego) and found that most mosses had the capacity to support an epiphytic flora of cyanobacteria and exhibited high rates of N2 fixation. Pioneer moss-cyanobacteria associations showed the highest N2 fixation rates (4.60 and 4.96 µg N g−1 bryo. d−1) very early after glacier retreat (4 and 7 years) which may help accelerate soil development under wetter conditions. In drier climate, N2 fixation on bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations was also high (0.94 and 1.42 µg N g−1 bryo. d−1) but peaked at intermediate-aged sites (26 and 66 years). N2 fixation capacity on bryophytes was primarily driven by epiphytic cyanobacteria abundance rather than community composition. Most liverworts showed low colonization and N2 fixation rates, and mosses did not exhibit consistent differences across life forms and habitat (saxicolous vs terricolous). We also found a clear relationship between cyanobacteria genera and the stages of ecological succession, but no relationship was found with host species identity. Glacier forelands in Tierra del Fuego show fast rates of soil transformation which imply large quantities of N inputs. Our results highlight the potential contribution of bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations to N accumulation during post-glacial primary succession and further describe the factors that drive N2-fixation rates in post-glacial areas with very low N deposition. PMID:24819926

  13. Bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations during primary succession in recently Deglaciated areas of Tierra del Fuego (Chile).

    PubMed

    Arróniz-Crespo, María; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; De Los Ríos, Asunción; Green, T G Allan; Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl; Casermeiro, Miguel Ángel; de la Cruz, María Teresa; Pintado, Ana; Palacios, David; Rozzi, Ricardo; Tysklind, Niklas; Sancho, Leopoldo G

    2014-01-01

    Bryophyte establishment represents a positive feedback process that enhances soil development in newly exposed terrain. Further, biological nitrogen (N) fixation by cyanobacteria in association with mosses can be an important supply of N to terrestrial ecosystems, however the role of these associations during post-glacial primary succession is not yet fully understood. Here, we analyzed chronosequences in front of two receding glaciers with contrasting climatic conditions (wetter vs drier) at Cordillera Darwin (Tierra del Fuego) and found that most mosses had the capacity to support an epiphytic flora of cyanobacteria and exhibited high rates of N2 fixation. Pioneer moss-cyanobacteria associations showed the highest N2 fixation rates (4.60 and 4.96 µg N g-1 bryo. d-1) very early after glacier retreat (4 and 7 years) which may help accelerate soil development under wetter conditions. In drier climate, N2 fixation on bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations was also high (0.94 and 1.42 µg N g-1 bryo. d-1) but peaked at intermediate-aged sites (26 and 66 years). N2 fixation capacity on bryophytes was primarily driven by epiphytic cyanobacteria abundance rather than community composition. Most liverworts showed low colonization and N2 fixation rates, and mosses did not exhibit consistent differences across life forms and habitat (saxicolous vs terricolous). We also found a clear relationship between cyanobacteria genera and the stages of ecological succession, but no relationship was found with host species identity. Glacier forelands in Tierra del Fuego show fast rates of soil transformation which imply large quantities of N inputs. Our results highlight the potential contribution of bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations to N accumulation during post-glacial primary succession and further describe the factors that drive N2-fixation rates in post-glacial areas with very low N deposition.

  14. Parental racial socialization profiles: Association with demographic factors, racial discrimination, childhood socialization, and racial identity.

    PubMed

    White-Johnson, Rhonda L; Ford, Kahlil R; Sellers, Robert M

    2010-04-01

    The authors examined patterns of racial socialization practices in a sample of 212 African American mothers. They investigated the relation between parent profiles of racial socialization messages with child and parent demographic factors and race-related experiences, as well as parent racial identity attitudes. Using latent class analyses, the authors identified 3 patterns of parent-reported racial socialization experiences: multifaceted, low race salience, and unengaged. In general, findings indicate that mothers in the multifaceted profile were more educated, experienced more racial discrimination, and talked about race during their childhood more than mothers in the unengaged profile. The multifaceted profile also differed from the low race salience and unengaged profiles on several racial identity dimensions. Although the patterned approach used in this study lends itself to a more complex study of racial socialization in future research, it also highlights the associations between parent's race-relevant experiences and the messages they communicate to their children about race.

  15. Racial identity and autonomic responses to racial discrimination.

    PubMed

    Neblett, Enrique W; Roberts, Steven O

    2013-10-01

    Several studies identify racial identity-the significance and meaning that individuals attribute to race-as a mitigating factor in the association between racial discrimination and adjustment. In this study, we employed a visual imagery paradigm to examine whether racial identity would moderate autonomic responses to blatant and subtle racial discrimination analogues with Black and White perpetrators. We recruited 105 African American young adults from a public, southeastern university in the United States. The personal significance of race as well as personal feelings about African Americans and feelings about how others view African Americans moderated autonomic responses to the vignettes. We use polyvagal theory and a stress, appraisal, and coping framework to interpret our results with an eye toward elucidating the ways in which racial identity may inform individual differences in physiological responses to racial discrimination. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  16. Parent-Child Interaction and the Development of Racial Group Identity and Self Concepts of Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdoo, Harriette; McAdoo, John L.

    This study focuses on three areas: (1) mother-child and father-child verbal and nonverbal interactions; (2) racial differences in parent-child interactions, children's self esteem and children's racial attitudes; and (3) relationships between parenting style and children's feelings of self-worth and racial preferences. Subjects were 40 black and…

  17. Framing the Genetics Curriculum for Social Justice: An Experimental Exploration of How the Biology Curriculum Influences Beliefs about Racial Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    This field experiment manipulated the racial framing of a reading on human genetic disease to explore whether racial terminology in the biology curriculum affects how adolescents explain and respond to the racial achievement gap in American education. Carried out in a public high school in the San Francisco Bay Area, students recruited for the…

  18. Framing the Genetics Curriculum for Social Justice: An Experimental Exploration of How the Biology Curriculum Influences Beliefs about Racial Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    This field experiment manipulated the racial framing of a reading on human genetic disease to explore whether racial terminology in the biology curriculum affects how adolescents explain and respond to the racial achievement gap in American education. Carried out in a public high school in the San Francisco Bay Area, students recruited for the…

  19. Parent-Child Interaction and the Development of Racial Group Identity and Self Concepts of Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdoo, Harriette; McAdoo, John L.

    This study focuses on three areas: (1) mother-child and father-child verbal and nonverbal interactions; (2) racial differences in parent-child interactions, children's self esteem and children's racial attitudes; and (3) relationships between parenting style and children's feelings of self-worth and racial preferences. Subjects were 40 black and…

  20. Racial segregation and maternal smoking during pregnancy: a multilevel analysis using the racial segregation interaction index.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Shoff, Carla; Noah, Aggie J; Black, Nyesha; Sparks, Corey S

    2014-04-01

    Drawing from both the place stratification and ethnic enclave perspectives, we use multilevel modeling to investigate the relationships between women's race/ethnicity (i.e., non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Asian, and Hispanic) and maternal smoking during pregnancy, and examine if these relationships are moderated by racial segregation in the continental United States. The results show that increased interaction with whites is associated with increased probability of maternal smoking during pregnancy, and racial segregation moderates the relationships between race/ethnicity and maternal smoking. Specifically, living in a less racially segregated area is related to a lower probability of smoking during pregnancy for black women, but it could double and almost triple the probability of smoking for Asian women and Hispanic women, respectively. Our findings provide empirical evidence for both the place stratification and ethnic enclave perspectives.

  1. Racial segregation and maternal smoking during pregnancy: a multilevel analysis using the racial segregation interaction index

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Shoff, Carla; Noah, Aggie J.; Black, Nyesha; Sparks, Corey S.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from both the place stratification and ethnic enclave perspectives, we use multilevel modeling to investigate the relationships between women’s race/ethnicity (i.e., non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Asian, and Hispanic) and maternal smoking during pregnancy; and examine if these relationships are moderated by racial segregation in the continental United States. The results show that increased interaction with whites is associated with increased probability of maternal smoking during pregnancy for Asian and Hispanic mothers. In addition, racial segregation moderates the relationships between race/ethnicity and maternal smoking. Specifically, living in a less racially segregated area is related to a lower probability of smoking during pregnancy for black women, but it could double and almost triple the probability of smoking for Asian women and Hispanic women, respectively. Our findings provide empirical evidence for both the place stratification and ethnic enclave perspectives. PMID:24602968

  2. Uncovering racial bias in nursing fundamentals textbooks.

    PubMed

    Byrne, M M

    2001-01-01

    This article describes research that sought to identify and critique selected content areas from three nursing fundamentals textbooks for the presence or absence of racial bias embedded in the portrayal of African Americans. The analyzed content areas were the history of nursing, cultural content, and physical assessment/hygiene parameters. A researcher-developed guide was used for data collection and analysis of textual language, illustrations, linguistics, and references. A thematic analysis resulted in I I themes reflecting the portrayal of African Americans in these sampled textbooks. An interpretive analysis with a lens of Sadker and Sadker's categories of bias, along with other literary and theoretical contexts, were used to explore for the presence or absence of racial bias. Recommendations for nursing education are provided.

  3. Racial Crises in the Army: Prediction, Prevention, and Intervention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    8217- _-__ 4. TITLE (ad Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED RACIAL CRISES IN THE ARMY: PREDICTION, PREVENTION, AND INTERVENTION 6. PERFORMING ORG...strategy Racial incident Computer simulation Racial climate Race relations Enlisted men Racial crisis Racial tension Intervention strategy Racial...effective command strategies for alleviating racial tension . Soldiers’ perceptions of racial climate were validated successfully against certain records

  4. Racial Succession in New York City, 1960-70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denowitz, Ronald M.

    1980-01-01

    Presents data regarding income and educational level of Blacks who moved into previously White residential areas in New York City. Finds different patterns of racial succession in tracts near areas of Black concentration, areas distant from Black ghettos, and White residential sections with many recently constructed rental units. (Author/GC)

  5. Racism, Racial Identity, and Racial Socialization: A Personal Reflection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anita Jones

    1999-01-01

    Self concept is deeply intertwined with one's racial socialization. Two incidents are recounted as turning points in this counselor educator's self-perception as a person having a racial identity and to her career development. Coping mechanisms are described. A safe atmosphere is essential to the exploration of feelings about race. (EMK)

  6. Exploring Teachers' Racial Attitudes in a Racially Transitioning Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberg, Erica

    2012-01-01

    The growing diversity of America's public school enrollment makes it essential that all teachers be prepared for teaching students from diverse backgrounds. This paper explores the racial attitudes of teachers, specifically probing whether, and if so how, they may differ across schools of different student racial contexts. In particular, this…

  7. Racial and non-racial discrimination and smoking status among South African adults 10 years after apartheid.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2014-11-01

    Despite a long history of discrimination and persisting racial disparities in smoking prevalence, little research exists on the relationship between discrimination and smoking in South Africa. This analysis examined chronic (day-to-day) and acute (lifetime) experiences of racial and non-racial (eg, age, gender or physical appearance) discrimination and smoking status among respondents to the South Africa Stress and Health study. Logistic regression models were constructed using SAS-Callable SUDAAN. Both chronic racial discrimination (RR=1.45, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.85) and chronic non-racial discrimination (RR=1.69, 95% CI 1.37 to 2.08) predicted a higher risk of smoking, but neither type of acute discrimination did. Total (sum of racial and non-racial) chronic discrimination (RR=1.46, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.78) and total acute discrimination (RR=1.28, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.60) predicted a higher risk of current smoking. Racial and non-racial discrimination may be related to South African adults' smoking behaviour, but this relationship likely varies by the timing and frequency of these experiences. Future research should use longitudinal data to identify the temporal ordering of the relationships studied, include areas outside of South Africa to increase generalisability and consider the implications of these findings for smoking cessation approaches in South Africa. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. High prevalences of carriers of the 35delG mutation of connexin 26 in the Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Lucotte, Gérard

    2007-05-01

    Mutation 35delG in the connexin 26 gene is the main cause of recessive deafness in Europe. The prevalence of carriers varies, with a mean value proportion of 1/31 in Mediterranean countries. The aim of this study is to determinate the percentage of carriers in seven populations of the Mediterranean area and to compare prevalence of the mutation in seventeen other published populations in the same area. This study has been carried out on the genomic DNAs out of a total of 886 healthy subjects, originating from Sevilla (Spain), Genoa, Sicily (Italy), Alexandria (Egypt), Libya, Algier (Algeria) and Tangier (Morocco), genotyped by Taqman assay. The approximate proportions of the 35delG mutation are <1/149 in Sevilla, 1/129 in Genoa, 1/34 in Sicily, 1/54 in Alexandria, 1/41 in Libya, 1/141 in Algier and 1/123 in Tangier. When compared to other Mediterranean populations, the mean prevalence of the mutation is 1/49. One of the most elevated values of 35delG prevalence corresponds to Greece (1/28); the pattern of various 35delG prevalences is interpretated in the present meta-analysis as the result of Ancient Greek colonizations of the "Magna Grecia" in historical times.

  9. Facilitating Dialogues about Racial Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quaye, Stephen John

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Facilitating dialogues about racial issues in higher education classroom settings continues to be a vexing problem facing postsecondary educators. In order for students to discuss race with their peers, they need skilled facilitators who are knowledgeable about racial issues and able to support students in these difficult…

  10. Racial Diversity and Change in Metropolitan Neighborhoods*

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Chad R.; Lee, Barrett A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the changing racial diversity and structure of metropolitan neighborhoods. We consider three alternative perspectives about localized racial change: that neighborhoods are bifurcating along a white/nonwhite color line, fragmenting into homogeneous enclaves, or integrating white, black, Latino, and Asian residents into diverse residential environments. To assess hypotheses drawn from these perspectives, we develop a hybrid methodology (incorporating the entropy index and majority-rule criteria) that offers advantages over previous typological efforts. Our analysis of 1990–2000 census tract data for the 100 largest U.S. metropolitan areas finds that most neighborhoods are becoming more diverse and that members of all groups have experienced increasing exposure to neighborhood diversity. However, white populations tend to diminish rapidly in the presence of multiple minority groups and there has been concomitant white growth in low-diversity neighborhoods. Latino population dynamics have emerged as a primary force driving neighborhood change in a multi-group context. PMID:21691412

  11. Do Irregularly Shaped School Attendance Zones Contribute to Racial Segregation or Integration?

    PubMed Central

    Saporito, Salvatore; Van Riper, David

    2017-01-01

    This research investigates if and how much the shapes of school attendance zones contribute to racial segregation in schools. We find that the typical school attendance zone is relatively compact and resembles a square-like shape. Compact zones typically draw children from local residential areas, and since local areas are often racially homogeneous, this suggests that high levels of racial segregation in the largest school districts are largely structured by existing residential segregation. Still, this study finds that the United States contains some attendance zones with highly irregular shapes—some of which are as irregular as the most irregular Congressional District. Although relatively rare, attendance zones that are highly irregular in shape almost always contain racially diverse student populations. This racial diversity contributes to racial integration within school districts. These findings contradict recent theoretical and empirical scholarship arguing that irregularly shaped zones contribute to racial segregation in schools. Our findings suggest that most racial segregation in school attendance zones is driven by large-scale segregation across residential areas rather than a widespread practice among school districts to exacerbate racial segregation by delineating irregularly shaped attendance zones. PMID:28804732

  12. Testing Cross's Revised Racial Identity Model: An Examination of the Relationship between Racial Identity and Internalized Racialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin O.

    2002-01-01

    Study tests Cross's revised racial identity model. The relationship between racial identity attitudes and internalized racialism was examined in 153 African American college students attending a historically Black university. Findings indicated that the pre-encounter racial identity attitudes of miseducation and self-hatred, and immersion-emersion…

  13. Community Influences on White Racial Attitudes: What Matters and Why?

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Marylee C.; Mateyka, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Tracing the roots of racial attitudes in historical events and individual biographies has been a longstanding goal of race relations scholars. Recent years have seen a new development in racial attitude research: Local community context has entered the spotlight as a potential influence on racial views. The race composition of the locality has been the most common focus; evidence from earlier decades suggests that white Americans are more likely to hold anti-black attitudes if they live in areas where the African American population is relatively large. However, an influential 2000 article argued that the socioeconomic composition of the white community is a more powerful influence on white attitudes: In low-SES locales, “stress-inducing” deprivations and hardships in whites’ own lives purportedly lead them to disparage blacks. The study reported here re-assesses this “scapegoating” claim, using data from the 1998–2002 General Social Surveys linked to 2000 census information about communities. Across many dimensions of racial attitudes, there is pronounced influence of both local racial proportions and college completion rates among white residents. However, the economic dimension of SES exerts negligible influence on white racial attitudes, suggesting that local processes other than scapegoating must be at work. PMID:21910274

  14. Community influences on white racial attitudes: what matters and why?

    PubMed

    Taylor, Marylee C; Mateyka, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Tracing the roots of racial attitudes in historical events and individual biographies has been a long-standing goal of race relations scholars. Recent years have seen a new development in racial attitude research: Local community context has entered the spotlight as a potential influence on racial views. The race composition of the locality has been the most common focus; evidence from earlier decades suggests that white Americans are more likely to hold anti-black attitudes if they live in areas where the African-American population is relatively large. However, an influential 2000 article argued that the socioeconomic composition of the white community is a more powerful influence on white attitudes: In low-socioeconomic status (SES) locales, “stress-inducing” deprivations and hardships in whites' own lives purportedly lead them to disparage blacks. The study reported here reassesses this “scapegoating” claim, using data from the 1998 to 2002 General Social Surveys linked to 2000 census information about communities. Across many dimensions of racial attitudes, there is pronounced influence of both local racial proportions and college completion rates among white residents. However, the economic dimension of SES exerts negligible influence on white racial attitudes, suggesting that local processes other than scapegoating must be at work.

  15. The Determinants of Neighborhood Satisfaction: Racial Proxy Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Swaroop, Sapna; Krysan, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the factors that drive individuals' residential preferences is a critical issue in the study of racial segregation. An important debate within this field is whether individuals – especially whites – prefer to live in predominantly white neighborhoods because they wish to avoid the social problems that may be more likely to occur in predominantly black neighborhoods (i.e., the racial proxy hypothesis) or because of racial factors that go beyond these social class-related characteristics. Through a multilevel analysis of data from the 2004–2005 Chicago Area Study and several administrative sources, we assess the extent to which the racial proxy hypothesis describes neighborhood satisfaction among whites, African Americans, and Latinos living across a broad range of neighborhood contexts. The racial proxy perspective applies weakly to whites' satisfaction: whites report less satisfaction in neighborhoods with more minority residents, and only some of their dissatisfaction can be attributed to local social characteristics. The racial proxy hypothesis applies more strongly to blacks' and Latinos' satisfaction. In some cases, especially for Latinos, higher levels of satisfaction in integrated neighborhoods can largely be attributed to the fact that these places have better socioeconomic conditions and fewer social problems than predominantly minority communities. At the same time, effects of racial/ethnic composition persist in unique and somewhat divergent ways for blacks and Latinos, supporting the assertion that racial composition matters, above and beyond its relation to social class. Taken together, these findings suggest that individuals balance both socioeconomic and race-related concerns in their residential preferences. PMID:21706255

  16. A Longitudinal Examination of Racial Identity and Racial Discrimination among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany; Sellers, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the longitudinal association between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity among a sample of 219 African American adolescents, aged 14 to 18. Structural equation modeling was used to test relations between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity dimensions, namely, racial centrality, private…

  17. Racial Prejudice, Interracial Contact, and Personality Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J. William; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of childrens' racial prejudice to child's race, interracial contact, grade, sex, intelligence, locus of control, anxiety, and self-concept. Five facets of racial prejudice were examined: a total index of racial prejudice, dating and marriage, school, social relationships, and racial interactions in restaurants.…

  18. Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors among Youth in an Underserved Area of the Southern United States: Exploring the Moderating Roles of Gender, Racial/Ethnic Background, and School-Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latzman, Robert D.; Gratz, Kim L.; Young, John; Heiden, Laurie J.; Damon, John D.; Hight, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the clinical relevance of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITB) among youth, little is known about the subset of youth most at-risk for SITB. This study examined the moderating roles of gender, racial/ethnic background, and school-level (and their interactions) on rates of SITB within a large (N = 2638, 52.2% female),…

  19. Levels of Heavy Metals in Adolescents Living in the Industrialised Area of Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Northern Sicily)

    PubMed Central

    Interdonato, Monica; Mecchio, Anna; Cuspilici, Antonino; Minutoli, Letteria; Squadrito, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    In the Milazzo-Valle del Mela area, the presence of industrial plants and the oil refinery make local residents concerned for their health. For this reason, we evaluated the levels of heavy metals in 226 children aged 12–14 years, living in the 7 municipalities of the area. A control age-matched population (n = 29) living 45 km far from the industrial site was also enrolled. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, mercury, nickel, and vanadium were analysed in 24 h urine samples, while lead concentration was evaluated in blood samples. A questionnaire regarding life style and risk perception was also administered. Adolescents from Milazzo-Valle del Mela had cadmium levels significantly higher compared to either controls  (P < 0.0001) or the reference values of the European Germany Environmental Survey (GerES-IV) and the American National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Furthermore, children had higher perception of living in a high-risk environment. The present data, for the first time, clearly indicate that adolescents living in Milazzo-Valle del Mela have increased body concentration of cadmium, which may be harmful to human health. These results deserve particular attention by the local and regional government to initiate prevention programmes in this susceptible population. PMID:25328531

  20. Racial Discrimination in the Boston Housing Market. Discussion Paper D76-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Robert

    This paper analyzes three theories of racial discrimination by arguing that a dual housing market, a strong white taste for segregation, and pure racial price discrimination are all operative in the Boston urbanized area. Research dealing with discrimination and price differentials in housing for blacks is reviewed. It is pointed out that there…

  1. Black Adolescents' Racial Socialization Experiences: Their Relation to Home, School, and Peer Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Madonna G.; Blackmon, Sha'kema M.

    2002-01-01

    Explored the relationship between parental racial socialization messages and area-specific self-esteem (home, school, and peer) among African American adolescents. Surveys of middle school students indicated that parental racial socialization messages reflecting pride and knowledge about African American culture positively associated with…

  2. RACIAL ATTITUDES AS A FACTOR IN TEACHER EDUCATION FOR THE DEPRIVED CHILD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FREEDMAN, PHILIP I.

    THREE SEPARATE STUDIES WERE MADE RELATING TO THE AREA OF RACIAL ATTITUDES AND PERCEPTION. SEVERAL ASSUMPTIONS UNDERLIE THE STUDY--(1) THE CAUCASIAN POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES HARBORS A SUBSTANTIAL AMOUNT OF RACIAL PREJUDICE TOWARD NEGROES, (2) URBAN TEACHING STAFFS WHICH ARE DRAWN CHIEFLY FROM CAUCASIAN, MIDDLE-CLASS COMMUNITIES SHARE THE…

  3. Are Public School Teacher Salaries Paid Compensating Wage Differentials for Student Racial and Ethnic Characteristics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stephanie M.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper examines the relationship between public school teacher salaries and the racial concentration and segregation of students in the district. A particularly rich set of control variables is included to better measure the effect of racial characteristics. Additional analyses included Metropolitan Statistical Area fixed effects and…

  4. Health assessment for Del Norte County Pesticide Storage Area, Cresent City, Del Norte County, California, Region 9. CERCLIS No. CAD000626176. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-18

    The Del Norte County Pesticide Storage Area is located northwest of Cresent City, California. The site soils and ground water were contaminated with a myriad of pesticides and herbicides. The data also indicated an elevated concentration of chromium was present on-site and off-site; however, it does not appear to be related to the activities involving the use of the site as a pesticide storage area. The site was included on the National Priorities List in 1983. The storage area operated from 1970 until 1981, accepting containers from local agricultural and forestry-related industries. The intended use of the site was as an interim or emergency storage area for pesticide containers which had been triple rinsed and punctured prior to coming to the site. There were 9 private wells monitored within 0.50 miles of the site and the results indicated these wells were not contaminated by site contaminants. This site is of public health concern because of the potential for exposure to pesticides, herbicides, and chromium at concentrations of health concern.

  5. Racial Discrimination and Racial Socialization as Predictors of African American Adolescents’ Racial Identity Development using Latent Transition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio; Sellers, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined perceptions of racial discrimination and racial socialization on racial identity development among 566 African American adolescents over three years. Latent class analyses were used to estimate identity statuses (Diffuse, Foreclosed, Moratorium and Achieved). The probabilities of transitioning from one stage to another were examined with latent transition analyses to determine the likelihood of youth progressing, regressing or remaining constant. Racial socialization and perceptions of racial discrimination were examined as covariates to assess the association with changes in racial identity status. The results indicated that perceptions of racial discrimination were not linked to any changes in racial identity. Youth who reported higher levels of racial socialization were less likely to be in Diffuse or Foreclosed compared to the Achieved group. PMID:21875184

  6. Racial discrimination and racial socialization as predictors of African American adolescents' racial identity development using latent transition analysis.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Eleanor K; Yip, Tiffany; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio; Sellers, Robert M

    2012-03-01

    The present study examined perceptions of racial discrimination and racial socialization on racial identity development among 566 African American adolescents over 3 years. Latent class analyses were used to estimate identity statuses (Diffuse, Foreclosed, Moratorium, and Achieved). The probabilities of transitioning from one stage to another were examined with latent transition analyses to determine the likelihood of youth progressing, regressing, or remaining constant. Racial socialization and perceptions of racial discrimination were examined as covariates to assess the association with changes in racial identity status. The results indicated that perceptions of racial discrimination were not linked to any changes in racial identity. Youth who reported higher levels of racial socialization were less likely to be in Diffuse or Foreclosed compared with the Achieved group. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Effects of racial socialization and racial identity on acculturative stress in African American college students.

    PubMed

    Thompson, C P; Anderson, L P; Bakeman, R A

    2000-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if racial identity mediates the relation between racial socialization and acculturative stress in African American university students, once demographic factors are accounted for. In a sample of 84 participants, significant relations were found between racial socialization and acculturative stress, racial socialization and racial identity, and racial identity and acculturative stress. Partial support for a mediational model was found, with the best predictors of acculturative stress being immersion attitudes and internalization attitudes.

  8. Racial identity and reflected appraisals as influences on Asian Americans' racial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, A N; Helms, J E

    2001-08-01

    J. E. Helms's (1990) racial identity psychodiagnostic model was used to examine the contribution of racial identity schemas and reflected appraisals to the development of healthy racial adjustment of Asian American university students (N = 188). Racial adjustment was operationally defined as collective self-esteem and awareness of anti-Asian racism. Multiple regression analyses suggested that racial identity schemas and reflected appraisals were significantly predictive of Asian Americans' racial adjustment. Implications for counseling and future research are discussed.

  9. The limits of racial prejudice

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The racial segregation of romantic networks has been documented by social scientists for generations. However, because of limitations in available data, we still have a surprisingly basic idea of the extent to which this pattern is generated by actual interpersonal prejudice as opposed to structural constraints on meeting opportunities, how severe this prejudice is, and the circumstances under which it can be reduced. I analyzed a network of messages sent and received among 126,134 users of a popular online dating site over a 2.5-mo period. As in face-to-face interaction, online exchanges are structured heavily by race. Even when controlling for regional differences in meeting opportunities, site users—especially minority site users—disproportionately message other users from the same racial background. However, this high degree of self-segregation peaks at the first stage of contact. First, users from all racial backgrounds are equally likely or more likely to cross a racial boundary when reciprocating than when initiating romantic interest. Second, users who receive a cross-race message initiate more new interracial exchanges in the future than they would have otherwise. This effect varies by gender, racial background, and site experience; is specific to the racial background of the original sender; requires that the recipient replied to the original message; and diminishes after a week. In contrast to prior research on relationship outcomes, these findings shed light on the complex interactional dynamics that—under certain circumstances—may amplify the effects of racial boundary crossing and foster greater interracial mixing. PMID:24191008

  10. Phenomena that influence high ozone concentrations in the Paso del Norte area

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, C.P.; Roberts, P.T.; Main, H.H.; Dye, T.S.; Yarbrough, J.

    1998-12-31

    This paper summarizes the results of analyses of meteorological and air quality data for the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. The purpose of these data analyses was to develop an understanding of the significant chemical and physical processes which lead to high concentrations of ozone in the Paso del Norte study region which includes El Paso, TX; Sunland Park, NM; and Juarez, Mexico. This analysis has shown that the high ozone concentrations are a result of slow convective boundary layer growth, reduced convective boundary layer depth, light surface winds, and high morning surface ozone precursor concentrations. Overlying meteorological conditions observed during high ozone episodes include an upstream aloft high pressure system, aloft warming, and weak surface pressure gradients. The analysis has also shown that aloft carryover of ozone and ozone precursors does not significantly contribute to the surface ozone concentration. Furthermore, hydrocarbon and NO{sub x} data, although spatially limited, show that the system is most often NO{sub x} rather than VOC limited.

  11. Suburban Areas in Developing Countries and Their Relationship to Groundwater Pollution: A Case Study of Mar del Plata, Argentina

    PubMed

    Massone; Martinez; Cionchi; Bocanegra

    1998-03-01

    / Human activities carried out in suburban areas in many developing countries are directly related to groundwater pollution. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship between land use and groundwater pollution in the suburban area of Mar del Plata (Argentina). We identified three elements that are endangering the quality of groundwater: horticultural activity, urban solid waste disposal sites, and sewage disposal on land. Fifty wells in an area of 175 km2 were sampled in order to verify the impact of these problems on groundwater. All samples were analyzed for major ions, and about 30 of them for fecal coliforms and heavy metals. Nineteen samples were selected for pesticide analyses. The average nitrate content was 80 mg/liter, eight times the regional background value. Fecal coliforms were detected in 60% of the analyzed samples. Zinc content and a high Cl-/HCO3- ratio were observed in the surroundings of the solid waste disposal area. Moreover, lindane and heptachlor pesticides were detected in ten samples.KEY WORDS: Suburban areas; Groundwater pollution; Groundwater management; Argentina

  12. Racial and Ethnic Differences: Sociocultural and Contextual Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ruth K.; Otsuki-Clutter, Michiko

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing focus on racial and ethnic diversity in studies of adolescence, this review highlights trends in this research over the past decade. Not only is the sheer number of studies incorporating diverse youth increasing, this research has penetrated many areas of the study of adolescence. Some of this research has attempted to…

  13. Interrupting Privilege: White Student Affairs Educators as Racial Justice Allies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Law, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the ally development process and behaviors of ten white student affairs educators at four-year institutions in the Bay Area region of Northern California who were identified as racial justice allies by a colleague of color. The methods of this study included a survey to understand the context of multicultural competency in…

  14. Neighborhood Matters: Racial Socialization of African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Nettles, Saundra Murray; O'Campo, Patricia J.; Lohrfink, Kimberly Fraleigh

    2006-01-01

    Differences in racial socialization practices and their effects were examined in a sample of 241 African American 1st graders (average age 6.59 years) living in an urban area. Child outcomes included cognitive development, receptive language skills, and child problem behavior. The cultural environment of the home was associated with higher…

  15. Racial and Ethnic Differences: Sociocultural and Contextual Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ruth K.; Otsuki-Clutter, Michiko

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing focus on racial and ethnic diversity in studies of adolescence, this review highlights trends in this research over the past decade. Not only is the sheer number of studies incorporating diverse youth increasing, this research has penetrated many areas of the study of adolescence. Some of this research has attempted to…

  16. Urban Inequality and Racial Differences in Risk for Violent Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Like, Toya Z.

    2011-01-01

    Past research has shown that racial inequality in urban areas--Black and White residential segregation and economic inequality--is associated with increased levels of homicide offending and that victimization among Blacks yet serves as a protection mechanism against such violence among Whites. However, few studies have considered alternative…

  17. On Models of Racial Prejudice and Urban Residential Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courant, Paul N.; Yinger, John

    Economists have studied the effects of racial prejudice on urban residential structure using a set of models that focus on conditions at the border between the black and white areas. This paper reviews the theoretical literature on these border models and investigates their generality. Section 1 considers the border model developed by Bailey in…

  18. Socioeconomic factors and racial disparities in kidney disease outcomes.

    PubMed

    Crews, Deidra C; Pfaff, Teresa; Powe, Neil R

    2013-09-01

    African Americans suffer disproportionately from advanced and progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD). Socioeconomic factors are believed to play an important role in this disparity, and likely influence African Americans' increased risk of CKD through multiple pathways. Low socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to racial disparities in CKD because of the greater prevalence of poverty, for example, among African Americans as compared with whites. However, low SES has a stronger relation with CKD among African Americans than among whites, underscoring that the context and magnitude of socioeconomic influences on CKD outcomes varies between these populations. These socioeconomic influences may produce new or potentiate existing racial differences in biology. This review discusses what is known about the role of SES in explaining racial disparities in CKD, highlights several knowledge gaps in this area, and suggests future directions toward the elimination of disparities in CKD.

  19. Classroom Racial Balance and Students' Interracial Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koslin, Sandra; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Relationships between classroom racial balance and third graders' interracial attitudes were analyzed. Interracial attitudes were more favorable in balanced than in unbalanced classes. Results suggest that classroom racial balance is strongly related to students' interracial attitudes. (Author)

  20. Exploring Asian American racial identity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Grace A; Lephuoc, Paul; Guzmán, Michele R; Rude, Stephanie S; Dodd, Barbara G

    2006-07-01

    In this study the authors used cluster analysis to create racial identity profiles for a sample of Asian Americans using the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale (PCRIAS). A four-cluster solution was chosen: each cluster corresponded to one PCRIAS subscale and was named accordingly. Scores on the Asian American Racism-Related Stress Inventory and the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale were compared across clusters. As expected, the Dissonance and Immersion clusters were characterized by relatively high racism-related stress and low levels of color-blind attitudes; the Conformity cluster showed roughly the opposite pattern. Surprisingly, the Internalization cluster showed a pattern similar to that for Conformity and thus may reflect "pseudoindependence" as discussed by Helms.

  1. Racial/ethnic socialization mediates perceived racism and the racial identity of African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Howard C; Arrington, Edith G

    2009-04-01

    Racism and racial/ethnic socialization are proposed as interactive risk and resilience factors that promote the development of multiple dimensions of racial identity among African American youth are the focus of this study. One-hundred and eight African American students responded to questions about their racial identity and socialization. Controlling for demographic characteristics of ecological support (from family, friends, and neighbors), neighborhood racial composition, and gender, findings revealed that racism exposure significantly explained the variance of several racial identity components and ideologies but that racial/ethnic socialization mediated that influence. We discuss the implications for future study of racism experience on the racial identity development of African American youth.

