Science.gov

Sample records for radar absorbing materials

  1. Radar Absorbing Material Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    layer will depend on the angle of the incidence of the incoming wave. However, for large and ε µ values, the direction of the refracted ray in the...1995. 3. Federation of American Scientist Official Website (www.fas.org), 22 June 2003. 4. Asoke Bhattacharyya, D.L. Sengupta, Radar Cross Section

  2. Development of Coatings for Radar Absorbing Materials at X-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Singh, Samarjit

    2018-03-01

    The present review gives a brief account on some of the technical features of radar absorbing materials (RAMs). The paper has been presented with a concentrated approach towards the material aspects for achieving enhanced radar absorption characteristics for its application as a promising candidate in stealth technology and electromagnetic interference (EMI) minimization problems. The effect of metal particles doping/dispersion in the ferrites and dielectrics has been discussed for obtaining tunable radar absorbing characteristics. A short theoretical overview on the development of absorber materials, implementation of genetic algorithm (GA) in multi-layering and frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) based multi-layer has also been presented for the development of radar absorbing coatings for achieving better absorption augmented with broadband features in order to counter the radar detection systems.

  3. Knitted radar absorbing materials (RAM) based on nickel-cobalt magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teber, Ahmet; Unver, Ibrahim; Kavas, Huseyin; Aktas, Bekir; Bansal, Rajeev

    2016-05-01

    There has been a long-standing interest in the development of flexible, lightweight, thin, and reconfigurable radar absorbing materials (RAM) for military applications such as camouflaging ground-based hardware against airborne radar observation. The use of polymeric Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fabrics as a host matrix for magnetic metal nano-particles (either at the yarn-stage or after weaving the fabric) for shielding and absorbing applications has been described in the literature. In our experimental investigation, the relative concentrations of Nickel and Cobalt as well as the coating time are varied with a view to optimizing the microwave absorption characteristics of the resulting PAN-based composite material in the radar-frequency bands (X, Ku, and K). It is found that the PAN samples with the shortest coating time have the best return losses (under -20 dB return loss over a moderate bandwidth).

  4. Development Radar Absorber Material using Rice Husk Carbon for Anechoic Chamber Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulpadrianto, Z.; Yohandri, Y.; Putra, A.

    2018-04-01

    The developments of radar technology in Indonesia are very strategic due to the vast territory and had a high-level cloud cover more than 55% of the time. The objective of this research is to develop radar technology facility in Indonesia using local natural resources. The target of this research is to present a low cost and satisfy quality of anechoic chambers. Anechoic chamber is a space designed to avoid reflection of EM waves from outside or from within the room. The reflection coefficient of the EM wave is influenced by the medium imposed by the EM wave. In laboratory experimental research has been done the development of material radar absorber using rice husk. The rice husk is activated using HCl and KOH by stirring using a magnetic stirrer for 1 Hours. The results of rice husk activation were measured using a Vector Network Analyzer by varying the thickness of the ingredients and the concentration of the activation agent. The VNA measurement is obtained reflection coefficient of -12dB and. -6.22dB for 1M HCL and KOH at thickness 10mm, respectively.

  5. The design of broadband radar absorbing surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suk, Go H.

    1990-09-01

    There has been a growing and widespread interest in radar absorbing material technology. As the name implies, radar absorbing materials or RAM's are coatings whose electric and magnetic properties have been selected to allow the absorption of microwave energy at discrete or broadband frequencies. In military applications low radar cross section (RCS) of a vehicle may be required in order to escape detection while a covert mission is being carried on. These requirements have led to the very low observable or stealth technology that reduces the probability of detection of an aircraft. The design of radar absorbing materials is limited by constraints on the allowable volume and weight of the surface coating, and it is difficult to design a broadband radar absorbing structure in limited volume. This thesis investigates the use of lossy dielectric materials of high dielectric permittivity in multilayer composites for the production of low radar cross section (RCS). The analysis is done by computing the plane wave reflection coefficient at the exterior surface of the composite coating by means of a computer program which selects layer parameters which determine low reflection coefficients for electromagnetic radiation under constraint of limited layer thickness as well as maximum frequency bandwidth.

  6. Fabrication of Organic Radar Absorbing Materials: A Report on the TIF Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    thickness, permittivity and permeability. The ability to measure the permittivity and permeability is an essential requirement for designing an optimised...absorber. And good optimisations codes are required in order to achieve the best possible absorber designs . In this report, the results from a...through measurement of their conductivity and permittivity at microwave frequencies. Methods were then developed for optimising the design of

  7. A Novel, Real-Valued Genetic Algorithm for Optimizing Radar Absorbing Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, John Michael

    2004-01-01

    A novel, real-valued Genetic Algorithm (GA) was designed and implemented to minimize the reflectivity and/or transmissivity of an arbitrary number of homogeneous, lossy dielectric or magnetic layers of arbitrary thickness positioned at either the center of an infinitely long rectangular waveguide, or adjacent to the perfectly conducting backplate of a semi-infinite, shorted-out rectangular waveguide. Evolutionary processes extract the optimal physioelectric constants falling within specified constraints which minimize reflection and/or transmission over the frequency band of interest. This GA extracted the unphysical dielectric and magnetic constants of three layers of fictitious material placed adjacent to the conducting backplate of a shorted-out waveguide such that the reflectivity of the configuration was 55 dB or less over the entire X-band. Examples of the optimization of realistic multi-layer absorbers are also presented. Although typical Genetic Algorithms require populations of many thousands in order to function properly and obtain correct results, verified correct results were obtained for all test cases using this GA with a population of only four.

  8. Prediction of microwave absorption properties of tetrapod-needle zinc oxide whisker radar absorbing material without prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu-Chen; Wang, Jie; Liu, Jiang-Fan; Song, Zhong-Guo; Xi, Xiao-Li

    2017-07-01

    The radar absorbing material (RAM) containing a tetrapod-needle zinc oxide whisker (T-ZnOw) has been proved to have good efficiency of microwave absorption. However, the available theoretical models, which are intended to predict the microwave absorbing properties of such an interesting composite, still cannot work well without some prior knowledge, like the measured effective electromagnetic parameters of the prepared T-ZnOw composite. Hence, we propose a novel predictive method here to calculate the reflectivity of T-ZnOw RAM without prior knowledge. In this method, the absorbing ability of this kind of material is divided into three main aspects: the unstructured background, the conductive network, and the nanostructured particle. Then, the attenuation properties of these three parts are represented, respectively, by three different approaches: the equivalent spherical particle and the static strong fluctuation theory, the equivalent circuit model obtained from the complex impedance spectra technology, and the combination of four different microscopic electromagnetic responses. The operational calculation scheme can be obtained by integrating these three absorption effects into the existing theoretical attenuation model. The reasonable agreement between the theoretical and experimental data of a T-ZnON/SiO2 composite in the range of 8-14 GHz shows that the proposed scheme can predict the microwave absorption properties of the T-ZnOw RAM. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of these three mechanisms indicates that, on the one hand, the background plays a dominant role in determining the real part of the effective permittivity of the T-ZnOw composite while the network and the particle are the decisive factors of its material loss; on the other hand, an zero-phase impedance, i.e., a pure resistance, with appropriate resonance characteristic might be a rational physical description of the attenuation property of the conductive network, but it is difficult to realize

  9. Advanced neutron absorber materials

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Smolik, Galen R.

    2000-01-01

    A neutron absorbing material and method utilizing rare earth elements such as gadolinium, europium and samarium to form metallic glasses and/or noble base nano/microcrystalline materials, the neutron absorbing material having a combination of superior neutron capture cross sections coupled with enhanced resistance to corrosion, oxidation and leaching.

  10. Preparation of Superparamagnetic Zn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 Particle by Coprecipitation-Sonochemical Method for Radar Absorbing Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufiq, A.; Bahtiar, S.; Sunaryono; Hidayat, N.; Hidayat, A.; Mufti, N.; Diantoro, M.; Fuad, A.; Munasir; Rahmawati, R.; Adi, W. A.; Pratapa, S.; Darminto

    2017-05-01

    One of many applications of spinel ferrite nanoparticles is related to their performance as radar absorbing materials. In this work, we report developing synthesis method through combined coprecipitation-sonochemical routes in preparing Zn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticle from iron sand in Indonesia as a vital raw material. The structure, size, morphology, and elements of the Zn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticle were investigated via X-Ray diffractometry and Transmission/Scanning Electron Microscopy (TEM/SEM) combining Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The magnetic properties of the Zn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticle were characterized by using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). Furthermore, the reflection loss character of the Zn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticle was determined via Vector Network Analyzer (VNA). From the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the XRD data, it can be identified that the Zn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 particle formed a spinel cubic structure in a single phase with the lattice parameter of approximately 8.401 Å. It is known from the TEM image that the Zn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 particle had a size of about 9.7 nm and tended to agglomerate. Furthermore, the data analysis of the M(H) curve presented that the Zn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticle has a superparamagnetic behavior with the saturation magnetization of approximately 43 emu/g. Finally, the data analysis of the reflection loss as a function of frequency showed that the Zn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticle performs as a radar absorbing material with the absorption performance of approximately -11.0 dB at the frequency of 10.8 GHz

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of BaFe12O19/Poly(aniline, pyrrole, ethylene terephthalate) Composites Coatings as Radar Absorbing Material (RAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasria, Nia; Ardhyananta, H.; Fajarin, R.; Widyastuti

    2017-07-01

    This research shows the processing and design of radar absorbing material (RAM) based on barium hexaferrite (BaM) and poly(aniline, pyrrole, ethylene terephthalate) (PAni,PPy,PET). BaM was prepared by sol gel method with Ni-Zn doping at mole fraction of 0. 4 to obtain soft magnetic material. BaM/(PAni,PPy) composites were synthesized by in-situ polymerization method at ˜0 °C. (BaM/PET) composite was prepared by melt compounding at 220°C. The composites were coated on A-grade AH36 steel using Dallenbach Layer, Salisbury Screen and Jaumann Layer methods with thickness of 2, 4, and 6 mm. The composites were evaluated using XRD, SEM, FTIR, VSM, LCM-meter and VNA. Results showed that doped BaM showed BaNixZnxFe12-2xO19 structure. BaM/(PAni,PPy,PET) composites possessed globular morphology with M-O and C-H bonds. BaNixZnxFe12-2xO19 exhibited the value of Ms and Hc, 56.6 emu/g and 60 Oe respectively. High electrical conductivity of 1.77744 × 10-5 S/cm was achieved of BaM/PAni composite. The maximum reflection loss (RL) was reached at - 48.720 dB and 8.1 GHz for BaM/PAni composite coating with 6 mm thickness at Jaumann Layer. These results indicated that BaM/PAni composite was a soft magnetic material with a high RL value that is suitable for RAM, which used in stealth technology on naval vessels.

  12. Review of Radar Absorbing Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Symposium, 1990. AP-S. Merging technologies for the 90’s. Digest 1990, 3, 1212. (30) Nortier, J. R., Van der Neut , C.A., Baker, D.E. Microwave Journal...1987, 219. (31) Kasevich, R. S.; Broderick, F., US Patent 5223849. 1993. (32) Van Der Plas, G., Barel, A., Schweicher, E. Antennas and Propagation

  13. Solar radiation absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Googin, John M.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Schreyer, James M.; Whitehead, Harlan D.

    1977-01-01

    Solar energy absorbing means in solar collectors are provided by a solar selective carbon surface. A solar selective carbon surface is a microporous carbon surface having pores within the range of 0.2 to 2 micrometers. Such a surface is provided in a microporous carbon article by controlling the pore size. A thermally conductive substrate is provided with a solar selective surface by adhering an array of carbon particles in a suitable binder to the substrate, a majority of said particles having diameters within the range of about 0.2-10 microns.

  14. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, D.C.

    1987-11-20

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compound of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved. 2 figs.

  15. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, Daniel C.

    1990-01-01

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  16. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, Daniel C.

    1990-02-06

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  17. Graphene based tunable fractal Hilbert curve array broadband radar absorbing screen for radar cross section reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xianjun, E-mail: xianjun.huang@manchester.ac.uk; College of Electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073; Hu, Zhirun

    2014-11-15

    This paper proposes a new type of graphene based tunable radar absorbing screen. The absorbing screen consists of Hilbert curve metal strip array and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) graphene sheet. The graphene based screen is not only tunable when the chemical potential of the graphene changes, but also has broadband effective absorption. The absorption bandwidth is from 8.9GHz to 18.1GHz, ie., relative bandwidth of more than 68%, at chemical potential of 0eV, which is significantly wider than that if the graphene sheet had not been employed. As the chemical potential varies from 0 to 0.4eV, the central frequency of themore » screen can be tuned from 13.5GHz to 19.0GHz. In the proposed structure, Hilbert curve metal strip array was designed to provide multiple narrow band resonances, whereas the graphene sheet directly underneath the metal strip array provides tunability and averagely required surface resistance so to significantly extend the screen operation bandwidth by providing broadband impedance matching and absorption. In addition, the thickness of the screen has been optimized to achieve nearly the minimum thickness limitation for a nonmagnetic absorber. The working principle of this absorbing screen is studied in details, and performance under various incident angles is presented. This work extends applications of graphene into tunable microwave radar cross section (RCS) reduction applications.« less

  18. The effect of BaM/PANI composition with epoxy paint matrix on single and double layers coating with spray coating method for radar absorbing materials applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widyastuti, Fajarin, Rindang; Pratiwi, Vania Mitha; Kholid, Rifki Rachman; Habib, Abdulloh

    2018-04-01

    In this study, RAM composite has been succesfully synthesized by mixing BaM as magnetic materials and PANI as conductive materials. BaM and PANI materials were prepared separately by solid state method and polymerization method, respectively. To investigated the presence of BaM phase and magnetic property of the as prepared BaM, XRD pert PAN analytical and VSM 250 Dexing Magnet were employed. Inductance Capacitance Resistance technique was carried out to measure electrical conductivity of the synthesized PANI materials. In order to further characterized the structural features of BaM and PANI, SEM-EDX FEI 850 and FTIR characterizations were conducted. RAM composite was prepared by mixing BaM and PANI powders with ultrasonic cleaner. Afterwards, VNA (Vector Network Analyzer) characterization was carried out to determine reflection loss value of RAM by applying mixed RAM composite and epoxy paint on aluminum plate using spray gun. Microscopic characterization was employed to investigated the distribution of RAM particles on the substrate. It was found that reflection loss value as low as -27.153 dB was achieved when applied 15 wt% BaM/PANi composite at 100.6 µm thickness. In addition, the absorption of electromagnetic waves value increase as the addition of RAM composite composition increases.

  19. Damage tolerant light absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Hamby, Jr., Clyde; Akerman, M. Alfred; Seals, Roland D.

    1993-01-01

    A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000.degree. C. to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm.sup.3.

  20. Damage tolerant light absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; Hamby, C. Jr.; Akerman, M.A.; Seals, R.D.

    1993-09-07

    A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, is prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000 C to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm[sup 3]. 9 figures.

  1. Magnetic field effects on microwave absorbing materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Ira; Hollingsworth, Charles S.; Mckinney, Ted M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this program was to gather information to formulate a microwave absorber that can work in the presence of strong constant direct current (DC) magnetic fields. The program was conducted in four steps. The first step was to investigate the electrical and magnetic properties of magnetic and ferrite microwave absorbers in the presence of strong magnetic fields. This included both experimental measurements and a literature survey of properties that may be applicable to finding an appropriate absorbing material. The second step was to identify those material properties that will produce desirable absorptive properties in the presence of intense magnetic fields and determine the range of magnetic field in which the absorbers remain effective. The third step was to establish ferrite absorber designs that will produce low reflection and adequate absorption in the presence of intense inhomogeneous static magnetic fields. The fourth and final step was to prepare and test samples of such magnetic microwave absorbers if such designs seem practical.

  2. Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Duoss, Eric

    2018-01-16

    Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  3. Wide band design on the scaled absorbing material filled with flaky CIPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yonggang; Yuan, Liming; Gao, Wei; Wang, Xiaobing; Liang, Zichang; Liao, Yi

    2018-02-01

    The scaled target measurement is an important method to get the target characteristic. Radar absorbing materials are widely used in the low detectable target, considering the absorbing material frequency dispersion characteristics, it makes designing and manufacturing scaled radar absorbing materials on the scaled target very difficult. This paper proposed a wide band design method on the scaled absorbing material of the thin absorption coating with added carbonyl iron particles. According to the theoretical radar cross section (RCS) of the plate, the reflection loss determined by the permittivity and permeability was chosen as the main design factor. Then, the parameters of the scaled absorbing materials were designed using the effective medium theory, and the scaled absorbing material was constructed. Finally, the full-size coating plate and scaled coating plates (under three different scale factors) were simulated; the RCSs of the coating plates were numerically calculated and measured at 4 GHz and a scale factor of 2. The results showed that the compensated RCS of the scaled coating plate was close to that of the full-size coating plate, that is, the mean deviation was less than 0.5 dB, and the design method for the scaled material was very effective.

  4. Tech Transfer Webinar: Energy Absorbing Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Duoss, Eric

    2018-01-16

    A new material has been designed and manufactured at LLNL that can absorb mechanical energy--a cushion--while also providing protection against sheering. This ordered cellular material is 3D printed using direct ink writing techniques under development at LLNL. It is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  5. Investigations on Absorber Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Marhauser, Frank; Elliott, Thomas; Rimmer, Robert

    2009-05-01

    In the framework of the 12 GeV upgrade project for the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) improvements are being made to refurbish cryomodules housing Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility's (JLab) original 5-cell cavities. Recently we have started to look into a possible simplification of the existing Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorber design combined with the aim to find alternative material candidates. The absorbers are implemented in two HOM-waveguides immersed in the helium bath and operate at 2 K temperature. We have built a cryogenic setup to perform measurements on sample load materials to investigate their lossy characteristics and variationsmore » from room temperature down to 2 K. Initial results are presented in this paper.« less

  6. Experimental Demonstration of Printed Graphene Nano-flakes Enabled Flexible and Conformable Wideband Radar Absorbers

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xianjun; Pan, Kewen; Hu, Zhirun

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we have designed, fabricated and experimentally characterized a printed graphene nano-flakes enabled flexible and conformable wideband radar absorber. The absorber covers both X (8–12 GHz) and Ku (12–18 GHz) bands and is printed on flexible substrate using graphene nano-flakes conductive ink through stencil printing method. The measured results show that an effective absorption (above 90%) bandwidth spans from 10.4 GHz to 19.7 GHz, namely a 62% fraction bandwidth, with only 2 mm thickness. The flexibility of the printed graphene nano-flakes enables the absorber conformably bending and attaching to a metal cylinder. The radar cross section (RCS) of the cylinder with and without absorber attachment has been compared and excellent absorption has been obtained. Only 3.6% bandwidth reduction has been observed comparing to that of un-bended absorber. This work has demonstrated unambiguously that printed graphene can provide flexible and conformable wideband radar absorption, which extends the graphene’s application to practical RCS reductions. PMID:27924823

  7. Experimental Demonstration of Printed Graphene Nano-flakes Enabled Flexible and Conformable Wideband Radar Absorbers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xianjun; Pan, Kewen; Hu, Zhirun

    2016-12-07

    In this work, we have designed, fabricated and experimentally characterized a printed graphene nano-flakes enabled flexible and conformable wideband radar absorber. The absorber covers both X (8-12 GHz) and Ku (12-18 GHz) bands and is printed on flexible substrate using graphene nano-flakes conductive ink through stencil printing method. The measured results show that an effective absorption (above 90%) bandwidth spans from 10.4 GHz to 19.7 GHz, namely a 62% fraction bandwidth, with only 2 mm thickness. The flexibility of the printed graphene nano-flakes enables the absorber conformably bending and attaching to a metal cylinder. The radar cross section (RCS) of the cylinder with and without absorber attachment has been compared and excellent absorption has been obtained. Only 3.6% bandwidth reduction has been observed comparing to that of un-bended absorber. This work has demonstrated unambiguously that printed graphene can provide flexible and conformable wideband radar absorption, which extends the graphene's application to practical RCS reductions.

  8. Flexible and conformable broadband metamaterial absorber with wide-angle and polarization stability for radar application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huijie; Yang, Xiaoqing; Wu, Shiyue; Zhang, Di; Xiao, Hui; Huang, Kama; Zhu, Zhanxia; Yuan, Jianping

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a type of flexible, broadband electromagnetic microwave absorber is designed, fabricated and experimentally characterized. The absorber is composed of lumped resistors loaded frequency selective surface which is mounted on flexible substrate using silicone rubber and in turn backed by copper film. The simulated results show that an effective absorption (over 90%) bandwidth spans from 7.6 to 18.3 GHz, which covers both X (8-12 GHz) and Ku (12-18 GHz) bands, namely a 82.6% fraction bandwidth. And the bandwidth performs a good absorption response by varying the incident angle up to 60° for both TE and TM polarization. Moreover, the flexibility of the substrate enables the absorber conformably to bend and attach to cylinders of various radius without breakdown of the absorber. The designed structure has been fabricated and measured for both planar and conformable cases, and absorption responses show a good agreement of the broadband absorption feature with the simulated ones. This work has demonstrated specifically that proposed structure provides polarization-insensitive, wide-angle, flexible and conformable wideband absorption, which extends the absorber’s application to practical radar cross section reductions for radars and warships.

  9. Multiobjective Topology Optimization of Energy Absorbing Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    absorbing liner for equestrian helmets. Part I: layered foam liner . Mater Des 30(9):3405–3413 Sethian J, Wiegmann A (2000) Structural boundary design via...Army Research Laboratory Wildman RA, Weile DS (2007) Geometry reconstruction of conduct- ing cylinders using genetic programming. IEEE Trans Antennas

  10. Shock Tube Test for Energy Absorbing Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-13

    rigid and lightweight foam material with a closed-cell structure, and a very high strength-to-weight ratio (7). It is commonly used as a sandwich...including application in helmet liners (8). Zorbium™ is the viscoelastic polyurethane foam used in military helmet suspension system pads (9). 8...viscoelastic polyurethane foam which shows strain rate dependent behavior when compressed. This is displayed by the significant difference in response

  11. Use of cork as absorbent material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria; D'Alesio, Andrea

    2017-07-01

    Cork is a green and sustainable material. At the end of its useful life, it can be disposed of into the environment without causing any damage. It can be used to improve the acoustics inside environments, as a system for the reduction of reverberation time. Sound absorption systems consist of cork panels mounted at a distance onto a rigid wall. The thickness of the cork panels considered are 1.5 mm and 2.5 mm. While the distances considered from the rigid wall are 3 cm, 5 cm, 10 cm and 15 cm. The absorption coefficient of the samples was measured in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 2,000 Hz with an impedance tube (tube of Kundt). Furthermore, the problems relating to the realization of sound-absorption systems composed of cork panels are also discussed.

  12. Metamaterial for Radar Frequencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Circuit Board RAM Radar Absorbing Material RCS Radar Cross Section SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratio SNG Single-Negative SRR Split Ring Resonator...although some can be single-negative ( SNG ). DNG refers to material with simultaneous negative real parts of the permittivity r  and permeability

  13. Absorbing Boundary Conditions For Optical Pulses In Dispersive, Nonlinear Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper will present results in computational nonlinear optics. An algorithm will be described that provides absorbing boundary conditions for optical pulses in dispersive, nonlinear materials. A new numerical absorber at the boundaries has been developed that is responsive to the spectral content of the pulse. Also, results will be shown of calculations of 2-D electromagnetic nonlinear waves computed by directly integrating in time the nonlinear vector Maxwell's equations. The results will include simulations of "light bullet" like pulses. Here diffraction and dispersion will be counteracted by nonlinear effects. Comparisons will be shown of calculations that use the standard boundary conditions and the new ones.

  14. Sound-absorbing slabs and structures based on granular materials (bound and unbound). [energy absorbing efficiency of porous material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre-Lazar, S.; Popeea, G.

    1974-01-01

    Sound absorbing slabs and structures made up of bound or unbound granular materials are considered and how to manufacture these elements at the building site. The raw material is a single grain powder (sand, expanded blast furnace slag, etc.) that imparts to the end products an apparent porosity of 25-45% and an energy dissipation within the structure leading to absorption coefficients that can be compared with those of mineral wool and urethane.

  15. Application of Absorbable Hemostatic Materials Observed in Thyroid Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Ming; Liang, Zhen-Zhen; Song, Yan

    2016-05-01

    To observe the application effects of the absorbable hemostatic materials in thyroid operation. Methods: From May 2014 to January 2015, 100 patients with thyroid surgery in our university affiliated hospital were selected as the research object. Randomly divided into experimental group and control group, 50 cases in each group. Application of absorbable hemostatic hemostatic materials in the experimental group during the operation, the control group using the traditional mechanical methods of hemostasis hemostasis to observe the operation time, bleeding volume, postoperative drainage volume, complications and hospital stay of the two groups. Results: The operation time, bleeding volume, postoperative drainage and hospital stay in the experimental group were significantly lower in the study group than in the control group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P< 0.05); The satisfaction of patients in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group, the difference was statistically significant in the two groups (P < 0.05); There was no significant difference in the incidence of wound bleeding complications between the study group and the control group (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Absorbable hemostatic materials can effectively shorten the operation time, reduce intraoperative blood loss and postoperative drainage, reduce the length of hospital stay and improve the success rate of surgery and patient satisfaction, which is worthy to be popularized in clinical thyroid surgery.

  16. Feasibility Study of Radar-Transmitting Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-15

    ABS7RACT It is shown that it is unlikely that the principles that ware originally identified for investigation in this study can be used to obtain...transmitting materials by making the real part nr of the refractive index of the materials equal to one nr = 1. (1.1) A useful application is to obtain...reflectance great. Parrett1 suqaested the investigation of obtaining high microwave transmittance by using surace electron plasmas. Since the resonant

  17. Porphyrin Based Near Infrared-Absorbing Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Qiwen

    The conservation and transformation of energy is essential to the survival of mankind, and thus concerns every modern society. Solar energy, as an everlasting source of energy, holds one of the key solutions to some of the most urgent problems the world now faces, such as global warming and the oil crisis. Advances in technologies utilizing clean, abundant solar energy, could be the steering wheel of our societies. Solar cells, one of the major advances in converting solar energy into electricity, are now capturing people's interest all over the globe. While solar cells have been commercially available for many years, the manufacturing of solar cells is quite expensive, limiting their broad based implementation. The cost of solar cell based electricity is 15-50 cents per kilowatt hour (¢/kwh), depending on the type of solar cell, compared to 0.7 ¢/kwh for fossil fuel based electricity. Clearly, decreasing the cost of electricity from solar cells is critical for their wide spread deployment. This will require a decrease in the cost of light absorbing materials and material processing used in fabricating the cells. Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) utilize organic materials such as polymers and small molecules. These devices have the advantage of being flexible and lower cost than conventional solar cells built from inorganic semiconductors (e.g. silicon). The low cost of OPVs is tied to lower materials and fabrication costs of organic cells. However, the current power conversion efficiencies of OPVs are still below 15%, while convention crystalline Si cells have efficiencies of 20-25%. A key limitation in OPVs today is their inability to utilize the near infrared (NIR) portion of the solar spectrum. This part of the spectrum comprises nearly half of the energy in sunlight that could be used to make electricity. The first and foremost step in conversion solar energy conversion is the absorption of light, which nature has provided us optimal model of, which is

  18. Absorbable synthetic versus catgut suture material for perineal repair

    PubMed Central

    Kettle, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background Approximately 70% of women will experience some degree of perineal trauma following vaginal delivery and will require stitches. This may result in perineal pain and superficial dyspareunia. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects of absorbable synthetic suture material as compared with catgut on the amount of short and long term pain experienced by mothers following perineal repair. Search strategy We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register. Selection criteria Randomised trials comparing absorbable synthetic (polyglycolic acid and polyglactin) with plain or chromic catgut suture for perineal repair in mothers after vaginal delivery. Data collection and analysis Trial quality was assessed independently by two reviewers. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by the second reviewer. Main results Eight trials were included. Compared with catgut, the polyglycolic acid and polyglactin groups were associated with less pain in first three days (odds ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.71). There was also less need for analgesia (odds ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.52 to 0.77) and less suture dehiscence (odds ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.29 to 0.70). There was no significant difference in long term pain (odds ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.61 to 1.08). Removal of suture material was significantly more common in the polyglycolic acid and polyglactin groups (odds ratio 2.01, 95% confidence interval 1.56 to 2.58). There was no difference in the amount of dyspareunia experienced by women. Authors’ conclusions Absorbable synthetic suture material (in the form of polyglycolic acid and polyglactin sutures) for perineal repair following childbirth appears to decrease women’s experience of short-term pain. The length of time taken for the synthetic material to be absorbed is of concern. A trial addressing the use of polyglactin has recently been completed and this has

  19. Material Model Evaluation of a Composite Honeycomb Energy Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Annett, Martin S.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Polanco, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate four different material models in predicting the dynamic crushing response of solid-element-based models of a composite honeycomb energy absorber, designated the Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA). Dynamic crush tests of three DEA components were simulated using the nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic code, LS-DYNA . In addition, a full-scale crash test of an MD-500 helicopter, retrofitted with DEA blocks, was simulated. The four material models used to represent the DEA included: *MAT_CRUSHABLE_FOAM (Mat 63), *MAT_HONEYCOMB (Mat 26), *MAT_SIMPLIFIED_RUBBER/FOAM (Mat 181), and *MAT_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC_CRUSHABLE_FOAM (Mat 142). Test-analysis calibration metrics included simple percentage error comparisons of initial peak acceleration, sustained crush stress, and peak compaction acceleration of the DEA components. In addition, the Roadside Safety Verification and Validation Program (RSVVP) was used to assess similarities and differences between the experimental and analytical curves for the full-scale crash test.

  20. Boron-copper neutron absorbing material and method of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Wiencek, Thomas C.; Domagala, Robert F.; Thresh, Henry

    1991-01-01

    A composite, copper clad neutron absorbing material is comprised of copper powder and boron powder enriched with boron 10. The boron 10 content can reach over 30 percent by volume, permitting a very high level of neutron absorption. The copper clad product is also capable of being reduced to a thickness of 0.05 to 0.06 inches and curved to a radius of 2 to 3 inches, and can resist temperatures of 900.degree. C. A method of preparing the material includes the steps of compacting a boron-copper powder mixture and placing it in a copper cladding, restraining the clad assembly in a steel frame while it is hot rolled at 900.degree. C. with cross rolling, and removing the steel frame and further rolling the clad assembly at 650.degree. C. An additional sheet of copper can be soldered onto the clad assembly so that the finished sheet can be cold formed into curved shapes.

  1. Design of broadband absorber using 2-D materials for thermo-photovoltaic cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Sajal; Prajapati, Y. K.

    2018-04-01

    Present study is done to analyze a nano absorber for thermo-photovoltaic cell application. Optical absorbance of two-dimensional materials is exploited to achieve high absorbance. It is found that few alternating layers of graphene/transition metal dichalcogenide provide high absorbance of electromagnetic wave in visible as well as near infrared region. Four transition metal dichalcogenides are considered and found that most of these provide perfect absorbance for almost full considered wavelength range i.e. 200-1000 nm. Demonstrated results confirm the extended operating region and improved absorbance of the proposed absorber in comparison to the existing absorbers made of different materials. Further, absorber performance is improved by using thin layers of gold and chromium. Simple geometry of the proposed absorber also ensures easy fabrication.

  2. Competitive light absorbers in photoactive dental resin-based materials.

    PubMed

    Hadis, Mohammed A; Shortall, Adrian C; Palin, William M

    2012-08-01

    The absorbance profile of photoinitiators prior to, during and following polymerization of light curable resin-based materials will have a significant effect on the cure and color properties of the final material. So-called "colorless" photoinitiators are used in some light-activated resin-based composite restorative materials to lessen the yellowing effect of camphoroquinone (CQ) in order to improve the esthetic quality of dental restorations. This work characterizes absorption properties of commonly used photoinitiators, an acylphosphine oxide (TPO) and CQ, and assesses their influence on material discoloration. Dimethacrylate resin formulations contained low (0.0134 mol/dm(3)), intermediate (0.0405 mol/dm(3)) or high (0.0678 mol/dm(3)) concentrations of the photoinitiators and the inhibitor, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) at 0, 0.1 or 0.2% by mass. Disc shaped specimens (n = 3) of each resin were polymerized for 60s using a halogen light curing unit. Dynamic measurements of photoinitiator absorption, polymer conversion and reaction temperature were performed. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the color change before and after cure. GLM three-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences (p<0.001), where photoinitiator concentration (df = 2; F = 618.83)>photoinitiator type (df = 1; F = 176.12)>% BHT (df = 2, F = 13.17). BHT concentration affected the rate of polymerization and produced lower conversion in some of the CQ-based resins. Significant differences between photoinitiator type and concentrations were seen in color (where TPO resins became yellower and camphoroquinone resins became less yellow upon irradiation). Reaction temperature, kinetics and conversion also differed significantly for both initiators (p<0.001). Despite TPO-based resins producing a visually perceptible color change upon polymerization, the color change was significantly less than that produced with CQ-based resins. Although some photoinitiators such as TPO may be a

  3. Semitransparent Volcanic Materials on Radar Images of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, N. V.; Kreslavsky, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    Possible observational effects due to semitransparent lava flows on Venus were analyzed and illustrated. Numerous examples show that interpretation of Magellan radar images requires consideration of subsurface scattering.

  4. Study of sound-absorbing properties of glass-fiber reinforced materials used in engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, V. E.; Habibova, R. R.; Shafigullin, L. N.

    2017-09-01

    Modern engineering makes high demands to the noise level in the passenger compartment or cabin of KAMAZ. An effective means of dealing with noise is to use sound absorbing materials produced by the automotive industry. To increase sound-absorbing capacity of materials and structures using glass fibre reinforced polyurethane foams (PUF) obtained by the technology Fiber Composite Spraying.

  5. Highly Absorbing Metal Nanolaminates for Bi-Material THz Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited HIGHLY ABSORBING...Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18 REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is...Government. IRB Protocol number: N/A. 12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited 12b

  6. Boron cage compound materials and composites for shielding and absorbing neutrons

    DOEpatents

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2014-03-04

    Boron cage compound-containing materials for shielding and absorbing neutrons. The materials include BCC-containing composites and compounds. BCC-containing compounds comprise a host polymer and a BCC attached thereto. BCC-containing composites comprise a mixture of a polymer matrix and a BCC filler. The BCC-containing materials can be used to form numerous articles of manufacture for shielding and absorbing neutrons.

  7. Stability of an arch type shock absorber made of a rubber-like material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabrits, Sergey A.; Kolpak, Eugeny P.

    2018-05-01

    The paper considers the stability problem of an arch shock absorber made of a rubber-like material. As a model, the nonlinear theory of thin shells from elastomers K.F. Chernykh is used. The case of symmetrical and asymmetrical deformation of an arch shock absorber under symmetrical compression is investigated. The possibility of asymmetric bifurcation is evaluated depending on the boundary conditions.

  8. Optimization on microwave absorbing properties of carbon nanotubes and magnetic oxide composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingdong, Chen; Huangzhong, Yu; Xiaohua, Jie; Yigang, Lu

    2018-03-01

    Based on the physical principle of interaction between electromagnetic field and the electromagnetic medium, the relationship between microwave absorbing coefficient (MAC) and the electromagnetic parameters of materials was established. With the composite materials of nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and paraffin as an example, optimization on absorbing properties of CNTs/magnetic oxide composite materials was studied at the frequency range of 2-18 GHz, and a conclusion is drawn that the MAC is the biggest at the same frequency, when the CNTs is 10 wt% in the composite materials. Through study on the relationship between complex permeability and MAC, another interesting conclusion is drawn that MAC is obviously affected by the real part of complex permeability, and increasing real part of complex permeability is beneficial for improving absorbing properties. The conclusion of this paper can provide a useful reference for the optimization research on the microwave absorbing properties of CNTs/ferrite composite materials.

  9. A Wide Band Absorbing Material Design Using Band-Pass Frequency Selective Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yonggang; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Ting; Zheng, Dianliang; Zhou, Li

    2018-03-01

    Based on the high frequency advantage characteristics of the Fe based absorbing coating, a method for designing the structure of broadband absorbing structure by using frequency selective surface (FSS) is proposed. According to the transmission and reflection characteristic of the different size FSS structure, the frequency variation characteristic was simulated. Secondly, the genetic algorithm was used to optimize the high frequency broadband absorbing materials, including the single and double magnetic layer material. Finally, the absorbing characteristics in iron layer were analyzed as the band pass FSS structure was embedded, the results showed that the band-pass FSS had the influence on widening the absorbing frequency. As the FSS was set as the bottom layer, it was effective to achieve the good absorbing property in low frequency and the high frequency absorbing performance was not weakened, because the band-pass FSS led the low frequency absorption and the high frequency shielding effect. The results of this paper are of guiding significance for designing and manufacturing the broadband absorbing materials.

  10. Negative Refraction in a Uniaxial Absorbent Dielectric Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jen, Yi-Jun; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Yu, Ching-Wei; Lin, Chin-Te

    2009-01-01

    Refraction of light from an isotropic dielectric medium to an anisotropic dielectric material is a complicated phenomenon that can have several different characteristics not usually discussed in electromagnetics textbooks for undergraduate students. With a simple problem wherein the refracting material is uniaxial with its optic axis normal to the…

  11. Photochemical aging of light-absorbing secondary organic aerosol material.

    PubMed

    Sareen, Neha; Moussa, Samar G; McNeill, V Faye

    2013-04-11

    Dark reactions of methylglyoxal with NH4(+) in aqueous aerosols yield light-absorbing and surface-active products that can influence the physical properties of the particles. Little is known about how the product mixture and its optical properties will change due to photolysis as well as oxidative aging by O3 and OH in the atmosphere. Here, we report the results of kinetics and product studies of the photochemical aging of aerosols formed by atomizing aqueous solutions of methylglyoxal and ammonium sulfate. Experiments were performed using aerosol flow tube reactors coupled with an aerosol chemical ionization mass spectrometer (Aerosol-CIMS) for monitoring gas- and particle-phase compositions. Particles were also impacted onto quartz windows in order to assess changes in their UV-visible absorption upon oxidation. Photooxidation of the aerosols leads to the formation of small, volatile organic acids including formic acid, acetic acid, and glyoxylic acid. The atmospheric lifetime of these species during the daytime is predicted to be on the order of minutes, with photolysis being an important mechanism of degradation. The lifetime with respect to O3 oxidation was observed to be on the order of hours. O3 oxidation also leads to a net increase in light absorption by the particles due to the formation of additional carbonyl compounds. Our results are consistent with field observations of high brown carbon absorption in the early morning.

  12. 3D-Printing ‘Smarter’ Energy Absorbing Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-08-29

    Foams are, by nature, disordered materials studded with air pockets of varying sizes. Lack of control over the material’s architecture at the micrometer or nanometer scale can make it difficult to adjust the foam’s basic properties. But Eric Duoss and a team of Livermore researchers are using additive manufacturing to develop “smarter” silicone cushions. By architecting the structure at the micro scale, they are able to control macro-scale properties previously unachievable with foam materials.

  13. Method of Synthesizing a Novel Absorbent Titanosilicate Material (UPRM-5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo (Inventor); Primera-Pedrozo, Jose N (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A titanium silicate variant named UPRM-5 was prepared using tetraethylammonium hydroxide as a structure-directing agent (SDA). Successful detemplation was achieved via ion exchange with NH4Cl. Effective functionalization was obtained after ion exchanging the detemplated material using SrCl2 and BaCl2. Adsorption of CO2 at 25 deg C in Sr(-) and Ba-UPRM-5 materials activated at different temperatures. For low partial pressures, the observed CO2 adsorption capacities increased as follows: NH4-UPRM-5 less than Sr-UPRM-5 less than Ba-UPRM-5. Both the Sr(-) and Ba-UPRM-5 materials exhibited outstanding selectivity for CO2 over CH4, N2 and O2.

  14. Effect of weight fraction of carbon black and number of plies of E-glass fiber to reflection loss of E-glass/ripoxy composite for radar absorbing structure (RAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widyastuti, Ramadhan, Rizal; Ardhyananta, Hosta; Zainuri, Mochamad

    2013-09-01

    Nowadays, studies on investigating radar absorbing structure (RAS) using fiber reinforced polymeric (FRP) composite materials are becoming popular research field because the electromagnetic properties of FRP composites can be tailored effectively by just adding some electromagnetic powders, such as carbon black, ferrite, carbonyl iron, and etc., to the matrix of composites. The RAS works not only as a load bearing structure to hold the antenna system, but also has the important function of absorbing the in-band electromagnetic wave coming from the electromagnetic energy of tracking systems. In this study, E-glass fiber reinforced ripoxy resin composite was fabricated by blending the conductive carbon black (Ketjenblack EC300J) with the binder matrix of the composite material and maximizing the coefficient of absorption more than 90% (more than -10 dB) within the X-band frequency (8 - 12 GHz). It was measured by electrical conductivity (LCR meter) and vector network analyzer (VNA). Finally, the composite RAS with 0.02 weight fraction of carbon black and 4 plies of E-glass fiber showed thickness of 2.1 mm, electrical conductivity of 8.33 × 10-6 S/m, and maximum reflection loss of -27.123 dB, which can absorb more than 90% of incident EM wave throughout the entire X-band frequency range, has been developed.

  15. Material Activation Benchmark Experiments at the NuMI Hadron Absorber Hall in Fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, H.; Matsuda, N.; Kasugai, Y.; Toyoda, A.; Yashima, H.; Sekimoto, S.; Iwase, H.; Oishi, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Nakashima, H.; Leveling, A.; Boehnlein, D.; Lauten, G.; Mokhov, N.; Vaziri, K.

    2014-06-01

    In our previous study, double and mirror symmetric activation peaks found for Al and Au arranged spatially on the back of the Hadron absorber of the NuMI beamline in Fermilab were considerably higher than those expected purely from muon-induced reactions. From material activation bench-mark experiments, we conclude that this activation is due to hadrons with energy greater than 3 GeV that had passed downstream through small gaps in the hadron absorber.

  16. Determining the Absorbance Spectra of Photochromic Materials From Measured Spectrophotometer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.

    1998-01-01

    If a two-state photochromic material is optically bleached, the absorbance spectrum data measured by a spectrophotometer is in general comprised of components from both the ground state and the upper state. Under general conditions, it may be difficult to extract the actual upper state spectrum from the spectrum of the bleached material. A simple algorithm is presented here for the recovery of the pure absorbance spectra of the upper state of a material such as bacteriorhodopsin, given single wavelength bleaching illumination, steady-state conditions, and accurate knowledge of phototransition rates and thermal decay rates.

