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  1. Rad53 kinase activation-independent replication checkpoint function of the N-terminal forkhead-associated (FHA1) domain.

    PubMed

    Pike, Brietta L; Tenis, Nora; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2004-09-17

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad53 has crucial functions in many aspects of the cellular response to DNA damage and replication blocks. To coordinate these diverse roles, Rad53 has two forkhead-associated (FHA) phosphothreonine-binding domains in addition to a kinase domain. Here, we show that the conserved N-terminal FHA1 domain is essential for the function of Rad53 to prevent the firing of late replication origins in response to replication blocks. However, the FHA1 domain is not required for Rad53 activation during S phase, and as a consequence of defective downstream signaling, Rad53 containing an inactive FHA1 domain is hyperphosphorylated in response to replication blocks. The FHA1 mutation dramatically hypersensitizes strains with defects in the cell cycle-wide checkpoint pathways (rad9Delta and rad17Delta) to DNA damage, but it is largely epistatic with defects in the replication checkpoint (mrc1Delta). Altogether, our data indicate that the FHA1 domain links activated Rad53 to downstream effectors in the replication checkpoint. The results reveal an important mechanistic difference to the homologous Schizosaccharomyces pombe FHA domain that is required for Mrc1-dependent activation of the corresponding Cds1 kinase. Surprisingly, despite the severely impaired replication checkpoint and also G(2)/M checkpoint functions, the FHA1 mutation by itself leads to only moderate viability defects in response to DNA damage, highlighting the importance of functionally redundant pathways.

  2. Genomic instability and endoreduplication triggered by RAD17 deletion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Zou, Lee; Zheng, Huyong; Wei, Qingyi; Elledge, Stephen J.; Li, Lei

    2003-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoints are critical for genomic stability. Rad17, a component of the checkpoint clamp loader complex (Rad17/Rfc2-5), is required for the response to DNA damage and replication stress. To explore the role of Rad17 in the maintenance of genomic integrity, we established somatic conditional alleles of RAD17 in human cells. We find that RAD17 is not only important for the Atr-mediated checkpoint but is also essential for cell viability. Cells lacking RAD17 exhibited acute chromosomal aberrations and underwent endoreduplication at a high rate. Therefore, RAD17 links the checkpoint to ploidy control and is essential for the maintenance of chromosomal stability. PMID:12672690

  3. Regulation of Rad17 Protein Turnover Unveils an Impact of Rad17-APC Cascade in Breast Carcinogenesis and Treatment*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhuan; Jing, Chao; Zhang, Liyong; Takeo, Fujita; Kim, Hyun; Huang, Yi; Liu, Zhihua; Wan, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant regulation of DNA damage checkpoint function leads to genome instability that in turn can predispose cellular tissues to become cancerous. Previous works from us and others demonstrated the role of Rad17 in either activation or termination of DNA damage checkpoint function. In the current study, we have revealed the unexpected accumulation of Rad17 in various types of breast cancer cell lines as well as human breast cancer tissues. We observed that Rad17 protein turnover rate in breast epithelial cells is much faster than in breast cancer cells, where the turnover of Rad17 is regulated by the Cdh1/APC pathway. We further observed that Rad17-mediated checkpoint function is modulated by proteolysis. Stabilization of Rad17 disrupts cellular response to chemotherapeutic drug-induced DNA damage and enhances cellular transformation. In addition, manipulation of Rad17 by RNA interference or stabilization of Rad17 significantly sensitize breast cancer cell to various chemotherapeutic drugs. Our present results indicate the manipulation of Rad17 proteolysis could be a valuable approach to sensitize breast cancer cell to the chemotherapeutic treatment despite of the critical role in governing DNA damage response and cellular recovery from genotoxic stress. PMID:23637229

  4. A Rad53 independent function of Rad9 becomes crucial for genome maintenance in the absence of the Recq helicase Sgs1.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Ida; Bentsen, Iben Bach; Andersen, Anni H; Gasser, Susan M; Bjergbaek, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    The conserved family of RecQ DNA helicases consists of caretaker tumour suppressors, that defend genome integrity by acting on several pathways of DNA repair that maintain genome stability. In budding yeast, Sgs1 is the sole RecQ helicase and it has been implicated in checkpoint responses, replisome stability and dissolution of double Holliday junctions during homologous recombination. In this study we investigate a possible genetic interaction between SGS1 and RAD9 in the cellular response to methyl methane sulphonate (MMS) induced damage and compare this with the genetic interaction between SGS1 and RAD24. The Rad9 protein, an adaptor for effector kinase activation, plays well-characterized roles in the DNA damage checkpoint response, whereas Rad24 is characterized as a sensor protein also in the DNA damage checkpoint response. Here we unveil novel insights into the cellular response to MMS-induced damage. Specifically, we show a strong synergistic functionality between SGS1 and RAD9 for recovery from MMS induced damage and for suppression of gross chromosomal rearrangements, which is not the case for SGS1 and RAD24. Intriguingly, it is a Rad53 independent function of Rad9, which becomes crucial for genome maintenance in the absence of Sgs1. Despite this, our dissection of the MMS checkpoint response reveals parallel, but unequal pathways for Rad53 activation and highlights significant differences between MMS- and hydroxyurea (HU)-induced checkpoint responses with relation to the requirement of the Sgs1 interacting partner Topoisomerase III (Top3). Thus, whereas earlier studies have documented a Top3-independent role of Sgs1 for an HU-induced checkpoint response, we show here that upon MMS treatment, Sgs1 and Top3 together define a minor but parallel pathway to that of Rad9.

  5. The Ddc1-Mec3-Rad17 sliding clamp regulates histone-histone chaperone interactions and DNA replication-coupled nucleosome assembly in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Rebecca J; Han, Junhong; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2014-04-11

    The maintenance of genome integrity is regulated in part by chromatin structure and factors involved in the DNA damage response pathway. Nucleosome assembly is a highly regulated process that restores chromatin structure after DNA replication, DNA repair, and gene transcription. During S phase the histone chaperones Asf1, CAF-1, and Rtt106 coordinate to deposit newly synthesized histones H3-H4 onto replicated DNA in budding yeast. Here we describe synthetic genetic interactions between RTT106 and the DDC1-MEC3-RAD17 (9-1-1) complex, a sliding clamp functioning in the S phase DNA damage and replication checkpoint response, upon treatment with DNA damaging agents. The DNA damage sensitivity of rad17Δ rtt106Δ cells depends on the function of Rtt106 in nucleosome assembly. Epistasis analysis reveals that 9-1-1 complex components interact with multiple DNA replication-coupled nucleosome assembly factors, including Rtt106, CAF-1, and lysine residues of H3-H4. Furthermore, rad17Δ cells exhibit defects in the deposition of newly synthesized H3-H4 onto replicated DNA. Finally, deletion of RAD17 results in increased association of Asf1 with checkpoint kinase Rad53, which may lead to the observed reduction in Asf1-H3 interaction in rad17Δ mutant cells. In addition, we observed that the interaction between histone H3-H4 with histone chaperone CAF-1 or Rtt106 increases in cells lacking Rad17. These results support the idea that the 9-1-1 checkpoint protein regulates DNA replication-coupled nucleosome assembly in part through regulating histone-histone chaperone interactions.

  6. Characterization of Pph3-mediated dephosphorylation of Rad53 during methyl methanesulfonate-induced DNA damage repair in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Yao, Guangyin; Wan, Junhua; Liu, Qizheng; Mu, Chunhua; Wang, Yue; Sang, Jianli

    2017-02-09

    Genotoxic stress causes DNA damage or stalled DNA replication and filamentous growth in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans The DNA checkpoint kinase Rad53 critically regulates by phosphorylation effectors that execute the stress response. Rad53 itself is activated by phosphorylation and inactivated by dephosphorylation. Previous studies have suggested that the phosphatase Pph3 dephosphorylates Rad53. Here, we used mass spectrometry and mutagenesis to identify Pph3 dephosphorylation sites on Rad53 in C. albicans We found that serine residues 351, 461, and 477, which were dephosphorylated in wild-type cells during the recovery from DNA damage caused by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), remained phosphorylated in pph3Δ/Δ cells. Phosphomimetic mutation of the three residues ( rad53-3D ) impaired Rad53 dephosphorylation, exit from cell cycle arrest, dephosphorylation of two Rad53 effectors Dun1 and Dbf4, and the filament-to-yeast growth transition during the recovery from MMS-induced DNA damage. The phenotypes observed in the rad53-3D mutant also occurred in the pph3Δ/Δ mutant. Together, our findings reveal a molecular mechanism by which Pph3 controls DNA damage response in C. albicans.

  7. Asf1 facilitates dephosphorylation of Rad53 after DNA double-strand break repair.

    PubMed

    Tsabar, Michael; Waterman, David P; Aguilar, Fiona; Katsnelson, Lizabeth; Eapen, Vinay V; Memisoglu, Gonen; Haber, James E

    2016-05-15

    To allow for sufficient time to repair DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs), eukaryotic cells activate the DNA damage checkpoint. In budding yeast, Rad53 (mammalian Chk2) phosphorylation parallels the persistence of the unrepaired DSB and is extinguished when repair is complete in a process termed recovery or when the cells adapt to the DNA damage checkpoint. A strain containing a slowly repaired DSB does not require the histone chaperone Asf1 to resume cell cycle progression after DSB repair. When a second, rapidly repairable DSB is added to this strain, Asf1 becomes required for recovery. Recovery from two repairable DSBs also depends on the histone acetyltransferase Rtt109 and the cullin subunit Rtt101, both of which modify histone H3 that is associated with Asf1. We show that dissociation of histone H3 from Asf1 is required for efficient recovery and that Asf1 is required for complete dephosphorylation of Rad53 when the upstream DNA damage checkpoint signaling is turned off. Our data suggest that the requirements for recovery from the DNA damage checkpoint become more stringent with increased levels of damage and that Asf1 plays a histone chaperone-independent role in facilitating complete Rad53 dephosphorylation following repair.

  8. Asf1 facilitates dephosphorylation of Rad53 after DNA double-strand break repair

    PubMed Central

    Tsabar, Michael; Waterman, David P.; Aguilar, Fiona; Katsnelson, Lizabeth; Eapen, Vinay V.; Memisoglu, Gonen; Haber, James E.

    2016-01-01

    To allow for sufficient time to repair DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs), eukaryotic cells activate the DNA damage checkpoint. In budding yeast, Rad53 (mammalian Chk2) phosphorylation parallels the persistence of the unrepaired DSB and is extinguished when repair is complete in a process termed recovery or when the cells adapt to the DNA damage checkpoint. A strain containing a slowly repaired DSB does not require the histone chaperone Asf1 to resume cell cycle progression after DSB repair. When a second, rapidly repairable DSB is added to this strain, Asf1 becomes required for recovery. Recovery from two repairable DSBs also depends on the histone acetyltransferase Rtt109 and the cullin subunit Rtt101, both of which modify histone H3 that is associated with Asf1. We show that dissociation of histone H3 from Asf1 is required for efficient recovery and that Asf1 is required for complete dephosphorylation of Rad53 when the upstream DNA damage checkpoint signaling is turned off. Our data suggest that the requirements for recovery from the DNA damage checkpoint become more stringent with increased levels of damage and that Asf1 plays a histone chaperone-independent role in facilitating complete Rad53 dephosphorylation following repair. PMID:27222517

  9. Characterization of the Interaction between Rfa1 and Rad24 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Piya, Gunjan; Mueller, Erica N.; Haas, Heather K.; Ghospurkar, Padmaja L.; Wilson, Timothy M.; Jensen, Jaime L.; Colbert, Christopher L.; Haring, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining the integrity of the genome requires the high fidelity duplication of the genome and the ability of the cell to recognize and repair DNA lesions. The heterotrimeric single stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding complex Replication Protein A (RPA) is central to multiple DNA processes, which are coordinated by RPA through its ssDNA binding function and through multiple protein-protein interactions. Many RPA interacting proteins have been reported through large genetic and physical screens; however, the number of interactions that have been further characterized is limited. To gain a better understanding of how RPA functions in DNA replication, repair, and cell cycle regulation and to identify other potential functions of RPA, a yeast two hybrid screen was performed using the yeast 70 kDa subunit, Replication Factor A1 (Rfa1), as a bait protein. Analysis of 136 interaction candidates resulted in the identification of 37 potential interacting partners, including the cell cycle regulatory protein and DNA damage clamp loader Rad24. The Rfa1-Rad24 interaction is not dependent on ssDNA binding. However, this interaction appears affected by DNA damage. The regions of both Rfa1 and Rad24 important for this interaction were identified, and the region of Rad24 identified is distinct from the region reported to be important for its interaction with Rfc2 5. This suggests that Rad24-Rfc2-5 (Rad24-RFC) recruitment to DNA damage substrates by RPA occurs, at least partially, through an interaction between the N terminus of Rfa1 and the C terminus of Rad24. The predicted structure and location of the Rad24 C-terminus is consistent with a model in which RPA interacts with a damage substrate, loads Rad24-RFC at the 5’ junction, and then releases the Rad24-RFC complex to allow for proper loading and function of the DNA damage clamp. PMID:25719602

  10. ‘AND’ logic gates at work: Crystal structure of Rad53 bound to Dbf4 and Cdc7

    PubMed Central

    Almawi, Ahmad W.; Matthews, Lindsay A.; Larasati; Myrox, Polina; Boulton, Stephen; Lai, Christine; Moraes, Trevor; Melacini, Giuseppe; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Duncker, Bernard P.; Guarné, Alba

    2016-01-01

    Forkhead-associated (FHA) domains are phosphopeptide recognition modules found in many signaling proteins. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein kinase Rad53 is a key regulator of the DNA damage checkpoint and uses its two FHA domains to interact with multiple binding partners during the checkpoint response. One of these binding partners is the Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK), a heterodimer composed of the Cdc7 kinase and its regulatory subunit Dbf4. Binding of Rad53 to DDK, through its N-terminal FHA (FHA1) domain, ultimately inhibits DDK kinase activity, thereby preventing firing of late origins. We have previously found that the FHA1 domain of Rad53 binds simultaneously to Dbf4 and a phosphoepitope, suggesting that this domain functions as an ‘AND’ logic gate. Here, we present the crystal structures of the FHA1 domain of Rad53 bound to Dbf4, in the presence and absence of a Cdc7 phosphorylated peptide. Our results reveal how the FHA1 uses a canonical binding interface to recognize the Cdc7 phosphopeptide and a non-canonical interface to bind Dbf4. Based on these data we propose a mechanism to explain how Rad53 enhances the specificity of FHA1-mediated transient interactions. PMID:27681475

  11. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae 14-3-3 proteins Bmh1 and Bmh2 directly influence the DNA damage-dependent functions of Rad53

    PubMed Central

    Usui, Takehiko; Petrini, John H. J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we mutated autophosphorylation sites in Rad53 based on their conservation with previously identified autophosphorylation sites in the mammalian Rad53 ortholog, Chk2. As with wild-type Rad53, the autophosphorylation mutant, rad53-TA, undergoes Mec1/Tel1-dependent interactions with Rad9 and Dun1 in response to genotoxic stress. Whereas rad53-TA in vitro kinase activity is severely impaired, the rad53-TA strains are not completely deficient for cell-cycle checkpoint functions, indicating that the mutant kinase retains a basal level of function. We describe a genetic interaction among Rad53, Dun1, and the 14-3-3 proteins Bmh1 and Bmh2 and present evidence that 14-3-3 proteins directly facilitate Rad53 function in vivo. The data presented account for the previously observed checkpoint defects associated with 14-3-3 mutants in Saccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The 14-3-3 functional interaction appears to modulate Rad53 activity, reminiscent of 14-3-3's effect on human Raf1 kinase and distinct from the indirect mode of regulation by 14-3-3 observed for Chk1 or Cdc25. PMID:17299042

  12. Interaction between human MCM7 and Rad17 proteins is required for replication checkpoint signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Cheng-Chung; Geisen, Christoph; Abraham, Robert T

    2004-01-01

    Human Rad17 (hRad17) is centrally involved in the activation of cell-cycle checkpoints by genotoxic agents or replication stress. Here we identify hMCM7, a core component of the DNA replication apparatus, as a novel hRad17-interacting protein. In HeLa cells, depletion of either hRad17 or hMCM7 with small-interfering RNA suppressed ultraviolet (UV) light- or aphidicolin-induced hChk1 phosphorylation, and abolished UV-induced S-phase checkpoint activation. Similar results were obtained after transfection of these cells with a fusion protein containing the hMCM7-binding region of hRad17. The hMCM7-depleted cells were also defective for the formation of ATR-containing nuclear foci after UV irradiation, suggesting that hMCM7 is required for stable recruitment of ATR to damaged DNA. These results demonstrate that hMCM7 plays a direct role in the transmission of DNA damage signals from active replication forks to the S-phase checkpoint machinery in human cells. PMID:15538388

  13. Sds22 participates in Glc7 mediated Rad53 dephosphorylation in MMS-induced DNA damage in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Yao, Guangyin; Wan, Junhua; Mu, Chunhua; Liu, Qizheng; Wang, Yue; Sang, Jianli

    2016-08-01

    The protein kinase Rad53 and its orthologs play a fundamental role in regulating the DNA damage checkpoint in eukaryotes. Rad53 is activated by phosphorylation in response to DNA damage and deactivated by dephosphorylation after the damage is repaired. However, the phosphatases involved in Rad53 deactivation are not entirely understood. In this study, by investigating the consequences of overexpressing SDS22, a gene encoding a regulatory subunit of the PP1 phosphatase Glc7, in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, we discovered that Sds22 plays an important role in Rad53 dephosphorylation and thus the deactivation of the DNA damage checkpoint. Sds22 cellular levels increase when cells are exposed to DNA damaging agents and decrease after removing the genotoxins. Depletion of Glc7 has similar phenotypes. We provide evidence that Sds2 acts through inhibitory physical association with Glc7. Our findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms for the control of DNA damage checkpoint. Furthermore, SDS22 overexpression reduces C. albicans virulence in a mouse model of systemic infection, suggesting potential targets for developing antifungal drugs.

  14. Regulation of RAD53 by the ATM-like kinases MEC1 and TEL1 in yeast cell cycle checkpoint pathways.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Y; Desany, B A; Jones, W J; Liu, Q; Wang, B; Elledge, S J

    1996-01-19

    Mutants of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) homolog MEC1/SAD3/ESR1 were identified that could live only if the RAD53/SAD1 checkpoint kinase was overproduced. MEC1 and a structurally related gene, TEL1, have overlapping functions in response to DNA damage and replication blocks that in mutants can be provided by overproduction of RAD53. Both MEC1 and TEL1 were found to control phosphorylation of Rad53p in response to DNA damage. These results indicate that RAD53 is a signal transducer in the DNA damage and replication checkpoint pathways and functions downstream of two members of the ATM lipid kinase family. Because several members of this pathway are conserved among eukaryotes, it is likely that a RAD53-related kinase will function downstream of the human ATM gene product and play an important role in the mammalian response to DNA damage.

  15. Rad53-Mediated Regulation of Rrm3 and Pif1 DNA Helicases Contributes to Prevention of Aberrant Fork Transitions under Replication Stress

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Silvia Emma; Ajazi, Arta; Carotenuto, Walter; Foiani, Marco; Giannattasio, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Summary Replication stress activates the Mec1ATR and Rad53 kinases. Rad53 phosphorylates nuclear pores to counteract gene gating, thus preventing aberrant transitions at forks approaching transcribed genes. Here, we show that Rrm3 and Pif1, DNA helicases assisting fork progression across pausing sites, are detrimental in rad53 mutants experiencing replication stress. Rrm3 and Pif1 ablations rescue cell lethality, chromosome fragmentation, replisome-fork dissociation, fork reversal, and processing in rad53 cells. Through phosphorylation, Rad53 regulates Rrm3 and Pif1; phospho-mimicking rrm3 mutants ameliorate rad53 phenotypes following replication stress without affecting replication across pausing elements under normal conditions. Hence, the Mec1-Rad53 axis protects fork stability by regulating nuclear pores and DNA helicases. We propose that following replication stress, forks stall in an asymmetric conformation by inhibiting Rrm3 and Pif1, thus impeding lagging strand extension and preventing fork reversal; conversely, under unperturbed conditions, the peculiar conformation of forks encountering pausing sites would depend on active Rrm3 and Pif1. PMID:26411679

  16. Human RAD 17 Polymorphism at Codon 546 Is Associated with the Risk of Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Yukiko; Sakai, Akiko; Ito, Sachio; Sasai, Kaori; Yamamoto, Hiromasa; Matsubara, Nagahide; Ouchida, Mamoru; Katayama, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Kenji

    2017-02-01

    Human RAD17 acts as an activator of checkpoint signals in response to DNA damage. Here we evaluated the association of hRAD17 Leu546Arg (rs1045051), a missense single nucleotide polymorphism, with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in relation to smoking and alcohol consumption habits in 212 CRC patients and 1,142 cancer-free controls in a case-control study conducted in Japan. The results showed that the hRAD17 Leu/Arg genotype compared to the Leu/Leu genotypes was significantly associated with the protective effect on CRC risk with the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.68 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49-0.95, p=0.024], and the males with the Arg/Arg genotype had a greater risk of CRC compared to those with the Leu/Leu and Leu/Arg genotypes (OR=1.87, 95%CI 1.03-3.40, p=0.04). In stratified studies, the protective effect of the Leu/Arg genotype on CRC risk was markedly higher in the light smokers (< 20 pack years) (OR=0.61, 95%CI 0.40-0.94, p=0.024) and the rectal cancer patients (OR=0.49, 95%CI 0.31-0.78, p=0.003). The risk of the Arg/Arg genotype was associated with heavy smoking (≥ 20 pack-years) (OR=2.24, 95%CI 1.09-4.61, p=0.03). These findings suggest that the genetic variant of hRAD17 Leu546Arg polymorphism has a significant effect on CRC susceptibility in Japanese.

  17. Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 20 regulates Rad17 stability, checkpoint kinase 1 phosphorylation and DNA repair by homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Ilanchezhian; Abbas, Mohammad; Ayoub, Farhan; Mirabal, Susan; Bsaili, Manal; Caulder, Erin K; Weinstock, David M; Tomkinson, Alan E; Hromas, Robert; Shaheen, Monte

    2014-08-15

    Rad17 is a subunit of the Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 clamp loader complex, which is required for Chk1 activation after DNA damage. Rad17 has been shown to be regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. We have identified a deubiquitylase, USP20 that is required for Rad17 protein stability in the steady-state and post DNA damage. We demonstrate that USP20 and Rad17 interact, and that this interaction is enhanced by UV exposure. We show that USP20 regulation of Rad17 is at the protein level in a proteasome-dependent manner. USP20 depletion results in poor activation of Chk1 protein by phosphorylation, consistent with Rad17 role in ATR-mediated phosphorylation of Chk1. Similar to other DNA repair proteins, USP20 is phosphorylated post DNA damage, and its depletion sensitizes cancer cells to damaging agents that form blocks ahead of the replication forks. Similar to Chk1 and Rad17, which enhance recombinational repair of collapsed replication forks, we demonstrate that USP20 depletion impairs DNA double strand break repair by homologous recombination. Together, our data establish a new function of USP20 in genome maintenance and DNA repair.

  18. Mdt1, a Novel Rad53 FHA1 Domain-Interacting Protein, Modulates DNA Damage Tolerance and G2/M Cell Cycle Progression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Brietta L.; Yongkiettrakul, Suganya; Tsai, Ming-Daw; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    The Rad53 kinase plays a central role in yeast DNA damage checkpoints. Rad53 contains two FHA phosphothreonine-binding domains that are required for Rad53 activation and possibly downstream signaling. Here we show that the N-terminal Rad53 FHA1 domain interacts with the RNA recognition motif, coiled-coil, and SQ/TQ cluster domain-containing protein Mdt1 (YBl051C). The interaction of Rad53 and Mdt1 depends on the structural integrity of the FHA1 phosphothreonine-binding site as well as threonine-305 of Mdt1. Mdt1 is constitutively threonine phosphorylated and hyperphosphorylated in response to DNA damage in vivo. DNA damage-dependent Mdt1 hyperphosphorylation depends on the Mec1 and Tel1 checkpoint kinases, and Mec1 can directly phosphorylate a recombinant Mdt1 SQ/TQ domain fragment. MDT1 overexpression is synthetically lethal with a rad53 deletion, whereas mdt1 deletion partially suppresses the DNA damage hypersensitivity of checkpoint-compromised strains and generally improves DNA damage tolerance. In the absence of DNA damage, mdt1 deletion leads to delayed anaphase completion, with an elongated cell morphology reminiscent of that of G2/M cell cycle mutants. mdt1-dependent and DNA damage-dependent cell cycle delays are not additive, suggesting that they act in the same pathway. The data indicate that Mdt1 is involved in normal G2/M cell cycle progression and is a novel target of checkpoint-dependent cell cycle arrest pathways. PMID:15024067

  19. The polyanionic C-terminal tail of human Rad17 regulates interaction with the 9-1-1 complex.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Yasunori; Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2017-09-02

    In the activation and maintenance of ATR-dependent DNA damage checkpoint, the interaction between the Rad17-RFC2-5 and 9-1-1 complexes is essential, however, the regulatory mechanism of the interaction is not known. Here we show that vertebrate Rad17 proteins contain a polyanionic 12-amino acid sequence in the C-terminal ends that is important for the 9-1-1 interaction. We demonstrate that the C-terminal tail contains a conserved sequence designated iVERGE that must be intact for the 9-1-1 interaction and contains potential posttranslational modification sites. Our data raise a possibility that the Rad17 C-terminal tail is a molecular switch that regulates the 9-1-1 interaction and the ATR pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Checkpoint proteins influence telomeric silencing and length maintenance in budding yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Longhese, M P; Paciotti, V; Neecke, H; Lucchini, G

    2000-01-01

    A complex network of surveillance mechanisms, called checkpoints, interrupts cell cycle progression when damage to the genome is detected or when cells fail to complete DNA replication, thus ensuring genetic integrity. In budding yeast, components of the DNA damage checkpoint regulatory network include the RAD9, RAD17, RAD24, MEC3, DDC1, RAD53, and MEC1 genes that are proposed to be involved in different aspects of DNA metabolism. We provide evidence that some DNA damage checkpoint components play a role in maintaining telomere integrity. In fact, rad53 mutants specifically enhance repression of telomere-proximal transcription via the Sir-mediated pathway, suggesting that Rad53 might be required for proper chromatin structure at telomeres. Moreover, Rad53, Mec1, Ddc1, and Rad17 are necessary for telomere length maintenance, since mutations in all of these genes cause a decrease in telomere size. The telomeric shortening in rad53 and mec1 mutants is further enhanced in the absence of SIR genes, suggesting that Rad53/Mec1 and Sir proteins contribute to chromosome end protection by different pathways. The finding that telomere shortening, but not increased telomeric repression of gene expression in rad53 mutants, can be suppressed by increasing dNTP synthetic capacity in these strains suggests that transcriptional silencing and telomere integrity involve separable functions of Rad53. PMID:10924458

  1. An N-terminal acidic region of Sgs1 interacts with Rpa70 and recruits Rad53 kinase to stalled forks

    PubMed Central

    Hegnauer, Anna Maria; Hustedt, Nicole; Shimada, Kenji; Pike, Brietta L; Vogel, Markus; Amsler, Philipp; Rubin, Seth M; van Leeuwen, Fred; Guénolé, Aude; van Attikum, Haico; Thomä, Nicolas H; Gasser, Susan M

    2012-01-01

    DNA replication fork stalling poses a major threat to genome stability. This is counteracted in part by the intra-S phase checkpoint, which stabilizes arrested replication machinery, prevents cell-cycle progression and promotes DNA repair. The checkpoint kinase Mec1/ATR and RecQ helicase Sgs1/BLM contribute synergistically to fork maintenance on hydroxyurea (HU). Both enzymes interact with replication protein A (RPA). We identified and deleted the major interaction sites on Sgs1 for Rpa70, generating a mutant called sgs1-r1. In contrast to a helicase-dead mutant of Sgs1, sgs1-r1 did not significantly reduce recovery of DNA polymerase α at HU-arrested replication forks. However, the Sgs1 R1 domain is a target of Mec1 kinase, deletion of which compromises Rad53 activation on HU. Full activation of Rad53 is achieved through phosphorylation of the Sgs1 R1 domain by Mec1, which promotes Sgs1 binding to the FHA1 domain of Rad53 with high affinity. We propose that the recruitment of Rad53 by phosphorylated Sgs1 promotes the replication checkpoint response on HU. Loss of the R1 domain increases lethality selectively in cells lacking Mus81, Slx4, Slx5 or Slx8. PMID:22820947

  2. A novel non-canonical forkhead-associated (FHA) domain-binding interface mediates the interaction between Rad53 and Dbf4 proteins.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Lindsay A; Selvaratnam, Rajeevan; Jones, Darryl R; Akimoto, Madoka; McConkey, Brendan J; Melacini, Giuseppe; Duncker, Bernard P; Guarné, Alba

    2014-01-31

    Forkhead-associated (FHA) and BRCA1 C-terminal (BRCT) domains are overrepresented in DNA damage and replication stress response proteins. They function primarily as phosphoepitope recognition modules but can also mediate non-canonical interactions. The latter are rare, and only a few have been studied at a molecular level. We have identified a crucial non-canonical interaction between the N-terminal FHA1 domain of the checkpoint effector kinase Rad53 and the BRCT domain of the regulatory subunit of the Dbf4-dependent kinase that is critical to suppress late origin firing and to stabilize stalled forks during replication stress. The Rad53-Dbf4 interaction is phosphorylation-independent and involves a novel non-canonical interface on the FHA1 domain. Mutations within this surface result in hypersensitivity to genotoxic stress. Importantly, this surface is not conserved in the FHA2 domain of Rad53, suggesting that the FHA domains of Rad53 gain specificity by engaging additional interaction interfaces beyond their phosphoepitope-binding site. In general, our results point to FHA domains functioning as complex logic gates rather than mere phosphoepitope-targeting modules.