  2. Racialized Aggressions and Social Media on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gin, Kevin J.; Martínez-Alemán, Ana M.; Rowan-Kenyon, Heather T.; Hottell, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Using a phenomenological approach, rooted in critical theory's desire to challenge systemic structures of inequality, we explored the impact of racialized hate encountered on social media by students of color at a predominately White institution. The encounters of racialized hostility manifested as anti-Black sentiments and produced racial battle…

  3. Profiling and Racial Profiling: An Interactive Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semple, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Racial Profiling has been recognized as a serious problem that affects many segments of our society and is especially notable in law enforcement. Governments and police services have pronounced that racial profiling is not acceptable and will not be tolerated. They have gone to great lengths in trying to eradicate racial profiling through…

  4. Racially Biased Policing: Determinants of Citizen Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzer, Ronald; Tuch, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    The current controversy surrounding racial profiling in America has focused renewed attention on the larger issue of racial bias by the police. Yet little is known about the extent of police racial bias and even less about public perceptions of the problem. This article analyzes recent national survey data on citizens' views of and reported…

  5. Racial Inequity in Special Education Undefined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losen, Daniel J., Ed.; Orfield, Gary, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    An illuminating account of a widespread problem that has received little attention, "Racial Inequity in Education" sets the stage for a more fruitful discussion about special education and racial justice. An illuminating account of a widespread problem that has received little attention, "Racial Inequity in Education" sets the…

  6. Emotions and White Racial Identity Status Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Matthew P.; Carter, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between emotional states and White racial identity status attitudes (Helms, 1984, 1990) were tested on a sample of 286 White students. The stimulus was a vignette in which one condition involved explicit racial information and one did not. Participants rated baseline and posttest emotions and completed the White Racial Identity…

  7. Emotions and White Racial Identity Status Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Matthew P.; Carter, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between emotional states and White racial identity status attitudes (Helms, 1984, 1990) were tested on a sample of 286 White students. The stimulus was a vignette in which one condition involved explicit racial information and one did not. Participants rated baseline and posttest emotions and completed the White Racial Identity…

  8. Using Students' Racial Memories to Teach about Racial Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macomber, Kris; Rusche, Sarah Nell

    2010-01-01

    As teachers, the authors' lessons about contemporary racial inequality are complicated and contradicted by the rhetoric of color-blindness--the belief that race no longer matters for determining life chances--entrenched in the culture. Students remain attracted to notions of racism as a problem of the "past" and often reject the idea that racism…

  9. Using Students' Racial Memories to Teach about Racial Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macomber, Kris; Rusche, Sarah Nell

    2010-01-01

    As teachers, the authors' lessons about contemporary racial inequality are complicated and contradicted by the rhetoric of color-blindness--the belief that race no longer matters for determining life chances--entrenched in the culture. Students remain attracted to notions of racism as a problem of the "past" and often reject the idea that racism…

  10. Decomposing School Resegregation: Social Closure, Racial Imbalance, and Racial Isolation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiel, Jeremy E.

    2013-01-01

    Today's typical minority student attends school with fewer whites than his counterpart in 1970. This apparent resegregation of U.S. schools has sparked outrage and debate. Some blame a rollback of desegregation policies designed to distribute students more evenly among schools; others blame the changing racial composition of the student…

  11. Decomposing School Resegregation: Social Closure, Racial Imbalance, and Racial Isolation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiel, Jeremy E.

    2013-01-01

    Today's typical minority student attends school with fewer whites than his counterpart in 1970. This apparent resegregation of U.S. schools has sparked outrage and debate. Some blame a rollback of desegregation policies designed to distribute students more evenly among schools; others blame the changing racial composition of the student…

  12. 33 CFR 334.110 - Delaware Bay off Cape Henlopen, Del.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334... the south shore of Delaware Bay at longitude 75°06′12″; thence to latitude 38°47′25″, longitude 75°06...′11″; thence to latitude 38°49′16″, longitude 74°59′35″; thence to a point on the shore at latitude...

  13. 33 CFR 334.110 - Delaware Bay off Cape Henlopen, Del.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334... the south shore of Delaware Bay at longitude 75°06′12″; thence to latitude 38°47′25″, longitude 75°06...′11″; thence to latitude 38°49′16″, longitude 74°59′35″; thence to a point on the shore at latitude...

  14. RACIAL AFFECT IN READING COMPREHENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AARON, ROBERT L.; WHITE, WILLIAM F.

    THREE FIFTH-GRADE CLASSES OF ECONOMICALLY DEPRIVED NEGRO CHILDREN, EQUATED ON INTELLIGENCE AND READING ACHIEVEMENT, PARTICIPATED IN A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF VARYING AMOUNTS AND TYPES OF RACIAL CUEING ON AFFECTIVE SETS TOWARD THE PROTAGONIST AND ANTAGONIST IN A CLOZE TYPE READING SELECTION. ALL THREE CLASSES READ THE SELECTION, BUT CLASS A WAS…

  15. Racial Inequity in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losen, Daniel J., Ed.; Orfield, Gary, Ed.

    This collection of papers discusses issues related to the overidentification of minority students in special education. After a "Foreword" (Senator James M. Jeffords) and an introduction, "Racial Inequality in Special Education" (Daniel J. Losen and Gary Orfield), 11 chapters include: (1) "Community and School Predictors…

  16. Confronting Racial and Religious Tensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessler, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    When a community's demographics change quickly in terms of racial, religious, or ethnic makeup, Wessler notes, tension surfaces. Schools are the likeliest place for these kinds of tensions to openly come to a head. Schools can't always avoid conflicts among students who feel mutual prejudice and suspicion. But schools can address simmering…

  17. Racial Variation in Perceptual Differentiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shade, Barbara J.

    1981-01-01

    In Study 1, upper-division university students took the Witkin Group Embedded Figures Test. Neither race nor sex differences were found. In Study 2, Black and Euro-American freshmen completed that test, a modified Kohs Black Design Test, and the WAIS Picture Completion Test. Racial differences on embedded figures appeared. (Author/SJL)

  18. Racial Definition: Background for Divergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, William Javier

    1986-01-01

    The racial definitional system in the United States ensures the separation of people. It is a caste-like system of nomenclature which was invented by Whites for their benefit. It is institutionalized and gets renewed through the socialization process. The system is only peripherally concerned with how Blacks define themselves. (VM)

  19. Confronting Racial and Religious Tensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessler, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    When a community's demographics change quickly in terms of racial, religious, or ethnic makeup, Wessler notes, tension surfaces. Schools are the likeliest place for these kinds of tensions to openly come to a head. Schools can't always avoid conflicts among students who feel mutual prejudice and suspicion. But schools can address simmering…

  20. Racial discrimination experienced by aboriginal university students in Canada.

    PubMed

    Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul

    2012-10-01

    Racial discrimination is an established life course social determinant of health associated with adverse psychological outcomes among minority populations. However, little is known about the extent to which Aboriginal people in Canada may experience racial discrimination and consequent adverse psychological effects. This study sought to measure the extent to which Aboriginal university students living in an urban area of Canada experienced racism, to triangulate this evidence with US data and qualitative findings, and to examine the impact of these experiences on mental health. Data for this mixed method study were collected via in-person surveys with a volunteer sample of Aboriginal university students (n = 60) living in a mid-sized city in central Canada in 2008-2009. Results indicate Aboriginal university students experienced more frequent racism across a greater number of life situations than African- and Latino-American adults in the United States. Student reactions to these experiences were symptomatic of what has been termed racial battle fatigue in the United States. Students who considered themselves traditional or cultural Aboriginal persons were significantly more likely to experience discrimination. Results underline the need for policies aimed at reducing racism directed at Aboriginal people in urban areas and the growth of services to help Aboriginal people cope with these experiences. Results highlight the need for further research to determine the potential pathogenic consequences of racial discrimination for Aboriginal people in Canada.

  1. Perceived racial discrimination and racial identity profiles among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Eleanor K

    2009-04-01

    The present study examined the relation between multiple types of racial discrimination and psychological well-being across racial identity profiles. A sample of 322 African American adolescents completed measures of racial identity, racial discrimination, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Cluster analyses were conducted to create previously identified racial identity profiles and 3 were evident: Buffering/Defensive, Alienated, and Idealized. The racial identity profiles moderated the relation between perceptions of racial discrimination and psychological well-being such that perceptions of racial discrimination were linked to higher levels of depressive symptoms for Alienated youth but not for Buffering/Defensive or Idealized youth. The implications for the racial discrimination literature among African American adolescents are discussed.

  2. Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic Identity, and Substance Use Among Latina/os: Are They Gendered?

    PubMed

    Molina, Kristine M; Jackson, Benita; Rivera-Olmedo, Noemi

    2016-02-01

    Prior research suggests that stronger racial/ethnic identification offsets negative effects of discrimination on substance use. Yet research in this area and on whether gender modifies this association is limited for Latina/os. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether different sources of discrimination (everyday and racial/ethnic) are associated with substance use (alcohol use disorder, smoking), if racial/ethnic identity buffers this association, and the potential moderating role of gender among these variables. We present cross-sectional, US population-based data from the Latina/o adult sample (1427 females and 1127 males) of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Respondents completed self-reported measures of everyday and racial/ethnic discrimination, racial/ethnic identity, smoking status, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) lifetime alcohol use disorder. Weighted logistic regression analyses showed that before inclusion of three-way interactions and adjusting for covariates, everyday discrimination predicted increased risk for any DSM-IV lifetime alcohol use disorders. Moderation analyses revealed that the effect of everyday discrimination on the risk of being a current smoker was strongest for Latino men with high levels of racial/ethnic identity compared to those with low racial/ethnic identity. No differences were noted among Latino women. There were no main or interaction effects of racial/ethnic discrimination for any substance use outcome. Findings suggest differential associations for type of discrimination and outcome and that the role of racial/ethnic identity is gender-specific for smoking, appearing particularly detrimental for Latino men reporting high levels of racial/ethnic identity.

  3. Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic Identity, and Substance Use Among Latina/os: Are They Gendered?

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Benita; Rivera-Olmedo, Noemi

    2016-01-01

    Background Prior research suggests that stronger racial/ethnic identification offsets negative effects of discrimination on substance use. Yet research in this area and on whether gender modifies this association is limited for Latina/os. Purpose The purpose of the present study is to examine whether different sources of discrimination (everyday and racial/ethnic) are associated with substance use (alcohol use disorder, smoking), if racial/ethnic identity buffers this association, and the potential moderating role of gender among these variables. Methods We present cross-sectional, US population-based data from the Latina/o adult sample (1427 females and 1127 males) of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Respondents completed self-reported measures of everyday and racial/ethnic discrimination, racial/ethnic identity, smoking status, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) lifetime alcohol use disorder. Results Weighted logistic regression analyses showed that before inclusion of three-way interactions and adjusting for covariates, everyday discrimination predicted increased risk for any DSM-IV lifetime alcohol use disorders. Moderation analyses revealed that the effect of everyday discrimination on the risk of being a current smoker was strongest for Latino men with high levels of racial/ethnic identity compared to those with low racial/ethnic identity. No differences were noted among Latino women. There were no main or interaction effects of racial/ethnic discrimination for any substance use outcome. Conclusions Findings suggest differential associations for type of discrimination and outcome and that the role of racial/ethnic identity is gender-specific for smoking, appearing particularly detrimental for Latino men reporting high levels of racial/ethnic identity. PMID:26489844

  4. Mirror, Mirror on the Wall: A Critical Examination of the Conceptualization of the Study of Black Racial Identity in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Sabrina; Johnson, Tabora

    2016-01-01

    The role that racial identity plays in the well-being, educational achievement, and life outcomes of Black youth has received tremendous attention from the early post-slavery years right up until today, and remains a surprisingly contested area of study. We call for the examination of why images of Black racial identity as "damaged" and…

  5. The neighborhood context of racial and ethnic disparities in arrest.

    PubMed

    Kirk, David S

    2008-02-01

    This study assesses the role of social context in explaining racial and ethnic disparities in arrest, with afocus on how distinct neighborhood contexts in which different racial and ethnic groups reside explain variations in criminal outcomes. To do so, I utilize a multilevel, longitudinal research design, combining individual-level data with contextual data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Findings reveal that black youths face multiple layers of disadvantage relative to other racial and ethnic groups, and these layers work to create differences in arrest. At the family level, results show that disadvantages in the form of unstable family structures explain much of the disparities in arrest across race and ethnicity. At the neighborhood level, black youths tend to reside in areas with both significantly higher levels of concentrated poverty than other youths as well as lower levels of collective efficacy than white youths. Variations in neighborhood tolerance of deviance across groups explain little of the arrest disparities, yet tolerance of deviance does influence the frequency with which a crime ultimately ends in an arrest. Even after accounting for relevant demographic, family, and neighborhood-level predictors, substantial residual arrest differences remain between black youths and youths of other racial and ethnic groups.

  6. Children's Racial Categorization in Context

    PubMed Central

    Pauker, Kristin; Williams, Amanda; Steele, Jennifer R.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to discriminate visually based on race emerges early in infancy: 3-month-olds can perceptually differentiate faces by race and 6-month-olds can perceptually categorize faces by race. Between ages 6 and 8 years, children can sort others into racial groups. But to what extent are these abilities influenced by context? In this article, we review studies on children's racial categorization and discuss how our conclusions are affected by how we ask the questions (i.e., our methods and stimuli), where we ask them (i.e., the diversity of the child's surrounding environment), and whom we ask (i.e., the diversity of the children we study). Taken together, we suggest that despite a developmental readiness to categorize others by race, the use of race as a psychologically salient basis for categorization is far from inevitable and is shaped largely by the experimental setting and the greater cultural context. PMID:27110279

  7. Map showing geochemical characteristics of the North Fork Smith River Roadless Areas, Del Norte County, California, Curry and Josephine Counties, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Norman J; Carlson, Carl A.; Gray, Floyd; Carlson, R.A.; Briggs, P.H.; Haffty, Joseph; Cooley, E.F.

    1985-01-01

    The North Fork Smith River Roadless Areas are located primarily in Del Norte County, northern California, include small parts of Curry and Josephine Counties, Oreg., and cover parts of the Gasquet, Crescent City, and Chetco Peak 15-minute quadrangles. The areas encompass aproximately 39,400 acres of Six rivers National Forest and 950 acres of Siskiyou National Forest and extend from just north of the California-Oregon border southward about 6 mi to the town of Gasquet, Calif. (fig. 1).

  8. A Longitudinal Examination of Racial Identity and Racial Discrimination Among African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany; Sellers, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the longitudinal association between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity among a sample of 219 African American adolescents, aged 14 to 18. Structural equation modeling was used to test relations between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity dimensions, namely racial centrality, private regard, and public regard at three time points. The results indicated that perceived racial discrimination at Time 1 was negatively linked to public regard at Time 2. Nested analyses using age were conducted and perceptions of racial discrimination at Time 2 were negatively linked to private regard at Time 3 among older adolescents. The findings imply that perceived racial discrimination is linked to negative views that the broader society has of African Americans. PMID:19467000

  9. Racial socialization and racial identity: African American parents' messages about race as precursors to identity.

    PubMed

    Neblett, Enrique W; Smalls, Ciara P; Ford, Kahlil R; Nguyên, Hòa X; Sellers, Robert M

    2009-02-01

    This study uses two waves of data to examine the relationships among patterns of racial socialization experiences and racial identity in a sample of 358 African American adolescents (60% female and 40% male). Using latent class analyses, we identified three patterns of adolescent-reported racial socialization experiences: High Positive, Moderate Positive, and Low Frequency. Adolescent-reported racial socialization experiences at Wave 1 were associated with Wave 2 adolescent racial identity approximately one year later. Specifically, High Positive and Low Frequency racial socialization were associated with racial centrality, assimilationist ideology, and nationalist ideology. These findings suggest that various patterns of racial socialization practices play an important role in the developing significance and meaning that African American adolescents ascribe to race.

  10. Parental experiences of racial discrimination and youth racial socialization in two-parent African American families.

    PubMed

    McNeil Smith, Shardé; Reynolds, Jamila E; Fincham, Frank D; Beach, Steven R H

    2016-04-01

    Parents experiencing racial discrimination are likely to transmit racial socialization messages to their children to protect them from future injustices. This study was conducted to better understand the role of parents' racial discrimination in their racial socialization practices for 2-parent African American families. Using a sample from the Promoting Strong African American Families (N = 322 couples) program, we examined the effects of experienced discrimination on one's own and one's partner's racial socialization practices with male (n = 154) and female (n = 168) offspring. Multiple-group actor-partner interdependence models showed that racial discrimination was associated with racial socialization practices. In addition, maternal experiences of discrimination had stronger relations to socialization messages relayed to daughters and greater paternal experiences of discrimination had stronger relations to socialization messages given to sons. This study demonstrates variability in how male and female children in African American families are socialized as a result of their parents' experiences with racial discrimination. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Patterns of Racial Diversity and Segregation in the United States: 1990–2010*

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Richard; Ellis, Mark; Holloway, Steven R.; Wong, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    The growing ethnic and racial diversity of the United States is evident at all spatial scales. One of the striking features of this new mixture of peoples, however, is that this new diversity often occurs in tandem with racial concentration. This article surveys these new geographies from four points of view: the nation as a whole, states, large metropolitan areas, and neighborhoods. The analysis at each scale relies on a new taxonomy of racial composition that simultaneously appraises both diversity and the lack thereof (Holloway, Wright, and Ellis 2012). Urban analysis often posits neighborhood racial segregation and diversity as either endpoints on a continuum of racial dominance or mirror images of one another. We disturb that perspective and stress that segregation and diversity must be jointly understood—they are necessarily related, although not as inevitable binary opposites. Using census data from 1990, 2000, and 2010, the research points to how patterns of racial diversity and dominance interact across varying spatial scales. This investigation helps answer some basic questions about the changing geographies of racialized groups, setting the stage for the following articles that explore the relationship between geography and the participation of underrepresented groups in higher education. PMID:25083001

  12. The Importance of History in the Racial Inequality and Racial Inequity in Education: New Orleans as a Case Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Eileen Carlton; Turner, Kea

    2014-01-01

    Racial equality and racial equity in U.S. education has been elusive although decades of education reform have them as goals. Current discourse advocate colorblind and post-racial solutions to racial inequality and racial inequity in education; these solutions implicate presentism, a view that exclusively circumscribes the existence of present-day…

  13. Early formation of gnammas (weathering pits) in a recently glaciated area of Torres del Paine, southern Patagonia (Chile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Villar, David

    2006-06-01

    Incipient gnammas (weathering pits) were identified and measured in the Francés Valley of Torres del Paine, southern Patagonia. The gnammas were located on the granite blocks of a lateral moraine deposited during a Late Holocene neoglacial advance. The gnammas were measured for maximum and minimum depth, length, and width in addition to other observations. Based on these measurements, the surface area and the volume of the gnammas were calculated. Most of the gnammas have < 1 L of rock volume eroded, and the maximum depth is always < 10 cm. The gnammas do not develop erosional spillways. A high correlation exists between maximum and minimum depths, indicating these values are not completely independent. Thus, the depth ratio has been used to characterize the gnammas for discrete locations. The gnammas from Francés Valley belong to a unique normal population and a δ-value based on the depth ratio was defined to represent this population. The δ of Francés Valley is 1.33 ± 0.07, comparable with the lowest values of other stations around the globe. I suggest that the δ-value could be used as an indicator of gnamma evolution.

  14. The Bajada del Diablo astrobleme-strewn field, central Patagonia Argentina: Extending the exploration to surrounding areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo, R. D.; Rabassa, J.; Ponce, J. F.; Martínez, O.; Orgeira, M. J.; Prezzi, C.; Corbella, H.; González-Guillot, M.; Rocca, M.; Subías, I.; Vásquez, C.

    2012-10-01

    The Bajada del Diablo astrobleme-strewn field is a huge domain of enigmatic circular structures located in central Patagonia. Three more localities are herein described, adding to the first area studied so far. Taking into consideration the four areas, a single, blurred crater dispersion ellipse has been identified. The four sectors now have been investigated, mapped, and georreferenced. Their circular structures, with a total of 185 (some of which are partially obliterated by erosion or sediment accumulation), were identified by remote sensing techniques, but many have been evaluated in situ and interpreted as impact craters. Moreover, two of the structures have been surveyed in detail in the field using a total station instrument. In addition to the previously known occurrence of circular structures on the Eruptive Complex Quiñelaf (Miocene basalts), the Pampa Sastre Fm. (Pliocene conglomerates), and of the Pleistocene pediment gravels and sands, and the geomorphological inferences that have suggested the extra-terrestrial origin of this event, we should now add that the recurrent absence of the cited Pliocene stratigraphic unit at the bottom of the craters is found in the pediment gravel and sands. Its removal has been interpreted as directly related to the impact, according to the magnetometric record of existing magnetic anomalies. Other preliminary observations on the collected samples (glass, breccias, and, most relevant, Fe-Ni-bearing spherules picked up within the impact zones) are herein discussed. Two hypotheses have been put forward about the nature of the possible impacting object that formed these astroblemes which, fragmented into hundreds of pieces, hit the surface of the Earth most likely in middle Pleistocene times. One of these hypotheses is related to the impact of a disintegrated asteroid of the rubble pile type, whereas a second hypothesis refers to the collision of a split comet with the Earth surface. The latter hypothesis is favoured since

  15. Racial Identity and Reflected Appraisals as Influences on Asian Americans' Racial Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Alvin N.; Helms, Janet E.

    2001-01-01

    The racial adjustment of Asian American university students (N=188) was assessed to examine the importance of race in their lives. Both racial identity status and reflected appraisals were significantly related to collective self-esteem as one measure of Asian American racial adjustment. Discusses the importance of the counselor's awareness of…

  16. A Post-Racial Era? The Campus Racial Climate for Multiracial Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillermo-Wann, Chelsea

    2010-01-01

    Multiracial undergraduates are coming of age when assertions of a post-racial era claim the post-civil rights multiracial population as its proof, which is part of the socio-historical context of the campus racial climate. Given that campus racial climate research has been silent about multiracial students, the purpose of this study is to explore…

  17. Unpacking Racial Socialization: Considering Female African American Primary Caregivers' Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scottham, Krista Maywalt; Smalls, Ciara P.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between female African American primary caregivers' racial identity and their racial socialization emphases was examined. Three components of racial identity were evaluated: (1) the importance of race to the self-concept (centrality), (2) affective feelings toward group membership (private regard), and (3) perceptions of how group…

  18. Racial Socialization and Racial Identity: African American Parents' Messages about Race as Precursors to Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; Smalls, Ciara P.; Ford, Kahlil R.; Nguyen, Hoa X.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses two waves of data to examine the relationships among patterns of racial socialization experiences and racial identity in a sample of 358 African American adolescents (60% female and 40% male). Using latent class analyses, we identified three patterns of adolescent-reported racial socialization experiences: High Positive, Moderate…

  19. Racial Identity Matters: The Relationship between Racial Discrimination and Psychological Functioning in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Robert M.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Martin, Pamela P.; Lewis, R. L'Heureux

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the interrelationships among racial discrimination, racial identity, and psychological functioning in a sample of 314 African American adolescents. Racial discrimination was associated with lower levels of psychological functioning as measured by perceived stress, depressive symptomatology, and psychological well-being.…

  20. Racial Ideological Beliefs and Racial Discrimination Experiences as Predictors of Academic Engagement among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalls, Ciara; White, Rhonda; Chavous, Tabbye; Sellers, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents' understandings of their social identities and related personal experiences influence their adaptations and responses within domains in which those identities are salient. The authors explore associations of racial identity beliefs regarding how Blacks should act, think, and behave (racial ideologies) and racial discrimination…

  1. The Influence of Racial Identity Profiles on the Relationship between Racial Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Kira Hudson; Kohn-Wood, Laura P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the association between racial identity profiles, discrimination, and mental health outcomes. African American college students (N = 194) completed measures of racial discrimination, racial identity, college hassles, and depressive symptoms. Four meaningful profiles emerged through a cluster analysis of seven dimensions of…

  2. A Racial Equity Toolkit for Midwifery Organizations.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Wendy M

    2016-11-01

    Midwifery associations are increasing awareness and commitment to racial equity in the profession and in the communities we serve. Moving these commitments from words into action may be facilitated by a racial equity toolkit to help guide midwifery organizations to consider all policies, initiatives, and actions with a racial equity lens. Racial equity impact analyses have been used in recent years by various governmental agencies in the United States and abroad with positive results, and emerging literature indicates that nonprofit organizations are having similarly positive results. This article proposes a framework for midwifery organizations to incorporate a racial equity toolkit, starting with explicit intentions of the organization with regard to racial equity in the profession. Indicators of success are elucidated as the next step, followed by the use of a racial equity impact analysis worksheet. This worksheet is applied by teams or committees when considering new policies or initiatives to examine those actions through a racial equity lens. An organizational change team and equity advisory groups are essential in assisting organizational leadership to forecast potential negative and positive impacts. Examples of the components of a midwifery-specific racial equity toolkit are included.

  3. Conquering racial disparities in perinatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Willis, Earnestine; McManus, Patricia; Magallanes, Norma; Johnson, Sheri; Majnik, Amber

    2014-12-01

    Infant mortality rate (IMR) is a reference indicator for societal health status. Trend analysis of IMR highlights 2 challenges to overcome in the United States: (1) US IMR is higher than most industrialized countries and (2) there are persistent racial/ethnic disparities in birth outcomes, especially for blacks. Racial/ethnic infant mortality disparities result from the complex interplay of adverse social, economic, and environmental exposures. In this article, racial/ethnic disparities are discussed, highlighting trends, the role of epigenetics in understanding mechanisms, key domains of community action planning, and programs and policies addressing the racial gaps in adverse birth outcomes.

  4. The unequal burden of pain: confronting racial and ethnic disparities in pain.

    PubMed

    Green, Carmen R; Anderson, Karen O; Baker, Tamara A; Campbell, Lisa C; Decker, Sheila; Fillingim, Roger B; Kalauokalani, Donna A; Kaloukalani, Donna A; Lasch, Kathyrn E; Myers, Cynthia; Tait, Raymond C; Todd, Knox H; Vallerand, April H

    2003-09-01

    Pain has significant socioeconomic, health, and quality-of-life implications. Racial- and ethnic-based differences in the pain care experience have been described. Racial and ethnic minorities tend to be undertreated for pain when compared with non-Hispanic Whites. To provide health care providers, researchers, health care policy analysts, government officials, patients, and the general public with pertinent evidence regarding differences in pain perception, assessment, and treatment for racial and ethnic minorities. Evidence is provided for racial- and ethnic-based differences in pain care across different types of pain (i.e., experimental pain, acute postoperative pain, cancer pain, chronic non-malignant pain) and settings (i.e., emergency department). Pertinent literature on patient, health care provider, and health care system factors that contribute to racial and ethnic disparities in pain treatment are provided. A selective literature review was performed by experts in pain. The experts developed abstracts with relevant citations on racial and ethnic disparities within their specific areas of expertise. Scientific evidence was given precedence over anecdotal experience. The abstracts were compiled for this manuscript. The draft manuscript was made available to the experts for comment and review prior to submission for publication. Consistent with the Institute of Medicine's report on health care disparities, racial and ethnic disparities in pain perception, assessment, and treatment were found in all settings (i.e., postoperative, emergency room) and across all types of pain (i.e., acute, cancer, chronic nonmalignant, and experimental). The literature suggests that the sources of pain disparities among racial and ethnic minorities are complex, involving patient (e.g., patient/health care provider communication, attitudes), health care provider (e.g., decision making), and health care system (e.g., access to pain medication) factors. There is a need for

  5. Racial Identity and Depressive Symptoms among Black Emerging Adults: The Moderating Effects of Neighborhood Racial Composition

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Noelle M; Sellers, Robert M.; Cogburn, Courtney D.; Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T.; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, we explored patterns of change in Black emerging adults’ racial identity beliefs during the transition to adulthood, assessed neighborhood racial composition effects on Black emerging adults’ racial identity beliefs, and tested the moderating effects of neighborhood racial composition on the relationship between Black emerging adults’ racial identity beliefs and depressive symptoms over time. Participants in the current study included 570 Black adolescents (52% female) who were transitioning into adulthood (senior year of high school through 5 years post-high school). We did not find average patterns of change in Black emerging adults’ racial identity beliefs over time. Further, neighborhood racial composition did not predict participants’ beginning status or growth in racial identity beliefs over time. We, however, found evidence that neighborhood racial composition may moderate the association between Black emerging adults’ racial identity beliefs and symptoms of depression over time. Findings from the current study underscore the importance of considering how the larger social context may interact with individuals’ racial identity beliefs to influence Black emerging adults’ psychological health. PMID:22709129

  6. Direct-to-Consumer Racial Admixture Tests and Beliefs About Essential Racial Differences

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Jo C.; Link, Bruce G.; Zelner, Sarah; Yang, Lawrence H.

    2015-01-01

    Although at first relatively disinterested in race, modern genomic research has increasingly turned attention to racial variations. We examine a prominent example of this focus—direct-to-consumer racial admixture tests—and ask how information about the methods and results of these tests in news media may affect beliefs in racial differences. The reification hypothesis proposes that by emphasizing a genetic basis for race, thereby reifying race as a biological reality, the tests increase beliefs that whites and blacks are essentially different. The challenge hypothesis suggests that by describing differences between racial groups as continua rather than sharp demarcations, the results produced by admixture tests break down racial categories and reduce beliefs in racial differences. A nationally representative survey experiment (N = 526) provided clear support for the reification hypothesis. The results suggest that an unintended consequence of the genomic revolution may be to reinvigorate age-old beliefs in essential racial differences. PMID:25870464

  7. Educational Strategies to Increase Racial Tolerance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchignani, Norman

    This paper reviews the effectiveness and practicality of various educational approaches for increasing racial tolerance and calls for developing strategies that have been formally evaluated to avoid the waste of time and limited resources. The first section discusses the racial inadequacies of most programs which purport to affect racial…

  8. Racial Disparity in Minnesota's Child Protection System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erik P.; Clark, Sonja; Donald, Matthew; Pedersen, Rachel; Pichotta, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Minnesota has been recognized by several studies as a state with a significant amount of racial disparity in its child protection system. This study, using 2001 data from Minnesota's Social Services Information Service, was conducted to determine at which of the six decision points in Minnesota's child welfare system racial disparities are…

  9. Confronting Racial Hatred to Make Schools Safer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soukamneuth, Sengsouvanh

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about how to confront racial tensions that sometimes arise among students from different racial groups. Here, the author presents a four-year study conducted by the Social Policy Research Associates, funded in part by Carnegie Corporation of New York, on school-based strategies for addressing intergroup relations…

  10. Racial Composition of the Volunteer Armed Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janowitz, Morris; Moskos, Charles C., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Analyzes Department of Defense statistics, noting that to examine the question of racial composition in the all-volunteer force is to focus on the enlisted personnel of the ground combat units; and asserting that, in the long run, the end of black over concentration in the ground combat forces necessitates effective racial equality and dignity in…

  11. Transgressive and Negotiated White Racial Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Ryan M.

    2016-01-01

    This critical case study investigated the experiences of six White preservice teachers as they learned about race and racism during the first semester of an urban-focused teacher preparation program. The author identified two broad themes of "transgressive White racial knowledge" and "negotiated White racial knowledge" to…

  12. Vision and the End of Racial Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Are we facing the end of racial preferences in America? Mr. Clegg thinks we probably are, and examines the role demographics, law, attraction, and vision may play in their demise. What makes preferences still attractive to so many people? Do most Americans share a vision that includes the continued use of racial preferences? Mr. Clegg offers a…

  13. Racial and Ethnic Identities in American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.

    The investigation of race relations, of social problems related to race and ethnicity, and of different racial and social groups, all presume prior information about the definition of racial or ethnic group identity, about the formation, maintenance, and dissolution of such identities, and about the importance of such identities in American…

  14. Racial Disparity in Minnesota's Child Protection System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erik P.; Clark, Sonja; Donald, Matthew; Pedersen, Rachel; Pichotta, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Minnesota has been recognized by several studies as a state with a significant amount of racial disparity in its child protection system. This study, using 2001 data from Minnesota's Social Services Information Service, was conducted to determine at which of the six decision points in Minnesota's child welfare system racial disparities are…

  15. Race, Racialization and Indigeneity in Canadian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Frances; Dua, Enakshi; Kobayashi, Audrey; James, Carl; Li, Peter; Ramos, Howard; Smith, Malinda S.

    2017-01-01

    This article is based on data from a four-year national study of racialization and Indigeneity at Canadian universities. Its main conclusion is that whether one examines representation in terms of numbers of racialized and Indigenous faculty members and their positioning within the system, their earned income as compared to white faculty, their…

  16. Transgressive and Negotiated White Racial Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Ryan M.

    2016-01-01

    This critical case study investigated the experiences of six White preservice teachers as they learned about race and racism during the first semester of an urban-focused teacher preparation program. The author identified two broad themes of "transgressive White racial knowledge" and "negotiated White racial knowledge" to…

  17. Racial Equality. To Protect These Rights Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Laughlin

    A historical review of racial discrimination against Negroes is the scope of this volume, part of a series of six volumes which explore the basic American rights. These include due process of law, freedom of speech and religious freedom. This volume traces the development of racial equality in the legal system, explores the controversies and…

  18. Neighborhood Racial Isolation, Disorder and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Virginia W.; Hillier, Amy E.; Mehta, Neil K.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that racial residential segregation may be detrimental to health. This study investigates the influence of neighborhood racial isolation on obesity and considers the role of neighborhood disorder as a mediator in this relationship. For the city of Philadelphia, we find that residence in a neighborhood with high black…

  19. Measuring Puerto Ricans' Perceptions of Racial Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginorio, Angela B.; Berry, Paul C.

    To measure how Puerto Ricans classify each other into racial groups by physical appearance, a stimulus set of 60 color slides was prepared. Two hundred and fifty secondary students sorted these portraits into four, three, and finally two groups. Although subjects placed both the pictures and themselves in a color continuum of racial types with…

  20. Neighborhood Racial Isolation, Disorder and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Virginia W.; Hillier, Amy E.; Mehta, Neil K.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that racial residential segregation may be detrimental to health. This study investigates the influence of neighborhood racial isolation on obesity and considers the role of neighborhood disorder as a mediator in this relationship. For the city of Philadelphia, we find that residence in a neighborhood with high black…

  1. Racialized Subjects in a Colour Blind School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagermann, Laila Colding

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I examine processes of racialization in a school in Copenhagen, Denmark. On the basis of the data produced in 2009, which is part of a larger study, I investigate themes of race as a difference-making and constituting category for subjective (human) becoming and racialization as contingent and negotiated processes (Butler, 1997). As…

  2. Vision and the End of Racial Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Are we facing the end of racial preferences in America? Mr. Clegg thinks we probably are, and examines the role demographics, law, attraction, and vision may play in their demise. What makes preferences still attractive to so many people? Do most Americans share a vision that includes the continued use of racial preferences? Mr. Clegg offers a…

  3. The Racial Context of the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Sybil

    1991-01-01

    Documents the systematic extermination of Jews, Gypsies, Blacks, and the handicapped by the Nazis between 1933 and 1945. Notes eugenic and racial measures such as forced sterilization of mulatto and handicapped children were used. Discusses Nazi policies of deportations and mass murder. Identifies need for research to explain the racial context of…

  4. A Black Woman's Struggles in Racial Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Carolyn Ann

    1979-01-01

    The author charts her experiences as a Black who attended Black educational institutions through the graduate level and then spent a year at a predominantly White university. Describes her personal feelings about racial and cultural differences and outlines factors that are essential to true racial and social integration and psychological health.…

  5. White Racial Nationalism in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Ronald

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the recent resurgence of White racial nationalism, and its influence on modern political behavior. Explores the ways the conservative movement has manifested itself nationally through racially motivated violence and the rise of the conservative wing of the Republican party. Discusses ways to reverse the trend toward institutionalized…

  6. Race, Racialization and Indigeneity in Canadian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Frances; Dua, Enakshi; Kobayashi, Audrey; James, Carl; Li, Peter; Ramos, Howard; Smith, Malinda S.