  17. Absorber Materials for Transition-Edge Sensor X-ray Microcalorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ari-David; Bandler, Simon; Brekosky, Regis; Chervenak, James; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Finkbeiner, Fred; Sadleir, Jack; Iyomoto, Naoko; Kelley, Richard; Kilbourne, Caroline; hide

    2007-01-01

    Arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES) can provide high spatial and energy resolution necessary for x-ray astronomy. High quantum efficiency and uniformity of response can be achieved with a suitable absorber material, in which absorber x-ray stopping power, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity are relevant parameters. Here we compare these parameters for bismuth and gold. We have fabricated electroplated gold, electroplated gold/electroplated bismuth, and evaporated gold/evaporated bismuth 8x8 absorber arrays and find that a correlation exists between the residual resistance ratio (RRR) and thin film microstructure. This finding indicates that we can tailor absorber material conductivity via microstructure alteration, so as to permit absorber thermalization on timescales suitable for high energy resolution x-ray microcalorimetry. We show that by incorporating absorbers possessing large grain size, including electroplated gold and electroplated gold/electroplated bismuth, into our current Mo/Au TES, devices with tunable heat capacity and energy resolution of 2.3 eV (gold) and 2.1 eV (gold/bismuth) FWHM at 6 keV have been fabricated.

  18. Improving impact resistance of ceramic materials by energy absorbing surface layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirchner, H. P.; Seretsky, J.

    1974-01-01

    Energy absorbing surface layers were used to improve the impact resistance of silicon nitride and silicon carbide ceramics. Low elastic modulus materials were used. In some cases, the low elastic modulus was achieved using materials that form localized microcracks as a result of thermal expansion anisotropy, thermal expansion differences between phases, or phase transformations. In other cases, semi-vitreous or vitreous materials were used. Substantial improvements in impact resistance were observed at room and elevated temperatures.

  19. Potential application of a homogeneous and anisotropic slab as an angle insensitive absorbing material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Liu, Chang; Liu, Xiaoning; Niu, Tiaoming; Wang, Jing; Mei, Zhonglei; Qin, Jiayong

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a flat and incident angle independence absorbing material is proposed and numerically verified in the optical spectrum. A homogeneous and anisotropic dielectric slab as a non-reflecting layer is first reviewed, and a feasible realization strategy of the slab is then given by using layered isotropic materials. When the loss components of the constitutive materials are not zero, the slab will work as an angle insensitive absorbing layer, and the absorption rate augments with increase of the losses. As the numerical verifications, the field distributions of a metallic cylinder and a triangular metallic object individually covered by the designed absorbing layer are demonstrated. The simulation results show that the designed absorbing layer can efficiently absorb the incident waves with the property of incident angle independence at the operation frequency. This homogeneous slab can be used in one and two dimensional situations for the realization of an invisibility cloak, a carpet cloak and even a skin cloak, if it is used to conformally cover target objects.

  20. Characterization and preparation of p(U-MMA-An) interpenetrating polymer network damping and absorbing material.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Li, Qingshan; Zhuo, Yuguo; Hong, Wei; Lv, Wenfeng; Xing, Guangzhong

    2014-06-01

    P(U-MMA-ANI) interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) damping and absorbing material is successfully synthesized by PANI particles served as an absorbing agent with the microemulsion polymerization and P(U-MMA) foam IPN network structure for substrate materials with foaming way. P(U-MMA-ANI) IPN is characterized by the compression mechanical performance testing, TG-DSC, and DSC. The results verify that the P(U-MMA) IPN foam damping material has a good compressive strength and compaction cycle property, and the optimum content of PMMA was 40% (mass) with which the SEM graphs do not present the phase separation on the macro level between PMMA and PU, while the phase separation was observed on the micro level. The DTG curve indicates that because of the formation of P(U-MMA) IPN, the decomposition temperature of PMMA and the carbamate in PU increases, while that of the polyol segment in PU has almost no change. P(U-MMA-ANI) IPN foam damping and absorbing material is obtained by PANI particles served as absorbing agent in the form of filler, and PMMA in the form of micro area in substrate material. When the content of PANI was up to 2.0% (mass), the dissipation factor of composites increased, and with the increasing of frequency the dissipation factor increased in a straight line.

  1. Acoustic behavior of a fibrous bulk material. [Kevlar 29 sound absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersh, A. S.; Walker, B.

    1979-01-01

    A semiempirical model is presented describing the acoustic behavior of Kevlar 29, a bulk absorbing material. The model is based on an approximate solution to the one-dimensional equations representing conservation of fluctuating mass, momentum and energy. By treating the material as a momentum sink, theoretical expressions of the material complex propagation constants and characteristic impedance were derived in terms of a single constant. Evaluating the constant at a single frequency for a particular specimen, excellent agreement between prediction and measurement was achieved for a large range of sound frequencies and material porosities and thicknesses. Results show that Kevlar 29 absorbs sound efficiently even at low frequencies. This is explained in terms of a frequency dependent material phase speed.

  2. Food-processes wastewaters treatment using food solid-waste materials as adsorbents or absorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapti, Ilaira; Georgopoulos, Stavros; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Papadaki, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The wastewaters generated by olive-mills during the production of olive oil, wastewaters from a dairy and a cow-farm unit and wastewaters from a small food factory have been treated by means of selected materials, either by-products of the same units, or other solid waste, as absorbents or adsorbents in order to identify the capacity of those materials to remove organic load and toxicity from the aforementioned wastewaters. The potential of both the materials used as absorbents as well as the treated wastewaters to be further used either as fertilizers or for agricultural irrigation purposes are examined. Dry olive leaves, sheep wool, rice husks, etc. were used either in a fixed-bed or in a stirred batch arrangemen,t employing different initial concentrations of the aforementioned wastewaters. The efficiency of removal was assessed using scpectrophotometric methods and allium test phytotoxicity measurements. In this presentation the response of each material employed is shown as a function of absorbent/adsorbent quantity and kind, treatment time and wastewater kind and initial organic load. Preliminary results on the potential uses of the adsorbents/absorbents and the treated wastewaters are also shown. Keywords: Olive-mill wastewaters, dairy farm wastewaters, olive leaves, zeolite, sheep wool

  3. Realizing thin electromagnetic absorbers for wide incidence angles from commercially available planar circuit materials

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, Brian B; Whites, Kieth W; Radway, Matthew J

    2009-01-01

    In this study, recent work on engineering R-card surface resistivity with printed metallic patterns is extended to the design of thin electromagnetic absorbers. Thin electromagnetic absorbers for wide incidence angles and both polarizations have recently been computationally verified by Luukkonen et al.. These absorbers are analytically modeled high-impedance surfaces with capacitive arrays of square patches implemented with relatively high dielectric constant and high loss substrate. However, the advantages provided by the accurate analytical model are largely negated by the need to obtain high dielectric constant material with accurately engineered loss. Fig. I(c) illustrates full-wave computational results for an absorber withoutmore » vias engineered as proposed by Luukkonen et al.. Unique values for the dielectric loss are required for different center frequencies. Parameters for the capacitive grid are D=5.0 mm and w=O.l mm for a center frequency of 3.36 GHz. The relative permittivity and thickness is 9.20(1-j0.234) and 1=3.048 mm. Consider a center frequency of5.81 GHz and again 1=3.048 mm, the required parameters for the capacitive grid are D=2.0 mm and w=0.2 mm where the required relative permittivity is now 9.20(1-j0.371) Admittedly, engineered dielectrics are themselves a historically interesting and fruitful research area which benefits today from advances in monolithic fabrication using direct-write of dielectrics with nanometer scale inclusions. However, our objective in the present study is to realize the advantages of the absorber proposed by Luukkonen et al. without resort to engineered lossy dielectrics. Specifically we are restricted to commercially available planer circuit materials without use of in-house direct-write technology or materials engineering capability. The materials considered here are TMM 10 laminate with (35 {mu}lm copper cladding with a complex permittivity 9.20-j0.0022) and Ohmegaply resistor conductor material (maximum 250

  4. How much material do the radar-bright craters at the Mercurian poles contain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilas, Faith; Cobian, Paul S.; Barlow, Nadine G.; Lederer, Susan M.

    2005-12-01

    The depth-to-diameter (d/D) ratios were determined for 12 craters located near the Mercurian north pole that were identified by Harmon et al. (2001, Icarus 149) as having strong depolarized radar echos. We find that the mean d/D value of these radar-bright craters is {2}/{3} the mean d/D value of the general population of non-radar-bright craters in the surrounding north polar region. Previous studies, however, show no difference between d/D values of Mercurian polar and equatorial crater populations, suggesting that no terrain softening which could modify crater structure exists at the Mercurian poles (Barlow et al., 1999, 194, Icarus 141). Thus, the change in d/D is governed by a change in crater depth, probably due to deposition of material inside the crater. The volume of infilling material, including volatiles, in the radar-bright craters is significantly greater than predicted by proposed mechanisms for the emplacement of either water ice or sulfur.

  5. Optical response of strongly absorbing inhomogeneous materials: Application to paper degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missori, M.; Pulci, O.; Teodonio, L.; Violante, C.; Kupchak, I.; Bagniuk, J.; Łojewska, J.; Conte, A. Mosca

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present a new noninvasive and nondestructive approach to recover scattering and absorption coefficients from reflectance measurements of highly absorbing and optically inhomogeneous media. Our approach is based on the Yang and Miklavcic theoretical model of light propagation through turbid media, which is a generalization of the Kubelka-Munk theory, extended to accommodate optically thick samples. We show its applications to paper, a material primarily composed of a web of fibers of cellulose, whose optical properties are strongly governed by light scattering effects. Samples studied were ancient and industrial paper sheets, aged in different conditions and highly absorbing in the ultraviolet region. The recovered experimental absorptions of cellulose fibers have been compared to theoretical ab initio quantum-mechanical computational simulations carried out within time-dependent density functional theory. In this way, for each sample, we evaluate the absolute concentration of different kinds of oxidized groups formed upon aging and acting as chromophores causing paper discoloration. We found that the relative concentration of different chromophores in cellulose fibers depends on the aging temperature endured by samples. This clearly indicates that the oxidation of cellulose follows temperature-dependent reaction pathways. Our approach has a wide range of applications for cellulose-based materials, like paper, textiles, and other manufactured products of great industrial and cultural interest, and can potentially be extended to other strongly absorbing inhomogeneous materials.

  6. An antibacterial and absorbable silk-based fixation material with impressive mechanical properties and biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chenglong; Pu, Xiaobing; Zheng, Guan; Feng, Xinglong; Yang, Xuan; Zhang, Baoliang; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Qingshui; Xia, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Implant-associated infections and non-absorbing materials are two important reasons for a second surgical procedure to remove internal fixation devices after an orthopedic internal fixation surgery. The objective of this study was to produce an antibacterial and absorbable fixation screw by adding gentamicin to silk-based materials. The antibacterial activity was assessed against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in vitro by plate cultivation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also investigated the properties, such as the mechanical features, swelling properties, biocompatibility and degradation, of gentamicin-loaded silk-based screws (GSS) in vitro. The GSS showed significant bactericidal effects against S. aureus and E. coli. The antibacterial activity remained high even after 4 weeks of immersion in protease solution. In addition, the GSS maintained the remarkable mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility of pure silk-based screws (PSS). Interestingly, after gentamicin incorporation, the degradation rate and water-absorbing capacity increased and decreased, respectively. These GSS provide both impressive material properties and antibacterial activity and have great potential for use in orthopedic implants to reduce the incidence of second surgeries.

  7. Super water-absorbing new material from chitosan, EDTA and urea.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Abathodharanan; Dhamodharan, Raghavachari

    2015-12-10

    A new, super water-absorbing, material is synthesized by the reaction between chitosan, EDTA and urea and named as CHEDUR. CHEDUR is probably formed through the crosslinking of chitosan molecules (CH) with the EDTA-urea (EDUR) adduct that is formed during the reaction. CHEDUR as well as the other products formed in control reactions are characterized extensively. CHEDUR exhibits a very high water uptake capacity when compared with chitosan, chitosan-EDTA adduct, as well as a commercial diaper material. A systematic study was done to find the optimum composition as well as reaction conditions for maximum water absorbing capacity. CHEDUR can play a vital role in applications that demand the rapid absorption and slow release of water such as agriculture, as a three in one new material for the slow release of urea, water and other metal ions that can be attached through the EDTA component. The other potential advantage of CHEDUR is that it can be expected to degrade in soil based on its chitosan backbone. The new material with rapid and high water uptake could also find potential applications as biodegradable active ingredient of the diaper material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Carbon nanotube scaffolds with controlled porosity as electromagnetic absorbing materials in the gigahertz range.

    PubMed

    González, M; Crespo, M; Baselga, J; Pozuelo, J

    2016-05-19

    Control of the microscopic structure of CNT nanocomposites allows modulation of the electromagnetic shielding in the gigahertz range. The porosity of CNT scaffolds has been controlled by two freezing protocols and a subsequent lyophilization step: fast freezing in liquid nitrogen and slow freezing at -20 °C. Mercury porosimetry shows that slowly frozen specimens present a more open pore size (100-150 μm) with a narrow distribution whereas specimens frozen rapidly show a smaller pore size and a heterogeneous distribution. 3D-scaffolds containing 3, 4, 6 and 7% CNT were infiltrated with epoxy and specimens with 2, 5 and 8 mm thicknesses were characterized in the GHz range. Samples with the highest pore size and porosity presented the lowest reflected power (about 30%) and the highest absorbed power (about 70%), which allows considering them as electromagnetic radiation absorbing materials.

  9. Lightweight and efficient microwave absorbing materials based on walnut shell-derived nano-porous carbon.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xu; Wang, Lixi; Zhu, Hongli; Guan, Yongkang; Zhang, Qitu

    2017-06-08

    Lightweight microwave absorbing materials have drawn tremendous attention. Herein, nano-porous biomass carbon materials have been prepared by carbonization with a subsequent potassium hydroxide activation of walnut shells and the microwave absorption properties have also been investigated. The obtained samples have large specific surface areas with numerous micropores and nanopores. The sample activated at 600 °C with a specific surface area of 736.2 m 2 g -1 exhibits the most enhanced microwave absorption performance. It has the maximum reflection loss of -42.4 dB at 8.88 GHz and the effective absorption bandwidth (reflection loss below -10 dB) is 1.76 GHz (from 8.08 GHz to 9.84 GHz), corresponding to a thickness of 2 mm. Additionally, the effective absorption bandwidth can reach 2.24 GHz (from 10.48 GHz to 12.72 GHz) when the absorber thickness is 1.5 mm. Three-dimensional porous architecture, interfacial polarization relaxation loss, and the dipolar relaxation loss make a great contribution to the excellent microwave absorption performance. In contrast, the non-activated sample with lower specific surface area (435.3 m 2 g -1 ) has poor microwave absorption performance due to a poor dielectric loss capacity. This comparison highlights the role of micropores and nanopores in improving the dielectric loss property of porous carbon materials. To sum up, porous biomass carbon has great potential to become lightweight microwave absorbers. Moreover, KOH is an efficient activation agent in the fabrication of carbonaceous materials.

  10. Utilizing strongly absorbing materials for low-loss surface-wave nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, Nicolai B.; Franz, Philipp; Heckmann, Jan; Pufahl, Karsten; Woggon, Ulrike

    2018-04-01

    Optical media endowed with large nonlinear susceptibilities are highly prized for their employment in frequency conversion and the generation of nonclassical states of light. Although the presence of an optical resonance can greatly increase the nonlinear response (e.g., in epsilon-near-zero materials), the non-negligible increase in linear absorption often precludes the application of such materials in nonlinear optics. Absorbing materials prepared as thin films, however, can support a low-loss surface wave: the long-range surface exciton polariton (LRSEP). Its propagation lifetime increases with greater intrinsic absorption and reduced film thickness, provided that the film is embedded in a transparent medium (symmetric cladding). We explore LRSEP propagation in a molybdenum film by way of a prism-coupling configuration. Our observations show that excitation of the LRSEP mode leads to a dramatic increase in the yield of second-harmonic generation. This implies that the LRSEP mode is an effective vehicle for utilizing the nonlinear response of absorbing materials.

  11. Method and apparatus for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material in an object

    DOEpatents

    Crane, Thomas W.

    1986-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material within an object. Neutrons having an energy higher than thermal neutrons are generated and thermalized. The thermal neutrons are detected and counted. The object is placed between the neutron generator and the neutron detector. The reduction in the neutron flux corresponds to the amount of thermal neutron absorbing material in the object. The object is advanced past the neutron generator and neutron detector to obtain neutron flux data for each segment of the object. The object may comprise a space reactor heat pipe and the thermal neutron absorbing material may comprise lithium.

  12. Method and apparatus for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material in an object

    DOEpatents

    Crane, T.W.

    1983-12-21

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material within an object. Neutrons having an energy higher than thermal neutrons are generated and thermalized. The thermal neutrons are detected and counted. The object is placed between the neutron generator and the neutron detector. The reduction in the neutron flux corresponds to the amount of thermal neutron absorbing material in the object. The object is advanced past the neutron generator and neutron detector to obtain neutron flux data for each segment of the object. The object may comprise a space reactor heat pipe and the thermal neutron absorbing material may comprise lithium.

  13. Hematite from Natural Iron Stones as Microwave Absorbing Material on X-Band Frequency Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainuri, Mochamad

    2017-05-01

    This study has been investigated the effect of hematite as microwave absorbing materials (RAM) on X-Band frequency ranges. Hematite was succesfully processed by coprecipitation method and calcined at 500 °C for 5 hour. It was synthesized from natural iron stones from Tanah Laut, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraxtion (XRD), conductivity measurement, Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), and Vector Network Analyzer (VNA). The result was shown that hematite has conductivity value on (2.5-3).10-7 S/cm and be included as dielectric materials. The hysterisis curve was shown that hematite was a super paramagnetic materials. The product was mixed on paint with procentage 10% of total weight and coated on steel grade AH36 with spray methods. Then, the maximum of reflection loss on x - band’s frequency range (8,2-12,4) GHz was -7 dB on frequency of 10.5 GHz. It mean that almost 50% electromagnetic energy was absorbed by hematite.

  14. Hybrid waste filler filled bio-polymer foam composites for sound absorbent materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Azahari, M. Shafiq M.; Kormin, Shaharuddin; Soon, Leong Bong; Zaliran, M. Taufiq; Ahraz Sadrina M. F., L.

    2017-09-01

    Sound absorption materials are one of the major requirements in many industries with regards to the sound insulation developed should be efficient to reduce sound. This is also important to contribute in economically ways of producing sound absorbing materials which is cheaper and user friendly. Thus, in this research, the sound absorbent properties of bio-polymer foam filled with hybrid fillers of wood dust and waste tire rubber has been investigated. Waste cooking oil from crisp industries was converted into bio-monomer, filled with different proportion ratio of fillers and fabricated into bio-polymer foam composite. Two fabrication methods is applied which is the Close Mold Method (CMM) and Open Mold Method (OMM). A total of four bio-polymer foam composite samples were produce for each method used. The percentage of hybrid fillers; mixture of wood dust and waste tire rubber of 2.5 %, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10% weight to weight ration with bio-monomer. The sound absorption of the bio-polymer foam composites samples were tested by using the impedance tube test according to the ASTM E-1050 and Scanning Electron Microscope to determine the morphology and porosity of the samples. The sound absorption coefficient (α) at different frequency range revealed that the polymer foam of 10.0 % hybrid fillers shows highest α of 0.963. The highest hybrid filler loading contributing to smallest pore sizes but highest interconnected pores. This also revealed that when highly porous material is exposed to incident sound waves, the air molecules at the surface of the material and within the pores of the material are forced to vibrate and loses some of their original energy. This is concluded that the suitability of bio-polymer foam filled with hybrid fillers to be used in acoustic application of automotive components such as dashboards, door panels, cushion and etc.

  15. Reflection and transmission for layered composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graglia, Roberto D.; Uslenghi, Piergiorgio L. E.

    1991-01-01

    A layered planar structure consisting of different bianisotropic materials separated by jump-immittance sheets is considered. Reflection and transmission coefficients are determined via a chain-matrix algorithm. Applications are important for radomes and radar-absorbing materials.

  16. Carbon nanotube scaffolds with controlled porosity as electromagnetic absorbing materials in the gigahertz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, M.; Crespo, M.; Baselga, J.; Pozuelo, J.

    2016-05-01

    Control of the microscopic structure of CNT nanocomposites allows modulation of the electromagnetic shielding in the gigahertz range. The porosity of CNT scaffolds has been controlled by two freezing protocols and a subsequent lyophilization step: fast freezing in liquid nitrogen and slow freezing at -20 °C. Mercury porosimetry shows that slowly frozen specimens present a more open pore size (100-150 μm) with a narrow distribution whereas specimens frozen rapidly show a smaller pore size and a heterogeneous distribution. 3D-scaffolds containing 3, 4, 6 and 7% CNT were infiltrated with epoxy and specimens with 2, 5 and 8 mm thicknesses were characterized in the GHz range. Samples with the highest pore size and porosity presented the lowest reflected power (about 30%) and the highest absorbed power (about 70%), which allows considering them as electromagnetic radiation absorbing materials.Control of the microscopic structure of CNT nanocomposites allows modulation of the electromagnetic shielding in the gigahertz range. The porosity of CNT scaffolds has been controlled by two freezing protocols and a subsequent lyophilization step: fast freezing in liquid nitrogen and slow freezing at -20 °C. Mercury porosimetry shows that slowly frozen specimens present a more open pore size (100-150 μm) with a narrow distribution whereas specimens frozen rapidly show a smaller pore size and a heterogeneous distribution. 3D-scaffolds containing 3, 4, 6 and 7% CNT were infiltrated with epoxy and specimens with 2, 5 and 8 mm thicknesses were characterized in the GHz range. Samples with the highest pore size and porosity presented the lowest reflected power (about 30%) and the highest absorbed power (about 70%), which allows considering them as electromagnetic radiation absorbing materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Scheme of hydrogenated derivative of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (HDGEBA) and m-xylylenediamine; X-ray diffractograms of pristine CNT

  17. High-volume use of self-cementing spray dry absorber material for structural applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Charles E.

    Spray dry absorber (SDA) material, or spray dryer ash, is a byproduct of energy generation by coal combustion and sulfur emissions controls. Like any resource, it ought to be used to its fullest potential offsetting as many of the negative environmental impacts of coal combustion as possible throughout its lifecycle. Its cementitious and pozzolanic properties suggest it be used to augment or replace another energy and emissions intensive product: Portland cement. There is excellent potential for spray dryer ash to be used beneficially in structural applications, which will offset CO2 emissions due to Portland cement production, divert landfill waste by further utilizing a plentiful coal combustion by-product, and create more durable and sustainable structures. The research into beneficial use applications for SDA material is relatively undeveloped and the material is highly underutilized. This dissertation explored a specific self-cementing spray dryer ash for use as a binder in structural materials. Strength and stiffness properties of hydrated spray dryer ash mortars were improved by chemical activation with Portland cement and reinforcement with polymer fibers from automobile tire recycling. Portland cement at additions of five percent of the cementitious material was found to function effectively as an activating agent for spray dryer ash and had a significant impact on the hardened properties. The recycled polymer fibers improved the ductility and toughness of the material in all cases and increased the compressive strength of weak matrix materials like the pure hydrated ash. The resulting hardened materials exhibited useful properties that were sufficient to suggest that they be used in structural applications such as concrete, masonry block, or as a hydraulic cement binder. While the long-term performance characteristics remain to be investigated, from an embodied-energy and carbon emissions standpoint the material investigated here is far superior to

  18. Thermally switchable meta-material absorber involving vanadium dioxide semiconductor-metal transition for thermo photovoltaic conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendelala, Fathi; Cheknane, Ali; Hilal, Hikmat S.

    2018-01-01

    A new switchable absorber design using meta-materials for thermo photovoltaic applications is proposed here. Conventional absorbents are normally non-adjustable with narrow band-widths and polarization-dependence. The present study describes an alternative infrared absorber structure with tunable characteristics. The absorber is based on VO2 which exhibits transition from semiconductor to metallic conductor by thermal effect. With this design, the results show that wide-band absorption can be achieved. The absorption bandwidth can be improved from 15.94 to 36.75 THz. With 40.42% relative shift in the peak frequency, a maximum absorption efficiency of 99% can be achieved. This structure design is polarization-independent of normal incident radiations, and may accommodate radiations from wide oblique angles. These new features make the new thermally adjustable absorber potentially useful in thermo-photovoltaic conversion devices.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of barium hexaferrite with manganese (Mn) doping material as anti-radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilawati, Doyan, Aris; Khalilurrahman

    2017-01-01

    Have been successfully synthesized barium powder doping Manganese hexaferrite with the expected potential as anti-radar material. Synthesis was done by using the co-precipitation method, the variation of the variable x concentrations used were 0; 0.2; 0.4; and 0.6 and calcined at temperatures of 400, 600 and 800°C. Characterization powders of hexaferrite have used XRD (X-Ray Diffraction), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), LCR (inductance, capacitance, and resistance) meter, and VSM (Vibrating Sample Magnetometer). The higher the concentration and temperature of calcinations given affect the color of the powder. The test results using XRD indicates that it has formed barium hexaferrite phase with a hexagonal crystal structure. Tests using SEM showed that all the constituent elements barium powder hexaferrite by doping Manganese powders have been spread evenly. XRD test results were confirmed by a test using a TEM showing the crystal structure and the powder was sized nano particles. The results from the LCR meter showed that the barium powder hexaferrite by doping Manganese that has been synthesized classified in semiconductor materials. The result from VSM showed that the value of coercivity magnetic powder doped barium hexaferrite Manganese is smaller when compared with barium hexaferrite without doping and belong to the soft magnetic. Based on the results of the synthesis and characterization, we can conclude that the barium powder heksaferrite by doping Manganese potential as a material anti-radar.

  20. Measurements of the light-absorbing material inside cloud droplets and its effect on cloud albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Twohy, C. H.; Clarke, A. D.; Warren, Stephen G.; Radke, L. F.; Charleson, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    Most of the measurements of light-absorbing aerosol particles made previously have been in non-cloudy air and therefore provide no insight into aerosol effects on cloud properties. Here, researchers describe an experiment designed to measure light absorption exclusively due to substances inside cloud droplets, compare the results to related light absorption measurements, and evaluate possible effects on the albedo of clouds. The results of this study validate those of Twomey and Cocks and show that the measured levels of light-absorbing material are negligible for the radiative properties of realistic clouds. For the measured clouds, which appear to have been moderately polluted, the amount of elemental carbon (EC) present was insufficient to affect albedo. Much higher contaminant levels or much larger droplets than those measured would be necessary to significantly alter the radiative properties. The effect of the concentrations of EC actually measured on the albedo of snow, however, would be much more pronounced since, in contrast to clouds, snowpacks are usually optically semi-infinite and have large particle sizes.

  1. Shock-absorbing effect of shoe insert materials commonly used in management of lower extremity disorders.

    PubMed

    Shiba, N; Kitaoka, H B; Cahalan, T D; Chao, E Y

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of 3 shock-absorbing materials was compared by determining impact characteristics with a drop test method and also by testing the effect of each material when used as a shoe insert in 16 asymptomatic subjects. Peak vertical ground reaction force (F1, F2, F3) and temporal force factors (T1, T2, T3) were obtained with a force plate at a high-frequency sampling rate. Impact force, impact time, impact slope, and impact energy were determined. A standard weight was dropped from 3 heights on each material covering the force plate while reduction of peak force was compared. Impact force was attenuated most effectively by Insert 3 (polymeric foam rubber) and averaged 11% less than that in shoes without inserts. Impact time was increased for all 3 inserts. Impact slope and impact energy were reduced significantly in Insert 3. There was a significant difference in peak vertical force F1 for all 3 inserts, in vertical force F2 for Insert 2 (viscoelastic polymeric material), and in vertical force F3 for Insert 2. Drop-test studies showed that at all ball heights, the highest mean peak force was observed consistently in Insert 2.

  2. Evaluation of tensile strength of surgical synthetic absorbable suture materials: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ranganath, V.; Nichani, Ashish Sham

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tensile strength of surgical synthetic absorbable sutures over a period of 14 days under simulated oral conditions. Methods Three suture materials (polyglycolic acid [PGA], polyglactin [PG] 910, and poly (glycolide-co-є-caprolactone) [PGC]) were used in 4-0 and 5-0 gauges. 210 suture samples (35 of each material and gauge) were used. All of the samples were tested preimmersion and 1 hour and 1, 3, 7, 10, and 14 days postimmersion. The tensile strength of each suture material and gauge was assessed. The point of breakage and the resorption pattern of the sutures were also assessed. Results During the first 24 hours of immersion, all 4-0 and 5-0 samples of PGA, PG 910, and PGC maintained their initial tensile strength. At baseline (preimmersion), there was a statistically significant (P<0.001) difference in the tensile strengths between the 4-0 and 5-0 gauge of PGA, PG 910, and PGC. PGA 4-0 showed the highest tensile strength until day 10. At 7 days, all the 4-0 sutures of the three materials had maintained their tensile strength with PGA 4-0 having significantly greater (P=0.003) tensile strength compared to PG. Conclusions 4-0 sutures are stronger and have greater tensile strength than 5-0 sutures. The PGA 4-0 suture showed the highest tensile strength at the end of day 10. PMID:23837127

  3. Light absorbing material (soot) in rainwater and in aerosol particles in the Maldives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granat, L.; EngströM, J. E.; Praveen, S.; Rodhe, H.

    2010-08-01

    Simultaneous measurements of soot (absorbing material at 528 nm) and inorganic ions in aerosol and precipitation at the Maldives Climate Observatory Hanimaadhoo during the period May 2005 to February 2007 have made it possible to calculate the washout ratio (WR) of these components as a measure of how efficiently they are scavenged by precipitation. On the basis of air trajectories the data have been separated into days with polluted air arriving from the Indian subcontinent in a northeasterly sector during winter and clean monsoon days with southerly flow from the Indian Ocean. The average soot concentration was a factor of 10 higher in the former situations. Despite considerable scatter for individual days, a systematic pattern emerged when the WR for the different components were compared with each other. During the monsoon season the WR for soot was similar to that of sulfate and other fine mode aerosol components, indicating that soot containing particles in these situations were efficient as cloud condensation nuclei. The origin of the light absorbing material during the monsoon season is unclear. During the polluted winter days, on the other hand, the WR for soot was three times smaller than that of sulfate. This indicates that, even after a travel time of several days, the soot containing particles from India have retained much of their hydrophobic property. The low WR and the infrequent rain during this season probably contribute to extending the atmospheric lifetime of soot well beyond several days. Surprisingly high concentrations of non-sea-salt calcium were measured during the monsoon season, substantially higher than during the winter season. The origin of these high values could be long-range transport from the Australian or African continents. Another possibility might be exopolymer gels derived from the ocean surface microlayer.

  4. Perovskite oxides for visible-light-absorbing ferroelectric and photovoltaic materials.

    PubMed

    Grinberg, Ilya; West, D Vincent; Torres, Maria; Gou, Gaoyang; Stein, David M; Wu, Liyan; Chen, Guannan; Gallo, Eric M; Akbashev, Andrew R; Davies, Peter K; Spanier, Jonathan E; Rappe, Andrew M

    2013-11-28

    Ferroelectrics have recently attracted attention as a candidate class of materials for use in photovoltaic devices, and for the coupling of light absorption with other functional properties. In these materials, the strong inversion symmetry breaking that is due to spontaneous electric polarization promotes the desirable separation of photo-excited carriers and allows voltages higher than the bandgap, which may enable efficiencies beyond the maximum possible in a conventional p-n junction solar cell. Ferroelectric oxides are also stable in a wide range of mechanical, chemical and thermal conditions and can be fabricated using low-cost methods such as sol-gel thin-film deposition and sputtering. Recent work has shown how a decrease in ferroelectric layer thickness and judicious engineering of domain structures and ferroelectric-electrode interfaces can greatly increase the current harvested from ferroelectric absorber materials, increasing the power conversion efficiency from about 10(-4) to about 0.5 per cent. Further improvements in photovoltaic efficiency have been inhibited by the wide bandgaps (2.7-4 electronvolts) of ferroelectric oxides, which allow the use of only 8-20 per cent of the solar spectrum. Here we describe a family of single-phase solid oxide solutions made from low-cost and non-toxic elements using conventional solid-state methods: [KNbO3]1 - x[BaNi1/2Nb1/2O3 - δ]x (KBNNO). These oxides exhibit both ferroelectricity and a wide variation of direct bandgaps in the range 1.1-3.8 electronvolts. In particular, the x = 0.1 composition is polar at room temperature, has a direct bandgap of 1.39 electronvolts and has a photocurrent density approximately 50 times larger than that of the classic ferroelectric (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 material. The ability of KBNNO to absorb three to six times more solar energy than the current ferroelectric materials suggests a route to viable ferroelectric semiconductor-based cells for solar energy conversion and

  5. Radar Absorbing Colloidal Solutions (RACS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    fig.5 sloiws te W-b yskm tinder test (a) and the two W- and D-band homi (b). The sytm ut~u4 tapol Ogm ingpi~s uVsmsso thepeanemptyeietm eone Twele...Because there is a very well defined relationship between DNA sequence and the thermodynamics of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) formation, it is possible...to test device performance. The mass flow rate basically increases with heat input from the heat son=v though the exact relationship would be

  6. 2D Homologous Perovskites as Light-Absorbing Materials for Solar Cell Applications.

    PubMed

    Cao, Duyen H; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2015-06-24

    We report on the fabrication and properties of the semiconducting 2D (CH3(CH2)3NH3)2(CH3NH3)(n-1)Pb(n)I(3n+1) (n = 1, 2, 3, and 4) perovskite thin films. The band gaps of the series decrease with increasing n values, from 2.24 eV (CH3(CH2)3NH3)2PbI4 (n = 1) to 1.52 eV CH3NH3PbI3 (n = ∞). The compounds exhibit strong light absorption in the visible region, accompanied by strong photoluminescence at room temperature, rendering them promising light absorbers for photovoltaic applications. Moreover, we find that thin films of the semi-2D perovskites display an ultrahigh surface coverage as a result of the unusual film self-assembly that orients the [Pb(n)I(3n+1)](-) layers perpendicular to the substrates. We have successfully implemented this 2D perovskite family in solid-state solar cells, and obtained an initial power conversion efficiency of 4.02%, featuring an open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 929 mV and a short-circuit current density (J(sc)) of 9.42 mA/cm(2) from the n = 3 compound. This result is even more encouraging considering that the device retains its performance after long exposure to a high-humidity environment. Overall, the homologous 2D halide perovskites define a promising class of stable and efficient light-absorbing materials for solid-state photovoltaics and other applications.

  7. Rice straw-wood particle composite for sound absorbing wooden construction materials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han-Seung; Kim, Dae-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Joong

    2003-01-01

    In this study, rice straw-wood particle composite boards were manufactured as insulation boards using the method used in the wood-based panel industry. The raw material, rice straw, was chosen because of its availability. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8, and a rice straw content (10/90, 20/80, and 30/70 weight of rice straw/wood particle) of 10, 20, and 30 wt.%. A commercial urea-formaldehyde adhesive was used as the composite binder, to achieve 140-290 psi of bending modulus of rupture (MOR) with 0.4 specific gravity, 700-900 psi of bending MOR with 0.6 specific gravity, and 1400-2900 psi of bending MOR with a 0.8 specific gravity. All of the composite boards were superior to insulation board in strength. Width and length of the rice straw particle did not affect the bending MOR. The composite boards made from a random cutting of rice straw and wood particles were the best and recommended for manufacturing processes. Sound absorption coefficients of the 0.4 and 0.6 specific gravity boards were higher than the other wood-based materials. The recommended properties of the rice straw-wood particle composite boards are described, to absorb noises, preserve the temperature of indoor living spaces, and to be able to partially or completely substitute for wood particleboard and insulation board in wooden constructions.

  8. Derivation of a Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) metric for evaluation of solar selective absorber materials

    DOE PAGES

    Ho, C. K.; Pacheco, J. E.

    2015-06-05

    A new metric, the Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC), is derived in this paper to evaluate and compare alternative solar selective absorber coatings against a baseline coating (Pyromark 2500). In contrast to previous metrics that focused only on the optical performance of the coating, the LCOC includes costs, durability, and optical performance for more comprehensive comparisons among candidate materials. The LCOC is defined as the annualized marginal cost of the coating to produce a baseline annual thermal energy production. Costs include the cost of materials and labor for initial application and reapplication of the coating, as well as the costmore » of additional or fewer heliostats to yield the same annual thermal energy production as the baseline coating. Results show that important factors impacting the LCOC include the initial solar absorptance, thermal emittance, reapplication interval, degradation rate, reapplication cost, and downtime during reapplication. The LCOC can also be used to determine the optimal reapplication interval to minimize the levelized cost of energy production. As a result, similar methods can be applied more generally to determine the levelized cost of component for other applications and systems.« less

  9. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  10. Tunable broadband near-infrared absorber based on ultrathin phase-change material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Er-Tao; Gu, Tong; Guo, Shuai; Zang, Kai-Yan; Tu, Hua-Tian; Yu, Ke-Han; Wei, Wei; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Song-You; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Lee, Young-Pak; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2017-11-01

    In this work, a tunable broadband near-infrared light absorber was designed and fabricated with a simple and lithography free approach by introducing an ultrathin phase-change material Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) layer into the metal-dielectric multilayered film structure with the structure parameters as that: SiO2 (72.7 nm)/Ge2Sb2Te5 (6.0 nm)/SiO2 (70.2 nm)/Cu (>100.0 nm). The film structure exhibits a modulation depth of ∼72.6% and an extinction ratio of ∼8.8 dB at the wavelength of 1410 nm. The high light absorption (95%) of the proposed film structure at the wavelength of 450 nm in both of the amorphous and crystalline phase of GST, indicates that the intensity of the reflectance in the infrared region can be rapidly tuned by the blue laser pulses. The proposed planar layered film structure with layer thickness as the only controllable parameter and large reflectivity tuning range shows the potential for practical applications in near-infrared light modulation and absorption.

  11. Measured Wavelength-Dependent Absorption Enhancement of Internally Mixed Black Carbon with Absorbing and Nonabsorbing Materials.

    PubMed

    You, Rian; Radney, James G; Zachariah, Michael R; Zangmeister, Christopher D

    2016-08-02

    Optical absorption spectra of laboratory generated aerosols consisting of black carbon (BC) internally mixed with nonabsorbing materials (ammonium sulfate, AS, and sodium chloride, NaCl) and BC with a weakly absorbing brown carbon surrogate derived from humic acid (HA) were measured across the visible to near-IR (550 to 840 nm). Spectra were measured in situ using a photoacoustic spectrometer and step-scanning a supercontinuum laser source with a tunable wavelength and bandwidth filter. BC had a mass-specific absorption cross section (MAC) of 7.89 ± 0.25 m(2) g(-1) at λ = 550 nm and an absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) of 1.03 ± 0.09 (2σ). For internally mixed BC, the ratio of BC mass to the total mass of the mixture was chosen as 0.13 to mimic particles observed in the terrestrial atmosphere. The manner in which BC mixed with each material was determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). AS/BC and HA/BC particles were fully internally mixed, and the BC was both internally and externally mixed for NaCl/BC particles. The AS/BC, NaCl/BC, and HA/BC particles had AAEs of 1.43 ± 0.05, 1.34 ± 0.06, and 1.91 ± 0.05, respectively. The observed absorption enhancement of mixed BC relative to the pure BC was wavelength dependent for AS/BC and decreased from 1.5 at λ = 550 nm with increasing wavelength while the NaCl/BC enhancement was essentially wavelength independent. For HA/BC, the enhancement ranged from 2 to 3 and was strongly wavelength dependent. Removal of the HA absorption contribution to enhancement revealed that the enhancement was ≈1.5 and independent of wavelength.

  12. Study of earth abundant tco and absorber materials for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakar, Tejas

    In order to make photovoltaic power generation a sustainable venture, it is necessary to use cost-effective materials in the manufacture of solar cells. In this regard, AZO (Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide) and CZTS (Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide) have been studied for their application in thin film solar cells. While AZO is a transparent conducting oxide, CZTS is a photovoltaic absorber. Both AZO and CZTS consist of earth abundant elements and are non-toxic in nature. Highly transparent and conductive AZO thin films were grown using RF sputtering. The influence of deposition parameters such as working pressure, RF power, substrate temperature and flow rate on the film characteristics was investigated. The as-grown films had a high degree of preferred orientation along the (002) direction which enhanced at lower working pressures, higher RF powers and lower substrate temperatures. Williamson-Hall analysis on the films revealed that as the working pressure was increased, the nature of stress and strain gradually changed from being compressive to tensile. The fall in optical transmission of the films was a consequence of free carrier absorption resulting from enhanced carrier density due to incorporation of Al atoms or oxygen vacancies. The optical and electrical properties of the films were described well by the Burstein-Moss effect. CZTS absorber layers were grown using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis at a deposition temperature of 350 C and subsequently annealed in a sulfurization furnace. Measurements from XRD and Raman spectra confirmed the presence of pure single phase Cu2ZnSnS4. Texture analysis of as-deposited and annealed CZTS films indicated that the (112) plane which is characteristic of the kesterite phase was preferred. The grain size increased from 50 nm to 100 nm on conducting post-deposition annealing. CZTS films with stoichiometric composition yielded a band gap of 1.5 eV, which is optimal for solar energy conversion. The variation of tin in the film changed its

  13. Evaluation of Aluminum-Boron Carbide Neutron Absorbing Materials for Interim Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lumin; Wierschke, Jonathan Brett

    2015-04-08

    The objective of this work was to understand the corrosion behavior of Boral® and Bortec® neutron absorbers over long-term deployment in a used nuclear fuel dry cask storage environment. Corrosion effects were accelerated by flowing humidified argon through an autoclave at temperatures up to 570°C. Test results show little corrosion of the aluminum matrix but that boron is leaching out of the samples. Initial tests performed at 400 and 570°C were hampered by reduced flow caused by the rapid build-up of solid deposits in the outlet lines. Analysis of the deposits by XRD shows that the deposits are comprised ofmore » boron trioxide and sassolite (H 3BO 3). The collection of boron- containing compounds in the outlet lines indicated that boron was being released from the samples. Observation of the exposed samples using SEM and optical microscopy show the growth of new phases in the samples. These phases were most prominent in Bortec® samples exposed at 570°C. Samples of Boral® exposed at 570°C showed minimal new phase formation but showed nearly the complete loss of boron carbide particles. Boron carbide loss was also significant in Boral samples at 400°C. However, at 400°C phases similar to those found in Bortec® were observed. The rapid loss of the boron carbide particles in the Boral® is suspected to inhibit the formation of the new secondary phases. However, Material samples in an actual dry cask environment would be exposed to temperatures closer to 300°C and less water than the lowest test. The results from this study conclude that at the temperature and humidity levels present in a dry cask environment, corrosion and boron leaching will have no effect on the performance of Boral® and Bortec® to maintain criticality control.« less

  14. High-resolution nondestructive testing of multilayer dielectric materials using wideband microwave synthetic aperture radar imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae Hee; James, Robin; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2017-04-01

    Fiber Reinforced Polymer or Plastic (FRP) composites have been rapidly increasing in the aerospace, automotive and marine industry, and civil engineering, because these composites show superior characteristics such as outstanding strength and stiffness, low weight, as well as anti-corrosion and easy production. Generally, the advancement of materials calls for correspondingly advanced methods and technologies for inspection and failure detection during production or maintenance, especially in the area of nondestructive testing (NDT). Among numerous inspection techniques, microwave sensing methods can be effectively used for NDT of FRP composites. FRP composite materials can be produced using various structures and materials, and various defects or flaws occur due to environmental conditions encountered during operation. However, reliable, low-cost, and easy-to-operate NDT methods have not been developed and tested. FRP composites are usually produced as multilayered structures consisting of fiber plate, matrix and core. Therefore, typical defects appearing in FRP composites are disbondings, delaminations, object inclusions, and certain kinds of barely visible impact damages. In this paper, we propose a microwave NDT method, based on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging algorithms, for stand-off imaging of internal delaminations. When a microwave signal is incident on a multilayer dielectric material, the reflected signal provides a good response to interfaces and transverse cracks. An electromagnetic wave model is introduced to delineate interface widths or defect depths from the reflected waves. For the purpose of numerical analysis and simulation, multilayered composite samples with various artificial defects are assumed, and their SAR images are obtained and analyzed using a variety of high-resolution wideband waveforms.