  3. The KYxxL motif in Rad17 protein is essential for the interaction with the 9–1–1 complex

    SciTech Connect

    Fukumoto, Yasunori; Ikeuchi, Masayoshi; Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2016-09-02

    ATR-dependent DNA damage checkpoint is the major DNA damage checkpoint against UV irradiation and DNA replication stress. The Rad17–RFC and Rad9–Rad1–Hus1 (9–1–1) complexes interact with each other to contribute to ATR signaling, however, the precise regulatory mechanism of the interaction has not been established. Here, we identified a conserved sequence motif, KYxxL, in the AAA+ domain of Rad17 protein, and demonstrated that this motif is essential for the interaction with the 9–1–1 complex. We also show that UV-induced Rad17 phosphorylation is increased in the Rad17 KYxxL mutants. These data indicate that the interaction with the 9–1–1 complex is not required for Rad17 protein to be an efficient substrate for the UV-induced phosphorylation. Our data also raise the possibility that the 9–1–1 complex plays a negative regulatory role in the Rad17 phosphorylation. We also show that the nucleotide-binding activity of Rad17 is required for its nuclear localization. - Highlights: • We have identified a conserved KYxxL motif in Rad17 protein. • The KYxxL motif is crucial for the interaction with the 9–1–1 complex. • The KYxxL motif is dispensable or inhibitory for UV-induced Rad17 phosphorylation. • Nucleotide binding of Rad17 is required for its nuclear localization.

  4. Tid1/Rdh54 translocase is phosphorylated through a Mec1- and Rad53-dependent manner in the presence of DSB lesions in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Matteo; Nachimuthu, Benjamin Tamilselvan; Donnianni, Roberto Antonio; Klein, Hannah; Pellicioli, Achille

    2013-05-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells with a single double-strand break (DSB) activate the ATR/Mec1-dependent checkpoint response as a consequence of extensive ssDNA accumulation. The recombination factor Tid1/Rdh54, a member of the Swi2-like family proteins, has an ATPase activity and may contribute to the remodelling of nucleosomes on DNA. Tid1 dislocates Rad51 recombinase from dsDNA, can unwind and supercoil DNA filaments, and has been implicated in checkpoint adaptation from a G2/M arrest induced by an unrepaired DSB. Here we show that both ATR/Mec1 and Chk2/Rad53 kinases are implicated in the phosphorylation of Tid1 in the presence of DNA damage, indicating that the protein is regulated during the DNA damage response. We show that Tid1 ATPase activity is dispensable for its phosphorylation and for its recruitment near a DSB, but it is required to switch off Rad53 activation and for checkpoint adaptation. Mec1 and Rad53 kinases, together with Rad51 recombinase, are also implicated in the hyper-phosphorylation of the ATPase defective Tid1-K318R variant and in the efficient binding of the protein to the DSB site. In summary, Tid1 is a novel target of the DNA damage checkpoint pathway that is also involved in checkpoint adaptation.

  5. Rad17 recruits the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 complex to regulate the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qinhong; Goldstein, Michael; Alexander, Peter; Wakeman, Timothy P; Sun, Tao; Feng, Junjie; Lou, Zhenkun; Kastan, Michael B; Wang, Xiao-Fan

    2014-01-01

    The MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex is essential for the detection of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and initiation of DNA damage signaling. Here, we show that Rad17, a replication checkpoint protein, is required for the early recruitment of the MRN complex to the DSB site that is independent of MDC1 and contributes to ATM activation. Mechanistically, Rad17 is phosphorylated by ATM at a novel Thr622 site resulting in a direct interaction of Rad17 with NBS1, facilitating recruitment of the MRN complex and ATM to the DSB, thereby enhancing ATM signaling. Repetition of these events creates a positive feedback for Rad17-dependent activation of MRN/ATM signaling which appears to be a requisite for the activation of MDC1-dependent MRN complex recruitment. A point mutation of the Thr622 residue of Rad17 leads to a significant reduction in MRN/ATM signaling and homologous recombination repair, suggesting that Thr622 phosphorylation is important for regulation of the MRN/ATM signaling by Rad17. These findings suggest that Rad17 plays a critical role in the cellular response to DNA damage via regulation of the MRN/ATM pathway. PMID:24534091

  6. Gain of function mutant p53 proteins cooperate with E2F4 to transcriptionally downregulate RAD17 and BRCA1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Fabio; Ganci, Federica; Fontemaggi, Giulia; Sacconi, Andrea; Strano, Sabrina; Blandino, Giovanni; Di Agostino, Silvia

    2015-03-20

    Genomic instability (IN) is a common feature of many human cancers. The TP53 tumour suppressor gene is mutated in approximately half of human cancers. Here, we show that BRCA1 and RAD17 genes, whose derived proteins play a pivotal role in DNA damage repair, are transcriptional targets of gain-of-function mutant p53 proteins. Indeed, high levels of mutp53 protein facilitate DNA damage accumulation and severely impair BRCA1 and RAD17 expression in proliferating cancer cells. The recruitment of mutp53/E2F4 complex onto specific regions of BRCA1 and RAD17 promoters leads to the inhibition of their expression. BRCA1 and RAD17 mRNA expression is reduced in HNSCC patients carrying TP53 mutations when compared to those bearing wt-p53 gene. Furthermore, the analysis of gene expression databases for breast cancer patients reveals that low expression of DNA repair genes correlates significantly with reduced relapse free survival of patients carrying TP53 gene mutations. Collectively, these findings highlight the direct involvement of transcriptionally active gain of function mutant p53 proteins in genomic instability through the impairment of DNA repair mechanisms.

  7. Replication factor C is a more effective proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) opener than the checkpoint clamp loader, Rad24-RFC.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jennifer A; Marzahn, Melissa R; O'Donnell, Mike; Bloom, Linda B

    2012-01-13

    Clamp loaders from all domains of life load clamps onto DNA. The clamp tethers DNA polymerases to DNA to increase the processivity of synthesis as well as the efficiency of replication. Here, we investigated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) binding and opening by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae clamp loader, replication factor C (RFC), and the DNA damage checkpoint clamp loader, Rad24-RFC, using two separate fluorescence intensity-based assays. Analysis of PCNA opening by RFC revealed a two-step reaction in which RFC binds PCNA before opening PCNA rather than capturing clamps that have transiently and spontaneously opened in solution. The affinity of RFC for PCNA is about an order of magnitude lower in the absence of ATP than in its presence. The affinity of Rad24-RFC for PCNA in the presence of ATP is about an order magnitude weaker than that of RFC for PCNA, similar to the RFC-PCNA interaction in the absence of ATP. Importantly, fewer open clamp loader-clamp complexes are formed when PCNA is bound by Rad24-RFC than when bound by RFC.

  8. The Error-Prone DNA Polymerase κ Promotes Temozolomide Resistance in Glioblastoma through Rad17-Dependent Activation of ATR-Chk1 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chenghao; Chen, Zhengxin; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Hong-Wei; Qiu, Wenjin; Zhao, Lin; Xu, Ran; Luo, Hui; Chen, Yuanyuan; Chen, Dan; You, Yongping; Liu, Ning; Wang, Huibo

    2016-04-15

    The acquisition of drug resistance is a persistent clinical problem limiting the successful treatment of human cancers, including glioblastoma (GBM). However, the molecular mechanisms by which initially chemoresponsive tumors develop therapeutic resistance remain poorly understood. In this study, we report that Pol κ, an error-prone polymerase that participates in translesion DNA synthesis, was significantly upregulated in GBM cell lines and tumor tissues following temozolomide treatment. Overexpression of Pol κ in temozolomide-sensitive GBM cells conferred resistance to temozolomide, whereas its inhibition markedly sensitized resistant cells to temozolomide in vitro and in orthotopic xenograft mouse models. Mechanistically, depletion of Pol κ disrupted homologous recombination (HR)-mediated repair and restart of stalled replication forks, impaired the activation of ATR-Chk1 signaling, and delayed cell-cycle re-entry and progression. Further investigation of the relationship between Pol κ and temozolomide revealed that Pol κ inactivation facilitated temozolomide-induced Rad17 ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, subsequently silencing ATR-Chk1 signaling and leading to defective HR repair and the reversal of temozolomide resistance. Moreover, overexpression of Rad17 in Pol κ-depleted GBM cells restored HR efficiency, promoted the clearance of temozolomide-induced DNA breaks, and desensitized cells to the cytotoxic effects of temozolomide observed in the absence of Pol κ. Finally, we found that Pol κ overexpression correlated with poor prognosis in GBM patients undergoing temozolomide therapy. Collectively, our findings identify a potential mechanism by which GBM cells develop resistance to temozolomide and suggest that targeting the DNA damage tolerance pathway may be beneficial for overcoming resistance. Cancer Res; 76(8); 2340-53. ©2016 AACR.

  9. Phosphorylation-dependent inhibition of Cdc42 GEF Gef1 by 14-3-3 protein Rad24 spatially regulates Cdc42 GTPase activity and oscillatory dynamics during cell morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Das, Maitreyi; Nuñez, Illyce; Rodriguez, Marbelys; Wiley, David J; Rodriguez, Juan; Sarkeshik, Ali; Yates, John R; Buchwald, Peter; Verde, Fulvia

    2015-10-01

    Active Cdc42 GTPase, a key regulator of cell polarity, displays oscillatory dynamics that are anticorrelated at the two cell tips in fission yeast. Anticorrelation suggests competition for active Cdc42 or for its effectors. Here we show how 14-3-3 protein Rad24 associates with Cdc42 guanine exchange factor (GEF) Gef1, limiting Gef1 availability to promote Cdc42 activation. Phosphorylation of Gef1 by conserved NDR kinase Orb6 promotes Gef1 binding to Rad24. Loss of Rad24-Gef1 interaction increases Gef1 protein localization and Cdc42 activation at the cell tips and reduces the anticorrelation of active Cdc42 oscillations. Increased Cdc42 activation promotes precocious bipolar growth activation, bypassing the normal requirement for an intact microtubule cytoskeleton and for microtubule-dependent polarity landmark Tea4-PP1. Further, increased Cdc42 activation by Gef1 widens cell diameter and alters tip curvature, countering the effects of Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein Rga4. The respective levels of Gef1 and Rga4 proteins at the membrane define dynamically the growing area at each cell tip. Our findings show how the 14-3-3 protein Rad24 modulates the availability of Cdc42 GEF Gef1, a homologue of mammalian Cdc42 GEF DNMBP/TUBA, to spatially control Cdc42 GTPase activity and promote cell polarization and cell shape emergence.

  10. Phosphorylation-dependent inhibition of Cdc42 GEF Gef1 by 14-3-3 protein Rad24 spatially regulates Cdc42 GTPase activity and oscillatory dynamics during cell morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Das, Maitreyi; Nuñez, Illyce; Rodriguez, Marbelys; Wiley, David J.; Rodriguez, Juan; Sarkeshik, Ali; Yates, John R.; Buchwald, Peter; Verde, Fulvia

    2015-01-01

    Active Cdc42 GTPase, a key regulator of cell polarity, displays oscillatory dynamics that are anticorrelated at the two cell tips in fission yeast. Anticorrelation suggests competition for active Cdc42 or for its effectors. Here we show how 14-3-3 protein Rad24 associates with Cdc42 guanine exchange factor (GEF) Gef1, limiting Gef1 availability to promote Cdc42 activation. Phosphorylation of Gef1 by conserved NDR kinase Orb6 promotes Gef1 binding to Rad24. Loss of Rad24–Gef1 interaction increases Gef1 protein localization and Cdc42 activation at the cell tips and reduces the anticorrelation of active Cdc42 oscillations. Increased Cdc42 activation promotes precocious bipolar growth activation, bypassing the normal requirement for an intact microtubule cytoskeleton and for microtubule-dependent polarity landmark Tea4-PP1. Further, increased Cdc42 activation by Gef1 widens cell diameter and alters tip curvature, countering the effects of Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein Rga4. The respective levels of Gef1 and Rga4 proteins at the membrane define dynamically the growing area at each cell tip. Our findings show how the 14-3-3 protein Rad24 modulates the availability of Cdc42 GEF Gef1, a homologue of mammalian Cdc42 GEF DNMBP/TUBA, to spatially control Cdc42 GTPase activity and promote cell polarization and cell shape emergence. PMID:26246599

  11. Roles of the checkpoint sensor clamp Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (911)-complex and the clamp loaders Rad17-RFC and Ctf18-RFC in Schizosaccharomyces pombe telomere maintenance.

    PubMed

    Khair, Lyne; Chang, Ya-Ting; Subramanian, Lakxmi; Russell, Paul; Nakamura, Toru M

    2010-06-01

    While telomeres must provide mechanisms to prevent DNA repair and DNA damage checkpoint factors from fusing chromosome ends and causing permanent cell cycle arrest, these factors associate with functional telomeres and play critical roles in the maintenance of telomeres. Previous studies have established that Tel1 (ATM) and Rad3 (ATR) kinases play redundant but essential roles for telomere maintenance in fission yeast. In addition, the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (911) and Rad17-RFC complexes work downstream of Rad3 (ATR) in fission yeast telomere maintenance. Here, we investigated how 911, Rad17-RFC and another RFC-like complex Ctf18-RFC contribute to telomere maintenance in fission yeast cells lacking Tel1 and carrying a novel hypomorphic allele of rad3 (DBD-rad3), generated by the fusion between the DNA binding domain (DBD) of the fission yeast telomere capping protein Pot1 and Rad3. Our investigations have uncovered a surprising redundancy for Rad9 and Hus1 in allowing Rad1 to contribute to telomere maintenance in DBD-rad3 tel1 cells. In addition, we found that Rad17-RFC and Ctf18-RFC carry out redundant telomere maintenance functions in DBD-rad3 tel1 cells. Since checkpoint sensor proteins are highly conserved, genetic redundancies uncovered here may be relevant to telomere maintenance and detection of DNA damage in other eukaryotes.

  12. Roles of the Checkpoint Sensor Clamp Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (911)-Complex and the Clamp Loaders Rad17-RFC and Ctf18-RFC in Schizosaccharomyces pombe Telomere Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Khair, Lyne; Chang, Ya-Ting; Subramanian, Lakxmi; Russell, Paul; Nakamura, Toru M.

    2011-01-01

    While telomeres must provide mechanisms to prevent DNA repair and DNA damage checkpoint factors from fusing chromosome ends and causing permanent cell cycle arrest, these factors associate with functional telomeres and play critical roles in the maintenance of telomeres. Previous studies have established that Tel1 (ATM) and Rad3 (ATR) kinases play redundant but essential roles for telomere maintenance in fission yeast. In addition, the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (911) and Rad17-RFC complexes work downstream of Rad3 (ATR) in fission yeast telomere maintenance. Here, we investigated how 911, Rad17-RFC and another RFC-like complex Ctf18-RFC contribute to telomere maintenance in fission yeast cells lacking Tel1 and carrying a novel hypomorphic allele of rad3 (DBD-rad3), generated by the fusion between the DNA binding domain (DBD) of the fission yeast telomere capping protein Pot1 and Rad3. Our investigations have uncovered a surprising redundancy for Rad9 and Hus1 in allowing Rad1 to contribute to telomere maintenance in DBD-rad3 tel1Δ cells. In addition, we found that Rad17-RFC and Ctf18-RFC carry out redundant telomere maintenance functions in DBD-rad3 tel1Δ cells. Since checkpoint sensor proteins are highly conserved, genetic redundancies uncovered here may be relevant to telomere maintenance and detection of DNA damage in other eukaryotes. PMID:20505337

  13. HIV-1 Vpr induces G2 cell cycle arrest in fission yeast associated with Rad24/14-3-3-dependent, Chk1/Cds1-independent Wee1 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Naoto; Tanaka, Hiroko; Yamazaki, Sanae; Suzuki, Jun-Ichiro; Tanaka, Koichi; Yamada, Takeshi; Masuda, Michiaki

    2006-10-01

    Viral protein R (Vpr), an accessory protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), induces the G2 cell cycle arrest in fission yeast for which host factors, such as Wee1 and Rad24, are required. Catalyzing the inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc2, Wee1 is known to serve as a major regulator of G2/M transition in the eukaryotic cell cycle. It has been reported that the G2 checkpoint induced by DNA damage or incomplete DNA replication is associated with phosphorylation and upregulation of Wee1 for which Chk1 and Cds1 kinase is required. In this study, we demonstrate that the G2 arrest induced by HIV-1 Vpr in fission yeast is also associated with increase in the phosphorylation and amount of Wee1, but in a Chk1/Cds1-independent manner. Rad24 and human 14-3-3 appear to contribute to Vpr-induced G2 arrest by elevating the level of Wee1 expression. It appears that Vpr could cause the G2 arrest through a mechanism similar to, but distinct from, the physiological G2 checkpoint controls. The results may provide useful insights into the mechanism by which HIV-1 Vpr causes the G2 arrest in eukaryotic cells. Vpr may also serve as a useful molecular tool for exploring novel cell cycle control mechanisms.

  14. Phosphorylation of hRad17 by atr is Required for Cell Cycle Checkpoint Activation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    agents (Amersham Biosciences). DNA binding assays. RESULTS In an EMSA, MBP-ZBRK1 AK produced a discrete nucleo - Identification of DNA-binding...S., and Kastan, M. B. (2001) Mol. Cell. Biol. 21, 3445-3450 mate those of the cellular milieu, in which target site location 13. Cortez , D., Wang, Y

  15. The Role of Rad17 in DNA Damage Checkpoint Signaling and Initiation of Apoptosis in Mammary Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    cell (MSC), which contributes to the regeneration of mesenchymal tissues such as bone, cartilage, muscle, tendon and adipose. However, lack of...marrow is the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC), which contributes to the regeneration of mesenchymal tissues such as bone, cartilage, muscle, tendon and...Young. 2002. Adult mesenchymal stem cells: potential for muscle and tendon regeneration and use in gene therapy. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 2

  16. Prevention of DNA Rereplication Through a Meiotic Recombination Checkpoint Response

    PubMed Central

    Najor, Nicole A.; Weatherford, Layne; Brush, George S.

    2016-01-01

    In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, unnatural stabilization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 during meiosis can trigger extra rounds of DNA replication. When programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are generated but not repaired due to absence of DMC1, a pathway involving the checkpoint gene RAD17 prevents this DNA rereplication. Further genetic analysis has now revealed that prevention of DNA rereplication also requires MEC1, which encodes a protein kinase that serves as a central checkpoint regulator in several pathways including the meiotic recombination checkpoint response. Downstream of MEC1, MEK1 is required through its function to inhibit repair between sister chromatids. By contrast, meiotic recombination checkpoint effectors that regulate gene expression and cyclin-dependent kinase activity are not necessary. Phosphorylation of histone H2A, which is catalyzed by Mec1 and the related Tel1 protein kinase in response to DSBs, and can help coordinate activation of the Rad53 checkpoint protein kinase in the mitotic cell cycle, is required for the full checkpoint response. Phosphorylation sites that are targeted by Rad53 in a mitotic S phase checkpoint response are also involved, based on the behavior of cells containing mutations in the DBF4 and SLD3 DNA replication genes. However, RAD53 does not appear to be required, nor does RAD9, which encodes a mediator of Rad53, consistent with their lack of function in the recombination checkpoint pathway that prevents meiotic progression. While this response is similar to a checkpoint mechanism that inhibits initiation of DNA replication in the mitotic cell cycle, the evidence points to a new variation on DNA replication control. PMID:27678521

  17. Control of the yeast telomeric senescence survival pathways of recombination by the Mec1 and Mec3 DNA damage sensors and RPA

    PubMed Central

    Grandin, Nathalie; Charbonneau, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomerase-negative cells undergo homologous recombination on subtelomeric or TG1–3 telomeric sequences, thus allowing Type I or Type II post-senescence survival, respectively. Here, we find that the DNA damage sensors, Mec1, Mec3 and Rad24 control Type II recombination, while the Rad9 adaptor protein and the Rad53 and Chk1 effector kinases have no effect on survivor type selection. Therefore, the Mec1 and Mec3 checkpoint complexes control telomeric recombination independently of their roles in generating and amplifying the Mec1-Rad53-Chk1 kinase cascade. rfa1-t11 mutant cells, bearing a mutation in Replication Protein A (RPA) conferring a defect in recruiting Mec1-Ddc2, were also deficient in both types of telomeric recombination. Importantly, expression of an Rfa1-t11-Ddc2 hybrid fusion protein restored checkpoint-dependent arrest, but did not rescue defective telomeric recombination. Therefore, the Rfa1-t11-associated defect in telomeric recombination is not solely due to its failure to recruit Mec1. We have also isolated novel alleles of RFA1 that were deficient in Type I but not in Type II recombination and proficient in checkpoint control. Therefore, the checkpoint and recombination functions of RPA can be genetically separated, as can the RPA-mediated control of the two types of telomeric recombination. PMID:17202155

  18. Elg1 forms an alternative RFC complex important for DNA replication and genome integrity.

    PubMed

    Bellaoui, Mohammed; Chang, Michael; Ou, Jiongwen; Xu, Hong; Boone, Charles; Brown, Grant W

    2003-08-15

    Genome-wide synthetic genetic interaction screens with mutants in the mus81 and mms4 replication fork-processing genes identified a novel replication factor C (RFC) homolog, Elg1, which forms an alternative RFC complex with Rfc2-5. This complex is distinct from the DNA replication RFC, the DNA damage checkpoint RFC and the sister chromatid cohesion RFC. As expected from its genetic interactions, elg1 mutants are sensitive to DNA damage. Elg1 is redundant with Rad24 in the DNA damage response and contributes to activation of the checkpoint kinase Rad53. We find that elg1 mutants display DNA replication defects and genome instability, including increased recombination and mutation frequencies, and minichromosome maintenance defects. Mutants in elg1 show genetic interactions with pathways required for processing of stalled replication forks, and are defective in recovery from DNA damage during S phase. We propose that Elg1-RFC functions both in normal DNA replication and in the DNA damage response.

  19. Analysis of replication profiles reveals key role of RFC-Ctf18 in yeast replication stress response.

    PubMed

    Crabbé, Laure; Thomas, Aubin; Pantesco, Véronique; De Vos, John; Pasero, Philippe; Lengronne, Armelle

    2010-11-01

    Maintenance of genome integrity relies on surveillance mechanisms that detect and signal arrested replication forks. Although evidence from budding yeast indicates that the DNA replication checkpoint (DRC) is primarily activated by single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), studies in higher eukaryotes have implicated primer ends in this process. To identify factors that signal primed ssDNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have screened a collection of checkpoint mutants for their ability to activate the DRC, using the repression of late origins as readout for checkpoint activity. This quantitative analysis reveals that neither RFC(Rad24) and the 9-1-1 clamp nor the alternative clamp loader RFC(Elg1) is required to signal paused forks. In contrast, we found that RFC(Ctf18) is essential for the Mrc1-dependent activation of Rad53 and for the maintenance of paused forks. These data identify RFC(Ctf18) as a key DRC mediator, potentially bridging Mrc1 and primed ssDNA to signal paused forks.

  20. The PCNA-RFC families of DNA clamps and clamp loaders.

    PubMed

    Majka, Jerzy; Burgers, Peter M J

    2004-01-01

    The proliferating cell nuclear antigen PCNA functions at multiple levels in directing DNA metabolic pathways. Unbound to DNA, PCNA promotes localization of replication factors with a consensus PCNA-binding domain to replication factories. When bound to DNA, PCNA organizes various proteins involved in DNA replication, DNA repair, DNA modification, and chromatin modeling. Its modification by ubiquitin directs the cellular response to DNA damage. The ring-like PCNA homotrimer encircles double-stranded DNA and slides spontaneously across it. Loading of PCNA onto DNA at template-primer junctions is performed in an ATP-dependent process by replication factor C (RFC), a heteropentameric AAA+ protein complex consisting of the Rfc1, Rfc2, Rfc3, Rfc4, and Rfc5 subunits. Loading of yeast PCNA (POL30) is mechanistically distinct from analogous processes in E. coli (beta subunit by the gamma complex) and bacteriophage T4 (gp45 by gp44/62). Multiple stepwise ATP-binding events to RFC are required to load PCNA onto primed DNA. This stepwise mechanism should permit editing of this process at individual steps and allow for divergence of the default process into more specialized modes. Indeed, alternative RFC complexes consisting of the small RFC subunits together with an alternative Rfc1-like subunit have been identified. A complex required for the DNA damage checkpoint contains the Rad24 subunit, a complex required for sister chromatid cohesion contains the Ctf18 subunit, and a complex that aids in genome stability contains the Elg1 subunit. Only the RFC-Rad24 complex has a known associated clamp, a heterotrimeric complex consisting of Rad17, Mec3, and Ddc1. The other putative clamp loaders could either act on clamps yet to be identified or act on the two known clamps.

  1. Activation of a LTR-retrotransposon by telomere erosion.

    PubMed

    Scholes, Derek T; Kenny, Alison E; Gamache, Eric R; Mou, Zhongming; Curcio, M Joan

    2003-12-23

    Retrotransposons can facilitate repair of broken chromosomes, and therefore an important question is whether the host can activate retrotransposons in response to chromosomal lesions. Here we show that Ty1 elements, which are LTR-retrotransposons in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are mobilized when DNA lesions are created by the loss of telomere function. Inactivation of telomerase in yeast results in progressive shortening of telomeric DNA, eventually triggering a DNA-damage checkpoint that arrests cells in G2/M. A fraction of cells, termed survivors, recover from arrest by forming alternative telomere structures. When telomerase is inactivated, Ty1 retrotransposition increases substantially in parallel with telomere erosion and then partially declines when survivors emerge. Retrotransposition is stimulated at the level of Ty1 cDNA synthesis, causing cDNA levels to increase 20-fold or more before survivors form. This response is elicited through a signaling pathway that includes Rad24, Rad17, and Rad9, three components of the DNA-damage checkpoint. Our findings indicate that Ty1 retrotransposons are activated as part of the cellular response to telomere dysfunction.

  2. Overproduction and purification of RFC-related clamp loaders and PCNA-related clamps from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bylund, Göran O; Majka, Jerzy; Burgers, Peter M J

    2006-01-01

    The replication clamp PCNA and its loader RFC (Replication Factor C) are central factors required for processive replication and coordinated DNA repair. Recently, several additional related clamp loaders have been identified. These alternative clamp loaders contain the small Rfc2-5 subunits of RFC, but replace the large Rfc1 subunit by a pathway-specific alternative large subunit, Rad24 for the DNA damage checkpoint, Ctf18 for the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion, and Elg1 for a general function in chromosome stability. In order to define biochemical functions for these loaders, the loaders were overproduced in yeast and purified at a milligram scale. To aid in purification, the large subunit of each clamp loader was fused to a GST-tag that, after purification could be easily removed by a rhinoviral protease. This methodology yielded all clamp loaders in high yield and with high enzymatic activity. The yeast 9-1-1 checkpoint clamp, consisting of Rad17, Mec3, and Ddc1, was overproduced and purified in a similar manner.

  3. The Mechanism of Nucleotide Excision Repair-Mediated UV-Induced Mutagenesis in Nonproliferating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kozmin, Stanislav G.; Jinks-Robertson, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Following the irradiation of nondividing yeast cells with ultraviolet (UV) light, most induced mutations are inherited by both daughter cells, indicating that complementary changes are introduced into both strands of duplex DNA prior to replication. Early analyses demonstrated that such two-strand mutations depend on functional nucleotide excision repair (NER), but the molecular mechanism of this unique type of mutagenesis has not been further explored. In the experiments reported here, an ade2 adeX colony-color system was used to examine the genetic control of UV-induced mutagenesis in nondividing cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We confirmed a strong suppression of two-strand mutagenesis in NER-deficient backgrounds and demonstrated that neither mismatch repair nor interstrand crosslink repair affects the production of these mutations. By contrast, proteins involved in the error-prone bypass of DNA damage (Rev3, Rev1, PCNA, Rad18, Pol32, and Rad5) and in the early steps of the DNA-damage checkpoint response (Rad17, Mec3, Ddc1, Mec1, and Rad9) were required for the production of two-strand mutations. There was no involvement, however, for the Pol η translesion synthesis DNA polymerase, the Mms2-Ubc13 postreplication repair complex, downstream DNA-damage checkpoint factors (Rad53, Chk1, and Dun1), or the Exo1 exonuclease. Our data support models in which UV-induced mutagenesis in nondividing cells occurs during the Pol ζ-dependent filling of lesion-containing, NER-generated gaps. The requirement for specific DNA-damage checkpoint proteins suggests roles in recruiting and/or activating factors required to fill such gaps. PMID:23307894

  4. The mechanism of nucleotide excision repair-mediated UV-induced mutagenesis in nonproliferating cells.

    PubMed

    Kozmin, Stanislav G; Jinks-Robertson, Sue

    2013-03-01

    Following the irradiation of nondividing yeast cells with ultraviolet (UV) light, most induced mutations are inherited by both daughter cells, indicating that complementary changes are introduced into both strands of duplex DNA prior to replication. Early analyses demonstrated that such two-strand mutations depend on functional nucleotide excision repair (NER), but the molecular mechanism of this unique type of mutagenesis has not been further explored. In the experiments reported here, an ade2 adeX colony-color system was used to examine the genetic control of UV-induced mutagenesis in nondividing cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We confirmed a strong suppression of two-strand mutagenesis in NER-deficient backgrounds and demonstrated that neither mismatch repair nor interstrand crosslink repair affects the production of these mutations. By contrast, proteins involved in the error-prone bypass of DNA damage (Rev3, Rev1, PCNA, Rad18, Pol32, and Rad5) and in the early steps of the DNA-damage checkpoint response (Rad17, Mec3, Ddc1, Mec1, and Rad9) were required for the production of two-strand mutations. There was no involvement, however, for the Pol η translesion synthesis DNA polymerase, the Mms2-Ubc13 postreplication repair complex, downstream DNA-damage checkpoint factors (Rad53, Chk1, and Dun1), or the Exo1 exonuclease. Our data support models in which UV-induced mutagenesis in nondividing cells occurs during the Pol ζ-dependent filling of lesion-containing, NER-generated gaps. The requirement for specific DNA-damage checkpoint proteins suggests roles in recruiting and/or activating factors required to fill such gaps.

  5. Histone H3 K56 Hyperacetylation Perturbs Replisomes and Causes DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Celic, Ivana; Verreault, Alain; Boeke, Jef D.