    2017-01-01

    This article is based on data from a four-year national study of racialization and Indigeneity at Canadian universities. Its main conclusion is that whether one examines representation in terms of numbers of racialized and Indigenous faculty members and their positioning within the system, their earned income as compared to white faculty, their…

  7. The Racial Context of the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Sybil

    1991-01-01

    Documents the systematic extermination of Jews, Gypsies, Blacks, and the handicapped by the Nazis between 1933 and 1945. Notes eugenic and racial measures such as forced sterilization of mulatto and handicapped children were used. Discusses Nazi policies of deportations and mass murder. Identifies need for research to explain the racial context of…

  8. Teaching for Racial Justice: A Participative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddie, Anthony G.

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines an ongoing method the author developed for seeking to enable predominantly White students in theological education (those training for authorized public ordained ministry) to engage with the central tenets of racial justice. The quest for racial justice has been an important part of the mission of the major church…

  9. Racial and Ethnic Succession in Four Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Using longitudinal census tract data for four cities, this article predicts racial composition of neighborhoods as a function of earlier period racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, and physical characteristics. There is support for aspects of the ecological and filtering modes of succession, with some elements not being generally applicable across time…

  10. Examining Racial Microaggressions in Rehabilitation Counselor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Brenda Y.; Washington, Robin D.; McConnell, L. Robert

    2009-01-01

    This research extends the Constantine et al. (2008) study which identified racial microaggressions against Black faculty working in counseling and counseling psychology programs. Semi-structured interviews and qualitative analyses were used to: (1) ascertain the existence of racial microaggressions among African American faculty employed in…

  11. Associations of racial discrimination and parental discrimination coping messages with African American adolescent racial identity.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M

    2015-06-01

    Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization.

  12. Racial Segregation and the American Foreclosure Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Rugh, Jacob S.; Massey, Douglas S.

    2013-01-01

    Although the rise in subprime lending and the ensuing wave of foreclosures was partly a result of market forces that have been well-identified in the literature, in the United States it was also a highly racialized process. We argue that residential segregation created a unique niche of poor minority clients who were differentially marketed risky subprime loans that were in great demand for use in mortgage-backed securities that could be sold on secondary markets. We test this argument by regressing foreclosure actions in the top 100 U.S. metropolitan areas on measures of black, Hispanic, and Asian segregation while controlling for a variety of housing market conditions, including average creditworthiness, the extent of coverage under the Community Reinvestment Act, the degree of zoning regulation, and the overall rate of subprime lending. We find that black residential dissimilarity and spatial isolation are powerful predictors of foreclosures across U.S. metropolitan areas. In order to isolate subprime lending as the causal mechanism whereby segregation influences foreclosures, we estimate a two-stage least squares model that confirms the causal effect of black segregation on the number and rate of foreclosures across metropolitan areas. In the United States segregation was an important contributing cause of the foreclosure crisis, along with overbuilding, risky lending practices, lax regulation, and the bursting of the housing price bubble. PMID:25308973

  13. Racial Segregation and the American Foreclosure Crisis.

    PubMed

    Rugh, Jacob S; Massey, Douglas S

    2010-10-01

    Although the rise in subprime lending and the ensuing wave of foreclosures was partly a result of market forces that have been well-identified in the literature, in the United States it was also a highly racialized process. We argue that residential segregation created a unique niche of poor minority clients who were differentially marketed risky subprime loans that were in great demand for use in mortgage-backed securities that could be sold on secondary markets. We test this argument by regressing foreclosure actions in the top 100 U.S. metropolitan areas on measures of black, Hispanic, and Asian segregation while controlling for a variety of housing market conditions, including average creditworthiness, the extent of coverage under the Community Reinvestment Act, the degree of zoning regulation, and the overall rate of subprime lending. We find that black residential dissimilarity and spatial isolation are powerful predictors of foreclosures across U.S. metropolitan areas. In order to isolate subprime lending as the causal mechanism whereby segregation influences foreclosures, we estimate a two-stage least squares model that confirms the causal effect of black segregation on the number and rate of foreclosures across metropolitan areas. In the United States segregation was an important contributing cause of the foreclosure crisis, along with overbuilding, risky lending practices, lax regulation, and the bursting of the housing price bubble.

  14. Variables affecting racial-identity salience among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Thompson, V L

    1999-12-01

    The author clarified the African American racial-group identification process by addressing the issue of salience and its relationship to racial-group attitudes. A sample of 409 African American adults responded to surveys pertaining to their racial-group salience, racial-group attitudes, racial socialization, racial-group interaction, political activism, experiences of discrimination, and demographic data (e.g., sex, age, and income). The author tested 3 hypotheses: (a) Racial socialization and interaction with other African Americans are predictive of African American racial-identity salience; (b) discriminatory experiences are predictive of African American racial-identity salience; and (c) racial-identity salience is a stronger predictor of African American racial-group identification than are previously identified predictive variables (D. H. Demo & H. Hughes, 1990; V. L. Thompson Sanders, 1991, 1995). The results supported the 1st and 3rd hypotheses.

  15. Gendered racial exclusion among White internet daters.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, Cynthia; Robnett, Belinda; Komaie, Golnaz

    2009-03-01

    Acceptance by the dominant group reveals the current standing of racial groups in the U.S. hierarchy, as well as the possibility for assimilation. However, few researchers have addressed the gendered nature of racial preferences by whites. We examine whites' exclusion of blacks, Latinos, Asians, Middle Easterners, East Indians and Native Americans as possible dates, using a sample of profiles collected from an internet dating website. We find that white men are more willing than white women to date non-whites in general, yet, with the exception of their top two preferences for dates, whites and Latinos, the racial hierarchies of males and females differ. Among daters with stated racial preferences, white men are more likely to exclude blacks as possible dates, while white women are more likely to exclude Asians. We argue that exclusion relates to racialized images of masculinity and femininity, and shapes dating and marriage outcomes, and thus minority groups' possibilities for full social incorporation.

  16. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Pediatric Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Alegria, Margarita; Vallas, Melissa; Pumariega, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Disparities remain in mental health status and care for racial and ethnic minority youth, despite national attention to disparity reduction. This paper offers a comprehensive picture of the status of pediatric disparities, by addressing the major areas affecting minority youth mental health, including: prevention of problems, need for services, access to care, mental health treatment types and treatment outcomes. It addresses relevant factors in the family, community and socioeconomic context, and describes various local and national programs that aim to tackle the obstacles and fill the gaps in high quality care for racial/ethnic minority youth. It concludes by offering recommendations for improvement which acknowledge the importance of understanding preferences and attitudes towards treatment, ensuring that screening and diagnosis is appropriate to minority youth, and ensuring that evidence-based programs are available at multiple levels to best service children and succeed in addressing their needs. PMID:21056345

  17. Moisturizing Different Racial Skin Types

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Victor W.; Longaker, Michael T.; Yang, George P.

    2014-01-01

    The skin is a complex organ involved in thermoregulation, gas exchange, protection against pathogens, and barrier function to maintain proper hydration. When dry, the ability for skin to execute these tasks becomes impaired. Dry skin affects almost everyone as we age, but it is also dependent on external factors, such as dry climate, colder temperatures, and repeated washing. In addition, increasing evidence has shown racial variability in the physiological properties of skin, which directly impacts water content of the stratum corneum and sensitivity to exogenously applied agents. A multitude of products have been developed to treat dry skin, and as a group, moisturizers have been designed to either impart or restore hydration in the stratum corneum. Given the large number of moisturizers presently available, depending on individual components, several different mechanisms may be employed to promote skin hydration. As there exists dramatic racial variability in skin properties, certain moisturizers may thus be more effective in some and less effective in others to treat the common condition of dry skin. PMID:25013536

  18. Racial disparities in pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Ramnitz, Mary Scott; Lodish, Maya B

    2013-09-01

    The question of whether or not children, particularly girls, are entering puberty earlier than they did in the past has been a concern in both the medical community and the general population. A secular trend analysis of the current data on pubertal timing in boys and girls is limited by variations in the study design, the population assessed, and the methods used to determine pubertal development. These differences present a challenge when interpreting the available data, especially when comparing multiple studies. The influence of race on pubertal timing and development had not been assessed before the 1970s. The purpose of this article is to review the reported variations in pubertal timing among different racial/ethnic groups. Data suggest African American girls enter puberty earlier and reach menarche earlier than Caucasian and Hispanic girls. In addition, the trend toward earlier timing of puberty seems to be occurring faster in African American girls compared with Caucasian girls over the past 25 years. While the mechanism and understanding of the cause of racial disparities in pubertal development remain to be discerned, genetic and/or environmental factors may play a role and require further investigation.

  19. Neighborhood Racial Composition, Racial Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Sharon F.; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2015-01-01

    While evidence indicates that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African Americans, there is little research investigating predictors of experienced racial discrimination. This paper examines neighborhood racial composition and sociodemographic factors as antecedents to experienced racial discrimination and resultant levels of depressive symptoms among African American adults. The sample included 505 socioeconomically-diverse African American adults from Baltimore, MD. Study data were obtained via self-report and geocoding of participant addresses based on 2010 census data. Study hypotheses were tested using multiple pathways within a longitudinal Structural Equation Model. Experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with age and sex such that older individuals and males experienced increased levels of racial discrimination. In addition, the percentage of White individuals residing in a neighborhood was positively associated with levels of experienced racial discrimination for African American neighborhood residents. Experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with later depressive symptoms. Neighborhood-level contextual factors such as neighborhood racial composition and individual differences in sociodemographic characteristics appear to play an important role in the experience of racial discrimination and the etiology of depression in African American adults. PMID:24969707

  20. Neighborhood racial composition, racial discrimination, and depressive symptoms in African Americans.

    PubMed

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2014-12-01

    While evidence indicates that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African Americans, there is little research investigating predictors of experienced racial discrimination. This paper examines neighborhood racial composition and sociodemographic factors as antecedents to experienced racial discrimination and resultant levels of depressive symptoms among African American adults. The sample included 505 socioeconomically-diverse African American adults from Baltimore, MD. Study data were obtained via self-report and geocoding of participant addresses based on 2010 census data. Study hypotheses were tested using multiple pathways within a longitudinal Structural Equation Model. Experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with age and sex such that older individuals and males experienced increased levels of racial discrimination. In addition, the percentage of White individuals residing in a neighborhood was positively associated with levels of experienced racial discrimination for African American neighborhood residents. Experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with later depressive symptoms. Neighborhood-level contextual factors such as neighborhood racial composition and individual differences in sociodemographic characteristics appear to play an important role in the experience of racial discrimination and the etiology of depression in African American adults.

  1. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the VA Health Care System: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Michele; Toure, Joahd; Tippens, Kimberly M.; Weeks, Christine; Ibrahim, Said

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To better understand the causes of racial disparities in health care, we reviewed and synthesized existing evidence related to disparities in the “equal access” Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system. Methods We systematically reviewed and synthesized evidence from studies comparing health care utilization and quality by race within the VA. Results Racial disparities in the VA exist across a wide range of clinical areas and service types. Disparities appear most prevalent for medication adherence and surgery and other invasive procedures, processes that are likely to be affected by the quantity and quality of patient–provider communication, shared decision making, and patient participation. Studies indicate a variety of likely root causes of disparities including: racial differences in patients’ medical knowledge and information sources, trust and skepticism, levels of participation in health care interactions and decisions, and social support and resources; clinician judgment/bias; the racial/cultural milieu of health care settings; and differences in the quality of care at facilities attended by different racial groups. Conclusions Existing evidence from the VA indicates several promising targets for interventions to reduce racial disparities in the quality of health care. PMID:18301951

  2. Enduring pictures in our heads: the continuance of authoritarianism and racial stereotyping.

    PubMed

    Cribbs, Sarah E; Austin, D Mark

    2011-01-01

    This study highlights the importance of examining the influence of personality measures, specifically authoritarianism, on negative racial stereotyping, even in an era of alleged color blindness. The authors examine the relationship of various demographic variables and authoritarianism with negative racial stereotyping in a sample of White urban respondents. Current literature suggests that age, sex, marital status, religious identification, religious service attendance, education level, income, political affiliation, level of authoritarianism, and the demographic composition in an individual's local population all affect racial stereotyping. The evidence presented, using path analysis, suggests that some demographic characteristics influence the level of negative racial stereotyping. While the effects of most included demographic characteristics were statistically significant, others, which continually resurface in the literature, remained insignificant (such as the demographic composition of the respondent's area). The results of this study challenge the loss of traditional prejudice with color blindness and point to the importance of authoritarianism as a mediating factor in negative racial stereotyping. The authors conclude the greatest indicators of negative racial stereotyping included in this study are authoritarianism, education, and income, while many other demographics - such as marital status, religious identification and attendance, and political affiliation - have indirect influences through authoritarianism.

  3. Racialized Risk Environments in a Large Sample of People who Inject Drugs In the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Hannah L.F.; Linton, Sabriya; Kelley, Mary E.; Ross, Zev; Wolfe, Mary E; Chen, Yen-Tyng; Zlotorzynska, Maria; Hunter-Jones, Josalin; Friedman, Samuel R.; Jarlais, Don Des; Semaan, Salaam; Tempalski, Barbara; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Broz, Dita; Wejnert, Cyprian; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Background Substantial racial/ethnic disparities exist in HIV infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in many countries. To strengthen efforts to understand the causes of disparities in HIV-related outcomes and eliminate them, we expand the “Risk Environment Model” to encompass the construct “racialized risk environments,” and investigate whether PWID risk environments in the United States are racialized. Specifically, we investigate whether black and Latino PWID are more likely than white PWID to live in places that create vulnerability to adverse HIV-related outcomes. Methods As part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 9,170 PWID were sampled from 19 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in 2009. Self-reported data were used to ascertain PWID race/ethnicity. Using Census data and other administrative sources, we characterized features of PWID risk environments at four geographic scales (i.e., ZIP codes, counties, MSAs, and states). Means for each feature of the risk environment were computed for each racial/ethnic group of PWID, and were compared across racial/ethnic groups. Results Almost universally across measures, black PWID were more likely than white PWID to live in environments associated with vulnerability to adverse HIV-related outcomes. Compared to white PWID, black PWID lived in ZIP codes with higher poverty rates and worse spatial access to substance abuse treatment and in counties with higher violent crime rates. Black PWID were less likely to live in states with laws facilitating sterile syringe access (e.g., laws permitting over-the-counter syringe sales). Latino/white differences in risk environments emerged at the MSA level (e.g., Latino PWID lived in MSAs with higher drug-related arrest rates). Conclusion PWID risk environments in the US are racialized. Future research should explore the implications of this racialization for racial/ethnic disparities in HIV-related outcomes

  4. The Effect of Post-Racial Theory on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of post-racial theory (PRT) in both social and political spheres of dominant American hegemony has illustrated a desire among academic circles to move past race and racial categories in social analysis. However, absent within post-racial rhetoric is critical language on how to abolish racism and racial inequality. (Samad 2009) It…

  5. Racial Group Concept and Self-Esteem in Black Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Maxine L.

    The relationship of racial group concepts (racial preference and racial attitudes) to general and specific self-esteem in black children was examined in this study. A secondary purpose of this study was to assess the validity of Nobles' (1973) theory that racial group attitudes influence the black American's concept of "self." The…

  6. Teaching the Psychosocial Subject: White Students and Racial Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrosio, John

    2014-01-01

    This inquiry poses the question: How can white college students be induced or incited into recognizing themselves as racially marked and privileged people? The author examines white resistance to racial self-understanding by analyzing the relation between white racial identity development theory, appeals to racial discourses and themes, and the…

  7. Racial Prejudice in College Students: A Cross-Sectional Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassner, Breanna; McGuigan, William

    2014-01-01

    Racial prejudice is based upon negative preconceived notions of select racial groups with the assumption that all members of a particular racial group can be categorized with the same negative characteristics. Social categorization allows for quick sorting of individuals into racial groups saturated with a common flavor. Allport's Principle of…

  8. Racial Prejudice in College Students: A Cross-Sectional Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassner, Breanna; McGuigan, William

    2014-01-01

    Racial prejudice is based upon negative preconceived notions of select racial groups with the assumption that all members of a particular racial group can be categorized with the same negative characteristics. Social categorization allows for quick sorting of individuals into racial groups saturated with a common flavor. Allport's Principle of…

  9. Predictors of Racial Prejudice in White American Counseling Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Linda G.; Conoley, Collie W.; King, Jennifer; Rollins, Dahl; Rivera, Saori; Veve, Mia

    2006-01-01

    This study extends the research on racial prejudice by combining previously identified predictors into 1 study to determine their relative importance in contributing to racial prejudice. Results revealed that White racial identity significantly predicted racial prejudice when demographic variables were controlled. Implications of reducing racial…

  10. Teaching the Psychosocial Subject: White Students and Racial Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrosio, John

    2014-01-01

    This inquiry poses the question: How can white college students be induced or incited into recognizing themselves as racially marked and privileged people? The author examines white resistance to racial self-understanding by analyzing the relation between white racial identity development theory, appeals to racial discourses and themes, and the…

  11. History, place, and racial self-representation in 21st century America.

    PubMed

    Liebler, Carolyn A; Zacher, Meghan

    2016-05-01

    How is a person's racial self-representation related to the race history of the place in which he or she lives? We use Census Bureau data about race and ancestry to address this research question for two groups of people with mixed racial heritage: those reporting white and American Indian heritages, or reporting black and American Indian heritages. Links between history, place, and self-representation can be seen in geographic clustering for each race/ancestry response combination. We use multinomial logistic regression models to predict individuals' race/ancestry responses (e.g., white with American Indian ancestry versus white and American Indian races) using measures of local race history and the area's contemporary racial composition. Multivariate results highlight the relationship between a person's identity claims and the history of the area, net of contemporary area composition. Future research should attend to the history of the place as a potential contributor to contemporary patterns.

  12. Challenging a culture of racial equivalence.

    PubMed

    Song, Miri

    2014-03-01

    We live at a time when our understandings and conceptualizations of 'racism' are often highly imprecise, broad, and used to describe a wide range of racialized phenomena. In this article, I raise some important questions about how the term racism is used and understood in contemporary British society by drawing on some recent cases of alleged racism in football and politics, many of which have been played out via new media technologies. A broader understanding of racism, through the use of the term 'racialization', has been helpful in articulating a more nuanced and complex understanding of racial incidents, especially of people's (often ambivalent) beliefs and behaviours. However, the growing emphasis upon 'racialization' has led to a conceptualization of racism which increasingly involves multiple perpetrators, victims, and practices without enough consideration of how and why particular interactions and practices constitute racism as such. The trend toward a growing culture of racial equivalence is worrying, as it denudes the idea of racism of its historical basis, severity and power. These frequent and commonplace assertions of racism in the public sphere paradoxically end up trivializing and homogenizing quite different forms of racialized interactions. I conclude that we need to retain the term 'racism', but we need to differentiate more clearly between 'racism' (as an historical and structured system of domination) from the broader notion of 'racialization'.

  13. Racial Disparity in Police Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Crutchfield, Robert D.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; McGlynn, Anne; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Criminologists agree the race disparity in arrests cannot be fully explained by differences in criminal behavior. We examine social environment factors that may lead to racial differences in police contact in early adolescence, including family, peers, school, and community. Data are from 331 8th-grade students. Blacks were almost twice as likely as Whites to report a police contact. Blacks reported more property crime but not more violent crime than Whites. Police contacts were increased by having a parent who had been arrested, a sibling involved in criminal activity, higher observed reward for negative behavior, having school disciplinary actions, and knowing adults who engaged in substance abuse or criminal behavior. Race differences in police contacts were partially attributable to more school discipline. PMID:24363956

  14. Everyday Racial Discrimination, Everyday Non-racial Discrimination, and Physical Health Among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Mouzon, Dawne M; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Woodward, Amanda; Chatters, Linda M

    2017-01-01

    Past research has identified a link between discrimination and health outcomes among people of color. Perceptions of the cause of discrimination (racial vs. other) seem to be important for mental health; however, this relationship has not been fully examined for physical health. Using data from the National Survey of American Life, we find that, among African Americans, racial discrimination and overall discrimination regardless of attribution are associated with negative health outcomes while non-racial discrimination is not. The results suggest that racial discrimination has a unique adverse effect on physical health for African Americans that practitioners need to better understand.

  15. Physician Racial Bias and Word Use during Racially Discordant Medical Interactions.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Nao; Slatcher, Richard B; Eggly, Susan; Penner, Louis A

    2017-04-01

    Physician racial bias can negatively affect Black patients' reactions to racially discordant medical interactions, suggesting that racial bias is manifested in physicians' communication with their Black patients. However, little is known about how physician racial bias actually influences their communication during these interactions. This study investigated how non-Black physicians' racial bias is related to their word use during medical interactions with Black patients. One hundred and seventeen video-recorded racially discordant medical interactions from a larger study were transcribed and analyzed using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) software. Physicians with higher levels of implicit racial bias used first-person plural pronouns and anxiety-related words more frequently than physicians with lower levels of implicit bias. There was also a trend for physicians with higher levels of explicit racial bias to use first-person singular pronouns more frequently than physicians with lower levels of explicit bias. These findings suggest that non-Black physicians with higher levels of implicit racial bias may tend to use more words that reflect social dominance (i.e., first-person plural pronouns) and anxiety when interacting with Black patients.

  16. The lagged effects of racial discrimination on depressive symptomology and interactions with racial identity.

    PubMed

    Hoggard, Lori S; Byrd, Christy M; Sellers, Robert M

    2015-04-01

    Scholars agree on the negative impacts of racial discrimination on the mental health of African Americans (Brondolo et al., 2008). Yet research is needed to explore the impacts of everyday discrimination over time, especially compared to nonracial daily hassles, in an ecologically valid manner. It is also widely accepted that racial identity can moderate the impact of racial hassles (Sellers, Copeland-Linder, Martin, & Lewis 2006), but few studies have examined this moderating effect over time. The current study addresses gaps in the current literature by analyzing the relationship between reported racial and nonracial stressors over the course of four days. Participants were 225 college students at three institutions who participated in a 20-day daily diary study. Each day, participants reported whether they had experienced a stressful event and their depressive symptoms. We compared reports of depressive symptoms the day an event occurred and two days after for racial and nonracial stressors and examined whether racial identity served as a moderator. The results showed that individuals experienced similar increases for racial and nonracial stressors when events occur and similar decreases in the following two days. Additionally, symptom trajectories varied by racial identity. Implications for the understanding of racial discrimination's role in the well-being of African Americans are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Chronologic implications of new Miocene mammals from the Cura-Mallín and Trapa Trapa formations, Laguna del Laja area, south central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, John J.; Charrier, Reynaldo; Croft, Darin A.; Gans, Phillip B.; Herriott, Trystan M.; Wertheim, Jill A.; Wyss, André R.

    2008-12-01

    Recent work in the central Andean Main Range of Chile near Laguna del Laja (˜37.5°S, 71°W) has produced the first mammal fossils for the region. Fossils, locally abundant and well preserved, occur patchily across a wide area southeast of the lake. Mammalian remains are derived from generally strongly folded (kilometer-scale) exposures of the locally ˜1.8 km thick, early to middle Miocene Cura-Mallín Formation; two identifiable specimens have been recovered from the overlying Trapa Trapa Formation as well. Both formations consist primarily of well-stratified (1-5 m thick layers) volcaniclastic and volcanic strata, deposited predominantly in fluviatile systems. The Cura-Mallín Formation is possibly the southern continuation of (or lateral equivalent to) the richly fossiliferous Abanico Formation mapped between ˜32°S and 36°S. Intensive sampling in a series of localities east and south of Laguna del Laja has yielded diverse faunas, in addition to radioisotopically dateable horizons. The new fossil mammal faunas represent as many as six South American Land Mammal "Ages" (SALMAs). Fossils, together with preliminary 40Ar/ 39Ar radioisotopic dates, ranging from ˜9 to 20 Ma across the exposed thickness of the Cura-Mallín Formation and into the overlying Trapa Trapa Formation, provide a robust geochronological framework for middle Cenozoic strata in the Laguna del Laja region. The sequence of directly superposed mammalian assemblages at Laguna del Laja is one of the longest in all of South America, rivaled only by the classic Gran Barranca section of Patagonian Argentina. These data illuminate the geological history of the area and its record of mammalian evolution. The potential to isotopically date these diverse faunas with high precision (error ± 0.5 Ma) presents a rare opportunity to calibrate related portions of the SALMA sequence.

  18. Racial Earnings Differentials and Performance Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heywood, John S.; O'Halloran, Patrick L.

    2005-01-01

    A comparative analysis between output-based payment and time rates payment is presented. It is observed that racial or gender earnings discrimination is more likely in time rates payment and supervisory evaluations.

  19. Racial Discrimination in the British Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firth, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Contains results of a study of racial discrimination in the British job market for accountants and financial executives. Results show that considerable discrimination remains several years after the adoption of the Race Relations Act of 1968. (CT)

  20. Race talk: the psychology of racial dialogues.

    PubMed

    Sue, Derald Wing

    2013-11-01

    Constructive dialogues on race have been proposed as a means to heal racial and ethnic divides, reduce prejudice and misinformation, increase racial literacy, and foster improved race relations. Studies on the psychology of racial dialogues indicate social and academic norms that dictate against race talk between White Americans and persons of color: (a) the politeness protocol, (b) the academic protocol, and (c) the color-blind protocol. These protocols discourage race talk and allow society to enter into a conspiracy of silence regarding the detrimental impact oppression plays on persons of color. Facilitating difficult dialogues on race requires educators to recognize what makes such discussions difficult. For people of color, engaging in race talk exposes them to microaggressions that invalidate and assail their racial/ethnic identities. For Whites, honest discussions are impeded by fears of appearing racist, of realizing their racism, of acknowledging White privilege, and of taking responsibility to combat racism.

  1. What Promotes Racial and Ethnic Tolerance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John H.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews selected research on efforts to promote racial and ethnic tolerance through the adoption of certain school and classroom practices and improved preservice and inservice teacher-training activities. (PKP)

  2. Remarks on Racial Economic Equality: Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowell, Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Responds to an earlier article by William Darity, Jr., which criticized the author's concept of equal economic opportunity. Claims that Darity misrepresented his viewpoint regarding racial differences in economic status. (GC)

  3. RACIAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...

  4. Racial disparities in hate crime reporting.

    PubMed

    Zaykowski, Heather

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the influence of the victim's race in reporting hate crimes to the police. Data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) concentrated incident-level files (1992-2005) were used to (a) analyze how the victim's race influences the likelihood of reporting and (b) explore differences between reporting racial hate crimes and non-racial hate crimes. Controlling for other demographic and incident characteristics, the results indicate that minority victimizations are less likely to be reported for both racial and nonracial hate crimes; however, the magnitude of this effect was greater for racial hate crimes. Failure to report to the police has serious consequences for the victim and the criminal justice system. Implications and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  5. RACIAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...

  6. Outline for Remediation of Problem Areas for Children with Learning Disabilities. Revised. = Bosquejo para la Correccion de Areas Problematicas para Ninos con Impedimientos del Aprendizaje.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Joan L.

    The booklet outlines ways to help children with learning disabilities in specific subject areas. Characteristic behavior and remedial exercises are listed for seven areas of auditory problems: auditory reception, auditory association, auditory discrimination, auditory figure ground, auditory closure and sound blending, auditory memory, and grammar…

  7. Outline for Remediation of Problem Areas for Children with Learning Disabilities. Revised. = Bosquejo para la Correccion de Areas Problematicas para Ninos con Impedimientos del Aprendizaje.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Joan L.

    The booklet outlines ways to help children with learning disabilities in specific subject areas. Characteristic behavior and remedial exercises are listed for seven areas of auditory problems: auditory reception, auditory association, auditory discrimination, auditory figure ground, auditory closure and sound blending, auditory memory, and grammar…

  8. The Impact of African American Parents' Racial Discrimination Experiences and Perceived Neighborhood Cohesion on their Racial Socialization Practices.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Farzana T; English, Devin; Busby, Danielle R; Lambert, Sharon F; Harrison, Aubrey; Stock, Michelle L; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2016-07-01

    Parental racial socialization is a parenting tool used to prepare African American adolescents for managing racial stressors. While it is known that parents' racial discrimination experiences affect the racial socialization messages they provide, little is known about the influence of factors that promote supportive and communal parenting, such as perceived neighborhood cohesion. In cohesive neighborhoods, neighbors may help parents address racial discrimination by monitoring youth and conveying racial socialization messages; additionally, the effect of neighborhood cohesion on parents' racial socialization may differ for boys and girls because parents socialize adolescents about race differently based on expected encounters with racial discrimination. Therefore, the current study examines how parents' perception of neighborhood cohesion and adolescents' gender moderate associations between parents' racial discrimination experiences and the racial socialization messages they deliver to their adolescents. Participants were a community sample of 608 African American adolescents (54 % girls; mean age = 15.5) and their primary caregivers (86 % biological mothers; mean age = 42.0). Structural equation modeling indicated that parental racial discrimination was associated with more promotion of mistrust messages for boys and girls in communities with low neighborhood cohesion. In addition, parental racial discrimination was associated with more cultural socialization messages about racial pride and history for boys in neighborhoods with low neighborhood cohesion. The findings suggest that parents' racial socialization messages are influenced by their own racial discrimination experiences and the cohesiveness of the neighborhood; furthermore, the content of parental messages delivered varies based on adolescents' gender.

  9. The Impact of African American Parents’ Racial Discrimination Experiences and Perceived Neighborhood Cohesion on their Racial Socialization Practices

    PubMed Central

    English, Devin; Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Harrison, Aubrey; Stock, Michelle L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2016-01-01

    Parental racial socialization is a parenting tool used to prepare African American adolescents for managing racial stressors. While it is known that parents’ racial discrimination experiences affect the racial socialization messages they provide, little is known about the influence of factors that promote supportive and communal parenting, such as perceived neighborhood cohesion. In cohesive neighborhoods, neighbors may help parents address racial discrimination by monitoring youth and conveying racial socialization messages; additionally, the effect of neighborhood cohesion on parents’ racial socialization may differ for boys and girls because parents socialize adolescents about race differently based on expected encounters with racial discrimination. Therefore, the current study examines how parents’ perception of neighborhood cohesion and adolescents’ gender moderate associations between parents’ racial discrimination experiences and the racial socialization messages they deliver to their adolescents. Participants were a community sample of 608 African American adolescents (54 % girls; mean age = 15.5) and their primary caregivers (86 % biological mothers; mean age = 42.0). Structural equation modeling indicated that parental racial discrimination was associated with more promotion of mistrust messages for boys and girls in communities with low neighborhood cohesion. In addition, parental racial discrimination was associated with more cultural socialization messages about racial pride and history for boys in neighborhoods with low neighborhood cohesion. The findings suggest that parents’ racial socialization messages are influenced by their own racial discrimination experiences and the cohesiveness of the neighborhood; furthermore, the content of parental messages delivered varies based on adolescents’ gender. PMID:27189721

  10. Racial discrimination: how not to do it.

    PubMed

    Hochman, Adam

    2013-09-01

    The UNESCO Statements on Race of the early 1950s are understood to have marked a consensus amongst natural scientists and social scientists that 'race' is a social construct. Human biological diversity was shown to be predominantly clinal, or gradual, not discreet, and clustered, as racial naturalism implied. From the seventies social constructionists added that the vast majority of human genetic diversity resides within any given racialised group. While social constructionism about race became the majority consensus view on the topic, social constructionism has always had its critics. Sesardic (2010) has compiled these criticisms into one of the strongest defences of racial naturalism in recent times. In this paper I argue that Sesardic equivocates between two versions of racial naturalism: a weak version and a strong version. As I shall argue, the strong version is not supported by the relevant science. The weak version, on the other hand, does not contrast properly with what social constructionists think about 'race'. By leaning on this weak view Sesardic's racial naturalism intermittently gains an appearance of plausibility, but this view is too weak to revive racial naturalism. As Sesardic demonstrates, there are new arguments for racial naturalism post-Human Genome Diversity Project. The positive message behind my critique is how to be a social constructionist about race in the post-genomic era. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Racial bias shapes social reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Björn; Selbing, Ida; Molapour, Tanaz; Olsson, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Both emotional facial expressions and markers of racial-group belonging are ubiquitous signals in social interaction, but little is known about how these signals together affect future behavior through learning. To address this issue, we investigated how emotional (threatening or friendly) in-group and out-group faces reinforced behavior in a reinforcement-learning task. We asked whether reinforcement learning would be modulated by intergroup attitudes (i.e., racial bias). The results showed that individual differences in racial bias critically modulated reinforcement learning. As predicted, racial bias was associated with more efficiently learned avoidance of threatening out-group individuals. We used computational modeling analysis to quantitatively delimit the underlying processes affected by social reinforcement. These analyses showed that racial bias modulates the rate at which exposure to threatening out-group individuals is transformed into future avoidance behavior. In concert, these results shed new light on the learning processes underlying social interaction with racial-in-group and out-group individuals.

  12. Examination of the Link between Parental Racial Socialization Messages and Racial Ideology among Black College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Simone C.; Neville, Helen A.

    2008-01-01

    The relations between racial socialization and color-blind racial beliefs (i.e., the denial, distortion, or minimization of racism) among 153 Black American college students, including 34 college student-parent dyads, were examined. Findings from open-ended data indicate that participants identified receiving both protective (i.e., messages about…

  13. Learned Inequality: Racial Labels in the Biology Curriculum Can Affect the Development of Racial Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    For over a century, genetic arguments for the existence of racial inequality have been used to oppose policies that promote social equality. And, over that same time period, American biology textbooks have repeatedly discussed genetic differences between races. This experiment tests whether racial terminology in the biology curriculum causes…

  14. A Moderated Mediation Model: Racial Discrimination, Coping Strategies, and Racial Identity among Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Upton, Rachel; Gilbert, Adrianne; Volpe, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a moderated mediation model among 314 Black adolescents aged 13-18. The model included general coping strategies (e.g., active, distracting, avoidant, and support-seeking strategies) as mediators and racial identity dimensions (racial centrality, private regard, public regard, minority, assimilationist, and humanist ideologies)…

  15. A Moderated Mediation Model: Racial Discrimination, Coping Strategies, and Racial Identity among Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Upton, Rachel; Gilbert, Adrianne; Volpe, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a moderated mediation model among 314 Black adolescents aged 13-18. The model included general coping strategies (e.g., active, distracting, avoidant, and support-seeking strategies) as mediators and racial identity dimensions (racial centrality, private regard, public regard, minority, assimilationist, and humanist ideologies)…

  16. Learned Inequality: Racial Labels in the Biology Curriculum Can Affect the Development of Racial Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    For over a century, genetic arguments for the existence of racial inequality have been used to oppose policies that promote social equality. And, over that same time period, American biology textbooks have repeatedly discussed genetic differences between races. This experiment tests whether racial terminology in the biology curriculum causes…

  17. Racial Microaggressions against African American Clients in Cross-Racial Counseling Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Madonna G.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among African American clients' perceptions of their White counselors with respect to (a) perceived racial microaggressions in cross-racial counseling relationships, (b) the counseling working alliance, (c) their counselors' general and multicultural counseling competence, and (d) their counseling…

  18. Modeling Racial Differences in the Effects of Racial Representation on 2-Year College Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Museus, Samuel D.; Jayakumar, Uma M.; Robinson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The failure of many 2-year college students to persist and complete a post-secondary credential or degree remains a problem of paramount importance to higher education policymakers and practitioners. While racial representation--or the extent to which a student's racial group is represented on their respective campus--might be one factor that…

  19. When are Racial Disparities in Education the Result of Racial Discrimination? A Social Science Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin

    2003-01-01

    Synthesizes the social science research on racially correlated disparities in education, focusing on biological determinism (behavioral genetics); social structure (e.g., reproduction theory and resistance theory); school organization and opportunities to learn (e.g., resources, racial composition, and tracking); family background (financial,…

  20. Intergroup contact throughout the lifespan modulates implicit racial biases across perceivers’ racial group

    PubMed Central

    Peiso, Jaelyn; Marcum, Kori; Cloutier, Jasmin

    2017-01-01

    Few researchers have investigated how contact across the lifespan influences racial bias and whether diversity of contact is beneficial regardless of the race of the perceiver. This research aims to address these gaps in the literature with a focus on how diversity in childhood and current contact shapes implicit racial bias across perceivers’ racial group. In two investigations, participants completed an Implicit Association Test and a self-report measure of the racial diversity of their current and childhood contact. In both studies, increased contact with Black compared with White individuals, both in childhood (Study 2) and currently (Studies 1 and 2), was associated with reduced implicit pro-White racial bias. For Black individuals (Study 2) more contact with Black compared with White individuals also was associated with reduced implicit pro-White racial bias. These findings suggest that diversity in contact across the lifespan may be related to reductions in implicit racial biases and that this relationship may generalize across racial groups. PMID:28700624

  1. The Relation of Racial Identity and Racial Socialization to Coping with Discrimination among African American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Lionel D.