  15. Nonlinear inversion of borehole-radar tomography data to reconstruct velocity and attenuation distribution in earth materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, C.; Liu, L.; Lane, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    A nonlinear tomographic inversion method that uses first-arrival travel-time and amplitude-spectra information from cross-hole radar measurements was developed to simultaneously reconstruct electromagnetic velocity and attenuation distribution in earth materials. Inversion methods were developed to analyze single cross-hole tomography surveys and differential tomography surveys. Assuming the earth behaves as a linear system, the inversion methods do not require estimation of source radiation pattern, receiver coupling, or geometrical spreading. The data analysis and tomographic inversion algorithm were applied to synthetic test data and to cross-hole radar field data provided by the US Geological Survey (USGS). The cross-hole radar field data were acquired at the USGS fractured-rock field research site at Mirror Lake near Thornton, New Hampshire, before and after injection of a saline tracer, to monitor the transport of electrically conductive fluids in the image plane. Results from the synthetic data test demonstrate the algorithm computational efficiency and indicate that the method robustly can reconstruct electromagnetic (EM) wave velocity and attenuation distribution in earth materials. The field test results outline zones of velocity and attenuation anomalies consistent with the finding of previous investigators; however, the tomograms appear to be quite smooth. Further work is needed to effectively find the optimal smoothness criterion in applying the Tikhonov regularization in the nonlinear inversion algorithms for cross-hole radar tomography. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Absorbed dose measurement in low temperature samples:. comparative methods using simulated material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ruth; Harris, Anthony; Winters, Martell; Howard, Betty; Mellor, Paul; Patil, Deepak; Meiner, Jason

    2004-09-01

    There is a growing need to reliably measure absorbed dose in low temperature samples, especially in the pharmaceutical and tissue banking industries. All dosimetry systems commonly used in the irradiation industry are temperature sensitive. Radiation of low temperature samples, such as those packaged with dry ice, must therefore take these dosimeter temperature effects into consideration. This paper will suggest a method to accurately deliver an absorbed radiation dose using dosimetry techniques designed to abrogate the skewing effects of low temperature environments on existing dosimetry systems.

  17. [Reaction of the fibrose eyeball covering upon the suture material synthetic and absorbable "Dexon". (Experimental study) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Olah, Z

    1979-11-01

    The present paper deals with the results of 20 eyes of experimentally operated laboratory animals, whose perforating wounds (of cornea and those of sclerocorneal region) have been suturated with a new type of absorbable synthetic suture material "Dexon" thickness being 6-0. The synthetic absorbable suture material "Dexon" is made of polyglycol acid, and it has been introduced to market by the firm Davis and Geck (U.S.A.). The inflammatory tissue reaction to the presence of the suture material "Dexon" is prominent and can by compared to the reaction to chromic resorbable suture materials (catgut or collagen). The suture material "Dexon" start to resorb in the course of the 2nd-3rd weeks after operation. The suture material "Dexon" can be used at an advantage in the operation where it is possible to cover the knots by a conjuctival lobe (in sclerocorneal region or in strabismus surgery) in this way the tendency to overgrowing of epithelial cells along the suture channels can be prevented. The "Dexon" material is sufficiently flexible and firm and has no antigenic properties, therefore it appears very prospective for ophthalmosurgery.

  18. Ground penetrating radar antenna system analysis for prediction of earth material properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oden, C.P.; Wright, D.L.; Powers, M.H.; Olhoeft, G.

    2005-01-01

    The electrical properties of the ground directly beneath a ground penetrating radar (GPR) antenna very close to the earth's surface (ground-coupled) must be known in order to predict the antenna response. In order to investigate changing antenna response with varying ground properties, a series of finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations were made for a bi-static (fixed horizontal offset between transmitting and receiving antennas) antenna array over a homogeneous ground. We examine the viability of using an inversion algorithm based on the simulated received waveforms to estimate the material properties of the earth near the antennas. Our analysis shows that, for a constant antenna height above the earth, the amplitude of certain frequencies in the received signal can be used to invert for the permittivity and conductivity of the ground. Once the antenna response is known, then the wave field near the antenna can be determined and sharper images of the subsurface near the antenna can be made. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  19. Influence of the electromagnetic parameters on the surface wave attenuation in thin absorbing layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinrui; Li, Dongmeng; Wang, Xian; Nie, Yan; Gong, Rongzhou

    2018-05-01

    This paper describes the relationships between the surface wave attenuation properties and the electromagnetic parameters of radar absorbing materials (RAMs). In order to conveniently obtain the attenuation constant of TM surface waves over a wide frequency range, the simplified dispersion equations in thin absorbing materials were firstly deduced. The validity of the proposed method was proved by comparing with the classical dispersion equations. Subsequently, the attenuation constants were calculated separately for the absorbing layers with hypothetical relative permittivity and permeability. It is found that the surface wave attenuation properties can be strongly tuned by the permeability of RAM. Meanwhile, the permittivity should be appropriate so as to maintain high cutoff frequency. The present work provides specific methods and designs to improve the attenuation performances of radar absorbing materials.

  20. A Two-Step Absorber Deposition Approach To Overcome Shunt Losses in Thin-Film Solar Cells: Using Tin Sulfide as a Proof-of-Concept Material System

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmann, Vera; Chakraborty, Rupak; Rekemeyer, Paul H.

    2016-08-31

    As novel absorber materials are developed and screened for their photovoltaic (PV) properties, the challenge remains to reproducibly test promising candidates for high-performing PV devices. Many early-stage devices are prone to device shunting due to pinholes in the absorber layer, producing 'false-negative' results. Here, we demonstrate a device engineering solution toward a robust device architecture, using a two-step absorber deposition approach. We use tin sulfide (SnS) as a test absorber material. The SnS bulk is processed at high temperature (400 degrees C) to stimulate grain growth, followed by a much thinner, low-temperature (200 degrees C) absorber deposition. At a lowermore » process temperature, the thin absorber overlayer contains significantly smaller, densely packed grains, which are likely to provide a continuous coating and fill pinholes in the underlying absorber bulk. We compare this two-step approach to the more standard approach of using a semi-insulating buffer layer directly on top of the annealed absorber bulk, and we demonstrate a more than 3.5x superior shunt resistance Rsh with smaller standard error ..sigma..Rsh. Electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) measurements indicate a lower density of pinholes in the SnS absorber bulk when using the two-step absorber deposition approach. We correlate those findings to improvements in the device performance and device performance reproducibility.« less

  1. Thin and Broadband Two-Layer Microwave Absorber in 4-12 GHz with Developed Flaky Cobalt Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Neeraj; Singh, Jaydeep; Puthucheri, Smitha; Singh, Dharmendra

    2018-03-01

    Microwave absorbing materials (MAMs) in the frequency range of 2.0-18.0 GHz are essential for the stealth and communication applications. Researchers came up with effective MAMs for the higher frequency regions, i.e., 8.0-18.0 GHz, while absorbers with comparable properties in the lower frequency band are still not in the limelight. Designing a MAM for the lower frequency range is a critical task. It is known that the factors governing the absorption in this frequency predominantly depend on the permeability and conductivity of the material, whereas the shape anisotropy of the particles can initiate different absorption mechanisms like multiple internal reflections, phase cancellations, surface charge polarization and enhanced conductivity that can promote the microwave absorption towards lower frequencies. But the material alone may not serve the purpose of getting broad absorption bandwidth. With the effective use of advanced electromagnetic technique like multi-layering this problem may be solved. Therefore, in this paper, a material with shape anisotropy (cobalt flakes with high shape anisotropy) has been prepared and a two-layer structure is developed which gives the absorption bandwidth in 4.17-12.05 GHz at a coating thickness of 2.66 mm.

  2. Thin and Broadband Two-Layer Microwave Absorber in 4-12 GHz with Developed Flaky Cobalt Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Neeraj; Singh, Jaydeep; Puthucheri, Smitha; Singh, Dharmendra

    2018-05-01

    Microwave absorbing materials (MAMs) in the frequency range of 2.0-18.0 GHz are essential for the stealth and communication applications. Researchers came up with effective MAMs for the higher frequency regions, i.e., 8.0-18.0 GHz, while absorbers with comparable properties in the lower frequency band are still not in the limelight. Designing a MAM for the lower frequency range is a critical task. It is known that the factors governing the absorption in this frequency predominantly depend on the permeability and conductivity of the material, whereas the shape anisotropy of the particles can initiate different absorption mechanisms like multiple internal reflections, phase cancellations, surface charge polarization and enhanced conductivity that can promote the microwave absorption towards lower frequencies. But the material alone may not serve the purpose of getting broad absorption bandwidth. With the effective use of advanced electromagnetic technique like multi-layering this problem may be solved. Therefore, in this paper, a material with shape anisotropy (cobalt flakes with high shape anisotropy) has been prepared and a two-layer structure is developed which gives the absorption bandwidth in 4.17-12.05 GHz at a coating thickness of 2.66 mm.

  3. Smart skin spiral antenna with chiral absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    1995-05-01

    Recently there has been considerable interest toward designing 'smart skins' for aircraft. The smart skin is a composite layer which may contain conformal radars, conformal microstrip antennas or spiral antennas for electromagnetic applications. These embedded antennas will give rise to very low radar cross section (RCS) or can be completely 'hidden' to tracking radar. In addition, they can be used to detect, monitor or even jam other unwanted electromagnetic field signatures. This paper is designed to address some technical advances made to reduce the size of spiral antennas using tunable dielectric materials and chiral absorbers. The purpose is to design, develop and fabricate a thin, wideband, conformal spiral antenna architecture that is structurally integrable and which uses advanced Penn State dielectric and absorber materials to achieve wideband ground planes, and together with low RCS. Traditional practice has been to design radome and antenna as separate entities and then resolve any interface problems during an integration phase. A structurally integrable conformal antenna, however, demands that the functional components be highly integrated both conceptually and in practice. Our concept is to use the lower skin of the radome as a substrate on which the radiator can be made using standard photolithography, thick film or LTCC techniques.

  4. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, L.K.; Wicks, G.G.; Enz, G.L.

    1995-05-02

    A hydrogen absorbing composition is described. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  5. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.; Wicks, George G.; Enz, Glenn L.

    1995-01-01

    A hydrogen absorbing composition. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  6. Two-photon or higher-order absorbing optical materials and methods of use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Joseph (Inventor); Marder, Seth (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Compositions capable of simultaneous two-photon absorption and higher order absorptivities are disclosed. Many of these compositions are compounds satisfying the formulae D-.PI.-D, A-.PI.-A, D-A-D and A-D-A, wherein D is an electron donor group, A is an electron acceptor group and .PI. comprises a bridge of .pi.-conjugated bonds connecting the electron donor groups and electron acceptor groups. In A-D-A and D-A-D compounds, the .pi. bridge is substituted with electron donor groups and electron acceptor groups, respectively. Also disclosed are methods that generate an electronically excited state of a compound, including those satisfying one of these formulae. The electronically excited state is achieved in a method that includes irradiating the compound with light. Then, the compound is converted to a multi-photon electronically excited state upon simultaneous absorption of at least two photons of light. The sum of the energies of all of the absorbed photons is greater than or equal to the transition energy from a ground state of the compound to the multi-photon excited state. The energy of each absorbed photon is less than the transition energy between the ground state and the lowest single-photon excited state of the compound is less than the transition energy between the multi-photon excited state and the ground state.

  7. Quantitation of absorbed or deposited materials on a substrate that measures energy deposition

    DOEpatents

    Grant, Patrick G.; Bakajin, Olgica; Vogel, John S.; Bench, Graham

    2005-01-18

    This invention provides a system and method for measuring an energy differential that correlates to quantitative measurement of an amount mass of an applied localized material. Such a system and method remains compatible with other methods of analysis, such as, for example, quantitating the elemental or isotopic content, identifying the material, or using the material in biochemical analysis.

  8. Two-photon or higher-order absorbing optical materials for generation of reactive species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marder, Seth R. (Inventor); Cumpston, Brian (Inventor); Lipson, Matthew (Inventor); Perry, Joseph W. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Disclosed are highly efficient multiphoton absorbing compounds and methods of their use. The compounds generally include a bridge of pi-conjugated bonds connecting electron donating groups or electron accepting groups. The bridge may be substituted with a variety of substituents as well. Solubility, lipophilicity, absorption maxima and other characteristics of the compounds may be tailored by changing the electron donating groups or electron accepting groups, the substituents attached to or the length of the pi-conjugated bridge. Numerous photophysical and photochemical methods are enabled by converting these compounds to electronically excited states upon simultaneous absorption of at least two photons of radiation. The compounds have large two-photon or higher-order absorptivities such that upon absorption, one or more Lewis acidic species, Lewis basic species, radical species or ionic species are formed.

  9. Two-photon or higher-order absorbing optical materials for generation of reactive species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Joseph W (Inventor); Cumpston, Brian (Inventor); Lipson, Matthew (Inventor); Marder, Seth R (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Disclosed are highly efficient multiphoton absorbing compounds and methods of their use. The compounds generally include a bridge of pi-conjugated bonds connecting electron donating groups or electron accepting groups. The bridge may be substituted with a variety of substituents as well. Solubility, lipophilicity, absorption maxima and other characteristics of the compounds may be tailored by changing the electron donating groups or electron accepting groups, the substituents attached to or the length of the pi-conjugated bridge. Numerous photophysical and photochemical methods are enabled by converting these compounds to electronically excited states upon simultaneous absorption of at least two photons of radiation. The compounds have large two-photon or higher-order absorptivities such that upon absorption, one or more Lewis acidic species, Lewis basic species, radical species or ionic species are formed.

  10. Two-Photon or Higher-Order Absorbing Optical Materials for Generation of Reactive Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Joseph W. (Inventor); Cumpston, Brian (Inventor); Lipson, Matthew (Inventor); Marder, Seth R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed are highly efficient multiphoton absorbing compounds and methods of their use. The compounds generally include a bridge of pi-conjugated bonds connecting electron donating groups or electron accepting groups. The bridge may be substituted with a variety of substituents as well. Solubility, lipophilicity, absorption maxima and other characteristics of the compounds may be tailored by changing the electron donating groups or electron accepting groups, the substituents attached to or the length of the pi-conjugated bridge. Numerous photophysical and photochemical methods are enabled by converting these compounds to electronically excited states upon simultaneous absorption of at least two photons of radiation. The compounds have large two-photon or higher-order absorptivities such that upon absorption, one or more Lewis acidic species, Lewis basic species, radical species or ionic species are formed.

  11. Near surface bulk density estimates of NEAs from radar observations and permittivity measurements of powdered geologic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickson, Dylan; Boivin, Alexandre; Daly, Michael G.; Ghent, Rebecca; Nolan, Michael C.; Tait, Kimberly; Cunje, Alister; Tsai, Chun An

    2018-05-01

    The variations in near-surface properties and regolith structure of asteroids are currently not well constrained by remote sensing techniques. Radar is a useful tool for such determinations of Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) as the power of the reflected signal from the surface is dependent on the bulk density, ρbd, and dielectric permittivity. In this study, high precision complex permittivity measurements of powdered aluminum oxide and dunite samples are used to characterize the change in the real part of the permittivity with the bulk density of the sample. In this work, we use silica aerogel for the first time to increase the void space in the samples (and decrease the bulk density) without significantly altering the electrical properties. We fit various mixing equations to the experimental results. The Looyenga-Landau-Lifshitz mixing formula has the best fit and the Lichtenecker mixing formula, which is typically used to approximate planetary regolith, does not model the results well. We find that the Looyenga-Landau-Lifshitz formula adequately matches Lunar regolith permittivity measurements, and we incorporate it into an existing model for obtaining asteroid regolith bulk density from radar returns which is then used to estimate the bulk density in the near surface of NEA's (101955) Bennu and (25143) Itokawa. Constraints on the material properties appropriate for either asteroid give average estimates of ρbd = 1.27 ± 0.33g/cm3 for Bennu and ρbd = 1.68 ± 0.53g/cm3 for Itokawa. We conclude that our data suggest that the Looyenga-Landau-Lifshitz mixing model, in tandem with an appropriate radar scattering model, is the best method for estimating bulk densities of regoliths from radar observations of airless bodies.

  12. Measurement and Simulation of Thermal Conductivity of Hafnium-Aluminum Thermal Neutron Absorber Material

    DOE PAGES

    Guillen, Donna Post; Harris, William H.

    2016-05-11

    A metal matrix composite (MMC) material comprised of hafnium aluminide (Al3Hf) intermetallic particles in an aluminum matrix has been identified as a promising material for fast-flux irradiation testing applications. This material can filter thermal neutrons while simultaneously providing high rates of conductive cooling for experiment capsules. Our purpose is to investigate effects of Hf-Al material composition and neutron irradiation on thermophysical properties, which were measured before and after irradiation. When performing differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on the irradiated specimens, a large exotherm corresponding to material annealment was observed. Thus, a test procedure was developed to perform DSC and laser flashmore » analysis (LFA) to obtain the specific heat and thermal diffusivity of pre- and post-annealment specimens. This paper presents the thermal properties for three states of the MMC material: (1) unirradiated, (2) as-irradiated, and (3) irradiated and annealed. Microstructure-property relationships were obtained for the thermal conductivity. These relationships are useful for designing components from this material to operate in irradiation environments. Furthermore, the ability of this material to effectively conduct heat as a function of temperature, volume fraction Al 3Hf, radiation damage and annealing is assessed using the MOOSE suite of computational tools.« less

  13. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Jor-Shan [El Cerrito, CA; Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Lee, Chuck K [Hayward, CA; Walker, Jeffrey [Gaithersburg, MD; Russell, Paige [Las Vegas, NV; Kirkwood, Jon [Saint Leonard, MD; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Champagne, Victor [Oxford, PA

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  14. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C; Lee, Chuck K; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2013-11-12

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  15. Limitations of Cs3Bi2I9 as lead-free photovoltaic absorber materials.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Biplab; Wu, Bo; Mulmudi, Hemant Kumar; Guet, Claude; Weber, Klaus; Sum, Tze Chien; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G; Mathews, Nripan

    2018-01-17

    Lead (Pb) halide perovskites have attracted tremendous attention in recent years due to their rich optoelectronic properties, which have resulted in more than 22% power conversion efficient photovoltaics. Nevertheless, Pb-metal toxicity remains a huge hurdle for extensive applications of these compounds. Thus, alternative compounds with similar optoelectronic properties need to be developed. Bismuth possesses similar electronic structure as that of lead with the presence of ns2 electrons that exhibit rich structural variety as well as interesting optical and electronic properties. Herein, we critically assess Cs3Bi2I9 as a candidate for thin-film solar cell absorber. Despite a reasonable optical bandgap (~2eV) and absorption coefficient, the power conversion efficiency of the Cs3Bi2I9 mesoscopic solar cells was found to be severely lacking, limited by poor photocurrent density. The efficiency of the Cs3Bi2I9 solar cell can be slightly improved by changing the stoichiometry of the precursor solutions. We have investigated the possible reasons behind the poor performance of Cs3Bi2I9 by transient absorption and luminescence spectroscopy. Comparison between thin-films and single crystals highlights the presence of intrinsic defects in thin-films which act as nonradiative recombination centers.

  16. Plasmonic materials based on ZnO films and their potential for developing broadband middle-infrared absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Kesim, Yunus E., E-mail: yunus.kesim@bilkent.edu.tr; Battal, Enes; UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara, 06800

    2014-07-15

    Noble metals such as gold and silver have been extensively used for plasmonic applications due to their ability to support plasmons, yet they suffer from high intrinsic losses. Alternative plasmonic materials that offer low loss and tunability are desired for a new generation of efficient and agile devices. In this paper, atomic layer deposition (ALD) grown ZnO is investigated as a candidate material for plasmonic applications. Optical constants of ZnO are investigated along with figures of merit pertaining to plasmonic waveguides. We show that ZnO can alleviate the trade-off between propagation length and mode confinement width owing to tunable dielectricmore » properties. In order to demonstrate plasmonic resonances, we simulate a grating structure and computationally demonstrate an ultra-wide-band (4–15 μm) infrared absorber.« less

  17. 3D-Printing ‘Smarter’ Energy Absorbing Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Duoss, Eric

    2018-01-16

    Foams are, by nature, disordered materials studded with air pockets of varying sizes. Lack of control over the material’s architecture at the micrometer or nanometer scale can make it difficult to adjust the foam’s basic properties. But Eric Duoss and a team of Livermore researchers are using additive manufacturing to develop “smarter” silicone cushions. By architecting the structure at the micro scale, they are able to control macro-scale properties previously unachievable with foam materials.

  18. Canyon transfer neutron absorber to fissile material ratio analysis. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Clemmons, J.S.

    1994-03-04

    Waste tank fissile material and non-fissile material estimates are used to evaluate criticality safety for the existing sludge inventory and batches of sludge sent to Extended Sludge Processing (ESP). This report documents the weight ratios of several non-fissile waste constituents to fissile waste constituents from canyon reprocessing waste streams. Weight ratios of Fe, Mn, Al, Mi, and U-238 to fissile material are calculated from monthly loss estimates from the F and H Canyon Low Heat Waste (LHW) and High Heat Waste (HHW) streams. The monthly weight ratios for Fe, Mn and U-238 are then compared to calculated minimum safe weightmore » ratios. Documented minimum safe weight ratios for Al and Ni to fissile material are currently not available. Total mass data for the subject sludge constituents is provided along with scatter plots of the monthly weight ratios for each waste stream.« less

  19. Flexural properties and shock-absorbing capabilities of new face guard materials reinforced with fiberglass cloth.

    PubMed

    Abe, Keisuke; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Churei, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Naohiko; Ueno, Toshiaki

    2013-02-01

     Experimental materials incorporating fiberglass cloth were used to develop a thin and lightweight face guard (FG). This study aims to evaluate the effect of fiberglass reinforcement on the flexural and shock absorption properties compared with conventional thermoplastic materials.  Four commercial 3.2-mm and 1.6-mm medical splint materials (Aquaplast, Polyform, Co-polymer, and Erkodur) and two experimental materials were examined for use in FGs. The experimental materials were prepared by embedding two or four sheets of a plain woven fiberglass cloth on both surfaces of 1.5-mm Aquaplast. The flexural strength and flexural modulus were determined using a three-point bending test. The shock absorption properties were evaluated for a 5200-N impact load using the first peak intensity with a load cell system and the maximum stress with a film sensor system.  The flexural strength (74.6 MPa) and flexural modulus (6.3 GPa) of the experimental material with four sheets were significantly greater than those of the 3.2-mm commercial specimens, except for the flexural strength of one product. The first peak intensity (515 N) and maximum stress (2.2 MPa) of the experimental material with four sheets were significantly lower than those of the commercial 3.2-mm specimens, except for one product for each property. These results suggest that the thickness and weight of the FG can be reduced using the experimental fiber-reinforced material. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Wideband-Switchable Metamaterial Absorber Using Injected Liquid Metal.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Ki; Lee, Dongju; Lim, Sungjoon

    2016-08-22

    Metamaterial absorbers can provide good solutions for radar-cross-section (RCS) reduction. In spite of their attractive features of thinness, lightness, and low cost, resonant metamaterial absorbers have a drawback of narrow bandwidth. For practical radar applications, wideband absorbers are necessary. In this paper, we propose a wideband-switchable metamaterial absorber using liquid metal. In order to reduce RCS both for X-band and C-band, the switchable Jerusalem cross (JC) resonator is introduced. The JC resonator consists of slotted circular rings, chip resistors, and microfluidic channels. The JC resonator is etched on a flexible printed circuit board (FPCB), and the microfluidic channels are laser-etched on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material. The proposed absorber can switch the absorption frequency band by injecting a liquid metal alloy into the channels. The performance of the absorber was demonstrated through full-wave simulation and through measurements employing prototypes. The experimental results showed absorption ratios of over 90% from 7.43 GHz to 14.34 GHz, and from 5.62 GHz to 7.3 GHz, with empty channels and liquid metal-filled channels, respectively. Therefore, the absorption band was successfully switched between the C-band (4-8 GHz) and the X-band (8-12 GHz) by injecting liquid metal eutectic gallium indium alloy (EGaIn) into the channels.

  1. Wideband-Switchable Metamaterial Absorber Using Injected Liquid Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung Ki; Lee, Dongju; Lim, Sungjoon

    2016-08-01

    Metamaterial absorbers can provide good solutions for radar-cross-section (RCS) reduction. In spite of their attractive features of thinness, lightness, and low cost, resonant metamaterial absorbers have a drawback of narrow bandwidth. For practical radar applications, wideband absorbers are necessary. In this paper, we propose a wideband-switchable metamaterial absorber using liquid metal. In order to reduce RCS both for X-band and C-band, the switchable Jerusalem cross (JC) resonator is introduced. The JC resonator consists of slotted circular rings, chip resistors, and microfluidic channels. The JC resonator is etched on a flexible printed circuit board (FPCB), and the microfluidic channels are laser-etched on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material. The proposed absorber can switch the absorption frequency band by injecting a liquid metal alloy into the channels. The performance of the absorber was demonstrated through full-wave simulation and through measurements employing prototypes. The experimental results showed absorption ratios of over 90% from 7.43 GHz to 14.34 GHz, and from 5.62 GHz to 7.3 GHz, with empty channels and liquid metal-filled channels, respectively. Therefore, the absorption band was successfully switched between the C-band (4-8 GHz) and the X-band (8-12 GHz) by injecting liquid metal eutectic gallium indium alloy (EGaIn) into the channels.

  2. Demonstration of passive saturable absorber by utilizing MWCNT-ABS filament as starting material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuikafly, S. N. F.; Ahmad, F.; Ibrahim, M. H.; Latif, A. A.; Harun, S. W.

    2017-06-01

    This work demonstrated a stable passively Q-switched laser with the employment MWCNTs dispersed in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) resin (MWCNTs-ABS) based filament as passive saturable absorber. The simple fabrication process of the SA is further explained, started from the process of extruding the filament through a 3D printer nozzle at 210 °C to reduce the diameter from 1.75 mm to 200 μm. It is then weighed to about 25 mg and mixed with 1 ml acetone before sonicated for 5 minutes to dissolve the ABS. The resultant MWCNTs-acetone suspension is dropped on a glass slide to be characterized using Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Raman spectroscopy. It is also drop-casted on the end of a fiber ferrule to be integrated in the laser cavity. The proposed work revealed that the laser oscillated at about 1558 nm with threshold input pump power of 22.54 mW and maximum input pump power of 108.8 mW. The increase in pump power resulted in the increase in repetition rate where the pulse train increases from 8.96 kHz to 39.34 kHz while the pulse width decreases from 33.58 μs to 5.14 μs. The generated pulsed laser yields a maximum of 1.01 mW and 5.53 nJ of peak power and pulse energy respectively. The signal-to-noise ratio of 40 dB indicates that the generated pulse is stable.

  3. Prediction of the niche effect for single flat panels with or without attached sound absorbing materials.

    PubMed

    Sgard, Franck; Atalla, Noureddine; Nélisse, Hugues

    2015-01-01

    The sound transmission loss (STL) of a test sample measured in sound transmission facilities is affected by the opening in which it is located. This is called the niche effect. This paper uses a modal approach to study the STL of a rectangular plate with or without an attached porous material located inside a box-shaped niche. The porous material is modeled as a limp equivalent fluid. The proposed model is validated by comparison with finite element/boundary element computations. Using a condensation of the pressure fields in the niche, the niche effect is interpreted in terms of a modification of the modal blocked pressure fields acting on the panel induced by the front cavity and by a modification of the radiation efficiency of the panel modes due to the presence of the back cavity. The modal approach is then used to investigate the impact of (1) the presence of a porous material attached to the panel on the niche effect and (2) the niche effect on the assessment of the porous material insertion loss. A simplified model for the porous material based on a transfer matrix approach is also proposed to predict the STL of the system and its validity is discussed.

  4. The physical properties of black carbon and other light-absorbing material emitted from prescribed fires in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMeeking, G. R.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Yokelson, R. J.; Sullivan, A. P.; Lee, T.; Collett, J. L.; Fortner, E.; Onasch, T. B.; Akagi, S. K.; Taylor, J.; Coe, H.

    2012-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosol emitted from fires absorbs light, leading to visibility degradation as well as regional and global climate impacts. Fires also emit a wide range of trace gases and particulates that can interact with emitted BC and alter its optical properties and atmospheric lifetime. Non-BC particulate species emitted by fires can also scatter and absorb light, leading to additional effects on visibility. Recent work has shown that certain organic species can absorb light strongly at shorter wavelengths, giving it a brown or yellow color. This material has been classified as brown carbon, though it is not yet well defined. Land managers must find a balance between the negative impacts of prescribed fire emissions on visibility and air quality and the need to prevent future catastrophic wildfire as well as manage ecosystems for habitat restoration or other purposes. This decision process requires accurate assessments of the visibility impacts of fire emissions, including BC and brown carbon, which in turn depend on their optical properties. We present recent laboratory and aircraft measurements of black carbon and aerosol optical properties emitted from biomass burning. All measurement campaigns included a single particle soot photometer (SP2) instrument capable of providing size-resolved measurements of BC mass and number distributions and mixing state, which are needed to separate the BC and brown carbon contributions to total light absorption. The laboratory experiments also included a three-wavelength photoacoustic spectrometer that provided accurate measurements of aerosol light absorption. The laboratory systems also characterized emissions after they had been treated with a thermal denuder to remove semi-volatile coatings, allowing an assessment of the role of non-BC coatings on bulk aerosol optical properties. Emissions were also aged in an environmental smog chamber to examine the role of secondary aerosol production on aerosol optical properties.

  5. A theoretical and practical clarification on the calculation of reflection loss for microwave absorbing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Zhao, Kun; Drew, Michael G. B.; Liu, Yue

    2018-01-01

    Reflection loss is usually calculated and reported as a function of the thickness of microwave absorption material. However, misleading results are often obtained since the principles imbedded in the popular methods contradict the fundamental facts that electromagnetic waves cannot be reflected in a uniform material except when there is an interface and that there are important differences between the concepts of characteristic impedance and input impedance. In this paper, these inconsistencies have been analyzed theoretically and corrections provided. The problems with the calculations indicate a gap between the background knowledge of material scientists and microwave engineers and for that reason a concise review of transmission line theory is provided along with the mathematical background needed for a deeper understanding of the theory of reflection loss. The expressions of gradient, divergence, Laplacian, and curl operators in a general orthogonal coordinate system have been presented including the concept of reciprocal vectors. Gauss's and Stokes's theorems have been related to Green's theorem in a novel way.

  6. Design and fabrication of a microstrip patch antenna with a low radar cross section in the X-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hong-Kyu; Lee, Won-Jun; Kim, Chun-Gon

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors developed a radar absorbing method to reduce the antenna radar cross section (RCS) without any loss of antenna performance. The new method was based upon an electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) absorber using conducting polymer (CP). First, a microstrip patch antenna was made by using a copper film and glass/epoxy composite materials, which are typically used for load-bearing structures, such as aircraft and other vehicles. Then, CP EBG patterns were also designed that had a 90% electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbing performance within the X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz). Finally, the CP EBG patterns were printed on the top surface of the microstrip patch antenna. The measured radar absorbing performance of the fabricated patch antenna showed that the frontal RCS of the antenna declined by nearly 95% at 10 GHz frequency while the CP EBG patterns had almost no effect on the antenna's performance.

  7. Dynamical Effects in Metal-Organic Frameworks: The Microporous Materials as Shock Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banlusan, Kiettipong; Strachan, Alejandro

    2017-06-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of nano-porous crystalline solids consisting of inorganic units coordinated to organic linkers. The unique molecular structures and outstanding properties with ultra-high porosity and tunable chemical functionality by various choices of metal clusters and organic ligands make this class of materials attractive for many applications. The complex and quite unique responses of these materials to mechanical loading including void collapse make them attractive for applications in energy absorption and storage. We will present using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations to investigate shock propagation in zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-8 and MOF-5. We find that for shock strengths above a threshold a two-wave structure develops with a leading elastic precursor followed by a second wave of structural collapse to relax the stress. Structural transition of MOFs in response to shock waves corresponds to the transition between two Hugoniot curves, and results in abrupt change in temperature. The pore-collapse wave propagates at slower velocity than the leading wave and weakens it, resulting in shock attenuation. Increasing piston speed results in faster propagation of pore-collapse wave, but the leading elastic wave remains unchanged below the overdriven regime. We discuss how the molecular structure of the MOFs and shock propagation direction affect the response of the materials and their ability to weaken shocks. Office of Naval Research, MURI 2012 02341 01.

  8. Toward “Green” Hybrid Materials: Core–Shell Particles with Enhanced Impact Energy Absorbing Ability

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Restrained properties of “green” degradable products drive the creation of materials with innovative structures and retained eco-attributes. Herein, we introduce the creation of impact modifiers in the form of core–shell (CS) particles toward the creation of “green” composite materials. Particles with CS structure constituted of PLA stereocomplex (PLASC) and a rubbery phase of poly(ε-caprolactone-co-d,l-lactide) (P[CL-co-LA]) were successfully achieved by spray droplet atomization. A synergistic association of the soft P[CL-co-LA] and hard PLASC domains in the core–shell structure induced unique thermo-mechanical effects on the PLA-based composites. The core–shell particles enhanced the crystallization of PLA matrices by acting as nucleating agents. The core–shell particles functioned efficiently as impact modifiers with minimal effect on the composites stiffness and strength. These findings provide a new platform for scalable design of polymeric-based structures to be used in the creation of advanced degradable materials. PMID:29503773

  9. Analysis of SnS2 hyperdoped with V proposed as efficient absorber material.

    PubMed

    Seminovski, Yohanna; Palacios, Pablo; Wahnón, Perla

    2014-10-01

    Intermediate-band materials can improve the photovoltaic efficiency of solar cells through the absorption of two subband-gap photons that allow extra electron-hole pair formations. Previous theoretical and experimental findings support the proposal that the layered SnS2 compound, with a band-gap of around 2 eV, is a candidate for an intermediate-band material when it is doped with a specific transition-metal. In this work we characterize vanadium doped SnS2 using density functional theory at the dilution level experimentally found and including a dispersion correction combined with the site-occupancy-disorder method. In order to analyze the electronic characteristics that depend on geometry, two SnS2 polytypes partially substituted with vanadium in symmetry-adapted non-equivalent configurations were studied. In addition the magnetic configurations of vanadium in a SnS2 2H-polytype and its comparison with a 4H-polytype were also characterized. We demonstrate that a narrow intermediate-band is formed, when these dopant atoms are located in different layers. Our theoretical predictions confirm the recent experimental findings in which a paramagnetic intermediate-band material in a SnS2 2H-polytype with 10% vanadium concentration is obtained.

  10. Development of a Continuum Damage Mechanics Material Model of a Graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) Hybrid Fabric for Simulating the Impact Response of Energy Absorbing Kevlar(Registered Trademark) Hybrid Fabric for Simulating the Impact Response of Energy Absorbing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Littell, Justin D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development of input properties for a continuum damage mechanics based material model, Mat 58, within LS-DYNA(Registered Trademark) to simulate the response of a graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) hybrid plain weave fabric. A limited set of material characterization tests were performed on the hybrid graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) fabric. Simple finite element models were executed in LS-DYNA(Registered Trademark) to simulate the material characterization tests and to verify the Mat 58 material model. Once verified, the Mat 58 model was used in finite element models of two composite energy absorbers: a conical-shaped design, designated the "conusoid," fabricated of four layers of hybrid graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) fabric; and, a sinusoidal-shaped foam sandwich design, designated the "sinusoid," fabricated of the same hybrid fabric face sheets with a foam core. Dynamic crush tests were performed on components of the two energy absorbers, which were designed to limit average vertical accelerations to 25- to 40-g, to minimize peak crush loads, and to generate relatively long crush stroke values under dynamic loading conditions. Finite element models of the two energy absorbers utilized the Mat 58 model that had been verified through material characterization testing. Excellent predictions of the dynamic crushing response were obtained.

  11. PO calculation for reduction in radar cross section of hypersonic targets using RAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Song-hua; Guo, Li-xin; Pan, Wei-tao; Chen, Wei; Xiao, Yi-fan

    2018-06-01

    The radar cross section (RCS) reduction of hypersonic targets by radar absorbing materials (RAM) coating under different reentry cases is analyzed in the C and X bands frequency range normally used for radar detection. The physical optics method is extended to both the inhomogeneous plasma sheath and RAM layer present simultaneously. The simulation results show that the absorbing coating can reduce the RCS of the plasma cloaking system and its effectiveness is related to the maximum plasma frequency. Moreover, the amount of the RCS decrease, its maxima, and the corresponding optimal RAM thickness depend on the non-uniformity and parameters of the plasma sheath. In addition, the backward RCS of the flight vehicle shrouded by plasma shielding and man-made absorber is calculated and compared to the bare cone.

  12. Elastic, Frictional, Strength and Dynamic Characteristics of the Bell Shape Shock Absorbers Made of MR Wire Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazutkin, G. V.; Davydov, D. P.; Boyarov, K. V.; Volkova, T. V.

    2018-01-01

    The results of the mechanical characteristic experimental studies are presented for the shock absorbers of DKU type with the elastic elements of the bell shape made of MR material and obtained by the cold pressing of mutually crossing wire spirals with their inclusion in the array of reinforcing wire harnesses. The design analysis and the technology of MR production based on the methods of similarity theory and dimensional analysis revealed the dimensionless determined and determining parameters of elastic frictional, dynamic and strength characteristics under the static and dynamic loading of vibration isolators. The main similarity criteria of mechanical characteristics for vibration isolators and their graphical and analytical representation are determined, taking into account the coefficients of these (affine) transformations of the hysteresis loop family field.

  13. A Versatile and Scalable Approach toward Robust Superhydrophobic Porous Materials with Excellent Absorbency and Flame Retardancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Changping; Shen, Mengxia; Ren, Xiaoyan; Ai, Kelong; Lu, Lehui

    2016-08-01

    The frequent oil spillages and the industrial discharge of organic contaminants have not only created severe environmental and ecological crises, but also cause a risk of fire and explosion. These environmental and safety issues emphasize the urgent need for materials that possess superior sorption capability and less flammability and thus can effectively and safely clean up the floating oils and water-insoluble organic compounds. Here we present the successful hydrophobic modification of the flame retardant melamine sponge with a commercial fluorosilicone, by using a facile one-step solvent-free approach and demonstrate that the resultant superhydrophobic sponge not only exhibits extraordinary absorption efficiency (including high capacity, superior selectivity, good recyclability, and simple recycling routes), but also retains excellent flame retardancy and robust stability. In comparison to conventional methods, which usually utilize massive organic solvents, the present approach does not involve any complicated process or sophisticated equipment nor generates any waste liquids, and thus is a more labor-saving, environment-friendly, energy-efficient and cost-effective strategy for the hydrophobic modification. Taking into account the critical role of hydrophobic porous materials, especially in the field of environmental remediation, the approach presented herein would be highly valuable for environmental remediation and industrial applications.

  14. Tunable microwave absorbing nano-material for X-band applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadiq, Imran; Naseem, Shahzad; Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem; Khan, M. A.; Niaz, Shanawer; Rana, M. U.

    2016-03-01

    The effect of rare earth elements substitution in Sr1.96RE0.04Co2Fe27.80Mn0.2O46 (RE=Ce, Gd, Nd, La and Sm) X-type hexagonal ferrites prepared by using sol gel autocombustion method was studied. The XRD and FTIR analysis show the single phase of the prepared material. The lattice constants a (Å) and c (Å) varies with the additives. The particle size measured by Scherer formula for all the samples varies in the range of 54-100 nm and confirmed by the TEM analysis. The average grain size measured by SEM analysis lies in the range of 0.672-1.01 μm for all the samples. The Gd-substituted ferrite has higher value of coercivity (526.06 G) among all the samples which could be a good material for longitudinal recording media. The results also indicate that the Gd-substituted sample has maximum reflection loss of -25.2 dB at 11.878 GHz, can exhibit the best microwave absorption properties among all the substituted samples. Furthermore, the minimum value of reflection loss shifts towards the lower and higher frequencies with the substitution of rare earth elements which confirms that the microwave absorption properties can be tuned with the substitution of rare earth elements in pure ferrites. The peak value of attenuation constant at higher frequency agrees well the reflection loss data.