    2008-01-01

    Deacetylation of histone H3 K56, regulated by the sirtuins Hst3p and Hst4p, is critical for maintenance of genomic stability. However, the physiological consequences of a lack of H3 K56 deacetylation are poorly understood. Here we show that cells lacking Hst3p and Hst4p, in which H3 K56 is constitutively hyperacetylated, exhibit hallmarks of spontaneous DNA damage, such as activation of the checkpoint kinase Rad53p and upregulation of DNA-damage inducible genes. Consistently, hst3 hst4 cells display synthetic lethality interactions with mutations that cripple genes involved in DNA replication and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. In most cases, synthetic lethality depends upon hyperacetylation of H3 K56 because it can be suppressed by mutation of K56 to arginine, which mimics the nonacetylated state. We also show that hst3 hst4 phenotypes can be suppressed by overexpression of the PCNA clamp loader large subunit, Rfc1p, and by inactivation of the alternative clamp loaders CTF18, RAD24, and ELG1. Loss of CTF4, encoding a replisome component involved in sister chromatid cohesion, also suppresses hst3 hst4 phenotypes. Genetic analysis suggests that CTF4 is a part of the K56 acetylation pathway that converges on and modulates replisome function. This pathway represents an important mechanism for maintenance of genomic stability and depends upon proper regulation of H3 K56 acetylation by Hst3p and Hst4p. Our data also suggest the existence of a precarious balance between Rfc1p and the other RFC complexes and that the nonreplicative forms of RFC are strongly deleterious to cells that have genomewide and constitutive H3 K56 hyperacetylation. PMID:18579506

  6. Involvement of the PP2C-like phosphatase Ptc2p in the DNA checkpoint pathways of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Marsolier, M C; Roussel, P; Leroy, C; Mann, C

    2000-04-01

    RAD53 encodes a conserved protein kinase that acts as a central transducer in the DNA damage and the DNA replication checkpoint pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To identify new elements of these pathways acting with or downstream of RAD53, we searched for genes whose overexpression suppressed the toxicity of a dominant-lethal form of RAD53 and identified PTC2, which encodes a protein phosphatase of the PP2C family. PTC2 overexpression induces hypersensitivity to genotoxic agents in wild-type cells and is lethal to rad53, mec1, and dun1 mutants with low ribonucleotide reductase activity. Deleting PTC2 specifically suppresses the hydroxyurea hypersensitivity of mec1 mutants and the lethality of mec1Delta. PTC2 is thus implicated in one or several functions related to RAD53, MEC1, and the DNA checkpoint pathways.

  7. PP2C phosphatases Ptc2 and Ptc3 are required for DNA checkpoint inactivation after a double-strand break.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Christophe; Lee, Sang Eun; Vaze, Moreshwar B; Ochsenbein, Françoise; Ochsenbien, Françoise; Guerois, Raphaël; Haber, James E; Marsolier-Kergoat, Marie-Claude

    2003-03-01

    Saccharomyces cells suffering a DNA double-strand break (DSB) ultimately escape checkpoint-mediated G2/M arrest either by recovery once the lesion is repaired or by adaptation if the lesion proves irreparable. Cells lacking the PP2C-like phosphatases Ptc2 and Ptc3 are unable to adapt to a HO-induced DSB and are also defective in recovering from a repairable DSB. In contrast, overexpression of PTC2 rescues adaptation-defective yku80Delta and cdc5-ad mutants. These effects are not explained by alterations either in the processing of DSB ends or in DSB repair. In vivo and in vitro evidence suggests that phosphorylated forms of Ptc2 and Ptc3 specifically bind to the Rad53 FHA1 domain and inactivate Rad53-dependent pathways during adaptation and recovery by dephosphorylating Rad53.

  8. Checkpoint genes and Exo1 regulate nearby inverted repeat fusions that form dicentric chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kaochar, Salma; Shanks, Lisa; Weinert, Ted

    2010-12-14

    Genomic rearrangements are common, occur by largely unknown mechanisms, and can lead to human diseases. We previously demonstrated that some genome rearrangements occur in budding yeast through the fusion of two DNA sequences that contain limited sequence homology, lie in inverted orientation, and are within 5 kb of one another. This inverted repeat fusion reaction forms dicentric chromosomes, which are well-known intermediates to additional rearrangements. We have previously provided evidence indicating that an error of stalled or disrupted DNA replication forks can cause inverted repeat fusion. Here we analyze how checkpoint protein regulatory pathways known to stabilize stalled forks affect this form of instability. We find that two checkpoint pathways suppress inverted repeat fusion, and that their activities are distinguishable by their interactions with exonuclease 1 (Exo1). The checkpoint kinase Rad53 (Chk2) and recombination protein complex MRX(MRN) inhibit Exo1 in one pathway, whereas in a second pathway the ATR-like kinases Mec1 and Tel1, adaptor protein Rad9, and effector kinases Chk1 and Dun1 act independently of Exo1 to prevent inverted repeat fusion. We provide a model that indicates how in Rad53 or MRX mutants, an inappropriately active Exo1 may facilitate faulty template switching between nearby inverted repeats to form dicentric chromosomes. We further investigate the role of Rad53, using hypomorphic alleles of Rad53 and null mutations in Rad9 and Mrc1, and provide evidence that only local, as opposed to global, activity of Rad53 is sufficient to prevent inverted repeat fusion.

  9. A conserved physical and functional interaction between the cell cycle checkpoint clamp loader and DNA ligase I of eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Levin, David S; Varkey, Johnson; Post, Sean; Bermudez, Vladimir P; Hurwitz, Jerard; Tomkinson, Alan E

    2007-08-03

    DNA ligase I joins Okazaki fragments during DNA replication and completes certain excision repair pathways. The participation of DNA ligase I in these transactions is directed by physical and functional interactions with proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a DNA sliding clamp, and, replication factor C (RFC), the clamp loader. Here we show that DNA ligase I also interacts with the hRad17 subunit of the hRad17-RFC cell cycle checkpoint clamp loader, and with each of the subunits of its DNA sliding clamp, the heterotrimeric hRad9-hRad1-hHus1 complex. In contrast to the inhibitory effect of RFC, hRad17-RFC stimulates joining by DNA ligase I. Similar results were obtained with the homologous Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins indicating that the interaction between the replicative DNA ligase and checkpoint clamp is conserved in eukaryotes. Notably, we show that hRad17 preferentially interacts with and specifically stimulates dephosphorylated DNA ligase I. Moreover, there is an increased association between DNA ligase I and hRad17 in S phase following DNA damage and replication blockage that occurs concomitantly with DNA damage-induced dephosphorylation of chromatin-associated DNA ligase I. Thus, our results suggest that the in vivo interaction between DNA ligase I and the checkpoint clamp loader is regulated by post-translational modification of DNA ligase I.

  10. [Survival of diploid yeasts after gamma irradiation: genetic control of the maturation effect].

    PubMed

    Lobachevskiĭ, P N; Mishchonova, V B

    1987-01-01

    A study was made of the influence of rad mutation, leading to radiosensitivity increase, on the effect of additional growth in diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast exposed to gamma-radiation. The most radiosensitive mutants of this series, rad52/rad52 and rad54/rad54, did not virtually vary from the wild type cells in the value of the additional growth effect. Some other mutants, for instance, rad53/rad53 and rad55/rad55, exhibited a significantly lesser effect of additional growth. It was shown that the effect of additional growth did not depend upon the rate of rapid and slow postirradiation recovery of the wild type cells. The results of the studies prompt the conclusion that the processes responsible for the additional growth effect and those responsible for recovery of cells from radiation damages are mutually independent.

  11. The Yeast Copper Response Is Regulated by DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Kangzhen; Addinall, Stephen G.; Lydall, David

    2013-01-01

    Copper is an essential but potentially toxic redox-active metal, so the levels and distribution of this metal are carefully regulated to ensure that it binds to the correct proteins. Previous studies of copper-dependent transcription in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have focused on the response of genes to changes in the exogenous levels of copper. We now report that yeast copper genes are regulated in response to the DNA-damaging agents methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and hydroxyurea by a mechanism(s) that requires the copper-responsive transcription factors Mac1 and AceI, copper superoxide dismutase (Sod1) activity, and the Rad53 checkpoint kinase. Furthermore, in copper-starved yeast, the response of the Rad53 pathway to MMS is compromised due to a loss of Sod1 activity, consistent with the model that yeast imports copper to ensure Sod1 activity and Rad53 signaling. Crucially, the Mac1 transcription factor undergoes changes in its redox state in response to changing levels of copper or MMS. This study has therefore identified a novel regulatory relationship between cellular redox, copper homeostasis, and the DNA damage response in yeast. PMID:23959798

  12. Top1- and Top2-mediated topological transitions at replication forks ensure fork progression and stability and prevent DNA damage checkpoint activation.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Rodrigo; Doksani, Ylli; Capra, Thelma; Katou, Yuki-Mori; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Foiani, Marco

    2007-08-01

    DNA topoisomerases solve topological problems during chromosome metabolism. We investigated where and when Top1 and Top2 are recruited on replicating chromosomes and how their inactivation affects fork integrity and DNA damage checkpoint activation. We show that, in the context of replicating chromatin, Top1 and Top2 act within a 600-base-pair (bp) region spanning the moving forks. Top2 exhibits additional S-phase clusters at specific intergenic loci, mostly containing promoters. TOP1 ablation does not affect fork progression and stability and does not cause activation of the Rad53 checkpoint kinase. top2 mutants accumulate sister chromatid junctions in S phase without affecting fork progression and activate Rad53 at the M-G1 transition. top1 top2 double mutants exhibit fork block and processing and phosphorylation of Rad53 and gamma H2A in S phase. The exonuclease Exo1 influences fork processing and DNA damage checkpoint activation in top1 top2 mutants. Our data are consistent with a coordinated action of Top1 and Top2 in counteracting the accumulation of torsional stress and sister chromatid entanglement at replication forks, thus preventing the diffusion of topological changes along large chromosomal regions. A failure in resolving fork-related topological constrains during S phase may therefore result in abnormal chromosome transitions, DNA damage checkpoint activation, and chromosome breakage during segregation.

  13. Phosphatase complex Pph3/Psy2 is involved in regulation of efficient non-homologous end-joining pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Omidi, Katayoun; Hooshyar, Mohsen; Jessulat, Matthew; Samanfar, Bahram; Sanders, Megan; Burnside, Daniel; Pitre, Sylvain; Schoenrock, Andrew; Xu, Jianhua; Babu, Mohan; Golshani, Ashkan

    2014-01-01

    One of the main mechanisms for double stranded DNA break (DSB) repair is through the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway. Using plasmid and chromosomal repair assays, we showed that deletion mutant strains for interacting proteins Pph3p and Psy2p had reduced efficiencies in NHEJ. We further observed that this activity of Pph3p and Psy2p appeared linked to cell cycle Rad53p and Chk1p checkpoint proteins. Pph3/Psy2 is a phosphatase complex, which regulates recovery from the Rad53p DNA damage checkpoint. Overexpression of Chk1p checkpoint protein in a parallel pathway to Rad53p compensated for the deletion of PPH3 or PSY2 in a chromosomal repair assay. Double mutant strains Δpph3/Δchk1 and Δpsy2/Δchk1 showed additional reductions in the efficiency of plasmid repair, compared to both single deletions which is in agreement with the activity of Pph3p and Psy2p in a parallel pathway to Chk1p. Genetic interaction analyses also supported a role for Pph3p and Psy2p in DNA damage repair, the NHEJ pathway, as well as cell cycle progression. Collectively, we report that the activity of Pph3p and Psy2p further connects NHEJ repair to cell cycle progression.

  14. Suppressors of cdc25p overexpression identify two pathways that influence the G2/M checkpoint in fission yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, K C; Humphrey, T; Enoch, T

    1998-01-01

    Checkpoints maintain the order of cell-cycle events. At G2/M, a checkpoint blocks mitosis in response to damaged or unreplicated DNA. There are significant differences in the checkpoint responses to damaged DNA and unreplicated DNA, although many of the same genes are involved in both responses. To identify new genes that function specifically in the DNA replication checkpoint pathway, we searched for high-copy suppressors of overproducer of Cdc25p (OPcdc25(+)), which lacks a DNA replication checkpoint. Two classes of suppressors were isolated. One class includes a new gene encoding a putative DEAD box helicase, suppressor of uncontrolled mitosis (sum3(+)). This gene negatively regulates the cell-cycle response to stress when overexpressed and restores the checkpoint response by a mechanism that is independent of Cdc2p tyrosine phosphorylation. The second class includes chk1(+) and the two Schizosaccharomyces pombe 14-3-3 genes, rad24(+) and rad25(+), which appear to suppress the checkpoint defect by inhibiting Cdc25p. We show that rad24Delta mutants are defective in the checkpoint response to the DNA replication inhibitor hydroxyurea at 37 degrees and that cds1Delta rad24Delta mutants, like cds1Delta chk1Delta mutants, are entirely checkpoint deficient at 29 degrees. These results suggest that chk1(+) and rad24(+) may function redundantly with cds1(+) in the checkpoint response to unreplicated DNA. PMID:9832516

  15. The Elg1-RFC clamp-loading complex performs a role in sister chromatid cohesion.

    PubMed

    Maradeo, Marie E; Skibbens, Robert V

    2009-01-01

    It is widely accepted that of the four Replication Factor C (RFC) complexes (defined by the associations of either Rfc1p, Ctf18p, Elg1p or Rad24p with Rfc2p-Rfc5p), only Ctf18-RFC functions in sister chromatid cohesion. This model is based on findings that CTF18 deletion is lethal in combination with mutations in either CTF7(ECO1) or MCD1 sister chromatid cohesion genes and that ctf18 mutant cells exhibit cohesion defects. Here, we report that Elg1-RFC not only participates in cohesion but performs a function that is distinct from that of Ctf18-RFC. The results show that deletion of ELG1 rescues both ctf7(eco1) mutant cell temperature sensitivity and cohesion defects. Moreover, over-expression of ELG1 enhances ctf7(eco1) mutant cell phenotypes. These findings suggest that the balance of Ctf7p(Eco1p) activity depends on both Ctf18-RFC and Elg1-RFC. We also report that ELG1 deletion produces cohesion defects and intensifies the conditional phenotype of mcd1 mutant cells, further supporting a role for Elg1-RFC in cohesion. Attesting to the specificity of these interactions, deletion of RAD24 neither suppressed nor exacerbated cohesion defects in either ctf7(eco1) or mcd1 mutant cells. While parallel analyses failed to uncover a similar role in cohesion for Rad24-RFC, it is well known that Rad24-RFC, Elg1-RFC and Ctf18-RFC play key roles in DNA damage responses. We tested and found that Ctf7p(Eco1p) plays a significant role in Rad24-RFC-based DNA response pathways. In combination, these findings challenge current views and document new and distinct roles for RFC complexes in cohesion and for Ctf7p(Eco1p) in DNA repair.

  16. Telomere binding of checkpoint sensor and DNA repair proteins contributes to maintenance of functional fission yeast telomeres.

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Toru M; Moser, Bettina A; Russell, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Telomeres, the ends of linear chromosomes, are DNA double-strand ends that do not trigger a cell cycle arrest and yet require checkpoint and DNA repair proteins for maintenance. Genetic and biochemical studies in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe were undertaken to understand how checkpoint and DNA repair proteins contribute to telomere maintenance. On the basis of telomere lengths of mutant combinations of various checkpoint-related proteins (Rad1, Rad3, Rad9, Rad17, Rad26, Hus1, Crb2, Chk1, Cds1), Tel1, a telomere-binding protein (Taz1), and DNA repair proteins (Ku70, Rad32), we conclude that Rad3/Rad26 and Tel1/Rad32 represent two pathways required to maintain telomeres and prevent chromosome circularization. Rad1/Rad9/Hus1/Rad17 and Ku70 are two additional epistasis groups, which act in the Rad3/Rad26 pathway. However, Rad3/Rad26 must have additional target(s), as cells lacking Tel1/Rad32, Rad1/Rad9/Hus1/Rad17, and Ku70 groups did not circularize chromosomes. Cells lacking Rad3/Rad26 and Tel1/Rad32 senesced faster than a telomerase trt1Delta mutant, suggesting that these pathways may contribute to telomere protection. Deletion of taz1 did not suppress chromosome circularization in cells lacking Rad3/Rad26 and Tel1/Rad32, also suggesting that two pathways protect telomeres. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses found that Rad3, Rad1, Rad9, Hus1, Rad17, Rad32, and Ku70 associate with telomeres. Thus, checkpoint sensor and DNA repair proteins contribute to telomere maintenance and protection through their association with telomeres. PMID:12196391

  17. Ixr1 Is Required for the Expression of the Ribonucleotide Reductase Rnr1 and Maintenance of dNTP Pools

    PubMed Central

    Tsaponina, Olga; Barsoum, Emad; Åström, Stefan U.; Chabes, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dun1 protein kinase is a downstream target of the conserved Mec1-Rad53 checkpoint pathway. Dun1 regulates dNTP pools during an unperturbed cell cycle and after DNA damage by modulating the activity of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) by multiple mechanisms, including phosphorylation of RNR inhibitors Sml1 and Dif1. Dun1 also activates DNA-damage-inducible genes by inhibiting the Crt1 transcriptional repressor. Among the genes repressed by Crt1 are three out of four RNR genes: RNR2, RNR3, and RNR4. The fourth RNR gene, RNR1, is also DNA damage-inducible, but is not controlled by Crt1. It has been shown that the deletion of DUN1 is synthetic lethal with the deletion of IXR1, encoding an HMG-box-containing DNA binding protein, but the reason for this lethality is not known. Here we demonstrate that the dun1 ixr1 synthetic lethality is caused by an inadequate RNR activity. The deletion of IXR1 results in decreased dNTP levels due to a reduced RNR1 expression. The ixr1 single mutants compensate for the reduced Rnr1 levels by the Mec1-Rad53-Dun1-Crt1–dependent elevation of Rnr3 and Rnr4 levels and downregulation of Sml1 levels, explaining why DUN1 is indispensible in ixr1 mutants. The dun1 ixr1 synthetic lethality is rescued by an artificial elevation of the dNTP pools. We show that Ixr1 is phosphorylated at several residues and that Ser366, a residue important for the interaction of HMG boxes with DNA, is required for Ixr1 phosphorylation. Ixr1 interacts with DNA at multiple loci, including the RNR1 promoter. Ixr1 levels are decreased in Rad53-deficient cells, which are known to have excessive histone levels. A reduction of the histone gene dosage in the rad53 mutant restores Ixr1 levels. Our results demonstrate that Ixr1, but not Dun1, is required for the proper RNR1 expression both during an unperturbed cell cycle and after DNA damage. PMID:21573136

  18. Research Training Program in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    evolved an elaborate DNA damage saccharomyces pombe , whereas Atr (Cimprich et al. response pathway that senses aberrant DNA structures 1996; Keegan et al...1996) is more closely related to Mecd and transmits a damage signal to effectors that act to in S. cerevisiae, Rad3 in S. pombe , and Mei-41 in Dro...3 kb of CHK1 genomic of Rad53 in S. cerevisiae and Cdsl in S. pombe (for re- sequence, including exons 2-5 that encode the putative view, see Elledge

  19. A Strategy for Interaction Site Prediction between Phospho-binding Modules and their Partners Identified from Proteomic Data*

    PubMed Central

    Aucher, Willy; Becker, Emmanuelle; Ma, Emilie; Miron, Simona; Martel, Arnaud; Ochsenbein, Françoise; Marsolier-Kergoat, Marie-Claude; Guerois, Raphaël

    2010-01-01

    Small and large scale proteomic technologies are providing a wealth of potential interactions between proteins bearing phospho-recognition modules and their substrates. Resulting interaction maps reveal such a dense network of interactions that the functional dissection and understanding of these networks often require to break specific interactions while keeping the rest intact. Here, we developed a computational strategy, called STRIP, to predict the precise interaction site involved in an interaction with a phospho-recognition module. The method was validated by a two-hybrid screen carried out using the ForkHead Associated (FHA)1 domain of Rad53, a key protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA checkpoint, as a bait. In this screen we detected 11 partners, including Cdc7 and Cdc45, essential components of the DNA replication machinery. FHA domains are phospho-threonine binding modules and the threonines involved in both interactions could be predicted using the STRIP strategy. The threonines T484 and T189 in Cdc7 and Cdc45, respectively, were mutated and loss of binding could be monitored experimentally with the full-length proteins. The method was further tested for the analysis of 63 known Rad53 binding partners and provided several key insights regarding the threonines likely involved in these interactions. The STRIP method relies on a combination of conservation, phosphorylation likelihood, and binding specificity criteria and can be accessed via a web interface at http://biodev.extra.cea.fr/strip/. PMID:20733106

  20. Mechanisms Governing DDK Regulation of the Initiation of DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Larasati; Duncker, Bernard P.

    2016-01-01

    The budding yeast Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) complex—comprised of cell division cycle (Cdc7) kinase and its regulatory subunit dumbbell former 4 (Dbf4)—is required to trigger the initiation of DNA replication through the phosphorylation of multiple minichromosome maintenance complex subunits 2-7 (Mcm2-7). DDK is also a target of the radiation sensitive 53 (Rad53) checkpoint kinase in response to replication stress. Numerous investigations have determined mechanistic details, including the regions of Mcm2, Mcm4, and Mcm6 phosphorylated by DDK, and a number of DDK docking sites. Similarly, the way in which the Rad53 forkhead-associated 1 (FHA1) domain binds to DDK—involving both canonical and non-canonical interactions—has been elucidated. Recent work has revealed mutual promotion of DDK and synthetic lethal with dpb11-1 3 (Sld3) roles. While DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2-7 subunits facilitates their interaction with Sld3 at origins, Sld3 in turn stimulates DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2. Details of a mutually antagonistic relationship between DDK and Rap1-interacting factor 1 (Rif1) have also recently come to light. While Rif1 is able to reverse DDK-mediated Mcm2-7 complex phosphorylation by targeting the protein phosphatase glycogen 7 (Glc7) to origins, there is evidence to suggest that DDK can counteract this activity by binding to and phosphorylating Rif1. PMID:28025497

  1. FACT Prevents the Accumulation of Free Histones Evicted from Transcribed Chromatin and a Subsequent Cell Cycle Delay in G1

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Centeno, Mari Cruz; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Oreal, Vincent; Reddy, Gajjalaiahvari Ugander; Liang, Dun; Géli, Vincent; Gunjan, Akash; Chávez, Sebastián

    2010-01-01

    The FACT complex participates in chromatin assembly and disassembly during transcription elongation. The yeast mutants affected in the SPT16 gene, which encodes one of the FACT subunits, alter the expression of G1 cyclins and exhibit defects in the G1/S transition. Here we show that the dysfunction of chromatin reassembly factors, like FACT or Spt6, down-regulates the expression of the gene encoding the cyclin that modulates the G1 length (CLN3) in START by specifically triggering the repression of its promoter. The G1 delay undergone by spt16 mutants is not mediated by the DNA–damage checkpoint, although the mutation of RAD53, which is otherwise involved in histone degradation, enhances the cell-cycle defects of spt16-197. We reveal how FACT dysfunction triggers an accumulation of free histones evicted from transcribed chromatin. This accumulation is enhanced in a rad53 background and leads to a delay in G1. Consistently, we show that the overexpression of histones in wild-type cells down-regulates CLN3 in START and causes a delay in G1. Our work shows that chromatin reassembly factors are essential players in controlling the free histones potentially released from transcribed chromatin and describes a new cell cycle phenomenon that allows cells to respond to excess histones before starting DNA replication. PMID:20502685

  2. Proteins in the Nutrient-Sensing and DNA Damage Checkpoint Pathways Cooperate to Restrain Mitotic Progression following DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Searle, Jennifer S.; Wood, Matthew D.; Kaur, Mandeep; Tobin, David V.; Sanchez, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    Checkpoint pathways regulate genomic integrity in part by blocking anaphase until all chromosomes have been completely replicated, repaired, and correctly aligned on the spindle. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DNA damage and mono-oriented or unattached kinetochores trigger checkpoint pathways that bifurcate to regulate both the metaphase to anaphase transition and mitotic exit. The sensor-associated kinase, Mec1, phosphorylates two downstream kinases, Chk1 and Rad53. Activation of Chk1 and Rad53 prevents anaphase and causes inhibition of the mitotic exit network. We have previously shown that the PKA pathway plays a role in blocking securin and Clb2 destruction following DNA damage. Here we show that the Mec1 DNA damage checkpoint regulates phosphorylation of the regulatory (R) subunit of PKA following DNA damage and that the phosphorylated R subunit has a role in restraining mitosis following DNA damage. In addition we found that proteins known to regulate PKA in response to nutrients and stress either by phosphorylation of the R subunit or regulating levels of cAMP are required for the role of PKA in the DNA damage checkpoint. Our data indicate that there is cross-talk between the DNA damage checkpoint and the proteins that integrate nutrient and stress signals to regulate PKA. PMID:21779180

  3. Tof1p regulates DNA damage responses during S phase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Foss, E J

    2001-01-01

    A tof1 mutant was recovered in a screen aimed at identifying genes involved specifically in the S phase branch of the MEC1-dependent DNA damage response pathway. The screen was based on the observation that mutants missing this branch are particularly dependent on the cell cycle-wide branch and, therefore, on RAD9, for surviving DNA damage. tof1 and rad9 conferred synergistic sensitivity to MMS, UV, and HU, and the double mutant was incapable of slowing S phase in response to MMS, inducing RNR3 transcription in response to UV, and phosphorylating Rad53p in response to HU. TOF1's contribution to DNA damage response appeared to be restricted to S phase, since TOF1 did not contribute to UV-induced transcription during G1 or to the cdc13-1-induced block to anaphase in G2/M. I suggest a model in which Tof1p functions to link Mec1p with Rad53p. PMID:11156979

  4. Basal-like Breast cancer DNA copy number losses identify genes involved in genomic instability, response to therapy, and patient survival.

    PubMed

    Weigman, Victor J; Chao, Hann-Hsiang; Shabalin, Andrey A; He, Xiaping; Parker, Joel S; Nordgard, Silje H; Grushko, Tatyana; Huo, Dezheng; Nwachukwu, Chika; Nobel, Andrew; Kristensen, Vessela N; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Perou, Charles M

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with known expression-defined tumor subtypes. DNA copy number studies have suggested that tumors within gene expression subtypes share similar DNA Copy number aberrations (CNA) and that CNA can be used to further sub-divide expression classes. To gain further insights into the etiologies of the intrinsic subtypes, we classified tumors according to gene expression subtype and next identified subtype-associated CNA using a novel method called SWITCHdna, using a training set of 180 tumors and a validation set of 359 tumors. Fisher's exact tests, Chi-square approximations, and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were performed to evaluate differences in CNA by subtype. To assess the functional significance of loss of a specific chromosomal region, individual genes were knocked down by shRNA and drug sensitivity, and DNA repair foci assays performed. Most tumor subtypes exhibited specific CNA. The Basal-like subtype was the most distinct with common losses of the regions containing RB1, BRCA1, INPP4B, and the greatest overall genomic instability. One Basal-like subtype-associated CNA was loss of 5q11-35, which contains at least three genes important for BRCA1-dependent DNA repair (RAD17, RAD50, and RAP80); these genes were predominantly lost as a pair, or all three simultaneously. Loss of two or three of these genes was associated with significantly increased genomic instability and poor patient survival. RNAi knockdown of RAD17, or RAD17/RAD50, in immortalized human mammary epithelial cell lines caused increased sensitivity to a PARP inhibitor and carboplatin, and inhibited BRCA1 foci formation in response to DNA damage. These data suggest a possible genetic cause for genomic instability in Basal-like breast cancers and a biological rationale for the use of DNA repair inhibitor related therapeutics in this breast cancer subtype.

  5. Mre11 nuclease and C-terminal tail-mediated DDR functions are required for initiating yeast telomere healing.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, M K; Matthews, K M; Lustig, A J

    2008-08-01

    Mre11 is a central factor in creating an optimal substrate for telomerase loading and elongation. We have used a G2/M synchronized telomere-healing assay as a tool to separate different functions of Mre11 that are not apparent in null alleles. An analysis of healing efficiencies of several mre11 alleles revealed that both nuclease and C-terminal mutations led to a loss of healing. Interestingly, trans-complementation of the 49 amino acid C-terminal deletion (DeltaC49) and the D16A mutant, deficient in nuclease activity and partially defective in MRX complex formation, restores healing. DeltaC49 provokes Rad53 phosphorylation after treatment with the radiomimetic agent MMS exclusively through the Tel1 pathway, suggesting that a Tel1-mediated function is initiated through the C-terminal tail.

  6. ORC function in late G1: maintaining the license for DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Da-Silva, Lance F; Duncker, Bernard P

    2007-01-15

    The origin recognition complex (ORC) is essential as a scaffold for the assembly of prereplicative complexes (pre-RCs) in G(1) phase of the cell cycle. Some models have proposed that once origins have been licensed for DNA replication, ORC is dispensable for MCM protein association, and ensuing DNA replication. Although budding yeast Orc6 is not needed for origin recognition or binding in vitro, we have recently shown that this ORC subunit is required in late G(1) phase for maintenance of MCMs, and subsequent DNA replication. Further investigation shows that depletion of Orc6 results in displacement of MCM proteins from both early- and late-firing origins, and eventually results in the activation of the Rad53 checkpoint kinase, consistent with incomplete DNA replication. Loss of MCM association at origins may be mediated by the displacement of Mcm10 and/or Orc2 as a consequence of late G(1) Orc6 depletion.

  7. Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Diffraction Analysis of motif N from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dbf4

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, L.; Duong, A; Prasad, A; Duncker, B; Guarne, A

    2009-01-01

    The Cdc7-Dbf4 complex plays an instrumental role in the initiation of DNA replication and is a target of replication-checkpoint responses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cdc7 is a conserved serine/threonine kinase whose activity depends on association with its regulatory subunit, Dbf4. A conserved sequence near the N-terminus of Dbf4 (motif N) is necessary for the interaction of Cdc7-Dbf4 with the checkpoint kinase Rad53. To understand the role of the Cdc7-Dbf4 complex in checkpoint responses, a fragment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dbf4 encompassing motif N was isolated, overproduced and crystallized. A complete native data set was collected at 100 K from crystals that diffracted X-rays to 2.75 {angstrom} resolution and structure determination is currently under way.