    2003-01-01

    Surveyed African American high school students regarding whether strategies they used to cope with perceived discrimination related to their racial identity and racial socialization. The degree to which race was central to self-concept and identity was unrelated to both approach and avoidance strategies. Frequency of receiving socialization…

  2. Examination of the Link between Parental Racial Socialization Messages and Racial Ideology among Black College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Simone C.; Neville, Helen A.

    2008-01-01

    The relations between racial socialization and color-blind racial beliefs (i.e., the denial, distortion, or minimization of racism) among 153 Black American college students, including 34 college student-parent dyads, were examined. Findings from open-ended data indicate that participants identified receiving both protective (i.e., messages about…

  3. The Racial Stress of Membership: Development of the Faculty Inventory of Racialized Experiences in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Sherry; Stevenson, Howard C.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the experience of faculty of color in predominately White independent schools (PWIS) is limited. This study explored faculty of varying racial backgrounds and their initiation of, interactions with, and stress reactions to racial conflicts within the school settings using an online survey. Several measures were developed according to…

  4. Campus Racial Climate Perceptions and Overall Sense of Belonging among Racially Diverse Women in STEM Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dawn R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of campus racial climate perceptions and other college environments to overall sense of belonging among racially diverse women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. The sample included 1,722 women from the 2004 National Study of Living-Learning Programs. Using a conceptual…

  5. Racial Politics and Racial Self-Identification: A Case Study of Arizona, 2010-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Nolan L.; Holliday, Matthew R.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between Arizona's anti-Latina/o policies and changing patterns of racial self-identification for students at the University of Arizona. Using institutional data and the university's Entering Student Survey, we explored trends in racial/ethnic self-identification between two cohorts of students: one before and…

  6. Racial Discrimination during Adolescence Predicts Mental Health Deterioration in Adulthood: Gender Differences among Blacks.

    PubMed

    Assari, Shervin; Moazen-Zadeh, Ehsan; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2017-01-01

    Despite the existing knowledge regarding the negative mental health consequences of perceived racial discrimination, very few researchers have used a longitudinal design with long-term follow-up periods to explore gender differences in this association over time. The current longitudinal study aimed to investigate gender differences in predictive role of an increase in perceived racial discrimination during adolescence for mental health deterioration a decade later when they are transitioning to young adulthood. Current study followed 681 Black youths for 18 years from 1994 (mean age 15) to 2012 (mean age 32). All participants spent their adolescence and transition to young adulthood in an economically disadvantaged urban area in the Midwest of the United States. Independent variable was perceived racial discrimination measured in 1999 and 2002. Outcomes were psychological symptoms (anxiety and depression) measured in 1999 and at end of follow-up (2012). Covariates included sociodemographics (age, family structure, and parental employment) measured in 1994. Gender was used to define groups in a multigroup structural equation model to test moderating effects. Multigroup structural equation modeling showed that among male Black youth, an increase in perceived racial discrimination from age 20 to 23 was predictive for an increase in symptoms of anxiety and depression from age 20 to 32. Among female Black youth, change in perceived racial discrimination did not predict future change in depressive or anxiety symptoms. While racial discrimination is associated with negative mental health consequences for both genders, male and female Black youth differ in regard to long-term effects of an increase in perceived discrimination on deterioration of psychological symptoms. Black males seem to be more susceptible than Black females to the psychological effects of an increase in racial discrimination over time.

  7. Unpacking racial socialization: Considering female African American primary caregivers’ racial identity

    PubMed Central

    Scottham, Krista Maywalt; Smalls, Ciara P.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between female African American primary caregivers’ racial identity and their racial socialization emphases was examined. Three components of racial identity were evaluated: (1) the importance of race to the self-concept (centrality); (2) affective feelings towards group membership (private regard); and, (3) perceptions of how group members are perceived by nonmembers (public regard). Latent class cluster analysis was used to identify racial identity profiles, or dominant combinations of racial centrality, private regard, and public regard among a sample of 208 female African American primary caregivers. Mean differences in the content of caregivers’ socialization emphases by profile group were then assessed. Findings indicated that caregivers’ with different identity profiles emphasized different messages. These findings and their implications are discussed. PMID:20161472

  8. Unpacking racial socialization: Considering female African American primary caregivers' racial identity.

    PubMed

    Scottham, Krista Maywalt; Smalls, Ciara P

    2009-11-01

    The relationship between female African American primary caregivers' racial identity and their racial socialization emphases was examined. Three components of racial identity were evaluated: (1) the importance of race to the self-concept (centrality); (2) affective feelings towards group membership (private regard); and, (3) perceptions of how group members are perceived by nonmembers (public regard). Latent class cluster analysis was used to identify racial identity profiles, or dominant combinations of racial centrality, private regard, and public regard among a sample of 208 female African American primary caregivers. Mean differences in the content of caregivers' socialization emphases by profile group were then assessed. Findings indicated that caregivers' with different identity profiles emphasized different messages. These findings and their implications are discussed.

  9. Strategies for managing impressions of racial identity in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Laura Morgan; Cha, Sandra E; Kim, Sung Soo

    2014-10-01

    This article deepens understanding of the workplace experiences of racial minorities by investigating racial identity-based impression management (RIM) by Asian American journalists. Racial centrality, directly or indirectly, predicted the use of 4 RIM strategies (avoidance, enhancement, affiliation, and racial humor). Professional centrality also predicted strategy use, which was related to life satisfaction and perceived career success. By shedding light on proactive strategies that individuals use to influence colleagues' impressions of their racial identity, we contribute to research on diversity in organizations, impression management, and racial identity.

  10. Patient preference for a racially or gender-concordant student dentist.

    PubMed

    Bender, Daniel J

    2007-06-01

    Disparities in health and health care due to race and ethnicity are a national problem. One commonly proposed method to address disparities is to increase the number of underrepresented minorities in the health professions to serve the needs of growing minority populations. This position is based in part on the racial concordance hypothesis, an untested assumption that minority patients prefer to be treated by providers of the same race as themselves. The purpose of this study was to test the racial concordance hypothesis. Gender preference of dental patients was also investigated. One hundred twenty male and female Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, and Asian dental patients over eighteen were recruited from the reception area of a private dental school clinic in Northern California. Participants were randomly assigned to a treatment condition that gave them a choice between two equally qualified fictitious dental students that varied on race and gender. Participants were initially blinded to the study's purpose to preserve the authenticity of the choice decision. Results showed that 58 percent of the participants had no preference for the race or gender of their student dentist, but that some black and Hispanic patients preferred a racially concordant student dentist and some female patients preferred a gender-concordant student dentist. Hispanic females were especially likely to prefer racial and gender concordance. The findings suggest that the racial concordance hypothesis may not apply to choosing a dentist and thus may not be as strong an argument to justify efforts to increase diversity in dental schools as previously thought.

  11. Racial and nonracial discrimination and smoking status among South African adults ten years after apartheid

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite a long history of discrimination and persisting racial disparities in smoking prevalence, little research exists on the relationship between discrimination and smoking in South Africa. Methods This analysis examined chronic (day to day) and acute (lifetime) experiences of racial and nonracial (e.g., age, gender, or physical appearance) discrimination and smoking status among respondents to the South Africa Stress and Health Study (SASH). Logistic regression models were constructed using SAS-Callable SUDAAN. Results Both chronic racial discrimination (RR=1.45, 95%CI: 1.14–1.85) and chronic nonracial discrimination (RR=1.69, 95%CI: 1.37–2.08) predicted a higher risk of smoking, but neither type of acute discrimination did. Total (sum of racial and nonracial) chronic discrimination (RR=1.46, 95%CI: 1.20–1.78) and total acute discrimination (RR=1.28, 95%CI: 1.01–1.60) predicted a higher risk of current smoking. Conclusions Racial and nonracial discrimination may be related to South African adults’ smoking behavior, but this relationship likely varies by the timing and frequency of these experiences. Future research should use longitudinal data to identify the temporal ordering of the relationships studied, include areas outside of South Africa to increase generalizability, and consider the implications of these findings for smoking cessation approaches in South Africa. PMID:24789604

  12. Economic and Racial Segregation in Greater Miami's Elementary Schools: Trends Shaping Metropolitan Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Myron; Discher, Anne; Luce, Tom

    This report highlights the social changes underway in Miami-area schools, discussing their implications for metropolitan growth policies. It focuses on changes in the racial and economic composition of elementary schools between 1993-2002. Data come from the Common Core of Data of the National Center for Education Statistics. Results indicate that…

  13. Racialization in Early Childhood: A Critical Analysis of Discourses in Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacini-Ketchabaw, Veronica; White, Jan; de Almeida, Ana-Elisa Armstrong

    2006-01-01

    A large portion of the early childhood literature in the area of cultural, racial, and linguistic diversity addresses the practices of institutions for young children, immigrant/refugee parents' understandings of their situation, and provides recommendations for more inclusive practices. This body of literature has proved very useful in bringing…

  14. Healthy Mothers, Healthy Infants: Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.

    This Kids Count issue brief details the strides made in Rhode Island over the last 10 years to improve maternal and child health, focusing on efforts to reduce racial and ethnic disparities. The brief notes that Rhode Island has made significant progress in several areas of maternal and infant care, most notably in access to insurance and early…

  15. Economic and Racial Segregation in Greater Miami's Elementary Schools: Trends Shaping Metropolitan Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Myron; Discher, Anne; Luce, Tom

    This report highlights the social changes underway in Miami-area schools, discussing their implications for metropolitan growth policies. It focuses on changes in the racial and economic composition of elementary schools between 1993-2002. Data come from the Common Core of Data of the National Center for Education Statistics. Results indicate that…

  16. The Impact of School Choice on Racial Segregation in Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, David R.

    2008-01-01

    This study captures the impact of school choice decisions by comparing the racial composition of the district schools students exited to the charter schools they entered. Charter school catchment areas are operationalized using a statewide student-level database to track school attendance patterns of individual students over 4 years. Charter…

  17. "It's Okay to Laugh, Right?": Toward a Pedagogy of Racial Comedy in Multicultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulmer, Ellie Fitts; Makepeace, Nia Nunn

    2015-01-01

    While humor has long been documented as a useful teaching tool, it is almost entirely untheorized in terms of its potential for multicultural education. Specifically, the learning opportunities that racial comedic media offer in multicultural and anti-racist coursework is a particularly under-studied area, while research in this vein has great…

  18. Racial Disparities in Tobacco Use and Social Influences in a Rural Southern Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muilenburg, Jessica L.; Johnson, William D.; Annang, Lucy; Strasser, Sheryl M.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated racial differences of tobacco use and social exposure to tobacco products in a sample of middle school students. Questionnaires were administered in January 2005 to 290 students in a Mississippi Delta-area middle school. The participants were 51.0% female and 56.6% African American. Unadjusted odds ratios revealed that…

  19. Racial Differences in HPV Knowledge, HPV Vaccine Acceptability, and Related Beliefs among Rural, Southern Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Joan R.; Brewer, Noel T.; Fazekas, Karah I.; Mitchell, Cicely E.; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Because cervical cancer mortality in the United States is twice as high among black women as white women and higher in rural areas, providing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to rural black adolescents is a high priority. Purpose: To identify racial differences in knowledge and attitudes about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine…

  20. Racial Disparities in Tobacco Use and Social Influences in a Rural Southern Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muilenburg, Jessica L.; Johnson, William D.; Annang, Lucy; Strasser, Sheryl M.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated racial differences of tobacco use and social exposure to tobacco products in a sample of middle school students. Questionnaires were administered in January 2005 to 290 students in a Mississippi Delta-area middle school. The participants were 51.0% female and 56.6% African American. Unadjusted odds ratios revealed that…

  1. Racial Differences in HPV Knowledge, HPV Vaccine Acceptability, and Related Beliefs among Rural, Southern Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Joan R.; Brewer, Noel T.; Fazekas, Karah I.; Mitchell, Cicely E.; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Because cervical cancer mortality in the United States is twice as high among black women as white women and higher in rural areas, providing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to rural black adolescents is a high priority. Purpose: To identify racial differences in knowledge and attitudes about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine…

  2. College and University Racial/Ethnic Distribution of Degrees Conferred, New York State 1982-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Information Center on Education.

    Data on degrees awarded in public and private colleges and universities in New York State for 1982-1983 are presented with attention to the race/ethnicity and sex of recipients, level of degree, and sector of the institution. Degrees conferred by 20 subject areas, racial/ethnic category, and sex of student are also reported separately. The number…

  3. How Teachers and Schools Contribute to Racial Differences in the Realization of Academic Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildhagen, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: The fulfillment of academic potential is an underdeveloped area of inquiry as it relates to explaining racial differences in academic outcomes. Examining this issue is important for addressing not only differences in the typical outcomes for African American and White students but also the severe underrepresentation of African…

  4. The Status of Racial/Ethnic Research in Counseling Psychology: Committed or Complacent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Robert T.; Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka M.; Smailes, Elizabeth M.; Clauss, Caroline S.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzed the content of racial and ethnic issues in three journals ("Journal of Counseling Psychology,""Journal of Vocational Behavior," and "Journal of Counseling and Development") along specific areas for their levels of commitment versus complacency, study frame, method, analysis, and discussion. Preliminary results indicate that research in…

  5. Circles of Influence: An Analysis of Charter School Location and Racial Patterns at Varying Geographic Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulosino, Charisse; d'Entremont, Chad

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and dynamic mapping to examine student enrollments in New Jersey charter schools. Consistent with previous research, we find evidence of increased racial segregation. Greater percentages of African-Americans attend charter schools than reside in surrounding areas. We add to the existing charter…

  6. Racial Healthcare Disparities: A Social Psychological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Penner, Louis A.; Hagiwara, Nao; Eggly, Susan; Gaertner, Samuel L.; Albrecht, Terrance L.; Dovidio, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Around the world, members of racial/ethnic minority groups typically experience poorer health than members of racial/ethnic majority groups. The core premise of this article is that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors related to race and ethnicity play a critical role in healthcare disparities. Social psychological theories of the origins and consequences of these thoughts, feelings, and behaviors offer critical insights into the processes responsible for these disparities and suggest interventions to address them. We present a multilevel model that explains how societal, intrapersonal, and interpersonal factors can influence ethnic/racial health disparities. We focus our literature review, including our own research, and conceptual analysis at the intrapersonal (the race-related thoughts and feelings of minority patients and non-minority physicians) and interpersonal levels (intergroup processes that affect medical interactions between minority patients and non-minority physicians). At both levels of analysis, we use theories of social categorization, social identity, contemporary forms of racial bias, stereotype activation, stigma, and other social psychological processes to identify and understand potential causes and processes of health and healthcare disparities. In the final section, we identify theory-based interventions that might reduce ethnic/racial disparities in health and healthcare. PMID:25197206

  7. Racial Disparities in Hepatitis C Treatment Eligibility.

    PubMed

    Sims, Omar; Pollio, David; Hong, Barry; North, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis C (HCV) is more prevalent in African Americans than in any other racial group in the United States. However, African Americans are more likely to be deemed ineligible for HCV treatment than non-African Americans. There has been limited research into the origins of racial disparities in HCV treatment eligibility. The purpose of this study was to compare medical and non-medical characteristics commonly assessed in clinical practice that could potentially contribute to HCV treatment ineligibility disparities between African American and non-African American patients. Patients with confirmed HCV RNA considering treatment (n = 309) were recruited from university-affiliated and VA liver and infectious disease clinics. African Americans and non-African Americans did not differ in prevalence of lifetime and current psychiatric disorders and risky behaviors, and HCV knowledge. HCV clinical characteristics were similar between both groups in terms of HCV exposure history, number of months aware of HCV diagnosis, stage of fibrosis, and HCV virologic levels. African Americans did have higher proportions of diabetes, renal disease, and bleeding ulcer. No clinical evidence was found to indicate that African Americans should be more often deemed ineligible for HCV treatment than other racial groups. Diabetes and renal disease do not fully explain the HCV treatment ineligibility racial disparity, because HCV patients with these conditions are priority patients for HCV treatment because of their greater risk for cirrhosis, steatosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The findings suggest that an underlying contributor to the HCV treatment eligibility disparity disfavoring African Americans could be racial discrimination.

  8. The Relationship between Racial Identity and Perceived Significance of the Election of President Barack Obama among African American Mothers.

    PubMed

    Franco, Marisa; Smith-Bynum, Mia

    2016-01-01

    African American women's racial identity is a major determinant for how they interpret the world around them, yet there is little research examining how specific aspects of racial identity are linked with attitudes about an event that has been highly significant for African-Americans: the election of President Barack Obama. The current study examined the relationship between African American mothers' racial identity and their perceived significance of the election of President Barack Obama as an indicator of reduced systemic and actual racism for African Americans, using a sample of 110 African American mothers residing in a Northeastern metropolitan area. Results revealed that racial centrality and assimilation positively predicted perceived significance of President Obama's election for diminishing racism. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  9. The Relationship between Racial Identity and Perceived Significance of the Election of President Barack Obama among African American Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Marisa; Smith-Bynum, Mia

    2016-01-01

    African American women’s racial identity is a major determinant for how they interpret the world around them, yet there is little research examining how specific aspects of racial identity are linked with attitudes about an event that has been highly significant for African-Americans: the election of President Barack Obama. The current study examined the relationship between African American mothers’ racial identity and their perceived significance of the election of President Barack Obama as an indicator of reduced systemic and actual racism for African Americans, using a sample of 110 African American mothers residing in a Northeastern metropolitan area. Results revealed that racial centrality and assimilation positively predicted perceived significance of President Obama’s election for diminishing racism. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:28163660

  10. Racial/Ethnic Workplace Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (p<0.001). In the total sample, discrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232

  11. Examining Post-Racial Ideology in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baber, Lorenzo DuBois

    2015-01-01

    Despite traditional notions of meritocracy, higher education has a long history of exclusionary practices. This chapter explores connections between such practices and racial ideology in the United States, including the recent concept of "post-racialism."

  12. Relationships between organic carbon and microbial components in a Tyrrhenian area (Isola del Giglio) affected by mucilages.

    PubMed

    Misic, C; Giani, M; Povero, P; Polimene, L; Fabiano, M

    2005-12-15

    The chemical and biological properties of the water column at a Tyrrhenian site (Isola del Giglio) were studied during a 3-year period. The results highlighted the oligotrophic features of the site, characterised by quite low concentrations of organic carbon (on average DOC 102 micromol/L and POC 9 micromol/L). Relevant bacterial biomass (on average 42.1 microg C/L) and a notable activity (in terms of frequency of dividing cells, on average more than 5%) were observed. However, remarkable changes for these parameters were seasonally recorded. The cyclic occurrence, generally during the late spring-summer period, of benthic mucilage indicated that localised distrophic processes may occur. In particular, the benthic mucilage events of 2000 and 2001 were investigated, although some comparative information was available also for 1999 and 2002. The mucilage aggregates generally showed high bacterial colonisation, which have remarkable effects on the organic matter cycle both inside the aggregates and in the surrounding seawater. During the benthic mucilage development, an increase of DOC and POC concentrations was observed (up to 129 and 18 micromol/L, respectively, in June 2000 and up to 145 and 10 micromol/L, respectively, in May and June 2001) in the water column adjacent to the bottom. However, a general decrease of the trophic value of particulate matter (in terms of C/N ratio) was also observed, especially in 2000 after the disappearance of the mucilage. The available energy and organic matter during the mucilage events led to an increased presence of bacteria in the bottom waters of the Isola del Giglio, with maximum biomass values in 2001. Similarly, the replicative activity of bacteria was higher in 2001 (frequency of dividing cells about 5% vs. 3% of 2000). The lower activity of 2000, in addition to the lower trophic value of organic matter and different environmental conditions (namely lower temperature), might be involved in the persistence of mucilage in

  13. Racial conceptions in the global south.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Warwick

    2014-12-01

    What happens to twentieth-century race science when we relocate it to the Global South? North Atlantic debates have dominated the conceptual history of race. Yet there is suggestive evidence of a "southern" or antipodean racial distinctiveness. We can find across the Southern Hemisphere greater interest in racial plasticity, environmental adaptation, mixing or miscegenation, and blurring of racial boundaries; endorsement of biological absorption of indigenous populations; and consent to the formation of new or blended races. Once we recognize the Global South as a site of knowledge making, and not just data extraction, the picture of race science in the twentieth century changes. Once situated, or displaced, the conventional North Atlantic history of race science in the twentieth century comes to seem exceptional--and no longer normative.

  14. Segregation, racial structure, and neighborhood violent crime.

    PubMed

    Krivo, Lauren J; Peterson, Ruth D; Kuhl, Danielle C

    2009-05-01

    Drawing on structural racism and urban disadvantage approaches, this article posits a broad influence of citywide racial residential segregation on levels of violent crime across all urban neighborhoods regardless of their racial/ethnic composition. Multilevel models based on data from the National Neighborhood Crime Study for 7,622 neighborhoods in 79 cities throughout the United States reveal that segregation is positively associated with violent crime for white and various types of nonwhite neighborhoods. Nonetheless, there is a lack of parity in violence across these types of communities reflecting the larger racialized social system in which whites are able to use their privileged position to reside in the most advantaged neighborhoods, while African-Americans and Latinos live in the most disadvantaged urban communities and therefore bear the brunt of urban criminal violence.

  15. Racial Discrimination, Cultural Resilience, and Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn; George, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Racial discrimination is a social determinant of health for First Nations people. Cultural resilience has been regarded as a potentially positive resource for social outcomes. Using a compensatory model of resilience, this study sought to determine if cultural resilience (compensatory factor) neutralized or offset the detrimental effect of racial discrimination (social risk factor) on stress (outcome). Methods: Data were collected from October 2012 to February 2013 (N = 340) from adult members of the Kettle and Stony Point First Nation community in Ontario, Canada. The outcome was perceived stress; risk factor, racial discrimination; and compensatory factor, cultural resilience. Control variables included individual (education, sociability) and family (marital status, socioeconomic status) resilience resources and demographics (age and gender). The model was tested using sequential regression. Results: The risk factor, racial discrimination, increased stress across steps of the sequential model, while cultural resilience had an opposite modest effect on stress levels. In the final model with all variables, age and gender were significant, with the former having a negative effect on stress and women reporting higher levels of stress than males. Education, marital status, and socioeconomic status (household income) were not significant in the model. The model had R2 = 0.21 and adjusted R2 = 0.18 and semipartial correlation (squared) of 0.04 and 0.01 for racial discrimination and cultural resilience, respectively. Conclusions: In this study, cultural resilience compensated for the detrimental effect of racial discrimination on stress in a modest manner. These findings may support the development of programs and services fostering First Nations culture, pending further study. PMID:27254805

  16. Racial Discrimination, Cultural Resilience, and Stress.

    PubMed

    Spence, Nicholas D; Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn; George, Julie

    2016-05-01

    Racial discrimination is a social determinant of health for First Nations people. Cultural resilience has been regarded as a potentially positive resource for social outcomes. Using a compensatory model of resilience, this study sought to determine if cultural resilience (compensatory factor) neutralized or offset the detrimental effect of racial discrimination (social risk factor) on stress (outcome). Data were collected from October 2012 to February 2013 (N = 340) from adult members of the Kettle and Stony Point First Nation community in Ontario, Canada. The outcome was perceived stress; risk factor, racial discrimination; and compensatory factor, cultural resilience. Control variables included individual (education, sociability) and family (marital status, socioeconomic status) resilience resources and demographics (age and gender). The model was tested using sequential regression. The risk factor, racial discrimination, increased stress across steps of the sequential model, while cultural resilience had an opposite modest effect on stress levels. In the final model with all variables, age and gender were significant, with the former having a negative effect on stress and women reporting higher levels of stress than males. Education, marital status, and socioeconomic status (household income) were not significant in the model. The model had R(2) = 0.21 and adjusted R(2) = 0.18 and semipartial correlation (squared) of 0.04 and 0.01 for racial discrimination and cultural resilience, respectively. In this study, cultural resilience compensated for the detrimental effect of racial discrimination on stress in a modest manner. These findings may support the development of programs and services fostering First Nations culture, pending further study. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Racial Socialization, Racial Identity, and Academic Attitudes Among African American Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Influence of Parent-Adolescent Communication.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sandra; McLoyd, Vonnie C; Hallman, Samantha K

    2016-06-01

    A significant gap remains in our understanding of the conditions under which parents' racial socialization has consequences for adolescents' functioning. The present study used longitudinal data to examine whether the frequency of communication between African American parents and adolescents (N = 504; 49 % female) moderates the association between parent reports of racial socialization (i.e., cultural socialization and preparation for bias) at 8th grade and adolescent reports of racial identity (perceived structural discrimination, negative public regard, success-oriented centrality) at 11th grade, and in turn, academic attitudes and perceptions. Parents' racial socialization practices were significant predictors of multiple aspects of adolescents' racial identity in families with high levels of communication, but they did not predict any aspects of adolescents' racial identity in families with low levels of communication. Results highlight the importance of including family processes when examining the relations between parents' racial socialization and adolescents' racial identity and academic attitudes and perceptions.

  18. Of Jewel Heritage: racial socialization and racial identity attitudes amongst adolescents of mixed African-Caribbean/White parentage.

    PubMed

    Fatimilehin, I A

    1999-06-01

    Mixed parentage adolescents form an increasing proportion of ethnic minority adolescents in Britain. Few studies have investigated their views and perceptions of their racial identity in terms of their Black heritage. This exploratory study investigated their attitudes towards Blackness, and examined the relationship that this might have with their reported experiences of racial socialization as well as with their self-esteem. Older adolescents were more likely to have positive racial identity attitudes, and a positive relationship was found between racial identity attitudes and self-esteem. Reported frequency of certain types of racial socialization messages increased with age. This was especially pronounced with messages relating to the development of racial pride and messages relating to issues around racism. Those adolescents who lived with both parents reported receiving more proactive racial socialization messages. Tentative conclusions include the possibility that dual identification and multicultural environments are associated with a positive sense of racial identity. These issues need to be investigated further.

  19. Racial and Ego Identity Development in Black Caribbean College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses among 255 Black Caribbean college students in the Northeast United States. Findings indicated that racial identity attitudes were predictive of ego identity statuses. Specifically, preencounter racial identity attitudes were predictive of lower scores…

  20. The Serious Games of Racial Accounting in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Martha Irene

    2011-01-01

    Educational disparities are frequently framed in racial comparisons that are based on data generated by sorting and counting racial subgroups. Our reliance on these data, and the sorting and counting mechanisms entailed therein, is fundamental to debates about racial inequalities. What is largely ignored in achievement gap discourse is how racial…

  1. Addressing Racial Awareness and Color-Blindness in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diggles, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Racial awareness is a critical foundation to racial sensitivity, and it is a necessity for future professionals who want to be prepared to succeed in an increasingly diverse society. Several factors have been shown to influence racial awareness in professionals including their own race, their personal experience with racism, and the amount/quality…

  2. Seeing Race: Teaching Residential Segregation with the Racial Dot Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seguin, Charles; Nierobisz, Annette; Kozlowski, Karen Phelan

    2017-01-01

    Students commonly hold erroneous notions of a "post-racial" world and individualistic worldviews that discount the role of structure in social outcomes. Jointly, these two preconceived beliefs can be powerful barriers to effective teaching of racial segregation: Students may be skeptical that racial segregation continues to exist, and…

  3. Urbanism and Racial Attitudes: A Test of Some Urban Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Thomas C.

    1984-01-01

    National survey data are used to test the relationship between urbanism and racial attitudes among Whites, and a liberalizing effect of urbanism is found. It appears that urbanism liberalizes racial attitudes by increasing equal-status, cooperative, and relatively personal contact between members of racial subcultures. (Author/RDN)

  4. Promise and Dilemma: Perspectives on Racial Diversity and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Eugene Y., Jr., Ed.

    The essays and commentaries in this volume on racial diversity and higher education are grouped into three parts. The first offers a broad perspective and an historical review of the complex history of the United States' effort to achieve racial diversity; the second notes empirical studies of the extent of racial disparities in academic…

  5. The Neoliberal Racial Project: The Tiger Mother and Governmentality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Jeong-eun

    2013-01-01

    Combining the conceptual approach of racial formation and racial projects with the Foucauldian concept of governmentality, Jeong-eun Rhee theorizes the "neoliberal racial project" (NRP) and examines contemporary meanings and operations of race and racism in relation to neoliberalism. She analyzes Amy Chua's popular parenting memoir,…

  6. Addressing Racial Awareness and Color-Blindness in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diggles, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Racial awareness is a critical foundation to racial sensitivity, and it is a necessity for future professionals who want to be prepared to succeed in an increasingly diverse society. Several factors have been shown to influence racial awareness in professionals including their own race, their personal experience with racism, and the amount/quality…

  7. Racial and Ego Identity Development in Black Caribbean College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses among 255 Black Caribbean college students in the Northeast United States. Findings indicated that racial identity attitudes were predictive of ego identity statuses. Specifically, preencounter racial identity attitudes were predictive of lower scores…

  8. Tasseography: Reading Post-Racial Resistance to Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Akil

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on developing a progressive philosophy of praxis that challenges, what the author argues is, a post-racial resistance to teaching about racial injustice. Post-racial resistance to teaching can lead to forms of enlightened racism and sexism in the classroom. In this essay, the author develops and extends the use of the metaphor…

  9. Social Equity Theory and Racial-Ethnic Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, racial-ethnic differences on tests of school readiness and academic achievement continue. A complete understanding of the origins of racial-ethnic achievement gaps is still lacking. This article describes social equity theory (SET), which proposes that racial-ethnic achievement gaps originate from two kinds of social process,…

  10. Development of Children's Racial Awareness and Intergroup Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Phyllis A.

    Ways in which children learn about race and form attitudes towards groups other than their own are described and the processes underlying the development of racial awareness and racial attitudes are delineated. The first three sections of the paper discuss the age at which racial attitudes begin to form, the developmental antecedents of racial…

  11. Racialized Space: Framing Latino and Latina Experience in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barajas, Heidi Lasley; Ronnkvist, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Educational research shows differences in experience, access, and outcomes across racial groups with some groups advantaged and others disadvantaged. One of the concepts used to explain racial differences, racialization, is a taken-for-granted term that is yet to be fully defined in the context of the school. We differentiate the term…

  12. Sociodemographic and Environmental Correlates of Racial Socialization by Black Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Michael C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Sociodemographic correlates of patterns of racial socialization were examined using data from a national probability sample of 2,107 respondents. Results indicated that gender, age, marital status, region, and racial composition of the neighborhood predicted whether Black parents imparted racial socialization messages to their children. (PCB)

  13. Social Equity Theory and Racial-Ethnic Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, racial-ethnic differences on tests of school readiness and academic achievement continue. A complete understanding of the origins of racial-ethnic achievement gaps is still lacking. This article describes social equity theory (SET), which proposes that racial-ethnic achievement gaps originate from two kinds of social process,…

  14. Racial Stratification and Education: The Case of Stockton, California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbu, John U.

    This paper examines the educational consequences of racial stratification or the system of racial castes in the United States. The central thesis of the paper is that the subordinate status occupied by blacks because of racial stratification requires and promotes lower school performance or school failure and that therefore this school failure…

  15. Schools as Racial Spaces: Understanding and Resisting Structural Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaisdell, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing schools as racial spaces can help researchers examine the role of teachers in the perpetuation of structural racism in schools. Based on ethnographic and autoethnographic work, this article offers examples of schools as racial spaces, spaces where whiteness controlled access. It also highlights four teachers who pursued racial equity in…

  16. Exploring How African American Faculty Cope with Classroom Racial Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Chavella T.

    2010-01-01

    This study was an examination of how African American faculty discussed their coping with racially stressful classrooms. Despite aims for racial equality in higher education, the classroom has been a significant site of racial stressors for African American facility. Analysis of interviews with 16 (8 women, 8 men) African American faculty at a…

  17. Exploring the Emotional Correlates of White Racial Identity Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Matthew Philip

    2010-01-01

    Given sources such as autobiography, theory, and research, there is reason to believe that there are emotional consequences to White people's racial outlooks. White racial identity theory (Helms, 1990) describes how various emotions could be related to White people's psychological orientation to their racial group. Yet little empirical evidence…

  18. Exploring the Emotional Correlates of White Racial Identity Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Matthew Philip

    2010-01-01

    Given sources such as autobiography, theory, and research, there is reason to believe that there are emotional consequences to White people's racial outlooks. White racial identity theory (Helms, 1990) describes how various emotions could be related to White people's psychological orientation to their racial group. Yet little empirical evidence…

  19. The Neoliberal Racial Project: The Tiger Mother and Governmentality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Jeong-eun

    2013-01-01

    Combining the conceptual approach of racial formation and racial projects with the Foucauldian concept of governmentality, Jeong-eun Rhee theorizes the "neoliberal racial project" (NRP) and examines contemporary meanings and operations of race and racism in relation to neoliberalism. She analyzes Amy Chua's popular parenting memoir,…

  20. Racial Microaggressions: A Primer with Implications for Counseling Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houshmand, Sara; Spanierman, Lisa B.; De Stefano, Jack

    2017-01-01

    Given their societal toll and ubiquitous nature, counselors and other mental health professionals inevitably will encounter clients who have experienced racial microaggressions in their practice. In this primer, we examine key issues relative to racial microaggressions and their impact on the lives of members of racial and ethnic minority groups.…

  1. Schools as Racial Spaces: Understanding and Resisting Structural Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaisdell, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing schools as racial spaces can help researchers examine the role of teachers in the perpetuation of structural racism in schools. Based on ethnographic and autoethnographic work, this article offers examples of schools as racial spaces, spaces where whiteness controlled access. It also highlights four teachers who pursued racial equity in…

  2. The Relationship between Black Racial Identity and Moral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreland, Cheryl; Leach, Mark M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the theoretical relationship between moral development and black racial identity development among 182 African American college students at a predominantly white institution. Student surveys indicated that racial identity and moral judgements were linked and that emotionality embedded within black racial identity statuses differentially…

  3. Probability of transmission of Chagas disease by Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in an endemic area of Santiago del Estero, Argentina.