  15. A Versatile and Scalable Approach toward Robust Superhydrophobic Porous Materials with Excellent Absorbency and Flame Retardancy

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Changping; Shen, Mengxia; Ren, Xiaoyan; Ai, Kelong; Lu, Lehui

    2016-01-01

    The frequent oil spillages and the industrial discharge of organic contaminants have not only created severe environmental and ecological crises, but also cause a risk of fire and explosion. These environmental and safety issues emphasize the urgent need for materials that possess superior sorption capability and less flammability and thus can effectively and safely clean up the floating oils and water-insoluble organic compounds. Here we present the successful hydrophobic modification of the flame retardant melamine sponge with a commercial fluorosilicone, by using a facile one-step solvent-free approach and demonstrate that the resultant superhydrophobic sponge not only exhibits extraordinary absorption efficiency (including high capacity, superior selectivity, good recyclability, and simple recycling routes), but also retains excellent flame retardancy and robust stability. In comparison to conventional methods, which usually utilize massive organic solvents, the present approach does not involve any complicated process or sophisticated equipment nor generates any waste liquids, and thus is a more labor-saving, environment-friendly, energy-efficient and cost-effective strategy for the hydrophobic modification. Taking into account the critical role of hydrophobic porous materials, especially in the field of environmental remediation, the approach presented herein would be highly valuable for environmental remediation and industrial applications. PMID:27501762

  16. Quantum storage of heralded polarization qubits in birefringent and anisotropically absorbing materials.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Christoph; Bussières, Félix; Afzelius, Mikael; Gisin, Nicolas

    2012-05-11

    Storage of quantum information encoded into heralded single photons is an essential constituent of long-distance quantum communication based on quantum repeaters and of optical quantum information processing. The storage of photonic polarization qubits is, however, difficult because many materials are birefringent and have polarization-dependent absorption. Here we present a simple scheme that eliminates these polarization effects, and we demonstrate it by storing heralded polarization qubits into a solid-state quantum memory. The quantum memory is implemented with a biaxial yttrium orthosilicate (Y2SiO5) crystal doped with rare-earth ions. Heralded single photons generated from a filtered spontaneous parametric down-conversion source are stored, and quantum state tomography of the retrieved polarization state reveals an average fidelity of 97.5±0.4%, which is significantly higher than what is achievable with a measure-and-prepare strategy.

  17. Influence of Clay Content, Mineralogy and Fabric On Radar Frequency Response of Aquifer Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, L. J.; Handley, K.

    High frequency electromagnetic methods such as ground penetrating radar (GPR) and time domain reflectometry (TDR) are widely employed to measure water saturation in the vadose zone and water filled porosity in the saturated zone. However, previous work has shown that radar frequency dielectric properties are strongly influenced by clay as well as by water content. They have also shown that that the dielectric response of clay minerals is strongly frequency dependent, and that even a small proportion of clay such as that present in many sandstone aquifers can have a large effect at typi- cal GPR frequencies (around 100MHz). Hence accurate water content/porosity deter- mination requires clay type and content to be taken into account. Reported here are dielectric measurements on clay-sand mixtures, aimed at investigating the influence of clay mineralogy, particle shape, and the geometrical arrangement of the mixture constituents on GPR and TDR response. Dielectric permittivity (at 50-1000MHz) was measured for mixtures of Ottawa Sand and various clay minerals or clay size quartz rock flour, using a specially constructed dielectric cell. Both homogeneous and layered mixtures were tested. The influence of pore water salinity, clay type, and particle arrangement on the dielectric response is interpreted in terms of dielectric dispersion mechanisms. The appropriateness of var- ious dielectric mixing rules such as the Complex Refractive Index Method (CRIM) for determination of water content or porosity from field GPR and TDR data are dis- cussed.

  18. [Using UV-Vis Absorbance for Characterization of Maturity in Composting Process with Different Materials].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Wei, Yu-quan; Li, Yang; Xi, Bei-dou; Wei, Zi-min; Wang, Xing-lei; Zhao, Zhi-nan; Ding, Jei

    2015-04-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the degree of humification in DOM during composting using different raw materials, and their effect on maturity of compost based on UV-Vis spectra measurements and chemometrics method. The raw materials of composting studied included chicken manure, pig manure, kitchen waste, lawn waste, fruits and vegetables waste, straw waste, green waste, sludge, and municipal solid waste. During composting, the parameters of UV-Vis spectra of DOM, including SUVA254 , SUVA280 , E250/E365, E4/E6, E2/E4, E2/E6, E253/E203, E253/E220, A226-400, S275-295 and S350-400 were calculated, Statistical analysis indicated that all the parameter were significantly changed during composting. SUVA254 and SUVA280 of DOM were continuously increased, E250/E365 and E4/E6 were continuously decreased in DOM, while A226-400, S275-295 and S350-400 of DOM at the final stage were significantly different with those at other stages of composting. Correlation analysis indicated that the parameters were significantly correlated with each other except for E2/E4 and E235/E203. Furthermore, principal component analysis suggested that A226-400, SUVA254, S350-400, SUVA280 and S275~295 were reasonable parameters for assessing the compost maturity. To distinguish maturity degree among different composts, hierarchical cluster analysis, an integrated tool utilizing multiple UV-Vis parameters, was performed based on the data (A226-400, SUVA254, S350-400, SUVA280 and S275-295) of DOM derived from the final stage of composting. Composts from different sources were clustered into 2 groups. The first group included chicken manure, pig manure, lawn waste, fruits and vegetables waste, green waste, sludge, and municipal solid waste characterized by a lower maturity degree, and the second group contained straw waste and kitchen waste associated with a higher maturity degree. The above results suggest that a multi-index of UV-Vis spectra could accurately evaluate the compost maturity

  19. Bottom-up approach for microstructure optimization of sound absorbing materials.

    PubMed

    Perrot, Camille; Chevillotte, Fabien; Panneton, Raymond

    2008-08-01

    Results from a numerical study examining micro-/macrorelations linking local geometry parameters to sound absorption properties are presented. For a hexagonal structure of solid fibers, the porosity phi, the thermal characteristic length Lambda('), the static viscous permeability k(0), the tortuosity alpha(infinity), the viscous characteristic length Lambda, and the sound absorption coefficient are computed. Numerical solutions of the steady Stokes and electrical equations are employed to provide k(0), alpha(infinity), and Lambda. Hybrid estimates based on direct numerical evaluation of phi, Lambda('), k(0), alpha(infinity), Lambda, and the analytical model derived by Johnson, Allard, and Champoux are used to relate varying (i) throat size, (ii) pore size, and (iii) fibers' cross-section shapes to the sound absorption spectrum. The result of this paper tends to demonstrate the important effect of throat size in the sound absorption level, cell size in the sound absorption frequency selectivity, and fibers' cross-section shape in the porous material weight reduction. In a hexagonal porous structure with solid fibers, the sound absorption level will tend to be maximized with a 48+/-10 microm throat size corresponding to an intermediate resistivity, a 13+/-8 microm fiber radius associated with relatively small interfiber distances, and convex triangular cross-section shape fibers allowing weight reduction.

  20. Efficiency of ablative loading of material upon the fast-electron transfer of absorbed laser energy

    SciTech Connect

    Gus'kov, Sergei Yu; Kasperczuk, A; Pisarczyk, T

    2006-05-31

    We present the results of experiments on the short-term irradiation of a solid material by a laser beam. The data testify to a rise in efficiency of the energy transfer from the laser pulse to a shock wave due to the fast-electron energy transfer. The experiments were performed with massive aluminium targets on the PALS iodine laser, whose pulse duration (0.4 ns) was much shorter than the time of shock decay and crater formation in the target (50-200 ns). The irradiation experiments were carried out using the fundamental laser harmonic (1.315 {mu}m) with an energy of 360 J. The greatermore » part of the experiments were performed for the radiation intensity exceeding 10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}, which corresponded to the efficient generation of fast electrons under the conditions where the relatively long-wavelength iodine-laser radiation was employed. The irradiation intensity was varied by varying the laser beam radius for a specified pulse energy. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)« less

  1. A study of Radar Cross Section (RCS) characteristics and their application in future weapon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCluggage, W. A.

    The sum of components technique was used to calculate the radar cross section (RCS) of a Canberra B2 aircraft. The theoretical result obtained by using simple shapes to model the aircraft were compared with practical results. It is found that this technique can be used to give a quick order of magnitude estimation of a target's RCS. However, the major drawback of this technique is that it cannot predict the rapid changes in RCS which result from a small change in aspect angle. Trends in radar guided weapons, the effects of aircraft shape on the overall RCS of a weapons platform, and reduction of aircraft RCS by appropriate shaping are discussed. Methods, including radar absorption, radar absorbing materials, impedance loading, and active cancellation, which can be used to reduce an aircraft's radar signature and the associated penalties are reviewed.

  2. Evaluation of the effectiveness of toe board energy-absorbing material for foot, ankle, and lower leg injury reduction.

    PubMed

    Patalak, John P; Stitzel, Joel D

    2018-02-17

    Since 2000, numerous improvements have been made to the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Incorporated (NASCAR®) driver restraint system, resulting in improved crash protection for motorsports drivers. Advancements have included seats, head and neck restraints (HNRs), seat belt restraint systems, driver helmets, and others. These enhancements have increased protection for drivers from severe crash loading. Extending protection to the driver's extremities remains challenging. Though the drivers' legs are well contained for lateral and vertical crashes, they remain largely unrestrained in frontal and frontal oblique crashes. Sled testing was conducted for the evaluation of an energy-absorbing (EA) toe board material to be used as a countermeasure for leg and foot injuries. Testing included baseline rigid toe boards, tests with EA material-covered toe boards, and pretest positioning of the 50th percentile male frontal Hybrid III anthropomorphic test device (ATD) lower extremities. ATD leg and foot instrumentation included foot acceleration and tibia forces and moments. The sled test data were evaluated using established injury criteria for tibial plateau fractures, leg shaft fractures, and calcaneus, talus, ankle, and midfoot fractures. A polyurethane EA foam was found to be effective in limiting axial tibia force and foot accelerations when subjected to frontal impacts using the NASCAR motorsport restraint system.

  3. Rhea's Surface: Ice Properties Measured by Radar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, G.; Campbell, D.

    2004-11-01

    We obtained echoes from the leading and trailing hemispheres of Rhea in January 2004 using the Arecibo Observatory's 13-cm radar system. The transmitted signal was circularly polarized and strong echoes were received in both the opposite circular (OC) sense to that transmitted and the same circular (SC) sense. Rhea's mean total cross section normalized by projected area is 1.32±0.10 and the mean circular polarization ratio, the ratio of SC echo power to OC echo power, is 1.17±0.12. The reflectivity of the leading hemisphere may be slightly lower than that of the trailing hemisphere by about 10%, although the polarization ratio appears to vary less. The cross section and polarization ratio are similar to those of the icy Galilean satellites and closest to Ganymede's. For these bodies the high radar backscatter cross sections and high polarization ratios are due to an efficient multiple scattering mechanism in the cold, relatively clean water ice surfaces which have very low propagation loss at radio wavelengths. Rhea's surface appears to be exhibiting a similar effect. Rhea's echo spectra are broad, again similar to those of the icy Galilean satellites, and consistent with a multiple scattering mechanism. In contrast, the bright icy hemisphere of Rhea's sibling Iapetus is significantly more radar dark with a radar reflectivity roughly 10% of Rhea's (Black et al., Science, v304, 2004). On Iapetus this great reduction in scattering efficiency is most likely caused by a radar absorber in the ice, possibly ammonia compounds or buried non-ice material from its dark hemisphere. Rhea's surface ice must therefore be relatively free of contaminants, and have a purity similar to Ganymede's. These observations can constrain the concentration of ammonia in the near surface which would be a strong absorber even in amounts of only a few percent. We acknowledge support by NASA's PG&G program.

  4. Study on the characteristics of magneto-sensitive electromagnetic wave-absorbing properties of magnetorheological elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Miao; Yang, Pingan; Fu, Jie; Liu, Shuzhi; Qi, Song

    2016-08-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) materials are a class of materials whose mechanical and electrical properties can be reversible controlled by the magnetic field. In this study, we pioneered research on the effect of a uniform magnetic field with different strengths and directions on the microwave-absorbing properties of magnetorheological elastomers (MREs), in which the ferromagnetic particles are flower-like carbonyl iron powders (CIPs) prepared by an in situ reduction method. The electromagnetic (EM) absorbing properties of the composites have been analyzed by vector network analysis with the coaxial reflection/transmission technique. Under the magnetic field, the columnar or chainlike structures were formed, which allows EM waves to penetrate. Meanwhile, stronger Debye dipolar relaxation and attenuation constant have been obtained when changing the direction of the applied magnetic field. Compared with untreated MREs, not only have the minimum reflection loss (RL) and the effective absorption bandwidth (below -20 dB) greatly increased, the frequencies of the absorbing peaks shift about 15%. This suggests that MREs are a magnetic-field-sensitive electromagnetic wave-absorbing material and have great potential in applications such as in anti-radar camouflage, due to the fact that radar can continuously conduct detection at many electromagnetic frequencies, while the MR materials can adjust the microwave-absorption peak according to the radar frequency.

  5. Evaluation of absorbent materials for use as ad hoc dry decontaminants during mass casualty incidents as part of the UK’s Initial Operational Response (IOR)

    PubMed Central

    Kassouf, Nick; Syed, Sara; Larner, Joanne; Amlôt, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The UK’s Initial Operational Response (IOR) is a revised process for the medical management of mass casualties potentially contaminated with hazardous materials. A critical element of the IOR is the introduction of immediate, on-scene disrobing and decontamination of casualties to limit the adverse health effects of exposure. Ad hoc cleansing of the skin with dry absorbent materials has previously been identified as a potential means of facilitating emergency decontamination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro oil and water absorbency of a range of materials commonly found in the domestic and clinical environments and to determine the effectiveness of a small, but representative selection of such materials in skin decontamination, using an established ex vivo model. Five contaminants were used in the study: methyl salicylate, parathion, diethyl malonate, phorate and potassium cyanide. In vitro measurements of water and oil absorbency did not correlate with ex vivo measurements of skin decontamination. When measured ex vivo, dry decontamination was consistently more effective than a standard wet decontamination method (“rinse-wipe-rinse”) for removing liquid contaminants. However, dry decontamination was ineffective against particulate contamination. Collectively, these data confirm that absorbent materials such as wound dressings and tissue paper provide an effective, generic capability for emergency removal of liquid contaminants from the skin surface, but that wet decontamination should be used for non-liquid contaminants. PMID:28152053

  6. Evaluation of absorbed dose in irradiated sugar-containing plant material (peony roots) by an ESR method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoki, Rumi; Kimura, Shojiro; Ohta, Masatoshi

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between electron spin resonance (ESR) signal intensity of irradiated plant materials and sugar content was investigated by spectral analysis using peony roots. A weak background signal near g=2.005 was observed in the roots. After a 10 kGy irradiation, the ESR line broadened and the intensity increased, and the spectral characteristics were similar to a typical spectrum of irradiated food containing crystalline sugars. The free radical concentration was nearly stable 30 days after irradiation. The spectrum of peony root 30 days after irradiation was simulated using the summation of the intensities of six assumed components: radical signals derived from (a) sucrose, (b) glucose, (c) fructose, (d) cellulose, (e) the background signal near g=2.005 and (f) unidentified component. The simulated spectra using the six components were in agreement with the observed sample spectra. The intensity of sucrose radical signal in irradiated samples increased proportionally up to 20 kGy. In addition, the intensity of sucrose radical signals was strongly correlated with the sucrose contents of the samples. The results showed that the radiation sensitivity of sucrose in peony roots was influenced little by other plant constituents. There was also a good correlation between the total area of the spectra and the sucrose content, because the sucrose content was higher than that of other sugars in the samples. In peony roots, estimation of the absorbed dose from the ESR signal intensity may be possible by a calibration method based on the sucrose content.

  7. Growth of Cu2ZnSnS4(CZTS) by Pulsed Laser Deposition for Thin film Photovoltaic Absorber Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandur, Abhishek; White, Bruce

    2014-03-01

    CZTS (Cu2ZnSnS4) has become the subject of intense interest because it is an ideal candidate absorber material for thin-film solar cells with an optimal band gap (1.5 eV), high absorption coefficient (104 cm-1) and abundant elemental components. Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) provides excellent control over film composition since thin films are deposited under high vacuum with excellent stoichiometry transfer from the target. CZTS thin films were deposited using PLD from a stoichiometrically close CZTS target (Cu2.6Zn1.1Sn0.7S3.44). The effects of laser energy fluence and substrate temperature and post-deposition sulfur annealing on the surface morphology, composition and optical absorption have been investigated. Optimal CZTS thin films exhibited a band gap of 1.54 eV with an absorption coefficient of 4x104cm-1. A solar cell utilizing PLD grown CZTS with the structure SLG/Mo/CZTS/CdS/ZnO/ITO showed a conversion efficiency of 5.85% with Voc = 376 mV, Jsc = 38.9 mA/cm2 and Fill Factor, FF = 0.40.

  8. Metamaterial Absorber for Electromagnetic Waves in Periodic Water Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Young Joon; Ju, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Yoon; Ju Kim, Young; Bong, Jihye; Lim, Taekyung; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Lee, Youngpak

    2015-09-01

    Perfect metamaterial absorber (PMA) can intercept electromagnetic wave harmful for body in Wi-Fi, cell phones and home appliances that we are daily using and provide stealth function that military fighter, tank and warship can avoid radar detection. We reported new concept of water droplet-based PMA absorbing perfectly electromagnetic wave with water, an eco-friendly material which is very plentiful on the earth. If arranging water droplets with particular height and diameter on material surface through the wettability of material surface, meta-properties absorbing electromagnetic wave perfectly in GHz wide-band were shown. It was possible to control absorption ratio and absorption wavelength band of electromagnetic wave according to the shape of water droplet-height and diameter- and apply to various flexible and/or transparent substrates such as plastic, glass and paper. In addition, this research examined how electromagnetic wave can be well absorbed in water droplets with low electrical conductivity unlike metal-based metamaterials inquiring highly electrical conductivity. Those results are judged to lead broad applications to variously civilian and military products in the future by providing perfect absorber of broadband in all products including transparent and bendable materials.

  9. Metamaterial Absorber for Electromagnetic Waves in Periodic Water Droplets

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Young Joon; Ju, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Yoon; Ju Kim, Young; Bong, Jihye; Lim, Taekyung; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Lee, YoungPak

    2015-01-01

    Perfect metamaterial absorber (PMA) can intercept electromagnetic wave harmful for body in Wi-Fi, cell phones and home appliances that we are daily using and provide stealth function that military fighter, tank and warship can avoid radar detection. We reported new concept of water droplet-based PMA absorbing perfectly electromagnetic wave with water, an eco-friendly material which is very plentiful on the earth. If arranging water droplets with particular height and diameter on material surface through the wettability of material surface, meta-properties absorbing electromagnetic wave perfectly in GHz wide-band were shown. It was possible to control absorption ratio and absorption wavelength band of electromagnetic wave according to the shape of water droplet–height and diameter– and apply to various flexible and/or transparent substrates such as plastic, glass and paper. In addition, this research examined how electromagnetic wave can be well absorbed in water droplets with low electrical conductivity unlike metal-based metamaterials inquiring highly electrical conductivity. Those results are judged to lead broad applications to variously civilian and military products in the future by providing perfect absorber of broadband in all products including transparent and bendable materials. PMID:26354891

  10. Metamaterial Absorber for Electromagnetic Waves in Periodic Water Droplets.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Young Joon; Ju, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Yoon; Ju Kim, Young; Bong, Jihye; Lim, Taekyung; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Lee, YoungPak

    2015-09-10

    Perfect metamaterial absorber (PMA) can intercept electromagnetic wave harmful for body in Wi-Fi, cell phones and home appliances that we are daily using and provide stealth function that military fighter, tank and warship can avoid radar detection. We reported new concept of water droplet-based PMA absorbing perfectly electromagnetic wave with water, an eco-friendly material which is very plentiful on the earth. If arranging water droplets with particular height and diameter on material surface through the wettability of material surface, meta-properties absorbing electromagnetic wave perfectly in GHz wide-band were shown. It was possible to control absorption ratio and absorption wavelength band of electromagnetic wave according to the shape of water droplet-height and diameter- and apply to various flexible and/or transparent substrates such as plastic, glass and paper. In addition, this research examined how electromagnetic wave can be well absorbed in water droplets with low electrical conductivity unlike metal-based metamaterials inquiring highly electrical conductivity. Those results are judged to lead broad applications to variously civilian and military products in the future by providing perfect absorber of broadband in all products including transparent and bendable materials.

  11. Electromagnetic characterization of advanced nanostructured materials and multilayer design optimization for metrological and low radar observability applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheli, Davide; Pastore, Roberto; Delfini, Andrea; Giusti, Alfonso; Vricella, Antonio; Santoni, Fabio; Marchetti, Mario; Tolochko, Oleg; Vasilyeva, Ekaterina

    2017-05-01

    In this work the electromagnetic characterization of composite materials reinforced with carbon and metallic nanoparticles is presented. In particular, the electric permittivity and the magnetic permeability as a function of the frequency are used to evaluate the electromagnetic absorption capability of the nanocomposites. The aim is the study of possible applications in advanced coating able to tune the electromagnetic reflectivity of satellite surfaces in specific frequency ranges, in a special way for those surfaces that for some reason could be exposed to the antenna radiation pattern. In fact, the interference caused by the spurious electromagnetic multipath due to good electric conductive satellite surface components could in turn affect the main radiation lobe of TLC and Telemetry antennas, thus modifying its main propagation directions and finally increasing the microwave channel pathloss. The work reports the analysis of different nanostructured materials in the 2-10 GHz frequency range. The employed nanopowders are of carbon nanotubes, cobalt, argent, titanium, nickel, zinc, copper, iron, boron, bismuth, hafnium, in different weight percentages versus the hosting polymeric matrix. The materials are classified as a function of their electromagnetic losses capability by taking into account of both electric and magnetic properties. The possibility to design multi-layered structures optimized to provide specific microwave response is finally analyzed by the aid of swam intelligence algorithm. This novel technique is in general interesting for metrological purpose and remote sensing purposes, and can be effectively used in aerospace field for frequency selective materials design, in order to reduce the aircraft/spacecraft radar observability at certain frequencies.

  12. Panel Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MECHEL, F. P.

    2001-11-01

    A plane wave is incident on a simply supported elastic plate covering a back volume; the arrangement is surrounded by a hard baffle wall. The plate may be porous with a flow friction resistance; the back volume may be filled either with air or with a porous material. The back volume may be bulk reacting (i.e., with sound propagation parallel to the plate) or locally reacting. Since this arrangement is of some importance in room acoustics, Cremer in his book about room acoustics [1] has presented an approximate analysis. However, Cremer's analysis uses a number of assumptions which make his solution, in his own estimate, unsuited for low frequencies, where, on the other hand, the arrangement mainly is applied. This paper presents a sound field description which uses modal analysis. It is applicable not only in the far field, but also near the absorber. Further, approximate solutions are derived, based on simplifying assumptions like Cremer has used. The modal analysis solution is of interest not only as a reference for approximations but also for practical applications, because the aspect of computing time becomes more and more unimportant (the 3D-plots presented below for the sound field were evaluated with modal analysis in about 6 s).

  13. Impact of Magneto-Electric Materials and Devices on Tactical Radio (and Radar)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    and frequency dependent variable permittivity in a single device • Magnetic properties controlled by electric field. The goals of the seedling...such as HoMnO3) and composites (such as PZT- Terfenol-D). Other possible candidate materials are thought to include colossal magnetoresistive oxides

  14. Radar-cross-section reduction of wind turbines. part 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, Billy C.; Loui, Hung; McDonald, Jacob J.

    2012-03-05

    In recent years, increasing deployment of large wind-turbine farms has become an issue of growing concern for the radar community. The large radar cross section (RCS) presented by wind turbines interferes with radar operation, and the Doppler shift caused by blade rotation causes problems identifying and tracking moving targets. Each new wind-turbine farm installation must be carefully evaluated for potential disruption of radar operation for air defense, air traffic control, weather sensing, and other applications. Several approaches currently exist to minimize conflict between wind-turbine farms and radar installations, including procedural adjustments, radar upgrades, and proper choice of low-impact wind-farm sites,more » but each has problems with limited effectiveness or prohibitive cost. An alternative approach, heretofore not technically feasible, is to reduce the RCS of wind turbines to the extent that they can be installed near existing radar installations. This report summarizes efforts to reduce wind-turbine RCS, with a particular emphasis on the blades. The report begins with a survey of the wind-turbine RCS-reduction literature to establish a baseline for comparison. The following topics are then addressed: electromagnetic model development and validation, novel material development, integration into wind-turbine fabrication processes, integrated-absorber design, and wind-turbine RCS modeling. Related topics of interest, including alternative mitigation techniques (procedural, at-the-radar, etc.), an introduction to RCS and electromagnetic scattering, and RCS-reduction modeling techniques, can be found in a previous report.« less

  15. Nickel Nanoparticle Encapsulated in Few-Layer Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Supported by Nitrogen-Doped Graphite Sheets as a High-Performance Electromagnetic Wave Absorbing Material.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Haoran; Yan, Feng; Li, Chunyan; Zhu, Chunling; Zhang, Xitian; Chen, Yujin

    2018-01-10

    Herein we develop a facile strategy for fabricating nickel particle encapsulated in few-layer nitrogen-doped graphene supported by graphite carbon sheets as a high-performance electromagnetic wave (EMW) absorbing material. The obtained material exhibits sheetlike morphology with a lateral length ranging from a hundred nanometers to 2 μm and a thickness of about 23 nm. Nickel nanoparticles with a diameter of approximately 20 nm were encapsulated in about six layers of nitrogen-doped graphene. As applied for electromagnetic absorbing material, the heteronanostructures exhibit excellent electromagnetic wave absorption property, comparable to most EMW absorbing materials previously reported. Typically, the effective absorption bandwidth (the frequency region falls within the reflection loss below -10 dB) is up to 8.5 GHz at the thicknesses of 3.0 mm for the heteronanostructures with the optimized Ni content. Furthermore, two processes, carbonization at a high temperature and subsequent treatment in hot acid solution, were involved in the preparation of the heteronanostructures, and thus, mass production was achieved easily, facilitating their practical applications.

  16. Light scattering by dust particles (PROGRA2 experiment): size and structure effects for transparent and absorbing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadamcik, E.; Renard, J.-B.; Lasue, J.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.

    2007-08-01

    1- Introduction Cometary and possibly interplanetary dust particles seem to be mainly made of agglomerates of submicron and micron-sized grains. These particles are among the most primitive in our solar system. Regoliths on asteroidal and planetary surfaces seem to be loose materials produced by impinging meteorites on the surface of small bodies. Comparing their physical properties is thus fundamental to understand their evolution. To interpret remote observations of solar light scattered by dust particles and regoliths, it is necessary to use numerical and experimental simulations [1,2,3]. 2- PROGRA2 experiment PROGRA2 instruments are polarimeters; the light sources are two randomly polarized lasers (632.8 nm and 543.5 nm). Levitating particles (in microgravity or lifted by an air-draught) are studied by imaging polarimetry. Details on the instruments can be found in [4,5]. 3- Samples Two kinds of samples are studied: compact particles in the (1-400) micrometer size range and fluffy aggregates in the same size range, made from submicron and micronsized grains. The materials are transparent silica and absorbing carbon. Some deposited particles are huge agglomerates of micron-sized grains produced by random ballistic deposition of single grains [6,7] or produced by evaporation of mixtures in alcohol of fluffy aggregates of submicron-sized grains. Two samples are made of silica spheres coated by a carbonaceous black compound. Cometary analogues are mixtures of silica and amorphous carbon or Mg-Fe silicates mixed with amorphous carbon. 4- Results Phase curves and their main parameters (negative polarization at small phase angles and maximum polarization, Pmax, at 90-100° phase angle) for the different materials will be compared and related to the physical properties. For example, it is well known by numerical simulations and/or by experiments that the maximum polarization decreases when the size (submicrometer range) of the grains increases [2,8,9]. An inverse rule

  17. Investigation of the extended use of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) for measuring in-situ material quality characteristics : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-09-01

    This report tests the application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) as a non-destructive tool for highway infrastructure assessment. Multiple antennas with different frequency ranges were used on a variety infrastructure projects. This report highlig...

  18. Combining linear polarization spectroscopy and the Representative Layer Theory to measure the Beer-Lambert law absorbance of highly scattering materials.

    PubMed

    Gobrecht, Alexia; Bendoula, Ryad; Roger, Jean-Michel; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Visible and Near Infrared (Vis-NIR) Spectroscopy is a powerful non destructive analytical method used to analyze major compounds in bulk materials and products and requiring no sample preparation. It is widely used in routine analysis and also in-line in industries, in-vivo with biomedical applications or in-field for agricultural and environmental applications. However, highly scattering samples subvert Beer-Lambert law's linear relationship between spectral absorbance and the concentrations. Instead of spectral pre-processing, which is commonly used by Vis-NIR spectroscopists to mitigate the scattering effect, we put forward an optical method, based on Polarized Light Spectroscopy to improve the absorbance signal measurement on highly scattering samples. This method selects part of the signal which is less impacted by scattering. The resulted signal is combined in the Absorption/Remission function defined in Dahm's Representative Layer Theory to compute an absorbance signal fulfilling Beer-Lambert's law, i.e. being linearly related to concentration of the chemicals composing the sample. The underpinning theories have been experimentally evaluated on scattering samples in liquid form and in powdered form. The method produced more accurate spectra and the Pearson's coefficient assessing the linearity between the absorbance spectra and the concentration of the added dye improved from 0.94 to 0.99 for liquid samples and 0.84-0.97 for powdered samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Social Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    RTA HFM-201/RSM PAPER 3 - 1 © 2012 The MITRE Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Social Radar Barry Costa and John Boiney MITRE Corporation...defenders require an integrated set of capabilities that we refer to as a “ social radar.” Such a system would support strategic- to operational-level...situation awareness, alerting, course of action analysis, and measures of effectiveness for each action undertaken. Success of a social radar

  20. Planetary Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  1. Sound Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  2. Use of absorbent materials in on-line coupled reversed-phase liquid chromatography-gas chromatography via the through oven transfer adsorption desorption interface.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gema; Díaz-Plaza, Eva María; Cortés, Jose Manuel; Villén, Jesús; Herraiz, Marta

    2008-11-21

    The use of absorbents as retaining materials in the through oven transfer adsorption desorption interface (TOTAD) of an on-line coupled reversed-phase liquid chromatography-gas chromatography system (RPLC-GC) is proposed for the first time. A comparative study of an adsorbent (Tenax TA) and two absorbents, namely polydimethylsiloxane and poly(50% phenyl/50% methylsiloxane) is performed to establish the best experimental conditions for the automated and simultaneous determination of 15 organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticide residues in olive oil. The proposed method provides satisfactory repeatability (RSDs lower, in general, than 8.5%) and sensitivity (limits of detection ranging from 0.6 to 81.9 microg/L) for the investigated compounds.

  3. Liquid chromatography with absorbance detection and with isotope-dilution mass spectrometry for determination of isoflavones in soy standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Melissa M; Bedner, Mary; Reitz, Manuela; Burdette, Carolyn Q; Nelson, Michael A; Yen, James H; Sander, Lane C; Rimmer, Catherine A

    2017-02-01

    Two independent analytical approaches, based on liquid chromatography with absorbance detection and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection, have been developed for determination of isoflavones in soy materials. These two methods yield comparable results for a variety of soy-based foods and dietary supplements. Four Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology to assist the food and dietary supplement community in method validation and have been assigned values for isoflavone content using both methods. These SRMs include SRM 3234 Soy Flour, SRM 3236 Soy Protein Isolate, SRM 3237 Soy Protein Concentrate, and SRM 3238 Soy-Containing Solid Oral Dosage Form. A fifth material, SRM 3235 Soy Milk, was evaluated using the methods and found to be inhomogeneous for isoflavones and unsuitable for value assignment. Graphical Abstract Separation of six isoflavone aglycones and glycosides found in Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3236 Soy Protein Isolate.

  4. A comparative study between different approaches to improve the RCS of a compact double-layer absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hakim, H. A.; Mahmoud, K. R.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, straightforward and efficient techniques have been addressed into double-layer structure to enlarge the operating bandwidth to include the X, Ku and K bands, in addition to increase the electromagnetic wave absorption for wide varieties of incident angles and both polarization types. To increase the band-stop resonating frequency up to 26 GHz, an additional layer of meta-surface, circuit analog radar absorber material (CAR), or a thin radar absorber material (RAM) layer is engineered. The synthesized layers are designed based on optimization process with genetic algorithm (GA) through numerical technique (Ansoft design software HFSS) for both transmission line (T.L) and the free space method to get optimal material properties suitable for the design. For different approaches, the designed structures achieved a reflectivity value less than -16 dB on average in the desired bandwidth from 8 to 26 GHz for TE/TM modes with incidence angle up to 50o.

  5. A facile fabrication of chemically converted graphene oxide thin films and their uses as absorber materials for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelifard, Mehdi; Darudi, Hosein

    2016-07-01

    There is a great interest in the use of graphene sheets in thin film solar cells with low-cost and good-optoelectronic properties. Here, the production of absorbent conductive reduced graphene oxide (RGO) thin films was investigated. RGO thin films were prepared from spray-coated graphene oxide (GO) layers at various substrate temperature followed by a simple hydrazine-reducing method. The structural, morphological, optical, and electrical characterizations of graphene oxide (GO) and RGO thin films were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis showed a phase shift from GO to RGO due to hydrazine treatment, in agreement with the FTIR spectra of the layers. FESEM images clearly exhibited continuous films resulting from the overlap of graphene nanosheets. The produced low-cost thin films had high absorption coefficient up to 1.0 × 105 cm-1, electrical resistance as low as 0.9 kΩ/sq, and effective optical band gap of about 1.50 eV, close to the optimum value for solar conversion. The conductive absorbent properties of the reduced graphene oxide thin films would be useful to develop photovoltaic cells.

  6. Effects of increased collagen-matrix density on the mechanical properties and in vivo absorbability of hydroxyapatite-collagen composites as artificial bone materials.

    PubMed

    Yunoki, Shunji; Sugiura, Hiroaki; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Eiji; Yasuda, Kazunori; Tanaka, Junzo

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increased collagen-matrix density on the mechanical properties and in vivo absorbability of porous hydroxyapatite (HAp)-collagen composites as artificial bone materials. Seven types of porous HAp-collagen composites were prepared from HAp nanocrystals and dense collagen fibrils. Their densities and HAp/collagen weight ratios ranged from 122 to 331 mg cm⁻³ and from 20/80 to 80/20, respectively. The flexural modulus and strength increased with an increase in density, reaching 2.46 ± 0.48 and 0.651 ± 0.103 MPa, respectively. The porous composites with a higher collagen-matrix density exhibited much higher mechanical properties at the same densities, suggesting that increasing the collagen-matrix density is an effective way of improving the mechanical properties. It was also suggested that other structural factors in addition to collagen-matrix density are required to achieve bone-like mechanical properties. The in vivo absorbability of the composites was investigated in bone defects of rabbit femurs, demonstrating that the absorption rate decreased with increases in the composite density. An exhaustive increase in density is probably limited by decreases in absorbability as artificial bones.

  7. Liquid Chromatography with Absorbance Detection and with Isotope-Dilution Mass Spectrometry for Determination of Isoflavones in Soy Standard Reference Materials

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Melissa M.; Bedner, Mary; Gradl, Manuela; Burdette, Carolyn Q.; Nelson, Michael A.; Yen, James H.; Sander, Lane C.; Rimmer, Catherine A.

    2017-01-01

    Two independent analytical approaches, based on liquid chromatography with absorbance detection and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection, have been developed for determination of isoflavones in soy materials. These two methods yield comparable results for a variety of soy-based foods and dietary supplements. Four Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology to assist the food and dietary supplement community in method validation and have been assigned values for isoflavone content using both methods. These SRMs include SRM 3234 Soy Flour, SRM 3236 Soy Protein Isolate, SRM 3237 Soy Protein Concentrate, and SRM 3238 Soy-Containing Solid Oral Dosage Form. A fifth material, SRM 3235 Soy Milk, was evaluated using the methods and found to be inhomogeneous for isoflavones and unsuitable for value assignment. PMID:27832301

  8. Neutron Absorbing Alloys

    DOEpatents

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Shaber, Eric L.; DuPont, John N.; Robino, Charles V.; Williams, David B.

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is drawn to new classes of advanced neutron absorbing structural materials for use in spent nuclear fuel applications requiring structural strength, weldability, and long term corrosion resistance. Particularly, an austenitic stainless steel alloy containing gadolinium and less than 5% of a ferrite content is disclosed. Additionally, a nickel-based alloy containing gadolinium and greater than 50% nickel is also disclosed.

  9. Apollo couch energy absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, C. J.; Drexel, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    Load attenuators for the Apollo spacecraft crew couch and its potential applications are described. Energy absorption is achieved through friction and cyclic deformation of material. In one concept, energy absorption is accomplished by rolling a compressed ring of metal between two surfaces. In another concept, energy is absorbed by forcing a plastically deformed washer along a rod. Among the design problems that had to be solved were material selection, fatigue life, ring slippage, lubrication, and friction loading.

  10. Synthesis and characterizations of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles/carbon nanotube composite as an efficient absorber material for solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S.; Sa, K.; Alam, I.; Mahakul, P. C.; Raiguru, J.; Subramanyam, B. V. R. S.; Mahanandia, P.

    2018-05-01

    In this energy crisis era, the urgent calls for clean energy converter realizes the importance of photovoltaic device, which offers the highest probability of delivering a sustainable way of harvesting solar energy. The active absorber layer has its significance towards the performance of photovoltaic device by absorbing solar light and creating electron-hole pair inside layer. Being a direct p-type semiconductor, Cu2ZnSnS4 generally referred as CZTS has emerged as potential absorber towards photovoltaics application in recent decades as it offers the advantage of tunable band gap near optimal region ˜1.45-1.65 eV favorably match the solar spectrum and a high absorption coefficient ˜104 cm-1. The further improvement in the performance of CZTS based photovoltaics has involved the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Semiconductors hybridized with carbonaceous materials (CNTs) have been the center of attraction in the scientific community with beneficial contribution in enhancing optoelectronic properties. The incorporation of CNTs shows effectiveness in charge carrier transfer pathways which ultimately could enhance the photo conversion efficiency (PCE) of photovoltaic device cell (PVC). Here, a facile hydrothermal one-pot synthesis of CZTS nanoparticles and MWCNTs composite towards photovoltaics application is reported. The phase and structural analysis of CZTS nanoparticles as well as CZTS/MWCNTs composite is done by XRD. From FERSEM and TEM (LRTEM & HRTEM) analysis the CZTS nanoparticles decorated over the surface of MWCNTs is confirmed. The optical band gap of CZTS/MWCNTs composite is estimated to be 1.62 eV from UV-Visible spectra.

  11. Use of co-combustion bottom ash to design an acoustic absorbing material for highway noise barriers.

    PubMed

    Arenas, Celia; Leiva, Carlos; Vilches, Luis F; Cifuentes, Héctor

    2013-11-01

    The present study aims to determine and evaluate the applicability of a new product consisting of coal bottom ash mixed with Portland cement in the application of highway noise barriers. In order to effectively recycle the bottom ash, the influence of the grain particle size of bottom ash, the thickness of the panel and the combination of different layers with various particle sizes have been studied, as well as some environmental properties including leachability (EN-12457-4, NEN-7345) and radioactivity tests. Based on the obtained results, the acoustic properties of the final composite material were similar or even better than those found in porous concrete used for the same application. According to this study, the material produced presented no environmental risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Epitaxial Bi2 FeCrO6 Multiferroic Thin Film as a New Visible Light Absorbing Photocathode Material.

    PubMed

    Li, Shun; AlOtaibi, Bandar; Huang, Wei; Mi, Zetian; Serpone, Nick; Nechache, Riad; Rosei, Federico

    2015-08-26

    Ferroelectric materials have been studied increasingly for solar energy conversion technologies due to the efficient charge separation driven by the polarization induced internal electric field. However, their insufficient conversion efficiency is still a major challenge. Here, a photocathode material of epitaxial double perovskite Bi(2) FeCrO(6) multiferroic thin film is reported with a suitable conduction band position and small bandgap (1.9-2.1 eV), for visible-light-driven reduction of water to hydrogen. Photoelectrochemical measurements show that the highest photocurrent density up to -1.02 mA cm(-2) at a potential of -0.97 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode is obtained in p-type Bi(2) FeCrO(6) thin film photocathode grown on SrTiO(3) substrate under AM 1.5G simulated sunlight. In addition, a twofold enhancement of photocurrent density is obtained after negatively poling the Bi(2) FeCrO(6) thin film, as a result of modulation of the band structure by suitable control of the internal electric field gradient originating from the ferroelectric polarization in the Bi(2) FeCrO(6) films. The findings validate the use of multiferroic Bi(2) FeCrO(6) thin films as photocathode materials, and also prove that the manipulation of internal fields through polarization in ferroelectric materials is a promising strategy for the design of improved photoelectrodes and smart devices for solar energy conversion. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Determination of fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids in standard reference material 3280 multivitamin/multielement tablets by liquid chromatography with absorbance detection.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jeanice B; Sharpless, Katherine E; Yen, James H; Rimmer, Catherine A

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of selected fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids in Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3280 Multivitamin/Multielement Tablets have been determined by two independent LC methods, with measurements performed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This SRM has been prepared as part of a collaborative effort between NIST and the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. The SRM is also intended to support the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database that is being established by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The methods used at NIST to determine the concentration levels of vitamins A and E, and beta-carotene in the SRM used RPLC with absorbance detection. The relative precision of these methods ranged from 2 to 8% for the analytes measured. SRM 3280 is primarily intended for use in validating analytical methods for the determination of selected vitamins, carotenoids, and elements in multivitamin/multielement tablets and similar matrixes.

  14. Effect of zeolite nano-materials and artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) leaf extract on increase in urinary clearance of systematically absorbed nicotine.

    PubMed

    Malekshah, R E; Mahjub, R; Rastgarpanah, M; Ghorbani, M; Partoazar, A R; Mehr, S E; Dehpour, A R; Dorkoosh, F A

    2012-12-01

    Nicotine, the main pharmacologically active component in tobacco and cigarette, has some toxic effects and also high potential for addiction. In this study, the effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and zeolite nano-materials on urinary excretion of nicotine and consequently elimination of systematically absorbed nicotine was investigated. A simple, valid and highly sensitive high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for determination of nicotine in rat urine according to guidelines for bioanalysis.It was found that nano-zeolites can cause increase in urinary concentration of nicotine due to its high surface adsorption. Artichoke leaf extract can cause increase in urinary excretion of nicotine in longer post administration times. It was observed that co-administration of nanozeolites and the leaf extract has the synergetic effect on increasing the urinary excretion of nicotine. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Use of co-combustion bottom ash to design an acoustic absorbing material for highway noise barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Arenas, Celia; Leiva, Carlos; Vilches, Luis F.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • The particle size of bottom ash influenced the acoustic behavior of the barrier. • The best sound absorption coefficients were measured for larger particle sizes. • The maximum noise absorption is displaced to lower frequencies for higher thickness. • A noise barrier was designed with better properties than commercial products. • Recycling products from bottom ash no present leaching and radioactivity problems. - Abstract: The present study aims to determine and evaluate the applicability of a new product consisting of coal bottom ash mixed with Portland cement in the application of highway noise barriers. In order to effectivelymore » recycle the bottom ash, the influence of the grain particle size of bottom ash, the thickness of the panel and the combination of different layers with various particle sizes have been studied, as well as some environmental properties including leachability (EN-12457-4, NEN-7345) and radioactivity tests. Based on the obtained results, the acoustic properties of the final composite material were similar or even better than those found in porous concrete used for the same application. According to this study, the material produced presented no environmental risk.« less

  16. Characterization and MCNP simulation of neutron energy spectrum shift after transmission through strong absorbing materials and its impact on tomography reconstructed image.