  8. Inositol pyrophosphates modulate hydrogen peroxide signalling.

    PubMed

    Onnebo, Sara Maria Nancy; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2009-09-14

    Inositol pyrophosphates are involved in a variety of cellular functions, but the specific pathways and/or downstream targets remain poorly characterized. In the present study we use Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants to examine the potential roles of inositol pyrophosphates in responding to cell damage caused by ROS (reactive oxygen species). Yeast lacking kcs1 [the S. cerevisiae IP6K (inositol hexakisphosphate kinase)] have greatly reduced IP7 (diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate) and IP8 (bisdiphosphoinositol tetrakisphosphate) levels, and display increased resistance to cell death caused by H2O2, consistent with a sustained activation of DNA repair mechanisms controlled by the Rad53 pathway. Other Rad53-controlled functions, such as actin polymerization, appear unaffected by inositol pyrophosphates. Yeast lacking vip1 [the S. cerevisiae PP-IP5K (also known as IP7K, IP7 kinase)] accumulate large amounts of the inositol pyrophosphate IP7, but have no detectable IP8, indicating that this enzyme represents the physiological IP7 kinase. Similar to kcs1Delta yeast, vip1Delta cells showed an increased resistance to cell death caused by H2O2, indicating that it is probably the double-pyrophosphorylated form of IP8 [(PP)2-IP4] which mediates the H2O2 response. However, these inositol pyrophosphates are not involved in directly sensing DNA damage, as kcs1Delta cells are more responsive to DNA damage caused by phleomycin. We observe in vivo a rapid decrease in cellular inositol pyrophosphate levels following exposure to H2O2, and an inhibitory effect of H2O2 on the enzymatic activity of Kcs1 in vitro. Furthermore, parallel cysteine mutagenesis studies performed on mammalian IP6K1 are suggestive that the ROS signal might be transduced by the direct modification of this evolutionarily conserved class of enzymes.

  9. Concerted activities of Mcm4, Sld3, and Dbf4 in control of origin activation and DNA replication fork progression

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Yi-Jun; Kinney, Justin B.; Stillman, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic chromosomes initiate DNA synthesis from multiple replication origins in a temporally specific manner during S phase. The replicative helicase Mcm2-7 functions in both initiation and fork progression and thus is an important target of regulation. Mcm4, a helicase subunit, possesses an unstructured regulatory domain that mediates control from multiple kinase signaling pathways, including the Dbf4-dependent Cdc7 kinase (DDK). Following replication stress in S phase, Dbf4 and Sld3, an initiation factor and essential target of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase (CDK), are targets of the checkpoint kinase Rad53 for inhibition of initiation from origins that have yet to be activated, so-called late origins. Here, whole-genome DNA replication profile analysis is used to access under various conditions the effect of mutations that alter the Mcm4 regulatory domain and the Rad53 targets, Sld3 and Dbf4. Late origin firing occurs under genotoxic stress when the controls on Mcm4, Sld3, and Dbf4 are simultaneously eliminated. The regulatory domain of Mcm4 plays an important role in the timing of late origin firing, both in an unperturbed S phase and in dNTP limitation. Furthermore, checkpoint control of Sld3 impacts fork progression under replication stress. This effect is parallel to the role of the Mcm4 regulatory domain in monitoring fork progression. Hypomorph mutations in sld3 are suppressed by a mcm4 regulatory domain mutation. Thus, in response to cellular conditions, the functions executed by Sld3, Dbf4, and the regulatory domain of Mcm4 intersect to control origin firing and replication fork progression, thereby ensuring genome stability. PMID:26733669

  10. Human CDK18 promotes replication stress signaling and genome stability

    PubMed Central

    Barone, Giancarlo; Staples, Christopher J.; Ganesh, Anil; Patterson, Karl W.; Bryne, Dominic P.; Myers, Katie N.; Patil, Abhijit A.; Eyers, Claire E.; Maslen, Sarah; Skehel, J. Mark; Eyers, Patrick A.; Collis, Spencer J.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) coordinate cell cycle checkpoints with DNA repair mechanisms that together maintain genome stability. However, the myriad mechanisms that can give rise to genome instability are still to be fully elucidated. Here, we identify CDK18 (PCTAIRE 3) as a novel regulator of genome stability, and show that depletion of CDK18 causes an increase in endogenous DNA damage and chromosomal abnormalities. CDK18-depleted cells accumulate in early S-phase, exhibiting retarded replication fork kinetics and reduced ATR kinase signaling in response to replication stress. Mechanistically, CDK18 interacts with RAD9, RAD17 and TOPBP1, and CDK18-deficiency results in a decrease in both RAD17 and RAD9 chromatin retention in response to replication stress. Importantly, we demonstrate that these phenotypes are rescued by exogenous CDK18 in a kinase-dependent manner. Collectively, these data reveal a rate-limiting role for CDK18 in replication stress signalling and establish it as a novel regulator of genome integrity. PMID:27382066

  11. Human CDK18 promotes replication stress signaling and genome stability.

    PubMed

    Barone, Giancarlo; Staples, Christopher J; Ganesh, Anil; Patterson, Karl W; Bryne, Dominic P; Myers, Katie N; Patil, Abhijit A; Eyers, Claire E; Maslen, Sarah; Skehel, J Mark; Eyers, Patrick A; Collis, Spencer J

    2016-10-14

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) coordinate cell cycle checkpoints with DNA repair mechanisms that together maintain genome stability. However, the myriad mechanisms that can give rise to genome instability are still to be fully elucidated. Here, we identify CDK18 (PCTAIRE 3) as a novel regulator of genome stability, and show that depletion of CDK18 causes an increase in endogenous DNA damage and chromosomal abnormalities. CDK18-depleted cells accumulate in early S-phase, exhibiting retarded replication fork kinetics and reduced ATR kinase signaling in response to replication stress. Mechanistically, CDK18 interacts with RAD9, RAD17 and TOPBP1, and CDK18-deficiency results in a decrease in both RAD17 and RAD9 chromatin retention in response to replication stress. Importantly, we demonstrate that these phenotypes are rescued by exogenous CDK18 in a kinase-dependent manner. Collectively, these data reveal a rate-limiting role for CDK18 in replication stress signalling and establish it as a novel regulator of genome integrity.

  12. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase beta controls replication factor C assembly and function

    PubMed Central

    Redondo-Muñoz, Javier; Josefa Rodríguez, María; Silió, Virginia; Pérez-García, Vicente; María Valpuesta, José; Carrera, Ana C.

    2013-01-01

    Genomic integrity is preserved by the action of protein complexes that control DNA homeostasis. These include the sliding clamps, trimeric protein rings that are arranged around DNA by clamp loaders. Replication factor C (RFC) is the clamp loader for proliferating cell nuclear antigen, which acts on DNA replication. Other processes that require mobile contact of proteins with DNA use alternative RFC complexes that exchange RFC1 for CTF18 or RAD17. Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) are lipid kinases that generate 3-poly-phosphorylated-phosphoinositides at the plasma membrane following receptor stimulation. The two ubiquitous isoforms, PI3Kalpha and PI3Kbeta, have been extensively studied due to their involvement in cancer and nuclear PI3Kbeta has been found to regulate DNA replication and repair, processes controlled by molecular clamps. We studied here whether PI3Kbeta directly controls the process of molecular clamps loading. We show that PI3Kbeta associated with RFC1 and RFC1-like subunits. Only when in complex with PI3Kbeta, RFC1 bound to Ran GTPase and localized to the nucleus, suggesting that PI3Kbeta regulates RFC1 nuclear import. PI3Kbeta controlled not only RFC1– and RFC–RAD17 complexes, but also RFC–CTF18, in turn affecting CTF18-mediated chromatid cohesion. PI3Kbeta thus has a general function in genomic stability by controlling the localization and function of RFC complexes. PMID:23175608

  13. The checkpoint-dependent nuclear accumulation of Rho1p exchange factor Rgf1p is important for tolerance to chronic replication stress

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Sofía; Manjón, Elvira; García, Patricia; Sunnerhagen, Per; Sánchez, Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    Guanine nucleotide exchange factors control many aspects of cell morphogenesis by turning on Rho-GTPases. The fission yeast exchange factor Rgf1p (Rho gef1) specifically regulates Rho1p during polarized growth and localizes to cortical sites. Here we report that Rgf1p is relocalized to the cell nucleus during the stalled replication caused by hydroxyurea (HU). Import to the nucleus is mediated by a nuclear localization sequence at the N-terminus of Rgf1p, whereas release into the cytoplasm requires two leucine-rich nuclear export sequences at the C-terminus. Moreover, Rgf1p nuclear accumulation during replication arrest depends on the 14-3-3 chaperone Rad24p and the DNA replication checkpoint kinase Cds1p. Both proteins control the nuclear accumulation of Rgf1p by inhibition of its nuclear export. A mutant, Rgf1p-9A, that substitutes nine serine potential phosphorylation Cds1p sites for alanine fails to accumulate in the nucleus in response to replication stress, and this correlates with a severe defect in survival in the presence of HU. In conclusion, we propose that the regulation of Rgf1p could be part of the mechanism by which Cds1p and Rad24p promote survival in the presence of chronic replication stress. It will be of general interest to understand whether the same is true for homologues of Rgf1p in budding yeast and higher eukaryotes. PMID:24478458

  14. Salicylic Acid Activates DNA Damage Responses to Potentiate Plant Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shunping; Wang, Wei; Marqués, Jorge; Mohan, Rajinikanth; Saleh, Abdelaty; Durrant, Wendy E.; Song, Junqi; Dong, Xinnian

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY DNA damage is normally detrimental to living organisms. Here we show that it can also serve as a signal to promote immune responses in plants. We found that the plant immune hormone salicylic acid (SA) can trigger DNA damage in the absence of a genotoxic agent. The DNA damage sensor proteins, RAD17 and ATR, are required for effective immune responses. These sensor proteins are negatively regulated by a key immune regulator SNI1 (suppressor of npr1-1, inducible 1), which we discovered as a missing subunit of the Structural Maintenance of Chromosome (SMC) 5/6 complex required for controlling DNA damage. Elevated DNA damage caused by the sni1 mutation or treatment with a DNA-damaging agent markedly enhances SA-mediated defense gene expression. Our study suggests that activation of DNA damage responses is an intrinsic component of the plant immune responses. PMID:24207055

  15. Heat induction of a novel Rad9 variant from a cryptic translation initiation site reduces mitotic commitment.

    PubMed

    Janes, Simon; Schmidt, Ulrike; Ashour Garrido, Karim; Ney, Nadja; Concilio, Susanna; Zekri, Mohamed; Caspari, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    Exposure of human cells to heat switches the activating signal of the DNA damage checkpoint from genotoxic to temperature stress. This change reduces mitotic commitment at the expense of DNA break repair. The thermal alterations behind this switch remain elusive despite the successful use of heat to sensitise cancer cells to DNA breaks. Rad9 is a highly conserved subunit of the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) checkpoint-clamp that is loaded by Rad17 onto damaged chromatin. At the DNA, Rad9 activates the checkpoint kinases Rad3(ATR) and Chk1 to arrest cells in G2. Using Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a model eukaryote, we discovered a new variant of Rad9, Rad9-M50, whose expression is specifically induced by heat. High temperatures promote alternative translation from a cryptic initiation codon at methionine-50. This process is restricted to cycling cells and is independent of the temperature-sensing mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. While full-length Rad9 delays mitosis in the presence of DNA lesions, Rad9-M50 functions in a remodelled checkpoint pathway to reduce mitotic commitment at elevated temperatures. This remodelled pathway still relies on Rad1 and Hus1, but acts independently of Rad17. Heat-induction of Rad9-M50 ensures that the kinase Chk1 remains in a hypo-phosphorylated state. Elevated temperatures specifically reverse the DNA-damage-induced modification of Chk1 in a manner dependent on Rad9-M50. Taken together, heat reprogrammes the DNA damage checkpoint at the level of Chk1 by inducing a Rad9 variant that can act outside of the canonical 9-1-1 complex.

  16. Molecular modeling-based analysis of interactions in the RFC-dependent clamp-loading process.

    PubMed

    Venclovas, Ceslovas; Colvin, Michael E; Thelen, Michael P

    2002-10-01

    Replication and related processes in eukaryotic cells require replication factor C (RFC) to load a molecular clamp for DNA polymerase in an ATP-driven process, involving multiple molecular interactions. The detailed understanding of this mechanism is hindered by the lack of data regarding structure, mutual arrangement, and dynamics of the players involved. In this study, we analyzed interactions that take place during loading onto DNA of either the PCNA clamp or the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 checkpoint complex, using computationally derived molecular models. Combining the modeled structures for each RFC subunit with known structural, biochemical, and genetic data, we propose detailed models of how two of the RFC subunits, RFC1 and RFC3, interact with the C-terminal regions of PCNA. RFC1 is predicted to bind PCNA similarly to the p21-PCNA interaction, while the RFC3-PCNA binding is proposed to be similar to the E. coli delta-beta interaction. Additional sequence and structure analysis, supported by experimental data, suggests that RFC5 might be the third clamp loader subunit to bind the equivalent PCNA region. We discuss functional implications stemming from the proposed model of the RFC1-PCNA interaction and compare putative clamp-interacting regions in RFC1 and its paralogs, Rad17 and Ctf18. Based on the individual intermolecular interactions, we propose RFC and PCNA arrangement that places three RFC subunits in association with each of the three C-terminal regions in PCNA. The two other RFC subunits are positioned at the two PCNA interfaces, with the third PCNA interface left unobstructed. In addition, we map interactions at the level of individual subunits between the alternative clamp loader/clamp system, Rad17-RFC(2-5)/Rad9-Rad1-Hus1. The proposed models of interaction between two clamp/clamp loader pairs provide both structural framework for interpretation of existing experimental data and a number of specific findings that can be subjected to direct experimental

  17. The subunits of the S-phase checkpoint complex Mrc1/Tof1/Csm3: dynamics and interdependence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The S-phase checkpoint aims to prevent cells from generation of extensive single-stranded DNA that predisposes to genome instability. The S. cerevisiae complex Tof1/Csm3/Mrc1 acts to restrain the replicative MCM helicase when DNA synthesis is prohibited. Keeping the replication machinery intact allows restart of the replication fork when the block is relieved. Although the subunits of the Tof1/Csm3/Mrc1 complex are well studied, the impact of every single subunit on the triple complex formation and function needs to be established. Findings This work studies the cellular localization and the chromatin binding of GFP-tagged subunits when the complex is intact and when a subunit is missing. We demonstrate that the complex is formed in cell nucleus, not the cytoplasm, as Tof1, Csm3 and Mrc1 enter the nucleus independently from one another. Via in situ chromatin binding assay we show that a Tof1-Csm3 dimer formation and chromatin binding is required to ensure the attachment of Mrc1 to chromatin. Our study indicates that the translocation into the nucleus is not the process to regulate the timing of chromatin association of Mrc1. We also studied the nuclear behavior of Mrc1 subunit in the process of adaptation to the presence hydroxyurea. Our results indicate that after prolonged HU incubation, cells bypass the S-phase checkpoint and proceed throughout the cell cycle. This process is accompanied by Mrc1 chromatin detachment and Rad53 dephosphorylation. Conclusions In S. cerevisiae the subunits of the S-phase checkpoint complex Mrc1/Tof1/Csm3 independently enter the cell nucleus, where a Tof1-Csm3 dimer is formed to ensure the chromatin binding of Mrc1 and favor DNA replication and S-phase checkpoint fork arrest. In the process of adaptation to the presence of hydroxyurea Mrc1 is detached from chromatin and Rad53 checkpoint activity is diminished in order to allow S-phase checkpoint escape and completion of the cell cycle. PMID:25379053

  18. Unraveling Fungal Radiation Resistance Regulatory Networks through the Genome-Wide Transcriptome and Genetic Analyses of Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwang-Woo; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Min-Kyu; Seo, Ho Seong; Lim, Sangyong; Bahn, Yong-Sun

    2016-11-29

    The basidiomycetous fungus Cryptococcus neoformans has been known to be highly radiation resistant and has been found in fatal radioactive environments such as the damaged nuclear reactor at Chernobyl. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the radiation resistance phenotype of C. neoformans, we identified genes affected by gamma radiation through genome-wide transcriptome analysis and characterized their functions. We found that genes involved in DNA damage repair systems were upregulated in response to gamma radiation. Particularly, deletion of recombinase RAD51 and two DNA-dependent ATPase genes, RAD54 and RDH54, increased cellular susceptibility to both gamma radiation and DNA-damaging agents. A variety of oxidative stress response genes were also upregulated. Among them, sulfiredoxin contributed to gamma radiation resistance in a peroxiredoxin/thioredoxin-independent manner. Furthermore, we found that genes involved in molecular chaperone expression, ubiquitination systems, and autophagy were induced, whereas genes involved in the biosynthesis of proteins and fatty acids/sterols were downregulated. Most importantly, we discovered a number of novel C. neoformans genes, the expression of which was modulated by gamma radiation exposure, and their deletion rendered cells susceptible to gamma radiation exposure, as well as DNA damage insults. Among these genes, we found that a unique transcription factor containing the basic leucine zipper domain, named Bdr1, served as a regulator of the gamma radiation resistance of C. neoformans by controlling expression of DNA repair genes, and its expression was regulated by the evolutionarily conserved DNA damage response protein kinase Rad53. Taken together, the current transcriptome and functional analyses contribute to the understanding of the unique molecular mechanism of the radiation-resistant fungus C. neoformans IMPORTANCE: Although there are no natural environments under intense radiation, some living organisms

  19. Identification of RFC(Ctf18p, Ctf8p, Dcc1p): an alternative RFC complex required for sister chromatid cohesion in S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Mayer, M L; Gygi, S P; Aebersold, R; Hieter, P

    2001-05-01

    We have identified and characterized an alternative RFC complex RFC(Ctf18p, Ctf8p, Dcc1p) that is required for sister chromatid cohesion and faithful chromosome transmission. Ctf18p, Ctf8p, and Dcc1p interact physically in a complex with Rfc2p, Rfc3p, Rfc4p, and Rfc5p but not with Rfc1p or Rad24p. Deletion of CTF18, CTF8, or DCC1 singly or in combination (ctf18Deltactf8Deltadcc1Delta) leads to sensitivity to microtubule depolymerizing drugs and a severe sister chromatid cohesion defect. Furthermore, temperature-sensitive mutations in RFC4 result in precocious sister chromatid separation. Our results highlight a novel function of the RFC proteins and support a model in which sister chromatid cohesion is established at the replication fork via a polymerase switching mechanism and a replication-coupled remodeling of chromatin.

  20. Identifying and characterizing alternative molecular markers for the symbiotic and free-living dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium.

    PubMed

    Pochon, Xavier; Putnam, Hollie M; Burki, Fabien; Gates, Ruth D

    2012-01-01

    Dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are best known as endosymbionts of corals and other invertebrate as well as protist hosts, but also exist free-living in coastal environments. Despite their importance in marine ecosystems, less than 10 loci have been used to explore phylogenetic relationships in this group, and only the multi-copy nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions 1 and 2 have been used to characterize fine-scale genetic diversity within the nine clades (A-I) that comprise the genus. Here, we describe a three-step molecular approach focused on 1) identifying new candidate genes for phylogenetic analysis of Symbiodinium spp., 2) characterizing the phylogenetic relationship of these candidate genes from DNA samples spanning eight Symbiodinium clades (A-H), and 3) conducting in-depth phylogenetic analyses of candidate genes displaying genetic divergences equal or higher than those within the ITS-2 of Symbiodinium clade C. To this end, we used bioinformatics tools and reciprocal comparisons to identify homologous genes from 55,551 cDNA sequences representing two Symbiodinium and six additional dinoflagellate EST libraries. Of the 84 candidate genes identified, 7 Symbiodinium genes (elf2, coI, coIII, cob, calmodulin, rad24, and actin) were characterized by sequencing 23 DNA samples spanning eight Symbiodinium clades (A-H). Four genes displaying higher rates of genetic divergences than ITS-2 within clade C were selected for in-depth phylogenetic analyses, which revealed that calmodulin has limited taxonomic utility but that coI, rad24, and actin behave predictably with respect to Symbiodinium lineage C and are potential candidates as new markers for this group. The approach for targeting candidate genes described here can serve as a model for future studies aimed at identifying and testing new phylogenetically informative genes for taxa where transcriptomic and genomics data are available.

  1. A cullin E3 ubiquitin ligase complex associates with Rik1 and the Clr4 histone H3-K9 methyltransferase and is required for RNAi-mediated heterochromatin formation.

    PubMed

    Hong, Eun-Jin Erica; Villén, Judit; Gerace, Erica L; Gygi, Steven P; Moazed, Danesh

    2005-01-01

    The assembly of heterochromatin in fission yeast and metazoans requires histone H3-lysine 9 (-K9) methylation by the conserved Clr4/Suv39h methyltransferase. In fission yeast, H3-K9 methylation requires components of the RNAi machinery and is initiated by the RNA-Induced Transcriptional Silencing (RITS) complex. Here we report the purification of a novel complex that associates with the Clr4 methyltransferase, termed the CLRC (CLr4-Rik1-Cul4) complex. By affinity purification of the Clr4-associated protein Rik1, we show that, in addition to Clr4, Rik1 is associated with the fission yeast E3 ubiquitin ligase Cullin4 (Cul4, encoded by cul4(+)), the ubiquitin-like protein, Ned8, and two previously uncharacterized proteins, designated Cmc1 and Cmc2. In addition, the complex contains substochiometric amounts of histones H2B and H4, and the 14-3-3 protein, Rad24. Deletion of cul4(+), cmc1(+), cmc2(+) and rad24(+) results in a complete loss of silencing of a ura4(+) reporter gene inserted within centromeric DNA repeats or the silent mating type locus. Each of the above deletions also results in accumulation of noncoding RNAs transcribed from centromeric repeats and telomeric DNA regions, and a corresponding loss of small RNAs that are homologous to centromeric repeats, suggesting a defect in the processing of noncoding RNA to small RNA. Based on these results, we propose that the components of the Clr4-Rik1-Cul4 complex act concertedly at an early step in heterochromatin formation.

  2. Identifying and Characterizing Alternative Molecular Markers for the Symbiotic and Free-Living Dinoflagellate Genus Symbiodinium

    PubMed Central

    Pochon, Xavier; Putnam, Hollie M.; Burki, Fabien; Gates, Ruth D.

    2012-01-01

    Dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are best known as endosymbionts of corals and other invertebrate as well as protist hosts, but also exist free-living in coastal environments. Despite their importance in marine ecosystems, less than 10 loci have been used to explore phylogenetic relationships in this group, and only the multi-copy nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions 1 and 2 have been used to characterize fine-scale genetic diversity within the nine clades (A–I) that comprise the genus. Here, we describe a three-step molecular approach focused on 1) identifying new candidate genes for phylogenetic analysis of Symbiodinium spp., 2) characterizing the phylogenetic relationship of these candidate genes from DNA samples spanning eight Symbiodinium clades (A–H), and 3) conducting in-depth phylogenetic analyses of candidate genes displaying genetic divergences equal or higher than those within the ITS-2 of Symbiodinium clade C. To this end, we used bioinformatics tools and reciprocal comparisons to identify homologous genes from 55,551 cDNA sequences representing two Symbiodinium and six additional dinoflagellate EST libraries. Of the 84 candidate genes identified, 7 Symbiodinium genes (elf2, coI, coIII, cob, calmodulin, rad24, and actin) were characterized by sequencing 23 DNA samples spanning eight Symbiodinium clades (A–H). Four genes displaying higher rates of genetic divergences than ITS-2 within clade C were selected for in-depth phylogenetic analyses, which revealed that calmodulin has limited taxonomic utility but that coI, rad24, and actin behave predictably with respect to Symbiodinium lineage C and are potential candidates as new markers for this group. The approach for targeting candidate genes described here can serve as a model for future studies aimed at identifying and testing new phylogenetically informative genes for taxa where transcriptomic and genomics data are available. PMID:22238660

  3. Quantitative BrdU immunoprecipitation method demonstrates that Fkh1 and Fkh2 are rate-limiting activators of replication origins that reprogram replication timing in G1 phase.

    PubMed

    Peace, Jared M; Villwock, Sandra K; Zeytounian, John L; Gan, Yan; Aparicio, Oscar M

    2016-03-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Forkhead Box (FOX) proteins, Fkh1 and Fkh2, regulate diverse cellular processes including transcription, long-range DNA interactions during homologous recombination, and replication origin timing and long-range origin clustering. We hypothesized that, as stimulators of early origin activation, Fkh1 and Fkh2 abundance limits the rate of origin activation genome-wide. Existing methods, however, are not well-suited to quantitative, genome-wide measurements of origin firing between strains and conditions. To overcome this limitation, we developed qBrdU-seq, a quantitative method for BrdU incorporation analysis of replication dynamics, and applied it to show that overexpression of Fkh1 and Fkh2 advances the initiation timing of many origins throughout the genome resulting in a higher total level of origin initiations in early S phase. The higher initiation rate is accompanied by slower replication fork progression, thereby maintaining a normal length of S phase without causing detectable Rad53 checkpoint kinase activation. The advancement of origin firing time, including that of origins in heterochromatic domains, was established in late G1 phase, indicating that origin timing can be reset subsequently to origin licensing. These results provide novel insights into the mechanisms of origin timing regulation by identifying Fkh1 and Fkh2 as rate-limiting factors for origin firing that determine the ability of replication origins to accrue limiting factors and have the potential to reprogram replication timing late in G1 phase.

  4. A conserved DNA damage response pathway responsible for coupling the cell division cycle to the circadian and metabolic cycles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng; McKnight, Steven L

    2007-12-01

    The circadian clock drives endogenous oscillations of cellular and physiological processes with a periodicity of approximately 24 h. Progression of the cell division cycle (CDC) has been found to be coupled to the circadian clock, and it has been postulated that gating of the CDC by the circadian cycle may have evolved to protect DNA from the mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light. When grown under nutrient-limiting conditions in a chemostat, prototrophic strains of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, adopt a robust metabolic cycle of ultradian dimensions that temporally compartmentalizes essential cellular events. The CDC is gated by this yeast metabolic cycle (YMC), with DNA replication strictly segregated away from the oxidative phase when cells are actively respiring. Mutants impaired in such gating allow DNA replication to take place during the respiratory phase of the YMC and have been found to suffer significantly elevated rates of spontaneous mutation. Analogous to the circadian cycle, the YMC also employs the conserved DNA checkpoint kinase Rad53/Chk2 to facilitate coupling with the CDC. These studies highlight an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that seems to confine cell division to particular temporal windows to prevent DNA damage. We hypothesize that DNA damage itself might constitute a "zeitgeber", or time giver, for both the circadian cycle and the metabolic cycle. We discuss these findings in the context of a unifying theme underlying the circadian and metabolic cycles, and explore the relevance of cell cycle gating to human diseases including cancer.

  5. MRX protects fork integrity at protein–DNA barriers, and its absence causes checkpoint activation dependent on chromatin context

    PubMed Central

    Bentsen, Iben B.; Nielsen, Ida; Lisby, Michael; Nielsen, Helena B.; Gupta, Souvik Sen; Mundbjerg, Kamilla; Andersen, Anni H.; Bjergbaek, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    To address how eukaryotic replication forks respond to fork stalling caused by strong non-covalent protein–DNA barriers, we engineered the controllable Fob-block system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This system allows us to strongly induce and control replication fork barriers (RFB) at their natural location within the rDNA. We discover a pivotal role for the MRX (Mre11, Rad50, Xrs2) complex for fork integrity at RFBs, which differs from its acknowledged function in double-strand break processing. Consequently, in the absence of the MRX complex, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) accumulates at the rDNA. Based on this, we propose a model where the MRX complex specifically protects stalled forks at protein–DNA barriers, and its absence leads to processing resulting in ssDNA. To our surprise, this ssDNA does not trigger a checkpoint response. Intriguingly, however, placing RFBs ectopically on chromosome VI provokes a strong Rad53 checkpoint activation in the absence of Mre11. We demonstrate that proper checkpoint signalling within the rDNA is restored on deletion of SIR2. This suggests the surprising and novel concept that chromatin is an important player in checkpoint signalling. PMID:23376930

  6. Spindle Checkpoint Factors Bub1 and Bub2 Promote DNA Double-Strand Break Repair by Nonhomologous End Joining.

    PubMed

    Jessulat, Matthew; Malty, Ramy H; Nguyen-Tran, Diem-Hang; Deineko, Viktor; Aoki, Hiroyuki; Vlasblom, James; Omidi, Katayoun; Jin, Ke; Minic, Zoran; Hooshyar, Mohsen; Burnside, Daniel; Samanfar, Bahram; Phanse, Sadhna; Freywald, Tanya; Prasad, Bhanu; Zhang, Zhaolei; Vizeacoumar, Franco; Krogan, Nevan J; Freywald, Andrew; Golshani, Ashkan; Babu, Mohan

    2015-07-01

    The nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway is essential for the preservation of genome integrity, as it efficiently repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Previous biochemical and genetic investigations have indicated that, despite the importance of this pathway, the entire complement of genes regulating NHEJ remains unknown. To address this, we employed a plasmid-based NHEJ DNA repair screen in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) using 369 putative nonessential DNA repair-related components as queries. Among the newly identified genes associated with NHEJ deficiency upon disruption are two spindle assembly checkpoint kinases, Bub1 and Bub2. Both observation of resulting phenotypes and chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that Bub1 and -2, either alone or in combination with cell cycle regulators, are recruited near the DSB, where phosphorylated Rad53 or H2A accumulates. Large-scale proteomic analysis of Bub kinases phosphorylated in response to DNA damage identified previously unknown kinase substrates on Tel1 S/T-Q sites. Moreover, Bub1 NHEJ function appears to be conserved in mammalian cells. 53BP1, which influences DSB repair by NHEJ, colocalizes with human BUB1 and is recruited to the break sites. Thus, while Bub is not a core component of NHEJ machinery, our data support its dual role in mitotic exit and promotion of NHEJ repair in yeast and mammals. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Spindle Checkpoint Factors Bub1 and Bub2 Promote DNA Double-Strand Break Repair by Nonhomologous End Joining

    PubMed Central

    Jessulat, Matthew; Malty, Ramy H.; Nguyen-Tran, Diem-Hang; Deineko, Viktor; Aoki, Hiroyuki; Vlasblom, James; Omidi, Katayoun; Jin, Ke; Minic, Zoran; Hooshyar, Mohsen; Burnside, Daniel; Samanfar, Bahram; Phanse, Sadhna; Freywald, Tanya; Prasad, Bhanu; Zhang, Zhaolei; Vizeacoumar, Franco; Krogan, Nevan J.; Freywald, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway is essential for the preservation of genome integrity, as it efficiently repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Previous biochemical and genetic investigations have indicated that, despite the importance of this pathway, the entire complement of genes regulating NHEJ remains unknown. To address this, we employed a plasmid-based NHEJ DNA repair screen in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) using 369 putative nonessential DNA repair-related components as queries. Among the newly identified genes associated with NHEJ deficiency upon disruption are two spindle assembly checkpoint kinases, Bub1 and Bub2. Both observation of resulting phenotypes and chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that Bub1 and -2, either alone or in combination with cell cycle regulators, are recruited near the DSB, where phosphorylated Rad53 or H2A accumulates. Large-scale proteomic analysis of Bub kinases phosphorylated in response to DNA damage identified previously unknown kinase substrates on Tel1 S/T-Q sites. Moreover, Bub1 NHEJ function appears to be conserved in mammalian cells. 53BP1, which influences DSB repair by NHEJ, colocalizes with human BUB1 and is recruited to the break sites. Thus, while Bub is not a core component of NHEJ machinery, our data support its dual role in mitotic exit and promotion of NHEJ repair in yeast and mammals. PMID:25963654

  8. Profiling DNA damage-induced phosphorylation in budding yeast reveals diverse signaling networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chunshui; Elia, Andrew E. H.; Naylor, Maria L.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Goel, Gautam; Xu, Qikai; Ng, Aylwin; Chou, Danny M.; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Gygi, Steven P.; Elledge, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is regulated by a protein kinase signaling cascade that orchestrates DNA repair and other processes. Identifying the substrate effectors of these kinases is critical for understanding the underlying physiology and mechanism of the response. We have used quantitative mass spectrometry to profile DDR-dependent phosphorylation in budding yeast and genetically explored the dependency of these phosphorylation events on the DDR kinases MEC1, RAD53, CHK1, and DUN1. Based on these screens, a database containing many novel DDR-regulated phosphorylation events has been established. Phosphorylation of many of these proteins has been validated by quantitative peptide phospho-immunoprecipitation and examined for functional relevance to the DDR through large-scale analysis of sensitivity to DNA damage in yeast deletion strains. We reveal a link between DDR signaling and the metabolic pathways of inositol phosphate and phosphatidyl inositol synthesis, which are required for resistance to DNA damage. We also uncover links between the DDR and TOR signaling as well as translation regulation. Taken together, these data shed new light on the organization of DDR signaling in budding yeast. PMID:27298372

  9. DNA damage signalling prevents deleterious telomere addition at DNA breaks

    PubMed Central

    Makovets, Svetlana; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.