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovich, J. E.; Wisnivesky-Colli, C.; Solarz, N. D.; Gürtler, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    The daily probability (P) of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi to a noninfected human host by an infected Triatoma infestans bug was estimated using field data from a 2-year longitudinal study carried out in a rural settlement of 20 households in Amamá, Santiago del Estero, Argentina. The following information was used for this purpose: the bug density and the proportion of infected bugs; the bug biting rate and the distribution of bites between humans and animals; the age-specific seropositivity to T. cruzi of the human population; and the actual number of new cases of human infection. The 2-year accumulated number of infective contacts per house estimated using a binomial model shows a statistically significant logistic correlation with the observed proportion of new cases per house. An average house where new cases of human infection were registered in the 2-year period had a P value of 0.0012, while an average general house (i.e., with and without new cases) had a P value of 0.0009. The observed range of P is discussed in terms of the chain of factors that affects the individual human risk of acquiring the infection and the possible entomological sampling errors. PMID:2127382

  4. Racial Microaggressions and School Psychology Students: Who Gets Targeted and How Intern Supervisors Can Facilitate Racial Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Sherrie L.; Kyle, Jennifer; Lau, Cindy; Fefer, Keren; Fischetti, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate ethnically and racially diverse school psychology students' experiences with racial microaggressions in school psychology graduate training. Through a national survey of ethnically and racially diverse school psychology students (N = 228), the study examined if level of graduate training (i.e., interns…

  5. Raising Ethnic-Racial Consciousness: The Relationship between Intergroup Dialogues and Adolescents' Ethnic-Racial Identity and Racism Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldana, Adriana; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Checkoway, Barry; Richards-Schuster, Katie

    2012-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows that intergroup dialogue programs promote changes in ethnic-racial identity and racism awareness among college students. Expanding on this research, this study examines the effects of intergroup dialogues on adolescents' racial consciousness. Self-reports of 147 adolescents (13-19 years old), of various racial and ethnic…

  6. Even More Racially Isolated than before: Problematizing the Vision for "Diversity" in a Racially Mixed High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, Anjalé D.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: The term racial diversity is interchangeably used in the literature with other terms such as racially mixed, integration, and desegregation in reference to policies to design and practices to implement racially heterogeneous communities, districts, and schools. Scholarship that promotes the democratic potential of racially…

  7. The Significance of Post-Racial Ideology, Black Political Struggle, and Racial Literacy for Brazilian Anti-Racist Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Costa, Alexandre Emboaba

    2016-01-01

    This paper furthers current analysis of anti-racist, critical multicultural, and decolonial educational reforms in Brazil through a focus on the significant role played by post-racial ideology, black politics, and racial literacy in policy design and implementation. The paper first details the ways in which post-racial commonsense and anti-black…

  8. Kenneth and Mamie Clark Revisited: Racial Identification and Racial Preference in Dark-Skinned and Light-Skinned Black Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Walter C., Jr.; Olson, James L.

    1983-01-01

    Studies whether there are any differences in the racial identification or the racial preferences (positive and negative) of contemporary dark-skinned and light-skinned Black children, and contrasts findings with the Clarks' racial identification and preference study of the early 1940s. (CMG)

  9. Patterns of Racial Socialization and Psychological Adjustment: Can Parental Communications about Race Reduce the Impact of Racial Discrimination?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; White, Rhonda L.; Ford, Kahlil R.; Philip, Cheri L.; Nguye-N, Hoa X.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses two waves of data to examine the relations among racial discrimination experiences, patterns of racial socialization practices, and psychological adjustment in a sample of 361 African American adolescents. Using latent class analyses, we identified four patterns of child-reported racial socialization experiences: Moderate Positive,…

  10. Racial Discrimination, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, and Crime: A Micro-Sociological Model of Risk and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Callie Harbin; Simons, Ronald L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2012-01-01

    Dominant theoretical explanations of racial disparities in criminal offending overlook a key risk factor associated with race: interpersonal racial discrimination. Building on recent studies that analyze race and crime at the micro-level, we specify a social psychological model linking personal experiences with racial discrimination to an…

  11. Perceived Racial Discrimination and Self-Esteem in African American Youth: Racial Socialization as a Protective Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris-Britt, April; Valrie, Cecelia R.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.

    2007-01-01

    Racial socialization was examined as a protective factor that might buffer African American youth from the negative effects of perceived racial discrimination. Two types of racial socialization were examined: messages about race pride and preparation for bias. One hundred twenty-eight eighth-grade African American students participated in the…

  12. Even More Racially Isolated than before: Problematizing the Vision for "Diversity" in a Racially Mixed High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, Anjalé D.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: The term racial diversity is interchangeably used in the literature with other terms such as racially mixed, integration, and desegregation in reference to policies to design and practices to implement racially heterogeneous communities, districts, and schools. Scholarship that promotes the democratic potential of racially…

  13. The Significance of Post-Racial Ideology, Black Political Struggle, and Racial Literacy for Brazilian Anti-Racist Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Costa, Alexandre Emboaba

    2016-01-01

    This paper furthers current analysis of anti-racist, critical multicultural, and decolonial educational reforms in Brazil through a focus on the significant role played by post-racial ideology, black politics, and racial literacy in policy design and implementation. The paper first details the ways in which post-racial commonsense and anti-black…

  14. Raising Ethnic-Racial Consciousness: The Relationship between Intergroup Dialogues and Adolescents' Ethnic-Racial Identity and Racism Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldana, Adriana; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Checkoway, Barry; Richards-Schuster, Katie

    2012-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows that intergroup dialogue programs promote changes in ethnic-racial identity and racism awareness among college students. Expanding on this research, this study examines the effects of intergroup dialogues on adolescents' racial consciousness. Self-reports of 147 adolescents (13-19 years old), of various racial and ethnic…

  15. Racial and ethnic socialization as moderators of racial discrimination and school adjustment of adopted and nonadopted Korean American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Seol, Kyoung Ok; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Lee, Richard M; Park, Ji Eun; Kyeong, Yena

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the roles of racial and ethnic socialization in the link between racial discrimination and school adjustment among a sample of 233 adopted Korean American adolescents from White adoptive families and 155 nonadopted Korean American adolescents from immigrant Korean families. Adopted Korean American adolescents reported lower levels of racial discrimination, racial socialization, and ethnic socialization than nonadopted Korean American adolescents. However, racial discrimination was negatively related to school belonging and school engagement, and ethnic socialization was positively related to school engagement for both groups. Racial socialization also had a curvilinear relationship with school engagement for both groups. A moderate level of racial socialization predicted positive school engagement, whereas low and high levels of racial socialization predicted negative school engagement. Finally, ethnic socialization moderated the link between racial discrimination and school belonging, which differed between groups. In particular, ethnic socialization exacerbated the relations between racial discrimination and school belonging for adopted Korean American adolescents, whereas ethnic socialization buffered this link for nonadopted Korean American adolescents. The findings illustrate the complex relationship between racial and ethnic socialization, racial discrimination, and school adjustment. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Racial Discrimination, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, and Crime: A Micro-Sociological Model of Risk and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Callie Harbin; Simons, Ronald L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2012-01-01

    Dominant theoretical explanations of racial disparities in criminal offending overlook a key risk factor associated with race: interpersonal racial discrimination. Building on recent studies that analyze race and crime at the micro-level, we specify a social psychological model linking personal experiences with racial discrimination to an…

  17. The protective role of racial identity and Africentric worldview in the association between racial discrimination and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Neblett, Enrique W; Carter, Sierra E

    2012-06-01

    To examine the protective effects of racial identity and Africentric worldview on the association between racial discrimination and blood pressure (BP). Two hundred ten African American young adults completed questionnaires assessing demographic characteristics, prior racial discrimination experiences, racial identity, and Africentric worldview. Resting BP was assessed before and after completion of the study measures. Racial discrimination was unrelated to BP in the overall sample (systolic BP, p = .444; diastolic BP [DBP], p = .915; mean arterial pressure, p = .774). However, racial identity and Africentric worldview moderated the association between racial discrimination and BP. Racial discrimination was negatively related to DBP for participants who felt that others viewed African Americans less favorably and who endorsed the uniqueness of the African American experience (B = -2.59, standard error [SE] = 1.29, p = .046). These individuals also had the lowest DBP at high levels of racial discrimination. Racial discrimination was positively associated with DBP for individuals with low levels of Africentric orientation (B = 1.43, SE = 0.72, p = .048) but was unrelated to DBP at moderate (B = 0.24, SE = 0.65, p = .718) and high (B = -0.96, SE = 1.01, p = .341) levels of Africentric worldview. Racial and cultural personal characteristics such as racial identity and Africentric orientation may serve an important protective function for BP in African American young adults.

  18. Patterns of Racial Socialization and Psychological Adjustment: Can Parental Communications about Race Reduce the Impact of Racial Discrimination?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; White, Rhonda L.; Ford, Kahlil R.; Philip, Cheri L.; Nguye-N, Hoa X.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses two waves of data to examine the relations among racial discrimination experiences, patterns of racial socialization practices, and psychological adjustment in a sample of 361 African American adolescents. Using latent class analyses, we identified four patterns of child-reported racial socialization experiences: Moderate Positive,…

  19. Perceived Racial Discrimination and Self-Esteem in African American Youth: Racial Socialization as a Protective Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris-Britt, April; Valrie, Cecelia R.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.

    2007-01-01

    Racial socialization was examined as a protective factor that might buffer African American youth from the negative effects of perceived racial discrimination. Two types of racial socialization were examined: messages about race pride and preparation for bias. One hundred twenty-eight eighth-grade African American students participated in the…

  20. From Racial Discrimination to Substance Use: The Buffering Effects of Racial Socialization.

    PubMed

    Neblett, Enrique W; Terzian, Mary; Harriott, Valencia

    2010-07-15

    The experience of race-based discrimination may place African American youth at risk for substance use initiation and substance use disorders. This article examines the potential of parental racial socialization-a process by which parents convey messages to their children about race-to protect against the impact of racial discrimination on substance use outcomes. Focusing on stress as a major precipitating factor in substance use, the article postulates several possible mechanisms by which racial socialization might reduce stress and the subsequent risk for substance use. It discusses future research directions with the goal of realizing the promise of racial socialization as a resilience factor in African American and ethnic minority youth mental health.

  1. From Racial Discrimination to Substance Use: The Buffering Effects of Racial Socialization

    PubMed Central

    Neblett, Enrique W.; Terzian, Mary; Harriott, Valencia

    2010-01-01

    The experience of race-based discrimination may place African American youth at risk for substance use initiation and substance use disorders. This article examines the potential of parental racial socialization—a process by which parents convey messages to their children about race—to protect against the impact of racial discrimination on substance use outcomes. Focusing on stress as a major precipitating factor in substance use, the article postulates several possible mechanisms by which racial socialization might reduce stress and the subsequent risk for substance use. It discusses future research directions with the goal of realizing the promise of racial socialization as a resilience factor in African American and ethnic minority youth mental health. PMID:23750178

  2. The population dynamics of black-white-mulatto racial systems.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, James D

    2011-07-01

    Building on Preston and Campbell's two-sex model of intergenerational transmission, this article provides a theoretical analysis of the dynamics of the racial distribution in black-white-mulatto systems. The author shows that "bounded" patterns of racial classification and switching imply long-run racial homogeneity in the absence of differential reproduction. Beyond the theoretical analysis, the author attempts to account for the dramatic growth of the white population share in Puerto Rico in the early 20th century. Because the effects of racial classification and differential reproduction were roughly offsetting, the observed growth of the white share can be attributed almost entirely to racial switching.

  3. Racial Targeting of Sexual Violence in Darfur

    PubMed Central

    Rymond-Richmond, Wenona; Palloni, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We used the Atrocities Documentation Survey to determine whether Sudanese government forces were involved in racially targeting sexual victimization toward ethnically African women in the Darfur region of western Sudan. Methods. The US State Department conducted the survey by interviewing a randomized multistage probability sample of 1136 Darfur refugees at 20 sites in Chad in 2004. For a subset of 932 respondents who had fled from village clusters that accounted for 15 or more respondents per cluster, we used hierarchical linear models to analyze village-level patterns of reported sexual violence. We statistically controlled for individual sexual victimization to remove bias. Results. Respondents reported being subjected to racial epithets associated with sexual victimization significantly more often during combined attacks by Sudanese government forces and Janjaweed militia forces than during separate attacks by either force. Conclusions. Combined attacks by Sudanese government forces and Janjaweed militia forces led to racial epithets being used more often during sexual victimization in Darfur. Our results suggest that the Sudanese government is participating in the use of sexual assault as a racially targeted weapon against ethnically African civilians. PMID:19542043

  4. Speech Patterns and Racial Wage Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogger, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Speech patterns differ substantially between whites and many African Americans. I collect and analyze speech data to understand the role that speech may play in explaining racial wage differences. Among blacks, speech patterns are highly correlated with measures of skill such as schooling and AFQT scores. They are also highly correlated with the…

  5. Enhancing Theory Courses with Racially Inclusive Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramlett-Solomon, Sharon; Liebler, Carol M.

    1999-01-01

    Offers a blueprint that instructors of mass media theory courses can adopt to expose students to racially inclusive research in order to encourage students to explore and employ relevant theories when probing media and race questions. Offers examples of inclusive media research, examining six prominent theories: selective-perception theory,…

  6. Healing the Hidden Wounds of Racial Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Kenneth V.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines racial trauma and highlights strategies for healing and transformation to support the disproportionate number of children and youth of color who fail in school and become trapped in the pipelines of treatment, social service, and justice systems. The difficulty in meeting the needs of these children and youth is failing to…

  7. "Jena Six": Case Study in Racial Tensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the racial tensions in Jena, Louisiana. On Aug. 31, 2006, school leaders in Jena, Louisiana, arrived to find two nooses hanging from an oak tree on the campus of Jena High School. The events since that incident--including the beating of a white student and resulting criminal charges against six black schoolmates that have…

  8. The Racial Trajectory of the Western Hero.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxton, Alexander

    1984-01-01

    Argues that the frequently negative representations of racial or ethnic minorities in American film are related to the ideology embodied in the "Western Hero." Focuses on ideology and race relations in Cooper's "Leatherstocking Tales" and three films: "The Vanishing American" (1925); "Bad Day at Black Rock"…

  9. Black Canadians' Coping Responses to Racial Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Justine; Kuo, Ben C. H.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of a cultural coping framework, the present study examined coping responses to racial discrimination among 190 Black Canadians. The study assessed the respondents' coping with both general (i.e., problem- and emotion-focused coping) and Africultural coping strategies (i.e., spiritual-centered, collective, and ritual-centered coping)…

  10. Healing the Hidden Wounds of Racial Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Kenneth V.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines racial trauma and highlights strategies for healing and transformation to support the disproportionate number of children and youth of color who fail in school and become trapped in the pipelines of treatment, social service, and justice systems. The difficulty in meeting the needs of these children and youth is failing to…

  11. The Racial Crisis in American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G., Ed.; Lomotey, Kofi, Ed.

    This collection of essays addresses the need for continued research in race-related issues on college campuses. The book examines the causes and the impact of campus racial tensions by studying some key university case studies and by investigating some of the underlying elements of the crisis. Essays and their authors are as follows: "The Racial…

  12. Validating the Cross Racial Identity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandiver, Beverly J.; Cross, William E., Jr.; Worrell, Frank C.; Fhagen-Smith, Peony E.

    2002-01-01

    Validation work on the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS; B. J. Vandiver et al., 2000) is described in 2 studies using African American college students. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis supported the presence of 6 CRIS subscales. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis provided support for a 2-factor higher order model of the 6 CRIS…

  13. The Racial Trajectory of the Western Hero.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxton, Alexander

    1984-01-01

    Argues that the frequently negative representations of racial or ethnic minorities in American film are related to the ideology embodied in the "Western Hero." Focuses on ideology and race relations in Cooper's "Leatherstocking Tales" and three films: "The Vanishing American" (1925); "Bad Day at Black Rock"…

  14. Anthropology, Ethnology and Ethnic and Racial Prejudice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Yu. V.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews anthropological thinking on ethnic and racial prejudice. Provides examples of discrimination and cites the major theorists who have played a part in developing anti-racist views of society. Concludes that racism has no scientific or legal justification, that racism is a crime against humanity, and that it is the enemy of peace, culture,…

  15. Gynecologic Cancer Center for Racial Disparities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    Psychological Outcomes for Gynecologic Cancer Survivors. Arch Sex Behav. 2008 Apr 17. [Epub ahead of print]. 3. Simonelli LE, Fowler J, Maxwell GL, Andersen...Maxwell GL, Andersen BL: Does sexual morbidity predict psychological outcomes in gynecologic cancer survivors? Poster presented at Society of Behavioral...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-05-2-0065 TITLE: Gynecologic Cancer Center for Racial

  16. Racial Differences on a Black Intelligence Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, James A.; Adesso, Vincent J.

    1974-01-01

    In an investigation of racial differences on an "intelligence" test containing items specific to the Black environment, black subjects had a higher mean score than white subjects and there was no positive correlation between the Black Intelligence Test and the Shipley Institute of Living Scale, a traditional intelligence test. Thus, racial…

  17. African American Males Navigate Racial Microaggressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: High school educational environments find Black males experience systemic racial microaggressions in the form of discipline policies, academic tracking and hegemonic curriculum (Allen, Scott, & Lewis, 2013). Black males in high school are more likely than their White male peers to have high school truancies and be viewed as…

  18. African American Males Navigate Racial Microaggressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: High school educational environments find Black males experience systemic racial microaggressions in the form of discipline policies, academic tracking and hegemonic curriculum (Allen, Scott, & Lewis, 2013). Black males in high school are more likely than their White male peers to have high school truancies and be viewed as…

  19. "Dealing with Racial Conflicts in Schools."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Ben

    In dealing with racial tension and conflict, the principal is not limited to a wing and a prayer and benign neglect. The roots of conflict can be identified. Conflict can be planned for and utilized constructively. For 10 years, in approximately 2,000 instances, conciliators and mediators of the Community Relations Service have stood side-by-side…

  20. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Anchorage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Scott; Frazier, Rosyland

    In the spring of 2001, the mayor of Anchorage (Alaska) created a task force to develop recommendations to help heal racism in Anchorage. A series of focus groups were held throughout the community to obtain an assessment of attitudes and opinions about the quality of life in Anchorage from the perspective of different racial groups and to solicit…

  1. Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes and Bullying Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Williams, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem within the U.S. school system. Prior research suggests that victimization is stratified by race and ethnicity. However, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This article extends research on this topic by considering whether stereotypes moderate bullying among racial and ethnic youth. Youth…

  2. Racial and Ethnic Barriers in Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    There are numerous problems involved in counseling minority group members. Rapport is difficult to establish because of the racial and/or cultural attitudes client and counselor have toward one another; consequently the client often finds his own goals in opposition to those of counseling. The existing cultural gap also leads to different patterns…

  3. To Imagine and Pursue Racial Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmond, Matthew; Emirbayer, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    At the conclusion of many courses on race and racism, students, having learned, some for the first time, about the existence, origins, and complex dimensions of racial domination in America, are left pondering their next steps. "What is to be done?" many ask. "And what, exactly, is it that we want?" Important as they are, these…

  4. Social and Racial Correlates of Russian Roulette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven; Wasserman, Ira

    2008-01-01

    The epidemiology of a neglected form of suicidal behavior, Russian roulette, is addressed. Also tested is an explanation of racial differences based on the opportunity theory of deviant behavior related to the availability of revolvers, necessary weapons with which to play Russian roulette. Data refer to 15 cases of Russian roulette found through…

  5. Teaching for Critical Literacy and Racial Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Eminent African American historian Carter G. Woodson in his book "The Miseducation of the Negro," published a generation before the "Brown v. Board of Education" decision, concerned himself not with the racial composition of classrooms and schools, but with the curricula taught both in the schools and the larger culture. Certainly Woodson…

  6. "Jena Six": Case Study in Racial Tensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the racial tensions in Jena, Louisiana. On Aug. 31, 2006, school leaders in Jena, Louisiana, arrived to find two nooses hanging from an oak tree on the campus of Jena High School. The events since that incident--including the beating of a white student and resulting criminal charges against six black schoolmates that have…

  7. Discipline Policies, Successful Schools, and Racial Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losen, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    In March of 2010, Secretary of Education Arne Duncan delivered a speech that highlighted racial disparities in school suspension and expulsion and that called for more rigorous civil rights enforcement in education. He suggested that students with disabilities and Black students, especially males, were suspended far more often than their White…

  8. Barbie.com and Racial Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddington, Steve A.

    This study explored how black second grade girls racially identified themselves. Ten students worked on laptop computers at home to design a Barbie doll that looked like them and a Barbie doll that they liked best. Parents completed sociodemographic questionnaires and narratives. The questionnaires examined gender, skin shade, income, marital…

  9. Challenging Speculation about "Dewey's Racialized Visions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldridge, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this essay Michael Eldridge maintains that Frank Margonis has in a recent article ill-advisedly speculated about John Dewey's pedagogy, suggesting that his "racialized visions" of students and classroom communities involve a "false universalism" that is problematic for our multicultural society. Based on this understanding, Margonis concludes…

  10. Totalitarian Tendencies - Racial Polarization, 1912-1940.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert I.

    The purpose of this curricular unit intended for use at the secondary level is to provide an explanation for racial polarization by reviewing some of the violent developments in 20th century America as they affected Blacks. Main points and concepts are outlined for the teacher, beginning with a consideration of the hopes of Blacks during the…

  11. Validating the Cross Racial Identity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandiver, Beverly J.; Cross, William E., Jr.; Worrell, Frank C.; Fhagen-Smith, Peony E.

    2002-01-01

    Validation work on the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS; B. J. Vandiver et al., 2000) is described in 2 studies using African American college students. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis supported the presence of 6 CRIS subscales. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis provided support for a 2-factor higher order model of the 6 CRIS…

  12. Measuring Racial Disparity in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Terry V.; Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Magruder, Joseph; Needell, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Overrepresentation of certain racial/ethnic groups in the foster care system is one of the most troubling and challenging issues in child welfare today. In response, many states have started reporting outcomes by race and ethnicity to identify disproportionately high rates of system contact. The identification of disproportional representation is…

  13. Breaking Racial Stereotypes by Reconstructing Multicultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pullen, Pete

    2000-01-01

    Racial stereotypes and discrimination have destroyed many bright futures by limiting the possibilities of people of color in America. Describes two initiatives that can be implemented in schools in order to help destroy negative images of race and reconstruct a more healthy foundation to build on: multiculturalism across the curriculum and…

  14. Priming unconscious racial stereotypes about adolescent offenders.

    PubMed

    Graham, Sandra; Lowery, Brian S

    2004-10-01

    Two studies examined unconscious racial stereotypes of decision makers in the juvenile justice system. Police officers (Experiment 1) and juvenile probation officers (Experiment 2) were subliminally exposed to words related to the category Black or to words neutral with respect to race. In a presumably unrelated task, officers read 2 vignettes about a hypothetical adolescent who allegedly committed either a property crime (shoplifting from a convenience store) or an interpersonal crime (assaulting a peer). The race of the offender was left unstated and the scenarios were ambiguous about the causes of the crime. Respondents rated the hypothetical offender on a number of traits (e.g., hostility and immaturity) and made judgments about culpability, expected recidivism, and deserved punishment. They also completed a self-report measure of conscious attitudes about race. As hypothesized, officers in the racial prime condition reported more negative trait ratings, greater culpability, and expected recidivism, and they endorsed harsher punishment than did officers in the neutral condition. The effects of the racial primes were not moderated by consciously held attitudes about African Americans. The implications of the findings for racial disparity in the juvenile justice system and for changing unconscious stereotypes were discussed.

  15. The Racial Crisis in American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G., Ed.; Lomotey, Kofi, Ed.

    This collection of essays addresses the need for continued research in race-related issues on college campuses. The book examines the causes and the impact of campus racial tensions by studying some key university case studies and by investigating some of the underlying elements of the crisis. Essays and their authors are as follows: "The Racial…

  16. Achieving Racial Integration Through Movement Oriented Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheffers, John T.F.; And Others

    This study evaluated the city of Boston's Magnet Movement Athletics Program, which brought together inner city children with suburban children in a movement oriented program designed to facilitate racial harmony and the growth of positive interracial attitudes. Four hundred seventh and eighth grade black, white, and oriental children underwent a…

  17. Racial targeting of sexual violence in Darfur.

    PubMed

    Hagan, John; Rymond-Richmond, Wenona; Palloni, Alberto

    2009-08-01

    We used the Atrocities Documentation Survey to determine whether Sudanese government forces were involved in racially targeting sexual victimization toward ethnically African women in the Darfur region of western Sudan. The US State Department conducted the survey by interviewing a randomized multistage probability sample of 1136 Darfur refugees at 20 sites in Chad in 2004. For a subset of 932 respondents who had fled from village clusters that accounted for 15 or more respondents per cluster, we used hierarchical linear models to analyze village-level patterns of reported sexual violence. We statistically controlled for individual sexual victimization to remove bias. Respondents reported being subjected to racial epithets associated with sexual victimization significantly more often during combined attacks by Sudanese government forces and Janjaweed militia forces than during separate attacks by either force. Combined attacks by Sudanese government forces and Janjaweed militia forces led to racial epithets being used more often during sexual victimization in Darfur. Our results suggest that the Sudanese government is participating in the use of sexual assault as a racially targeted weapon against ethnically African civilians.

  18. Social and Racial Correlates of Russian Roulette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven; Wasserman, Ira

    2008-01-01

    The epidemiology of a neglected form of suicidal behavior, Russian roulette, is addressed. Also tested is an explanation of racial differences based on the opportunity theory of deviant behavior related to the availability of revolvers, necessary weapons with which to play Russian roulette. Data refer to 15 cases of Russian roulette found through…

  19. Making Commitments to Racial Justice Actionable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diab, Rasha; Ferrel, Thomas; Godbee, Beth; Simpkins, Neil

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we articulate a framework for making our commitments to racial justice actionable, a framework that moves from narrating confessional accounts to articulating our commitments and then acting on them through both self-work and work-with-others, a dialectic possibility we identify and explore. We model a method for moving beyond…

  20. Knowing about Racial Stereotypes versus Believing Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasir, Na'ilah Suad; McKinney de Royston, Maxine; O'Connor, Kathleen; Wischnia, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Despite post-racial rhetoric, stereotypes remain salient for American youth. We surveyed 150 elementary and middle schoolers in Northern California and conducted case studies of 12 students. Findings showed that (a) students hold school-related stereotypes that get stronger in middle school, (b) African American and Latino students experience…

  1. Dealing with Racial Conflicts in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Ben

    1975-01-01

    The roots of racial conflict can be identified, and often predicted, says this author who directs the Community Relations Service of the Justice Department that has helped administrators in 2,000 cases. He lists 10 tension-breeding factors that, if found in your school, may mean you're flirting with a crisis. (Editor)

  2. Enhancing Theory Courses with Racially Inclusive Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramlett-Solomon, Sharon; Liebler, Carol M.

    1999-01-01

    Offers a blueprint that instructors of mass media theory courses can adopt to expose students to racially inclusive research in order to encourage students to explore and employ relevant theories when probing media and race questions. Offers examples of inclusive media research, examining six prominent theories: selective-perception theory,…

  3. Black Canadians' Coping Responses to Racial Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Justine; Kuo, Ben C. H.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of a cultural coping framework, the present study examined coping responses to racial discrimination among 190 Black Canadians. The study assessed the respondents' coping with both general (i.e., problem- and emotion-focused coping) and Africultural coping strategies (i.e., spiritual-centered, collective, and ritual-centered coping)…

  4. Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes and Bullying Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Williams, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem within the U.S. school system. Prior research suggests that victimization is stratified by race and ethnicity. However, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This article extends research on this topic by considering whether stereotypes moderate bullying among racial and ethnic youth. Youth…

  5. White racial identity, color-blind racial attitudes, and multicultural counseling competence.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Alex; Jackson Williams, Dahra

    2015-07-01

    Multicultural counseling competence (awareness, knowledge, and skills) is necessary to provide effective psychotherapy to an increasingly diverse client population (Sue, 2001). Previous research on predictors of competency among White clinicians finds that above having multicultural training, exposure to racially diverse clients, and social desirability, that White racial identity stages predict multicultural counseling competence (Ottavi et al., 1994). Research also suggests that higher color-blind racial attitudes (denying or minimizing racism in society) correlates with less advanced White racial identity stages (Gushue & Constantine, 2007). However, no studies have examined these variables together as they relate to and possibly predict multicultural counseling competence. The current study aims to add to this literature by investigating the effects of these variables together as potential predictors of multicultural counseling competence among (N = 487) White doctoral students studying clinical, counseling, and school psychology. Results of 3 hierarchical multiple regressions found above the effects of social desirability, demographic variables, and multicultural training, that colorblind racial attitudes and White racial identity stages added significant incremental variance in predicting multicultural counseling knowledge, awareness, and skills. These results add to the literature by finding different predictors for each domain of multicultural competence. Implications of the findings for future research and the clinical training of White doctoral trainees are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Racial identity mediates the association between ethnic-racial socialization and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Neblett, Enrique W; Hudson Banks, Kira; Cooper, Shauna M; Smalls-Glover, Ciara

    2013-04-01

    Ethnic-racial socialization has been positively linked with psychological adjustment; however, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. In this study, the authors examined the mediating role of racial identity in the association between racial socialization and depressive symptoms. Participants were 211 African American young adults (62% female; mean age = 20.73, SD = 1.90) recruited from a predominately White southeastern university. Multivariate mediation analyses revealed an indirect effect of racial pride messages on depressive symptoms through private regard such that individuals who reported receiving more frequent racial pride messages were more likely to feel positively about their race, and, in turn, less likely to report depressive symptoms. Individuals who reported that their parents engaged in more socialization activities (e.g., attending cultural events) were also more likely to feel positively about their race and, in turn, report fewer depressive symptoms. These results suggest that positive feelings about one's race are important considerations in our understanding of the relation between ethnic-racial socialization and youth psychological adjustment.

  7. Social Status Correlates of Reporting Racial Discrimination and Gender Discrimination among Racially Diverse Women

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Annie E.; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in Northern California (11.4% African American, 16.8% Latina, 10.1% Asian and 61.7% Caucasian). A multivariate analysis revealed that race, financial difficulty and marital status were significantly correlated with higher reports of racial discrimination, while race, education, financial difficulty and nativity were significantly correlated with gender discrimination scores. Our findings suggest that the social patterning of perceiving racial discrimination is somewhat different from that of gender discrimination. This has implications in the realm of discrimination research and applied interventions, as different forms of discrimination may have unique covariates that should be accounted for in research analysis or program design. PMID:19485231

  8. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Genomic Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Spratt, Daniel E; Chan, Tiffany; Waldron, Levi; Speers, Corey; Feng, Felix Y; Ogunwobi, Olorunseun O; Osborne, Joseph R

    2016-08-01

    Although poorly understood, there is heterogeneity in the molecular biology of cancer across race and ethnicities. The representation of racial minorities in large genomic sequencing efforts is unclear, and could have an impact on health care disparities. To determine the racial distribution among samples sequenced within The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the deficit of samples needed to detect moderately common mutational frequencies in racial minorities. This was a retrospective review of individual patient data from TCGA data portal accessed in July 2015. TCGA comprises samples from a wide array of institutions primarily across the United States. Samples from 10 of the 31 currently available tumor types were analyzed, comprising 5729 samples from the approximately 11 000 available. Using the estimated median somatic mutational frequency, the samples needed beyond TCGA to detect a 10% and 5% mutational frequency over the background somatic mutation frequency were calculated for each tumor type by racial ethnicity. Of the 5729 samples, 77% (n = 4389) were white, 12% (n = 660) were black, 3% (n = 173) were Asian, 3% (n = 149) were Hispanic, and less than 0.5% combined were from patients of Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, Alaskan Native, or American Indian decent. This overrepresents white patients compared with the US population and underrepresents primarily Asian and Hispanic patients. With a somatic mutational frequency of 0.7 (prostate cancer) to 9.9 (lung squamous cell cancer), all tumor types from white patients contained enough samples to detect a 10% mutational frequency. This is in contrast to all other racial ethnicities, for which group-specific mutations with 10% frequency would be detectable only for black patients with breast cancer. Group-specific mutations with 5% frequency would be undetectable in any racial minority, but detectable in white patients for all cancer types except lung (adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma

  9. Racial determination of origin of mourning doves in hunters' bags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldrich, J.W.; Duvall, A.J.; Geis, A.D.

    1958-01-01

    A method is described for determining the general area of production of mourning doves that are shot during the hunting season. This procedure is based on the identification of racial characteristics that can be ascertained from samples of wings. The application and utility of this method were demonstrated with data gathered from doves shot in two important dove-hunting areas, Georgia and Texas. The Georgia data indicated that the early-season kill consisted largely of the race carolinensis, while later in the season marginella and the intermediate form made up most of the bag. The wing samples from Texas indicated that birds produced outside of southern Texas made up the largest part of the bag in southern Texas during the entire season. Doves produced west of the Appalachians contributed to both the Georgia and Texas kill.

  10. Impulsivity moderates the association between racial discrimination and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Latzman, Robert D; Chan, Wing Yi; Shishido, Yuri

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol use among university students is a serious public health concern, particularly among minority students who may use alcohol to cope with experiences of racial discrimination. Although the impact of racial discrimination on alcohol use has been well-established, individual differences in factors that may act to either attenuate or exacerbate the negative effects of racial discrimination are largely unknown. One potentially fruitful individual differences trait that has repeatedly been found to predict alcohol problems is the multidimensional personality trait of impulsivity. Nonetheless, the ways in which various aspects of impulsivity interact with racial discrimination is yet unknown. The current study, therefore, examined the joint and interactive contribution of racial discrimination and impulsivity in the prediction of alcohol consumption among racial minority university students. Participants included 336 Black/African-American and Asian/Asian-American university students. Results revealed both racial discrimination and impulsivity to be significantly associated with alcohol problems. Further, individuals' responses to racial discrimination were not uniform. Specifically, the association between racial discrimination and alcohol problems was moderated by lack of Premeditation; racial discrimination was most strongly predictive of alcohol problems for those who reported low level of premeditation. Findings from the present study highlight the importance of investigating risk factors for alcohol problems across multiple levels of the ecology as individual personality traits appear to relate to how one might respond to the experience of racial discrimination. © 2013.