    PubMed

    Hachouf, N; Kharfi, F; Boucenna, A

    2012-10-01

    An ideal neutron radiograph, for quantification and 3D tomographic image reconstruction, should be a transmission image which exactly obeys to the exponential attenuation law of a monochromatic neutron beam. There are many reasons for which this assumption does not hold for high neutron absorbing materials. The main deviations from the ideal are due essentially to neutron beam hardening effect. The main challenges of this work are the characterization of neutron transmission through boron enriched steel materials and the observation of beam hardening. Then, in our work, the influence of beam hardening effect on neutron tomographic image, for samples based on these materials, is studied. MCNP and FBP simulation are performed to adjust linear attenuation coefficients data and to perform 2D tomographic image reconstruction with and without beam hardening corrections. A beam hardening correction procedure is developed and applied based on qualitative and quantitative analyses of the projections data. Results from original and corrected 2D reconstructed images obtained shows the efficiency of the proposed correction procedure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of Reduced Graphene Oxide on Effective Absorption Bandwidth Shift of Hybrid Absorbers.

    PubMed

    Ameer, Shahid; Gul, Iftikhar Hussain

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic nanoparticle composite NiFe2O4 has traditionally been studied for high-frequency microwave absorption with marginal performance towards low-frequency radar bands (particularly L and S bands). Here, NiFe2O4 nanoparticles and nanohybrids using large-diameter graphene oxide (GO) sheets are prepared via solvothermal synthesis for low-frequency wide bandwidth shielding (L and S radar bands). The synthesized materials were characterized using XRD, SEM, FTIR and microwave magneto dielectric spectroscopy. The dimension of these solvothermally synthesized pristine particles and hybrids lies within 30-58 nm. Microwave magneto-dielectric spectroscopy was performed in the low-frequency region in the 1 MHz-3 GHz spectrum. The as-synthesized pristine nanoparticles and hybrids were found to be highly absorbing for microwaves throughout the L and S radar bands (< -10 dB from 1 MHz to 3 GHz). This excellent microwave absorbing property induced by graphene sheet coupling shows application of these materials with absorption bandwidth which is tailored such that these could be used for low frequency. Previously, these were used for high frequency absorptions (typically > 4 GHz) with limited selective bandwidth.

  18. The Contributions Regarding the Use of Microwave to Obtain Modeling Gypsum for Phonic-Absorbent Construction and Orthopedic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, P. A.; Ungur, P. A.; Caraban, A.; Marcu, F.

    2009-11-01

    The paper has presented some experiments realized at "Congips" Co. Oradea and University of Oradea, regarding of increase machining efficiency and quality for modeling gypsum plaster by using of microwave energy to gypsum ore roast. The elaboration process of microwave energy for modeling gypsum plaster has done on electromagnetic waves properties and specific properties for dielectric materials. Microwaves are radiations of electromagnetic waveform nature, determine by pulsations of electrical-E) and magnetically-H components of electromagnetic wave in interdependence with Maxwell equations. The gypsum ore is calcium sulphate dehydrate (CaSO4ṡ2H2O) using at modeling gypsum plaster fabrication, which is calcium sulphate hemihydrate (CaSO4ṡ1/2H2O), that has behavior of dielectric with losses. The gypsum ore getting in microwave field, in conditions of predictable pressure and temperature has transformed in modeling gypsum plaster, by quick lost of a part from crystallization water. The processing time is very short, which due to a great productivity and machining efficiency, finally of low process cost. All of these recommend continuing the research at pilot station level.

  19. Characterization of the Mechanical Strength, Resorption Properties, and Histologic Characteristics of a Fully Absorbable Material (Poly-4-hydroxybutyrate—PHASIX Mesh) in a Porcine Model of Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Deeken, Corey R.; Matthews, Brent D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB) is a naturally derived, absorbable polymer. P4HB has been manufactured into PHASIX Mesh and P4HB Plug designs for soft tissue repair. The objective of this study was to evaluate mechanical strength, resorption properties, and histologic characteristics in a porcine model. Methods. Bilateral defects were created in the abdominal wall of n = 20 Yucatan minipigs and repaired in a bridged fashion with PHASIX Mesh or P4HB Plug fixated with SorbaFix or permanent suture, respectively. Mechanical strength, resorption properties, and histologic characteristics were evaluated at 6, 12, 26, and 52 weeks (n = 5 each). Results. PHASIX Mesh and P4HB Plug repairs exhibited similar burst strength, stiffness, and molecular weight at all time points, with no significant differences detected between the two devices (P > 0.05). PHASIX Mesh and P4HB Plug repairs also demonstrated significantly greater burst strength and stiffness than native abdominal wall at all time points (P < 0.05), and material resorption increased significantly over time (P < 0.001). Inflammatory infiltrates were mononuclear, and both devices exhibited mild to moderate granulation tissue/vascularization. Conclusions. PHASIX Mesh and P4HB Plug demonstrated significant mechanical strength compared to native abdominal wall, despite significant material resorption over time. Histological assessment revealed a comparable mild inflammatory response and mild to moderate granulation tissue/vascularization. PMID:23781348

  20. Synthesis and microwave absorbing characteristics of functionally graded carbonyl iron/polyurethane composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, R. B.; Liang, W. F.; Wu, C. H.; Chen, C. C.

    2016-05-01

    Radar absorbing materials (RAMs) also known as microwave absorbers, which can absorb and dissipate incident electromagnetic wave, are widely used in the fields of radar-cross section reduction, electromagnetic interference (EMI) reduction and human health protection. In this study, the synthesis of functionally graded material (FGM) (CI/Polyurethane composites), which is fabricated with semi-sequentially varied composition along the thickness, is implemented with a genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize the microwave absorption efficiency and bandwidth of FGM. For impedance matching and broad-band design, the original 8-layered FGM was obtained by the GA method to calculate the thickness of each layer for a sequential stacking of FGM from 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 65, 70 and 75 wt% of CI fillers. The reflection loss of the original 8-layered FGM below -10 dB can be obtained in the frequency range of 5.12˜18 GHz with a total thickness of 9.66 mm. Further optimization reduces the number of the layers and the stacking sequence of the optimized 4-layered FGM is 20, 30, 65, 75 wt% with thickness of 0.8, 1.6, 0.6 and 1.0 mm, respectively. The synthesis and measurement of the optimized 4-layered FGM with a thickness of 4 mm reveal a minimum reflection loss of -25.2 dB at 6.64 GHz and its bandwidth below - 10 dB is larger than 12.8 GHz.

  1. Radar Sounder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    S’ardard Form 298 Rev 2-89) • " Del " 1 , -iNS, 19 , q f .If - ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge the support of numerous...plates, etc.); estimation of rain rate and the observation of the horizontal and vertical structure of rain. The data from the radar sounder will be...crytal habit. The microphysical properties and vertical structure of the clouds are needed for applications of interest to the Air Force such as

  2. Dendritic-metasurface-based flexible broadband microwave absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mei; Weng, Bin; Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2017-06-01

    Based on the dendritic metasurface model, a type of flexible and lightweight microwave absorber (MA) comprising resistance film array with dendritic slot (RFADS), dielectric material, and metal plate is proposed. A broadband absorptivity of >80% is obtained both from simulation and experiment at frequency ranges of 3.0-9.2 and 3.2-9.00 GHz, respectively. And the thickness of MA is 5 mm, which is only 0.05λ _{low}, or 0.15λ _ {high}, where the λ _{low} and the λ _{high} are the beginning and the end of the working frequency. By combining this metasurface-based MA with the dendritic-resistance-film-based microwave metasurface absorber (MMA), we designed a broadband MMA. The simulations and experiments showed that this kind of MMA can absorb the radiation effectively at a wide frequency range 4.5-17.5 GHz. And the thickness of this combined MMA is 4 mm. All the structures showed their insensitivity to the incident angle (0°-40°) and the polarization of the incident wave because of their structural symmetry. In addition, the small thickness, low apparent density, and flexibility made those structures possess the advantages of being applied in microwave stealth and radar cross-section (RCS) reduction.

  3. Arecibo radar imagery of Mars: The major volcanic provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, John K.; Nolan, Michael C.; Husmann, Diana I.; Campbell, Bruce A.

    2012-08-01

    We present Earth-based radar images of Mars obtained with the upgraded Arecibo S-band (λ = 12.6 cm) radar during the 2005-2012 oppositions. The imaging was done using the same long-code delay-Doppler technique as for the earlier (pre-upgrade) imaging but at a much higher resolution (˜3 km) and, for some regions, a more favorable sub-Earth latitude. This has enabled us to make a more detailed and complete mapping of depolarized radar reflectivity (a proxy for small-scale surface roughness) over the major volcanic provinces of Tharsis, Elysium, and Amazonis. We find that vast portions of these regions are covered by radar-bright lava flows exhibiting circular polarization ratios close to unity, a characteristic that is uncommon for terrestrial lavas and that is a likely indicator of multiple scattering from extremely blocky or otherwise highly disrupted flow surfaces. All of the major volcanoes have radar-bright features on their shields, although the brightness distribution on Olympus Mons is very patchy and the summit plateau of Pavonis Mons is entirely radar-dark. The older minor shields (paterae and tholi) are largely or entirely radar-dark, which is consistent with mantling by dust or pyroclastic material. Other prominent radar-dark features include: the "fan-shaped deposits", possibly glacial, associated with the three major Tharsis Montes shields; various units of the Medusae Fossae Formation; a region south and west of Biblis Patera where "Stealth" deposits appear to obscure Tharsis flows; and a number of "dark-halo craters" with radar-absorbing ejecta blankets deposited atop surrounding bright flows. Several major bright features in Tharsis are associated with off-shield lava flows; these include the Olympus Mons basal plains, volcanic fields east and south of Pavonis Mons, the Daedalia Planum flows south of Arsia Mons, and a broad expanse of flows extending east from the Tharsis Montes to Echus Chasma. The radar-bright lava plains in Elysium are

  4. Thermalization of X-rays in evaporated tin and bismuth films used as the absorbing materials in X-ray calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahle, C. K.; Kelley, R. L.; Moseley, S. H.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Juda, M.; McCammon, D.; Zhang, J.

    1993-11-01

    We have investigated the use of evaporated tin and bismuth films as the absorbing materials in X-ray calorimeters. When the films were deposited directly on monolithic silicon calorimeters, the output signal from both Sn and Bi devices was strongly dependent on the location of the absorption event relative to the ion-implanted thermistors, presumably indicating thermistor sensitivity to a non-thermal spectrum of phonons. With Sn films we also observed that a component of the thermalization proceeded slowly, relative to a complete thermalization reference. The thermalization function could be modified by trapping magnetic flux within the film. In order to distinguish thermalization effects in the films from the thermistor sensitivity to energetic phonons, we deposited Sn and Bi films on thin Si substrates which we then affixed to calorimeters using epoxy. With glued Sn films, we were able to attain as good as 13.6 eV resolution of 6 keV X-rays with no excess broadening of the line beyond the width of the baseline, while similarly made Bi devices showed excess broadening.

  5. Thermal conversion of an Fe₃O₄@metal-organic framework: a new method for an efficient Fe-Co/nanoporous carbon microwave absorbing material.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingmiao; Ji, Guangbin; Liu, Wei; Quan, Bin; Liang, Xiaohui; Shang, Chaomei; Cheng, Yan; Du, Youwei

    2015-08-14

    A novel FeCo nanoparticle embedded nanoporous carbon composite (Fe-Co/NPC) was synthesized via in situ carbonization of dehydro-ascorbic acid (DHAA) coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles encapsulated in a metal-organic framework (zeolitic imidazolate framework-67, ZIF-67). The molar ratio of Fe/Co significantly depends on the encapsulated content of Fe3O4 in ZIF-67. The composites filled with 50 wt% of the Fe-Co/NPC-2.0 samples in paraffin show a maximum reflection loss (RL) of -21.7 dB at a thickness of 1.2 mm; in addition, a broad absorption bandwidth for RL < -10 dB which covers from 12.2 to 18 GHz can be obtained, and its minimum reflection loss and bandwidth (RL values exceeding -10 dB) are far greater than those of commercial carbonyl iron powder under a very low thickness (1-1.5 mm). This study not only provides a good reference for future preparation of carbon-based lightweight microwave absorbing materials but also broadens the application of such kinds of metal-organic frameworks.

  6. Absorber for solar power.

    PubMed

    Powell, W R

    1974-10-01

    A simple, economical absorber utilizing a new principle of operation to achieve very low reradiation losses while generating temperatures limited by material properties of quartz is described. Its performance is analyzed and indicates approximately 90% thermal efficiency and 73% conversion efficiency for an earth based unit with moderately concentrated (~tenfold) sunlight incident. It is consequently compatible with the most economic of concentrator mirrors (stamped) or mirrors deployable in space. Space applications are particularly attractive, as temperatures significantly below 300 K are possible and permit even higher conversion efficiency.

  7. Absorbent product to absorb fluids. [for collection of human wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, F. S.; Correale, J. V. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A multi-layer absorbent product for use in contact with the skin to absorb fluids is discussed. The product utilizes a water pervious facing layer for contacting the skin, overlayed by a first fibrous wicking layer, the wicking layer preferably being of the one-way variety in which fluid or liquid is moved away from the facing layer. The product further includes a first container section defined by inner and outer layer of a water pervious wicking material between which is disposed a first absorbent mass. A second container section defined by inner and outer layers between which is disposed a second absorbent mass and a liquid impermeable/gas permeable layer. Spacesuit applications are discussed.

  8. Radar and Lidar Radar DEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liskovich, Diana; Simard, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Using radar and lidar data, the aim is to improve 3D rendering of terrain, including digital elevation models (DEM) and estimates of vegetation height and biomass in a variety of forest types and terrains. The 3D mapping of vegetation structure and the analysis are useful to determine the role of forest in climate change (carbon cycle), in providing habitat and as a provider of socio-economic services. This in turn will lead to potential for development of more effective land-use management. The first part of the project was to characterize the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM error with respect to ICESat/GLAS point estimates of elevation. We investigated potential trends with latitude, canopy height, signal to noise ratio (SNR), number of LiDAR waveform peaks, and maximum peak width. Scatter plots were produced for each variable and were fitted with 1st and 2nd degree polynomials. Higher order trends were visually inspected through filtering with a mean and median filter. We also assessed trends in the DEM error variance. Finally, a map showing how DEM error was geographically distributed globally was created.

  9. Low temperature selective absorber research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzenberg, S. A.; Silberglitt, R.

    1982-04-01

    Research carried out since 1979 on selective absorbers is surveyed, with particular attention given to the low-temperature coatings seen as promising for flat plate and evacuated tube applications. The most thoroughly investigated absorber is black chrome, which is highly selective and is the most durable low-temperature absorber. It is believed that other materials, because of their low cost and lower content of strategic materials, may eventually supplant black chrome. Among these candidates are chemically converted black nickel; anodically oxidized nickel, zinc, and copper composites; and nickel or other low-cost multilayer coatings. In reviewing medium and high-temperature research, black chrome, multilayer coatings and black cobalt are seen as best medium-temperature candidates. For high temperatures, an Al2O3/Pt-Al203 multilayer composite or the zirconium diboride coating is preferred.

  10. Comparison of Image Processing Techniques using Random Noise Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    detection UWB ultra-wideband EM electromagnetic CW continuous wave RCS radar cross section RFI radio frequency interference FFT fast Fourier transform...several factors including radar cross section (RCS), orientation, and material makeup. A single monostatic radar at some position collects only range and...Chapter 2 is to provide the theory behind noise radar and SAR imaging. Section 2.1 presents the basic concepts in transmitting and receiving random

  11. Absorbent product and articles made therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, F. S.; Correale, J. V. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A multilayer absorbent product for use in contact with the skin to absorb fluids is described. The product has a water pervious facing layer for contacting the skin, and a first fibrous wicking layer overlaying the water pervious layer. A first container section is defined by inner and outer layers of a water pervious wicking material in between a first absorbent mass and a second container section defined by inner and outer layers of a water pervious wicking material between what is disposed a second absorbent mass, and a liquid impermeable/gas permeable layer overlaying the second fibrous wicking layer.

  12. Lunar and Venusian radar bright rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Saunders, R. S.; Weissman, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-one lunar craters have radar bright ring appearances which are analogous to eleven complete ring features in the earth-based 12.5 cm observations of Venus. Radar ring diameters and widths for the lunar and Venusian features overlap for sizes from 45 to 100 km. Radar bright areas for the lunar craters are associated with the slopes of the inner and outer rim walls, while level crater floors and level ejecta fields beyond the raised portion of the rim have average radar backscatter. It is proposed that the radar bright areas of the Venusian rings are also associated with the slopes on the rims of craters. The lunar craters have evolved to radar bright rings via mass wasting of crater rim walls and via post-impact flooding of crater floors. Aeolian deposits of fine-grained material on Venusian crater floors may produce radar scattering effects similar to lunar crater floor flooding. These Venusian aeolian deposits may preferentially cover blocky crater floors producing a radar bright ring appearance. It is proposed that the Venusian features with complete bright ring appearances and sizes less than 100 km are impact craters. They have the same sizes as lunar craters and could have evolved to radar bright rings via analogous surface processes.

  13. Digital Alloy Absorber for Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase the spectral response range and improve the mobility of the photo-generated carriers (e.g. in an nBn photodetector), a digital alloy absorber may be employed by embedding one (or fraction thereof) to several monolayers of a semiconductor material (insert layers) periodically into a different host semiconductor material of the absorber layer. The semiconductor material of the insert layer and the host semiconductor materials may have lattice constants that are substantially mismatched. For example, this may performed by periodically embedding monolayers of InSb into an InAsSb host as the absorption region to extend the cutoff wavelength of InAsSb photodetectors, such as InAsSb based nBn devices. The described technique allows for simultaneous control of alloy composition and net strain, which are both key parameters for the photodetector operation.

  14. Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers.

    PubMed

    Watts, Claire M; Liu, Xianliang; Padilla, Willie J

    2012-06-19

    The advent of negative index materials has spawned extensive research into metamaterials over the past decade. Metamaterials are attractive not only for their exotic electromagnetic properties, but also their promise for applications. A particular branch-the metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA)-has garnered interest due to the fact that it can achieve unity absorptivity of electromagnetic waves. Since its first experimental demonstration in 2008, the MPA has progressed significantly with designs shown across the electromagnetic spectrum, from microwave to optical. In this Progress Report we give an overview of the field and discuss a selection of examples and related applications. The ability of the MPA to exhibit extreme performance flexibility will be discussed and the theory underlying their operation and limitations will be established. Insight is given into what we can expect from this rapidly expanding field and future challenges will be addressed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Neutron absorbers and methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber

    DOEpatents

    Guillen, Donna P; Porter, Douglas L; Swank, W David; Erickson, Arnold W

    2014-12-02

    Methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber include combining a first material and a second material to form a compound, reducing the compound into a plurality of particles, mixing the plurality of particles with a third material, and pressing the mixture of the plurality of particles and the third material. One or more components of neutron absorbers may be formed by such methods. Neutron absorbers may include a composite material including an intermetallic compound comprising hafnium aluminide and a matrix material comprising pure aluminum.

  16. The proposed flatland radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. L.; Gage, K. S.; Vanzandt, T. E.; Nastrom, G. D.

    1986-01-01

    A flexible very high frequency (VHF) stratosphere-troposphere (ST) radar configured for meteorological research is to be constructed near Urbana, Illinois. Measurement of small vertical velocities associated with synoptic-scale meteorology can be performed. A large Doppler microwave radar (CHILL) is located a few km from the site of the proposed ST radar. Since the microwave radar can measure the location and velocity of hydrometeors and the VHF ST radar can measure clear (or cloudy) air velocities, simultaneous observations by these two radars of stratiform or convective weather systems would provide valuable meteorological information.

  17. Millimeter wave radars raise weapon IQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, E. J.

    1985-02-01

    The problems encountered by laser and IR homing devices for guided munitions may be tractable with warhead-mounted mm-wave radars. Operating at about 100 GHz and having several kilometers range, mm-wave radars see through darkness, fog, rain and smoke. The radar must be coupled with an analyzer that discerns moving and stationary targets and higher priority targets. The target lock-on can include shut-off of the transmitter and reception of naturally-generated mm-waves bouncing off the target when in the terminal phase of the flight. Monopulse transmitters have simplified the radar design, although mass production of finline small radar units has yet to be accomplished, particularly in combining GaAs, ferrites and other materials on one monolithic chip.

  18. Magneto-Radar Hidden Metal Detector

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    2005-07-05

    A varying magnetic field excites slight vibrations in an object and a radar sensor detects the vibrations at a harmonic of the excitation frequency. The synergy of the magnetic excitation and radar detection provides increased detection range compared to conventional magnetic metal detectors. The radar rejects background clutter by responding only to reflecting objects that are vibrating at a harmonic excitation field, thereby significantly improving detection reliability. As an exemplary arrangement, an ultra-wideband micropower impulse radar (MIR) is capable of being employed to provide superior materials penetration while providing range information. The magneto-radar may be applied to pre-screening magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patients, landmine detection and finding hidden treasures.

  19. Highly efficient special sound absorbing solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ionescu, M.; Petre-Lazar, S.

    1974-01-01

    Highly efficient special sound absorbing structures with the following criteria are considered: (1) A distribution surface of the sound absorbing material greater than that of the building element on which the structure is placed; (2) The highest possible absorption coefficient in the widest possible frequency band; and (3) adaptability to different construction and aesthetic conditions.

  20. A Triaxial Applicator for the Measurement of the Electromagnetic Properties of Materials

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The design, analysis, and fabrication of a prototype triaxial applicator is described. The applicator provides both reflected and transmitted signals that can be used to characterize the electromagnetic properties of materials in situ. A method for calibrating the probe is outlined and validated using simulated data. Fabrication of the probe is discussed, and measured data for typical absorbing materials and for the probe situated in air are presented. The simulations and measurements suggest that the probe should be useful for measuring the properties of common radar absorbing materials under usual in situ conditions. PMID:29382122

  1. Solar Radar Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    communications satellites and electric power grids. RELATED PROJECTS Studies with the HAARP radar facility being constructed in Alaska are conducted with...on wave-plasma interactions and also are assessing the possible use of HAARP as a solar radar. REFERENCES James, J. C., Radar studies of the sun, in

  2. Radar: Human Safety Net

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Radar is a technology that can be used to detect distant objects not visible to the human eye. A predecessor of radar, called the telemobiloscope, was first used to detect ships in the fog in 1904 off the German coast. Many scientists have worked on the development and refinement of radar (Hertz with electromagnetic waves; Popov with determining…

  3. Externally tuned vibration absorber

    DOEpatents

    Vincent, Ronald J.

    1987-09-22

    A vibration absorber unit or units are mounted on the exterior housing of a hydraulic drive system of the type that is powered from a pressure wave generated, e.g., by a Stirling engine. The hydraulic drive system employs a piston which is hydraulically driven to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the hydraulic drive system. The vibration absorbers each include a spring or other resilient member having one side affixed to the housing and another side to which an absorber mass is affixed. In a preferred embodiment, a pair of vibration absorbers is employed, each absorber being formed of a pair of leaf spring assemblies, between which the absorber mass is suspended.

  4. Methods for absorbing neutrons

    DOEpatents

    Guillen, Donna P [Idaho Falls, ID; Longhurst, Glen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Porter, Douglas L [Idaho Falls, ID; Parry, James R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-24

    A conduction cooled neutron absorber may include a metal matrix composite that comprises a metal having a thermal neutron cross-section of at least about 50 barns and a metal having a thermal conductivity of at least about 1 W/cmK. Apparatus for providing a neutron flux having a high fast-to-thermal neutron ratio may include a source of neutrons that produces fast neutrons and thermal neutrons. A neutron absorber positioned adjacent the neutron source absorbs at least some of the thermal neutrons so that a region adjacent the neutron absorber has a fast-to-thermal neutron ratio of at least about 15. A coolant in thermal contact with the neutron absorber removes heat from the neutron absorber.

  5. Energy absorber uses expanded coiled tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. F.

    1972-01-01

    Mechanical shock mitigating device, based on working material to its failure point, absorbs mechanical energy by bending or twisting tubing. It functions under axial or tangential loading, has no rebound, is area independent, and is easy and inexpensive to build.

  6. Radar stage uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, J.M.; Davies, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the performance of radars used for stage (or water-level) measurement. This paper presents a comparison of estimated uncertainties and data for radar water-level measurements with float, bubbler, and wire weight water-level measurements. The radar sensor was also temperature-tested in a laboratory. The uncertainty estimates indicate that radar measurements are more accurate than uncorrected pressure sensors at higher water stages, but are less accurate than pressure sensors at low stages. Field data at two sites indicate that radar sensors may have a small negative bias. Comparison of field radar measurements with wire weight measurements found that the radar tends to measure slightly lower values as stage increases. Copyright ASCE 2005.

  7. Acoustic Properties of Absorbent Asphalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria

    2017-08-01

    Road traffic is one of the greater cause of noise pollution in urban centers; a prolonged exposure to this source of noise disturbs populations subjected to it. In this paper is reported a study on the absorbent coefficients of asphalt. The acoustic measurements are carried out with a impedance tube (tube of Kundt). The sample are measured in three conditions: with dry material (traditional), “wet” asphalt and “dirty” asphalt.

  8. 2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar towards, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  9. Coordinated Radar Resource Management for Networked Phased Array Radars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Coordinated radar resource management for networked phased array radars Peter W. Moo and Zhen Ding Radar Sensing & Exploitation Section Defence...15] P.W. Moo . Scheduling for multifunction radar via two-slope benefit functions. Radar, Sonar Navigation, IET, 5(8):884 –894, Oct. 2011. [16] M.I

  10. Structural geologic interpretations from radar imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, Robert G.

    1969-01-01

    Certain structural geologic features may be more readily recognized on sidelooking airborne radar (SLAR) images than on conventional aerial photographs, other remote sensor imagery, or by ground observations. SLAR systems look obliquely to one or both sides and their images resemble aerial photographs taken at low sun angle with the sun directly behind the camera. They differ from air photos in geometry, resolution, and information content. Radar operates at much lower frequencies than the human eye, camera, or infrared sensors, and thus "sees" differently. The lower frequency enables it to penetrate most clouds and some precipitation, haze, dust, and some vegetation. Radar provides its own illumination, which can be closely controlled in intensity and frequency. It is narrow band, or essentially monochromatic. Low relief and subdued features are accentuated when viewed from the proper direction. Runs over the same area in significantly different directions (more than 45° from each other), show that images taken in one direction may emphasize features that are not emphasized on those taken in the other direction; optimum direction is determined by those features which need to be emphasized for study purposes. Lineaments interpreted as faults stand out on radar imagery of central and western Nevada; folded sedimentary rocks cut by faults can be clearly seen on radar imagery of northern Alabama. In these areas, certain structural and stratigraphic features are more pronounced on radar images than on conventional photographs; thus radar imagery materially aids structural interpretation.

  11. Solar sustained plasma/absorber conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, R. J.; Krascella, N. L.; Kendall, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    A space power system concept was evaluated which uses concentrated solar energy to heat a working fluid to temperatures as high as 4000 K. The high temperature working fluid could be used for efficient electric power production in advanced thermal or magnetohydrodynamic conversion cycles. Energy absorber configurations utilizing particles or cesium vapor absorber material were investigaed. Results of detailed radiant heat transfer calculations indicated approximately 86 percent of the incident solar energy could be absorbed within a 12-cm-dia flowing stream of gas borne carbon particles. Calculated total energy absorption in the cesium vapor seeded absorber configuration ranged from 34 percent to 64 percent of the incident solar energy. Solar flux concentration ratios of between approximately 3000 and 10,000 will be required to sustain absorber temperatures in the range from 3000 K to 4000 K.

  12. Signature management of radar returns from wind turbine generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennant, A.; Chambers, B.

    2006-04-01

    The large radar cross section of wind turbine generator (WTG) blades combined with high tip speeds can produce significant Doppler returns when illuminated by a radar. Normally, an air traffic control radar system will filter out large returns from stationary targets, but the Doppler shifts introduced by the WTG blades are interpreted as moving aircraft that can confuse radar operators and compromise safety. A possible solution to this problem is to incorporate an active layer into the structure of the WTG blades that can be used to dynamically modulate the radar cross section (RCS) of the blade return. The active blade can operate in one of two modes: first the blade RCS can be modulated to provide a Doppler return that is outside the detectable range of the radar receiver system so that it is rejected; a second mode of operation is to introduce specific coding onto the Doppler returns so that they may be uniquely identified and rejected. The active layer used in the system consists of a frequency selective surface controlled by semiconductor diodes and is a development of techniques developed for active radar absorbers. Results of theoretical and experimental work using a 10 GHz Doppler radar and scale-model WTG are presented.

  13. Internal absorber solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Sletten, Carlyle J.; Herskovitz, Sheldon B.; Holt, F. S.; Sletten, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

  14. Planetary radar studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Cutts, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A catalog of lunar and radar anomalies was generated to provide a base for comparison with Venusian radar signatures. The relationships between lunar radar anomalies and regolith processes were investigated, and a consortium was formed to compare lunar and Venusian radar images of craters. Time was scheduled at the Arecibo Observatory to use the 430 MHz radar to obtain high resolution radar maps of six areas of the lunar suface. Data from 1978 observations of Mare Serenitas and Plato are being analyzed on a PDP 11/70 computer to construct the computer program library necessary for the eventual reduction of the May 1981 and subsequent data acquisitions. Papers accepted for publication are presented.

  15. Apollo experience report: Lunar module landing radar and rendezvous radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozas, P.; Cunningham, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    A developmental history of the Apollo lunar module landing and rendezvous radar subsystems is presented. The Apollo radar subsystems are discussed from initial concept planning to flight configuration testing. The major radar subsystem accomplishments and problems are discussed.

  16. 3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  17. 30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. Console and line printers - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  18. Lipid-absorbing Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Wallace, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    The removal of bile acids and cholesterol by polymeric absorption is discussed in terms of micelle-polymer interaction. The results obtained with a polymer composed of 75 parts PEO and 25 parts PB plus curing ingredients show an absorption of 305 to 309%, based on original polymer weight. Particle size effects on absorption rate are analyzed. It is concluded that crosslinked polyethylene oxide polymers will absorb water, crosslinked polybutadiene polymers will absorb lipids; neither polymer will absorb appreciable amounts of lipids from micellar solutions of lipids in water.

  19. Three-Dimensional Hierarchical MoS2 Nanosheets/Ultralong N-Doped Carbon Nanotubes as High-Performance Electromagnetic Wave Absorbing Material.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lianlian; Zhang, Shen; Yan, Feng; Li, Chunyan; Zhu, Chunling; Zhang, Xitian; Chen, Yujin

    2018-04-25

    Here, we report a simple method to grow thin MoS 2 nanosheets (NSs) on the ultralong nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes through anion-exchange reaction. The MoS 2 NSs are grown on ultralong nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube surfaces, leading to an interesting three-dimensional hierarchical structure. The fabricated hybrid nanotubes have a length of approximately 100 μm, where the MoS 2 nanosheets have a thickness of less than 7.5 nm. The hybrid nanotubes show excellent electromagnetic wave attenuation performance, with the effective absorption bandwidth of 5.4 GHz at the thicknesses of 2.5 mm, superior to the pure MoS 2 nanosheets and the MoS 2 nanosheets grown on the short N-doped carbon nanotube surfaces. The experimental results indicate that the direct growth of MoS 2 on the ultralong nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube surfaces is a key factor for the enhanced electromagnetic wave attenuation property. The results open the avenue for the development of ultralong transition metal dichalcogenides for electromagnetic wave absorbers.

  20. Equatorial radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rukao, S.; Tsuda, T.; Sato, T.; Kato, S.

    1989-01-01

    A large clear air radar with the sensitivity of an incoherent scatter radar for observing the whole equatorial atmosphere up to 1000 km altitude is now being designed in Japan. The radar, called the Equatorial Radar, will be built in Pontianak, Kalimantan Island, Indonesia (0.03 N, 109.3 E). The system is a 47 MHz monostatic Doppler radar with an active phased array configuration similar to that of the MU radar in Japan, which has been in successful operation since 1983. It will have a PA product of more than 5 x 10(9) sq. Wm (P = average transmitter power, A = effective antenna aperture) with sensitivity more than 10 times that of the MU radar. This system configuration enables pulse-to-pulse beam steering within 25 deg from the zenith. As is the case of the MU radar, a variety of sophisticated operations will be made feasible under the supervision of the radar controller. A brief description of the system configuration is presented.

  1. Study on the millimeter-wave scale absorber based on the Salisbury screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Liming; Dai, Fei; Xu, Yonggang; Zhang, Yuan

    2018-03-01

    In order to solve the problem on the millimeter-wave scale absorber, the Salisbury screen absorber is employed and designed based on the RL. By optimizing parameters including the sheet resistance of the surface resistive layer, the permittivity and the thickness of the grounded dielectric layer, the RL of the Salisbury screen absorber could be identical with that of the theoretical scale absorber. An example is given to verify the effectiveness of the method, where the Salisbury screen absorber is designed by the proposed method and compared with the theoretical scale absorber. Meanwhile, plate models and tri-corner reflector (TCR) models are constructed according to the designed result and their scattering properties are simulated by FEKO. Results reveal that the deviation between the designed Salisbury screen absorber and the theoretical scale absorber falls within the tolerance of radar Cross section (RCS) measurement. The work in this paper has important theoretical and practical significance in electromagnetic measurement of large scale ratio.

  2. "Smart" Electromechanical Shock Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, Lebarian; Glenn, Dean C.; Carroll, Monty B.

    1989-01-01

    Shock-absorbing apparatus includes electromechanical actuator and digital feedback control circuitry rather than springs and hydraulic damping as in conventional shock absorbers. Device not subject to leakage and requires little or no maintenance. Attenuator parameters adjusted in response to sensory feedback and predictive algorithms to obtain desired damping characteristic. Device programmed to decelerate slowly approaching vehicle or other large object according to prescribed damping characteristic.

  3. Container and method for absorbing and reducing hydrogen concentration

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G.; Lee, Myung W.; Heung, Leung K.

    2001-01-01

    A method for absorbing hydrogen from an enclosed environment comprising providing a vessel; providing a hydrogen storage composition in communication with a vessel, the hydrogen storage composition further comprising a matrix defining a pore size which permits the passage of hydrogen gas while blocking the passage of gaseous poisons; placing a material within the vessel, the material evolving hydrogen gas; sealing the vessel; and absorbing the hydrogen gas released into the vessel by the hydrogen storage composition. A container for absorbing evolved hydrogen gas comprising: a vessel having an interior and adapted for receiving materials which release hydrogen gas; a hydrogen absorbing composition in communication with the interior, the composition defining a matrix surrounding a hydrogen absorber, the matrix permitting the passage of hydrogen gas while excluding gaseous poisons; wherein, when the vessel is sealed, hydrogen gas, which is released into the vessel interior, is absorbed by the hydrogen absorbing composition.

  4. Composite neutron absorbing coatings for nuclear criticality control

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Richard N.; Swank, W. David; Mizia, Ronald E.

    2005-07-19

    Thermal neutron absorbing composite coating materials and methods of applying such coating materials to spent nuclear fuel storage systems are provided. A composite neutron absorbing coating applied to a substrate surface includes a neutron absorbing layer overlying at least a portion of the substrate surface, and a corrosion resistant top coat layer overlying at least a portion of the neutron absorbing layer. An optional bond coat layer can be formed on the substrate surface prior to forming the neutron absorbing layer. The neutron absorbing layer can include a neutron absorbing material, such as gadolinium oxide or gadolinium phosphate, dispersed in a metal alloy matrix. The coating layers may be formed by a plasma spray process or a high velocity oxygen fuel process.

  5. Java Radar Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaczek, Mariusz P.

    2005-01-01

    Java Radar Analysis Tool (JRAT) is a computer program for analyzing two-dimensional (2D) scatter plots derived from radar returns showing pieces of the disintegrating Space Shuttle Columbia. JRAT can also be applied to similar plots representing radar returns showing aviation accidents, and to scatter plots in general. The 2D scatter plots include overhead map views and side altitude views. The superposition of points in these views makes searching difficult. JRAT enables three-dimensional (3D) viewing: by use of a mouse and keyboard, the user can rotate to any desired viewing angle. The 3D view can include overlaid trajectories and search footprints to enhance situational awareness in searching for pieces. JRAT also enables playback: time-tagged radar-return data can be displayed in time order and an animated 3D model can be moved through the scene to show the locations of the Columbia (or other vehicle) at the times of the corresponding radar events. The combination of overlays and playback enables the user to correlate a radar return with a position of the vehicle to determine whether the return is valid. JRAT can optionally filter single radar returns, enabling the user to selectively hide or highlight a desired radar return.

  6. The PROUST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertin, F.; Glass, M.; Ney, R.; Petitdidier, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Stratosphere-Troposphere (ST) radar called PROUST works at 935 MHz using the same klystron and antenna as the coherent-scatter radar. The use of this equipment for ST work has required some important modifications of the transmitting system and the development of receiving, data processing and acquisition (1984,1985) equipment. The modifications are discussed.

  7. Noncooperative rendezvous radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A fire control radar system was developed, assembled, and modified. The baseline system and modified angle tracking system are described along with the performance characteristics of the baseline and modified systems. Proposed changes to provide additional techniques for radar evaluation are presented along with flight test data.

  8. Radar, target and ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-09-01

    This Test Operations Procedure (TOP) provides conventional test methods employing conventional test instrumentation for testing conventional radars. Single tests and subtests designed to test radar components, transmitters, receivers, antennas, etc., and system performance are conducted with single item instruments such as meters, generators, attenuators, counters, oscillators, plotters, etc., and with adequate land areas for conducting field tests.

  9. Energy-Absorbing, Lightweight Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waydo, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Improved energy-absorbing wheels are under development for use on special-purpose vehicles that must traverse rough terrain under conditions (e.g., extreme cold) in which rubber pneumatic tires would fail. The designs of these wheels differ from those of prior non-pneumatic energy-absorbing wheels in ways that result in lighter weights and more effective reduction of stresses generated by ground/wheel contact forces. These wheels could be made of metals and/or composite materials to withstand the expected extreme operating conditions. As shown in the figure, a wheel according to this concept would include an isogrid tire connected to a hub via spring rods. The isogrid tire would be a stiff, lightweight structure typically made of aluminum. The isogrid aspect of the structure would both impart stiffness and act as a traction surface. The hub would be a thin-walled body of revolution having a simple or compound conical or other shape chosen for structural efficiency. The spring rods would absorb energy and partially isolate the hub and the supported vehicle from impact loads. The general spring-rod configuration shown in the figure was chosen because it would distribute contact and impact loads nearly evenly around the periphery of the hub, thereby helping to protect the hub against damage that would otherwise be caused by large loads concentrated onto small portions of the hub.

  10. Flexible metamaterial absorbers for stealth applications at terahertz frequencies.

    PubMed

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Strikwerda, Andrew C; Fan, Kebin; Zhang, Xin; Averitt, Richard D; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2012-01-02

    We have wrapped metallic cylinders with strongly absorbing metamaterials. These resonant structures, which are patterned on flexible substrates, smoothly coat the cylinder and give it an electromagnetic response designed to minimize its radar cross section. We compare the normal-incidence, small-beam reflection coefficient with the measurement of the far-field bistatic radar cross section of the sample, using a quasi-planar THz wave with a beam diameter significantly larger than the sample dimensions. In this geometry we demonstrate a near-400-fold reduction of the radar cross section at the design frequency of 0.87 THz. In addition we discuss the effect of finite sample dimensions and the spatial dependence of the reflection spectrum of the metamaterial.

  11. Crystal Structure Analysis of Electromagnetic Wave Absorber Material BaFe12-xTix/2Znx/2O19Based

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delina, M.; Nenni, N.; Adi, W. A.

    2018-04-01

    The optimization of BaFe12-xTix/2Znx/2O19 (x=2.2; 2.4; 2.6; 2.8)single phase composition have been performed. The materials were synthesized by solid state reaction method through mechanical milling technique.The materials were made from the mixture of oxide materials, which are BaCO3, Fe2O3, TiO2 and ZnO. The mixture was milled for five hours using a High Energy Milling (HEM), was dried at 100°C in the Oven and then was sintered at 1000°C for five hours in the Furnace. The phase identification of BaFe12-xTix/2Znx/2O19 (x=2.2; 2.4; 2.6; 2.8) were carried out by using a Match Program while the crystal structure analysis were investigated by using a General Structure Analysis System (GSAS) program. The refinement results of x-ray diffraction pattern showed that the sample of x ≤ 2.4 have a BaFe12O19 single phase while the sample of x> 2.4 have two phases, which are BaFe12O19 and ZnFe2O4 phases. The surface morphology of sample and the element of sample were identified through an analysis of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) data.

  12. 5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  13. 4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, emergency power building, and height finder radar tower - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  14. Shock absorber servicing tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koepler, Jack L. (Inventor); Hill, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A tool to assist in the servicing of a shock absorber wherein the shock absorber is constructed of a pair of aligned gas and liquid filled chambers. Each of the chambers is separated by a movable separator member. Maximum efficiency of the shock absorber is achieved in the locating of a precise volume of gas within the gas chamber and a precise volume of liquid within the liquid chamber. The servicing tool of this invention employs a rod which is to connect with the separator and by observation of the position of the rod with respect to the gauge body, the location of the separator is ascertained even though it is not directly observable.

  15. Mechanical energy absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An energy absorbing system for controlling the force where a moving object engages a stationary stop and where the system utilized telescopic tubular members, energy absorbing diaphragm elements, force regulating disc springs, and a return spring to return the telescoping member to its start position after stroking is presented. The energy absorbing system has frusto-conical diaphragm elements frictionally engaging the shaft and are opposed by a force regulating set of disc springs. In principle, this force feedback mechanism serves to keep the stroking load at a reasonable level even if the friction coefficient increases greatly. This force feedback device also serves to desensitize the singular and combined effects of manufacturing tolerances, sliding surface wear, temperature changes, dynamic effects, and lubricity.

  16. Wind turbine generators with active radar signature control blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennant, Alan; Chambers, Barry

    2004-07-01

    The large radar cross section of wind turbine generator (WTG) blades combined with high tip speeds can produce significant Doppler returns when illuminated by a radar. Normally, an air traffic control radar system will filter out large returns from stationary targets, however the Doppler shifts introduced by the WTG are interpreted as moving aircraft that can confuse radar operators and compromise safety. A possible solution to this problem that we are investigating is to incorporate an active layer into the structure of the WTG blades that can be used to dynamically modulate the RCS of the blade return. The active blade can operate in one of two modes: firstly the blade RCS can be modulated to provide a Doppler return that is outside the detectable range of the radar receiver system so that it is rejected: a second mode of operation is to introduce specific coding on to the Doppler returns so that they may be uniquely identified and rejected. The active layer used in the system consists of a frequency selective surface controlled by semiconductor diodes and is a development of techniques that we have developed for active radar absorbers. Results of experimental work using a 10GHz Doppler radar and scale model WTG with active Doppler imparting blades are presented.