    2009-01-01

    The response to DNA damage involves regulation of multiple essential processes to maximize the accuracy of DNA damage repair and cell survival 1. Telomerase has the potential to interfere with repair by inappropriately adding telomeres to DNA breaks. It was unknown whether cells modulate telomerase in response to DNA damage, to increase the accuracy of repair. Here we report that telomerase action is regulated as a part of the cellular response to a DNA double-strand break (DSB). Using yeast, we show that the major ATR/Mec1 DNA damage signalling pathway regulates telomerase action at DSBs. Upon DNA damage, MEC1-RAD53-DUN1-dependent phosphorylation of the telomerase inhibitor Pif1 occurs. Utilizing a separation of function PIF1 mutation, we show that this phosphorylation is required for the Pif1-mediated telomerase inhibition that takes place specifically at DNA breaks, but not telomeres. Hence DNA damage signalling down-modulates telomerase action at a DNA break via Pif1 phosphorylation, thus preventing aberrant healing of broken DNA ends by telomerase. These findings uncover a novel regulatory mechanism that coordinates competing DNA end-processing activities and thereby promotes DNA repair accuracy and genome integrity. PMID:19838171

  10. TORC1 kinase and the S-phase cyclin Clb5 collaborate to promote mitotic spindle assembly and DNA replication in S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Lieu T.; Wang’ondu, Ruth W.; Weng, Jessica B.; Wanjiku, Grace W.; Fong, Chi M.; Kile, Andrew C.; Koepp, Deanna M.; Hood-DeGrenier, Jennifer K.

    2011-01-01

    The Target of Rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) is a central regulator of eukaryotic cell growth that is inhibited by the drug rapamycin. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, translational defects associated with TORC1 inactivation inhibit cell cycle progression at an early stage in G1, but little is known about the possible roles for TORC1 later in the cell cycle. We investigated the rapamycin-hypersensitivity phenotype of cells lacking the S phase cyclin Clb5 (clb5Δ) as a basis for uncovering novel connections between TORC1 and the cell cycle regulatory machinery. Dosage suppression experiments suggested that the clb5Δ rapamycin hypersensitivity reflects a unique Clb5-associated cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) function that cannot be performed by mitotic cyclins and that also involves motor proteins, particularly the kinesin-like protein Kip3. Synchronized cell experiments revealed rapamycin-induced defects in pre-anaphase spindle assembly and S phase progression that were more severe in clb5Δ than in wild type cells but no apparent activation of Rad53-dependent checkpoint pathways. Some rapamycin-treated cells had aberrant spindle morphologies, but rapamycin did not cause gross defects in the microtubule cytoskeleton. We propose a model in which TORC1 and Clb5/CDK act coordinately to promote both spindle assembly via a pathway involving Kip3 and S phase progression. PMID:20697716

  11. Phosphoproteomics Reveals Distinct Modes of Mec1/ATR Signaling During DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Francisco Meirelles Bastos; Kim, Dongsung; Cussiol, Jose Renato; Das, Jishnu; Jeong, Min Cheol; Doerfler, Lillian; Schmidt, Kristina Hildegard; Yu, Haiyuan; Smolka, Marcus Bustamante

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The Mec1/Tel1 kinases (human ATR/ATM) play numerous roles in the DNA replication stress response. Despite the multi-functionality of these kinases, studies of their in vivo action have mostly relied on a few well-established substrates. Here we employed a combined genetic-phosphoproteomic approach to monitor Mec1/Tel1 signaling in a systematic, unbiased and quantitative manner. Unexpectedly, we find that Mec1 is highly active during normal DNA replication, at levels comparable or higher than Mec1’s activation state induced by replication stress. This “replication-correlated” mode of Mec1 action requires the 9-1-1 clamp and the Dna2 lagging-strand factor, and is distinguishable from Mec1’s action in activating the downstream kinase Rad53. We propose that Mec1/ATR performs key functions during ongoing DNA synthesis that are distinct from their canonical checkpoint role during replication stress. PMID:25752575

  12. A pathway of targeted autophagy is induced by DNA damage in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Eapen, Vinay V.; Waterman, David P.; Bernard, Amélie; Schiffmann, Nathan; Sayas, Enrich; Kamber, Roarke; Lemos, Brenda; Memisoglu, Gonen; Ang, Jessie; Mazella, Allison; Chuartzman, Silvia G.; Loewith, Robbie J.; Schuldiner, Maya; Denic, Vladimir; Klionsky, Daniel J.; Haber, James E.

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy plays a central role in the DNA damage response (DDR) by controlling the levels of various DNA repair and checkpoint proteins; however, how the DDR communicates with the autophagy pathway remains unknown. Using budding yeast, we demonstrate that global genotoxic damage or even a single unrepaired double-strand break (DSB) initiates a previously undescribed and selective pathway of autophagy that we term genotoxin-induced targeted autophagy (GTA). GTA requires the action primarily of Mec1/ATR and Rad53/CHEK2 checkpoint kinases, in part via transcriptional up-regulation of central autophagy proteins. GTA is distinct from starvation-induced autophagy. GTA requires Atg11, a central component of the selective autophagy machinery, but is different from previously described autophagy pathways. By screening a collection of ∼6,000 yeast mutants, we identified genes that control GTA but do not significantly affect rapamycin-induced autophagy. Overall, our findings establish a pathway of autophagy specific to the DNA damage response. PMID:28154131

  13. The fission yeast meiotic checkpoint kinase Mek1 regulates nuclear localization of Cdc25 by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Hidalgo, Livia; Moreno, Sergio; San-Segundo, Pedro A

    2008-12-01

    In eukaryotic cells, fidelity in transmission of genetic information during cell division is ensured by the action of cell cycle checkpoints. Checkpoints are surveillance mechanisms that arrest or delay cell cycle progression when critical cellular processes are defective or when the genome is damaged. During meiosis, the so-called meiotic recombination checkpoint blocks entry into meiosis I until recombination has been completed, thus avoiding aberrant chromosome segregation and the formation of aneuploid gametes. One of the key components of the meiotic recombination checkpoint is the meiosis-specific Mek1 kinase, which belongs to the family of Rad53/Cds1/Chk2 checkpoint kinases containing forkhead-associated domains. In fission yeast, several lines of evidence suggest that Mek1 targets the critical cell cycle regulator Cdc25 to delay meiotic cell cycle progression. Here, we investigate in more detail the molecular mechanism of action of the fission yeast Mek1 protein. We demonstrate that Mek1 acts independently of Cds1 to phosphorylate Cdc25, and this phosphorylation is required to trigger cell cycle arrest. Using ectopic overexpression of mek1(+) as a tool to induce in vivo activation of Mek1, we find that Mek1 promotes cytoplasmic accumulation of Cdc25 and results in prolonged phosphorylation of Cdc2 at tyrosine 15. We propose that at least one of the mechanisms contributing to the cell cycle delay when the meiotic recombination checkpoint is activated in fission yeast is the nuclear exclusion of the Cdc25 phosphatase by Mek1-dependent phosphorylation.

  14. Contrasting roles of checkpoint proteins as recombination modulators at Fob1-Ter complexes with or without fork arrest.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Bidyut K; Bairwa, Narendra K; Bastia, Deepak

    2009-04-01

    The replication terminator protein Fob1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae specifically interacts with two tandem Ter sites (replication fork barriers) located in the nontranscribed spacer of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) to cause polar fork arrest. The Fob1-Ter complex is multifunctional and controls other DNA transactions such as recombination by multiple mechanisms. Here, we report on the regulatory roles of the checkpoint proteins in the initiation and progression of recombination at Fob1-Ter complexes. The checkpoint adapter proteins Tof1 and Csm3 either positively or negatively controlled recombination depending on whether it was provoked by polar fork arrest or by transcription, respectively. The absolute requirements for these proteins for inducing recombination at an active replication terminus most likely masked their negative modulatory role at a later step of the process. Other checkpoint proteins of the checkpoint adapter/mediator class such as Mrc1 and Rad9, which channel signals from the sensor to the effector kinase, tended to suppress recombination at Fob1-Ter complexes regardless of how it was initiated. We have also discovered that the checkpoint sensor kinase Mec1 and the effector Rad53 were positive modulators of recombination initiated by transcription but had little effect on recombination at Ter. The work also showed that the two pathways were Rad52 dependent but Rad51 independent. Since Ter sites occur in the intergenic spacer of rDNA from yeast to humans, the mechanism is likely to be of widespread occurrence.

  15. Deregulated Ras signaling compromises DNA damage checkpoint recovery in S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Matthew D

    2010-01-01

    The DNA damage checkpoint maintains genome stability by arresting the cell cycle and promoting DNA repair under genotoxic stress. Cells must downregulate the checkpoint signaling pathways in order to resume cell division after completing DNA repair. While the mechanisms of checkpoint activation have been well-characterized, the process of checkpoint recovery, and the signals regulating it, has only recently been investigated. We have identified a new role for the Ras signaling pathway as a regulator of DNA damage checkpoint recovery. Here we report that in budding yeast, deletion of the IRA1 and IRA2 genes encoding negative regulators of Ras prevents cellular recovery from a DNA damage induced arrest. the checkpoint kinase Rad53 is dephosphorylated in an IRA-deficient strain, indicating that recovery failure is not caused by constitutive checkpoint pathway activation. the ira1Δ ira2Δ recovery defect requires the checkpoint kinase Chk1 and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) catalytic subunit Tpk2. Furthermore, PKA phosphorylation sites on the anaphase promoting complex specificity factor Cdc20 are required for the recovery defect, indicating a link between the recovery defect and PKA regulation of mitosis. This work identifies a new signaling pathway that can regulate DNA damage checkpoint recovery and implicates the Ras signaling pathway as an important regulator of mitotic events. PMID:20716966

  16. The Mek1 phosphorylation cascade plays a role in meiotic recombination of Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Ohtaka, Ayami; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Saito, Takamune T; Russell, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Mek1 is a Chk2/Rad53/Cds1-related protein kinase that is required for proper meiotic progression of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. However, the molecular mechanisms of Mek1 regulation and Mek1 phosphorylation targets are unclear. Here, we report that Mek1 is phosphorylated at serine-12 (S12), S14 and threonine-15 (T15) by Rad3 (ATR) and/or Tel1 (ATM) kinases that are activated by meiotic programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs). Mutations of these sites by alanine replacement caused abnormal meiotic progression and recombination rates. Phosphorylation of these sites triggers autophosphorylation of Mek1; indeed, alanine replacement mutations of Mek1-T318 and -T322 residues in the activation loop of Mek1 reduced Mek1 kinase activity and meiotic recombination rates. Substrates of Mek1 include Mus81-T275, Rdh54-T6 and Rdh54-T673. Mus81-T275 is known to regulate the Mus81 function in DNA cleavage, whereas Rdh54-T6A/T673A mutant cells showed abnormal meiotic recombination. Taken together, we conclude that the phosphorylation of Mek1 by Rad3 or Tel1, Mek1 autophosphorylation and Mus81 or Rdh54 phosphorylation by Mek1 regulate meiotic progression in S. pombe. PMID:21084840

  17. Quantitative and Dynamic Imaging of ATM Kinase Activity by Bioluminescence Imaging.

    PubMed

    Nyati, Shyam; Young, Grant; Ross, Brian Dale; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz

    2017-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine kinase critical to the cellular DNA damage response, including DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). ATM activation results in the initiation of a complex cascade of events facilitating DNA damage repair, cell cycle checkpoint control, and survival. Traditionally, protein kinases have been analyzed in vitro using biochemical methods (kinase assays using purified proteins or immunological assays) requiring a large number of cells and cell lysis. Genetically encoded biosensors based on optical molecular imaging such as fluorescence or bioluminescence have been developed to enable interrogation of kinase activities in live cells with a high signal to background. We have genetically engineered a hybrid protein whose bioluminescent activity is dependent on the ATM-mediated phosphorylation of a substrate. The engineered protein consists of the split luciferase-based protein complementation pair with a CHK2 (a substrate for ATM kinase activity) target sequence and a phospho-serine/threonine-binding domain, FHA2, derived from yeast Rad53. Phosphorylation of the serine residue within the target sequence by ATM would lead to its interaction with the phospho-serine-binding domain, thereby preventing complementation of the split luciferase pair and loss of reporter activity. Bioluminescence imaging of reporter-expressing cells in cultured plates or as mouse xenografts provides a quantitative surrogate for ATM kinase activity and therefore the cellular DNA damage response in a noninvasive, dynamic fashion.

  18. Inhibition of the mitotic exit network in response to damaged telomeres.

    PubMed

    Valerio-Santiago, Mauricio; de Los Santos-Velázquez, Ana Isabel; Monje-Casas, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    When chromosomal DNA is damaged, progression through the cell cycle is halted to provide the cells with time to repair the genetic material before it is distributed between the mother and daughter cells. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this cell cycle arrest occurs at the G2/M transition. However, it is also necessary to restrain exit from mitosis by maintaining Bfa1-Bub2, the inhibitor of the Mitotic Exit Network (MEN), in an active state. While the role of Bfa1 and Bub2 in the inhibition of mitotic exit when the spindle is not properly aligned and the spindle position checkpoint is activated has been extensively studied, the mechanism by which these proteins prevent MEN function after DNA damage is still unclear. Here, we propose that the inhibition of the MEN is specifically required when telomeres are damaged but it is not necessary to face all types of chromosomal DNA damage, which is in agreement with previous data in mammals suggesting the existence of a putative telomere-specific DNA damage response that inhibits mitotic exit. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the mechanism of MEN inhibition when telomeres are damaged relies on the Rad53-dependent inhibition of Bfa1 phosphorylation by the Polo-like kinase Cdc5, establishing a new key role of this kinase in regulating cell cycle progression.

  19. Chromosome-wide histone deacetylation by sirtuins prevents hyperactivation of DNA damage-induced signaling upon replicative stress.

    PubMed

    Simoneau, Antoine; Ricard, Étienne; Weber, Sandra; Hammond-Martel, Ian; Wong, Lai Hong; Sellam, Adnane; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Raymond, Martine; Wurtele, Hugo

    2016-04-07

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome encodes five sirtuins (Sir2 and Hst1-4), which constitute a conserved family of NAD-dependent histone deacetylases. Cells lacking any individual sirtuin display mild growth and gene silencing defects. However, hst3Δ hst4Δ double mutants are exquisitely sensitive to genotoxins, and hst3Δ hst4Δ sir2Δmutants are inviable. Our published data also indicate that pharmacological inhibition of sirtuins prevents growth of several fungal pathogens, although the biological basis is unclear. Here, we present genome-wide fitness assays conducted with nicotinamide (NAM), a pan-sirtuin inhibitor. Our data indicate that NAM treatment causes yeast to solicit specific DNA damage response pathways for survival, and that NAM-induced growth defects are mainly attributable to inhibition of Hst3 and Hst4 and consequent elevation of histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation (H3K56ac). Our results further reveal that in the presence of constitutive H3K56ac, the Slx4 scaffolding protein and PP4 phosphatase complex play essential roles in preventing hyperactivation of the DNA damage-response kinase Rad53 in response to spontaneous DNA damage caused by reactive oxygen species. Overall, our data support the concept that chromosome-wide histone deacetylation by sirtuins is critical to mitigate growth defects caused by endogenous genotoxins.

  20. A role for the spindle assembly checkpoint in the DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Palou, Roger; Palou, Gloria; Quintana, David G

    2017-05-01

    Spontaneous DNA damage poses a continuous threat to genomic integrity. If unchecked, genotoxic insults result in genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer cells. In eukaryotic cells a DNA Damage Response (DDR) detects and responds to genotoxic stress, acting as an anti-cancer barrier in humans. Among other actions, the DDR blocks the segregation of incompletely replicated or damaged chromosomes, thus preventing aneuploidy. In a work aimed at better understanding such S-M control, we recently showed that cells block anaphase through different control pathways. The S phase checkpoint kinase Mec1/ATR inhibits mitotic Cyclin Dependent Kinase activity through effector kinases Swe1/Wee1 and Rad53/Chk2. Cells also stabilize the levels of Pds1/securin to block sister chromatid segregation in response to DNA damage. We show here that Pds1/securin abundance is still secured when the S phase checkpoint response is fully abrogated in mec1/ATR tel1/ATM double null mutants. When such cells are exposed to genotoxic stress, Pds1/securin is stabilized in a spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) dependent manner. Disruption of the SAC and the S phase checkpoint together, allows chromosome segregation in the presence of DNA damage or replication stress. Our results place the SAC as a part of the DDR, which appears to count on different, independent control layers to preserve genomic integrity when chromosome replication is challenged.

  1. Elevated Levels of the Polo Kinase Cdc5 Override the Mec1/ATR Checkpoint in Budding Yeast by Acting at Different Steps of the Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Donnianni, Roberto Antonio; Ferrari, Matteo; Lazzaro, Federico; Clerici, Michela; Tamilselvan Nachimuthu, Benjamin; Plevani, Paolo; Muzi-Falconi, Marco; Pellicioli, Achille

    2010-01-01

    Checkpoints are surveillance mechanisms that constitute a barrier to oncogenesis by preserving genome integrity. Loss of checkpoint function is an early event in tumorigenesis. Polo kinases (Plks) are fundamental regulators of cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and are frequently overexpressed in tumors. Through their polo box domain, Plks target multiple substrates previously phosphorylated by CDKs and MAPKs. In response to DNA damage, Plks are temporally inhibited in order to maintain the checkpoint-dependent cell cycle block while their activity is required to silence the checkpoint response and resume cell cycle progression. Here, we report that, in budding yeast, overproduction of the Cdc5 polo kinase overrides the checkpoint signaling induced by double strand DNA breaks (DSBs), preventing the phosphorylation of several Mec1/ATR targets, including Ddc2/ATRIP, the checkpoint mediator Rad9, and the transducer kinase Rad53/CHK2. We also show that high levels of Cdc5 slow down DSB processing in a Rad9-dependent manner, but do not prevent the binding of checkpoint factors to a single DSB. Finally, we provide evidence that Sae2, the functional ortholog of human CtIP, which regulates DSB processing and inhibits checkpoint signaling, is regulated by Cdc5. We propose that Cdc5 interferes with the checkpoint response to DSBs acting at multiple levels in the signal transduction pathway and at an early step required to resect DSB ends. PMID:20098491

  2. Protein phosphatases pph3, ptc2, and ptc3 play redundant roles in DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Ae; Hicks, Wade M; Li, Jin; Tay, Sue Yen; Haber, James E

    2011-02-01

    In response to a DNA double-strand break (DSB), cells undergo a transient cell cycle arrest prior to mitosis until the break is repaired. In budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), the DNA damage checkpoint is regulated by a signaling cascade of protein kinases, including Mec1 and Rad53. When DSB repair is complete, cells resume cell cycle progression (a process called "recovery") by turning off the checkpoint. Recovery involves two members of the protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) family, Ptc2 and Ptc3, as well as the protein phosphatase 4 (PP4) enzyme, Pph3. Here, we demonstrate a new function of these three phosphatases in DSB repair. Cells lacking all three phosphatases Pph3, Ptc2, and Ptc3 exhibit synergistic sensitivities to the DNA-damaging agents camptothecin and methyl methanesulfonate, as well as hydroxyurea but not to UV light. Moreover, the simultaneous absence of Pph3, Ptc2, and Ptc3 results in defects in completing DSB repair, whereas neither single nor double deletion of the phosphatases causes a repair defect. Specifically, cells lacking all three phosphatases are defective in the repair-mediated DNA synthesis. Interestingly, the repair defect caused by the triple deletion of Pph3, Ptc2, and Ptc3 is most prominent when a DSB is slowly repaired and the DNA damage checkpoint is fully activated.

  3. Profiling DNA damage-induced phosphorylation in budding yeast reveals diverse signaling networks.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunshui; Elia, Andrew E H; Naylor, Maria L; Dephoure, Noah; Ballif, Bryan A; Goel, Gautam; Xu, Qikai; Ng, Aylwin; Chou, Danny M; Xavier, Ramnik J; Gygi, Steven P; Elledge, Stephen J

    2016-06-28

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is regulated by a protein kinase signaling cascade that orchestrates DNA repair and other processes. Identifying the substrate effectors of these kinases is critical for understanding the underlying physiology and mechanism of the response. We have used quantitative mass spectrometry to profile DDR-dependent phosphorylation in budding yeast and genetically explored the dependency of these phosphorylation events on the DDR kinases MEC1, RAD53, CHK1, and DUN1. Based on these screens, a database containing many novel DDR-regulated phosphorylation events has been established. Phosphorylation of many of these proteins has been validated by quantitative peptide phospho-immunoprecipitation and examined for functional relevance to the DDR through large-scale analysis of sensitivity to DNA damage in yeast deletion strains. We reveal a link between DDR signaling and the metabolic pathways of inositol phosphate and phosphatidyl inositol synthesis, which are required for resistance to DNA damage. We also uncover links between the DDR and TOR signaling as well as translation regulation. Taken together, these data shed new light on the organization of DDR signaling in budding yeast.

  4. Quantitative and Dynamic Imaging of ATM Kinase Activity.

    PubMed

    Nyati, Shyam; Young, Grant; Ross, Brian Dale; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz

    2017-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine kinase critical to the cellular DNA-damage response, including DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). ATM activation results in the initiation of a complex cascade of events facilitating DNA damage repair, cell cycle checkpoint control, and survival. Traditionally, protein kinases have been analyzed in vitro using biochemical methods (kinase assays using purified proteins or immunological assays) requiring a large number of cells and cell lysis. Genetically encoded biosensors based on optical molecular imaging such as fluorescence or bioluminescence have been developed to enable interrogation of kinase activities in live cells with a high signal to background. We have genetically engineered a hybrid protein whose bioluminescent activity is dependent on the ATM-mediated phosphorylation of a substrate. The engineered protein consists of the split luciferase-based protein complementation pair with a CHK2 (a substrate for ATM kinase activity) target sequence and a phospho-serine/threonine-binding domain, FHA2, derived from yeast Rad53. Phosphorylation of the serine residue within the target sequence by ATM would lead to its interaction with the phospho-serine-binding domain, thereby preventing complementation of the split luciferase pair and loss of reporter activity. Bioluminescence imaging of reporter expressing cells in cultured plates or as mouse xenografts provides a quantitative surrogate for ATM kinase activity and therefore the cellular DNA damage response in a noninvasive, dynamic fashion.

  5. Strand-Specific Analysis Shows Protein Binding at Replication Forks and PCNA Unloading from Lagging Strands when Forks Stall

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chuanhe; Gan, Haiyun; Han, Junhong; Zhou, Zhi-Xiong; Jia, Shaodong; Chabes, Andrei; Farrugia, Gianrico; Ordog, Tamas; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In eukaryotic cells, DNA replication proceeds with continuous synthesis of leading-strand DNA and discontinuous synthesis of lagging-strand DNA. Here we describe a method, eSPAN (enrichment and sequencing of protein-associated nascent DNA), which reveals the genome-wide association of proteins with leading and lagging strands of DNA replication forks. Using this approach in budding yeast, we confirm the strand specificities of DNA polymerases delta and epsilon and show that the PCNA clamp is enriched at lagging strands compared with leading-strand replication. Surprisingly, at stalled forks, PCNA is unloaded specifically from lagging strands. PCNA unloading depends on the Elg1-containing alternative RFC complex, ubiquitination of PCNA, and the checkpoint kinases Mec1 and Rad53. Cells deficient in PCNA unloading exhibit increased chromosome breaks. Our studies provide a tool for studying replication-related processes and reveal a mechanism whereby checkpoint kinases regulate strand-specific unloading of PCNA from stalled replication forks to maintain genome stability. PMID:25449133

  6. Rfc5, a small subunit of replication factor C complex, couples DNA replication and mitosis in budding yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, K; Shimomura, T; Hashimoto, K; Araki, H; Sugino, A; Matsumoto, K

    1996-01-01

    The inhibition of DNA synthesis prevents mitotic entry through the action of the S phase checkpoint. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an essential protein kinase, Spk1/Mec2/Rad53/Sad1, controls the coupling of S phase to mitosis. In an attempt to identify genes that genetically interact with Spk1, we have isolated a temperature-sensitive mutation, rfc5-1, that can be suppressed by overexpression of SPK1. The RFC5 gene encodes a small subunit of replication factor C complex. At the restrictive temperature, rfc5-1 mutant cells entered mitosis with unevenly separated or fragmented chromosomes, resulting in loss of viability. Thus, the rfc5 mutation defective for DNA replication is also impaired in the S phase checkpoint. Overexpression of POL30, which encodes the proliferating cell nuclear antigen, suppressed the replication defect of the rfc5 mutant but not its checkpoint defect. Taken together, these results suggested that replication factor C has a direct role in sensing the state of DNA replication and transmitting the signal to the checkpoint machinery. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8692942

  7. Cellular Responses in Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Treated with Three Endodontic Materials

    PubMed Central

    Ibañez-Cabellos, José Santiago; de Cutanda, Sergio Bañuls-Sánchez; Berenguer-Pascual, Ester; Beltrán-García, Jesús; García-López, Eva; Pallardó, Federico V.; García-Giménez, José Luis; Pallarés-Sabater, Antonio; Zarzosa-López, Ignacio; Monterde, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Human dental pulp stem cells (HDPSCs) are of special relevance in future regenerative dental therapies. Characterizing cytotoxicity and genotoxicity produced by endodontic materials is required to evaluate the potential for regeneration of injured tissues in future strategies combining regenerative and root canal therapies. This study explores the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity mediated by oxidative stress of three endodontic materials that are widely used on HDPSCs: a mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA-Angelus white), an epoxy resin sealant (AH-Plus cement), and an MTA-based cement sealer (MTA-Fillapex). Cell viability and cell death rate were assessed by flow cytometry. Oxidative stress was measured by OxyBlot. Levels of antioxidant enzymes were evaluated by Western blot. Genotoxicity was studied by quantifying the expression levels of DNA damage sensors such as ATM and RAD53 genes and DNA damage repair sensors such as RAD51 and PARP-1. Results indicate that AH-Plus increased apoptosis, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity markers in HDPSCs. MTA-Fillapex was the most cytotoxic oxidative stress inductor and genotoxic material for HDPSCs at longer times in preincubated cell culture medium, and MTA-Angelus was less cytotoxic and genotoxic than AH-Plus and MTA-Fillapex at all times assayed. PMID:28751918

  8. Rad51-dependent DNA structures accumulate at damaged replication forks in sgs1 mutants defective in the yeast ortholog of BLM RecQ helicase.

    PubMed

    Liberi, Giordano; Maffioletti, Giulio; Lucca, Chiara; Chiolo, Irene; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Cotta-Ramusino, Cecilia; Lopes, Massimo; Pellicioli, Achille; Haber, James E; Foiani, Marco

    2005-02-01

    S-phase cells overcome chromosome lesions through replication-coupled recombination processes that seem to be assisted by recombination-dependent DNA structures and/or replication-related sister chromatid junctions. RecQ helicases, including yeast Sgs1 and human BLM, have been implicated in both replication and recombination and protect genome integrity by preventing unscheduled mitotic recombination events. We have studied the RecQ helicase-mediated mechanisms controlling genome stability by analyzing replication forks encountering a damaged template in sgs1 cells. We show that, in sgs1 mutants, recombination-dependent cruciform structures accumulate at damaged forks. Their accumulation requires Rad51 protein, is counteracted by Srs2 DNA helicase, and does not prevent fork movement. Sgs1, but not Srs2, promotes resolution of these recombination intermediates. A functional Rad53 checkpoint kinase that is known to protect the integrity of the sister chromatid junctions is required for the accumulation of recombination intermediates in sgs1 mutants. Finally, top3 and top3 sgs1 mutants accumulate the same structures as sgs1 cells. We suggest that, in sgs1 cells, the unscheduled accumulation of Rad51-dependent cruciform structures at damaged forks result from defective maturation of recombination-dependent intermediates that originate from the replication-related sister chromatid junctions. Our findings might contribute to explaining some of the recombination defects of BLM cells.