  11. Racial Differences of Pigmentation in the Human Vestibular Organs.

    PubMed

    Erbele, Isaac D; Lin, Frank R; Agrawal, Yuri; Francis, Howard W; Carey, John P; Chien, Wade W

    2016-09-01

    Melanin pigmentation is present in the human inner ear. In this study, we quantify the melanin pigmentation in the vestibular system and examine racial differences of vestibular melanin pigmentation using human cadaveric temporal bone specimens. Basic research. Laboratory. Light microscopy was used to examine specimens from 40 left temporal bones from the Johns Hopkins Human Temporal Bone Collection. Color images of (1) ampulla of the horizontal canal, (2) utricular wall, (3) endolymphatic duct, and (4) posterior ampullary nerve as it enters the posterior canal were acquired with a digital camera attached to the microscope and image acquisition software. Acquired images of each anatomic area of interest were processed offline through ImageJ. Melanin content was then compared according to ethnicity, age, sex, and location. Fifteen African American and 25 Caucasian specimens were analyzed. Mean age was 68.8 years. African American specimens had a significantly greater amount of pigment at all 4 sampled locations as compared with Caucasian specimens (P < .01). Between sexes, there was a statistically significant difference (P < .05) at the posterior ampullary nerve, with males having more than females. Melanin content was not associated with age. There is greater melanin pigmentation within the vestibular system of African Americans than in Caucasians, similar to what has been described in the cochlea. Racial differences in vestibular physiologic function have been observed in the literature and may be explained by differences in melanin pigmentation. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  12. Setting the Trajectory: Racial Disparities in Newborn Telomere Length

    PubMed Central

    Drury, Stacy S.; Esteves, Kyle; Hatch, Virginia; Woodbury, Margaret; Borne, Sophie; Adamski, Alys; Theall, Katherine P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore racial differences in newborn telomere length (TL) and the effect moderation of the sex of the infant while establishing the methodology for the use of newborn blood spots for telomere length analyses. Study design Pregnant mothers were recruited from the Greater New Orleans area. TL was determined using MMQ-PCR on DNA extracted from infant blood spots. Demographic data and other covariates were obtained via maternal report prior to infant birth. Birth outcome data were obtained from medical records and maternal report. Results Black infants weighed significantly less than white infants at birth, and had significantly longer TL than White infants (p=0.0134), with the strongest effect observed in Black female infants. No significant differences in gestational age were present. Conclusions Significant racial differences in TL were present at birth in this sample, even after controlling for a range of birth outcomes and demographic factors. As longer initial TL is predictive of more rapid TL attrition across the life course, these findings provide evidence that, even at birth, biological vulnerability to early life stress may differ by race and sex. PMID:25681203

  13. System to Detect Racial-Based Bullying through Gamification.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Bermejo, José A; Belmonte-Ureña, Luis J; Martos-Martínez, Africa; Barragán-Martín, Ana B; Del Mar Simón-Marquez, María

    2016-01-01

    Prevention and detection of bullying due to racial stigma was studied in school contexts using a system designed following "gamification" principles and integrating less usual elements, such as social interaction, augmented reality and cell phones in educational scenarios. "Grounded Theory" and "User Centered Design" were employed to explore coexistence inside and outside the classroom in terms of preferences and distrust in several areas of action and social frameworks of activity, and to direct the development of a cell phone app for early detection of school bullying scenarios. One hundred and fifty-one interviews were given at five schools selected for their high multiracial percentage and conflict. The most outstanding results were structural, that is the distribution of the classroom group by type of activity and subject being dealt with. Furthermore, in groups over 12 years of age, the relational structures in the classroom in the digital settings in which they participated with their cell phones did not reoccur, because face-to-face and virtual interaction between students with the supervision and involvement of the teacher combined to detect bullying caused by racial discrimination.

  14. System to Detect Racial-Based Bullying through Gamification

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Bermejo, José A.; Belmonte-Ureña, Luis J.; Martos-Martínez, Africa; Barragán-Martín, Ana B.; del Mar Simón-Marquez, María

    2016-01-01

    Prevention and detection of bullying due to racial stigma was studied in school contexts using a system designed following “gamification” principles and integrating less usual elements, such as social interaction, augmented reality and cell phones in educational scenarios. “Grounded Theory” and “User Centered Design” were employed to explore coexistence inside and outside the classroom in terms of preferences and distrust in several areas of action and social frameworks of activity, and to direct the development of a cell phone app for early detection of school bullying scenarios. One hundred and fifty-one interviews were given at five schools selected for their high multiracial percentage and conflict. The most outstanding results were structural, that is the distribution of the classroom group by type of activity and subject being dealt with. Furthermore, in groups over 12 years of age, the relational structures in the classroom in the digital settings in which they participated with their cell phones did not reoccur, because face-to-face and virtual interaction between students with the supervision and involvement of the teacher combined to detect bullying caused by racial discrimination. PMID:27933006

  15. Oxidative stress and DNA repair and detoxification gene expression in adolescents exposed to heavy metals living in the Milazzo-Valle del Mela area (Sicily, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Pizzino, Gabriele; Bitto, Alessandra; Interdonato, Monica; Galfo, Federica; Irrera, Natasha; Mecchio, Anna; Pallio, Giovanni; Ramistella, Vincenzo; Luca, Filippo De; Minutoli, Letteria; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica

    2014-01-01

    Background The area of Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily, Italy) is considered at high risk of environmental crisis by regional authorities. Objective To measure oxidative-stress, DNA repair and detoxification genes in school children living near the industrial area and in age-matched controls. Methods The parent study was a biomonitoring investigation evaluating heavy metal urine levels in 226 children aged 12–14 years, living in the high risk area, and in 29 age-matched controls living 45 km far from the industrial site. In the present study 67 exposed adolescents and 29 controls were included. Samples were analyzed for urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8OHdG) levels, and gene expression of OGG1 (DNA repair gene), NQO1, ST13, and MT1A (detoxifying genes). Results Urinary cadmium was higher (p = 0.0004) in exposed [geometric mean, 0.46 µg/L; 25th–75th percentile: 0.3–0.56] than in control adolescents [geometric mean, 0.26 µg/L; 25th–75th percentile: 0.2–0.3]. Chromium was also significantly elevated in exposed [geometric mean, 1.52 µg/L; 25th–75th percentile: 1.19–1.93] compared with controls [geometric mean, 1.25 µg/L; 25th–75th percentile: 1.05–1.48; p = 0.02]. Urinary 8-OHdG concentration was greater in exposed than in controls (71.49 vs 61.87 µg/L, p = 0.02), and it was correlated with cadmium levels (r = 0.46, p < 0.0001), and with the combined exposure index (r = 0.43, p < 0.0001). Moreover, cadmium levels showed a robust correlation with OGG1 and MT1A gene expression levels (r = 0.44, p < 0.0001; r = 0.39, p < 0.0001, respectively). Finally, OGG1 and MT1A were over-expressed in adolescents from Milazzo-Valle del Mela area compared with controls (p = 0.0004; p < 0.0001, respectively). Conclusions Continuous exposure at relatively low concentrations of heavy metals is associated with increased oxidative DNA damage and impaired expression of DNA repair and detoxification genes in adolescents. PMID:24936443

  16. Impacts of visitors on soil and vegetation of the recreational area "Nacimiento del Río Mundo" (Castilla-La Mancha, Spain).

    PubMed

    Andrés-Abellán, Manuela; Del Alamo, Javier Benayas; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; López-Serrano, Francisco R; García-Morote, Francisco A; Del Cerro-Barja, Antonio

    2005-02-01

    This study examines the effects of recreational use on the soil and vegetation at a site of ecological importance (Nacimiento del Río Mundo, Albacete, Spain). The most visited sites showed increased soil compaction of approximately 50%, bare ground increase to 61 +/- 10% and a decrease in richness (from 25 +/- 2 to 15 +/- 2 species), diversity (from 4.0 +/- 0.1 to 2.7 +/- 0.4) and stratification of plant species (from 80 +/- 11 to 21 +/- 4%). The most visited sites had 90% less plant species as compared to the least visited. Intense use was associated with the presence of nitrophilous plant and vegetal species with a morphology adapted to heavy trampling. The recreational areas showed a distribution pattern of impact radiating outwards from the most used and degraded point. At the most visited point, "Los Chorros" (the spring of the river), the impact radiated outwards for about 20 m. A pilot experiment examining the effects of one-year restriction to visitors for access to a formerly impacted area showed a plant cover increase by anthropic and not by native species of 57 percent units.

  17. The racial/ethnic distribution of heat risk-related land cover in relation to residential segregation.

    PubMed

    Jesdale, Bill M; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Cushing, Lara

    2013-07-01

    We examined the distribution of heat risk-related land cover (HRRLC) characteristics across racial/ethnic groups and degrees of residential segregation. Block group-level tree canopy and impervious surface estimates were derived from the 2001 National Land Cover Dataset for densely populated urban areas of the United States and Puerto Rico, and linked to demographic characteristics from the 2000 Census. Racial/ethnic groups in a given block group were considered to live in HRRLC if at least half their population experienced the absence of tree canopy and at least half of the ground was covered by impervious surface (roofs, driveways, sidewalks, roads). Residential segregation was characterized for metropolitan areas in the United States and Puerto Rico using the multigroup dissimilarity index. After adjustment for ecoregion and precipitation, holding segregation level constant, non-Hispanic blacks were 52% more likely (95% CI: 37%, 69%), non-Hispanic Asians 32% more likely (95% CI: 18%, 47%), and Hispanics 21% more likely (95% CI: 8%, 35%) to live in HRRLC conditions compared with non-Hispanic whites. Within each racial/ethnic group, HRRLC conditions increased with increasing degrees of metropolitan area-level segregation. Further adjustment for home ownership and poverty did not substantially alter these results, but adjustment for population density and metropolitan area population attenuated the segregation effects, suggesting a mediating or confounding role. Land cover was associated with segregation within each racial/ethnic group, which may be explained partly by the concentration of racial/ethnic minorities into densely populated neighborhoods within larger, more segregated cities. In anticipation of greater frequency and duration of extreme heat events, climate change adaptation strategies, such as planting trees in urban areas, should explicitly incorporate an environmental justice framework that addresses racial/ethnic disparities in HRRLC.

  18. The Racial/Ethnic Distribution of Heat Risk–Related Land Cover in Relation to Residential Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Cushing, Lara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We examined the distribution of heat risk–related land cover (HRRLC) characteristics across racial/ethnic groups and degrees of residential segregation. Methods: Block group–level tree canopy and impervious surface estimates were derived from the 2001 National Land Cover Dataset for densely populated urban areas of the United States and Puerto Rico, and linked to demographic characteristics from the 2000 Census. Racial/ethnic groups in a given block group were considered to live in HRRLC if at least half their population experienced the absence of tree canopy and at least half of the ground was covered by impervious surface (roofs, driveways, sidewalks, roads). Residential segregation was characterized for metropolitan areas in the United States and Puerto Rico using the multigroup dissimilarity index. Results: After adjustment for ecoregion and precipitation, holding segregation level constant, non-Hispanic blacks were 52% more likely (95% CI: 37%, 69%), non-Hispanic Asians 32% more likely (95% CI: 18%, 47%), and Hispanics 21% more likely (95% CI: 8%, 35%) to live in HRRLC conditions compared with non-Hispanic whites. Within each racial/ethnic group, HRRLC conditions increased with increasing degrees of metropolitan area-level segregation. Further adjustment for home ownership and poverty did not substantially alter these results, but adjustment for population density and metropolitan area population attenuated the segregation effects, suggesting a mediating or confounding role. Conclusions: Land cover was associated with segregation within each racial/ethnic group, which may be explained partly by the concentration of racial/ethnic minorities into densely populated neighborhoods within larger, more segregated cities. In anticipation of greater frequency and duration of extreme heat events, climate change adaptation strategies, such as planting trees in urban areas, should explicitly incorporate an environmental justice framework that addresses

  19. Discrimination, Racial Identity, and Cytokine Levels Among African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Low-grade inflammation, measured by circulating levels of cytokines, is a pathogenic mechanism for several chronic diseases of aging. Identifying factors related to inflammation among African American youths may yield insights into mechanisms underlying racial disparities in health. The purpose of the study was to determine whether (a) reported racial discrimination from ages 17 to 19 forecast heightened cytokine levels at age 22, and (b) this association is lower for youths with positive racial identities. Methods A longitudinal research design was used with a community sample of 160 African Americans who were 17 at the beginning of the study. Discrimination and racial identity were measured with questionnaires, and blood was drawn to measure basal cytokine levels. Ordinary least squares regression analyses were used to examine the hypotheses. Results After controlling for socioeconomic risk, life stress, depressive symptoms, and body mass index, racial discrimination (β = .307, p < .01), racial identity (β = −.179, p < .05), and their interaction (β = −.180, p < .05) forecast cytokine levels. Youths exposed to high levels of racial discrimination evinced elevated cytokine levels 3 years later. This association was not significant for young adults with positive racial identities. Conclusions High levels of interpersonal racial discrimination and the development of a positive racial identity operate jointly to determine low-grade inflammation levels that have been found to forecast chronic diseases of aging, such as coronary disease and stroke. PMID:25907649

  20. Health disparities in colorectal cancer among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Oman, Matthew; Patel, Aatish M.; Vega, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    In the 2010 Census, just over one-third of the United States (US) population identified themselves as being something other than being non-Hispanic white alone. This group has increased in size from 86.9 million in 2000 to 111.9 million in 2010, representing an increase of 29 percent over the ten year period. Per the American Cancer Society, racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to develop cancer and die from it when compared to the general population of the United States. This is particularly true for colorectal cancer (CRC). The primary aim of this review is to highlight the disparities in CRC among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. Despite overall rates of CRC decreasing nationally and within certain racial and ethnic minorities in the US, there continue to be disparities in incidence and mortality when compared to non-Hispanic whites. The disparities in CRC incidence and mortality are related to certain areas of deficiency such as knowledge of family history, access to care obstacles, impact of migration on CRC and paucity of clinical data. These areas of deficiency limit understanding of CRC’s impact in these groups and when developing interventions to close the disparity gap. Even with the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Healthcare Act, disparities in CRC screening will continue to exist until specific interventions are implemented in the context of each of racial and ethnic group. Racial and ethnic minorities cannot be viewed as one monolithic group, rather as different segments since there are variations in incidence and mortality based on natural history of CRC development impacted by gender, ethnicity group, nationality, access, as well as migration and socioeconomic status. Progress has been made overall, but there is much work to be done. PMID:27034811

  1. Racial-Ethnic Protective Factors and Mechanisms in Psychosocial Prevention and Intervention Programs for Black Youth.

    PubMed

    Jones, Shawn C T; Neblett, Enrique W

    2016-06-01

    Extending previous reviews related to cultural responsiveness in the treatment of ethnic minority youth, the current review provides a critical assessment and synthesis of both basic and applied research on the integration of three racial-ethnic protective factors (racial identity, racial socialization, Africentric worldview) in psychosocial prevention and intervention programs for Black children and adolescents. Seventeen programs meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria were evaluated for the extent to which racial-ethnic protective factors and related mechanisms were integrated, applied, and tested in such programs. A systematic assessment of these programs revealed that several prevention and intervention programs drew upon the three factors, particularly Africentric worldview. In addition, a number of studies hypothesized and assessed mechanisms, both those previously identified in conceptual literature and those that emerged from the interventions themselves. A set of recommendations encouraging the implementation of these factors into future prevention and intervention programs, examples of how clinicians can infuse these factors into psychotherapy, and areas for future research are discussed.

  2. Racial disparities in incidence of human papillomavirus-associated oropharyngeal cancer in an urban population.

    PubMed

    Ramer, Ilana; Varier, Indu; Zhang, David; Demicco, Elizabeth G; Posner, Marshall R; Misiukiewicz, Krzysztof; Genden, Eric M; Miles, Brett A; Teng, Marita S; Sikora, Andrew G

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that rates of human papillomavirus related oropharyngeal cancer (HPVOPC) in the US are higher in Caucasians than minorities. We hypothesized that this disparity would be less marked in a racially and ethnically diverse population from New York City. This is a retrospective chart review of 210 patients with biopsied or surgically treated OPC at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (ISMMS) between 1999 and 2013. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the presence of HPV-DNA in paraffin-embedded tumor blocks. Incidence of HPV-positive cancers was compared between Caucasians and minorities (defined as African Americans, Asians, and Hispanics) using Fisher's exact test. We found a higher incidence of HPV-positive OPC in Caucasians than racial minorities within the ISMMS population (p=0.002). HPV incidence detected by PCR was 139/165 [84.2%] for Caucasians and 28/45 [62.2%] for minorities. Specifically, there was a higher rate in Caucasians compared to African Americans (p=0.017), but no significant difference between Caucasians and Hispanics (p=0.087). We documented a disparity in incidence of HPVOPC amongst racial groups, consistent with previously reported trends from study populations in less urbanized areas. Thus we conclude that the factors underlying racial/ethnic disparities in HPVOPC incidence are likely to be similar across communities with different levels of urbanization and population diversity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Realizing Racial and Ethnic Neighborhood Preferences? Exploring the Mismatches Between What People Want, Where They Search, and Where They Live.

    PubMed

    Havekes, Esther; Bader, Michael; Krysan, Maria

    The housing search process is an overlooked mechanism in the scholarly research that seeks to understand the causes of persistent racial residential segregation in the United States. Past research has explored in detail the preferences people hold in terms of the racial and ethnic composition of their neighborhoods, and more recently some have also examined the correspondence between racial and ethnic neighborhood preferences and current neighborhood racial/ethnic composition. But an intermediate stage-the racial/ethnic composition of where people search-has not been investigated. We analyze a subsample (n = 382) from the 2004-2005 Chicago Area Study to demonstrate the value of systematically studying the matches-or mismatches-between preferences, search locations, and neighborhood outcomes. We find that for whites, not only their current neighborhoods but also the neighborhoods in which they search for housing have larger percentages of whites than they say they prefer. In contrast, blacks-and to a lesser extent Latinos-search in neighborhoods that correspond to their preferences, but reside in neighborhoods with a larger percentage own group. Logistic regression analyses reveal that mismatches are associated with both a lack of information and inadequate finances, but also may be due to socially desirable responding for whites in particular. Our results provide suggestive evidence of the importance of unpacking the search process more generally and draw attention to what are likely to be productive new future data collection efforts as well as an area potentially ripe for policy interventions.

  4. Racial and ethnic disparities in infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Fern R; Tanabe, Kawai O; Moon, Rachel Y

    2011-08-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in infant mortality in the United States seem to defy all attempts at elimination. Despite national priorities to eliminate these disparities, black infants are 2.5 times more likely to die in infancy compared with non-Hispanic white infants. This disparity is largely related to the greater incidence among black infants of prematurity and low birth weight, congenital malformations, sudden infant death syndrome, and unintentional injuries. This greater incidence, in turn, is related to a complex interaction of behavioral, social, political, genetic, medical, and health care access factors. Thus, to influence the persistent racial disparity in infant mortality, a highly integrated approach is needed, with interventions adapted along a continuum from childhood through the periods of young adulthood, pregnancy, postpartum and beyond. The content and methodologies of these interventions need to be adapted to the underlying behaviors, social influences, and technology and access issues they are meant to address. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Structural and racial barriers to health care.

    PubMed

    Burnes Bolton, Linda; Giger, Joyce Newman; Georges, C Alicia

    2004-01-01

    Limited access to health care and a system fraught with discriminatory practices inhibit some racial and ethnic minorities from gaining access to health care and assurance of equal treatment once they enter the health care system. The purpose of this chapter is to critically and systematically analyze the research literature to determine what impact individual and institutional racism has had on the prevailing health disparities across racial and ethnic minority groups. The chapter includes the following: (1) a review of the term racism and a brief overview of the history of racism in health care; (2) a review of the research literature analyzing the impact of racism on health disparities; and (3) recommendations to end the systematic institutional racism in scientific research, which is necessary to end health disparities.

  6. [Access to health care and racial discrimination].

    PubMed

    Carde, Estelle

    2007-01-01

    Discrimination is defined as different, unfavourable and illegitimate treatment. This post-doctoral research was conducted on racial discrimination, specifically with respect to health care access. The authors observed and questioned during the course of semi-directed interviews, 175 health care professionals on-site at their workplaces (administrators, care providers, social workers) in metropolitan France and French Guiana. Based on a qualitative analysis of this material, three types of discriminatory practices were identified. The first two were rooted in the individual professional's perception of the patient's racial origin (illegitimatising and differentiation). The third was ingrained in institutional logic independent of the professionals' intentions (indirect discrimination). The article concludes with a series of recommendations which aim to combat these types of discrimination.

  7. Gender and racial differences in mathematical performance.

    PubMed

    Hall, C W; Davis, N B; Bolen, L M; Chia, R

    1999-12-01

    The authors examined gender and racial differences in mathematics performance among 5th- and 8th-grade students in the United States. Math performance was assessed by scores on the math-concepts and math-computation sections of the California Achievement Test (CTB/McGraw-Hill, 1986) given at the end of the previous year. There were no significant gender differences, but in both grades, the White students scored significantly higher than the Black students. The racial differences were more pronounced in the scores for concepts than in the scores for computation. Responses to a parent questionnaire showed significant relationships between parents' self-reported math anxiety, parents' most advanced math course, and parents' education level in relation to the child's math performance. Differences in these relationships suggest that, although parents' beliefs and attitudes about math influence their child's math performance, the relationship is complex and may vary with race.

  8. [Polycyclic aromatic hidrocarbons deposition in the Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) high-risk area following an oil refinery fire].

    PubMed

    Grechi, Daniele; Biggeri, Annibale

    2016-01-01

    On September 2014, a fire began within an oil refinery involving a storage tank containing several hundreds of thousands cubic meters of virgin naphtha. Mayors of neighbouring municipalities asked the Epidemiology and Prevention Society "Giulio A. Maccacaro" to carry out an environmental survey in order to evaluate what was the nature and how dangerous was suspended dust deposited by the fumes. In the following days, after fire had been extinguished we conducted a sample survey on the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and metals in particulate deposited on the soil on a radius of five kilometres from the refinery and we engaged the exposed population. The Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) high-risk area includes several industrial plants; among them, an oil refinery and a fuel powered energy plant. As reference area we selected the Sarroch municipality (Sardinia Region, Southern Italy), in the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea, which is geographically comparable, where a large oil refinery is located and where an environmental campaign with measurement of PAH and metals in particulate matter was ongoing. Qualitatively, metal composition of particulate matter resulted similar in the Sarroch and Milazzo samples. Instead, a large excess of PAH was documented in the Milazzo samples as compared to the Sarroch ones. In conclusion, the results of the analysis of the samples of particulate matter deposited in the Milazzo area in the days immediately following the oil refinery fire showed a high quantity of PAH, carcinogenic substances which pose major hazard to population health. The greater fall-out was registered in the proximity of the burnt storage tank and the West neighbourhood, and at lesser extent in the Southern neighbourhood. As a consequence, there was a population exposure to carcinogenic substances which could have reached the food chain.

  9. Racial differences in disability after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Vicki A.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Brown, Devin L.; Haggins, Adrianne; Skolarus, Lesli E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We sought to characterize racial differences in disability among older stroke survivors. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 806 self-reported stroke survivors from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study was performed. Race was based on self-report. Primary outcome was activity limitations (requiring assistance with mobility, self-care, and household activities). Secondary outcome was participation restrictions, which were defined as reductions/absence in valued social activities because of health. Physical capacity was measured by a validated scale (0 low–12 high). Logistic regression was used to estimate average marginal effects of activity limitations and participation restrictions by race before and after adjusting for sociodemographics, comorbidities, and physical and cognitive capacity. Results: Non-Hispanic black participants had lower physical capacity than non-Hispanic white participants (mean 5.1 vs 6.9, p < 0.01). For most activities, black participants had significantly greater limitations than white participants. These differences persisted after accounting for sociodemographic factors and comorbidities, but largely became nonsignificant after accounting for physical capacity. The only unadjusted racial difference in participation restriction was in religious service attendance (18.2% of white participants vs 28.6% of black participants, p < 0.01). Conclusion: After stroke, black individuals have a greater prevalence of activity limitations than white individuals, largely due to their greater physical capacity limitations. Further understanding of the causes of racial differences in capacity after stroke is needed to reduce activity limitations after stroke and decrease racial disparities. PMID:24975857

  10. Residential racial segregation and mortality among black, white, and Hispanic urban breast cancer patients in Texas, 1995 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, Sandi L; Lee, Simon J Craddock; Tiro, Jasmin A; Xuan, Lei; Ruiz, John M; Inrig, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    The authors investigated whether residential segregation (the degree to which racial/ethnic groups live separately from one another in a geographic area) 1) was associated with mortality among urban women with breast cancer, 2) explained racial/ethnic disparities in mortality, and 3) whether its association with mortality varied by race/ethnicity. Using Texas Cancer Registry data, all-cause mortality and breast-cancer mortality were examined among 109,749 urban black, Hispanic, and white women aged ≥50 years who were diagnosed with breast cancer from 1995 to 2009. Racial (black) segregation and ethnic (Hispanic) segregation of patient's neighborhoods were measured and were compared with the larger metropolitan statistical area using the location quotient measure. Shared frailty Cox proportional hazard models were used to nest patients within residential neighborhoods (census tract) and were controlled for race/ethnicity, age, diagnosis year, tumor stage, grade, histology, neighborhood poverty, and county-level mammography availability. Greater black segregation and Hispanic segregation were adversely associated with cause-specific mortality and all-cause mortality. For example, in adjusted models, Hispanic segregation was associated with cause-specific mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.46). Compared with whites, blacks had higher mortality for both outcomes, whereas Hispanics demonstrated equivalent (cause-specific) or lower (all-cause) mortality. Segregation did not explain racial/ethnic disparities in mortality. Within each race/ethnicity strata, segregation was either adversely associated with mortality or was not significant. Among urban women with breast cancer in Texas, segregation has an independent, adverse association with mortality, and the effect of segregation varies by patient race/ethnicity. The novel application of a small-area measure of relative racial segregation should be examined in other cancer types with

  11. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Quality of Health Care.

    PubMed

    Fiscella, Kevin; Sanders, Mechelle R

    2016-01-01

    The annual National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports document widespread and persistent racial and ethnic disparities. These disparities result from complex interactions between patient factors related to social disadvantage, clinicians, and organizational and health care system factors. Separate and unequal systems of health care between states, between health care systems, and between clinicians constrain the resources that are available to meet the needs of disadvantaged groups, contribute to unequal outcomes, and reinforce implicit bias. Recent data suggest slow progress in many areas but have documented a few notable successes in eliminating these disparities. To eliminate these disparities, continued progress will require a collective national will to ensure health care equity through expanded health insurance coverage, support for primary care, and public accountability based on progress toward defined, time-limited objectives using evidence-based, sufficiently resourced, multilevel quality improvement strategies that engage patients, clinicians, health care organizations, and communities.

  12. Neighborhood matters: racial socialization of African American children.

    PubMed

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Nettles, Saundra Murray; O'Campo, Patricia J; Lohrfink, Kimberly Fraleigh

    2006-01-01

    Differences in racial socialization practices and their effects were examined in a sample of 241 African American 1st graders (average age 6.59 years) living in an urban area. Child outcomes included cognitive development, receptive language skills, and child problem behavior. The cultural environment of the home was associated with higher cognitive scores for boys living in high negative social climate and low social capital neighborhoods and for girls living in high social capital neighborhoods. The positive association of promotion of mistrust and child behavior problems was magnified in neighborhoods that had low levels of social capital. A high negative social climate in the neighborhood attenuated the positive association between preparation for bias/promotion of mistrust and externalizing problems.

  13. Racial Geography, Economic Growth and Natural Disaster Resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huiping; Fernandez, Steven J.; Ganguly, Auroop

    2014-03-01

    Recent development of National Response Plans and National Incident Management Plans has emphasized the need for interoperability of plans, systems, technology, and command structures. However, much less emphasis has been placed on equally important elements such as the at-risk populations’ response to those plans, systems, and directions. The community-wide consequences of Hurricane Katrina demonstrated that the protection of communities should no longer be considered only a function of public organizations. Private organizations, nonprofit organizations and individual households have significant roles to play in these plans (Comfort 2006, Salamon 2002). This study is a first attempt to characterize the effect on the resilience (recovery) of metropolitan areas by the presence (or absence) of separate small communities within a larger jurisdiction. These communities can be based on many different social cleavages (ethnic, racial, economic, social, geographic, linguistic, etc.).

  14. Racial Disparities in Early Criminal Justice Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Crutchfield, Robert D.; Skinner, Martie L.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; McGlynn, Anne; Catalano, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    Criminologists have long reported the existence of racial disparity in the criminal justice system, but the important question is why. While some argue that observed differences are a consequence of more criminal behavior among minorities, the weight of the evidence indicates that this is but a partial explanation. In this paper we study data from a sample of juveniles to examine how racial differences in early police contact, and important social environments—family, school, and neighborhoods—affect later contact and arrests, controlling for self-reported delinquency. We find that early (in middle school) contact with police is an important predictor of later (high school) arrests. Also we found that, in addition to being male and living in a low-income family, children who have parents who have a history of arrest, who have experienced school disciplinary actions, who have delinquent peers, and who are in networks with deviant adults are more likely to have problems with law enforcement. These factors help to explain racial differences in police contacts and arrests. PMID:20190860

  15. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Katherine M.; Queenan, John T.; Schulkin, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article's aim is to review the literature on racial and ethnic disparities in breastfeeding rates and practices, address barriers to breastfeeding among minority women, conduct a systematic review of breastfeeding interventions, and provide obstetrician-gynecologists with recommendations on how they can help increase rates among minority women. In order to do so, the literature of racial and ethnic disparities in breastfeeding rates and barriers among minority women was reviewed, and a systematic review of breastfeeding interventions among minority women on PubMed and MEDLINE was conducted. Racial and ethnic minority women continue to have lower breastfeeding rates than white women and are not close to meeting the Healthy People 2020 goals. Minority women report many barriers to breastfeeding. Major efforts are still needed to improve breastfeeding initiation and duration rates among minority women in the United States. Obstetrician-gynecologists have a unique opportunity to promote and support breastfeeding through their clinical practices and public policy, and their efforts can have a meaningful impact on the future health of the mother and child. PMID:25831234

  16. Racial differences in CT phenotypes in COPD.

    PubMed

    Hansel, Nadia N; Washko, George R; Foreman, Marilyn G; Han, MeiLan K; Hoffman, Eric A; DeMeo, Dawn L; Barr, R Graham; Van Beek, Edwin J R; Kazerooni, Ella A; Wise, Robert A; Brown, Robert H; Black-Shinn, Jennifer; Hokanson, John E; Hanania, Nicola A; Make, Barry; Silverman, Edwin K; Crapo, James D; Dransfield, Mark T

    2013-02-01

    Whether African Americans (AA) are more susceptible to COPD than non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) and whether racial differences in disease phenotype exist is controversial. The objective is to determine racial differences in the extent of emphysema and airway remodeling in COPD. First, 2,500 subjects enrolled in the COPDGene study were used to evaluate racial differences in quantitative CT (QCT) parameters of% emphysema, air trapping and airway wall thickness. Independent variables studied included race, age, gender, education, BMI, pack-years, smoking status, age at smoking initiation, asthma, previous work in dusty job, CT scanner and center of recruitment. Of the 1,063 subjects with GOLD Stage II-IV COPD, 200 self-reported as AA. AAs had a lower mean% emphysema (13.1% vs. 16.1%, p = 0.005) than NHW and proportionately less emphysema in the lower lung zones. After adjustment for covariates, there was no statistical difference by race in air trapping or airway wall thickness. Measured QCT parameters were more predictive of poor functional status in NHWs compared to AAs. AAs have less emphysema than NHWs but the same degree of airway disease. Additional factors not easily assessed by current QCT techniques may account for the poor functional status in AAs.

  17. Racial Differences in CT Phenotypes in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Hansel, Nadia N.; Washko, George R.; Foreman, Marilyn G.; Han, MeiLan K.; Hoffman, Eric A.; DeMeo, Dawn L.; Barr, R. Graham; Van Beek, Edwin J.R.; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Wise, Robert A.; Brown, Robert H.; Black-Shinn, Jennifer; Hokanson, John E.; Hanania, Nicola A.; Make, Barry; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James D.; Dransfield, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Whether African Americans (AA) are more susceptible to COPD than non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) and whether racial differences in disease phenotype exist is controversial. The objective is to determine racial differences in the extent of emphysema and airway remodeling in COPD. Methods First, 2,500 subjects enrolled in the COPDGene study were used to evaluate racial differences in quantitative CT (QCT) parameters of % emphysema, air trapping and airway wall thickness. Independent variables studied included race, age, gender, education, BMI, pack-years, smoking status, age at smoking initiation, asthma, previous work in dusty job, CT scanner and center of recruitment. Results Of the 1,063 subjects with GOLD Stage II-IV COPD, 200 self-reported as AA. AAs had a lower mean % emphysema (13.1 % vs. 16.1%, p = 0.005) than NHW and proportionately less emphysema in the lower lung zones. After adjustment for covariates, there was no statistical difference by race in air trapping or airway wall thickness. Measured QCT parameters were more predictive of poor functional status in NHWs compared to AAs. Conclusions AAs have less emphysema than NHWs but the same degree of airway disease. Additional factors not easily assessed by current QCT techniques may account for the poor functional status in AAs. PMID:23413893

  18. A mixed-methods approach to developing a self-reported racial/ethnic discrimination measure for use in multiethnic health surveys.

    PubMed

    Shariff-Marco, Salma; Gee, Gilbert C; Breen, Nancy; Willis, Gordon; Reeve, Bryce B; Grant, David; Ponce, Ninez A; Krieger, Nancy; Landrine, Hope; Williams, David R; Alegria, Margarita; Mays, Vickie M; Johnson, Timothy P; Brown, E Richard

    2009-01-01

    The development of measures of self-reported racial/ethnic discrimination is an active area of research, but few measures have been validated across multiple racial/ethnic and language groups. Our goal is to develop and evaluate a discrimination measure that is appropriate for use in surveys of racially and ethnically diverse populations. To develop our measure, we employ a mixed-methods approach for survey research, drawing from both qualitative and quantitative traditions, including literature review, cognitive testing, psychometric analyses, behavior coding as well as two rounds of field testing using a split-sample design. We tested our new measure using two different approaches to elicit self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination. Our new measure captures four dimensions of racial/ethnic discrimination: 1) frequency of encounters with discrimination across several domains (eg, medical care, school, work, street and other public places); 2) timing of exposure (eg recent, lifetime); 3) appraisal of discrimination as stressful; and 4) responses to discrimination. Because of the growing interest in measurement of racial/ethnic discrimination in health surveys, we think this report on the methods informing the development and testing of the discrimination module that will be used on the California Health Interview Survey would be useful to other researchers. The application of mixed methods to rigorously test the validity and reliability of our instrument proves to be a good roadmap for measuring racial/ethnic discrimination in multicultural and multilingual populations.

  19. Sociodemographic and environmental correlates of racial socialization by black parents.

    PubMed

    Thornton, M C; Chatters, L M; Taylor, R J; Allen, W R

    1990-04-01

    The present study focused on the content and practice of racial socialization by black parents. Sociodemographic correlates of patterns of racial socialization were examined using data from a national probability sample of 2,107 respondents (National Study of Black Americans). Multivariate analysis revealed that gender, age, marital status, region, and racial composition of neighborhood predicted whether or not black parents imparted racial socialization messages to their children. Black parents envision racial socialization as involving several components, including messages regarding their experience as minority group members, themes emphasizing individual character and goals, and information related to black cultural heritage. The findings highlighted the critical importance of sociodemographic and environmental influences on the socialization process. Implications for future research on racial socialization are discussed.