  17. Absorptive coding metasurface for further radar cross section reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Sai; Ma, Hua; Wang, Jiafu; Pang, Yongqiang; Feng, Mingde; Xu, Zhuo; Qu, Shaobo

    2018-02-01

    Lossless coding metasurfaces and metamaterial absorbers have been widely used for radar cross section (RCS) reduction and stealth applications, which merely depend on redirecting electromagnetic wave energy into various oblique angles or absorbing electromagnetic energy, respectively. Here, an absorptive coding metasurface capable of both the flexible manipulation of backward scattering and further wideband bistatic RCS reduction is proposed. The original idea is carried out by utilizing absorptive elements, such as metamaterial absorbers, to establish a coding metasurface. We establish an analytical connection between an arbitrary absorptive coding metasurface arrangement of both the amplitude and phase and its far-field pattern. Then, as an example, an absorptive coding metasurface is demonstrated as a nonperiodic metamaterial absorber, which indicates an expected better performance of RCS reduction than the traditional lossless coding metasurface and periodic metamaterial-absorber. Both theoretical analysis and full-wave simulation results show good accordance with the experiment.

  18. Shock Absorbing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A lightweight, inexpensive shock-absorbing system, developed by Langley Research Center 20 years ago, is now in service as safety device for an automated railway at Duke University Medical Center. The transportation system travels at about 25 miles per hour, carrying patients, visitors, staff and cargo. At the end of each guideway of the system are "frangible," (breakable) tube "buffers." If a slowing car fails to make a complete stop at the terminal, it would bump and shatter the tubes, absorbing energy that might otherwise jolt the passengers or damage the vehicle.

  19. Study on preparation and microwave absorption property of the core-nanoshell composite materials doped with La.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liqiu; Che, Ruxin; Jiang, Yijun; Yu, Bing

    2013-12-01

    Microwave absorbing material plays a great role in electromagnetic pollution controlling, electromagnetic interference shielding and stealth technology, etc. The core-nanoshell composite materials doped with La were prepared by a solid-state reaction method, which is applied to the electromagnetic wave absorption. The core is magnetic fly-ash hollow cenosphere, and the shell is the nanosized ferrite doped with La. The thermal decomposition process of the sample was investigated by thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis. The morphology and components of the composite materials were investigated by the X-ray diffraction analysis, the microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The results of vibrating sample magnetometer analysis indicated that the exchange-coupling interaction happens between ferrite of magnetic fly-ash hollow cenosphere and nanosized ferrite coating, which caused outstanding magnetic properties. The microwave absorbing property of the sample was measured by reflectivity far field radar cross section of radar microwave absorbing material with vector network analyzer. The results indicated that the exchange-coupling interaction enhanced magnetic loss of composite materials. Therefore, in the frequency of 5 GHz, the reflection coefficient can achieve -24 dB. It is better than single material and is consistent with requirements of the microwave absorbing material at the low-frequency absorption. Copyright © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of ICP-OES to the determination of CuIn(1-x)Ga(x)Se2 thin films used as absorber materials in solar cell devices.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Martínez, Rodolfo; Caballero, Raquel; Guillén, Cecilia; Gutiérrez, María Teresa; Rucandio, María Isabel

    2005-05-01

    CuIn(1-x)Ga(x)Se2 [CIGS; x=Ga/(In+Ga)] thin films are among of the best candidates as absorber materials for solar cell applications. The material quality and main properties of the polycrystalline absorber layer are critically influenced by deviations in the stoichiometry, particularly in the Cu/(In+Ga) atomic ratio. In this work a simple, sensitive and accurate method has been developed for the quantitative determination of these thin films by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The proposed method involves an acid digestion of the samples to achieve the complete solubilization of CIGS, followed by the analytical determination by ICP-OES. A digestion procedure with 50% HNO3 alone or in the presence of 10% HCl was performed to dissolve those thin films deposited on glass or Mo-coated glass substrates, respectively. Two analytical lines were selected for each element (Cu 324.754 and 327.396 nm, Ga 294.364 and 417.206 nm, In 303.936 and 325.609 nm, Se 196.090 and 203.985 nm, and Mo 202.030 and 379.825 nm) and a study of spectral interferences was performed which showed them to be suitable, since they offered a high sensitivity and no significant inter-element interferences were detected. Detection limits for all elements at the selected lines were found to be appropriate for this kind of application, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 1.5% for all elements with the exception of Se (about 5%). The Cu/(In+Ga) atomic ratios obtained from the application of this method to CIGS thin films were consistent with the study of the structural and morphological properties by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  1. Design of a nonlinear torsional vibration absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Ammaar Bin

    larger than that in the latter. A nonlinear absorber design has been proposed comprising of thin beams as elastic elements. The geometric configuration of the proposed design has been shown to provide cubic stiffness nonlinearity in torsion. The values of design variables, namely the strength of nonlinearity alpha and torsional stiffness kalpha, were obtained by optimizing dimensions and material properties of the beams for a maximum vibration energy dissipation in the nonlinear absorber. A parametric study has also been conducted to analyze the effect of the magnitude of excitation provided to the system on the performance of a nonlinear absorber. It has been shown that the nonlinear absorber turns out to be more effective in terms of energy dissipation as compared to a linear absorber with an increase in the excitation level applied to the system.

  2. Compressive Sensing for Radar and Radar Sensor Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-02

    Zero Correlation Zone Sequence Pair Sets for MIMO Radar Inspired by recent advances in MIMO radar, we apply orthogonal phase coded waveforms to MIMO ...radar system in order to gain better range resolution and target direction finding performance [2]. We provide and investigate a generalized MIMO radar...ZCZ) sequence-Pair Set (ZCZPS). We also study the MIMO radar ambiguity function of the system using phase coded waveforms, based on which we analyze

  3. Radar remote sensing in biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Richard K.; Simonett, David S.

    1967-01-01

    The present status of research on discrimination of natural and cultivated vegetation using radar imaging systems is sketched. The value of multiple polarization radar in improved discrimination of vegetation types over monoscopic radars is also documented. Possible future use of multi-frequency, multi-polarization radar systems for all weather agricultural survey is noted.

  4. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1981-01-01

    Software to support all stages of asteroid radar observation and data analysis is developed. First-order analysis of all data in hand is complete. Estimates of radar cross sections, circular polarization ratios, and limb-to-limb echo spectral bandwidths for asteroids 7 Iris, 16 Psyche, 97 Klotho, 1862 Apollo, and 1915 Quetzalcoatl are reported. Radar observations of two previously unobserved asteroids were conducted. An Aten asteroid, 2100 Ra-Shalom, with the smallest known semimajor axis (0.83) was detected. Preliminary data reduction indicates a circular polarization ratio comparable to those of Apollo, Quetzalcoatl, and Toro.

  5. Radar cross section lectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhs, A. E.

    A comprehensive account is given of the principles that can be applied in military aircraft configuration studies to minimize the radar cross section (RCS) that will be presented by the resulting design to advanced radars under various mission circumstances. It is noted that, while certain ECM techniques can be nullified by improved enemy electronics in a very short time, RCS reductions may require as much as a decade of radar development before prior levels of detectability can be reestablished by enemy defenses. Attention is given to RCS magnitude determinants, inverse scattering, the polarization and scattering matrix, the RCSs of flat plates and conducting cylinders, and antenna geometry and beam patterns.

  6. A microprogrammable radar controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The Wave Propagation Lab. has completed the design and construction of a microprogrammable radar controller for atmospheric wind profiling. Unlike some radar controllers using state machines or hardwired logic for radar timing, this design is a high speed programmable sequencer with signal processing resources. A block diagram of the device is shown. The device is a single 8 1/2 inch by 10 1/2 inch printed circuit board and consists of three main subsections: (1) the host computer interface; (2) the microprogram sequencer; and (3) the signal processing circuitry. Each of these subsections are described in detail.

  7. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1984-07-01

    The initial radar observations of the mainbelt asteroids 9 Metis, 27 Euterpe, and 60 Echo are examined. For each target, data are taken simultaneously in the same sense of circular polarization as transmitted as well as in the opposite (OC) sense. Estimates of the radar cross sections provide estimates of the circular polarization ratio, and the normalized OC radar cross section. The circular polarization ratio, is comparable to values measured for other large S type asteroids and for a few much smaller, Earth approaching objects, most of the echo is due to single reflection backscattering from smooth surface elements.

  8. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    The initial radar observations of the mainbelt asteroids 9 Metis, 27 Euterpe, and 60 Echo are examined. For each target, data are taken simultaneously in the same sense of circular polarization as transmitted as well as in the opposite (OC) sense. Estimates of the radar cross sections provide estimates of the circular polarization ratio, and the normalized OC radar cross section. The circular polarization ratio, is comparable to values measured for other large S type asteroids and for a few much smaller, Earth approaching objects, most of the echo is due to single reflection backscattering from smooth surface elements.

  9. Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture was just a taste of radar remote sensing techniques and applications. Other important areas include Stereo radar grammetry. PolInSAR for volumetric structure mapping. Agricultural monitoring, soil moisture, ice-mapping, etc. The broad range of sensor types, frequencies of observation and availability of sensors have enabled radar sensors to make significant contributions in a wide area of earth and planetary remote sensing sciences. The range of applications, both qualitative and quantitative, continue to expand with each new generation of sensors.

  10. Shock Absorbing Helmets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents a description of helmets used by football players that offer three times the shock-absorbing capacity of earlier types. An interior padding for the helmets, composed of Temper Foam, first used by NASA's Ames Research Center in the design of aircraft seats is described.

  11. RADAR performance experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroux, C.; Bertin, F.; Mounir, H.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical studies and experimental results obtained at Coulommiers airport showed the capability of Proust radar to detect wind shears, in clear air condition as well as in presence of clouds or rain. Several examples are presented: in a blocking highs situation an atmospheric wave system at the Brunt-Vaisala frequency can be clearly distinguished; in a situation of clouds without rain the limit between clear air and clouds can be easily seen; and a windshear associated with a gust front in rainy conditions is shown. A comparison of 30 cm clear air radar Proust and 5 cm weather Doppler radar Ronsard will allow to select the best candidate for wind shear detection, taking into account the low sensibility to ground clutter of Ronsard radar.

  12. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    For 80 Sappho, 356 Liguria, 694 Ekard, and 2340 Hathor, data were taken simultaneously in the same sense of circular polarization as transmitted (SC) as well as in the opposite (OC) sense. Graphs show the average OC and SC radar echo power spectra soothed to a resolution of EFB Hz and plotted against Doppler frequency. Radar observations of the peculiar object 2201 Oljato reveal an unusual set of echo power spectra. The albedo and polarization ratio remain fairly constant but the bandwidths range from approximately 0.8 Hz to 1.4 Hz and the spectral shapes vary dramatically. Echo characteristics within any one date's approximately 2.5-hr observation period do not fluctuate very much. Laboratory measurements of the radar frequency electrical properties of particulate metal-plus-silicate mixtures can be combined with radar albedo estimates to constrain the bulk density and metal weight, fraction in a hypothetical asteroid regolith having the same particle size distribution as lab samples.

  13. Weather Radar Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-31

    radar operation and data - collection activities, a large data -analysis effort has been under way in support of automatic wind-shear detection algorithm ...REDUCTION AND ALGORITHM DEVELOPMENT 49 A. General-Purpose Software 49 B. Concurrent Computer Systems 49 C. Sun Workstations 51 D. Radar Data Analysis 52...1. Algorithm Verification 52 2. Other Studies 53 3. Translations 54 4. Outside Distributions 55 E. Mesonet/LLWAS Data Analysis 55 1. 1985 Data 55 2

  14. Radar Image Interpretability Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    the measured image properties with respect to image utility changed with image application. This study has provided useful information as to how...Eneea.d) ABSTRACT The utility of radar images with respect to trained image inter - preter ability to identify, classify and detect specific terrain... changed with image applica- tion. This study has provided useful information as to how certain image characteristics relate to radar image utility as

  15. Downhole pulse radar

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1987-09-28

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole. 7 figs.

  16. Downhole pulse radar

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1989-01-01

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole.

  17. Selective wave-transmitting electromagnetic absorber through composite metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Zhao, Junming; Zhu, Bo; Jiang, Tian; Feng, Yijun

    2017-11-01

    Selective wave-transmitting absorbers which have one or more narrow transmission bands inside a wide absorption band are often demanded in wireless communication and radome applications for reducing the coupling between different systems, improving anti-jamming capability, and reducing antennas' radar cross section. Here we propose a feasible method that utilizing composite of two metasurfaces with different polarization dependent characteristics, one works as electromagnetic polarization rotator and the other as a wideband polarization dependent electromagnetic wave absorber. The polarization rotator produces a cross polarization output in the wave-transmitting band, while preserves the polarization of the incidence outside the band. The metasurface absorber works for certain linear polarization with a much wider absorption band covering the wave-transmitting frequency. When combining these two metasurfaces properly, the whole structure behaves as a wideband absorber with a certain frequency transmission window. The proposal may be applied in radome designs to reduce the radar cross section of antenna or improving the electromagnetic compatibility in communication devices.

  18. Automation of an RCS (Radar Cross Section) Measurement System and Its Application to Investigate the Electromagnetic Scattering from Scale Model Aircraft Canopies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    8217 -E ep IP 760 7v rag-2-t 7 -vet ca vo - a~ .:cz : 112 !] 10 Star-, requency i- -in.- -,,z. 200 :1h too t rouencv, i ax. 210 N T iarizat~on i2:)15. 220... 10 2-3 Pyramidal Radar Absorbing Material (RAM) ... . 11 2-4 Hardware configuration .... ............. 13 2-5 Point source model for phase variation...two plates ....... 51 4- 10 Gated RCS of 4 inch circular flat plate a) time doi. ain and b) frequency response . . . . 52 5-1 Measurement test matrix

  19. A wideband absorber for television studios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, M. D. M.

    The acoustic treatment in BBC television has taken various forms to date, all of which have been relatively expensive, some of which provide inadequate absorption. An investigation has been conducted into the possibilities of producing a new type of wideband absorber which would be more economic, also taking installation time into account, than earlier designs. This Report describes the absorption coefficient measurements made on various combinations of materials, from which a wideband sound absorber has been developed. The absorber works efficiently between 50 Hz and 10 kHz, is simple and easy to construct using readily available materials, and is fire resistant. The design lends itself, if necessary, to on-site fine tuning, and savings in the region of 50 percent can be achieved in terms of cost and space with respect to previous designs.

  20. Translatory shock absorber for attitude sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonpragenau, G. L.; Morgan, I. T., Jr.; Kirby, C. A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A translatory shock absorber is provided for mounting an attitude sensor thereon for isolating a sensor from translatory vibrations. The translatory shock absorber includes a hollow block structure formed as one piece to form a parallelogram. The absorber block structure includes a movable top plate for supporting the attitude sensor and a fixed base plate with opposed side plates interposed between. At the junctions of the side plates, and the base and top plates, there are provided grooves which act as flexible hinges for attenuating translatory vibrations. A damping material is supported on a pedestal which is carried on the base plate between the side plates thereof. The top of the damping material rests against the bottom surface of the top plate for eliminating the resonant peaks of vibration.

  1. The Comet Radar Explorer Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, Erik; Belton, Mike; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Chesley, Steve; Delbo, Marco; Farnham, Tony; Gim, Yonggyu; Grimm, Robert; Herique, Alain; Kofman, Wlodek; Oberst, Juergen; Orosei, Roberto; Piqueux, Sylvain; Plaut, Jeff; Robinson, Mark; Sava, Paul; Heggy, Essam; Kurth, William; Scheeres, Dan; Denevi, Brett; Turtle, Elizabeth; Weissman, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Missions to cometary nuclei have revealed major geological surprises: (1) Global scale layers - do these persist through to the interior? Are they a record of primary accretion? (2) Smooth regions - are they landslides originating on the surface? Are they cryovolcanic? (3) Pits - are they impact craters or sublimation pits, or rooted in the interior? Unambiguous answers to these and other questions can be obtained by high definition 3D radar reflection imaging (RRI) of internal structure. RRI can answer many of the great unknowns in planetary science: How do primitive bodies accrete? Are cometary nuclei mostly ice? What drives their spectacular activity and evolution? The Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) mission will image the detailed internal structure of the nucleus of 10P/Tempel 2. This ~16 x 8 x 7 km Jupiter Family Comet (JFC), or its parent body, originated in the outer planets region possibly millions of years before planet formation. CORE arrives post-perihelion and observes the comet’s waning activity from safe distance. Once the nucleus is largely dormant, the spacecraft enters a ~20-km dedicated Radar Mapping Orbit (RMO). The exacting design of the RRI experiment and the precise navigation of RMO will achieve a highly focused 3D radar reflection image of internal structure, to tens of meters resolution, and tomographic images of velocity and attenuation to hundreds of meters resolution, tied to the gravity model and shape. Visible imagers will produce maps of the surface morphology, albedo, color, texture, and photometric response, and images for navigation and shape determination. The cameras will also monitor the structure and dynamics of the coma, and its dusty jets, allowing their correlation in 3D with deep interior structures and surface features. Repeated global high-resolution thermal images will probe the near-surface layers heated by the Sun. Derived maps of thermal inertia will be correlated with the radar boundary response, and photometry and

  2. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R.; Luk, Ting S.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure. PMID:26828999

  3. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber.

    PubMed

    Azad, Abul K; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J M; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R; Luk, Ting S; Taylor, Antoinette J; Dalvit, Diego A R; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure.

  4. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    DOE PAGES

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; ...

    2016-02-01

    Here, we demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Moreover, our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributionsmore » to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure.« less

  5. Cassini radar : system concept and simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melacci, P. T.; Orosei, R.; Picardi, G.; Seu, R.

    1998-10-01

    The Cassini mission is an international venture, involving NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Italian Space Agency (ASI), for the investigation of the Saturn system and, in particular, Titan. The Cassini radar will be able to see through Titan's thick, optically opaque atmosphere, allowing us to better understand the composition and the morphology of its surface, but the interpretation of the results, due to the complex interplay of many different factors determining the radar echo, will not be possible without an extensive modellization of the radar system functioning and of the surface reflectivity. In this paper, a simulator of the multimode Cassini radar will be described, after a brief review of our current knowledge of Titan and a discussion of the contribution of the Cassini radar in answering to currently open questions. Finally, the results of the simulator will be discussed. The simulator has been implemented on a RISC 6000 computer by considering only the active modes of operation, that is altimeter and synthetic aperture radar. In the instrument simulation, strict reference has been made to the present planned sequence of observations and to the radar settings, including burst and single pulse duration, pulse bandwidth, pulse repetition frequency and all other parameters which may be changed, and possibly optimized, according to the operative mode. The observed surfaces are simulated by a facet model, allowing the generation of surfaces with Gaussian or non-Gaussian roughness statistic, together with the possibility of assigning to the surface an average behaviour which can represent, for instance, a flat surface or a crater. The results of the simulation will be discussed, in order to check the analytical evaluations of the models of the average received echoes and of the attainable performances. In conclusion, the simulation results should allow the validation of the theoretical evaluations of the capabilities of microwave instruments, when

  6. Ionized Absorbers in AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, S.

    1999-01-01

    As a part of this program, we observed three AGN:PKS2251 + 113, PG0043 = 039 and PLH909. Two objects show signatures of absorbtion in their UV spectra. Based on our earlier modeling of X-ray warm absorbents, we expected to observe X-ray observation in these objects. The third, PLH909, is known to have soft excess in EINSTEIN data. Attachment: "Exploratory ASCA observation of broad absorption line quasi-stellar objects".

  7. Covert situational awareness with handheld ultrawideband short-pulse radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Mark A.; Nag, Soumya; Payment, Tim

    2001-08-01

    Law enforcement and emergency services all face the difficult task of determining the locations of people within a building. A handheld radar able to detect motion through walls and other obstructions has been developed to fill this need. This paper describes the attributes and difficulties of the radar design and includes test results of the radar's performance. This discussion begins by summarizing key user requirements and the electromagnetic losses of typical building materials. Ultra-wideband (UWB) short pulse radars are well suited for a handheld sensor primarily because of their inherit time isolation in high clutter environments and their capability to achieve high resolution at low spectral center frequencies. There are also constraints that complicate the system design. Using a technique referred to as time-modulation allows the radars to reject range ambiguities and enhances electromagnetic compatibility with similar radars and ambient systems. An outline of the specifications of the radar developed and a process diagram on how it generates a motion map showing range and direction of the people moving within structures is included. Images are then presented to illustrate its performance. The images include adults, child, and a dog. The test results also include data showing the radar's performance through a variety of building materials.

  8. Composition for absorbing hydrogen from gas mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.; Wicks, George G.; Lee, Myung W.

    1999-01-01

    A hydrogen storage composition is provided which defines a physical sol-gel matrix having an average pore size of less than 3.5 angstroms which effectively excludes gaseous metal hydride poisons while permitting hydrogen gas to enter. The composition is useful for separating hydrogen gas from diverse gas streams which may have contaminants that would otherwise render the hydrogen absorbing material inactive.

  9. Shock absorbing mount for electrical components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillon, R. F., Jr.; Mayne, R. C. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A shock mount for installing electrical components on circuit boards is described. The shock absorber is made of viscoelastic material which interconnects the electrical components. With this system, shocks imposed on one component of the circuit are not transmitted to other components. A diagram of a typical circuit is provided.

  10. Reduction of radar cross-section of a wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, Jacob Jeremiah; Brock, Billy C.; Clem, Paul G.; Loui, Hung; Allen, Steven E.

    2016-08-02

    The various technologies presented herein relate to formation of a wind turbine blade having a reduced radar signature in comparison with a turbine blade fabricated using conventional techniques. Various techniques and materials are presented to facilitate reduction in radar signature of a wind turbine blade, where such techniques and materials are amenable for incorporation into existing manufacturing techniques without degradation in mechanical or physical performance of the blade or major alteration of the blade profile.

  11. Absorber for terahertz radiation management

    DOEpatents

    Biallas, George Herman; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Williams, Gwyn P.; Benson, Stephen V.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Heckman, John D.

    2015-12-08

    A method and apparatus for minimizing the degradation of power in a free electron laser (FEL) generating terahertz (THz) radiation. The method includes inserting an absorber ring in the FEL beam path for absorbing any irregular THz radiation and thus minimizes the degradation of downstream optics and the resulting degradation of the FEL output power. The absorber ring includes an upstream side, a downstream side, and a plurality of wedges spaced radially around the absorber ring. The wedges form a scallop-like feature on the innermost edges of the absorber ring that acts as an apodizer, stopping diffractive focusing of the THz radiation that is not intercepted by the absorber. Spacing between the scallop-like features and the shape of the features approximates the Bartlett apodization function. The absorber ring provides a smooth intensity distribution, rather than one that is peaked on-center, thereby eliminating minor distortion downstream of the absorber.

  12. Borehole radar interferometry revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Lanbo; Ma, Chunguang; Lane, John W.; Joesten, Peter K.

    2014-01-01

    Single-hole, multi-offset borehole-radar reflection (SHMOR) is an effective technique for fracture detection. However, commercial radar system limitations hinder the acquisition of multi-offset reflection data in a single borehole. Transforming cross-hole transmission mode radar data to virtual single-hole, multi-offset reflection data using a wave interferometric virtual source (WIVS) approach has been proposed but not fully demonstrated. In this study, we compare WIVS-derived virtual single-hole, multi-offset reflection data to real SHMOR radar reflection profiles using cross-hole and single-hole radar data acquired in two boreholes located at the University of Connecticut (Storrs, CT USA). The field data results are similar to full-waveform numerical simulations developed for a two-borehole model. The reflection from the adjacent borehole is clearly imaged by both the real and WIVS-derived virtual reflection profiles. Reflector travel-time changes induced by deviation of the two boreholes from the vertical can also be observed on the real and virtual reflection profiles. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of the WIVS approach to improve bedrock fracture imaging for hydrogeological and petroleum reservoir development applications.

  13. New Solutions for Energy Absorbing Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    One can also readily plot transverse stiffness versus axial compression , shown in Figure 8, by relating the axial compression force, N, to the...displacement of 1 μm was applied at the center-top of the beam at the same time as the beam ends were subjected to varying axial compressive ...Figure 8 for varying amounts of axial compression . The results indicate a very good agreement between the analytical and FEA models. The slight

  14. Energy-Absorbing Beam Member

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin D. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An energy-absorbing (EA) beam member and having a cell core structure is positioned in an aircraft fuselage proximate to the floor of the aircraft. The cell core structure has a length oriented along a width of the fuselage, a width oriented along a length of the fuselage, and a depth extending away from the floor. The cell core structure also includes cell walls that collectively define a repeating conusoidal pattern of alternating respective larger and smaller first and second radii along the length of the cell core structure. The cell walls slope away from a direction of flight of the aircraft at a calibrated lean angle. An EA beam member may include the cell core structure and first and second plates along the length of the cell core structure on opposite edges of the cell material.

  15. Electronic Materials Based on Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4/Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Avinandan; Das, Chapal Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The reduction of the radar cross-sectional area achieved in stealth technology has been a major challenge since the Second World War, being accomplished by covering the metallic surfaces of aircraft, ships, tanks, etc. with radar-absorbing materials. Nowadays, the development of lightweight microwave-absorbing materials with reduced thickness has a greater impact due to their excellent microwave-absorbing properties. In this study, the microwave-absorbing properties of nanocomposites based on Zn-substituted cobalt ferrite and lead zirconium titanate have been investigated in the X-band (8.2 GHz to 12.4 GHz) region. Zn-substituted cobalt ferrite (CZF) and lead zirconium titanate (PZT) nanoparticles were prepared by the coprecipitation and homogeneous precipitation method, respectively. Nanocomposites were developed by dispersing these nanoparticles with different compositions into an epoxy resin matrix. All the composite materials showed more than 90% microwave absorption in the X-band region. The nanocomposite containing CZF/PZT (3:1) with 2 mm thickness displayed maximum return loss of -47.87 dB at 12.23 GHz. The microwave absorbers based on epoxy resin polymeric matrix exhibited better absorbing properties when the dielectric contribution matched the magnetic contribution, and the loss mechanisms were mainly due to the dielectric loss.

  16. 33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar operations center (PAROC), contains the tactical command and control group equipment required to control the par site. Showing spacetrack monitor console - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  17. Venus wind-altitude radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levanon, N.

    1974-01-01

    A design study on adding a radar altimeter to the Pioneer Venus small probe is review. Block and timing diagrams are provided. The inherent and interface ambiguities, resolution, and data handling logic for radar altimeters are described.

  18. Radar for tracer particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Felix; Herminghaus, Stephan; Huang, Kai

    2017-05-01

    We introduce a radar system capable of tracking a 5 mm spherical target continuously in three dimensions. The 10 GHz (X-band) radar system has a transmission power of 1 W and operates in the near field of the horn antennae. By comparing the phase shift of the electromagnetic wave traveling through the free space with an IQ-mixer, we obtain the relative movement of the target with respect to the antennae. From the azimuth and inclination angles of the receiving antennae obtained in the calibration, we reconstruct the target trajectory in a three-dimensional Cartesian system. Finally, we test the tracking algorithm with target moving in circular as well as in pendulum motions and discuss the capability of the radar system.

  19. On the definition of absorbed dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grusell, Erik

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: The quantity absorbed dose is used extensively in all areas concerning the interaction of ionizing radiation with biological organisms, as well as with matter in general. The most recent and authoritative definition of absorbed dose is given by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) in ICRU Report 85. However, that definition is incomplete. The purpose of the present work is to give a rigorous definition of absorbed dose. Methods: Absorbed dose is defined in terms of the random variable specific energy imparted. A random variable is a mathematical function, and it cannot be defined without specifying its domain of definition which is a probability space. This is not done in report 85 by the ICRU, mentioned above. Results: In the present work a definition of a suitable probability space is given, so that a rigorous definition of absorbed dose is possible. This necessarily includes the specification of the experiment which the probability space describes. In this case this is an irradiation, which is specified by the initial particles released and by the material objects which can interact with the radiation. Some consequences are discussed. Specific energy imparted is defined for a volume, and the definition of absorbed dose as a point function involves the specific energy imparted for a small mass contained in a volume surrounding the point. A possible more precise definition of this volume is suggested and discussed. Conclusions: The importance of absorbed dose motivates a proper definition, and one is given in the present work. No rigorous definition has been presented before.

  20. Radar data smoothing filter study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. V.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of the current Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) data smoothing techniques for a variety of radars and payloads is examined. Alternative data reduction techniques are given and recommendations are made for improving radar data processing at WFF. A data adaptive algorithm, based on Kalman filtering and smoothing techniques, is also developed for estimating payload trajectories above the atmosphere from noisy time varying radar data. This algorithm is tested and verified using radar tracking data from WFF.

  1. Goldstone solar system radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurgens, R. F.; Clark, P. E.; Goldstein, R. M.; Ostro, S. J.; Slade, M. A.; Thompson, T. W.; Saunders, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    Information is provided about physical nature planetary surfaces and their topography as well as dynamical properties such as orbits and spin states using ground based radar as a remote sensing tool. Accessible targets are the terrestrial planets: the Earth's Moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars, the outer planets rings and major moons, and many transient objects such as asteroids and comets. Data acquisition utilizes the unique facilities of the Goldstone Deep Space Network, occasionally the Arecibo radar, and proposed use of the VLA (very large array).

  2. Threat radar system simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L.

    The capabilities, requirements, and goals of radar emitter simulators are discussed. Simulators are used to evaluate competing receiver designs, to quantify the performance envelope of a radar system, and to model the characteristics of a transmitted signal waveform. A database of candidate threat systems is developed and, in concert with intelligence data on a given weapons system, permits upgrading simulators to new projected threat capabilities. Four currently available simulation techniques are summarized, noting the usefulness of developing modular software for fast controlled-cost upgrades of simulation capabilities.

  3. Spaceborne Imaging Radar Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the present state of the art in the different scientific and technological fields related to spaceborne imaging radars was presented. The data acquired with the SEASAT SAR (1978) and Shuttle Imaging Radar, SIR-A (1981) clearly demonstrated the important emphasis in the 80's is going to be on in-depth research investigations conducted with the more flexible and sophisticated SIR series instruments and on long term monitoring of geophysical phenomena conducted from free-flying platforms such as ERS-1 and RADARSAT.

  4. Radar Investigations of Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    Radar investigations of asteroids, including observations during 1984 to 1985 of at least 8 potential targets and continued analyses of radar data obtained during 1980 to 1984 for 30 other asteroids is proposed. The primary scientific objectives include estimation of echo strength, polarization, spectral shape, spectral bandwidth, and Doppler shift. These measurements yield estimates of target size, shape, and spin vector; place constraints on topography, morphology, density, and composition of the planetary surface; yield refined estimates of target orbital parameters; and reveals the presence of asteroidal satellites.

  5. Radar detection of Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.; Jurgens, R. F.; Yeomans, D. K.; Standish, E. M.; Greiner, W.

    1989-01-01

    Radar echoes from the martian satellite Phobos provide information about that object's surface properties at scales near the 3.5-cm observing wavelength. Phobos appears less rough than the moon at centimeter-to-decimeter scales. The uppermost few decimeters of the satellite's regolith have a mean bulk density within 20 percent of 2.0 g/cu cm. The radar signature of Phobos (albedo, polarization ratio, and echo spectral shape) differs from signatures measured for small, earth-approaching objects, but resembles those of large (greater than 100-km), C-class, mainbelt asteroids.

  6. Systems and Methods for Radar Data Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, Brian (Inventor); Szeto, Roland (Inventor); Miller, Brad (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A radar information processing system is operable to process high bandwidth radar information received from a radar system into low bandwidth radar information that may be communicated to a low bandwidth connection coupled to an electronic flight bag (EFB). An exemplary embodiment receives radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth; processes the received radar information into processed radar information, the processed radar information configured for communication over a connection operable at a second bandwidth, the second bandwidth lower than the first bandwidth; and communicates the radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth.

  7. Coherent Laser Radar System Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-05

    This program is aimed at developing a system theory for the emerging technology of multifunction coherent CO2 laser radars. It builds upon previous...work funded by U.S. Army Research Office contract DAAG29-80-K-0022. Keywords include: Laser radar theory, Radar system theory , and Laser speckle.

  8. Radar Image of Galapagos Island

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-10-23

    This is an image showing part of Isla Isabella in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar on the 40th orbit of NASA’s space shuttle Endeavour.

  9. Intrascleral outflow after deep sclerectomy with absorbable and non-absorbable implants in the rabbit eye.

    PubMed

    Kałużny, Jakub J; Grzanka, Dariusz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Niewińska, Alicja; Kałużny, Bartłomiej J; Grzanka, Alina

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of the study is an analysis of intrascleral drainage vessels formed in rabbits' eyes after non-penetrating deep sclerectomy (NPDS) with absorbable and non-absorbable implants, and comparison to eyes in which surgery was performed without implanted material. NPDS was carried out in 12 rabbits, with implantation of non-absorbable methacrylic hydrogel (N=10 eyes) or absorbable cross-linked sodium hyaluronate (N=6 eyes), or without any implant (N=8 eyes). All the animals were euthanized 1 year after surgery. Twenty-one eyeballs were prepared for light microscopy and 3 were prepared for transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. Aqueous humour pathways were stained with ferritin in 6 eyeballs. By light microscopy, small vessels adjacent to the areas of scarring were the most common abnormality. Vessel density was significantly higher in operated sclera compared to normal, healthy tissue, regardless of the type of implant used. The average vessel densities were 2.18±1.48 vessels/mm2 in non-implanted sclera, 2.34±1.69 vessels/mm2 in eyes with absorbable implants, and 3.64±1.78 vessels/mm2 in eyes with non-absorbable implants. Analysis of iron distribution in ferritin-injected eyes showed a positive reaction inside new aqueous draining vessels in all groups. TEM analysis showed that the ultrastructure of new vessels matched the features of the small veins. Aqueous outflow after NPDS can be achieved through the newly formed network of small intrascleral veins. Use of non-absorbable implants significantly increases vessel density in the sclera adjacent to implanted material compared to eyes in which absorbable implants or no implants were used.

  10. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    The number of radar detected asteroids has climbed from 6 to 40 (27 mainbelt plus 13 near-Earth). The dual-circular-polarization radar sample now comprises more than 1% of the numbered asteroids. Radar results for mainbelt asteroids furnish the first available information on the nature of these objects at macroscopic scales. At least one object (2 Pallas) and probably many others are extraordinarily smooth at centimeter-to-meter scales but are extremely rough at some scale between several meters and many kilometers. Pallas has essentially no small-scale structure within the uppermost several meters of the regolith, but the rms slope of this regolith exceeds 20 deg., much larger than typical lunar values (approx. 7 deg.). The origin of these slopes could be the hypervelocity impact cratering process, whose manifestations are likely to be different on low-gravity, low-radius-of-curvature objects from those on the terrestrial planets. The range of mainbelt asteroid radar albedoes is very broad and implies big variations in regolith porosity or metal concentration, or both. The highest albedo estimate, for 16 Psyche, is consistent with a surface having porosities typical of lunar soil and a composition nearly completely metallic. Therefore, Psyche might be the collisionally stripped core of a differentiated small plant, and might resemble mineralogically the parent bodies of iron meteorites.

  11. Retrodirective Radar Calibration Nanosatellite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Martin (Student Program Manager); Nicholas G. Fisher (Student Systems Engineer) University of Hawaii JULY 2013 Final Report...Cost-Effective, Rapid Design of a Student-Built Radar Calibration Nanosatellite Larry K. Martin , Nicholas G. Fisher, Toy Lim, John...University of Hawaii Reinventing Space Conference AIAA-RS-2012-3001 Martin 1 AIAA Reinventing Space Conference 2012

  12. Multiline radar scan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, S.

    1977-01-01

    Scanning scheme is more efficient than conventional scanning. Originally designed for optical radar in space vehicles, scheme may also find uses in site-surveillance security systems and in other industrial applications. It should be particularly useful when system must run on battery energy, as would be case in power outages.

  13. Passive bistatic radar analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hagan, Daniel W.; Kuschel, H.; Schiller, Joachim

    2009-06-01

    Passive Bistatic Radar (PBR) research is at its zenith with several notable PBR systems currently operational, or available for deployment. Such PBRs include the Manastash Ridge Radar (MRR) developed for and by academia; Silent Sentry developed as a commercial concern by Lockheed Martin; and Homeland Alerter (HA100) also a commercial system developed by Thales. However at present, despite the existence of numerous PBR prototypes, take up of commercial passive radar technology remains slow. This is due in part to technology immaturity, in part to politics, and particularly due to the fact that monostatic radars perform so well. If PBRs are to enjoy longevity as a viable technology then it is imperative that they address certain niche application areas, with the aforementioned MRR being one prime example of this. The focus of this paper will be an analysis of a PBR system that utilised FM radio signals of opportunity to detect aircraft targets with an RCS generally not lower than 20 m2. The paper will demonstrate the theoretical detection coverage of an FM based PBR operating in a severe interference environment.

  14. Impulse radar studfinder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    An impulse radar studfinder propagates electromagnetic pulses and detects reflected pulses from a fixed range. Unmodulated pulses, about 200 ps wide, are emitted. A large number of reflected pulses are sampled and averaged. Background reflections are subtracted. Reflections from wall studs or other hidden objects are detected and displayed using light emitting diodes.

  15. Air Traffic Control Radar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-13

    An Air Traffic Control radar has been constructed at Shiloh for the NASA control tower at the Shuttle Landing Facility. It will be used by NASA and the Eastern Range for surveillance of controlled air space in Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station restricted areas. Shiloh is on the northern end of Merritt Island.

  16. Air Traffic Control Radar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-13

    An Air Traffic Control radar is being constructed at Shiloh for the NASA control tower at the Shuttle Landing Facility. It will be used by NASA and the Eastern Range for surveillance of controlled air space in Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station restricted areas. Shiloh is on the northern end of Merritt Island.

  17. Impulse radar studfinder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-10-10

    An impulse radar studfinder propagates electromagnetic pulses and detects reflected pulses from a fixed range. Unmodulated pulses, about 200 ps wide, are emitted. A large number of reflected pulses are sampled and averaged. Background reflections are subtracted. Reflections from wall studs or other hidden objects are detected and displayed using light emitting diodes. 9 figs.

  18. Netted LPI RADARs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    CHALLENGES ............................66 1. Radar Processing Gain ........................66 2. High Sensitivity Requirement .................68 B...Relationship Between Network Space and Challenges .....................................127 Figure 42. Maneuverability................................129...virtually any kind of terrain. It has five modes: Normal, Weather, ECCM, LPI, and Very Low Clearance ( VLC ). Pictures of the LANTIRN pod aboard and F-16

  19. Frequency Diverse Array Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/A...given. Lastly, the radar applications of FDA are considered. The received power from a target at a fixed range is simulated in MATLAB and the

  20. Cognitive Nonlinear Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    intelligently selecting waveform parameters using adaptive algorithms. The adaptive algorithms optimize the waveform parameters based on (1) the EM...the environment. 15. SUBJECT TERMS cognitive radar, adaptive sensing, spectrum sensing, multi-objective optimization, genetic algorithms, machine...detection and classification block diagram. .........................................................6 Figure 5. Genetic algorithm block diagram

  1. Review of Plasmonic Nanocomposite Metamaterial Absorber

    PubMed Central

    Hedayati, Mehdi Keshavarz; Faupel, Franz; Elbahri, Mady

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic metamaterials are artificial materials typically composed of noble metals in which the features of photonics and electronics are linked by coupling photons to conduction electrons of metal (known as surface _lasmon). These rationally designed structures have spurred interest noticeably since they demonstrate some fascinating properties which are unattainable with naturally occurring materials. Complete absorption of light is one of the recent exotic properties of plasmonic metamaterials which has broadened its application area considerably. This is realized by designing a medium whose impedance matches that of free space while being opaque. If such a medium is filled with some lossy medium, the resulting structure can absorb light totally in a sharp or broad frequency range. Although several types of metamaterials perfect absorber have been demonstrated so far, in the current paper we overview (and focus on) perfect absorbers based on nanocomposites where the total thickness is a few tens of nanometer and the absorption band is broad, tunable and insensitive to the angle of incidence. The nanocomposites consist of metal nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric matrix with a high filling factor close to the percolation threshold. The filling factor can be tailored by the vapor phase co-deposition of the metallic and dielectric components. In addition, novel wet chemical approaches are discussed which are bio-inspired or involve synthesis within levitating Leidenfrost drops, for instance. Moreover, theoretical considerations, optical properties, and potential application of perfect absorbers will be presented. PMID:28788511

  2. Absorbent properties of carboxymethylated fiber, hydroentangled nonwoven and regenerated cellulose: a comparative study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Commercially-available, bleached cotton fibers, rayon, and their hydroentangled counterparts were carboxymethylated to produce cellulosic products with increased absorbency. These cellulose materials were tested for absorbance, spectroscopic properties, degree of substitution and carding ability. Ca...

  3. Space Radar Image of Raco Biomass Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This biomass map of the Raco, Michigan, area was produced from data acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour. Biomass is the amount of plant material on an area of Earth's surface. Radar can directly sense the quantity and organizational structure of the woody biomass in the forest. Science team members at the University of Michigan used the radar data to estimate the standing biomass for this Raco site in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Detailed surveys of 70 forest stands will be used to assess the accuracy of these techniques. The seasonal growth of terrestrial plants, and forests in particular, leads to the temporary storage of large amounts of carbon, which could directly affect changes in global climate. In order to accurately predict future global change, scientists need detailed information about current distribution of vegetation types and the amount of biomass present around the globe. Optical techniques to determine net biomass are frustrated by chronic cloud-cover. Imaging radar can penetrate through cloud-cover with negligible signal losses. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German

  4. Reflection measurements of microwave absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Dirk E.; van der Neut, Cornelis A.

    1988-12-01

    A swept-frequency interferometer is described for making rapid, real-time assessments of localized inhomogeneities in planar microwave absorber panels. An aperture-matched exponential horn is used to reduce residual reflections in the system to about -37 dB. This residual reflection is adequate for making comparative measurements on planar absorber panels whose reflectivities usually fall in the -15 to -25 dB range. Reflectivity measurements on a variety of planar absorber panels show that multilayer Jaumann absorbers have the greatest inhomogeneity, while honeycomb absorbers generally have excellent homogeneity within a sheet and from sheet to sheet. The test setup is also used to measure the center frequencies of resonant absorbers. With directional couplers and aperture-matched exponential horns, the technique can be easily applied in the standard 2 to 40 GHz waveguide bands.