  9. A pathway of targeted autophagy is induced by DNA damage in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Eapen, Vinay V; Waterman, David P; Bernard, Amélie; Schiffmann, Nathan; Sayas, Enrich; Kamber, Roarke; Lemos, Brenda; Memisoglu, Gonen; Ang, Jessie; Mazella, Allison; Chuartzman, Silvia G; Loewith, Robbie J; Schuldiner, Maya; Denic, Vladimir; Klionsky, Daniel J; Haber, James E

    2017-02-14

    Autophagy plays a central role in the DNA damage response (DDR) by controlling the levels of various DNA repair and checkpoint proteins; however, how the DDR communicates with the autophagy pathway remains unknown. Using budding yeast, we demonstrate that global genotoxic damage or even a single unrepaired double-strand break (DSB) initiates a previously undescribed and selective pathway of autophagy that we term genotoxin-induced targeted autophagy (GTA). GTA requires the action primarily of Mec1/ATR and Rad53/CHEK2 checkpoint kinases, in part via transcriptional up-regulation of central autophagy proteins. GTA is distinct from starvation-induced autophagy. GTA requires Atg11, a central component of the selective autophagy machinery, but is different from previously described autophagy pathways. By screening a collection of ∼6,000 yeast mutants, we identified genes that control GTA but do not significantly affect rapamycin-induced autophagy. Overall, our findings establish a pathway of autophagy specific to the DNA damage response.

  10. Allele-specific interactions between the yeast RFC1 and RFC5 genes suggest a basis for RFC subunit-subunit interactions.

    PubMed

    Beckwith, W; McAlear, M A

    2000-11-01

    Replication factor C (RFC) is an essential, multi-subunit ATPase that functions in DNA replication, DNA repair, and DNA metabolism-related checkpoints. In order to investigate how the individual RFC subunits contribute to these functions in vivo, we undertook a genetic analysis of RFC genes from budding yeast. We isolated and characterized mutations in the RFC5 gene that could suppress the cold-sensitive phenotype of rfc1-1 mutants. Analysis of the RFC5 suppressors revealed that they could not suppress the elongated telomere phenotype, the sensitivity to DNA damaging agents, or the mutator phenotype of rfc1-1 mutants. Unlike the checkpoint-defective rfc5-1 mutation, the RFC5 suppressor mutations did not interfere with the methylmethane sulfonate- or hydroxyurea-induced phosphorylation of Rad53p. The Rfc5p suppressor substitutions mapped to amino acid positions in the conserved RFC box motifs IV-VII. Comparisons of the structures of related RFC box-containing proteins suggest that these RFC motifs may function to coordinate interactions between neighboring subunits of multi-subunit ATPases.

  11. A conserved Polϵ binding module in Ctf18-RFC is required for S-phase checkpoint activation downstream of Mec1.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Luis J; De Piccoli, Giacomo; Marchesi, Vanessa; Jones, Richard C; Edmondson, Ricky D; Labib, Karim

    2015-10-15

    Defects during chromosome replication in eukaryotes activate a signaling pathway called the S-phase checkpoint, which produces a multifaceted response that preserves genome integrity at stalled DNA replication forks. Work with budding yeast showed that the 'alternative clamp loader' known as Ctf18-RFC acts by an unknown mechanism to activate the checkpoint kinase Rad53, which then mediates much of the checkpoint response. Here we show that budding yeast Ctf18-RFC associates with DNA polymerase epsilon, via an evolutionarily conserved 'Pol ϵ binding module' in Ctf18-RFC that is produced by interaction of the carboxyl terminus of Ctf18 with the Ctf8 and Dcc1 subunits. Mutations at the end of Ctf18 disrupt the integrity of the Pol ϵ binding module and block the S-phase checkpoint pathway, downstream of the Mec1 kinase that is the budding yeast orthologue of mammalian ATR. Similar defects in checkpoint activation are produced by mutations that displace Pol ϵ from the replisome. These findings indicate that the association of Ctf18-RFC with Pol ϵ at defective replication forks is a key step in activation of the S-phase checkpoint.

  12. Nonsense-mediated decay regulates key components of homologous recombination

    PubMed Central

    Janke, Ryan; Kong, Jeremy; Braberg, Hannes; Cantin, Greg; Yates, John R.; Krogan, Nevan J.; Heyer, Wolf-Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    Cells frequently experience DNA damage that requires repair by homologous recombination (HR). Proteins involved in HR are carefully coordinated to ensure proper and efficient repair without interfering with normal cellular processes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rad55 functions in the early steps of HR and is regulated in response to DNA damage through phosphorylation by the Mec1 and Rad53 kinases of the DNA damage response. To further identify regulatory processes that target HR, we performed a high-throughput genetic interaction screen with RAD55 phosphorylation site mutants. Genes involved in the mRNA quality control process, nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), were found to genetically interact with rad55 phospho-site mutants. Further characterization revealed that RAD55 transcript and protein levels are regulated by NMD. Regulation of HR by NMD extends to multiple targets beyond RAD55, including RAD51, RAD54 and RAD57. Finally, we demonstrate that loss of NMD results in an increase in recombination rates and resistance to the DNA damaging agent methyl methanesulfonate, suggesting this pathway negatively regulates HR under normal growth conditions. PMID:27001511

  13. Unraveling Fungal Radiation Resistance Regulatory Networks through the Genome-Wide Transcriptome and Genetic Analyses of Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kwang-Woo; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Min-Kyu; Seo, Ho Seong

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The basidiomycetous fungus Cryptococcus neoformans has been known to be highly radiation resistant and has been found in fatal radioactive environments such as the damaged nuclear reactor at Chernobyl. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the radiation resistance phenotype of C. neoformans, we identified genes affected by gamma radiation through genome-wide transcriptome analysis and characterized their functions. We found that genes involved in DNA damage repair systems were upregulated in response to gamma radiation. Particularly, deletion of recombinase RAD51 and two DNA-dependent ATPase genes, RAD54 and RDH54, increased cellular susceptibility to both gamma radiation and DNA-damaging agents. A variety of oxidative stress response genes were also upregulated. Among them, sulfiredoxin contributed to gamma radiation resistance in a peroxiredoxin/thioredoxin-independent manner. Furthermore, we found that genes involved in molecular chaperone expression, ubiquitination systems, and autophagy were induced, whereas genes involved in the biosynthesis of proteins and fatty acids/sterols were downregulated. Most importantly, we discovered a number of novel C. neoformans genes, the expression of which was modulated by gamma radiation exposure, and their deletion rendered cells susceptible to gamma radiation exposure, as well as DNA damage insults. Among these genes, we found that a unique transcription factor containing the basic leucine zipper domain, named Bdr1, served as a regulator of the gamma radiation resistance of C. neoformans by controlling expression of DNA repair genes, and its expression was regulated by the evolutionarily conserved DNA damage response protein kinase Rad53. Taken together, the current transcriptome and functional analyses contribute to the understanding of the unique molecular mechanism of the radiation-resistant fungus C. neoformans. PMID:27899501

  14. Interplay between histone H3 lysine 56 deacetylation and chromatin modifiers in response to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Simoneau, Antoine; Delgoshaie, Neda; Celic, Ivana; Dai, Junbiao; Abshiru, Nebiyu; Costantino, Santiago; Thibault, Pierre; Boeke, Jef D; Verreault, Alain; Wurtele, Hugo

    2015-05-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation (H3K56Ac) is present in newly synthesized histones deposited throughout the genome during DNA replication. The sirtuins Hst3 and Hst4 deacetylate H3K56 after S phase, and virtually all histone H3 molecules are K56 acetylated throughout the cell cycle in hst3∆ hst4∆ mutants. Failure to deacetylate H3K56 causes thermosensitivity, spontaneous DNA damage, and sensitivity to replicative stress via molecular mechanisms that remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that unlike wild-type cells, hst3∆ hst4∆ cells are unable to complete genome duplication and accumulate persistent foci containing the homologous recombination protein Rad52 after exposure to genotoxic drugs during S phase. In response to replicative stress, cells lacking Hst3 and Hst4 also displayed intense foci containing the Rfa1 subunit of the single-stranded DNA binding protein complex RPA, as well as persistent activation of DNA damage-induced kinases. To investigate the basis of these phenotypes, we identified histone point mutations that modulate the temperature and genotoxic drug sensitivity of hst3∆ hst4∆ cells. We found that reducing the levels of histone H4 lysine 16 acetylation or H3 lysine 79 methylation partially suppresses these sensitivities and reduces spontaneous and genotoxin-induced activation of the DNA damage-response kinase Rad53 in hst3∆ hst4∆ cells. Our data further suggest that elevated DNA damage-induced signaling significantly contributes to the phenotypes of hst3∆ hst4∆ cells. Overall, these results outline a novel interplay between H3K56Ac, H3K79 methylation, and H4K16 acetylation in the cellular response to DNA damage. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  15. The C Terminus of the Histone Chaperone Asf1 Cross-Links to Histone H3 in Yeast and Promotes Interaction with Histones H3 and H4

    PubMed Central

    Dennehey, Briana K.; Noone, Seth; Liu, Wallace H.; Smith, Luke

    2013-01-01

    The central histone H3/H4 chaperone Asf1 comprises a highly conserved globular core and a divergent C-terminal tail. While the function and structure of the Asf1 core are well known, the function of the tail is less well understood. Here, we have explored the role of the yeast (yAsf1) and human (hAsf1a and hAsf1b) Asf1 tails in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show, using a photoreactive, unnatural amino acid, that Asf1 tail residue 210 cross-links to histone H3 in vivo and, further, that loss of C-terminal tail residues 211 to 279 weakens yAsf1-histone binding affinity in vitro nearly 200-fold. Via several yAsf1 C-terminal truncations and yeast-human chimeric proteins, we found that truncations at residue 210 increase transcriptional silencing and that the hAsf1a tail partially substitutes for full-length yAsf1 with respect to silencing but that full-length hAsf1b is a better overall substitute for full-length yAsf1. In addition, we show that the C-terminal tail of Asf1 is phosphorylated at T270 in yeast. Loss of this phosphorylation site does not prevent coimmunoprecipitation of yAsf1 and Rad53 from yeast extracts, whereas amino acid residue substitutions at the Asf1-histone H3/H4 interface do. Finally, we show that residue substitutions in yAsf1 near the CAF-1/HIRA interface also influence yAsf1's function in silencing. PMID:23184661

  16. The Drosophila chk2 gene loki is essential for embryonic DNA double-strand-break checkpoints induced in S phase or G2.

    PubMed

    Masrouha, Nisrine; Yang, Long; Hijal, Sirine; Larochelle, Stéphane; Suter, Beat

    2003-03-01

    Cell cycle checkpoints are signal transduction pathways that control the order and timing of cell cycle transitions, ensuring that critical events are completed before the occurrence of the next cell cycle transition. The Chk2 family of kinases is known to play a central role in mediating the cellular responses to DNA damage or DNA replication blocks in various organisms. Here we show through a phylogenetic study that the Drosophila melanogaster serine/threonine kinase Loki is the homolog of the yeast Mek1p, Rad53p, Dun1p, and Cds1 proteins as well as the human Chk2. Functional analyses allowed us to conclude that, in flies, chk2 is involved in monitoring double-strand breaks (DSBs) caused by irradiation during S and G2 phases. In this process it plays an essential role in inducing a cell cycle arrest in embryonic cells. Our results also show that, in contrast to C. elegans chk2, Drosophila chk2 is not essential for normal meiosis and recombination, and it also appears to be dispensable for the MMS-induced DNA damage checkpoint and the HU-induced DNA replication checkpoint during larval development. In addition, Drosophila chk2 does not act at the same cell cycle phases as its yeast homologs, but seems rather to be involved in a pathway similar to the mammalian one, which involves signaling through the ATM/Chk2 pathway in response to genotoxic insults. As mutations in human chk2 were linked to several cancers, these similarities point to the usefulness of the Drosophila model system.

  17. The Drosophila chk2 gene loki is essential for embryonic DNA double-strand-break checkpoints induced in S phase or G2.

    PubMed Central

    Masrouha, Nisrine; Yang, Long; Hijal, Sirine; Larochelle, Stéphane; Suter, Beat

    2003-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoints are signal transduction pathways that control the order and timing of cell cycle transitions, ensuring that critical events are completed before the occurrence of the next cell cycle transition. The Chk2 family of kinases is known to play a central role in mediating the cellular responses to DNA damage or DNA replication blocks in various organisms. Here we show through a phylogenetic study that the Drosophila melanogaster serine/threonine kinase Loki is the homolog of the yeast Mek1p, Rad53p, Dun1p, and Cds1 proteins as well as the human Chk2. Functional analyses allowed us to conclude that, in flies, chk2 is involved in monitoring double-strand breaks (DSBs) caused by irradiation during S and G2 phases. In this process it plays an essential role in inducing a cell cycle arrest in embryonic cells. Our results also show that, in contrast to C. elegans chk2, Drosophila chk2 is not essential for normal meiosis and recombination, and it also appears to be dispensable for the MMS-induced DNA damage checkpoint and the HU-induced DNA replication checkpoint during larval development. In addition, Drosophila chk2 does not act at the same cell cycle phases as its yeast homologs, but seems rather to be involved in a pathway similar to the mammalian one, which involves signaling through the ATM/Chk2 pathway in response to genotoxic insults. As mutations in human chk2 were linked to several cancers, these similarities point to the usefulness of the Drosophila model system. PMID:12663536

  18. Directed evolution of the forkhead-associated domain to generate anti-phosphospecific reagents by phage-display

    PubMed Central

    Pershad, Kritika; Wypisniak, Karolina; Kay, Brian K.

    2012-01-01

    While affinity reagents are valuable tools for monitoring protein phosphorylation and studying signaling events in cells, generating them through immunization of animals with phosphopeptides is expensive, laborious and time consuming. An attractive alternative is to use protein evolution techniques and isolate new anti-phosphopeptide binding specificities from a library of variants of a phosphopeptide-binding domain. To explore this strategy, we attempted to display on the surface of bacteriophage M13, the N-terminal Forkhead-associated domain (FHA1) of yeast Rad53p, which is a naturally occurring phosphothreonine (pT)-binding domain, and found it to be non-functional due to misfolding in the bacterial periplasm. To overcome this limitation, a library of FHA1 variants was constructed by mutagenic PCR and functional variants were isolated after three rounds of affinity selection with its pT peptide ligand. A hydrophobic residue at position 34 in the β1-strand was discovered to be essential for phage-display of a functional FHA1 domain. Additionally, by heating the phage library to 50°C prior to affinity selection with its cognate pT peptide, we identified a variant (G2) that was ~8°C more thermal stable than the wild-type domain. Using G2 as a scaffold, we constructed phage-displayed libraries of FHA1 variants and affinity selected for variants that bound selectively to five pT peptides. These reagents are renewable and have high protein yields (~20–25 mg/L), when expressed in Escherichia coli. Thus, we have changed the specificity of the FHA1 domain and demonstrated that engineering phosphopeptide-binding domains is an attractive avenue for generating new anti-phosphopeptide binding specificities in vitro by phage-display. PMID:22985966

  19. Interplay Between Histone H3 Lysine 56 Deacetylation and Chromatin Modifiers in Response to DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Simoneau, Antoine; Delgoshaie, Neda; Celic, Ivana; Dai, Junbiao; Abshiru, Nebiyu; Costantino, Santiago; Thibault, Pierre; Boeke, Jef D.; Verreault, Alain; Wurtele, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation (H3K56Ac) is present in newly synthesized histones deposited throughout the genome during DNA replication. The sirtuins Hst3 and Hst4 deacetylate H3K56 after S phase, and virtually all histone H3 molecules are K56 acetylated throughout the cell cycle in hst3∆ hst4∆ mutants. Failure to deacetylate H3K56 causes thermosensitivity, spontaneous DNA damage, and sensitivity to replicative stress via molecular mechanisms that remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that unlike wild-type cells, hst3∆ hst4∆ cells are unable to complete genome duplication and accumulate persistent foci containing the homologous recombination protein Rad52 after exposure to genotoxic drugs during S phase. In response to replicative stress, cells lacking Hst3 and Hst4 also displayed intense foci containing the Rfa1 subunit of the single-stranded DNA binding protein complex RPA, as well as persistent activation of DNA damage–induced kinases. To investigate the basis of these phenotypes, we identified histone point mutations that modulate the temperature and genotoxic drug sensitivity of hst3∆ hst4∆ cells. We found that reducing the levels of histone H4 lysine 16 acetylation or H3 lysine 79 methylation partially suppresses these sensitivities and reduces spontaneous and genotoxin-induced activation of the DNA damage-response kinase Rad53 in hst3∆ hst4∆ cells. Our data further suggest that elevated DNA damage–induced signaling significantly contributes to the phenotypes of hst3∆ hst4∆ cells. Overall, these results outline a novel interplay between H3K56Ac, H3K79 methylation, and H4K16 acetylation in the cellular response to DNA damage. PMID:25786853

  20. Exo1 phosphorylation status controls the hydroxyurea sensitivity of cells lacking the Pol32 subunit of DNA polymerases delta and zeta.

    PubMed

    Doerfler, Lillian; Schmidt, Kristina H

    2014-12-01

    Exo1 belongs to the Rad2 family of structure-specific nucleases and possesses 5'-3' exonuclease activity on double-stranded DNA substrates. Exo1 interacts physically with the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins Msh2 and Mlh1 and is involved in the excision of the mispaired nucleotide. Independent of its role in MMR, Exo1 contributes to long-range resection of DNA double-strand break (DSB) ends to facilitate their repair by homologous recombination (HR), and was recently identified as a component of error-free DNA damage tolerance pathways. Here, we show that Exo1 activity increases the hydroxyurea sensitivity of cells lacking Pol32, a subunit of DNA polymerases δ and ζ. Both, phospho-mimicking and dephospho-mimicking exo1 mutants act as hypermorphs, as evidenced by an increase in HU sensitivity of pol32Δ cells, suggesting that they are trapped in an active form and that phosphorylation of Exo1 at residues S372, S567, S587, S692 is necessary, but insufficient, for the accurate regulation of Exo1 activity at stalled replication forks. In contrast, neither phosphorylation status is important for Exo1's role in MMR or in the suppression of genome instability in cells lacking Sgs1 helicase. This ability of an EXO1 deletion to suppress the HU hypersensitivity of pol32Δ cells is in contrast to the negative genetic interaction between deletions of EXO1 and POL32 in MMS-treated cells as well as the role of EXO1 in DNA-damage treated rad53 and mec1 mutants.

  1. Inner nuclear membrane protein Lem2 facilitates Rad3-mediated checkpoint signaling under replication stress induced by nucleotide depletion in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong-Jie

    2016-04-01

    DNA replication checkpoint is a highly conserved cellular signaling pathway critical for maintaining genome integrity in eukaryotes. It is activated when DNA replication is perturbed. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, perturbed replication forks activate the sensor kinase Rad3 (ATR/Mec1), which works cooperatively with mediator Mrc1 and the 9-1-1 checkpoint clamp to phosphorylate the effector kinase Cds1 (CHK2/Rad53). Phosphorylation of Cds1 promotes autoactivation of the kinase. Activated Cds1 diffuses away from the forks and stimulates most of the checkpoint responses under replication stress. Although this signaling pathway has been well understood in fission yeast, how the signaling is initiated and thus regulated remains incompletely understood. Previous studies have shown that deletion of lem2(+) sensitizes cells to the inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase, hydroxyurea. However, the underlying mechanism is still not well understood. This study shows that in the presence of hydroxyurea, Lem2 facilitates Rad3-mediated checkpoint signaling for Cds1 activation. Without Lem2, all known Rad3-dependent phosphorylations critical for replication checkpoint signaling are seriously compromised, which likely causes the aberrant mitosis and drug sensitivity observed in this mutant. Interestingly, the mutant is not very sensitive to DNA damage and the DNA damage checkpoint remains largely intact, suggesting that the main function of Lem2 is to facilitate checkpoint signaling in response to replication stress. Since Lem2 is an inner nuclear membrane protein, these results also suggest that the replication checkpoint may be spatially regulated inside the nucleus, a previously unknown mechanism.

  2. Replication and recombination factors contributing to recombination-dependent bypass of DNA lesions by template switch.

    PubMed

    Vanoli, Fabio; Fumasoni, Marco; Szakal, Barnabas; Maloisel, Laurent; Branzei, Dana

    2010-11-11

    Damage tolerance mechanisms mediating damage-bypass and gap-filling are crucial for genome integrity. A major damage tolerance pathway involves recombination and is referred to as template switch. Template switch intermediates were visualized by 2D gel electrophoresis in the proximity of replication forks as X-shaped structures involving sister chromatid junctions. The homologous recombination factor Rad51 is required for the formation/stabilization of these intermediates, but its mode of action remains to be investigated. By using a combination of genetic and physical approaches, we show that the homologous recombination factors Rad55 and Rad57, but not Rad59, are required for the formation of template switch intermediates. The replication-proficient but recombination-defective rfa1-t11 mutant is normal in triggering a checkpoint response following DNA damage but is impaired in X-structure formation. The Exo1 nuclease also has stimulatory roles in this process. The checkpoint kinase, Rad53, is required for X-molecule formation and phosphorylates Rad55 robustly in response to DNA damage. Although Rad55 phosphorylation is thought to activate recombinational repair under conditions of genotoxic stress, we find that Rad55 phosphomutants do not affect the efficiency of X-molecule formation. We also examined the DNA polymerase implicated in the DNA synthesis step of template switch. Deficiencies in translesion synthesis polymerases do not affect X-molecule formation, whereas DNA polymerase δ, required also for bulk DNA synthesis, plays an important role. Our data indicate that a subset of homologous recombination factors, together with DNA polymerase δ, promote the formation of template switch intermediates that are then preferentially dissolved by the action of the Sgs1 helicase in association with the Top3 topoisomerase rather than resolved by Holliday Junction nucleases. Our results allow us to propose the choreography through which different players contribute to

  3. The C terminus of the histone chaperone Asf1 cross-links to histone H3 in yeast and promotes interaction with histones H3 and H4.

    PubMed

    Dennehey, Briana K; Noone, Seth; Liu, Wallace H; Smith, Luke; Churchill, Mair E A; Tyler, Jessica K

    2013-02-01

    The central histone H3/H4 chaperone Asf1 comprises a highly conserved globular core and a divergent C-terminal tail. While the function and structure of the Asf1 core are well known, the function of the tail is less well understood. Here, we have explored the role of the yeast (yAsf1) and human (hAsf1a and hAsf1b) Asf1 tails in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show, using a photoreactive, unnatural amino acid, that Asf1 tail residue 210 cross-links to histone H3 in vivo and, further, that loss of C-terminal tail residues 211 to 279 weakens yAsf1-histone binding affinity in vitro nearly 200-fold. Via several yAsf1 C-terminal truncations and yeast-human chimeric proteins, we found that truncations at residue 210 increase transcriptional silencing and that the hAsf1a tail partially substitutes for full-length yAsf1 with respect to silencing but that full-length hAsf1b is a better overall substitute for full-length yAsf1. In addition, we show that the C-terminal tail of Asf1 is phosphorylated at T270 in yeast. Loss of this phosphorylation site does not prevent coimmunoprecipitation of yAsf1 and Rad53 from yeast extracts, whereas amino acid residue substitutions at the Asf1-histone H3/H4 interface do. Finally, we show that residue substitutions in yAsf1 near the CAF-1/HIRA interface also influence yAsf1's function in silencing.

  4. Transcriptome analysis identifies genes involved in ethanol response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Agave tequilana juice.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Córdova, Jesús; Drnevich, Jenny; Madrigal-Pulido, Jaime Alberto; Arrizon, Javier; Allen, Kirk; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Alvarez-Maya, Ikuri

    2012-08-01

    During ethanol fermentation, yeast cells are exposed to stress due to the accumulation of ethanol, cell growth is altered and the output of the target product is reduced. For Agave beverages, like tequila, no reports have been published on the global gene expression under ethanol stress. In this work, we used microarray analysis to identify Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes involved in the ethanol response. Gene expression of a tequila yeast strain of S. cerevisiae (AR5) was explored by comparing global gene expression with that of laboratory strain S288C, both after ethanol exposure. Additionally, we used two different culture conditions, cells grown in Agave tequilana juice as a natural fermentation media or grown in yeast-extract peptone dextrose as artificial media. Of the 6368 S. cerevisiae genes in the microarray, 657 genes were identified that had different expression responses to ethanol stress due to strain and/or media. A cluster of 28 genes was found over-expressed specifically in the AR5 tequila strain that could be involved in the adaptation to tequila yeast fermentation, 14 of which are unknown such as yor343c, ylr162w, ygr182c, ymr265c, yer053c-a or ydr415c. These could be the most suitable genes for transforming tequila yeast to increase ethanol tolerance in the tequila fermentation process. Other genes involved in response to stress (RFC4, TSA1, MLH1, PAU3, RAD53) or transport (CYB2, TIP20, QCR9) were expressed in the same cluster. Unknown genes could be good candidates for the development of recombinant yeasts with ethanol tolerance for use in industrial tequila fermentation.

  5. ATP utilization by yeast replication factor C. IV. RFC ATP-binding mutants show defects in DNA replication, DNA repair, and checkpoint regulation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S L; Pautz, A L; Burgers, P M

    2001-09-14

    Replication factor C is required to load proliferating cell nuclear antigen onto primer-template junctions, using the energy of ATP hydrolysis. Four of the five RFC genes have consensus ATP-binding motifs. To determine the relative importance of these sites for proper DNA metabolism in the cell, the conserved lysine in the Walker A motif of RFC1, RFC2, RFC3, or RFC4 was mutated to either arginine or glutamic acid. Arginine mutations in all RFC genes tested permitted cell growth, although poor growth was observed for rfc2-K71R. A glutamic acid substitution resulted in lethality in RFC2 and RFC3 but not in RFC1 or RFC4. Most double mutants combining mutations in two RFC genes were inviable. Except for the rfc1-K359R and rfc4-K55E mutants, which were phenotypically similar to wild type in every assay, the mutants were sensitive to DNA-damaging agents. The rfc2-K71R and rfc4-K55R mutants show checkpoint defects, most likely in the intra-S phase checkpoint. Regulation of the damage-inducible RNR3 promoter was impaired in these mutants, and phosphorylation of Rad53p in response to DNA damage was specifically defective when cells were in S phase. No dramatic defects in telomere length regulation were detected in the mutants. These data demonstrate that the ATP binding function of RFC2 is important for both DNA replication and checkpoint function and, for the first time, that RFC4 also plays a role in checkpoint regulation.

  6. Xbp1 Directs Global Repression of Budding Yeast Transcription during the Transition to Quiescence and Is Important for the Longevity and Reversibility of the Quiescent State

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Shawna; Li, Lihong; Davison, Jerry; Breeden, Linda L.

    2013-01-01

    Pure populations of quiescent yeast can be obtained from stationary phase cultures that have ceased proliferation after exhausting glucose and other carbon sources from their environment. They are uniformly arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and display very high thermo-tolerance and longevity. We find that G1 arrest is initiated before all the glucose has been scavenged from the media. Maintaining G1 arrest requires transcriptional repression of the G1 cyclin, CLN3, by Xbp1. Xbp1 is induced as glucose is depleted and it is among the most abundant transcripts in quiescent cells. Xbp1 binds and represses CLN3 transcription and in the absence of Xbp1, or with extra copies of CLN3, cells undergo ectopic divisions and produce very small cells. The Rad53-mediated replication stress checkpoint reinforces the arrest and becomes essential when Cln3 is overproduced. The XBP1 transcript also undergoes metabolic oscillations under glucose limitation and we identified many additional transcripts that oscillate out of phase with XBP1 and have Xbp1 binding sites in their promoters. Further global analysis revealed that Xbp1 represses 15% of all yeast genes as they enter the quiescent state and over 500 of these transcripts contain Xbp1 binding sites in their promoters. Xbp1-repressed transcripts are highly enriched for genes involved in the regulation of cell growth, cell division and metabolism. Failure to repress some or all of these targets leads xbp1 cells to enter a permanent arrest or senescence with a shortened lifespan. PMID:24204289

  7. Atrazine Triggers DNA Damage Response and Induces DNA Double-Strand Breaks in MCF-10A Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peixin; Yang, John; Ning, Jie; Wang, Michael; Song, Qisheng

    2015-06-24

    Atrazine, a pre-emergent herbicide in the chloro-s-triazine family, has been widely used in crop lands and often detected in agriculture watersheds, which is considered as a potential threat to human health. Although atrazine and its metabolites showed an elevated incidence of mammary tumors in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, no molecular evidence was found relevant to its carcinogenesis in humans. This study aims to determine whether atrazine could induce the expression of DNA damage response-related proteins in normal human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A) and to examine the cytotoxicity of atrazine at a molecular level. Our results indicate that a short-term exposure of MCF-10A to an environmentally-detectable concentration of atrazine (0.1 µg/mL) significantly increased the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1) and phosphorylated Rad17 in the cells. Atrazine treatment increased H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX) and the formation of γH2AX foci in the nuclei of MCF-10A cells. Atrazine also sequentially elevated DNA damage checkpoint proteins of ATM- and RAD3-related (ATR), ATRIP and phospho-Chk1, suggesting that atrazine could induce DNA double-strand breaks and trigger the DNA damage response ATR-Chk1 pathway in MCF-10A cells. Further investigations are needed to determine whether atrazine-triggered DNA double-strand breaks and DNA damage response ATR-Chk1 pathway occur in vivo.