  20. Life Expectancy Varies in Local Communities in Chicago: Racial and Spatial Disparities and Correlates.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Bijou R; Tran, Gary; Whitman, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Life expectancy in the USA reached a record high of 78.7 years in 2010. However, the racial gap in life expectancy persists. National data, which are readily available, provide averages which mask important local-level differences. Local data are needed to identify the worst off groups, key to reducing disparities and pursuing health equity. Using vital records data, we calculated life expectancy for the USA and Chicago by race/ethnicity and gender and for Chicago's 77 community areas. We also examined the correlation between life expectancy and (1) racial/ethnic composition of a community area and (2) median household income. In Chicago, the highest life expectancy was observed among Hispanics at 84.6 and the lowest life expectancy was observed among Blacks at 71.7-a difference of about 13 years. Life expectancy varied substantially across the 77 community areas of Chicago, from a low of 68.2 to a high of 83.3-a difference of 15 years. There were strong correlations between life expectancy and the racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic distributions among the community areas. The examination of data at the local level provides invaluable insight into which communities are facing the greatest burden in terms of health and well-being. It is only through the examination of local-level data that we can understand the unique needs of these communities and begin to address them.

  1. Precuneus proportions and cortical folding: A morphometric evaluation on a racially diverse human sample.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Emiliano; Pereira-Pedro, Ana Sofia; Chen, Xu; Rilling, James K

    2017-03-06

    Recent analyses have suggested that the size and proportions of the precuneus are remarkably variable among adult humans, representing a major source of geometrical difference in midsagittal brain morphology. The same area also represents the main midsagittal brain difference between humans and chimpanzees, being more expanded in our species. Enlargement of the upper parietal surface is a specific feature of Homo sapiens, when compared with other fossil hominids, suggesting the involvement of these cortical areas in recent modern human evolution. Here, we provide a survey on midsagittal brain morphology by investigating whether precuneus size represents the largest component of variance within a larger and racially diverse sample of 265 adult humans. Additionally, we investigate the relationship between precuneus shape variation and folding patterns. Precuneus proportions are confirmed to be a major source of human brain variation even when racial variability is considered. Larger precuneus size is associated with additional precuneal gyri, generally in its anterior district. Spatial variation is most pronounced in the dorsal areas, with no apparent differences between hemispheres, between sexes, or among different racial groups. These dorsal areas integrate somatic and visual information together with the lateral elements of the parietal cortex, representing a crucial node for self-centered mental imagery. The histological basis and functional significance of this intra-specific variation in the upper precuneus remains to be evaluated.

  2. How scholarly nursing literature addresses health disparities for racial/ethnic minority men.

    PubMed

    Dallas, Constance

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review conceptual/theoretical and review/agenda setting nursing literature on the health care of racial/ethnic minority men [specifically African American/Black, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian/Alaskan Native and Asian/Pacific Islander men] in one of the four targeted areas of health disparities. CINAHL and MEDLINE computer databases were searched from 1983 to the present using a combination of manual and computer-based methods to identify the nursing literature that included any racial/ethnic men in the sample and addressed at least one of the four areas of health disparities targeted by Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) that affect adults: heart disease, malignant neoplasms (cancer), diabetes mellitus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/AIDS. This review provides an overview of health disparities experienced by racial/ethnic minority men in the targeted areas and of the types of conceptual and agenda-setting articles published in scholarly nursing literature in those targeted areas.

  3. Racial socialization and racial identity: can they promote resiliency for African American adolescents?

    PubMed

    Miller, D B

    1999-01-01

    Although there is a rich body of research on resiliency, much of the literature fails to include minority youths or does not take into consideration their distinctive racial and environmental circumstances. Additionally, limited attention has been given to protective factors that are unique to nonmajority populations. This article posits that racial socialization and racial identity protect urban African American adolescents against some of the harmful effects of a discriminatory environment. These factors are hypothesized to influence academic achievement-an indicator of resiliency that has been used in many studies. A theoretical framework is provided that combines character development in a hostile environment, bicultural identity, and urban stress models. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  4. Ethnic identity and racial attitudes in a minority group of mixed racial origin.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy B; Stratton, Joy; Stones, Christopher R; Naidoo, Anthony

    2003-02-01

    Limited information exists on the racial attitudes and ethnic identities of groups of mixed racial origin. The present research tested the hypotheses that the construct of ethnic identity is valid among such groups and that ethnic identity is related to out-group prejudice, as predicted by social identity theory. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, the Anti-White Scale, and the Subtle Racism Scale were administered to 70 South Africans of mixed racial descent, the so-called Coloureds. A factor analysis supported the structural validity of the 12-item measure of ethnic identity with this sample, but correlations between scales did not support the prediction that group identity would be positively associated with out-group prejudice. Group identity was positively related .27 to positive attitudes toward Whites consistent with the tenets of social dominance theory.

  5. Racial Identification, Racial Discrimination, and Substance Use Vulnerability Among African American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Michelle L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Walsh, Laura A.; Gerrard, Meg

    2016-01-01

    Two studies examined racial identity (RI) as a protective factor against substance use cognitions among African American young adults who either envisioned or experienced racial discrimination. In Study 1, participants envisioned a discrimination or nondiscrimination scenario, and then their willingness to use drugs and an indirect measure of substance use were assessed. Discrimination was associated with higher levels of use cognitions among participants with low levels of RI. In Study 2, participants were excluded or included in an online game (Cyberball) by White peers and then engaged in an RI-affirmation or control writing task. Participants attributed this exclusion to racial discrimination. Excluded participants who did not affirm their RI reported the highest levels of substance use cognitions, especially if they had engaged in higher levels of previous substance use. These findings highlight the importance of RI among Black young adults and the impact of discrimination on health behaviors. PMID:21628598

  6. Racial discrimination and posttraumatic stress symptoms as pathways to sexual HIV risk behaviors among urban Black heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Bowleg, Lisa; Fitz, Caroline C; Burkholder, Gary J; Massie, Jenne S; Wahome, Rahab; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    In light of evidence that racial discrimination and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are neither rare nor extraordinary for many Black urban men, we examined the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual HIV risk behaviors in a predominantly low-income sample of 526 urban Black heterosexually identified men; 64% of whom were unemployed and 55% of whom reported a history of incarceration. We tested the hypothesis that PTSS would mediate the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual risk. Participants in the predominantly low-income urban sample ranged in age from 18 to 45 (M = 28.80, SD = 7.57). Three multiple regression models were used to test the study's mediational model. As hypothesized, PTSS mediated the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual risk behaviors. Most participants (97%) reported experiences with everyday racial discrimination. Results empirically support the notion of racial discrimination-based traumatic stress as a pathway to Black heterosexual men's increased sexual risk behaviors. Results also highlighted key demographic differences with older men reporting fewer PTSS and sexual risk behaviors compared with younger men. Incarceration was related to both PTSS and sexual risk, underscoring the role that incarceration may play in Black heterosexual men's adverse health outcomes. Our study highlights the need for more qualitative and quantitative research to understand the nature of PTSS in Black heterosexual men and mechanisms such as substance use that may link traumatic experiences and sexual risk. Future research could also assess experiences with childhood sexual abuse, violence, and incarceration to gain a more in-depth understanding of the sources of traumatic stress in Black heterosexual men's lives. We advocate for the development of community-based individual and structural-level interventions to help Black heterosexual men in urban areas develop effective strategies to

  7. Neighborhood Foreclosures, Racial/Ethnic Transitions, and Residential Segregation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Matthew; Crowder, Kyle; Spring, Amy

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we use data on virtually all foreclosure events between 2005 and 2009 to calculate neighborhood foreclosure rates for nearly all block groups in the United States to assess the impact of housing foreclosures on neighborhood racial/ethnic change and on broader patterns of racial residential segregation. We find that the foreclosure crisis was patterned strongly along racial lines: black, Latino, and racially integrated neighborhoods had exceptionally high foreclosure rates. Multilevel models of racial/ethnic change reveal that foreclosure concentrations were linked to declining shares of whites and expanding shares of black and Latino residents. Results further suggest that these compositional shifts were driven by both white population loss and minority growth, especially from racially mixed settings with high foreclosure rates. To explore the impact of these racially selective migration streams on patterns of residential segregation, we simulate racial segregation assuming that foreclosure rates remained at their 2005 levels throughout the crisis period. Our simulations suggest that the foreclosure crisis increased racial segregation between blacks and whites by 1.1 dissimilarity points, and between Latinos and whites by 2.2 dissimilarity points.

  8. Racial science, geopolitics, and empires: paradoxes of power.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Helen

    2014-12-01

    Scholars interested in the history of racial science continue to puzzle over the ways in which such ideas endure. This essay takes up a variant on this theme by considering how critiques of ideas about racial purity and hierarchies, expressed at the Universal Races Congress of 1911, were part of a larger intellectual project that simultaneously under- mined ideas of fixed racial types and bolstered identity categories defined in racial terms. Efforts to destabilize racial science in the early decades of the twentieth century often went hand in glove with burgeoning critiques of "white" and European domination in different parts of the world. This essay shines the spotlight on the paradoxical nature of these processes. While anthropologists helped to spearhead attempts to deconstruct mainstream pillars of racial science, they also left the door open for its reconstitution by refusing to reject classificatory schemes by group. And though global conversations about race and science tended to generate more cosmopolitan and egalitarian views, the very act of bringing together people from different places had the unintended effect of reinforcing racial identities and idioms, especially in the context of challenges to colonial rule. Finally, even as state building within empires ensured that racial taxonomies proliferated on the ground, imperial bureaucrats often avoided promoting racial science and research because such endeavors were a divisive force in transnational management.

  9. Racial Identity Invalidation With Multiracial Individuals: An Instrument Development Study.

    PubMed

    Franco, Marisa G; O'Brien, Karen M

    2017-06-26

    Racial identity invalidation, others' denial of an individual's racial identity, is a salient racial stressor with harmful effects on the mental health and well-being of Multiracial individuals. The purpose of this study was to create a psychometrically sound measure to assess racial identity invalidation for use with Multiracial individuals (N = 497). The present sample was mostly female (75%) with a mean age of 26.52 years (SD = 9.60). The most common racial backgrounds represented were Asian/White (33.4%) and Black/White (23.7%). Participants completed several online measures via Qualtrics. Exploratory factor analyses revealed 3 racial identity invalidation factors: behavior invalidation, phenotype invalidation, and identity incongruent discrimination. A confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the initial factor structure. Alternative model testing indicated that the bifactor model was superior to the 3-factor model. Thus, a total score and/or 3 subscale scores can be used when administering this instrument. Support was found for the reliability and validity of the total scale and subscales. In line with the minority stress theory, challenges with racial identity mediated relationships between racial identity invalidation and mental health and well-being outcomes. The findings highlight the different dimensions of racial identity invalidation and indicate their negative associations with connectedness and psychological well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Neighborhood Foreclosures, Racial/Ethnic Transitions, and Residential Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew; Crowder, Kyle; Spring, Amy

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we use data on virtually all foreclosure events between 2005 and 2009 to calculate neighborhood foreclosure rates for nearly all block groups in the United States to assess the impact of housing foreclosures on neighborhood racial/ethnic change and on broader patterns of racial residential segregation. We find that the foreclosure crisis was patterned strongly along racial lines: black, Latino, and racially integrated neighborhoods had exceptionally high foreclosure rates. Multilevel models of racial/ethnic change reveal that foreclosure concentrations were linked to declining shares of whites and expanding shares of black and Latino residents. Results further suggest that these compositional shifts were driven by both white population loss and minority growth, especially from racially mixed settings with high foreclosure rates. To explore the impact of these racially selective migration streams on patterns of residential segregation, we simulate racial segregation assuming that foreclosure rates remained at their 2005 levels throughout the crisis period. Our simulations suggest that the foreclosure crisis increased racial segregation between blacks and whites by 1.1 dissimilarity points, and between Latinos and whites by 2.2 dissimilarity points. PMID:26120142

  11. Trying to Build a Classless Utopia in the Land of Racial Democracy: The Lack of Racial Discussion within the Educational Materials of the Brazilian Landless Rural Workers' Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straubhaar, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    The hegemonic ideology of racial democracy and rural cultural norms of racial silence continue to inform racial identities and national racial discourse in Brazil, in this case within the Landless Rural Workers' Movement (MST), a left-wing movement for agrarian reform. In this article I engage in textual analysis of a textbook from the MST's youth…

  12. Trying to Build a Classless Utopia in the Land of Racial Democracy: The Lack of Racial Discussion within the Educational Materials of the Brazilian Landless Rural Workers' Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straubhaar, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    The hegemonic ideology of racial democracy and rural cultural norms of racial silence continue to inform racial identities and national racial discourse in Brazil, in this case within the Landless Rural Workers' Movement (MST), a left-wing movement for agrarian reform. In this article I engage in textual analysis of a textbook from the MST's youth…

  13. The Relation of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, and Racial Socialization to Discrimination-Distress: A Meta-Analysis of Black Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial…

  14. The Relation of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, and Racial Socialization to Discrimination-Distress: A Meta-Analysis of Black Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial…

  15. Identification of racial disparities in breast cancer mortality: does scale matter?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This paper investigates the impact of geographic scale (census tract, zip code, and county) on the detection of disparities in breast cancer mortality among three ethnic groups in Texas (period 1995-2005). Racial disparities were quantified using both relative (RR) and absolute (RD) statistics that account for the population size and correct for unreliable rates typically observed for minority groups and smaller geographic units. Results were then correlated with socio-economic status measured by the percentage of habitants living below the poverty level. Results African-American and Hispanic women generally experience higher mortality than White non-Hispanics, and these differences are especially significant in the southeast metropolitan areas and southwest border of Texas. The proportion and location of significant racial disparities however changed depending on the type of statistic (RR versus RD) and the geographic level. The largest proportion of significant results was observed for the RD statistic and census tract data. Geographic regions with significant racial disparities for African-Americans and Hispanics frequently had a poverty rate above 10.00%. Conclusions This study investigates both relative and absolute racial disparities in breast cancer mortality between White non-Hispanic and African-American/Hispanic women at the census tract, zip code and county levels. Analysis at the census tract level generally led to a larger proportion of geographical units experiencing significantly higher mortality rates for minority groups, although results varied depending on the use of the relative versus absolute statistics. Additional research is needed before general conclusions can be formulated regarding the choice of optimal geographic regions for the detection of racial disparities. PMID:20602784

  16. Racial differences in factors that influence the willingness to participate in medical research studies.

    PubMed

    Shavers, Vickie L; Lynch, Charles F; Burmeister, Leon F

    2002-05-01

    The relative absence of racial/ethnic minorities among medical research subjects is receiving considerable attention because of recent government mandates for their inclusion in all human subject research. We examined racial differences in the prevalence of sociocultural barriers as a possible explanation for the underrepresentation of African Americans in medical research studies. During 1998-1999, a total of 198 residents of the Detroit Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area (PMSA) participated in a survey that examined impediments to participation in medical research studies. Chi square tests and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between race, issues related to trust of medical researchers, and the willingness to participate in medical research studies. Study results indicate that African Americans and whites differ in their willingness to participate in medical research. Racial differences in the willingness to participate in a medical research are primarily due to the lower level of trust of medical research among African Americans. African American respondents were also somewhat less willing to participate if they attribute high importance to the race of the doctor when seeking routine medical care, believed that minorities bear most of the risks of medical research, and if their knowledge of the Tuskegee Study resulted in less trust in medical researchers. These data reiterate the need for medical researchers to build trusting relationships with minority communities. Researchers can begin by acknowledging the previous medical abuse of minority research participants, discussing their specific plans to assure the protection of study participants, and explaining the need for the participation of racial/ethnic minorities including studies that specifically target or that are likely to result in disproportionate representation of racial/ethnic minorities among study participants.

  17. Racial microstressors, racial self-concept, and depressive symptoms among male African Americans during the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A; Brody, Gene H

    2015-04-01

    Racial discrimination is a pervasive stressor that can undermine mental health among African American youth and young adults. Several studies identify links between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms; however, this research base does not focus on male African American youth who experience significant racism-related stress during the transition to young adulthood. Moreover, few prospective studies consider significant confounding variables that affect exposure to and perception of discriminatory treatment. In response to this need, we examined the effect of exposure to racial discrimination from ages 16 to 18 on depressive symptoms among male African Americans at age 20. Racial self-concept, one's sense of positivity about one's race, was examined as a mediator and self-control as a moderator. Hypotheses were tested with 222 participants, age 16 at baseline and age 20 at the endpoint. Participants provided self-report data at five time points. Exposure to racial discrimination from ages 16 to 18 predicted depressive symptoms at age 20, net of confounding influences. Racial self-concept mediated this effect. Self-control moderated the influence of discrimination on racial self-concept. This study underscores the salience of racial discrimination in the development of depressive symptoms among African American male youth and the clinical utility of interventions targeting racial pride and self-control.

  18. Racial Microstressors, Racial Self-Concept, and Depressive Symptoms Among Male African Americans During the Transition to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A.; Brody, Gene H.

    2015-01-01

    Racial discrimination is a pervasive stressor that can undermine mental health among African American youth and young adults. Several studies identify links between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms; however, this research base does not focus on male African American youth who experience significant racism-related stress during the transition to young adulthood. Moreover, few prospective studies consider significant confounding variables that affect exposure to and perception of discriminatory treatment. In response to this need, we examined the effect of exposure to racial discrimination from ages 16–18 on depressive symptoms among male African Americans at age 20. Racial self-concept, one’s sense of positivity about one’s race, was examined as a mediator and self-control as a moderator. Hypotheses were tested with 222 participants, age 16 at baseline and age 20 at the endpoint. Participants provided self-report data at 5 time points. Exposure to racial discrimination from ages 16–18 predicted depressive symptoms at age 20, net of confounding influences. Racial self-concept mediated this effect. Self-control moderated the influence of discrimination on racial self-concept. This study underscores the salience of racial discrimination in the development of depressive symptoms among African American male youth and the clinical utility of interventions targeting racial pride and self-control. PMID:25344920

  19. Skin-Color Prejudice and Within-Group Racial Discrimination: Historical and Current Impact on Latino/a Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez-Dueñas, Nayeli Y.; Adames, Hector Y.; Organista, Kurt C.

    2014-01-01

    The psychological literature on colorism, a form of within-group racial discrimination, is sparse. In an effort to contribute to this understudied area and highlight its significance, a concise and selective review of the history of colorism in Latin America is provided. Specifically, three historical eras (i.e., conquest, colonization, and…

  20. Skin-Color Prejudice and Within-Group Racial Discrimination: Historical and Current Impact on Latino/a Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez-Dueñas, Nayeli Y.; Adames, Hector Y.; Organista, Kurt C.

    2014-01-01

    The psychological literature on colorism, a form of within-group racial discrimination, is sparse. In an effort to contribute to this understudied area and highlight its significance, a concise and selective review of the history of colorism in Latin America is provided. Specifically, three historical eras (i.e., conquest, colonization, and…

  1. Introduction to the Special Section on Racial and Ethnic Identity in Counseling Psychology: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges and Proposed Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Mallinckrodt, Brent

    2007-01-01

    Racial and ethnic identity development have been important topics in counseling psychology research for the last four decades. At present, however, there appears to be some confusion and debate regarding the quality of theory and measurement in the topical area. The present article serves as an introduction to this Journal of Counseling Psychology…

  2. Introduction to the Special Section on Racial and Ethnic Identity in Counseling Psychology: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges and Proposed Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Mallinckrodt, Brent

    2007-01-01

    Racial and ethnic identity development have been important topics in counseling psychology research for the last four decades. At present, however, there appears to be some confusion and debate regarding the quality of theory and measurement in the topical area. The present article serves as an introduction to this Journal of Counseling Psychology…

  3. Estimating the mental health costs of racial discrimination.

    PubMed

    Elias, Amanuel; Paradies, Yin

    2016-11-29

    Racial discrimination is a pervasive social problem in several advanced countries such as the U.S., U.K., and Australia. Public health research also indicates a range of associations between exposure to racial discrimination and negative health, particularly, mental health including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the direct negative health impact of racial discrimination has not been costed so far although economists have previously estimated indirect non-health related productivity costs. In this study, we estimate the burden of disease due to exposure to racial discrimination and measure the cost of this exposure. Using prevalence surveys and data on the association of racial discrimination with health outcomes from a global meta-analysis, we apply a cost of illness method to measure the impact of racial discrimination. This estimate indicates the direct health cost attributable to racial discrimination and we convert the estimates to monetary values based on conventional parameters. Racial discrimination costs the Australian economy 235,452 in disability adjusted life years lost, equivalent to $37.9 billion per annum, roughly 3.02% of annual gross domestic product (GDP) over 2001-11, indicating a sizeable loss for the economy. Substantial cost is incurred due to increased prevalence of racial discrimination as a result of its association with negative health outcomes (e.g. depression, anxiety and PTSD). This implies that potentially significant cost savings can be made through measures that target racial discrimination. Our research contributes to the debate on the social impact of racial discrimination, with implications for policies and efforts addressing it.

  4. Racial differences in symptoms of anxiety and depression among three cohorts of students in the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Latzman, Robert D; Naifeh, James A; Watson, David; Vaidya, Jatin G; Heiden, Laurie J; Damon, John D; Hight, Terry L; Young, John

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to extend the literature on mental health disparities in underserved areas by investigating racial differences in symptoms of anxiety and depression in three cohorts of school children in the Southern United States. White and African American students attending elementary, middle, and high school (n = 3,146) were administered a multi-dimensional measure of anxiety and depression. Racial differences were examined using categorical, dimensional, and latent-variable analytic methods. Although effect sizes were small across all levels of analysis, the categorical and dimensional approaches produced different patterns of significant anxiety-related findings. Additionally, confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the dimensional findings were not due to racial differences in the measurement of anxiety. The results of the current investigation suggest that, among school children, race has modest effects on symptoms of anxiety, but not depression. Further, the differential findings observed across analytic approaches reinforce the importance of measurement and methodology when studying psychopathology in children and adolescents.

  5. New spatially continuous indices of redlining and racial bias in mortgage lending: links to survival after breast cancer diagnosis and implications for health disparities research.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Zhou, Yuhong; Matthews, Kevin; Bemanian, Amin; Laud, Purushottam W; Nattinger, Ann B

    2016-07-01

    Racial health disparities continue to be a serious problem in the United States and have been linked to contextual factors, including racial segregation. In some cases, including breast cancer survival, racial disparities appear to be worsening. Using the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) database, we extend current spatial analysis methodology to derive new, spatially continuous indices of (1) racial bias in mortgage lending and (2) redlining. We then examine spatial patterns of these indices and the association between these new measures and breast cancer survival among Black/African American women in the Milwaukee, Wisconsin metropolitan area. These new measures can be used to examine relationships between mortgage discrimination and patterns of disease throughout the United States. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Racial and Ethnic Minority Graduate Student Experiences with Racial Microaggressions in CACREP-Accredited Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael-Makri, Stella

    2010-01-01

    Scholars have suggested that racism has not disappeared but has undergone a transformation into new subtle or symbolic forms. Since university life is a microcosm of United States society. racial prejudice can be found in most colleges and universities. The literature reveals three subtle forms of racism: modern racism, symbolic racism, and…

  7. Racial and Ethnic Minority Graduate Student Experiences with Racial Microaggressions in CACREP-Accredited Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael-Makri, Stella

    2010-01-01

    Scholars have suggested that racism has not disappeared but has undergone a transformation into new subtle or symbolic forms. Since university life is a microcosm of United States society. racial prejudice can be found in most colleges and universities. The literature reveals three subtle forms of racism: modern racism, symbolic racism, and…

  8. Promoting Critical Racial Awareness in Teacher Education in Korea: Reflections on a Racial Discrimination Simulation Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanghe, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Though historically perceived as an ethnically homogenous country, rapid demographic changes in the Republic of Korea have resulted in increasing diversity. However, current multicultural education programs struggle to promote acceptance and appreciation of this diversity. This paper details one pedagogical activity, a racial discrimination…

  9. Racial Attitudes and Racial Balance in Public Schools: A Case Study of Lynchburg, Virginia. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morland, J. Kenneth

    Beginning with the 1971-72 school term, the public schools of Lynchburg, Virginia, were racially balanced. In the elementary and junior high schools, this was achieved by busing; in the high schools it was achieved by having all ninth and tenth grade students attend the same school, and by having all eleventh and twelfth graders attend the same…

  10. Promoting Critical Racial Awareness in Teacher Education in Korea: Reflections on a Racial Discrimination Simulation Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanghe, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Though historically perceived as an ethnically homogenous country, rapid demographic changes in the Republic of Korea have resulted in increasing diversity. However, current multicultural education programs struggle to promote acceptance and appreciation of this diversity. This paper details one pedagogical activity, a racial discrimination…

  11. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Patient Safety.

    PubMed

    Okoroh, Juliet Siena; Uribe, Erika Flores; Weingart, Saul

    2017-09-01

    Although there is extensive evidence on disparities in the process and outcomes of health care, data on racial and ethnic disparities in patient safety remain inconclusive in the United States. The aims of this study were to (1) explore differences in reporting race/ethnicity in studies on disparities in patient safety; (2) assess adjustment for socioeconomic status, comorbidity, and disease severity; and (3) make recommendations on the inclusion of race/ethnicity for future studies on adverse events. We searched PubMed database (for articles published from 1991 to May 1, 2013) using a predetermined criteria for studies on racial and ethnic disparities in patient safety. Only quantitative studies that used chart review or administrative data for the detection of adverse events were considered for eligibility. Two reviewers independently extracted data on inclusion of race/ethnicity in baseline characteristics and in stratification of outcomes. A total of 174 studies were initially obtained from the search. Of these, 24 met inclusion criteria and received full-text review. Meta-analysis was not performed because of the methodological and statistical heterogeneity between studies. Eight studies included race/ethnicity in baseline characteristics and adjusted for confounders. Hospital-level variations such teaching status and percentage of minorities served were infrequently analyzed. To our knowledge, this is the first methodological review of racial/ethnic disparities in patient safety in the United States. The evidence on the existence of disparities in adverse events was mixed. Poor stratification of outcomes by race/ethnicity and consideration of geographic and hospital-level variations explain the inconclusive evidence; variations in the quality of care at hospitals should be considered in studies using national databases.

  12. Decomposing Racial Disparities in Obesity Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Chelsea R.; Affuso, Olivia; Sen, Bisakha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Racial disparities in obesity exist at the individual and community levels. Retail food environment has been hypothesized to be associated with racial disparities in obesity prevalence. This study aimed to quantify how much food environment measures explain racial disparities in obesity at the county level. Methods Data from 2009 to 2010 on 3,135 U.S. counties were extracted from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Environment Atlas and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and analyzed in 2013. Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition was used to quantify the portion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high and low proportion of African American residents is explained by food environment measures (e.g., proximity to grocery stores, per capita fast food restaurants). Counties were considered to have a high African American population if the percentage of African American residents was >13.1%, which represents the 2010 U.S. Census national estimate of percentage African American citizens. Results There were 665 counties (21%) classified as a high African American county. The total gap in mean adult obesity prevalence between high and low African American counties was found to be 3.35 percentage points (32.98% vs 29.63%). Retail food environment measures explained 13.81% of the gap in mean age-adjusted adult obesity prevalence. Conclusions Retail food environment explains a proportion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high proportion of African American residents and counties with a low proportion of African American residents. PMID:26507301

  13. Racial discrimination and perinatal sleep quality.

    PubMed

    Francis, Brittney; Klebanoff, Mark; Oza-Frank, Reena

    2017-08-01

    This research examined the association between perceived everyday racial discrimination, as a psychosocial stressor, and perinatal sleep quality. Cross-sectional (N=640) and longitudinal associations (N=133) between everyday experiences of discrimination and sleep quality were examined using a pregnancy and postpartum data registry. We studied a sample of 640 unique women from the Perinatal Research Repository (PRR), a longitudinal study of mothers, fathers, and babies recruited from Nationwide Children's Hospital and The Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio. Discrimination and sleep quality were assessed using the Experiences of Discrimination Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, respectively. Overall, everyday discrimination was associated with poorer global sleep quality and all but three sleep sub-measures of the PSQI cross-sectionally, but not longitudinally. When stratified, the adverse effects of everyday discrimination varied by race and perinatal time period. Increases in everyday discrimination were independently associated with poorer sleep initiation, poorer sleep maintenance and poorer daytime dysfunction. Findings suggest that the immediate stressors of everyday racial discrimination were independently associated with poorer sleep quality among pregnant women cross-sectionally. Poorer sleep quality has been associated with numerous adverse perinatal outcomes and this association may be important in understanding racial discrimination as a risk factor. Our failure to identify a longitudinal association makes the direction of causation uncertain, however. Further longitudinal studies are necessary to clarify the association, given the potential importance of poor sleep quality in the pathogenesis of pregnancy complications. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. White University Students' Racial Affect : Understanding the Antiracist Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kordesh, Kathleen S.; Spanierman, Lisa B.; Neville, Helen A.

    2013-01-01

    Prior quantitative research using the Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites scale (PCRW; Spanierman & Heppner, 2004) identified five racial affect types among White undergraduate students. To better understand the Antiracist type, the most racially aware and sensitive among the five types, the authors of the present study conducted two focus…

  15. Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Desire to Marry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Scott J.

    1993-01-01

    Used data from over 2,000 respondents to explore racial, ethnic, and gender differences in desire to marry. African Americans were significantly less desiring of marriage than whites; racial difference among men was significantly larger than difference among women. Compared to nonhispanic whites of same gender, Hispanic men were more likely,…

  16. Exorcising the Racism Phantasm: Racial Realism in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaisdell, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Based on a 3-year ethnographic project at a public elementary school in North Carolina, this article discusses how the concept of racial realism can be useful to researchers trying to live up to the goals of critical race studies in school-based research. Racial realism maintains that racism is a permanent aspect of U.S. society and schools. A…

  17. Integration or fragmentation? Racial diversity and the American future.

    PubMed

    Lichter, Daniel T

    2013-04-01

    Over the next generation or two, America's older, largely white population will increasingly be replaced by today's disproportionately poor minority children. All future growth will come from populations other than non-Hispanic whites as America moves toward a majority-minority society by 2043. This so-called Third Demographic Transition raises important implications about changing racial boundaries in the United States, that is, about the physical, economic, and sociocultural barriers that separate different racial and ethnic groups. America's racial transformation may place upward demographic pressure on future poverty and inequality as today's disproportionately poor and minority children grow into adult roles. Racial boundaries will be reshaped by the changing meaning of race and ethnicity, shifting patterns of racial segregation in neighborhoods and the workplace, newly integrating (or not) friendship networks, and changing rates of interracial marriage and childbearing. The empirical literature provides complicated lessons and offers few guarantees that growing racial diversity will lead to a corresponding breakdown in racial boundaries-that whites and minorities will increasingly share the same physical and social spaces or interact as coequals. How America's older population of elected officials and taxpayers responds today to America's increasingly diverse population will provide a window to the future, when today's children successfully transition (or not) into productive adult roles. Racial and ethnic inclusion will be reshaped by changing ethnoracial inequality, which highlights the need to invest in children-now.

  18. Teaching Black History as a Racial Literacy Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, LaGarrett Jarriel

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have long promoted black history as an appropriate space to promote the development of racial literacy. Few research studies, however, have examined how teacher education uses black history as a heuristic to teach about race. Using racial literacy as a framework, this article examined the varied ways four social studies pre-service…

  19. Teaching Black History as a Racial Literacy Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, LaGarrett Jarriel

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have long promoted black history as an appropriate space to promote the development of racial literacy. Few research studies, however, have examined how teacher education uses black history as a heuristic to teach about race. Using racial literacy as a framework, this article examined the varied ways four social studies pre-service…

  20. The Impact and Racial Identity on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulzac, Anica Camela

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that academic achievement among racial minority groups, particularly African Americans, and the majority Caucasian group is profoundly disproportionate. A number of variables have been shown to influence the academic achievement of students, such as stereotype threat, racial identity, and academic self-concept (Awad, 2007;…

  1. Racial-Ethnic Identity and Adjustment in Canadian Indigenous Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gfellner, Barbara M.; Armstrong, Helen D.

    2013-01-01

    This study supported associations between three theoretically driven conceptualizations of racial and ethnic identity (REI; Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure; Multidimensional Racial Identity Measure; Bicultural Identity Measure) and with adaptive functioning among Canadian indigenous adolescents in middle school to high school. Age differences…

  2. White Racial Framing Related to Public School Financing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Terence

    2015-01-01

    In the 21st century, U.S. Blacks in public schools experience disenfranchisement, as did their ancestral predecessors in the 19th and 20th centuries. This research utilizes the "White Racial Frame," which essentially encompasses the cognitive racialized false stereotypes and beliefs Whites hold regarding people of color (Feagin, 2010).…

  3. "The Biscuit Eater": Racial Stereotypes, 1939-1972

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliman, Bernice W.

    1978-01-01

    The story "The Biscuit Eater" and the two films made from it can be used as a paradigm of the image of blacks in works made by whites. However, unlike those of 1940, reviewers of the 1972 Disney film were critical of every racially insensitive nuance, representing progress in racial awareness. (Author/GC)

  4. Racial Microaggressions as a Tool for Critical Race Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez Huber, Lindsay; Solorzano, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    This conceptual article utilizes critical race theory (CRT) to explain how everyday forms of racism--racial microaggressions--emerge in the everyday experiences of People of Color. We provide a framework for understanding and analyzing racial microaggressions that demonstrates how everyday racist events are systemically mediated by…

  5. Exorcising the Racism Phantasm: Racial Realism in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaisdell, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Based on a 3-year ethnographic project at a public elementary school in North Carolina, this article discusses how the concept of racial realism can be useful to researchers trying to live up to the goals of critical race studies in school-based research. Racial realism maintains that racism is a permanent aspect of U.S. society and schools. A…

  6. Promoting Racial and Ethnic Diversity among Canadian Academic Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandiuk, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This study examines racial and ethnic diversity among Canadian academic librarians and discusses the findings of a nationwide survey. The survey posed questions related to equity plans and programs as well as recruitment practices for academic librarians from equity-seeking groups with a focus on Aboriginal and visible/racial minority librarians.…

  7. Miles to Go before We Sleep: Racial Inequities in Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Large, pervasive, and persistent racial inequalities exist in the onset, courses, and outcomes of illness. A comprehensive understanding of the patterning of racial disparities indicates that racism in both its institutional and individual forms remains an important determinant. There is an urgent need to build the science base that would identify…

  8. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis by Kindergarten Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur by kindergarten entry is currently unknown. We investigated risk factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry generally, and specifically whether racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by…

  9. Racial and Marital Status Differences in Faculty Pay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.

    1998-01-01

    Study estimated how pay disparity varied by race, marital status, gender, and field. Results show considerable differences overall, with unexplained wage gaps for racial/ethnic group, dramatic variations between men and women, and further by field. Earnings differences among racial/ethnic categories are not uniform. The return on marriage for men…

  10. Passing as Black: Racial Identity Work among Biracial Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, Nikki; Johnson, Cathryn

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on interview data with black-white biracial adults, we examine the considerable agency most have in asserting their racial identities to others. Extending research on "identity work" (Snow and Anderson 1987), we explore the strategies biracial people use to conceal (i.e., pass), cover, and/or accent aspects of their racial ancestries, and…

  11. Promoting Racial and Ethnic Diversity among Canadian Academic Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandiuk, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This study examines racial and ethnic diversity among Canadian academic librarians and discusses the findings of a nationwide survey. The survey posed questions related to equity plans and programs as well as recruitment practices for academic librarians from equity-seeking groups with a focus on Aboriginal and visible/racial minority librarians.…

  12. Racial/Ethnic and Gender Diversity in Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA. Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing.