  5. Optimized multilayered wideband absorbers with graded fractal FSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinoy, K. J.; Jose, K. A.; Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    2001-08-01

    Various approaches have been followed for the reduction of radar cross section (RCS), especially of aircraft and missiles. In this paper we present the use of multiple layers of FSS-like fractal geometries printed on dielectric substrates for the same goal. The experimental results shown here indicate 15 dB reduction in the reflection of a flat surface, by the use of this configuration with low loss dielectrics. An extensive optimization scheme is required for extending the angle coverage as well as the bandwidth of the absorber. A brief investigation of such a scheme involving genetic algorithm for this purpose is also presented here.

  6. Novel Ultraviolet Light Absorbing Polymers For Optical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doddi, Namassivaya; Yamada, Akira; Dunks, Gary B.

    1988-07-01

    Ultraviolet light absorbing monomers have been developed that can be copolymerized with acrylates. The composition of the resultant stable copolymers can be adjusted to totally block the transmission of light below about 430 nm. Fabrication of lenses from the materials is accomplished by lathe cutting and injection molding procedures. These ultraviolet light absorbing materials are non-mutagenic and non-toxic and are currently being used in intraocular lenses.

  7. Geologic Studies of Planetary Surfaces Using Radar Polarimetric Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Lynn M.; Campbell, Donald B.; Campbell, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Radar is a useful remote sensing tool for studying planetary geology because it is sensitive to the composition, structure, and roughness of the surface and can penetrate some materials to reveal buried terrain. The Arecibo Observatory radar system transmits a single sense of circular polarization, and both senses of circular polarization are received, which allows for the construction of the Stokes polarization vector. From the Stokes vector, daughter products such as the circular polarization ratio, the degree of linear polarization, and linear polarization angle are obtained. Recent polarimetric imaging using Arecibo has included Venus and the Moon. These observations can be compared to radar data for terrestrial surfaces to better understand surface physical properties and regional geologic evolution. For example, polarimetric radar studies of volcanic settings on Venus, the Moon and Earth display some similarities, but also illustrate a variety of different emplacement and erosion mechanisms. Polarimetric radar data provides important information about surface properties beyond what can be obtained from single-polarization radar. Future observations using polarimetric synthetic aperture radar will provide information on roughness, composition and stratigraphy that will support a broader interpretation of surface evolution.

  8. Radar images of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhleman, Duane O.; Butler, Bryan J.; Grossman, Arie W.; Slade, Martin A.

    1991-01-01

    VLA radar-reflected flux-density mappings have yielded full disk images of Mars which reveal near-surface features, including a region in the Tharsis volcano area that displayed no echo to the very low level of the radar-system noise. This feature is interpreted as a deposit of dust or ash whose density is less than about 0.5 g/cu cm; it must be several meters thick, and may be much deeper. The most strongly reflecting geological feature was the south polar ice cap, which is interpretable as arising from nearly-pure CO2 or H2O ice, with less than 2 vol pct Martian dust. Only one anomalous reflecting feature was identified outside the Tharsis region.

  9. RADAR Reveals Titan Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R. L.; Callahan, P.; Seu, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Paganelli, F.; Lopes, R.; Elachi, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Cassini Titan RADAR Mapper is a K(sub u)-band (13.78 GHz, lambda = 2.17 cm) linear polarized RADAR instrument capable of operating in synthetic aperture (SAR), scatterometer, altimeter and radiometer modes. During the first targeted flyby of Titan on 26 October, 2004 (referred to as Ta) observations were made in all modes. Evidence for topographic relief based on the Ta altimetry and SAR data are presented here. Additional SAR and altimetry observations are planned for the T3 encounter on 15 February, 2005, but have not been carried out at this writing. Results from the T3 encounter relevant to topography will be included in our presentation. Data obtained in the Ta encounter include a SAR image swath

  10. 41. Perimeter acquisition radar building radar element and coaxial display, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Perimeter acquisition radar building radar element and coaxial display, with drawing of typical antenna section. Drawing, from left to right, shows element, aluminum ground plane, cable connectors and hardware, cable, and back-up ring. Grey area is the concrete wall - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  11. 51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner building 105 from upper catwalk level showing emanating waveguides from upper switch (upper one-fourth of photograph) and emanating waveguides from lower radar scanner switch in vertical runs. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  12. Ice sheet radar altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, J.

    1988-01-01

    The surface topography of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets between 72 degrees north and south was mapped using radar altimetry data from the U.S. Navy GEOSAT. The glaciological objectives of this activity were to study the dynamics of the ice flow, changes in the position of floating ice-shelf fronts, and ultimately to measure temporal changes in ice surface elevation indicative of ice sheet mass balance.

  13. Design of radar receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, M. A.

    This handbook treats the design and analysis of of pulsed radar receivers, with emphasis on elements (especially IC elements) that implement optimal and suboptimal algorithms. The design methodology is developed from the viewpoint of statistical communications theory. Particular consideration is given to the synthesis of single-channel and multichannel detectors, the design of analog and digital signal-processing devices, and the analysis of IF amplifiers.

  14. Imaging synthetic aperture radar

    DOEpatents

    Burns, Bryan L.; Cordaro, J. Thomas

    1997-01-01

    A linear-FM SAR imaging radar method and apparatus to produce a real-time image by first arranging the returned signals into a plurality of subaperture arrays, the columns of each subaperture array having samples of dechirped baseband pulses, and further including a processing of each subaperture array to obtain coarse-resolution in azimuth, then fine-resolution in range, and lastly, to combine the processed subapertures to obtain the final fine-resolution in azimuth. Greater efficiency is achieved because both the transmitted signal and a local oscillator signal mixed with the returned signal can be varied on a pulse-to-pulse basis as a function of radar motion. Moreover, a novel circuit can adjust the sampling location and the A/D sample rate of the combined dechirped baseband signal which greatly reduces processing time and hardware. The processing steps include implementing a window function, stabilizing either a central reference point and/or all other points of a subaperture with respect to doppler frequency and/or range as a function of radar motion, sorting and compressing the signals using a standard fourier transforms. The stabilization of each processing part is accomplished with vector multiplication using waveforms generated as a function of radar motion wherein these waveforms may be synthesized in integrated circuits. Stabilization of range migration as a function of doppler frequency by simple vector multiplication is a particularly useful feature of the invention; as is stabilization of azimuth migration by correcting for spatially varying phase errors prior to the application of an autofocus process.

  15. Energy absorber for the CETA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J.

    1994-01-01

    The energy absorber that was developed for the CETA (Crew Equipment and Translation Aid) on Space Station Freedom is a metal on metal frictional type and has a load regulating feature that prevents excessive stroking loads from occurring while in operation. This paper highlights some of the design and operating aspects and the testing of this energy absorber.

  16. Metal-shearing energy absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, R. J.; Wittrock, E. P.

    1971-01-01

    Device, consisting of tongue of thin aluminum alloy strip, pull tab, slotted steel plate which serves as cutter, and steel buckle, absorbs mechanical energy when its ends are subjected to tensile loading. Device is applicable as auxiliary shock absorbing anchor for automobile and airplane safety belts.

  17. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  18. Metamaterial Absorber Based Multifunctional Sensor Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozer, Z.; Mamedov, A. M.; Ozbay, E.

    2017-02-01

    In this study metamaterial based (MA) absorber sensor, integrated with an X-band waveguide, is numerically and experimentally suggested for important application including pressure, density sensing and marble type detecting applications based on rectangular split ring resonator, sensor layer and absorber layer that measures of changing in the dielectric constant and/or the thickness of a sensor layer. Changing of physical, chemical or biological parameters in the sensor layer can be detected by measuring the resonant frequency shifting of metamaterial absorber based sensor. Suggested MA based absorber sensor can be used for medical, biological, agricultural and chemical detecting applications in microwave frequency band. We compare the simulation and experimentally obtained results from the fabricated sample which are good agreement. Simulation results show that the proposed structure can detect the changing of the refractive indexes of different materials via special resonance frequencies, thus it could be said that the MA-based sensors have high sensitivity. Additionally due to the simple and tiny structures it could be adapted to other electronic devices in different sizes.

  19. Synthetic aperture radar interferometry of Okmok volcano, Alaska: radar observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhong; Mann, Dörte; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Meyer, David

    2000-01-01

    ERS-1/ERS-2 synthetic aperture radar interferometry was used to study the 1997 eruption of Okmok volcano in Alaska. First, we derived an accurate digital elevation model (DEM) using a tandem ERS-1/ERS-2 image pair and the preexisting DEM. Second, by studying changes in interferometric coherence we found that the newly erupted lava lost radar coherence for 5-17 months after the eruption. This suggests changes in the surface backscattering characteristics and was probably related to cooling and compaction processes. Third, the atmospheric delay anomalies in the deformation interferograms were quantitatively assessed. Atmospheric delay anomalies in some of the interferograms were significant and consistently smaller than one to two fringes in magnitude. For this reason, repeat observations are important to confidently interpret small geophysical signals related to volcanic activities. Finally, using two-pass differential interferometry, we analyzed the preemptive inflation, coeruptive deflation, and posteruptive inflation and confirmed the observations using independent image pairs. We observed more than 140 cm of subsidence associated with the 1997 eruption. This subsidence occurred between 16 months before the eruption and 5 months after the eruption, was preceded by ∼18 cm of uplift between 1992 and 1995 centered in the same location, and was followed by ∼10 cm of uplift between September 1997 and 1998. The best fitting model suggests the magma reservoir resided at 2.7 km depth beneath the center of the caldera, which was ∼5 km from the eruptive vent. We estimated the volume of the erupted material to be 0.055 km3 and the average thickness of the erupted lava to be ∼7.4 m. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Device for absorbing mechanical shock

    DOEpatents

    Newlon, Charles E.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a comparatively inexpensive but efficient shock-absorbing device having special application to the protection of shipping and storage cylinders. In a typical application, two of the devices are strapped to a cylinder to serve as saddle-type supports for the cylinder during storage and to protect the cylinder in the event it is dropped during lifting or lowering operations. In its preferred form, the invention includes a hardwood plank whose grain runs in the longitudinal direction. The basal portion of the plank is of solid cross-section, whereas the upper face of the plank is cut away to form a concave surface fittable against the sidewall of a storage cylinder. The concave surface is divided into a series of segments by transversely extending, throughgoing relief slots. A layer of elastomeric material is positioned on the concave face, the elastomer being extrudable into slots when pressed against the segments by a preselected pressure characteristic of a high-energy impact. The compressive, tensile, and shear properties of the hardwood and the elastomer are utilized in combination to provide a surprisingly high energy-absorption capability.

  1. Device for absorbing mechanical shock

    DOEpatents

    Newlon, C.E.

    1979-08-29

    This invention is a comparatively inexpensive but efficient shock-absorbing device having special application to the protection of shipping and storage cylinders. In a typical application, two of the devices are strapped to a cylinder to serve as saddle-type supports for the cylinder during storage and to protect the cylinder in the event it is dropped during lifting or lowering operations. In its preferred form, the invention includes a hardwood plank whose grain runs in the longitudinal direction. The basal portion of the plank is of solid cross-section, whereas the upper face of the plank is cut away to form a concave surface fittable against the sidewall of a storage cylinder. The concave surface is divided into a series of segments by transversely extending, throughgoing relief slots. A layer of elastomeric material is positioned on the concave face, the elastomer being extrudable into slots when pressed against the segments by a preselected pressure characteristic of a high-energy impact. The compressive, tensile, and shear properties of the hardwood and the elastomer are utilized in combination to provide a surprisingly high energy-absorption capability.

  2. Analysis of ALTAIR 1998 Meteor Radar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinn, J.; Close, S.; Colestock, P. L.; MacDonell, A.; Loveland, R.

    2011-01-01

    II and III. The main point of this paper is to use these deceleration rate data, together with results from a computer model, to determine values of the quantities mPs 2 (the meteor mass times its material density squared); and further, by combining these m s 2 values with meteor mass estimates for the same set of meteors determined separately from measured radar scattering

  3. Radar-aeolian roughness project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Dobrovolskis, A.; Gaddis, L.; Iversen, J. D.; Lancaster, N.; Leach, Rodman N.; Rasnussen, K.; Saunders, S.; Vanzyl, J.; Wall, S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to establish an empirical relationship between measurements of radar, aeolian, and surface roughness on a variety of natural surfaces and to understand the underlying physical causes. This relationship will form the basis for developing a predictive equation to derive aeolian roughness from radar backscatter. Results are given from investigations carried out in 1989 on the principal elements of the project, with separate sections on field studies, radar data analysis, laboratory simulations, and development of theory for planetary applications.

  4. Low-Angle Radar Tracking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-02-01

    Transition from Specular Reflection to Diffuse Scattering. . . 10 Composition of the Electric-Field Vector as Seen at the Radar...r t (16) R • FIGURE P COMPOSITION OF THE ELECTRIC-FIELD VECTOR AS SEEN AT THE RADAR, R, IN FIG. 2. The electric field at the radar, E, is the sum...wavelengths in the VHP and UHF ranges even subsurface characteristics can be important. So in a field experiment one must be careful to measure

  5. Radar studies of bird migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Observations of bird migration with NASA radars were made at Wallops Island, Va. Simultaneous observations were made at a number of radar sites in the North Atlantic Ocean in an effort to discover what happened to those birds that were observed leaving the coast of North America headed toward Bermuda, the Caribbean and South America. Transatlantic migration, utilizing observations from a large number of radars is discussed. Detailed studies of bird movements at Wallops Island are presented.

  6. Absorbable Antimicrobial Battlefield Hemostat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    to graphene sheet and carbon nanotubes . Coupled with ABTS, the GQDs can be used for the detection of hydrogen peroxide with the limit of detection......dressing could be made of any material that is compatible to our coating solvent. Examples include gelatin based and cellulose based substrates. The

  7. Innovative Anti Crash Absorber for a Crashworthy Landing Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guida, Michele; Marulo, Francesco; Montesarchio, Bruno; Bruno, Massimiliano

    2014-06-01

    This paper defines an innovative concept to anti-crash absorber in composite material to be integrated on the landing gear as an energy-absorbing device in crash conditions to absorb the impact energy. A composite cylinder tube in carbon fiber material is installed coaxially to the shock absorber cylinder and, in an emergency landing gear condition, collapses in order to enhance the energy absorption performance of the landing system. This mechanism has been developed as an alternative solution to a high-pressure chamber installed on the Agusta A129 CBT helicopter, which can be considered dangerous when the helicopter operates in hard and/or crash landing. The characteristics of the anti-crash device are presented and the structural layout of a crashworthy landing gear adopting the developed additional energy absorbing stage is outlined. Experimental and numerical results relevant to the material characterization and the force peaks evaluation of the system development are reported. The anti-crash prototype was designed, analysed, optimized, made and finally the potential performances of a landing gear with the additional anti-crash absorber system are tested by drop test and then correlated with a similar test without the anti-crash system, showing that appreciable energy absorbing capabilities and efficiencies can be obtained in crash conditions.

  8. Radar data processing and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausherman, D.; Larson, R.; Liskow, C.

    1976-01-01

    Digitized four-channel radar images corresponding to particular areas from the Phoenix and Huntington test sites were generated in conjunction with prior experiments performed to collect X- and L-band synthetic aperture radar imagery of these two areas. The methods for generating this imagery are documented. A secondary objective was the investigation of digital processing techniques for extraction of information from the multiband radar image data. Following the digitization, the remaining resources permitted a preliminary machine analysis to be performed on portions of the radar image data. The results, although necessarily limited, are reported.

  9. Reconfigurable L-Band Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rincon, Rafael F.

    2008-01-01

    The reconfigurable L-Band radar is an ongoing development at NASA/GSFC that exploits the capability inherently in phased array radar systems with a state-of-the-art data acquisition and real-time processor in order to enable multi-mode measurement techniques in a single radar architecture. The development leverages on the L-Band Imaging Scatterometer, a radar system designed for the development and testing of new radar techniques; and the custom-built DBSAR processor, a highly reconfigurable, high speed data acquisition and processing system. The radar modes currently implemented include scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar, and altimetry; and plans to add new modes such as radiometry and bi-static GNSS signals are being formulated. This development is aimed at enhancing the radar remote sensing capabilities for airborne and spaceborne applications in support of Earth Science and planetary exploration This paper describes the design of the radar and processor systems, explains the operational modes, and discusses preliminary measurements and future plans.

  10. Comments on Doppler radar applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, E.

    1969-01-01

    The application of Doppler methods to theoretical or meteorological problems is discussed. Research for using radar to study and monitor severe thunderstorms, turbulence, and tornadoes is recommended.

  11. High-resolution three-dimensional imaging radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken B. (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Siegel, Peter H. (Inventor); Dengler, Robert J. (Inventor); Schlecht, Erich T. (Inventor); Mehdi, Imran (Inventor); Skalare, Anders J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional imaging radar operating at high frequency e.g., 670 GHz, is disclosed. The active target illumination inherent in radar solves the problem of low signal power and narrow-band detection by using submillimeter heterodyne mixer receivers. A submillimeter imaging radar may use low phase-noise synthesizers and a fast chirper to generate a frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) waveform. Three-dimensional images are generated through range information derived for each pixel scanned over a target. A peak finding algorithm may be used in processing for each pixel to differentiate material layers of the target. Improved focusing is achieved through a compensation signal sampled from a point source calibration target and applied to received signals from active targets prior to FFT-based range compression to extract and display high-resolution target images. Such an imaging radar has particular application in detecting concealed weapons or contraband.

  12. Space Radar Image of Weddell Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    Two radar images are shown in this composite to compare the size of a standard spaceborne radar image small inset to the image that is created when the radar instrument is used in the ScanSAR mode large image.

  13. Research on Radar Importance with Decision Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Lingjie; Du, Yu; Wang, Liuheng

    2017-12-01

    Considering the characteristic of radar, constructed the evaluation index system of radar importance, established the comprehensive evaluation model based on decision matrix. Finally, by means of an example, the methods of this evaluation on radar importance was right and feasibility.

  14. Removing interfering clutter associated with radar pulses that an airborne radar receives from a radar transponder

    DOEpatents

    Ormesher, Richard C.; Axline, Robert M.

    2008-12-02

    Interfering clutter in radar pulses received by an airborne radar system from a radar transponder can be suppressed by developing a representation of the incoming echo-voltage time-series that permits the clutter associated with predetermined parts of the time-series to be estimated. These estimates can be used to estimate and suppress the clutter associated with other parts of the time-series.

  15. Self-Regulating Shock Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J.

    1995-01-01

    Mechanical shock absorber keeps frictional damping force within tolerable limit. Its damping force does not increase with coefficient of friction between energy-absorbing components; rather, frictional damping force varies only slightly. Relatively insensitive to manufacturing variations and environmental conditions altering friction. Does not exhibit high breakaway friction and consequent sharp increase followed by sharp decrease in damping force at beginning of stroking. Damping force in absorber does not vary appreciably with speed of stroking. In addition, not vulnerable to leakage of hydraulic fluid.

  16. Planetary radar studies. [radar mapping of the Moon and radar signatures of lunar and Venus craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Cutts, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Progress made in studying the evolution of Venusian craters and the evolution of infrared and radar signatures of lunar crater interiors is reported. Comparison of radar images of craters on Venus and the Moon present evidence for a steady state Venus crater population. Successful observations at the Arecibo Observatory yielded good data on five nights when data for a mix of inner and limb areas were acquired. Lunar craters with radar bright ejects are discussed. An overview of infrared radar crater catalogs in the data base is included.

  17. Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escolà, Roger; Garcia-Mondejar, Albert; Moyano, Gorka; Roca, Mònica; Terra-Homem, Miguel; Friaças, Ana; Martinho, Fernando; Schrama, Ernst; Naeije, Marc; Ambrozio, Americo; Restano, Marco; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    The universal altimetry toolbox, BRAT (Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry missions' data, incorporates now the capability to read the upcoming Sentinel-3 L1 and L2 products. ESA endeavoured to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales), and it is freely available at http://earth.esa.int/brat. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats. The BratGUI is the front-end for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with MATLAB/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the data-formatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as NetCDF, ASCII text files, KML (Google Earth) and raster images (JPEG, PNG, etc.). Several kinds of computations can be done within BRAT involving combinations of data fields that the user can save for posterior reuse or using the already embedded formulas that include the standard oceanographic altimetry formulas. The Radar Altimeter Tutorial, that contains a strong introduction to altimetry, shows its applications in different fields such as Oceanography, Cryosphere, Geodesy, Hydrology among others. Included are also "use cases", with step-by-step examples, on how to use the toolbox in the different contexts. The Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox shall benefit from the current BRAT version. While developing the toolbox we will revamp of the Graphical User Interface and provide, among other enhancements, support for reading the upcoming S3 datasets and

  18. Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondéjar, Albert; Benveniste, Jérôme; Naeije, Marc; Escolà, Roger; Moyano, Gorka; Roca, Mònica; Terra-Homem, Miguel; Friaças, Ana; Martinho, Fernando; Schrama, Ernst; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco

    2016-07-01

    The universal altimetry toolbox, BRAT (Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry missions' data, incorporates now the capability to read the upcoming Sentinel-3 L1 and L2 products. ESA endeavoured to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Études Spatiales), and it is freely available at http://earth.esa.int/brat. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats. The BratGUI is the front-end for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with MATLAB/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the data-formatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as NetCDF, ASCII text files, KML (Google Earth) and raster images (JPEG, PNG, etc.). Several kinds of computations can be done within BRAT involving combinations of data fields that the user can save for posterior reuse or using the already embedded formulas that include the standard oceanographic altimetry formulas. The Radar Altimeter Tutorial, that contains a strong introduction to altimetry, shows its applications in different fields such as Oceanography, Cryosphere, Geodesy, Hydrology among others. Included are also "use cases", with step-by-step examples, on how to use the toolbox in the different contexts. The Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox shall benefit from the current BRAT version. While developing the toolbox we will revamp of the Graphical User Interface and provide, among other enhancements, support for reading the upcoming S3 datasets and

  19. Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Mondejar, Albert; Escolà, Roger; Moyano, Gorka; Roca, Mònica; Terra-Homem, Miguel; Friaças, Ana; Martinho, Fernando; Schrama, Ernst; Naeije, Marc; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2017-04-01

    The universal altimetry toolbox, BRAT (Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry missions' data, incorporates now the capability to read the upcoming Sentinel3 L1 and L2 products. ESA endeavoured to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales), and it is freely available at http://earth.esa.int/brat. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats. The BratGUI is the frontend for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with MATLAB/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the dataformatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as NetCDF, ASCII text files, KML (Google Earth) and raster images (JPEG, PNG, etc.). Several kinds of computations can be done within BRAT involving combinations of data fields that the user can save for posterior reuse or using the already embedded formulas that include the standard oceanographic altimetry formulas. The Radar Altimeter Tutorial, that contains a strong introduction to altimetry, shows its applications in different fields such as Oceanography, Cryosphere, Geodesy, Hydrology among others. Included are also "use cases", with step-by-step examples, on how to use the toolbox in the different contexts. The Sentinel3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox shall benefit from the current BRAT version. While developing the toolbox we will revamp of the Graphical User Interface and provide, among other enhancements, support for reading the upcoming S3 datasets and specific

  20. Impedance matched thin metamaterials make metals absorbing.

    PubMed

    Mattiucci, N; Bloemer, M J; Aközbek, N; D'Aguanno, G

    2013-11-13

    Metals are generally considered good reflectors over the entire electromagnetic spectrum up to their plasma frequency. Here we demonstrate an approach to tailor their absorbing characteristics based on the effective metamaterial properties of thin, periodic metallo-dielectric multilayers by exploiting a broadband, inherently non-resonant, surface impedance matching mechanism. Based on this mechanism, we design, fabricate and test omnidirectional, thin (<1 micron), polarization independent, extremely efficient absorbers (in principle being capable to reach A > 99%) over a frequency range spanning from the UV to the IR. Our approach opens new venues to design cost effective materials for many applications such as thermo-photovoltaic energy conversion devices, light harvesting for solar cells, flat panel display, infrared detectors, stray light reduction, stealth and others.

  1. Brief review of emerging photovoltaic absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Zakutayev, Andriy

    Photovoltaic solar cells have recently made significant commercial progress and are on track toward meeting more than 1% of global energy demand. However, further research is needed on photovoltaic technologies that face no scalability constraints in generating more than 10% of the world's electricity. This 2017 article briefly reviews emerging photovoltaic absorber materials, focusing on research progress over the past 2-3 years. Particular emphasis is given to emerging solar cell absorbers -- for example, SnS, Sb 2Se 3, Cu 2SnS 3, and CuSbSe 2 -- related to established solar cell technologies such as CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se 2, and CH 3NH 3PbImore » 3. Lastly, the general publication and performance trends are discussed, and the promising future research directions are pointed out.« less

  2. Brief review of emerging photovoltaic absorbers

    DOE PAGES

    Zakutayev, Andriy

    2017-02-08

    Photovoltaic solar cells have recently made significant commercial progress and are on track toward meeting more than 1% of global energy demand. However, further research is needed on photovoltaic technologies that face no scalability constraints in generating more than 10% of the world's electricity. This 2017 article briefly reviews emerging photovoltaic absorber materials, focusing on research progress over the past 2-3 years. Particular emphasis is given to emerging solar cell absorbers -- for example, SnS, Sb 2Se 3, Cu 2SnS 3, and CuSbSe 2 -- related to established solar cell technologies such as CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se 2, and CH 3NH 3PbImore » 3. Lastly, the general publication and performance trends are discussed, and the promising future research directions are pointed out.« less

  3. Development of an innovative solar absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodchild, Gavin

    Solar thermal systems have great potential to replace or reduce the dependence of conventional fossil fuel based heating technologies required for space and water heating. Specifically solar domestic hot water systems can contribute 50-75% of the annual thermal load. To date residential users have been slow to purchase and install systems, primarily due to the large monetary investment required to purchase and install a system. Recent innovations in materials design and manufacturing techniques, offer opportunities for the development of absorber plate designs that have the potential to reduce cost, increase efficiency and reduce payback periods. Consequently, this design study was conducted in conjunction with industrial partners to develop an improved absorber based on roll bond manufacturing that can be produced at reduced cost with comparable or greater thermal efficiency.

  4. Doppler radar flowmeter

    DOEpatents

    Petlevich, Walter J.; Sverdrup, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    A Doppler radar flowmeter comprises a transceiver which produces an audio frequency output related to the Doppler shift in frequency between radio waves backscattered from particulate matter carried in a fluid and the radiated radio waves. A variable gain amplifier and low pass filter are provided for amplifying and filtering the transceiver output. A frequency counter having a variable triggering level is also provided to determine the magnitude of the Doppler shift. A calibration method is disclosed wherein the amplifier gain and frequency counter trigger level are adjusted to achieve plateaus in the output of the frequency counter and thereby allow calibration without the necessity of being able to visually observe the flow.

  5. Frequency Agility Radar,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-06

    different model aircraft in different wave bands (P,L, S and X). Yet, the obtained results were relatively complex and it was not easy to find regularity...hertz for the S wave band . This type of narrow wave band signifies that the drift velocity of the target viewed in the reflection center is very low... Band of Airborne Radar With Pulse Width of 0.02)4 s and Grazing Angle of 470) Key: 1. Probability exceeding horizontal coordinates 2. Clutter section 3

  6. Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, Craig B.; Kutscher, Charles F.; Gawlik, Keith M.

    1997-01-01

    An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprising an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution.

  7. Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, C.B.; Kutscher, C.F.; Gawlik, K.M.

    1997-12-02

    An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprises an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution. 3 figs.

  8. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOEpatents

    Wilkinson, William H.

    1984-01-01

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system.

  9. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOEpatents

    Wilkinson, W.H.

    1984-10-16

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system. 9 figs.

  10. Synergistic Use of Spacecraft Telecom Links for Collection of Planetary Radar Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmar, S.; Bell, D. J.; Chahat, N. E.; Decrossas, E.; Dobreva, T.; Duncan, C.; Ellliot, H.; Jin, C.; Lazio, J.; Miller, J.; Preston, R.

    2017-12-01

    On multiple solar system missions, radar instruments have been used to probe subsurface geomorphology and to infer chemical composition based on the dielectric signature derived from the reflected signal. Example spacecraft radar instruments are the 90 MHz CONSERT radar used to probe the interior of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko to a depth of 760m, the 20 MHz SHARAD instrument used to investigate Mars subsurface ice features from Mars orbit at depths of 300 to 3000 meters and the upcoming RIMFAX 150 MHz to 1200 MHz ground penetrating radar that will ride on the Mars 2020 rover investigating to a depth of 10m below the rover. In all of these applications, the radar frequency and signal structures were chosen to match science goals of desired depth of penetration and spatial resolution combined with the expected subsurface materials and structures below the surface. Recently, JPL investigators have proposed a new radar science paradigm, synergistic use of the telecom hardware and telecom links to collect bistatic or monostatic radar signatures. All JPL spacecraft employ telecom hardware that operates at UHF (400 MHz and 900 MHz), X-band (8 GHz) or Ka-band (32 GHz). Using existing open-loop record functions in these radios, the telecom hardware can be used to capture opportunistic radar signatures from telecom signals penetrating the surface and reflecting off of subsurface structures. This paper reports on telecom strategies, radar science applications and recent laboratory and field tests to demonstrate the effectiveness of telecom link based radar data collection.

  11. Optimization of the acoustic absorption coefficients of certain functional absorbents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pocsa, V.; Biborosch, L.; Veres, A.; Halpert, E.; Lorian, R.; Botos, T.

    1974-01-01

    The sound absorption coefficients of some functional absorbents (mineral wool plates) are determined by the reverberation chamber method. The influence of the angle of inclination of the sound absorbing material with respect to the surface to be treated is analyzed as well as the influence of the covering index, defined as the ratio of the designed area of a plate and the area of the treated surface belonging to another plate. As compared with the conventional method of applying sound-absorbing plates, the analyzed structures have a higher technological and economical efficiency. The optimum structure corresponds to an angle of inclination of 15 deg and a covering index of 0.8.

  12. Shuttle Imaging Radar - Geologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H.; Bridges, L.; Waite, W.; Kaupp, V.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Shuttle, on its second flight (November 12, 1981), carried the first science and applications payload which provided an early demonstration of Shuttle's research capabilities. One of the experiments, the Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A), had as a prime objective to evaluate the capability of spaceborne imaging radars as a tool for geologic exploration. The results of the experiment will help determine the value of using the combination of space radar and Landsat imagery for improved geologic analysis and mapping. Preliminary analysis of the Shuttle radar imagery with Seasat and Landsat imagery from similar areas provides evidence that spaceborne radars can significantly complement Landsat interpretation, and vastly improve geologic reconnaissance mapping in those areas of the world that are relatively unmapped because of perpetual cloud cover.

  13. Burnable absorber arrangement for fuel bundle

    SciTech Connect

    Crowther, R.L.; Townsend, D.B.

    1986-12-16

    This patent describes a boiling water reactor core whose operation is characterized by a substantial proportion of steam voids with concomitantly reduced moderation toward the top of the core when the reactor is in its hot operating condition. The reduced moderation leads to slower burnup and greater conversion ratio in an upper core region so that when the reactor is in its cold shut down condition the resulting relatively increased moderation in the upper core region is accompanied by a reactivity profile that peaks in the upper core region. A fuel assembly is described comprising; a component of fissile materialmore » distributed over a substantial axial extent of the fuel assembly; and a component of neutron absorbing material having an axial distribution characterized by an enhancement in an axial zone of the fuel assembly, designated the cold shutdown control zone, corresponding to at least a portion of the axial region of the core when the cold shutdown reactivity peaks. The aggregate amount of neutron absorbing material in the cold shutdown zone of the fuel assembly is greater than the aggregate amount of neutron absorbing material in the axial zones of the fuel assembly immediately above and immediately below the cold shutdown control zone whereby the cold shutdown reactivity peak is reduced relative to the cold shutdown reactivity in the zones immediately above and immediately below the cold shutdown control zone. The cold shutdown zone has an axial extent measured from the bottom of the fuel assembly in the range between 68-88 percent of the height of the fissile material in the fuel assembly.« less

  14. Wall characterization for through-the-wall radar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greneker, Gene; Rausch, E. O.

    2008-04-01

    There has been continuing interest in the penetration of multilayer building materials, such as wood walls with air gaps and concrete hollow core block, using through-the-wall (TTW) radar systems. TTW operational techniques and signal propagation paths vary depending on how the TTW system is intended to be operated. For example, the operator of a TTW radar may be required to place the radar against the intervening wall of interest while collecting data. Other operational doctrines allow the radar to be operated in a stand-off mode from the wall. The stand-off distances can vary from feet to hundreds of feet, depending on the type of radar being used. When a signal is propagated through a multilayer wall with air gaps between the material and the wall construction uses materials of radically different dielectric constants, attenuation may not be the only effect that the probing signal experiences passing through the wall. This paper presents measurements of a hollow core concrete block wall and the measurement of a standard wall constructed of siding and wallboard. Both types of walls are typically found in most U.S. homes. These limited measurements demonstrate that the type of wall being penetrated by a wideband signal can modify the probing signal.

  15. Space Radar Image of Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-06-25

    This image was produced during radar observations taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar as it flew over the Gulf Stream, Florida, and past the Atlantic Ocean on October 7, 1994. The data were produced using the X-band radar frequency. Knowing ahead of time that this region would be included in a regularly scheduled radar pass, the Kennedy Space Center team, who assembled and integrated the SIR-C/X-SAR equipment with the Spacelab pallet system, designed a set of radar reflectors from common construction materials and formed the letters "KSC" on the ground adjacent to the main headquarters building at the entrance to the Cape Canaveral launch facility. The point of light formed by the bright return from these reflectors are visible in the image. Other more diffuse bright spots are reflections from building faces, roofs and other large structures at the Kennedy Space Center complex. This frame covers an area of approximately 6 kilometers by 8 kilometers (4 miles by 5 miles), which was just a small portion of the data taken on this particular pass. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01747

  16. Development of a primary standard for absorbed dose from unsealed radionuclide solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billas, I.; Shipley, D.; Galer, S.; Bass, G.; Sander, T.; Fenwick, A.; Smyth, V.

    2016-12-01

    Currently, the determination of the internal absorbed dose to tissue from an administered radionuclide solution relies on Monte Carlo (MC) calculations based on published nuclear decay data, such as emission probabilities and energies. In order to validate these methods with measurements, it is necessary to achieve the required traceability of the internal absorbed dose measurements of a radionuclide solution to a primary standard of absorbed dose. The purpose of this work was to develop a suitable primary standard. A comparison between measurements and calculations of absorbed dose allows the validation of the internal radiation dose assessment methods. The absorbed dose from an yttrium-90 chloride (90YCl) solution was measured with an extrapolation chamber. A phantom was developed at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), the UK’s National Measurement Institute, to position the extrapolation chamber as closely as possible to the surface of the solution. The performance of the extrapolation chamber was characterised and a full uncertainty budget for the absorbed dose determination was obtained. Absorbed dose to air in the collecting volume of the chamber was converted to absorbed dose at the centre of the radionuclide solution by applying a MC calculated correction factor. This allowed a direct comparison of the analytically calculated and experimentally determined absorbed dose of an 90YCl solution. The relative standard uncertainty in the measurement of absorbed dose at the centre of an 90YCl solution with the extrapolation chamber was found to be 1.6% (k  =  1). The calculated 90Y absorbed doses from published medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) and radiation dose assessment resource (RADAR) data agreed with measurements to within 1.5% and 1.4%, respectively. This study has shown that it is feasible to use an extrapolation chamber for performing primary standard absorbed dose measurements of an unsealed radionuclide solution. Internal radiation

  17. POLCAL - POLARIMETRIC RADAR CALIBRATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzyl, J.

    1994-01-01

    Calibration of polarimetric radar systems is a field of research in which great progress has been made over the last few years. POLCAL (Polarimetric Radar Calibration) is a software tool intended to assist in the calibration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems. In particular, POLCAL calibrates Stokes matrix format data produced as the standard product by the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) airborne imaging synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR). POLCAL was designed to be used in conjunction with data collected by the NASA/JPL AIRSAR system. AIRSAR is a multifrequency (6 cm, 24 cm, and 68 cm wavelength), fully polarimetric SAR system which produces 12 x 12 km imagery at 10 m resolution. AIRSTAR was designed as a testbed for NASA's Spaceborne Imaging Radar program. While the images produced after 1991 are thought to be calibrated (phase calibrated, cross-talk removed, channel imbalance removed, and absolutely calibrated), POLCAL can and should still be used to check the accuracy of the calibration and to correct it if necessary. Version 4.0 of POLCAL is an upgrade of POLCAL version 2.0 released to AIRSAR investigators in June, 1990. New options in version 4.0 include automatic absolute calibration of 89/90 data, distributed target analysis, calibration of nearby scenes with calibration parameters from a scene with corner reflectors, altitude or roll angle corrections, and calibration of errors introduced by known topography. Many sources of error can lead to false conclusions about the nature of scatterers on the surface. Errors in the phase relationship between polarization channels result in incorrect synthesis of polarization states. Cross-talk, caused by imperfections in the radar antenna itself, can also lead to error. POLCAL reduces cross-talk and corrects phase calibration without the use of ground calibration equipment. Removing the antenna patterns during SAR processing also forms a very important part of the calibration of SAR data. Errors in the

  18. Preparation and characterization of functional material based on hybrid polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agusu, La; Amiruddin; Taswito, Chen Chen; Herdianto; Zamrun, Muh.

    2016-08-01

    The microstructures and properties of hybrid polymer composites based on polyaniline (PANi)/γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles/TiO2/carbon have been investigated for multifunctional applications such as heavy metal removal and initial study for radar absorbing material application. γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with spherical shape were synthetized by a coprecipitation method from iron sand. By activating the polyethylene glycol (PEG-400) coated carbon of coconut shell, the homogenous shape and size of carbon was achieved. Then, γ- Fe2O3, TiO2, and carbon were mixed with PANi by an in situ polymerization method at low temperature 0-5 oC. Characterization process involved XRD, SEM, FTIR, VSM, and DC conductivity measurements. For radar absorber application, the functionalized polymer composites showed good electrical conductivity 0.45 S/cm to absorb the incoming electromagnetic energy. An efficient and effective reduction of Pb2+ ion from the water has been achieved by using this material.

  19. Multistep Cylindrical Structure Analysis at Normal Incidence Based on Water-Substrate Broadband Metamaterial Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chonghua

    2018-01-01

    A new multistep cylindrical structure based on water-substrate broadband metamaterial absorbers is designed to reduce the traditional radar cross-section (RCS) of a rod-shaped object. The proposed configuration consists of two distinct parts. One of these components is formed by a four-step cylindrical metal structure, whereas the other one is formed by a new water-substrate broadband metamaterial absorber. The designed structure can significantly reduce the radar cross section more than 10 dB from 4.58 to 18.42 GHz which is the 86.5 % bandwidth of from C-band to 20 GHz. The results of measurement show reasonably good accordance with the simulated ones, which verifies the ability and effect of the proposed design.

  20. Microscopic modeling of nitride intersubband absorbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montano, Ines; Allerman, A. A.; Wierer, J. J.; Moseley, M.; Skogen, E. J.; Tauke-Pedretti, A.; Vawter, G. A.

    III-nitride intersubband structures have recently attracted much interest because of their potential for a wide variety of applications ranging from electro-optical modulators to terahertz quantum cascade lasers. To overcome present simulation limitations we have developed a microscopic absorbance simulator for nitride intersubband devices. Our simulator calculates the band structure of nitride intersubband systems using a fully coupled 8x8 k.p Hamiltonian and determines the material response of a single period in a density-matrix-formalism by solving the Heisenberg equation including many-body and dephasing contributions. After calculating the polarization due to intersubband transitions in a single period, the resulting absorbance of a superlattice structure including radiative coupling between the different periods is determined using a non-local Green's-function formalism. As a result our simulator allows us to predict intersubband absorbance of superlattice structures with microscopically determined lineshapes and linewidths accounting for both many-body and correlation contributions. This work is funded by Sandia National Laboratories Laboratory Directed Research and Development program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin.

  1. Shock wave absorber having a deformable liner

    DOEpatents

    Youngdahl, C.K.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Shin, Y.W.; Kot, C.A.; Ockert, C.E.

    1983-08-26

    This invention discloses a shock wave absorber for a piping system carrying liquid. The absorber has a plastically deformable liner defining the normal flow boundary for an axial segment of the piping system, and a nondeformable housing is spaced outwardly from the liner so as to define a gas-tight space therebetween. The flow capacity of the liner generally corresponds to the flow capacity of the piping system line, but the liner has a noncircular cross section and extends axially of the piping system line a distance between one and twenty times the diameter thereof. Gas pressurizes the gas-tight space equal to the normal liquid pressure in the piping system. The liner has sufficient structural capacity to withstand between one and one-half and two times this normal liquid pressures; but at greater pressures it begins to plastically deform initially with respect to shape to a more circular cross section, and then with respect to material extension by circumferentially stretching the wall of the liner. A high energy shock wave passing through the liner thus plastically deforms the liner radially into the gas space and progressively also as needed in the axial direction of the shock wave to minimize transmission of the shock wave beyond the absorber.