  8. Telomere damage induced by the G-quadruplex ligand RHPS4 has an antitumor effect.

    PubMed

    Salvati, Erica; Leonetti, Carlo; Rizzo, Angela; Scarsella, Marco; Mottolese, Marcella; Galati, Rossella; Sperduti, Isabella; Stevens, Malcolm F G; D'Incalci, Maurizio; Blasco, Maria; Chiorino, Giovanna; Bauwens, Serge; Horard, Béatrice; Gilson, Eric; Stoppacciaro, Antonella; Zupi, Gabriella; Biroccio, Annamaria

    2007-11-01

    Functional telomeres are required for the replicability of cancer cells. The G-rich strand of telomeric DNA can fold into a 4-stranded structure known as the G-quadruplex (G4), whose stabilization alters telomere function limiting cancer cell growth. Therefore, the G4 ligand RHPS4 may possess antitumor activity. Here, we show that RHPS4 triggers a rapid and potent DNA damage response at telomeres in human transformed fibroblasts and melanoma cells, characterized by the formation of several telomeric foci containing phosphorylated DNA damage response factors gamma-H2AX, RAD17, and 53BP1. This was dependent on DNA repair enzyme ATR, correlated with delocalization of the protective telomeric DNA-binding protein POT1, and was antagonized by overexpression of POT1 or TRF2. In mice, RHPS4 exerted its antitumor effect on xenografts of human tumor cells of different histotype by telomere injury and tumor cell apoptosis. Tumor inhibition was accompanied by a strong DNA damage response, and tumors overexpressing POT1 or TRF2 were resistant to RHPS4 treatment. These data provide evidence that RHPS4 is a telomere damage inducer and that telomere disruption selectively triggered in malignant cells results in a high therapeutic index in mice. They also define a functional link between telomere damage and antitumor activity and reveal the key role of telomere-protective factors TRF2 and POT1 in response to this anti-telomere strategy.

  9. Telomere damage induced by the G-quadruplex ligand RHPS4 has an antitumor effect

    PubMed Central

    Salvati, Erica; Leonetti, Carlo; Rizzo, Angela; Scarsella, Marco; Mottolese, Marcella; Galati, Rossella; Sperduti, Isabella; Stevens, Malcolm F.G.; D’Incalci, Maurizio; Blasco, Maria; Chiorino, Giovanna; Bauwens, Serge; Horard, Béatrice; Gilson, Eric; Stoppacciaro, Antonella; Zupi, Gabriella; Biroccio, Annamaria

    2007-01-01

    Functional telomeres are required for the replicability of cancer cells. The G-rich strand of telomeric DNA can fold into a 4-stranded structure known as the G-quadruplex (G4), whose stabilization alters telomere function limiting cancer cell growth. Therefore, the G4 ligand RHPS4 may possess antitumor activity. Here, we show that RHPS4 triggers a rapid and potent DNA damage response at telomeres in human transformed fibroblasts and melanoma cells, characterized by the formation of several telomeric foci containing phosphorylated DNA damage response factors γ-H2AX, RAD17, and 53BP1. This was dependent on DNA repair enzyme ATR, correlated with delocalization of the protective telomeric DNA–binding protein POT1, and was antagonized by overexpression of POT1 or TRF2. In mice, RHPS4 exerted its antitumor effect on xenografts of human tumor cells of different histotype by telomere injury and tumor cell apoptosis. Tumor inhibition was accompanied by a strong DNA damage response, and tumors overexpressing POT1 or TRF2 were resistant to RHPS4 treatment. These data provide evidence that RHPS4 is a telomere damage inducer and that telomere disruption selectively triggered in malignant cells results in a high therapeutic index in mice. They also define a functional link between telomere damage and antitumor activity and reveal the key role of telomere-protective factors TRF2 and POT1 in response to this anti-telomere strategy. PMID:17932567

  10. Inhibition of TGFbeta1 Signaling Attenutates ATM Activity inResponse to Genotoxic Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Kirshner, Julia; Jobling, Michael F.; Pajares, Maria Jose; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Glick, Adam B.; Lavin, Martin J.; Koslov, Sergei; Shiloh, Yosef; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2006-09-15

    Ionizing radiation causes DNA damage that elicits a cellular program of damage control coordinated by the kinase activity of ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM). Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}), which is activated by radiation, is a potent and pleiotropic mediator of physiological and pathological processes. Here we show that TGF{beta} inhibition impedes the canonical cellular DNA damage stress response. Irradiated Tgf{beta}1 null murine epithelial cells or human epithelial cells treated with a small molecule inhibitor of TGF{beta} type I receptor kinase exhibit decreased phosphorylation of Chk2, Rad17 and p53, reduced {gamma}H2AX radiation-induced foci, and increased radiosensitivity compared to TGF{beta} competent cells. We determined that loss of TGF{beta} signaling in epithelial cells truncated ATM autophosphorylation and significantly reduced its kinase activity, without affecting protein abundance. Addition of TGF{beta} restored functional ATM and downstream DNA damage responses. These data reveal a heretofore undetected critical link between the microenvironment and ATM that directs epithelial cell stress responses, cell fate and tissue integrity. Thus, TGF{beta}1, in addition to its role in homoeostatic growth control, plays a complex role in regulating responses to genotoxic stress, the failure of which would contribute to the development of cancer; conversely, inhibiting TGF{beta} may be used to advantage in cancer therapy.

  11. Development and exploration of a new methodology for the fitting and analysis of XAS data

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Jaime, Mario Ulises; Kennepohl, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    A new data analysis methodology for X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) is introduced and tested using several examples. The methodology has been implemented within the context of a new Matlab-based program discussed in a companion related article [Delgado-Jaime et al. (2010 ▶), J. Synchrotron Rad. 17, 132–137]. The approach makes use of a Monte Carlo search method to seek appropriate starting points for a fit model, allowing for the generation of a large number of independent fits with minimal user-induced bias. The applicability of this methodology is tested using various data sets on the Cl K-edge XAS data for tetragonal CuCl4 2−, a common reference compound used for calibration and covalency estimation in M—Cl bonds. A new background model function that effectively blends together background profiles with spectral features is an important component of the discussed methodology. The development of a robust evaluation function to fit multiple-edge data is discussed and the implications regarding standard approaches to data analysis are discussed and explored within these examples. PMID:20029120

  12. Characterization of DNA repair deficient strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii generated by insertional mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Plecenikova, Andrea; Slaninova, Miroslava; Riha, Karel

    2014-01-01

    While the mechanisms governing DNA damage response and repair are fundamentally conserved, cross-kingdom comparisons indicate that they differ in many aspects due to differences in life-styles and developmental strategies. In photosynthetic organisms these differences have not been fully explored because gene-discovery approaches are mainly based on homology searches with known DDR/DNA repair proteins. Here we performed a forward genetic screen in the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to identify genes deficient in DDR/DNA repair. We isolated five insertional mutants that were sensitive to various genotoxic insults and two of them exhibited altered efficiency of transgene integration. To identify genomic regions disrupted in these mutants, we established a novel adaptor-ligation strategy for the efficient recovery of the insertion flanking sites. Four mutants harbored deletions that involved known DNA repair factors, DNA Pol zeta, DNA Pol theta, SAE2/COM1, and two neighbouring genes encoding ERCC1 and RAD17. Deletion in the last mutant spanned two Chlamydomonas-specific genes with unknown function, demonstrating the utility of this approach for discovering novel factors involved in genome maintenance.

  13. Intensity modulated radiotherapy induces pro-inflammatory and pro-survival responses in prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    EL-SAGHIRE, HOUSSEIN; VANDEVOORDE, CHARLOT; OST, PIET; MONSIEURS, PIETER; MICHAUX, ARLETTE; DE MEERLEER, GERT; BAATOUT, SARAH; THIERENS, HUBERT

    2014-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is one of the modern conformal radiotherapies that is widely used within the context of cancer patient treatment. It uses multiple radiation beams targeted to the tumor, however, large volumes of the body receive low doses of irradiation. Using γ-H2AX and global genome expression analysis, we studied the biological responses induced by low doses of ionizing radiation in prostate cancer patients following IMRT. By means of different bioinformatics analyses, we report that IMRT induced an inflammatory response via the induction of viral, adaptive, and innate immune signaling. In response to growth factors and immune-stimulatory signaling, positive regulation in the progression of cell cycle and DNA replication were induced. This denotes pro-inflammatory and pro-survival responses. Furthermore, double strand DNA breaks were induced in every patient 30 min after the treatment and remaining DNA repair and damage signaling continued after 18–24 h. Nine genes belonging to inflammatory responses (TLR3, SH2D1A and IL18), cell cycle progression (ORC4, SMC2 and CCDC99) and DNA damage and repair (RAD17, SMC6 and MRE11A) were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. This study emphasizes that the risk assessment of health effects from the out-of-field low doses during IMRT should be of concern, as these may increase the risk of secondary cancers and/or systemic inflammation. PMID:24435511

  14. Overexpression of Arabidopsis molybdenum cofactor sulfurase gene confers drought tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Li, Yajun; Zhang, Jiachang; Xiao, Yitao; Yue, Yuesen; Duan, Liusheng; Zhang, Mingcai; Li, Zhaohu

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key component of the signaling system that integrates plant adaptive responses to abiotic stress. Overexpression of Arabidopsis molybdenum cofactor sulfurase gene (LOS5) in maize markedly enhanced the expression of ZmAO and aldehyde oxidase (AO) activity, leading to ABA accumulation and increased drought tolerance. Transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) exhibited the expected reductions in stomatal aperture, which led to decreased water loss and maintenance of higher relative water content (RWC) and leaf water potential. Also, transgenic maize subjected to drought treatment exhibited lower leaf wilting, electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) and H(2)O(2) content, and higher activities of antioxidative enzymes and proline content compared to wild-type (WT) maize. Moreover, overexpression of LOS5 enhanced the expression of stress-regulated genes such as Rad 17, NCED1, CAT1, and ZmP5CS1 under drought stress conditions, and increased root system development and biomass yield after re-watering. The increased drought tolerance in transgenic plants was associated with ABA accumulation via activated AO and expression of stress-related gene via ABA induction, which sequentially induced a set of favorable stress-related physiological and biochemical responses.

  15. Overexpression of Arabidopsis Molybdenum Cofactor Sulfurase Gene Confers Drought Tolerance in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiachang; Xiao, Yitao; Yue, Yuesen; Duan, Liusheng; Zhang, Mingcai; Li, Zhaohu

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key component of the signaling system that integrates plant adaptive responses to abiotic stress. Overexpression of Arabidopsis molybdenum cofactor sulfurase gene (LOS5) in maize markedly enhanced the expression of ZmAO and aldehyde oxidase (AO) activity, leading to ABA accumulation and increased drought tolerance. Transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) exhibited the expected reductions in stomatal aperture, which led to decreased water loss and maintenance of higher relative water content (RWC) and leaf water potential. Also, transgenic maize subjected to drought treatment exhibited lower leaf wilting, electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 content, and higher activities of antioxidative enzymes and proline content compared to wild-type (WT) maize. Moreover, overexpression of LOS5 enhanced the expression of stress-regulated genes such as Rad 17, NCED1, CAT1, and ZmP5CS1 under drought stress conditions, and increased root system development and biomass yield after re-watering. The increased drought tolerance in transgenic plants was associated with ABA accumulation via activated AO and expression of stress-related gene via ABA induction, which sequentially induced a set of favorable stress-related physiological and biochemical responses. PMID:23326325

  16. Genetic control of telomere integrity in Schizosaccharomyces pombe: rad3(+) and tel1(+) are parts of two regulatory networks independent of the downstream protein kinases chk1(+) and cds1(+).

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, A; Naito, T; Ishikawa, F

    1999-01-01

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe checkpoint gene named rad3(+) encodes an ATM-homologous protein kinase that shares a highly conserved motif with proteins involved in DNA metabolism. Previous studies have shown that Rad3 fulfills its function via the regulation of the Chk1 and Cds1 protein kinases. Here we describe a novel role for Rad3 in the control of telomere integrity. Mutations in the rad3(+) gene alleviated telomeric silencing and produced shortened lengths in the telomere repeat tracts. Genetic analysis revealed that the other checkpoint rad mutations rad1, rad17, and rad26 belong to the same phenotypic class with rad3 with regard to control of the telomere length. Of these mutations, rad3 and rad26 have a drastic effect on telomere shortening. tel1(+), another ATM homologue in S. pombe, carries out its telomere maintenance function in parallel with the checkpoint rad genes. Furthermore, either a single or double disruption of cds1(+) and chk1(+) caused no obvious changes in the telomeric DNA structure. Our results demonstrate a novel role of the S. pombe ATM homologues that is independent of chk1(+) and cds1(+). PMID:10430579

  17. Src Family Kinases Promote Silencing of ATR-Chk1 Signaling in Termination of DNA Damage Checkpoint*

    PubMed Central

    Fukumoto, Yasunori; Morii, Mariko; Miura, Takahito; Kubota, Sho; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Honda, Takuya; Okamoto, Aya; Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Iwama, Atsushi; Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2014-01-01

    The DNA damage checkpoint arrests cell cycle progression to allow time for repair. Once DNA repair is completed, checkpoint signaling is terminated. Currently little is known about the mechanism by which checkpoint signaling is terminated, and the disappearance of DNA lesions is considered to induce the end of checkpoint signaling; however, here we show that the termination of checkpoint signaling is an active process promoted by Src family tyrosine kinases. Inhibition of Src activity delays recovery from the G2 phase DNA damage checkpoint following DNA repair. Src activity is required for the termination of checkpoint signaling, and inhibition of Src activity induces persistent activation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)- and Rad3-related (ATR) and Chk1 kinases. Src-dependent nuclear protein tyrosine phosphorylation and v-Src expression suppress the ATR-mediated Chk1 and Rad17 phosphorylation induced by DNA double strand breaks or DNA replication stress. Thus, Src family kinases promote checkpoint recovery through termination of ATR- and Chk1-dependent G2 DNA damage checkpoint. These results suggest a model according to which Src family kinases send a termination signal between the completion of DNA repair and the initiation of checkpoint termination. PMID:24634213

  18. Regulation of ATRIP protein abundance by RAD9 in the DNA damage repair pathway.

    PubMed

    Peng, X-J; Liu, S-J; Bao, C-M; Liu, Y-Z; Xie, H-W; Cai, Y-H; Li, B-M; Hang, H-Y; Ding, X

    2015-12-09

    Genotoxic stress activates checkpoint signaling pathways that activate the checkpoint kinases ATM and ATR, halt cell cycle progression, and promote DNA repair. A number of proteins act in concert with ATR to phosphorylate Chk1, including RAD17, the RAD9-RAD1-HUS1 complex, ATR/ATRIP and TopBp1. However, how these proteins involved act in concert with one another to propagate and maintain the checkpoint response is not well understood. Here, we reported that upregulation of RAD9 protein increased the quantity of ATRIP, suggesting that RAD9 activation will induce more efficient accumulation of ATRIP in vivo. Furthermore, the DNA damage-induced ATRIP foci formation was faster in the mRad9-/- ES cells. Also, ATRIP interacts specifically with RAD9, but not HUS1 and RAD1. Taken together, we suggested that RAD9 could affect both the ATRIP protein levels and DNA damage-induced ATRIP foci formation. Thus, we propose a role of RAD9 in the ATR-Chk1 pathway that is necessary for successful formation of the damage-sensing complex and DNA damage checkpoint signaling.

  19. Ccr4-Not Complex mRNA Deadenylase Activity Contributes to DNA Damage Responses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Traven, Ana; Hammet, Andrew; Tenis, Nora; Denis, Clyde L.; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    DNA damage checkpoints regulate gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Some components of the yeast Ccr4-Not complex, which regulates transcription as well as transcript turnover, have previously been linked to DNA damage responses, but it is unclear if this involves transcriptional or post-transcriptional functions. Here we show that CCR4 and CAF1, which together encode the major cytoplasmic mRNA deadenylase complex, have complex genetic interactions with the checkpoint genes DUN1, MRC1, RAD9, and RAD17 in response to DNA-damaging agents hydroxyurea (HU) and methylmethane sulfonate (MMS). The exonuclease-inactivating ccr4-1 point mutation mimics ccr4Δ phenotypes, including synthetic HU hypersensitivity with dun1Δ, demonstrating that Ccr4-Not mRNA deadenylase activity is required for DNA damage responses. However, ccr4Δ and caf1Δ DNA damage phenotypes and genetic interactions with checkpoint genes are not identical, and deletions of some Not components that are believed to predominantly function at the transcriptional level rather than mRNA turnover, e.g., not5Δ, also lead to increased DNA damage sensitivity and synthetic HU hypersensitivity with dun1Δ. Taken together, our data thus suggest that both transcriptional and post-transcriptional functions of the Ccr4-Not complex contribute to the DNA damage response affecting gene expression in a complex manner. PMID:15466434

  20. Ccr4-not complex mRNA deadenylase activity contributes to DNA damage responses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Traven, Ana; Hammet, Andrew; Tenis, Nora; Denis, Clyde L; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    DNA damage checkpoints regulate gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Some components of the yeast Ccr4-Not complex, which regulates transcription as well as transcript turnover, have previously been linked to DNA damage responses, but it is unclear if this involves transcriptional or post-transcriptional functions. Here we show that CCR4 and CAF1, which together encode the major cytoplasmic mRNA deadenylase complex, have complex genetic interactions with the checkpoint genes DUN1, MRC1, RAD9, and RAD17 in response to DNA-damaging agents hydroxyurea (HU) and methylmethane sulfonate (MMS). The exonuclease-inactivating ccr4-1 point mutation mimics ccr4Delta phenotypes, including synthetic HU hypersensitivity with dun1Delta, demonstrating that Ccr4-Not mRNA deadenylase activity is required for DNA damage responses. However, ccr4Delta and caf1Delta DNA damage phenotypes and genetic interactions with checkpoint genes are not identical, and deletions of some Not components that are believed to predominantly function at the transcriptional level rather than mRNA turnover, e.g., not5Delta, also lead to increased DNA damage sensitivity and synthetic HU hypersensitivity with dun1Delta. Taken together, our data thus suggest that both transcriptional and post-transcriptional functions of the Ccr4-Not complex contribute to the DNA damage response affecting gene expression in a complex manner.

  1. Inhibition of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta1 SignalingAttenuates Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Activity in Response toGenotoxic Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Kirshner, Julia; Jobling, Michael F.; Pajares, Maria Jose; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Glick, Adam; Lavin, Martin F.; Koslov, Sergei; Shiloh, Yosef; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2006-01-01

    Ionizing radiation causes DNA damage that elicits a cellular program of damage control coordinated by the kinase activity of ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM). Transforming growth factor {beta} (TGF{beta})-1, which is activated by radiation, is a potent and pleiotropic mediator of physiologic and pathologic processes. Here we show that TGF{beta} inhibition impedes the canonical cellular DNA damage stress response. Irradiated Tgf{beta}I null murine epithelial cells or human epithelial cells treated with a small-molecule inhibitor of TGF{beta} type I receptor kinase exhibit decreased phosphorylation of Chk2, Rad17, and p53; reduced H2AX radiation-induced foci; and increased radiosensitivity compared with TGF{beta} competent cells. We determined that loss of TGF{beta} signaling in epithelial cells truncated ATM autophosphorylation and significantly reduced its kinase activity, without affecting protein abundance. Addition of TGF{beta} restored functional ATM and downstream DNA damage responses. These data reveal a heretofore undetected critical link between the microenvironment and ATM, which directs epithelial cell stress responses, cell fate, and tissue integrity. Thus, Tgf{beta}I, in addition to its role in homoeostatic growth control, plays a complex role in regulating responses to genotoxic stress, the failure of which would contribute to the development of cancer; conversely, inhibiting TGF{beta} may be used to advantage in cancer therapy.

  2. Replication factor C recruits DNA polymerase delta to sites of nucleotide excision repair but is not required for PCNA recruitment.

    PubMed

    Overmeer, René M; Gourdin, Audrey M; Giglia-Mari, Ambra; Kool, Hanneke; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B; Siegal, Gregg; Fousteri, Maria I; Mullenders, Leon H F; Vermeulen, Wim

    2010-10-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) operates through coordinated assembly of repair factors into pre- and postincision complexes. The postincision step of NER includes gap-filling DNA synthesis and ligation. However, the exact composition of this NER-associated DNA synthesis complex in vivo and the dynamic interactions of the factors involved are not well understood. Using immunofluorescence, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and live-cell protein dynamic studies, we show that replication factor C (RFC) is implicated in postincision NER in mammalian cells. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of RFC impairs upstream removal of UV lesions and abrogates the downstream recruitment of DNA polymerase delta. Unexpectedly, RFC appears dispensable for PCNA recruitment yet is required for the subsequent recruitment of DNA polymerases to PCNA, indicating that RFC is essential to stably load the polymerase clamp to start DNA repair synthesis at 3' termini. The kinetic studies are consistent with a model in which RFC exchanges dynamically at sites of repair. However, its persistent localization at stalled NER complexes suggests that RFC remains targeted to the repair complex even after loading of PCNA. We speculate that RFC associates with the downstream 5' phosphate after loading; such interaction would prevent possible signaling events initiated by the RFC-like Rad17 and may assist in unloading of PCNA.

  3. DNA damage checkpoint adaptation genes are required for division of cells harbouring eroded telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Mersaoui, Sofiane Y.; Gravel, Serge; Karpov, Victor; Wellinger, Raymund J.

    2015-01-01

    In budding yeast, telomerase and the Cdc13p protein are two key players acting to ensure telomere stability. In the absence of telomerase, cells eventually enter a growth arrest which only few can overcome via a conserved process; such cells are called survivors. Survivors rely on homologous recombination-dependent mechanisms for telomeric repeat addition. Previously, we showed that such survivor cells also manage to bypass the loss of the essential Cdc13p protein to give rise to Cdc13-independent (or cap-independent) strains. Here we show that Cdc13-independent cells grow with persistently recognized DNA damage, which does not however result in a checkpoint activation; thus no defect in cell cycle progression is detectable. The absence of checkpoint signalling rather is due to the accumulation of mutations in checkpoint genes such as RAD24 or MEC1. Importantly, our results also show that cells that have lost the ability to adapt to persistent DNA damage, also are very much impaired in generating cap-independent cells. Altogether, these results show that while the capping process can be flexible, it takes a very specific genetic setup to allow a change from canonical capping to alternative capping. We hypothesize that in the alternative capping mode, genome integrity mechanisms are abrogated, which could cause increased mutation frequencies. These results from yeast have clear parallels in transformed human cancer cells and offer deeper insights into processes operating in pre-cancerous human cells that harbour eroded telomeres.

  4. Spatial control of translation repression and polarized growth by conserved NDR kinase Orb6 and RNA-binding protein Sts5

    PubMed Central

    Nuñez, Illyce; Rodriguez Pino, Marbelys; Wiley, David J; Das, Maitreyi E; Chen, Chuan; Goshima, Tetsuya; Kume, Kazunori; Hirata, Dai; Toda, Takashi; Verde, Fulvia

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins contribute to the formation of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules by phase transition, but regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Conserved fission yeast NDR (Nuclear Dbf2-Related) kinase Orb6 governs cell morphogenesis in part by spatially controlling Cdc42 GTPase. Here we describe a novel, independent function for Orb6 kinase in negatively regulating the recruitment of RNA-binding protein Sts5 into RNPs to promote polarized cell growth. We find that Orb6 kinase inhibits Sts5 recruitment into granules, its association with processing (P) bodies, and degradation of Sts5-bound mRNAs by promoting Sts5 interaction with 14-3-3 protein Rad24. Many Sts5-bound mRNAs encode essential factors for polarized cell growth, and Orb6 kinase spatially and temporally controls the extent of Sts5 granule formation. Disruption of this control system affects cell morphology and alters the pattern of polarized cell growth, revealing a role for Orb6 kinase in the spatial control of translational repression that enables normal cell morphogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14216.001 PMID:27474797

  5. Spatial control of translation repression and polarized growth by conserved NDR kinase Orb6 and RNA-binding protein Sts5.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Illyce; Rodriguez Pino, Marbelys; Wiley, David J; Das, Maitreyi E; Chen, Chuan; Goshima, Tetsuya; Kume, Kazunori; Hirata, Dai; Toda, Takashi; Verde, Fulvia

    2016-07-30

    RNA-binding proteins contribute to the formation of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules by phase transition, but regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Conserved fission yeast NDR (Nuclear Dbf2-Related) kinase Orb6 governs cell morphogenesis in part by spatially controlling Cdc42 GTPase. Here we describe a novel, independent function for Orb6 kinase in negatively regulating the recruitment of RNA-binding protein Sts5 into RNPs to promote polarized cell growth. We find that Orb6 kinase inhibits Sts5 recruitment into granules, its association with processing (P) bodies, and degradation of Sts5-bound mRNAs by promoting Sts5 interaction with 14-3-3 protein Rad24. Many Sts5-bound mRNAs encode essential factors for polarized cell growth, and Orb6 kinase spatially and temporally controls the extent of Sts5 granule formation. Disruption of this control system affects cell morphology and alters the pattern of polarized cell growth, revealing a role for Orb6 kinase in the spatial control of translational repression that enables normal cell morphogenesis.

  6. Atrazine Triggers DNA Damage Response and Induces DNA Double-Strand Breaks in MCF-10A Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Peixin; Yang, John; Ning, Jie; Wang, Michael; Song, Qisheng

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine, a pre-emergent herbicide in the chloro-s-triazine family, has been widely used in crop lands and often detected in agriculture watersheds, which is considered as a potential threat to human health. Although atrazine and its metabolites showed an elevated incidence of mammary tumors in female Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats, no molecular evidence was found relevant to its carcinogenesis in humans. This study aims to determine whether atrazine could induce the expression of DNA damage response-related proteins in normal human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A) and to examine the cytotoxicity of atrazine at a molecular level. Our results indicate that a short-term exposure of MCF-10A to an environmentally-detectable concentration of atrazine (0.1 µg/mL) significantly increased the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1) and phosphorylated Rad17 in the cells. Atrazine treatment increased H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX) and the formation of γH2AX foci in the nuclei of MCF-10A cells. Atrazine also sequentially elevated DNA damage checkpoint proteins of ATM- and RAD3-related (ATR), ATRIP and phospho-Chk1, suggesting that atrazine could induce DNA double-strand breaks and trigger the DNA damage response ATR-Chk1 pathway in MCF-10A cells. Further investigations are needed to determine whether atrazine-triggered DNA double-strand breaks and DNA damage response ATR-Chk1 pathway occur in vivo. PMID:26114388

  7. Impaired Cytogenetic Damage Repair and Cell Cycle Regulation in Response to Ionizing Radiation in Human Fibroblast Cells with Individual Knock-down of 25 Genes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Rohde, Larry; Emami, Kamal; Hammond, Dianne; Casey, Rachael; Mehta, Satish; Jeevarajan, Antony; Pierson, Duane; Wu, Honglu

    2008-01-01

    Changes of gene expression profile are one of the most important biological responses in living cells after ionizing radiation (IR) exposure. Although some studies have demonstrated that genes with upregulated expression induced by IR may play important roles in DNA damage sensing, cell cycle checkpoint and chromosomal repair, the relationship between the regulation of gene expression by IR and its impact on cytogenetic responses to ionizing radiation has not been systematically studied. In our present study, the expression of 25 genes selected based on their transcriptional changes in response to IR or from their known DNA repair roles were individually knocked down by siRNA transfection in human fibroblast cells. Chromosome aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) formation were measured as the cytogenetic endpoints. Our results showed that the yield of MN and/or CA formation were significantly increased by suppressed expression of 5 genes that included Ku70 in the DSB repair pathway; XPA in the NER pathway; RPA1 in the MMR pathway; RAD17 and RBBP8 in cell cycle control. Knocked-down expression of 4 genes including MRE11A, RAD51 in the DSB pathway, and SESN1 and SUMO1 showed significant inhibition of cell cycle progression, possibly because of severe impairment of DNA damage repair. Furthermore, loss of XPA, p21 and MLH1 expression resulted in both enhanced cell cycle progression and significantly higher yield of cytogenetic damage, indicating the involvement of these gene products in both cell cycle control and DNA damage repair. Of these 11 genes that affected the cytogenetic response, 9 were up-regulated in the cells exposed to gamma radiation, suggesting that genes transcriptionally modulated by IR were critical to regulating the biological consequences after IR. Failure to express these IR-responsive genes, such as by gene mutation, could seriously change the outcome of the post IR scenario and lead to carcinogenesis.

  8. Non-DBS DNA Repair Genes Regulate Radiation-induced Cytogenetic Damage Repair and Cell Cycle Progression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Rohde, Larry H.; Emami, Kamal; Casey, Rachael; Wu, Honglu

    2008-01-01

    Changes of gene expression profile are one of the most important biological responses in living cells after ionizing radiation (IR) exposure. Although some studies have shown that genes up-regulated by IR may play important roles in DNA damage repair, the relationship between the regulation of gene expression by IR, particularly genes not known for their roles in DSB repair, and its impact on cytogenetic responses has not been systematically studied. In the present study, the expression of 25 genes selected on the basis of their transcriptional changes in response to IR was individually knocked down by transfection with small interfering RNA in human fibroblast cells. The purpose of this study is to identify new roles of these selected genes on regulating DSB repair and cell cycle progression , as measured in the micronuclei formation and chromosome aberration. In response to IR, the formation of MN was significantly increased by suppressed expression of 5 genes: Ku70 in the DSB repair pathway, XPA in the NER pathway, RPA1 in the MMR pathway, and RAD17 and RBBP8 in cell cycle control. Knocked-down expression of 4 genes (MRE11A, RAD51 in the DSB pathway, SESN1, and SUMO1) significantly inhibited cell cycle progression, possibly because of severe impairment of DNA damage repair. Furthermore, loss of XPA, P21, or MLH1 expression resulted in both significantly enhanced cell cycle progression and increased yields of chromosome aberrations, indicating that these gene products modulate both cell cycle control and DNA damage repair. Most of the 11 genes that affected cytogenetic responses are not known to have clear roles influencing DBS repair. Nine of these 11 genes were up-regulated in cells exposed to gamma radiation, suggesting that genes transcriptionally modulated by IR were critical to regulate the biological consequences after IR.