    This report provides an overview of activities to increase racial/ethnic and gender diversity in nursing and nursing education. Data are from a survey on gender diversity completed by 193 nursing education administrators in the 16 Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states and the District of Columbia and a survey about the racial/ethnic…

  13. Modification of Children's Racial Attitudes. Final Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Phyllis

    This study investigated some of the attitudinal and behavioral components of racial prejudice in elementary school children. It also assessed the effectiveness of various modification procedures upon children's racial attitudes and inter-group behavior at different age levels. A four-stage research design was used. The pre-test stage involved…

  14. Democratic Education Online: Combating Racialized Aggressions on Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gin, Kevin J.; Martínez-Alemán, Ana M.; Knight, Sarah; Radimer, Scott; Lewis, Jonathan; Rowan-Kenyon, Heather T.

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, mobile, low-friction, and easy to use social media have changed the landscape of college campuses. Social media have opened the doors for racial hostility to be displayed on campus in new ways and have been widely used to express racial aggressions toward students of color. Anonymity allows these behaviors to be freely enacted…

  15. Welcome to the Front Seat: Racial Identity and Mesoamerican Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriaza, Gilberto

    2004-01-01

    In this article, I argue that mestizo immigrants from the Mesoamerica region experience a low socioeconomic tracking compounded by a racialized subordinating discourse in the United States. These immigrants come over to the United States from a region where social stratification and racial prejudice are based more on cultural and linguistic…

  16. Welcome to the Front Seat: Racial Identity and Mesoamerican Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriaza, Gilberto

    2004-01-01

    In this article, I argue that mestizo immigrants from the Mesoamerica region experience a low socioeconomic tracking compounded by a racialized subordinating discourse in the United States. These immigrants come over to the United States from a region where social stratification and racial prejudice are based more on cultural and linguistic…

  17. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Racial Literacy in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Rebecca; Mosley, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    What does racial literacy look and sound like in a teacher education book club? Using the tools of critical discourse analysis, we describe, interpret and explain how each member of the group draws on a range of discursive and embodied resources for racial literacy; particularly, how they maneuver the book club discourse to resolve what…

  18. The Public Kindergarten Concept as a Factor in Racial Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Edward L.

    The question of whether the public kindergarten neighborhood can effectively assume a meaningful role in the development of children's racial attitudes is investigated in this study. Focus centers on the public kindergarten since, in the absence of racially mixed neighborhoods, it constitutes the first formal interracial experience for most…

  19. Acceptance Versus Friendship: A Longitudinal Study of Racial Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Steven R.; And Others

    This is a report on a study of racial interrelationships among students in desegregated schools. Sociometric measures of third graders' willingness to play and work with their classmates (indicating cross-race acceptance) showed evidence of racial bias; however, the amount of bias appeared small compared to the findings of earlier studies which…

  20. The Black Vote: Racial Intolerance or the Politics of Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Richard R.

    Voting behavior of blacks is examined with specific regard to racial intolerance. Factors studied include racial identification, amount of interracial contact, and the black candidate's job performance. In 1969, interviewers collected data on 400 black respondents' attitudes about Carl Stokes (the black incumbent mayoralty candidate), the other…

  1. Rethinking Multicultural Education: Teaching for Racial and Cultural Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980s, "Rethinking Schools" magazine has been renowned for its commitment to racial equality in education. Now, "Rethinking Multicultural Education: Teaching for Racial and Cultural Justice" has collected the best Rethinking Schools articles that deal with race and culture. "Rethinking Multicultural…

  2. Some Better Practices for Measuring Racial and Ethnic Identity Constructs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Janet E.

    2007-01-01

    Racial and ethnic identity (REI) measures are in danger of becoming conceptually meaningless because of evaluators' insistence that they conform to measurement models intended to assess unidimensional constructs, rather than the multidimensional constructs necessary to capture the complexity of internalized racial or cultural socialization. Some…

  3. Racial Groups and Test Fairness, Considering History and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Daniel A.; Hanges, Paul J.; Outtz, James L.

    2007-01-01

    According to Helms, "test fairness" is defined as "removal from test scores of systematic variance attributable to experiences of racial or cultural socialization." Some of Helms's reasoning is based on earlier work, which recommended that racial group or category variables be replaced entirely with individual-level constructs, to reflect racial…

  4. Passing as Black: Racial Identity Work among Biracial Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, Nikki; Johnson, Cathryn

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on interview data with black-white biracial adults, we examine the considerable agency most have in asserting their racial identities to others. Extending research on "identity work" (Snow and Anderson 1987), we explore the strategies biracial people use to conceal (i.e., pass), cover, and/or accent aspects of their racial ancestries, and…

  5. African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…

  6. Examining Racial Disparities in Teacher Perceptions of Student Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooc, North

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: The overrepresentation of some minority groups in special education in the United States raises concerns about racial inequality and stratification within schools. While many actors and mechanisms within the school system may contribute to racial disparities in special education, the role of teachers is particularly important…

  7. White Racial Identity Statuses as Predictors of White Privilege Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Havice, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between White privilege awareness and White racial identity development for 197 counseling trainees. Results indicated that 3 of J. E. Helms's (1984, 1990, 1995) White racial identity statuses (i.e., Contact, Reintegration, and Immersion/Emersian) significantly predicted White privilege awareness. Implications…

  8. Racial and Marital Status Differences in Faculty Pay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.

    1998-01-01

    Study estimated how pay disparity varied by race, marital status, gender, and field. Results show considerable differences overall, with unexplained wage gaps for racial/ethnic group, dramatic variations between men and women, and further by field. Earnings differences among racial/ethnic categories are not uniform. The return on marriage for men…

  9. Miles to Go before We Sleep: Racial Inequities in Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Large, pervasive, and persistent racial inequalities exist in the onset, courses, and outcomes of illness. A comprehensive understanding of the patterning of racial disparities indicates that racism in both its institutional and individual forms remains an important determinant. There is an urgent need to build the science base that would identify…

  10. Examining Racial Disparities in Teacher Perceptions of Student Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooc, North

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: The overrepresentation of some minority groups in special education in the United States raises concerns about racial inequality and stratification within schools. While many actors and mechanisms within the school system may contribute to racial disparities in special education, the role of teachers is particularly important…

  11. Rethinking Multicultural Education: Teaching for Racial and Cultural Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980s, "Rethinking Schools" magazine has been renowned for its commitment to racial equality in education. Now, "Rethinking Multicultural Education: Teaching for Racial and Cultural Justice" has collected the best Rethinking Schools articles that deal with race and culture. "Rethinking Multicultural…

  12. Racial Microaggressions in Everyday Life: Implications for Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sue, Derald Wing; Capodilupo, Christina M.; Torino, Gina C.; Bucceri, Jennifer M.; Holder, Aisha M. B.; Nadal, Kevin L.; Esquilin, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Racial microaggressions are brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults toward people of color. Perpetrators of microaggressions are often unaware that they engage in such communications when they…

  13. White Racial Identity Statuses as Predictors of White Privilege Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Havice, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between White privilege awareness and White racial identity development for 197 counseling trainees. Results indicated that 3 of J. E. Helms's (1984, 1990, 1995) White racial identity statuses (i.e., Contact, Reintegration, and Immersion/Emersian) significantly predicted White privilege awareness. Implications…

  14. White Silence: A Racial Biography of Margaret Haley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousmaniere, Kate

    2001-01-01

    Presents a racial biography of Margaret Haley, the early 1900s organizer of teachers' unions and explains that of all the progressive social and educational changes Haley spoke out about, racial equity in U.S. schools was not one of them. Argues that white teachers' silence about race is deeply and historically embedded in the cultural and…

  15. Racial Microaggressions as a Tool for Critical Race Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez Huber, Lindsay; Solorzano, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    This conceptual article utilizes critical race theory (CRT) to explain how everyday forms of racism--racial microaggressions--emerge in the everyday experiences of People of Color. We provide a framework for understanding and analyzing racial microaggressions that demonstrates how everyday racist events are systemically mediated by…

  16. White Silence: A Racial Biography of Margaret Haley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousmaniere, Kate

    2001-01-01

    Presents a racial biography of Margaret Haley, the early 1900s organizer of teachers' unions and explains that of all the progressive social and educational changes Haley spoke out about, racial equity in U.S. schools was not one of them. Argues that white teachers' silence about race is deeply and historically embedded in the cultural and…

  17. Democratic Education Online: Combating Racialized Aggressions on Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gin, Kevin J.; Martínez-Alemán, Ana M.; Knight, Sarah; Radimer, Scott; Lewis, Jonathan; Rowan-Kenyon, Heather T.

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, mobile, low-friction, and easy to use social media have changed the landscape of college campuses. Social media have opened the doors for racial hostility to be displayed on campus in new ways and have been widely used to express racial aggressions toward students of color. Anonymity allows these behaviors to be freely enacted…

  18. Racial & Ethnic Diversity in Higher Education. ASHE Reader Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Caroline Sotello Viernes, Ed.; Garcia, Mildred, Ed.; Nora, Amaury, Ed.; Rendon, Laura I., Ed.

    This text is a resource on racial and ethnic diversity for faculty and students in higher education. It is organized in sections related to the history of racial and ethnic diversity in higher education, curriculum and teaching, students, faculty, administration, leadership and governance, and research issues. The chapters are: (1) "History of…

  19. Racial Microaggressions in Everyday Life: Implications for Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sue, Derald Wing; Capodilupo, Christina M.; Torino, Gina C.; Bucceri, Jennifer M.; Holder, Aisha M. B.; Nadal, Kevin L.; Esquilin, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Racial microaggressions are brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults toward people of color. Perpetrators of microaggressions are often unaware that they engage in such communications when they…

  20. A Multiyear National Profile of Racial Disparity in Autism Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Jason C.; Tincani, Matt; Krezmien, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Disproportionate representation of racially diverse students in special education is a well-documented problem, yet few studies have systematically evaluated disproportionate representation of diverse students with autism. This study examined disproportionate representation of racially diverse students with autism by determining risk and…

  1. Facing Race: 2006 Legislative Report Card on Racial Equity. Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morita, Josina; Keleher, Terry

    2006-01-01

    This is Illinois' first Report Card on Racial Equity, assessing the extent to which the General Assembly and Governor support policies that advance racial equity in order to close disparities, protect against discrimination, and promote civic participation for all residents of Illinois. Among the report highlights: (1) The House and Senate…

  2. Teaching Effectively in Racially and Culturally Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Nancy J.

    2005-01-01

    Issues of racial and cultural diversity and racism pose particular challenges for effective teaching and learning in diverse theological classrooms. In this essay the author outlines specific strategies to confront racism and engage racially and culturally diverse students. Through the use of a model for understanding multicultural dynamics of…

  3. Racial Differences in Congregation-Based Political Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. Khari

    2006-01-01

    This study employs a resource mobilization model to explain racial differences in congregation-based political activism. The fewer resources (i.e., members, income, clergy leadership, civic ties) that black congregations possess relative to white congregations largely accounts for racial differences in congregation-based lobbying and protest…

  4. African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…

  5. Racial & Ethnic Diversity in Higher Education. ASHE Reader Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Caroline Sotello Viernes, Ed.; Garcia, Mildred, Ed.; Nora, Amaury, Ed.; Rendon, Laura I., Ed.

    This text is a resource on racial and ethnic diversity for faculty and students in higher education. It is organized in sections related to the history of racial and ethnic diversity in higher education, curriculum and teaching, students, faculty, administration, leadership and governance, and research issues. The chapters are: (1) "History of…

  6. Messages in Collusion: Resident Assistants and White Racial Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Kathy; McCoy, Dorian L.

    2017-01-01

    This critical case study examined the racial identity development of 10 White RAs who participated in 12 hours of diversity and social justice training during a two-week summer program. Helm's White Racial Identity Development Model served as the study's theoretical framework. In this paper, we discuss the incongruence between the Northeast State…

  7. Supporting Racially Diverse Students at HBCUs: A Student Affairs Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyo, Andrew T.; Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.; Louis, Dave A.

    2017-01-01

    While research has shown that the racial diversity of historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) is increasing, the efforts of student affairs professionals to foster racial inclusivity are under examined. This case study discusses findings from student affairs professionals at one HBCU to understand what they are doing to foster a…

  8. Racial Microaggressions and Daily Well-Being among Asian Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Anthony D.; Burrow, Anthony L.; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Ja, Nicole M.; Sue, Derald Wing

    2013-01-01

    Although epidemiological studies and community surveys of Asian Americans have found that lifetime occurrences of racial discrimination are associated with increased risk for psychological morbidity, little is known about how exposure to racial discrimination is patterned in everyday life. Extrapolating from previous qualitative research (Sue,…

  9. Racial Identity Development of Mixed Race College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Helen Diamond

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that influence mixed race college students' choice of racial identity. This study also explored whether or not there are any differences among each of the racial identity groups' perceptions of institutional support for mixed race college students. The theoretical framework of this study was…

  10. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis by Kindergarten Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur by kindergarten entry is currently unknown. We investigated risk factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry generally, and specifically whether racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by…

  11. Development of racial-ethnic identity among First Nation children.

    PubMed

    Corenblum, Barry

    2014-03-01

    Elements of racial-ethnic identity, often found among adolescents from racial-ethnic minority groups, have their origins in middle childhood and pre-adolescence. The present study explored the developmental trajectory of some of those components among Native Canadian children living on relatively remote First Nation communities. Children and young adolescents (N = 414,209 female) between the ages of 6-11 completed measures assessing their level of racial-ethnic identity, concrete operational thought, implicit and explicit self-esteem, implicit and explicit in-group attitudes, and the importance of their racial-ethnic identity each year for 5 years. Consistent with predictions from cognitive developmental theory, trajectory modeling revealed significant increases over time in explicit and implicit in-group attitudes, level of concrete operational thought and the importance of children's racial-ethnic identity. However, level of racial-ethnic identity remained unchanged over time. The results are discussed in terms of cognitive-developmental theory, and the influence of living in a racially homogeneous environment on the development of racial-ethnic identity among minority group children. Studies are also suggested for future research.

  12. "Parco Archeologico Storico Naturale delle Chiese Rupestri del Materano": geomorphological fragility and slope instability in a rupestrian-heritage rich area (Basilicata, south Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francioso, R.; Sdao, F.; Tropeano, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research financed a research project about the study and the control of hydrogeological hazard of some sites belonging to the "Parco Archeologico Storico Naturale delle Chiese Rupestri del Materano"; the Park and the old city of Matera ("Sassi di Matera") was inserted in the UNESCO World Heritage list since 1993. The studied sites ("Belvedere Chiese Rupestri" and "Iazzo dell'Ofra" localities) are located along the top of the walls of the deep canyon (locally called "Gravina di Matera" and deeper than 100 m) which characterizes the area. Several valuable medieval rupestrian hand-hewn rock churches and sanctuaries are present along the canyon walls. The canyon cut weak rocks (Plio-Pleistocene calcarenites, in which churches and sanctuaries are excavated) and the underlying well-stratified limestones (Cretaceous calcilutites). Both rocks are abundantly and strongly fractured and disjointed by several different joint sets, and, on the left wall of the "Gravina di Matera" canyon, they are characterized by a mainly dipping-slope attitude. Consequently, rock blocks of different sizes formed (up to some tens of m^3 in volume), and are characterized by low stability condition. The considerable acclivity of the walls and the defects and intense fracturing state of rocks, especially along the edge, cause rapid falls, topples and rockslides of the blocks. This geomorphological fragility, confirmed by wide-spread signs of potential instability and by several rock blocks fell in the stream, causes the diffuse and significant structural-failures processes that involve most of the very fine rupestrian heritages. Our study, after the geological and geomorphological description of the sites and the editing of thematic maps, concentrates on the determination the present-day slope instability conditions. Moreover, the study demonstrated the notable genetic relationship between jointing, slope instability and failure type of carbonate

  13. Is the New Heroin Epidemic Really New? Racializing Heroin.

    PubMed

    Bowser, Benjamin; Fullilove, Robert; Word, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Heroin abuse as an outcome of the prior use of painkillers increased rapidly over the past decade. This "new epidemic" is unique because the new heroin users are primarily young White Americans in rural areas of virtually every state. This commentary argues that the painkiller-to-heroin transition could not be the only cause of heroin use on such a scale and that the new and old heroin epidemics are linked. The social marketing that so successfully drove the old heroin epidemic has innovated and expanded due to the use of cell-phones, text messaging and the "dark web" which requires a Tor browser, and software that allows one to communicate with encrypted sites without detection. Central city gentrification has forced traffickers to take advantage of larger and more lucrative markets. A second outcome is that urban black and Latino communities are no longer needed as heroin stages areas for suburban and exurban illicit drug distribution. Drug dealing can be done directly in predominantly white suburbs and rural areas without the accompanying violence associated with the old epidemic. Denial of the link between the new and old heroin epidemics racially segregates heroin users and more proactive prevention and treatment in the new epidemic than in the old. It also cuts off a half-century of knowledge about the supply-side of heroin drug dealing and the inevitable public policy measures that will have to be implemented to effectively slow and stop both the old and new epidemic.

  14. Racial disparities in incarceration increase acceptance of punitive policies.

    PubMed

    Hetey, Rebecca C; Eberhardt, Jennifer L

    2014-10-01

    During the past few decades, punitive crime policies have led to explosive growth in the United States prison population. Such policies have contributed to unprecedented incarceration rates for Blacks in particular. In this article, we consider an unexamined relationship between racial disparities and policy reform. Rather than treating racial disparities as an outcome to be measured, we exposed people to real and extreme racial disparities and observed how this drove their support for harsh criminal-justice policies. In two experiments, we manipulated the racial composition of prisons: When the penal institution was represented as "more Black," people were more concerned about crime and expressed greater acceptance of punitive policies than when the penal institution was represented as "less Black." Exposure to extreme racial disparities, then, can lead people to support the very policies that produce those disparities, thus perpetuating a vicious cycle.

  15. Racial and ethnic disparities in mental illness stigma.

    PubMed

    Rao, Deepa; Feinglass, Joseph; Corrigan, Patrick

    2007-12-01

    The present study sought to examine whether racial/ethnic differences exist in stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illness among community college students. Multiple regression models were used to investigate racial/ethnic differences in students' perceived dangerousness and desire for segregation from persons with mental illness both before and after participation in an antistigma intervention. At baseline, African Americans and Asians perceived people with mental illness as more dangerous and wanted more segregation than Caucasians, and Latinos perceived people with mental illness as less dangerous and wanted less segregation than Caucasians. Similar patterns emerged postintervention, except that Asians' perceptions changed significantly such that they tended to perceive people with mental illness as least dangerous of all the racial/ethnic groups. These findings suggest that racial/ethnic background may help to shape mental illness stigma, and that targeting antistigma interventions to racial/ethnic background of participants may be helpful.

  16. Racial groups and test fairness, considering history and construct validity.

    PubMed

    Newman, Daniel A; Hanges, Paul J; Outtz, James L

    2007-12-01

    According to Helms, "test fairness" is defined as "removal from test scores of systematic variance attributable to experiences of racial or cultural socialization." Some of Helms's reasoning is based on earlier work, which recommended that racial group or category variables be replaced entirely with individual-level constructs, to reflect racial socialization experiences that vary within racial groups. Treatment of the test fairness issue--a social and political issue--will benefit from explicitly considering historical events that contributed to group-level race differences. In light of this history, D. A. Newman et al suggest (a) retaining a group-level conceptualization of race/racial socialization and also (b) focusing on criterion-irrelevant variance in test scores that is attributable to race.

  17. Effects of racial diversity on complex thinking in college students.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Anthony Lising; Chang, Mitchell J; Hakuta, Kenji; Kenny, David A; Levin, Shana; Milem, Jeffrey F

    2004-08-01

    An experiment varying the racial (Black, White) and opinion composition in small-group discussions was conducted with college students (N = 357) at three universities to test for effects on the perceived novelty of group members' contributions to discussion and on participants' integrative complexity. Results showed that racial and opinion minorities were both perceived as contributing to novelty. Generally positive effects on integrative complexity were found when the groups had racial- and opinion-minority members and when members reported having racially diverse friends and classmates. The findings are discussed in the context of social psychological theories of minority influence and social policy implications for affirmative action. The research supports claims about the educational significance of race in higher education, as well as the complexity of the interaction of racial diversity with contextual and individual factors.

  18. Bullying Victimization and Racial Discrimination Among Australian Children.

    PubMed

    Priest, Naomi; King, Tania; Bécares, Laia; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2016-10-01

    To compare the prevalence of bullying victimization and racial discrimination by ethnicity. We completed a cross-sectional analysis of 3956 children aged 12 to 13 years from wave 5 (2011-2012) of the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Bullying victimization and racial discrimination were weakly associated and differently patterned by ethnicity. Children from visible minorities reported less bullying victimization but more racial discrimination than did their peers with Australian-born parents. Indigenous children reported the highest risk of bullying victimization and racial discrimination. Peer victimization and racial discrimination each require specific attention as unique childhood stressors. A focus on general bullying victimization alone may miss unique stress exposures experienced by children from stigmatized ethnic backgrounds.

  19. Ethnic minorities' racial attitudes and contact experiences with white people.

    PubMed

    Shelton, J Nicole; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the relationship between ethnic minorities' racial attitudes and their intergroup contact experiences with White people. In Studies 1 and 2, the authors demonstrate that the more negative the racial attitudes held by ethnic minorities, the less positive their interactions are with White friends and roommates. With a daily report methodology, Study 2 revealed that ethnic minorities' racial attitudes predicted the decline in the quality of their intergroup contact experiences over a 3-week period. In Study 3, the authors examined a possible mechanism underlying the relationship between racial attitudes and intergroup contact, as well as the influence of ethnic minorities' racial attitudes on White participants' experiences in intergroup contact settings. The authors discuss the findings in terms of the importance of examining ethnic minorities' attitudes in research on intergroup relations. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Gender and Racial/Ethnic Differences in Body Image Development Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we used longitudinal methods to examine body image development during the early part of college. Students (N = 390; 54% female) who identified as African American (32%), Latino/a American (27%), and European American (41%) completed surveys during their first, second, and third semesters at college. There were overall gender and racial/ethnic differences in all three aspects of body image, and both stability and change in body image development. Female students’ appearance evaluation became more positive, whereas male students’ appearance evaluation showed no significant change. Individuals’ body areas satisfaction increased over time, but remained stable when controlling for BMI. Appearance orientation did not change, and there were no racial/ethnic differences in body image development. Experiences in the college environment may play a role in these trends. PMID:21983339

  1. Beyond the Census Tract: Patterns and Determinants of Racial Segregation at Multiple Geographic Scales*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Barrett A.; Reardon, Sean F.; Firebaugh, Glenn; Farrell, Chad R.; Matthews, Stephen A.; O'Sullivan, David

    2014-01-01

    The census tract-based residential segregation literature rests on problematic assumptions about geographic scale and proximity. We pursue a new tract-free approach that combines explicitly spatial concepts and methods to examine racial segregation across egocentric local environments of varying size. Using 2000 census data for the 100 largest U.S. metropolitan areas, we compute a spatially modified version of the information theory index H to describe patterns of black-white, Hispanic-white, Asian-white, and multi-group segregation at different scales. The metropolitan structural characteristics that best distinguish micro-segregation from macro-segregation for each group combination are identified, and their effects are decomposed into portions due to racial variation occurring over short and long distances. A comparison of our results to those from tract-based analyses confirms the value of the new approach. PMID:25324575

  2. Biological factors that may contribute to regional and racial disparities in HIV prevalence.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Rupert; Cohen, Craig R; Chege, Duncan; Yi, Tae J; Tharao, Wangari; McKinnon, Lyle R; Remis, Robert; Anzala, Omu; Kimani, Joshua

    2011-03-01

    Despite tremendous regional and subregional disparities in HIV prevalence around the world, epidemiology consistently demonstrates that black communities have been disproportionately affected by the pandemic. There are many reasons for this, and a narrow focus on socio-behavioural causes may be seen as laying blame on affected communities or individuals. HIV sexual transmission is very inefficient, and a number of biological factors are critical in determining whether an unprotected sexual exposure to HIV results in productive infection. This review will focus on ways in which biology, rather than behaviour, may contribute to regional and racial differences in HIV epidemic spread. Specific areas of focus are viral factors, host genetics, and the impact of co-infections and host immunology. Considering biological causes for these racial disparities may help to destigmatize the issue and lead to new and more effective strategies for prevention. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Lifecourse social conditions and racial and ethnic patterns of cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Glymour, M Maria; Manly, Jennifer J

    2008-09-01

    A lifecourse perspective is key for understanding and interpreting racial and ethnic patterns in neuropsychological test performance. In this article, we discuss contextual factors that shape the environmental conditions encountered by racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, in particular African-Americans. These conditions include geographic segregation at the level of regions, metropolitan areas, and neighborhoods; intra- and inter-national migration patterns; socioeconomic position, including financial resources, and occupational and educational opportunities; discrimination; and group resources. Each of these exposures sets in course a cascade of individual mediators that ultimately manifest in neuropsychological outcomes. The physiological and behavioral consequences of these pathways likely accumulate across the lifecourse. We focus on cognitive aging, although the processes discussed here begin in infancy and likely influence cognitive outcomes throughout life from childhood into old age. A lifecourse framework can help inform clinical encounters, neuropsychological research, and surveillance regarding the population prevalence of cognitive impairments.

  4. Retail redlining in New York City: racialized access to day-to-day retail resources.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Loh, Ji Meng; White, Kellee; Saldana, Nelson

    2013-08-01

    Racial residential segregation is associated with health inequalities in the USA, and one of the primary mechanisms is through influencing features of the neighborhood physical environment. To better understand how Black residential segregation might contribute to health risk, we examined retail redlining; the inequitable distribution of retail resources across racially distinct areas. A combination of visual and analytic methods was used to investigate whether predominantly Black census block groups in New York City had poor access to retail stores important for health. After controlling for retail demand, median household income, population density, and subway ridership, percent Black was associated with longer travel distances to various retail industries. Our findings suggest that Black neighborhoods in New York City face retail redlining. Future research is needed to determine how retail redlining may perpetuate health disparities and socioeconomic disadvantage.

  5. Influence of racial origin and skeletal muscle properties on disease prevalence and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Suminski, Richard R; Mattern, Craig O; Devor, Steven T

    2002-01-01

    Skeletal muscle properties are related to disease (e.g. obesity) and physical performance. For example, a predominance of type I muscle fibres is associated with better performance in endurance sports and a lower risk of obesity. Disease and physical performance also differ among certain racial groups. African Americans are more likely than Caucasians to develop obesity, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Empirical studies indicate that aerobic capacity is lower in African Americans than Caucasians. Because genetics is a partial determinant of skeletal muscle properties, it is reasonable to assume that skeletal muscle properties vary as a function of race. As such, genetically determined and race-specific skeletal muscle properties may partially explain racial disparities in disease and physical performance. However, additional research is needed in this area to enable the development of more definitive conclusions.

  6. Use of health information technology among racial and ethnic underserved communities.

    PubMed

    Christopher Gibbons, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the potential role of health IT in addressing healthcare disparities among racial and ethnic minority populations. An overview of health IT utilization among healthcare providers notes certain characteristics that may disproportionately affect minority populations. Current and emerging health IT use among racial and ethnic minority populations is examined, highlighting areas in which technology use in these populations differs from that of nonminority populations and emphasizing the importance of new social media applications in healthcare education and delivery. Following a discussion of adoption and utilization barriers for providers as well as for patients and caregivers, specific opportunities to address healthcare disparities through health IT use are identified at the provider, patient/caregiver, and healthcare system levels. The article identifies several technical, practical, and human challenges to health IT adoption and stresses the need for the healthcare system to embrace the full spectrum of emerging health IT opportunities to address healthcare disparities.

  7. Mismatched racial identities, colourism, and health in Toronto and Vancouver.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2011-10-01

    Using original telephone survey data collected from adult residents of Toronto (n = 685) and Vancouver (n = 814) in 2009, I investigate associations between mental and physical health and variously conceived racial identities. An 'expressed racial identity' is a self-identification with a racial grouping that a person will readily express to others when asked to fit into official racial classifications presented by Census forms, survey researchers, insurance forms, and the like. Distinguishing between Asian, Black, South Asian, and White expressed racial identities, I find that survey respondents expressing Black identity are the most likely to report high blood pressure or hypertension, a risk that is slightly attenuated by socioeconomic status, and that respondents expressing Asian identity are the most likely to report poorer self-rated mental health and self-rated overall health, risks that are not explained by socioeconomic status. I also find that darker-skinned Black respondents are more likely than lighter-skinned Black respondents to report poor health outcomes, indicating that colourism, processes of discrimination which privilege lighter-skinned people of colour over their darker-skinned counterparts, exists and has implications for well-being in Canada as it does in the United States. Finally, 'reflected racial identity' refers to the racial identity that a person believes that others tend to perceive him or her to be. I find that expressed and reflected racial identities differ from one another for large proportions of self-expressed Black and South Asian respondents and relatively few self-expressed White and Asian respondents. I also find that mismatched racial identities correspond with relatively high risks of various poor health outcomes, especially for respondents who consider themselves White but believe that others tend to think they are something else. I conclude by presenting a framework for conceptualizing multifaceted suites of racial

  8. A Cross-Cultural Examination of Racial Identity and Racial Preference of Preschool Children in the West Indies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopaul-McNicol, Sharon-Ann

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the racial attitudes of 302 preschool children in the West Indies whose racial preference was tested using black and white Cabbage Patch dolls. Standard Clark doll questions, plus four researcher-supplied questions, were individually administered. Findings show that 71.9 percent of the children chose to play with a white doll,…

  9. Making Cross-Racial Therapy Work: A Phenomenological Study of Clients' Experiences of Cross-Racial Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Doris F.; Berk, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    A phenomenological and consensual qualitative study of clients' lived experiences of cross-racial therapy was conducted to enhance the understanding of whether, how, and under what conditions race matters in the therapy relationship. The sample consisted of 16 racial and/or ethnic minority clients who received treatment from 16 White, European…

  10. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Cardiovascular Symptoms in Four Major Racial/Ethnic Groups of Midlife Women: A Secondary Analysis.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Ham, Ok Kyung; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority midlife women frequently do not recognize cardiovascular symptoms that they experience during the menopausal transition. Racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular symptoms are postulated as a plausible reason for their lack of knowledge and recognition of the symptoms. The purpose of this study was to explore racial/ethnic differences in midlife women's cardiovascular symptoms and to determine the factors related to these symptoms in each racial/ethnic group. This was a secondary analysis of the data from a larger study among 466 participants, collected from 2006 to 2011. The instruments included questions on background characteristics, health and menopausal status, and the Cardiovascular Symptom Index for Midlife Women. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics, including Poisson regression and logistic regression analyses. Significant racial/ethnic differences were observed in the total numbers and total severity scores of cardiovascular symptoms (p < .01). Non-Hispanic Asians had significantly lower total numbers and total severity scores compared to other racial/ethnic groups (p < .05). The demographic and health factors associated with cardiovascular symptoms were somewhat different in each racial/ethnic group. Further studies are needed about possible reasons for the racial/ethnic differences and the factors associated with cardiovascular symptoms in each racial/ethnic group.

  11. Pride and Prejudice: Racial Contacts Mediating the Change of In-Group and Out-Group Racial Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Ji

    2012-01-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen dataset, this study examined how students' within- and between-group racial contacts mediated the change of in-group and out-group racial perceptions across White, Black, Latino, and Asian students. This study was grounded in intergroup contact theory and employed multi-trait multi-method…

  12. Part II: Multisystemic Therapy--Addressing Racial Disparity and Its Effectiveness with Families from Diverse Racial and Ethnic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Kirstin; Scannapieco, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Disparities in health and mental health care delivered to racial and ethnic minorities became a focus of national policy following reports of the Institute of Medicine (IOM, 2002) and the Surgeon General (USDHHS, 2001). The Surgeon General (USDHHS, 2001) reported racial and ethnic minorities experience disparities in availability and quality of…

  13. Part II: Multisystemic Therapy--Addressing Racial Disparity and Its Effectiveness with Families from Diverse Racial and Ethnic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Kirstin; Scannapieco, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Disparities in health and mental health care delivered to racial and ethnic minorities became a focus of national policy following reports of the Institute of Medicine (IOM, 2002) and the Surgeon General (USDHHS, 2001). The Surgeon General (USDHHS, 2001) reported racial and ethnic minorities experience disparities in availability and quality of…

  14. Sociocultural Factors and School Engagement among African American Youth: The Roles of Racial Discrimination, Racial Socialization, and Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the links between racial discrimination and school engagement and the roles of racial socialization and ethnic identity as protective factors in those linkages in a sample of 148, sixth through twelfth grade African American adolescents from working and middle-class two-parent families. In home interviews, youth described…

  15. A Cross-Cultural Examination of Racial Identity and Racial Preference of Preschool Children in the West Indies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopaul-McNicol, Sharon-Ann

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the racial attitudes of 302 preschool children in the West Indies whose racial preference was tested using black and white Cabbage Patch dolls. Standard Clark doll questions, plus four researcher-supplied questions, were individually administered. Findings show that 71.9 percent of the children chose to play with a white doll,…

  16. Racial Diversity, Student Religiosity, and School Choice: An Empirical Case Study of Multi-Racial Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichard, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    This article comprises an empirical case study of student religiosity in the context of urban school choice. The purpose of this study was to compare student religiosity in a racially diverse religious private school to determine whether religious faith is a unifying factor across racial categories. Insofar as school choice has been called…

  17. Developing Cross-Racial Self-Efficacy: A Longitudinal Examination of the Role of Cross-Racial Mastery Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Christopher T. H.; Prince, Jessica K.

    2008-01-01

    A social-cognitive model for the development of cross-racial self-efficacy was developed and tested in a longitudinal study involving a racially and culturally diverse sample of undergraduate students (N = 879). Multiple group analyses indicated that the model fit equally well for men and women and for White students and ethnic minority students.…

  18. Racial Battle Fatigue and the "Mis"Education of Black Men: Racial Microaggressions, Societal Problems, and Environmental Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William A.; Hung, Man; Franklin, Jeremy D.

    2011-01-01

    Black men's lives are racialized contradictions, They are told that contemporary educational and professional institutions--particularly historically White institutions (HWls)--are places where, through hard work, they can achieve the so-called American dream. However, for far too many Black men, HWIs represent racial climates that are replete…

  19. Sociocultural Factors and School Engagement among African American Youth: The Roles of Racial Discrimination, Racial Socialization, and Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the links between racial discrimination and school engagement and the roles of racial socialization and ethnic identity as protective factors in those linkages in a sample of 148, sixth through twelfth grade African American adolescents from working and middle-class two-parent families. In home interviews, youth described…

  20. Gender Matters, Too: The Influences of School Racial Discrimination and Racial Identity on Academic Engagement Outcomes among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavous, Tabbye M.; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Smalls, Ciara; Griffin, Tiffany; Cogburn, Courtney

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined relationships among racial identity, school-based racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11 (n = 204 boys and n = 206 girls). The authors found gender differences in peer and classroom discrimination and in the impact of earlier and later discrimination…