  9. Evaluating HapMap SNP data transferability in a large-scale genotyping project involving 175 cancer-associated genes.

    PubMed

    Ribas, Gloria; González-Neira, Anna; Salas, Antonio; Milne, Roger L; Vega, Ana; Carracedo, Begoña; González, Emilio; Barroso, Eva; Fernández, Lara P; Yankilevich, Patricio; Robledo, Mercedes; Carracedo, Angel; Benítez, Javier

    2006-02-01

    One of the many potential uses of the HapMap project is its application to the investigation of complex disease aetiology among a wide range of populations. This study aims to assess the transferability of HapMap SNP data to the Spanish population in the context of cancer research. We have carried out a genotyping study in Spanish subjects involving 175 candidate cancer genes using an indirect gene-based approach and compared results with those for HapMap CEU subjects. Allele frequencies were very consistent between the two samples, with a high positive correlation (R) of 0.91 (P<1x10(-6)). Linkage disequilibrium patterns and block structures across each gene were also very similar, with disequilibrium coefficient (r (2)) highly correlated (R=0.95, P<1x10(-6)). We found that of the 21 genes that contained at least one block larger than 60 kb, nine (ATM, ATR, BRCA1, ERCC6, FANCC, RAD17, RAD50, RAD54B and XRCC4) belonged to the GO category "DNA repair". Haplotype frequencies per gene were also highly correlated (mean R=0.93), as was haplotype diversity (R=0.91, P<1x10(-6)). "Yin yang" haplotypes were observed for 43% of the genes analysed and 18% of those were identical to the ancestral haplotype (identified in Chimpazee). Finally, the portability of tagSNPs identified in the HapMap CEU data using pairwise r (2) thresholds of 0.8 and 0.5 was assessed by applying these to the Spanish and current HapMap data for 66 genes. In general, the HapMap tagSNPs performed very well. Our results show generally high concordance with HapMap data in allele frequencies and haplotype distributions and confirm the applicability of HapMap SNP data to the study of complex diseases among the Spanish population.

  10. Non-DBS DNA Repair Genes Regulate Radiation-induced Cytogenetic Damage Repair and Cell Cycle Progression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Rohde, Larry H.; Emami, Kamal; Casey, Rachael; Wu, Honglu

    2008-01-01

    Changes of gene expression profile are one of the most important biological responses in living cells after ionizing radiation (IR) exposure. Although some studies have shown that genes up-regulated by IR may play important roles in DNA damage repair, the relationship between the regulation of gene expression by IR, particularly genes not known for their roles in DSB repair, and its impact on cytogenetic responses has not been systematically studied. In the present study, the expression of 25 genes selected on the basis of their transcriptional changes in response to IR was individually knocked down by transfection with small interfering RNA in human fibroblast cells. The purpose of this study is to identify new roles of these selected genes on regulating DSB repair and cell cycle progression , as measured in the micronuclei formation and chromosome aberration. In response to IR, the formation of MN was significantly increased by suppressed expression of 5 genes: Ku70 in the DSB repair pathway, XPA in the NER pathway, RPA1 in the MMR pathway, and RAD17 and RBBP8 in cell cycle control. Knocked-down expression of 4 genes (MRE11A, RAD51 in the DSB pathway, SESN1, and SUMO1) significantly inhibited cell cycle progression, possibly because of severe impairment of DNA damage repair. Furthermore, loss of XPA, P21, or MLH1 expression resulted in both significantly enhanced cell cycle progression and increased yields of chromosome aberrations, indicating that these gene products modulate both cell cycle control and DNA damage repair. Most of the 11 genes that affected cytogenetic responses are not known to have clear roles influencing DBS repair. Nine of these 11 genes were up-regulated in cells exposed to gamma radiation, suggesting that genes transcriptionally modulated by IR were critical to regulate the biological consequences after IR.

  11. Interaction between Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 and TopBP1 activates ATR-ATRIP and promotes TopBP1 recruitment to sites of UV-damage.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Eiji; Takeishi, Yukimasa; Ueda, Satoshi; Tsurimoto, Toshiki

    2014-09-01

    The checkpoint clamp Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 (9-1-1) interacts with TopBP1 via two casein kinase 2 (CK2)-phosphorylation sites, Ser-341 and Ser-387 in Rad9. While this interaction is known to be important for the activation of ATR-Chk1 pathway, how the interaction contributes to their accumulation at sites of DNA damage remains controversial. Here, we have studied the contribution of the 9-1-1/TopBP1 interaction to the assembly and activation of checkpoint proteins at damaged DNA. UV-irradiation enhanced association of Rad9 with chromatin and its localization to sites of DNA damage without a direct interaction with TopBP1. TopBP1, as well as RPA and Rad17 facilitated Rad9 recruitment to DNA damage sites. Similar to Rad9, TopBP1 also localized to sites of UV-induced DNA damage. The DNA damage-induced TopBP1 redistribution was delayed in cells expressing a TopBP1 binding-deficient Rad9 mutant. Pharmacological inhibition of ATR recapitulated the delayed accumulation of TopBP1 in the cells, suggesting that ATR activation will induce more efficient accumulation of TopBP1. Taken together, TopBP1 and Rad9 can be independently recruited to damaged DNA. Once recruited, a direct interaction of 9-1-1/TopBP1 occurs and induces ATR activation leading to further TopBP1 accumulation and amplification of the checkpoint signal. Thus, we propose a new positive feedback mechanism that is necessary for successful formation of the damage-sensing complex and DNA damage checkpoint signaling in human cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Genetic Screen for Fission Yeast Gene Deletion Mutants Exhibiting Hypersensitivity to Latrunculin A

    PubMed Central

    Asadi, Farzad; Michalski, Dorothy; Karagiannis, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Fission yeast cells treated with low doses of the actin depolymerizing drug, latrunculin A (LatA), delay entry into mitosis via a mechanism that is dependent on both the Clp1p and Rad24p proteins. During this delay, cells remain in a cytokinesis-competent state that is characterized by continuous repair and/or reestablishment of the actomyosin ring. In this manner, cells ensure the faithful completion of the preceding cytokinesis in response to perturbation of the cell division machinery. To uncover other genes with a role in this response, or simply genes with roles in adapting to LatA-induced stress, we carried out a genome-wide screen and identified a group of 38 gene deletion mutants that are hyper-sensitive to the drug. As expected, we found genes affecting cytokinesis and/or the actin cytoskeleton within this set (ain1, acp2, imp2). We also identified genes with roles in histone modification (tra1, ngg1), intracellular transport (apl5, aps3), and glucose-mediated signaling (git3, git5, git11, pka1, cgs2). Importantly, while the identified gene deletion mutants are prone to cytokinesis failure in the presence of LatA, they are nevertheless fully capable of cell division in the absence of the drug. These results indicate that fission yeast cells make use of a diverse set of regulatory modules to counter abnormal cytoskeletal perturbations, and furthermore, that these modules act redundantly to ensure cell survival and proliferation. PMID:27466272

  13. Yeast 14-3-3 proteins.

    PubMed

    van Heusden, G Paul H; Steensma, H Yde

    2006-02-01

    14-3-3 proteins form a family of highly conserved proteins which are present in all eukaryotic organisms investigated, often in multiple isoforms, up to 13 in some plants. They interact with more than 200 different, mostly phosphorylated proteins. The molecular consequences of 14-3-3 binding are diverse: this binding may result in stabilization of the active or inactive phosphorylated form of the protein, to a conformational alteration leading to activation or inhibition, to a different subcellular localization, to the interaction with other proteins or to shielding of binding sites. The binding partners, and hence the 14-3-3 proteins, are involved in almost every cellular process and 14-3-3 proteins have been linked to several diseases, such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, the neurological Miller-Dieker and spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 diseases and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). The yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe both have two genes encoding 14-3-3 proteins, BMH1 and BMH2 and rad24 and rad25, respectively. In these yeasts, 14-3-3 proteins are essential in most laboratory strains. As in higher eukaryotes, yeast 14-3-3 proteins bind to numerous proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes. Recent genome-wide studies on yeast strains with impaired 14-3-3 function support the participation of 14-3-3 proteins in numerous yeast cellular processes. Given the high evolutionary conservation of the 14-3-3 proteins, the experimental accessibility and relative simplicity of yeasts make them excellent model organisms for elucidating the function of the 14-3-3 protein family.

  14. New insights into the mechanism of homologous recombination in yeast.

    PubMed

    Aylon, Yael; Kupiec, Martin

    2004-05-01

    Genome stability is of primary importance for the survival and proper functioning of all organisms. Double-strand breaks (DSBs) arise spontaneously during growth, or can be created by external insults. Repair of DSBs by homologous recombination provides an efficient and fruitful pathway to restore chromosomal integrity. Exciting new work in yeast has lately provided insights into this complex process. Many of the proteins involved in recombination have been isolated and the details of the repair mechanism are now being unraveled at the molecular level. In this review, we focus on recent studies which dissect the recombinational repair of a single broken chromosome. After DSB formation, a decision is made regarding the mechanism of repair (recombination or non-homologous end-joining). This decision is under genetic control. Once committed to the recombination pathway, the broken chromosomal ends are resected by a still unclear mechanism in which the DNA damage checkpoint protein Rad24 participates. At this stage several proteins are recruited to the broken ends, including Rad51p, Rad52p, Rad55p, Rad57p, and possibly Rad54p. A genomic search for homology ensues, followed by strand invasion, promoted by the Rad51 filament with the participation of Rad55p, Rad57p and Rad54p. DNA synthesis then takes place, restoring the resected ends. Crossing-over formation depends on the length of the homologous recombining sequences, and is usually counteracted by the activity of the mismatch repair system. Given the conservation of the repair mechanisms and genes throughout evolution, these studies have profound implications for other eukaryotic organisms.

  15. Small Ubiquitin-related Modifier Ligase Activity of Mms21 Is Required for Maintenance of Chromosome Integrity during the Unperturbed Mitotic Cell Division Cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Ragini; Varma, Satya P. M. V.; Shinde, Nikhil; Ghosh, Shilpa; Kumaran, Srikala P.; Skariah, Geena; Laloraya, Shikha

    2011-01-01

    The SUMO ligase activity of Mms21/Nse2, a conserved member of the Smc5/6 complex, is required for resisting extrinsically induced genotoxic stress. We report that the Mms21 SUMO ligase activity is also required during the unchallenged mitotic cell cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. SUMO ligase-defective cells were slow growing and spontaneously incurred DNA damage. These cells required caffeine-sensitive Mec1 kinase-dependent checkpoint signaling for survival even in the absence of extrinsically induced genotoxic stress. SUMO ligase-defective cells were sensitive to replication stress and displayed synthetic growth defects with DNA damage checkpoint-defective mutants such as mec1, rad9, and rad24. MMS21 SUMO ligase and mediator of replication checkpoint 1 gene (MRC1) were epistatic with respect to hydroxyurea-induced replication stress or methyl methanesulfonate-induced DNA damage sensitivity. Subjecting Mms21 SUMO ligase-deficient cells to transient replication stress resulted in enhancement of cell cycle progression defects such as mitotic delay and accumulation of hyperploid cells. Consistent with the spontaneous activation of the DNA damage checkpoint pathway observed in the Mms21-mediated sumoylation-deficient cells, enhanced frequency of chromosome breakage and loss was detected in these mutant cells. A mutation in the conserved cysteine 221 that is engaged in coordination of the zinc ion in Loop 2 of the Mms21 SPL-RING E3 ligase catalytic domain resulted in strong replication stress sensitivity and also conferred slow growth and Mec1 dependence to unchallenged mitotically dividing cells. Our findings establish Mms21-mediated sumoylation as a determinant of cell cycle progression and maintenance of chromosome integrity during the unperturbed mitotic cell division cycle in budding yeast. PMID:21324902

  16. Identification of a 14-3-3 protein from Lentinus edodes that interacts with CAP (adenylyl cyclase-associated protein), and conservation of this interaction in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Zhou, G L; Yamamoto, T; Ozoe, F; Yano, D; Tanaka, K; Matsuda, H; Kawamukai, M

    2000-01-01

    We previously identified a gene encoding a CAP (adenylyl cyclase-associated protein) homologue from the edible Basidiomycete Lentinus edodes. To further discover the cellular functions of the CAP protein, we searched for CAP-interacting proteins using a yeast two-hybrid system. Among the candidates thus obtained, many clones encoded the C-terminal half of an L. edodes 14-3-3 homologue (designated cip3). Southern blot analysis indicated that L. edodes contains only one 14-3-3 gene. Overexpression of the L. edodes 14-3-3 protein in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad24 null cells complemented the loss of endogenous 14-3-3 protein functions in cell morphology and UV sensitivity, suggesting functional conservation of 14-3-3 proteins between L. edodes and S. pombe. The interaction between L. edodes CAP and 14-3-3 protein was restricted to the N-terminal domain of CAP and was confirmed by in vitro co-precipitation. Results from both the two-hybrid system and in vivo co-precipitation experiments showed the conservation of this interaction in S. pombe. The observation that a 14-3-3 protein interacts with the N-terminal portion of CAP but not with full-length CAP in L. edodes and S. pombe suggests that the C-terminal region of CAP may have a negative effect on the interaction between CAP and 14-3-3 proteins, and 14-3-3 proteins may play a role in regulation of CAP function.

  17. New functions of Ctf18-RFC in preserving genome stability outside its role in sister chromatid cohesion.

    PubMed

    Gellon, Lionel; Razidlo, David F; Gleeson, Olive; Verra, Lauren; Schulz, Danae; Lahue, Robert S; Freudenreich, Catherine H

    2011-02-10

    Expansion of DNA trinucleotide repeats causes at least 15 hereditary neurological diseases, and these repeats also undergo contraction and fragility. Current models to explain this genetic instability invoke erroneous DNA repair or aberrant replication. Here we show that CAG/CTG tracts are stabilized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the alternative clamp loader/unloader Ctf18-Dcc1-Ctf8-RFC complex (Ctf18-RFC). Mutants in Ctf18-RFC increased all three forms of triplet repeat instability--expansions, contractions, and fragility--with effect over a wide range of allele lengths from 20-155 repeats. Ctf18-RFC predominated among the three alternative clamp loaders, with mutants in Elg1-RFC or Rad24-RFC having less effect on trinucleotide repeats. Surprisingly, chl1, scc1-73, or scc2-4 mutants defective in sister chromatid cohesion (SCC) did not increase instability, suggesting that Ctf18-RFC protects triplet repeats independently of SCC. Instead, three results suggest novel roles for Ctf18-RFC in facilitating genomic stability. First, genetic instability in mutants of Ctf18-RFC was exacerbated by simultaneous deletion of the fork stabilizer Mrc1, but suppressed by deletion of the repair protein Rad52. Second, single-cell analysis showed that mutants in Ctf18-RFC had a slowed S phase and a striking G2/M accumulation, often with an abnormal multi-budded morphology. Third, ctf18 cells exhibit increased Rad52 foci in S phase, often persisting into G2, indicative of high levels of DNA damage. The presence of a repeat tract greatly magnified the ctf18 phenotypes. Together these results indicate that Ctf18-RFC has additional important functions in preserving genome stability, besides its role in SCC, which we propose include lesion bypass by replication forks and post-replication repair.

  18. Cytogenetic Response to Ionizing Radiation Exposure in Human Fibroblasts with Suppressed Expression of Non-DSB Repair Genes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Rohde, Larry H.; Emami, Kamal; Hammond, Dianne; Mehta, Satish K.; Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Pierson, Duane L.; Wu, Honglu

    2009-01-01

    Changes of gene expression profile are one of the most important biological responses in living cells after ionizing radiation (IR) exposure. Although some studies have shown that genes up-regulated by IR may play important roles in DNA damage repair, the relationship between the regulation of gene expression by IR, particularly genes not known for their roles in double-strand break (DSB) repair, and its impact on cytogenetic responses has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to identify new roles of IR inducible genes in radiation-induced chromosome aberrations and micronuclei formation. In the study, the expression of 25 genes selected on the basis of their transcriptional changes in response to IR was individually knocked down by small interfering RNA in human fibroblast cells. Frequencies of micronuclei (MN) formation and chromosome aberrations were measured to determine the efficiency of cytogenetic repair, and the fraction of bi-nucleated cells in the MN analysis was used as a marker for cell cycle progression. In response to gamma radiation, the formation of MN was significantly increased by suppressed expression of five genes: Ku70 (DSB repair pathway), XPA (nucleotide excision repair pathway), RPA1 (mismatch repair pathway), RAD17 and RBBP8 (cell cycle control). Knocked-down expression of four genes (MRE11A, RAD51 in the DSB pathway, SESN1, and SUMO1) significantly inhibited cell cycle progression, possibly because of severe impairment of DNA damage repair. Moreover, decreased XPA, p21, or MLH1 expression resulted in both significantly enhanced cell cycle progression and increased yields of chromosome aberrations, indicating that these gene products modulate both cell cycle control and DNA damage repair. Nine of these eleven genes, whose knock-down expression affected cytogenetic repair, were up-regulated in cells exposed to gamma radiation, suggesting that genes transcriptionally modulated by IR were critical to regulate IR

  19. Suppressed expression of non-DSB repair genes inhibits gamma-radiation-induced cytogenetic repair and cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Rohde, Larry H; Emami, Kamal; Hammond, Dianne; Casey, Rachael; Mehta, Satish K; Jeevarajan, Antony S; Pierson, Duane L; Wu, Honglu

    2008-11-01

    Changes of gene expression profile are one of the most important biological responses in living cells after ionizing radiation (IR) exposure. Although some studies have shown that genes up-regulated by IR may play important roles in DNA damage repair, the relationship between the regulation of gene expression by IR, particularly genes not known for their roles in double-strand break (DSB) repair, and its impact on cytogenetic responses has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to identify new roles of IR inducible genes in regulating DSB repair and cell cycle progression. In this study, the expression of 25 genes selected on the basis of their transcriptional changes in response to IR was individually knocked down by small interfering RNA in human fibroblast cells. Frequency of micronuclei (MN) formation and chromosome aberrations were measured to determine efficiency of cytogenetic repair, especially DSB repair. In response to IR, the formation of MN was significantly increased by suppressed expression of five genes: Ku70 (DSB repair pathway), XPA (nucleotide excision repair pathway), RPA1 (mismatch repair pathway), RAD17 and RBBP8 (cell cycle control). Knocked-down expression of four genes (MRE11A, RAD51 in the DSB pathway, SESN1, and SUMO1) significantly inhibited cell cycle progression, possibly because of severe impairment of DNA damage repair. Moreover, decreased XPA, p21, or MLH1 expression resulted in both significantly enhanced cell cycle progression and increased yields of chromosome aberrations, indicating that these gene products modulate both cell cycle control and DNA damage repair. Nine of these eleven genes, whose knock-down expression affected cytogenetic repair, were up-regulated in cells exposed to gamma radiation, suggesting that genes transcriptionally modulated by IR were critical to regulate IR-induced biological consequences. Furthermore, eight non-DBS repair genes showed involvement in regulating DSB repair, indicating that

  20. Cytogenetic Response to Ionizing Radiation Exposure in Human Fibroblasts with Suppressed Expression of Non-DSB Repair Genes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Rohde, Larry H.; Emami, Kamal; Hammond, Dianne; Mehta, Satish K.; Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Pierson, Duane L.; Wu, Honglu

    2009-01-01

    Changes of gene expression profile are one of the most important biological responses in living cells after ionizing radiation (IR) exposure. Although some studies have shown that genes up-regulated by IR may play important roles in DNA damage repair, the relationship between the regulation of gene expression by IR, particularly genes not known for their roles in double-strand break (DSB) repair, and its impact on cytogenetic responses has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to identify new roles of IR inducible genes in radiation-induced chromosome aberrations and micronuclei formation. In the study, the expression of 25 genes selected on the basis of their transcriptional changes in response to IR was individually knocked down by small interfering RNA in human fibroblast cells. Frequencies of micronuclei (MN) formation and chromosome aberrations were measured to determine the efficiency of cytogenetic repair, and the fraction of bi-nucleated cells in the MN analysis was used as a marker for cell cycle progression. In response to gamma radiation, the formation of MN was significantly increased by suppressed expression of five genes: Ku70 (DSB repair pathway), XPA (nucleotide excision repair pathway), RPA1 (mismatch repair pathway), RAD17 and RBBP8 (cell cycle control). Knocked-down expression of four genes (MRE11A, RAD51 in the DSB pathway, SESN1, and SUMO1) significantly inhibited cell cycle progression, possibly because of severe impairment of DNA damage repair. Moreover, decreased XPA, p21, or MLH1 expression resulted in both significantly enhanced cell cycle progression and increased yields of chromosome aberrations, indicating that these gene products modulate both cell cycle control and DNA damage repair. Nine of these eleven genes, whose knock-down expression affected cytogenetic repair, were up-regulated in cells exposed to gamma radiation, suggesting that genes transcriptionally modulated by IR were critical to regulate IR

  1. c-Myc quadruplex-forming sequence Pu-27 induces extensive damage in both telomeric and nontelomeric regions of DNA.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Ashraful; Thomas, Shelia D; Murty, Vundavalli V; Sedoris, Kara J; Miller, Donald M

    2014-03-21

    Quadruplex-forming DNA sequences are present throughout the eukaryotic genome, including in telomeric DNA. We have shown that the c-Myc promoter quadruplex-forming sequence Pu-27 selectively kills transformed cells (Sedoris, K. C., Thomas, S. D., Clarkson, C. R., Muench, D., Islam, A., Singh, R., and Miller, D. M. (2012) Genomic c-Myc quadruplex DNA selectively kills leukemia. Mol. Cancer Ther. 11, 66-76). In this study, we show that Pu-27 induces profound DNA damage, resulting in striking chromosomal abnormalities in the form of chromatid or chromosomal breaks, radial formation, and telomeric DNA loss, which induces γ-H2AX in U937 cells. Pu-27 down-regulates telomeric shelterin proteins, DNA damage response mediators (RAD17 and RAD50), double-stranded break repair molecule 53BP1, G2 checkpoint regulators (CHK1 and CHK2), and anti-apoptosis gene survivin. Interestingly, there are no changes of DNA repair molecules H2AX, BRCA1, and the telomere maintenance gene, hTERT. ΔB-U937, where U937 cells stably transfected with deleted basic domain of TRF2 is partially sensitive to Pu-27 but exhibits no changes in expression of shelterin proteins. However, there is an up-regulation of CHK1, CHK2, H2AX, BRCA1, and survivin. Telomere dysfunction-induced foci assay revealed co-association of TRF1with γ-H2AX in ATM deficient cells, which are differentially sensitive to Pu-27 than ATM proficient cells. Alt (alternating lengthening of telomere) cells are relatively resistant to Pu-27, but there are no significant changes of telomerase activity in both Alt and non-Alt cells. Lastly, we show that this Pu-27-mediated sensitivity is p53-independent. The data therefore support two conclusions. First, Pu-27 induces DNA damage within both telomeric and nontelomeric regions of the genome. Second, Pu-27-mediated telomeric damage is due, at least in part, to compromise of the telomeric shelterin protein complex.

  2. Identification of CD133-Positive Radioresistant Cells in Atypical Teratoid/ Rhabdoid Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Kao, Chung-Lan; Chen, Yi-Wei; Chien, Chien-Shu; Hung, Shih-Chieh; Lo, Jeng-Fan; Chen, Yann-Jang; Ku, Hung-Hai; Hsu, Ming-Ta; Wong, Tai-Tong

    2008-01-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is an extremely malignant neoplasm in the central nervous system (CNS) which occurs in infancy and childhood. Recent studies suggested that CD133 could be considered a marker for brain cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). However, the role of CD133 in AT/RT has never been investigated. Herein we report the isolation of CD133-positive cells (CD133+), found to have the potential to differentiate into three germ layer tissues, from tissues of nine AT/RT patients. The migration/invasion/malignancy and radioresistant capabilities of CD133+ were significantly augmented when compared to CD133−. The clinical data showed that the amount of CD133+ in AT/RTs correlated positively with the degree of resistance to radiation therapy. Using cDNA microarray analysis, the genotoxic–response profiles of CD133+ and CD133− irradiated with 10 Gy ionizing radiation (IR) were analyzed 0.5, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h post-IR. We then validated these microarray data and showed increased phosphorylation after IR of p-ATM, p-RAD17, and p-CHX2 as well as increased expression of BCL-2 protein in CD133+ compared to CD133−. Furthermore, we found that CD133+ can effectively resist IR with cisplatin- and/or TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the up-regulated expression of p-ATM and BCL-2 proteins in IR-treated CD133+ xenotransgrafts in SCID mice but not in IR-treated CD133−. Importantly, the effect of IR in CD133+ transplanted mice can be significantly improved by a combination of BCL-2 siRNA with debromohymenialdisine, an inhibitor of checkpoint kinases. In sum, this is the first report indicating that CD133+ AT/RT cells demonstrate the characteristics of CSCs. The IR-resistant and anti-apoptotic properties in CD133+ may reflect the clinical refractory malignancy of AT/RTs and thus the activated p-ATM pathway and BCL-2 expression in CD133+ could be possible targets to improve future treatment of deadly diseases like AT/RT. PMID

  3. Genetic Variants in CD44 and MAT1A Confer Susceptibility to Acute Skin Reaction in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mumbrekar, Kamalesh Dattaram; Bola Sadashiva, Satish Rao; Kabekkodu, Shama Prasada; Fernandes, Donald Jerard; Vadhiraja, Bejadi Manjunath; Suga, Tomo; Shoji, Yoshimi; Nakayama, Fumiaki; Imai, Takashi; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneity in radiation therapy (RT)-induced normal tissue toxicity is observed in 10% of cancer patients, limiting the therapeutic outcomes. In addition to treatment-related factors, normal tissue adverse reactions also manifest from genetic alterations in distinct pathways majorly involving DNA damage-repair genes, inflammatory cytokine genes, cell cycle regulation, and antioxidant response. Therefore, the common sequence variants in these radioresponsive genes might modify the severity of normal tissue toxicity, and the identification of the same could have clinical relevance as a predictive biomarker. The present study was conducted in a cohort of patients with breast cancer to evaluate the possible associations between genetic variants in radioresponsive genes described previously and the risk of developing RT-induced acute skin adverse reactions. We tested 22 genetic variants reported in 18 genes (ie, NFE2L2, OGG1, NEIL3, RAD17, PTTG1, REV3L, ALAD, CD44, RAD9A, TGFβR3, MAD2L2, MAP3K7, MAT1A, RPS6KB2, ZNF830, SH3GL1, BAX, and XRCC1) using TaqMan assay-based real-time polymerase chain reaction. At the end of RT, the severity of skin damage was scored, and the subjects were dichotomized as nonoverresponders (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade <2) and overresponders (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade ≥2) for analysis. Of the 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms studied, the rs8193 polymorphism lying in the micro-RNA binding site of 3'-UTR of CD44 was significantly (P=.0270) associated with RT-induced adverse skin reactions. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis showed significant (P=.0107) gene-gene interactions between MAT1A and CD44. Furthermore, an increase in the total number of risk alleles was associated with increasing occurrence of overresponses (P=.0302). The genetic polymorphisms in radioresponsive genes act as genetic modifiers of acute normal tissue toxicity outcomes after RT by acting individually (rs8193), by gene

  4. Accuracy of Continuous Glucose Monitoring During Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Elleri, Daniela; Allen, Janet M.; Caldwell, Karen; Nodale, Marianna; Wilinska, Malgorzata E.; Amiel, Stephanie A.; Hovorka, Roman; Murphy, Helen R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Performance of continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) may be lower when glucose levels are changing rapidly, such as occurs during physical activity. Our aim was to evaluate accuracy of a current-generation CGM during moderate-intensity exercise in type 1 diabetes (T1D) pregnancy. Subjects and Methods As part of a study of 24-h closed-loop insulin delivery in 12 women with T1D (disease duration, 17.6 years; glycosylated hemoglobin, 6.4%) during pregnancy (gestation, 21 weeks), we evaluated the Freestyle Navigator® sensor (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) during afternoon (15:00–18:00 h) and morning (09:30–12:30 h) exercise (55 min of brisk walking on a treadmill followed by a 2-h recovery), compared with sedentary conditions (18:00–09:00 h). Plasma (reference) glucose, measured at regular 15–30-min intervals with the YSI Ltd. (Fleet, United Kingdom) model YSI 2300 analyzer, was used to assess CGM performance. Results Sensor accuracy, as indicated by the larger relative absolute difference (RAD) between paired sensor and reference glucose values, was lower during exercise compared with rest (median RAD, 11.8% vs. 18.4%; P<0.001). These differences remained significant when correcting for plasma glucose relative rate of change (P<0.001). Analysis by glucose range showed lower accuracy during hypoglycemia for both sedentary (median RAD, 24.4%) and exercise (median RAD, 32.1%) conditions. Using Clarke error grid analysis, 96% of CGM values were clinically safe under resting conditions compared with only 87% during exercise. Conclusions Compared with sedentary conditions, accuracy of the Freestyle Navigator CGM was lower during moderate-intensity exercise in pregnant women with T1D. This difference was particularly marked in hypoglycemia and could not be solely explained by the glucose rate of change associated with physical activity. PMID:23445170

  5. Cu and Ni solubility in high-temperature aqueous fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watenphul, A.; Scholten, L.; Beermann, O.; Kavner, A.; Alraun, P.; Falkenberg, G.; Newville, M.; Lanzirotti, A.; Schmidt, C.

    2013-12-01

    C along an isochore was observed for both solutions. The Ni solubility increased with pressure at constant temperature. Experiments with aqueous CaCl2 solutions resulted in higher dissolved Ni concentrations compared to NaCl solutions at similar pressure-temperature conditions. Our experiments suggest that the solubility of Cu and Ni in aqueous fluids is mainly governed by fluid composition. For both elements, solubility increased in more chlorine-rich fluids, which could reflect metal-chlorine complexation. Preliminary results for Cu indicate a strong dependence of the solubility on the pH of the fluid. A contrasting solubility behavior of Cu and Ni was observed with increasing pressure, which might be one reason for the difference in hydrothermal ore deposit formation. [1] Barnes (1979) Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits, Wiley. [2] Schmidt and Rickers (2003) Am. Mineral. 88, 288-292. [3] Wilke el al. (2010) J. Synchrotron Rad. 17, 669-675.