  2. Cross-hole radar scanning of two vertical, permeable, reactive-iron walls at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, J.W.; Joesten, P.K.; Savoie, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    A pilot-scale study was conducted by the U.S. Army National Guard (USANG) at the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to assess the use of a hydraulic-fracturing method to create vertical, permeable walls of zero-valent iron to passively remediate ground water contaminated with chlorinated solvents. The study was conducted near the source area of the Chemical Spill-10 (CS-10) plume, a plume containing chlorinated solvents that underlies the MMR. Ground-water contamination near the source area extends from about 24 m (meters) to 35 m below land surface. The USANG designed two reactive-iron walls to be 12 m long and positioned 24 to 37 m below land surface to intersect and remediate part of the CS-10 plume.Because iron, as an electrical conductor, absorbs electromagnetic energy, the US Geological Survey used a cross-hole common-depth, radar scanning method to assess the continuity and to estimate the lateral and vertical extent of the two reactive-iron walls. The cross-hole radar surveys were conducted in boreholes on opposite sides of the iron injection zones using electric-dipole antennas with dominant center frequencies of 100 and 250 MHz. Significant decreases in the radar-pulse amplitudes observed in scans that traversed the injection zones were interpreted by comparing field data to results of two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain numerical models and laboratory-scale physical models.The numerical and physical models simulate a wall of perfectly conducting material embedded in saturated sand. Results from the numerical and physical models show that the amplitude of the radar pulse transmitted across the edge of a conductive wall is about 43 percent of the amplitude of a radar pulse transmitted across background material. The amplitude of a radar pulse transmitted through a hole in a conductive wall increases as the aperture of the hole increases. The modeling results indicate that holes with an aperture of less than 40

  3. Radar Imaging of Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1996-09-01

    Measurements of the distribution of echo power in time delay (range) and Doppler frequency (line-of-sight velocity) can synthesize images of near-Earth and main-belt asteroids (NEAs and MBAs) that traverse the detectability windows of groundbased radar telescopes. Under ideal circumstances, current radar waveforms can achieve decameter surface resolution. The number of useful pixels obtainable in an imaging data set is of the same order as the signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, of an optimally filtered, weighted sum of all the data. (SNR increases as the square root of the integration time.) The upgraded Arecibo telescope which is about to become operational, should be able to achieve single-date SNRs {\\underline>} (20,100) for an average of (35,5) MBAs per year and single-date SNRs {\\underline>} (20,100,1000) for an average of (10,6,2) of the currently catalogued NEAs per year; optical surveying of the NEA population could increase the frequency of opportunities by an order of magnitude. The strongest imaging opportunities predicted for Arecibo between now and the end of 1997 include (the peak SNR/date is in parentheses): 9 Metis (110), 27 Euterpe (170), 80 Sappho (100), 139 Juewa (140), 144 Vibilia (140), 253 Mathilde (100), 2102 Tantalus (570), 3671 Dionysus (170), 3908 1980PA (4400), 4179 Toutatis (16000), 4197 1982TA (1200), 1991VK (700), and 1994PC1 (7400). A delay-Doppler image projects the echo power distribution onto the target's apparent equatorial plane. One cannot know a priori whether one or two (or more) points on the asteroid contributed power to a given pixel, so accurate interpretation of delay-Doppler images requires modeling (Hudson, 1993, Remote Sensing Rev. 8, 195-203). Inversion of an imaging sequence with enough orientational coverage can remove "north/south" ambiguities and can provide estimates of the target's three-dimensional shape, spin state, radar scattering properties, and delay-Doppler trajectory (e.g., Ostro et al. 1995, Science 270, 80

  4. Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment (CARE)

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Eric

    During Project DE-FE0007528, CARE (Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment), Neumann Systems Group (NSG) designed, installed and tested a 0.5MW NeuStream® carbon dioxide (CO 2) capture system using the patented NeuStream® absorber equipment and concentrated (6 molal) piperazine (PZ) as the solvent at Colorado Springs Utilities’ (CSU’s) Martin Drake pulverized coal (PC) power plant. The 36 month project included design, build and test phases. The 0.5MW NeuStream® CO 2 capture system was successfully tested on flue gas from both coal and natural gas combustion sources and was shown to meet project objectives. Ninety percent CO 2 removal was achieved with greater thanmore » 95% CO 2product purity. The absorbers tested support a 90% reduction in absorber volume compared to packed towers and with an absorber parasitic power of less than 1% when configured for operation with a 550MW coal plant. The preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) performed by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) predicted an over-the-fence cost of $25.73/tonne of CO 2 captured from a sub-critical PC plant.« less

  5. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Shinpei, E-mail: Ogawa.Shimpei@eb.MitsubishiElectric.co.jp; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi

    2015-01-26

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved bymore » isotropic XeF{sub 2} etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.« less

  6. Interception of LPI radar signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jim P.

    1991-11-01

    Most current radars are designed to transmit short duration pulses with relatively high peak power. These radars can be detected easily by the use of relatively modest EW intercept receivers. Three radar functions (search, anti-ship missile (ASM) seeker, and navigation) are examined to evaluate the effectiveness of potential low probability of intercept (LPI) techniques, such as waveform coding, antenna profile control, and power management that a radar may employ against current Electronic Warfare (EW) receivers. The general conclusion is that it is possible to design a LPI radar which is effective against current intercept EW receivers. LPI operation is most easily achieved at close ranges and against a target with a large radar cross section. The general system sensitivity requirement for the detection of current and projected LPI radars is found to be on the order of -100 dBmi which cannot be met by current EW receivers. Finally, three potential LPI receiver architectures, using channelized, superhet, and acousto-optic receivers with narrow RF and video bandwidths are discussed. They have shown some potential in terms of providing the sensitivity and capability in an environment where both conventional and LPI signals are present.

  7. Evaluation of meteorological airborne Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, P. H.; Mueller, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper will discuss the capabilities of airborne Doppler radar for atmospheric sciences research. The evaluation is based on airborne and ground based Doppler radar observations of convective storms. The capability of airborne Doppler radar to measure horizontal and vertical air motions is evaluated. Airborne Doppler radar is shown to be a viable tool for atmospheric sciences research.

  8. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, all self... radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at the primary operating station. (b...

  9. FIRE_CI2_ETL_RADAR

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-11-25

    FIRE_CI2_ETL_RADAR Project Title:  FIRE II CIRRUS Discipline:  ... Platform:  Ground Station Instrument:  Radar Spatial Coverage:  (37.06, -95.34) Spatial ... Order Data Guide Documents:  ETL_RADAR Guide Readme Files:  Readme ETL_RADAR (PS) ...

  10. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273... MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar... with radar must comply with the following standards (all incorporated by reference, see § 80.7): (1...

  11. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273... MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar... with radar must comply with the following standards (all incorporated by reference, see § 80.7): (1...

  12. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, all self... radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at the primary operating station. (b...

  13. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, all self... radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at the primary operating station. (b...

  14. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273... MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar... with radar must comply with the following standards (all incorporated by reference, see § 80.7): (1...

  15. Radar, Insect Population Ecology, and Pest Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, C. R. (Editor); Wolf, W. (Editor); Klassen, W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Discussions included: (1) the potential role of radar in insect ecology studies and pest management; (2) the potential role of radar in correlating atmospheric phenomena with insect movement; (3) the present and future radar systems; (4) program objectives required to adapt radar to insect ecology studies and pest management; and (5) the specific action items to achieve the objectives.

  16. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, all self... radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at the primary operating station. (b...

  17. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, all self... radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at the primary operating station. (b...

  18. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1981-01-01

    Radar investigations were conducted of selected minor planets, including: (1) observations during 1981-82 of 10 potential targets (2 Pallas, 8 Flora, 12 Victoria, 15 Eunomia, 19 Fortuna, 22 Kalliope, 132 Aethra, 219 Thusnelda, 433 Eros, and 2100 Ra-Shalom); and (2) continued analyses of observational data obtained during 1980-81 for 10 other asteroids (4 Vesta, 7 Iris, 16 Psyche, 75 Eurydike, 97 Klotho, 216 Kleopatra, 1685 Toro, 1862 Apollo, 1865 Cerberus, and 1915 Quetzalcoatl). Scientific objectives include estimation of echo strength, polarization, spectral shape, spectral bandwidth, and Doppler shift. These measurements: (1) yield estimates of target size, shape, and spin vector; (2) place constraints on topography, morphology, and composition of the planetary surface; (3) yield refined estimates of target orbital parameters; (4) reveal the presence of asteroidal satellites.

  19. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    The dual polarization CW radar system which permits simultaneous reception in the same rotational sense of circular polarization as transmitted (i.e., the "SC" sense) and in the opposite ("OC") sense, was used to observe five previously unobserved asteroids: 2 Pallas, 8 Flora, 22 Kalliope, 132 Aethra, and 471 Papagena. Echoes from Pallas and Flora were easily detected in the OC sense on each of several nights. Weighted mean echo power spectra also show marginally significant responses in the SC sense. An approximately 4.5 standard deviation signal was obtained for Aethra. The Doppler shift of the peak is about 10 Hz higher than that predicted from the a priori trial ephemeris. Calculations are performed to determine whether this frequency offset can be reconciled dynamically with optical positions reported for Aethra.

  20. Ganymede: observations by radar.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, R M; Morris, G A

    1975-06-20

    Radar cross-section measurements indicate that Ganymede scatters to Earth 12 percent of the power expected from a conducting sphere of the same size and distance. This compares with 8 percent for Mars, 12 percent for Venus, 6 percent for Mercury, and about 8 percent for the asteroid Toro. Furthermore, Ganymede is considerably rougher (to the scale of the wavelength used, 12.6 centimeters) than Mars, Venus, or Mercury. Roughness is made evident in this experiment by the presence of echoes away from the center of the disk. A perfectly smooth target would reflect only a glint from the center, whereas a very rough target would reflect power from over the entire disk.

  1. Cassini RADAR at Titan : Results in 2014/2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2015-04-01

    Since the last EGU meeting, two Cassini flybys of Titan will have featured significant RADAR observations, illuminating our understanding of this enigmatic, complex world and its hydrocarbon seas in particular. T104, which executed in August 2014, featured a nadir-pointed altimetry swath over the northern part of Kraken Mare, Titan's largest sea. The echo characteristics showed that the sea surface was generally flat (to within a few mm), although a couple of areas appear to show some evidence of roughness. Intriguingly, altimetry processing which yielded (Mastrogiuseppe et al., GRL, 2014) the detection of a prominent bottom echo 160m beneath the surface of Ligeia Mare on T91 failed to yield a similar echo over most of Kraken on T104, suggesting either that Kraken is very deep (perhaps consistent with rather steep shoreline topography) or that the liquid in Kraken is more radar-absorbing than that in Ligeia, or both. The absorbing-liquid scenario may be consistent with a hydrological model for Titan's seas (Lorenz, GRL, 2014) wherein the most northerly seas receive more 'fresh' methane input, flushing ethane and other lower-volatility (and more radar-absorbing) solutes south into Kraken. T108, the last northern seas radar observation until T126 at the very end of the Cassini tour in 2017, is planned to execute on 11th January 2015, and preliminary results will be presented at the EGU meeting. This flyby features altimetry over part of Punga Mare, which will provide surface roughness information and possible bathymetry, permitting comparison of nadir-pointed data over all of Titan's three seas (Ligeia on T91; Kraken Mare on T104). The flyby also includes SAR observation of the so-called Ligeia 'Magic Island', the best-observed of several areas of varying radar brightness on Titan's seas. This brightness may be due to sediments suspended by currents, or by roughening of the surface either by local wind stress ('catspaw') or non-local stress (wind-driven currents

  2. Piston-rotaxanes as molecular shock absorbers.

    PubMed

    Sevick, E M; Williams, D R M

    2010-04-20

    We describe the thermomechanical response of a new molecular system that behaves as a shock absorber. The system consists of a rodlike rotaxane connected to a piston and tethered to a surface. The response of this system is dominated by the translational entropy of the rotaxane rings and can be calculated exactly. The force laws are contrasted with those for a rigid rod and a polymer. In some cases, the rotaxanes undergo a sudden transition to a tilted state when compressed. These piston-rotaxanes provide a potential motif for the design of a new class of materials with a novel thermomechanical response.

  3. Radar images of Mars.

    PubMed

    Muhleman, D O; Butler, B J; Grossman, A W; Slade, M A

    1991-09-27

    Full disk images of Mars have been obtained with the use of the Very Large Array (VLA) to map the radar reflected flux density. The transmitter system was the 70-m antenna of the Deep Space Network at Goldstone, California. The surface of Mars was illuminated with continuous wave radiation at a wavelength of 3,5 cm. The reflected energy was mapped in individual 12-minute snapshots with the VLA in its largest configuration; fringe spacings as small as 67 km were obtained. The images reveal near-surface features including a region in the Tharsis volcano area, over 2000 km in east-west extent, that displayed no echo to the very low level of the radar system noise. The feature, called Stealth, is interpreted as a deposit of dust or ash with a density less than about 0.5 gram per cubic centimeter and free of rocks larger than 1 cm across. The deposit must be several meters thick and may be much deeper. The strongest reflecting geological feature was the south polar ice cap, which was reduced in size to the residual south polar ice cap at the season of observation. The cap image is interpreted as arising from nearly pure CO(2) or H(2)O ice with a small amount of martian dust (less than 2 percent by volume) and a depth greater than 2 to 5 m. Only one anomalous reflecting feature was identified outside of the Tharsis region, although the Elysium region was poorly sampled in this experiment and the north pole was not visible from Earth.

  4. The Clementine Bistatic Radar Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozette, S.; Lichtenberg, C. L.; Spudis, P.; Bonner, R.; Ort, W.; Malaret, E.; Robinson, M.; Shoemaker, E. M.

    1996-01-01

    During the Clementine 1 mission, a bistatic radar experiment measured the magnitude and polarization of the radar echo versus bistatic angle, beta, for selected lunar areas. Observations of the lunar south pole yield a same-sense polarization enhancement around beta = 0. Analysis shows that the observed enhancement is localized to the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. Radar observations of periodically solar-illuminated lunar surfaces, including the north pole, yielded no such enhancement. A probable explanation for these differences is the presence of low-loss volume scatterers, such as water ice, in the permanently shadowed region at the south pole.

  5. Radar Control Optimal Resource Allocation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-13

    other tunable parameters of radars [17, 18]. Such radar resource scheduling usually demands massive computation. Even myopic 14 Distribution A: Approved...reduced validity of the optimal choice of radar resource. In the non- myopic context, the computational problem becomes exponentially more difficult...computed as t? = ασ2 q + σ r √ α q (σ + r + α q) α q2 r − 1ασ q2 + q r2 . (19) We are only interested in t? > 1 and solving the inequality we obtain the

  6. Absorption-induced scattering and surface plasmon out-coupling from absorber-coated plasmonic metasurfaces

    PubMed Central

    Petoukhoff, Christopher E.; O'Carroll, Deirdre M.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between absorbers and plasmonic metasurfaces can give rise to unique optical properties not present for either of the individual materials and can influence the performance of a host of optical sensing and thin-film optoelectronic applications. Here we identify three distinct mode types of absorber-coated plasmonic metasurfaces: localized and propagating surface plasmons and a previously unidentified optical mode type called absorption-induced scattering. The extinction of the latter mode type can be tuned by controlling the morphology of the absorber coating and the spectral overlap of the absorber with the plasmonic modes. Furthermore, we show that surface plasmons are backscattered when the crystallinity of the absorber is low but are absorbed for more crystalline absorber coatings. This work furthers our understanding of light–matter interactions between absorbers and surface plasmons to enable practical optoelectronic applications of metasurfaces. PMID:26271900

  7. Better Absorbents for Ammonia Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Malmali, Mahdi; Le, Giang; Hendrickson, Jennifer

    Making ammonia from renewable wind energy at a competitive price may be possible if the conventional ammonia condenser is replaced with an ammonia absorber. Such a process change requires an ammonia selective absorbent. Supported metal halide sorbents for this separation display outstanding dynamic capacity close to their equilibrium thermodynamic limits. Alkaline earth chlorides and bromides supported on silica and zeolite Y are the most promising. MgCl 2 and CaBr 2 at 40% loading on silica show capacities of 60-70 mg NH3/gsorbent at 150 °C and 4 bar. Overall, cations with smaller atomic numbers show more affinity to ammonia; bromides holdmore » ammonia more strongly than chlorides. Different solvents and metal halide mixtures do not show significant changes in the absorption capacity. Finally, these absorbents can be incorporated into ammonia reaction-absorption syntheses to achieve faster production rates.« less

  8. Better Absorbents for Ammonia Separation

    DOE PAGES

    Malmali, Mahdi; Le, Giang; Hendrickson, Jennifer; ...

    2018-03-30

    Making ammonia from renewable wind energy at a competitive price may be possible if the conventional ammonia condenser is replaced with an ammonia absorber. Such a process change requires an ammonia selective absorbent. Supported metal halide sorbents for this separation display outstanding dynamic capacity close to their equilibrium thermodynamic limits. Alkaline earth chlorides and bromides supported on silica and zeolite Y are the most promising. MgCl 2 and CaBr 2 at 40% loading on silica show capacities of 60-70 mg NH3/gsorbent at 150 °C and 4 bar. Overall, cations with smaller atomic numbers show more affinity to ammonia; bromides holdmore » ammonia more strongly than chlorides. Different solvents and metal halide mixtures do not show significant changes in the absorption capacity. Finally, these absorbents can be incorporated into ammonia reaction-absorption syntheses to achieve faster production rates.« less

  9. Simulation, fabrication and characterization of THz metamaterial absorbers.

    PubMed

    Grant, James P; McCrindle, Iain J H; Cumming, David R S

    2012-12-27

    Metamaterials (MM), artificial materials engineered to have properties that may not be found in nature, have been widely explored since the first theoretical(1) and experimental demonstration(2) of their unique properties. MMs can provide a highly controllable electromagnetic response, and to date have been demonstrated in every technologically relevant spectral range including the optical(3), near IR(4), mid IR(5) , THz(6) , mm-wave(7) , microwave(8) and radio(9) bands. Applications include perfect lenses(10), sensors(11), telecommunications(12), invisibility cloaks(13) and filters(14,15). We have recently developed single band(16), dual band(17) and broadband(18) THz metamaterial absorber devices capable of greater than 80% absorption at the resonance peak. The concept of a MM absorber is especially important at THz frequencies where it is difficult to find strong frequency selective THz absorbers(19). In our MM absorber the THz radiation is absorbed in a thickness of ~ λ/20, overcoming the thickness limitation of traditional quarter wavelength absorbers. MM absorbers naturally lend themselves to THz detection applications, such as thermal sensors, and if integrated with suitable THz sources (e.g. QCLs), could lead to compact, highly sensitive, low cost, real time THz imaging systems.

  10. Mapping small elevation changes over large areas - Differential radar interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, Andrew K.; Goldstein, Richard M.; Zebker, Howard A.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is described, based on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry, which uses SAR images for measuring very small (1 cm or less) surface motions with good resolution (10 m) over swaths of up to 50 km. The method was applied to a Seasat data set of an imaging site in Imperial Valley, California, where motion effects were observed that were identified with movements due to the expansion of water-absorbing clays. The technique can be used for accurate measurements of many geophysical phenomena, including swelling and buckling in fault zones, residual displacements from seismic events, and prevolcanic swelling.

  11. Ultra wideband ground penetrating radar imaging of heterogeneous solids

    DOEpatents

    Warhus, J.P.; Mast, J.E.

    1998-11-10

    A non-invasive imaging system for analyzing engineered structures comprises pairs of ultra wideband radar transmitters and receivers in a linear array that are connected to a timing mechanism that allows a radar echo sample to be taken at a variety of delay times for each radar pulse transmission. The radar transmitters and receivers are coupled to a position determining system that provides the x,y position on a surface for each group of samples measured for a volume from the surface. The radar transmitter and receivers are moved about the surface, e.g., attached to the bumper of a truck, to collect such groups of measurements from a variety of x,y positions. Return signal amplitudes represent the relative reflectivity of objects within the volume and the delay in receiving each signal echo represents the depth at which the object lays in the volume and the propagation speeds of the intervening material layers. Successively deeper z-planes are backward propagated from one layer to the next with an adjustment for variations in the expected propagation velocities of the material layers that lie between adjacent z-planes. 11 figs.

  12. Ultra wideband ground penetrating radar imaging of heterogeneous solids

    DOEpatents

    Warhus, John P.; Mast, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    A non-invasive imaging system for analyzing engineered structures comprises pairs of ultra wideband radar transmitters and receivers in a linear array that are connected to a timing mechanism that allows a radar echo sample to be taken at a variety of delay times for each radar pulse transmission. The radar transmitters and receivers are coupled to a position determining system that provides the x,y position on a surface for each group of samples measured for a volume from the surface. The radar transmitter and receivers are moved about the surface, e.g., attached to the bumper of a truck, to collect such groups of measurements from a variety of x,y positions. Return signal amplitudes represent the relative reflectivity of objects within the volume and the delay in receiving each signal echo represents the depth at which the object lays in the volume and the propagation speeds of the intervening material layers. Successively deeper z-planes are backward propagated from one layer to the next with an adjustment for variations in the expected propagation velocities of the material layers that lie between adjacent z-planes.

  13. Adaptive inertial shock-absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraj, Rami; Holnicki-Szulc, Jan; Knap, Lech; Seńko, Jarosław

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces and discusses a new concept of impact absorption by means of impact energy management and storage in dedicated rotating inertial discs. The effectiveness of the concept is demonstrated in a selected case-study involving spinning management, a recently developed novel impact-absorber. A specific control technique performed on this device is demonstrated to be the main source of significant improvement in the overall efficiency of impact damping process. The influence of various parameters on the performance of the shock-absorber is investigated. Design and manufacturing challenges and directions of further research are formulated.

  14. Fly eye radar or micro-radar sensor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, Pavlo; Asmolova, Olga

    2014-05-01

    To compensate for its eye's inability to point its eye at a target, the fly's eye consists of multiple angularly spaced sensors giving the fly the wide-area visual coverage it needs to detect and avoid the threats around him. Based on a similar concept a revolutionary new micro-radar sensor technology is proposed for detecting and tracking ground and/or airborne low profile low altitude targets in harsh urban environments. Distributed along a border or around a protected object (military facility and buildings, camp, stadium) small size, low power unattended radar sensors can be used for target detection and tracking, threat warning, pre-shot sniper protection and provides effective support for homeland security. In addition it can provide 3D recognition and targets classification due to its use of five orders more pulses than any scanning radar to each space point, by using few points of view, diversity signals and intelligent processing. The application of an array of directional antennas eliminates the need for a mechanical scanning antenna or phase processor. It radically decreases radar size and increases bearing accuracy several folds. The proposed micro-radar sensors can be easy connected to one or several operators by point-to-point invisible protected communication. The directional antennas have higher gain, can be multi-frequency and connected to a multi-functional network. Fly eye micro-radars are inexpensive, can be expendable and will reduce cost of defense.

  15. Historical aspects of radar atmospheric dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, Susumu

    1989-01-01

    A review of the history of radar techniques which have been applied to atmospheric observation is given. The author starts with ionosphere observation with the ionosonde, symbolizing as it does the earliest history of radar observation, and proceeds to later developments in radar observation such as the use of partial reflection, meteor, and incoherent scatter radars. Mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) radars are discussed in terms of lower atmosphere observation.

  16. Absorber for microwave investigation in the open space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubacki, Roman; Smólski, Bogusław; Głuszewski, Wojciech; Przesmycki, Rafał; Rudyk, Karol

    2017-04-01

    In some circumstances there is a need to realize the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) investigation not in the specialized anechoic chamber but in the open space. Typical absorbers used in anechoic chamber to reduce the reflected rays from walls and floor, such as ferrite plates and graphite cones, are not suitable in the open space. In the work the investigation of the flexible absorbing material intended to the liquidation of the radiation reflected from the ground has been presented. As an absorbing material the metallic-glass with graphite was elaborated. This material was additionally exposed to the ionizing radiation in the dose of 100 kGy in the radioactive gamma source. The permittivity, permeability as well as the shielding properties have been analyzed.

  17. Wave Absorber with Fine Weatherability for Improving ETC Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Yu; Matsumoto, Kouta; Okada, Osamu; Hashimoto, Osamu

    Wave absorber of rubber sheet containing natural rubber and EPDM is designed, fabricated and measured for improving ETC environment. As a result, proposed absorption material has fine weatherability and wave absorption satisfied with ETC standard can be realized theoretically before and after the weatherability test if the thickness of absorber is fabricated at the ranging from 2.26mm to 2.52mm. Moreover, absorber sheet sample based on theoretical values is fabricated and are measured. As a result, 20dB or more is also confirmed at the incident angle ranging from 5 to 55 degrees experimentally. Therefore, the wave absorber with fine weatherability being satisfied with ETC standard can be realized.

  18. Broadband planar multilayered absorbers tuned by VO2 phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hao; Ji, Chunhui; Lu, Lulu; Li, Zhe; Li, Haoyang; Wang, Jun; Wu, Zhiming; Jiang, Yadong; Xu, Jimmy; Liu, Zhijun

    2017-08-01

    The metal-insulator transition makes vanadium dioxide an attractive material for developing reconfigurable optoelectronic components. Here we report on dynamically tunable broadband absorbers consisting of planar multilayered thin films. By thermally triggering the phase transition of vanadium dioxide, the effective impedance of multilayered structures is tuned in or out of the condition of impedance matching to free-space, leading to switchable broadband absorptions. Two types of absorbers are designed and demonstrated by using either the insulating or metallic state of vanadium dioxide at the impedance matched condition. The planar multilayered absorbers exhibit tunable absorption bands over the wavelength ranges of 5-9.3 μm and 3.9-8.2 μm, respectively. A large modulation depth up to 88% is measured. The demonstrated broadband absorbance tunability is of potential interest for reconfigurable bolometric sensing, camouflaging, and modulation of mid-infrared lights.

  19. Radar Shows Evidence of Seas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-13

    This movie, comprised of several detailed images taken by Cassini radar instrument, shows bodies of liquid near Titan north pole. These images show that many of the features commonly associated with lakes on Earth

  20. Ground Penetrating Radar, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer

    John Peterson

    2015-03-06

    This is 500 MHz Ground Penetrating Radar collected along the AB Line in Intensive Site 1 beginning in October 2012 and collected along L2 in Intensive Site 0 beginning in September 2011. Both continue to the present.

  1. Solid-state radar switchboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiebaud, P.; Cross, D. C.

    1980-07-01

    A new solid-state radar switchboard equipped with 16 input ports which will output data to 16 displays is presented. Each of the ports will handle a single two-dimensional radar input, or three ports will accommodate a three-dimensional radar input. A video switch card of the switchboard is used to switch all signals, with the exception of the IFF-mode-control lines. Each card accepts inputs from up to 16 sources and can pass a signal with bandwidth greater than 20 MHz to the display assigned to that card. The synchro amplifier of current systems has been eliminated and in the new design each PPI receives radar data via a single coaxial cable. This significant reduction in cabling is achieved by adding a serial-to-parallel interface and a digital-to-synchro converter located at the PPI.

  2. Radar Training Facility initial validation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1983-05-01

    The Radar Training Facility (RTF), part of the Federal Aviation Administration Academy located at the Oklahoma City Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center, is designed to identify, as early as possible, air traffic control specialists who do not demonstra...

  3. Advanced Borehole Radar for Hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar is a useful tool for monitoring the hydrogeological environment. We have developed GPR systems which can be applied to these purposes, and we will demonstrate examples borehole radar measurements. In order to have longer radar detection range, frequency lower than100MHz has been normally adopted in borehole radar. Typical subsurface fractures of our interests have a few mm aperture and radar resolution is much poorer than a few cm in this frequency range. We are proposing and demonstrating to use radar polarimetry to solve this problem. We have demonstrated that a full-polarimetry borehole radar can be used for characterization of subsurface fractures. Together with signal processing for antenna characteristic compensation to equalize the signal by a dipole antenna and slot antennas, we could demonstrate that polarimetric borehole radar can estimate the surface roughness of subsurface fractures, We believe the surface roughness is closely related to water permeability through the fractures. We then developed a directional borehole radar, which uses optical field sensor. A dipole antenna in a borehole has omni-directional radiation pattern, and we cannot get azimuthal information about the scatterers. We use multiple dipole antennas set around the borehole axis, and from the phase differences, we can estimate the 3-diemnational orientation of subsurface structures. We are using optical electric field sensor for receiver of borehole radar. This is a passive sensor and connected only with optical fibers and does not require any electric power supply to operate the receiver. It has two major advantages; the first one is that the receiver can be electrically isolated from other parts, and wave coupling to a logging cable is avoided. Then, secondary, it can operate for a long time, because it does not require battery installed inside the system. It makes it possible to set sensors in fixed positions to monitor the change of environmental

  4. SMAP RADAR Calibration and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, R. D.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Chaubel, M. J.; Spencer, M.; Chan, S. F.; Chen, C. W.; Fore, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission launched on Jan 31, 2015. The mission employs L-band radar and radiometer measurements to estimate soil moisture with 4% volumetric accuracy at a resolution of 10 km, and freeze-thaw state at a resolution of 1-3 km. Immediately following launch, there was a three month instrument checkout period, followed by six months of level 1 (L1) calibration and validation. In this presentation, we will discuss the calibration and validation activities and results for the L1 radar data. Early SMAP radar data were used to check commanded timing parameters, and to work out issues in the low- and high-resolution radar processors. From April 3-13 the radar collected receive only mode data to conduct a survey of RFI sources. Analysis of the RFI environment led to a preferred operating frequency. The RFI survey data were also used to validate noise subtraction and scaling operations in the radar processors. Normal radar operations resumed on April 13. All radar data were examined closely for image quality and calibration issues which led to improvements in the radar data products for the beta release at the end of July. Radar data were used to determine and correct for small biases in the reported spacecraft attitude. Geo-location was validated against coastline positions and the known positions of corner reflectors. Residual errors at the time of the beta release are about 350 m. Intra-swath biases in the high-resolution backscatter images are reduced to less than 0.3 dB for all polarizations. Radiometric cross-calibration with Aquarius was performed using areas of the Amazon rain forest. Cross-calibration was also examined using ocean data from the low-resolution processor and comparing with the Aquarius wind model function. Using all a-priori calibration constants provided good results with co-polarized measurements matching to better than 1 dB, and cross-polarized measurements matching to about 1 dB in the beta release. During the

  5. The NASA Polarimetric Radar (NPOL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Wolff, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of the NASA NPOL S-band dual-polarimetric radar are presented including its operating characteristics, field configuration, scanning capabilities and calibration approaches. Examples of precipitation science data collections conducted using various scan types, and associated products, are presented for different convective system types and previous field campaign deployments. Finally, the NASA NPOL radar location is depicted in its home base configuration within the greater Wallops Flight Facility precipitation research array supporting NASA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission ground validation.

  6. Flyby Comet Imaged By Radar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-24

    Radar data of comet P/2016 BA14 taken over three days (March 21-23, 2016), when the comet was between 2.5 million miles and 2.2 million miles (4.1 million kilometers and 3.6 million kilometers) from Earth. Radar images from the flyby indicated that the comet is about 3,000 feet (1 kilometer) in diameter.

  7. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, J. L.; Vierinen, J.; Pfeffer, N.; Clahsen, M.; Stober, G.

    2016-12-01

    The concept of a coded continuous wave specular meteor radar (SMR) is described. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudorandom phase-modulated waveform, which has several advantages compared to conventional pulsed SMRs. The coding avoids range and Doppler aliasing, which are in some cases problematic with pulsed radars. Continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation at lower peak power than a pulsed system. With continuous coding, the temporal and spectral resolution are not dependent on the transmit waveform and they can be fairly flexibly changed after performing a measurement. The low signal-to-noise ratio before pulse compression, combined with independent pseudorandom transmit waveforms, allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band simultaneously without significantly interfering with each other. Because the same frequency band can be used by multiple transmitters, the same interferometric receiver antennas can be used to receive multiple transmitters at the same time. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large-scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. Such a system would be useful for increasing the number of meteor detections to obtain improved meteor radar data products, such as wind fields. This type of a radar would also be useful for over-the-horizon radar, ionosondes, and observations of field-aligned-irregularities.

  8. Counterflow absorber for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    An air-cooled, vertical tube absorber for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. Strong absorbent solution is supplied to the top of the absorber and refrigerant vapor is supplied to the bottom of the absorber to create a direct counterflow of refrigerant vapor and absorbent solution in the absorber. The refrigeration system is designed so that the volume flow rate of refrigerant vapor in the tubes of the absorber is sufficient to create a substantially direct counterflow along the entire length of each tube in the absorber. This provides several advantages for the absorber such as higher efficiency and improved heat transfer characteristics, and allows improved purging of non-condensibles from the absorber.

  9. Oil and fat absorbing polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for forming a solid network polymer having a minimal amount of crosslinking for use in absorbing fats and oils. The polymer remains solid at a swelling ratio in oil or fat of at least ten and provides an oil absorption greater than 900 weight percent.

  10. Failure mechanisms in energy-absorbing composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Alastair F.; David, Matthew

    2010-11-01

    Quasi-static tests are described for determination of the energy-absorption properties of composite crash energy-absorbing segment elements under axial loads. Detailed computer tomography scans of failed specimens were used to identify local compression crush failure mechanisms at the crush front. These mechanisms are important for selecting composite materials for energy-absorbing structures, such as helicopter and aircraft sub-floors. Finite element models of the failure processes are described that could be the basis for materials selection and future design procedures for crashworthy structures.

  11. Radar Mosaic of Africa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-09-23

    This is an image of equatorial Africa, centered on the equator at longitude 15degrees east. This image is a mosaic of almost 4,000 separate images obtained in 1996 by the L-band imaging radar onboard the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite. Using radar to penetrate the persistent clouds prevalent in tropical forests, the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite was able for the first time to image at high resolution this continental scale region during single flooding seasons. The area shown covers about 7.4 million square kilometers (2.8 million square miles) of land surface, spans more than 5,000 kilometers(3,100 miles) east and west and some 2,000 kilometers (1,240 miles) north and south. North is up in this image. At the full resolution of the mosaic (100 meters or 330 feet), this image is more than 500 megabytes in size, and was processed from imagery totaling more than 60 gigabytes. Central Africa was imaged twice in 1996, once between January and March, which is the major low-flood season in the Congo Basin, and once between October and November, which is the major high-flood season in the Congo Basin. The red color corresponds to the data from the low-flood season, the green to the high-flood season, and the blue to the "texture" of the low-flood data. The forests appear green as a result, the flooded and palm forests, as well as urban areas, appear yellow, the ocean and lakes appear black, and savanna areas appear blue, black or green, depending on the savanna type, surface topography and other factors. The areas of the image that are black and white were mapped only between January and March 1996. In these areas, the black areas are savanna or open water, the gray are forests, and the white areas are flooded forests or urban areas. The Congo River dominates the middle of the image, where the nearby forests that are periodically flooded by the Congo and its tributaries stand out as yellow. The Nile River flows north from Lake Victoria in the middle right of the

  12. Creating soil moisture maps based on radar satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnatushenko, Volodymyr; Garkusha, Igor; Vasyliev, Volodymyr

    2017-10-01

    The presented work is related to a study of mapping soil moisture basing on radar data from Sentinel-1 and a test of adequacy of the models constructed on the basis of data obtained from alternative sources. Radar signals are reflected from the ground differently, depending on its properties. In radar images obtained, for example, in the C band of the electromagnetic spectrum, soils saturated with moisture usually appear in dark tones. Although, at first glance, the problem of constructing moisture maps basing on radar data seems intuitively clear, its implementation on the basis of the Sentinel-1 data on an industrial scale and in the public domain is not yet available. In the process of mapping, for verification of the results, measurements of soil moisture obtained from logs of the network of climate stations NOAA US Climate Reference Network (USCRN) were used. This network covers almost the entire territory of the United States. The passive microwave radiometers of Aqua and SMAP satellites data are used for comparing processing. In addition, other supplementary cartographic materials were used, such as maps of soil types and ready moisture maps. The paper presents a comparison of the effect of the use of certain methods of roughening the quality of radar data on the result of mapping moisture. Regression models were constructed showing dependence of backscatter coefficient values Sigma0 for calibrated radar data of different spatial resolution obtained at different times on soil moisture values. The obtained soil moisture maps of the territories of research, as well as the conceptual solutions about automation of operations of constructing such digital maps, are presented. The comparative assessment of the time required for processing a given set of radar scenes with the developed tools and with the ESA SNAP product was carried out.

  13. [Study of new blended chemical absorbents to absorb CO2].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Lian; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Yan, Shui-Ping; Luo, Zhong-Yang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2007-11-01

    Three kinds of blended absorbents were investigated on bench-scale experimental bench according to absorption rate and regeneration grade to select a reasonable additive concentration. The results show that, among methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and piperazine (PZ) mixtures, comparing MDEA : PZ = 1 : 0.4 (m : m) with MDEA : PZ = 1 : 0.2 (m : m), the absorption rate is increased by about 70% at 0.2 mol x mol(-1). When regeneration lasting for 40 min, regeneration grade of blended absorbents with PZ concentration of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 is decreased to 83.06%, 77.77% and 76.67% respectively while 91.04% for PZ concentration of 0. MDEA : PZ = 1 : 0.4(m : m) is a suitable ratio for MDEA/PZ mixtures as absorption and regeneration properties of the blended absorbents are all improved. The aqueous blends with 10% primary amines and 2% tertiary amines could keep high CO2 absorption rate, and lower regeneration energy consumption. Adding 2% 2-Amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) to 10% diethanolamine (DEA), the blended amine solvents have an advantage in absorption and regeneration properties over other DEA/AMP mixtures. Blended solvents, which consist of a mixture of primary amines with a small amount of tertiary amines, have the highest absorption rate among the three. And mixed absorbents of secondary amines and a small amount of sterically hindered amines have the best regeneration property. To combine absorption and regeneration properties, blends with medium activator addition to tertiary amines are competitive.

  14. Experimental Investigation into the Radar Anomalies on the Surface of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohler, E.; Gavin, P.; Chevrier, V.; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2012-01-01

    Radar mapping of thc surface of Venus shows areas of high reflectivity (low emissivity) in the Venusian highlands at altitudes between 2.5-4.75 kilometers. The origin of the radar anomalies found in the Venusian highlands remains unclear. Most explanations of the potential causes for these radar anomalies come from theoretical work. Previous studies suggest increased surface roughness or materials with higher dielectric constants as well as surface atmospheric interactions. Several possible candidates of high-dielectric materials are tellurium) ferroelectric materials, and lead or bismuth sulfides. While previous studies have been influential in determining possible sources for the Venus anomalies, only a very few hypotheses have been verified via experimentation. This work intends to experimentally constrain the source of the radar anomalies on Venus. This study proposes to investigate four possible materials that could potentially cause the high reflectivities on the surface of Venus and tests their behavior under simulated Venusian conditions.

  15. Space Radar Image of Long Island Optical/Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This pair of images of the Long Island, New York region is a comparison of an optical photograph (top) and a radar image (bottom), both taken in darkness in April 1994. The photograph at the top was taken by the Endeavour astronauts at about 3 a.m. Eastern time on April 20, 1994. The image at the bottom was acquired at about the same time four days earlier on April 16,1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) system aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Both images show an area approximately 100 kilometers by 40 kilometers (62 miles by 25 miles) that is centered at 40.7 degrees North latitude and 73.5 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper right. The optical image is dominated by city lights, which are particularly bright in the densely developed urban areas of New York City located on the left half of the photo. The brightest white zones appear on the island of Manhattan in the left center, and Central Park can be seen as a darker area in the middle of Manhattan. To the northeast (right) of the city, suburban Long Island appears as a less densely illuminated area, with the brightest zones occurring along major transportation and development corridors. Since radar is an active sensing system that provides its own illumination, the radar image shows a great amount of surface detail, despite the night-time acquisition. The colors in the radar image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In this image, the water surface - the Atlantic Ocean along the bottom edge and Long Island Sound shown at the top edge - appears red because small waves at the surface strongly reflect the horizontally transmitted and received L-band radar signal. Networks of highways and railroad lines are clearly

  16. All-digital radar architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, Pavlo A.

    2014-10-01

    All digital radar architecture requires exclude mechanical scan system. The phase antenna array is necessarily large because the array elements must be co-located with very precise dimensions and will need high accuracy phase processing system for aggregate and distribute T/R modules data to/from antenna elements. Even phase array cannot provide wide field of view. New nature inspired all digital radar architecture proposed. The fly's eye consists of multiple angularly spaced sensors giving the fly simultaneously thee wide-area visual coverage it needs to detect and avoid the threats around him. Fly eye radar antenna array consist multiple directional antennas loose distributed along perimeter of ground vehicle or aircraft and coupled with receiving/transmitting front end modules connected by digital interface to central processor. Non-steering antenna array allows creating all-digital radar with extreme flexible architecture. Fly eye radar architecture provides wide possibility of digital modulation and different waveform generation. Simultaneous correlation and integration of thousands signals per second from each point of surveillance area allows not only detecting of low level signals ((low profile targets), but help to recognize and classify signals (targets) by using diversity signals, polarization modulation and intelligent processing. Proposed all digital radar architecture with distributed directional antenna array can provide a 3D space vector to the jammer by verification direction of arrival for signals sources and as result jam/spoof protection not only for radar systems, but for communication systems and any navigation constellation system, for both encrypted or unencrypted signals, for not limited number or close positioned jammers.

  17. Online clustering algorithms for radar emitter classification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Lee, Jim P Y; Senior; Li, Lingjie; Luo, Zhi-Quan; Wong, K Max

    2005-08-01

    Radar emitter classification is a special application of data clustering for classifying unknown radar emitters from received radar pulse samples. The main challenges of this task are the high dimensionality of radar pulse samples, small sample group size, and closely located radar pulse clusters. In this paper, two new online clustering algorithms are developed for radar emitter classification: One is model-based using the Minimum Description Length (MDL) criterion and the other is based on competitive learning. Computational complexity is analyzed for each algorithm and then compared. Simulation results show the superior performance of the model-based algorithm over competitive learning in terms of better classification accuracy, flexibility, and stability.

  18. Stable fixation with absorbable sutures in craniofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Linz, C; Kunz, F; Krauß, J; Böhm, H; Wirth, C; Hartmann, S; Wirbelauer, J; Schweitzer, T

    2016-05-01

    The present study analyses the exclusive use of absorbable suture material (Vicryl(®), Ethicon, Germany) in the fixation of transposed bone segments in craniofacial surgery without modification of the osteotomy design. Among 129 children up to 24 months of age, osteosynthesis was conducted exclusively with Vicryl(®) sutures. The stability of postoperative results was evaluated and possible foreign body reactions were examined within the framework of clinical and radiological routine checks. All examined children exhibited stable postoperative conditions while the length of hospital stay was not affected. X-ray examinations of the skull in two planes demonstrated good bony union in all cases. Relevant foreign body reactions were not observed. The exclusive application of absorbable suture material enables stable and cost effective osteosynthesis. Significant foreign body reactions were not observed. The exclusive use of absorbable sutures did not alter the osteotomy design. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Selective solar absorber emittance measurement at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraud, Philémon; Braillon, Julien; Raccurt, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    Durability of solar components for CSP (Concentrated Solar Power Plant) technologies is a key point to lower cost and ensure their large deployment. These technologies concentrated the solar radiation by means of mirrors on a receiver tube where it is collected as thermal energy. The absorbers are submitted to strong environmental constraints and the degradation of their optical properties (emittance and solar absorbance) have a direct impact on performance. The characterization of a material in such condition is complicated and requires advanced apparatuses, and different measurement methods exist for the determination of the two quantities of relevance regarding an absorber, which are its emittance and its solar absorbance. The objective is to develop new optical equipment for measure the emittance of this solar absorber at elevated temperature. In this paper, we present an optical bench developed for emittance measurement on absorbers is conditions of use. Results will be shown, with a discussion of some factors of influence over this measurement and how to control them.

  20. PT-symmetric laser absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Longhi, Stefano

    2010-09-15

    In a recent work, Y. D. Chong et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053901 (2010)] proposed the idea of a coherent perfect absorber (CPA) as the time-reversed counterpart of a laser, in which a purely incoming radiation pattern is completely absorbed by a lossy medium. The optical medium that realizes CPA is obtained by reversing the gain with absorption, and thus it generally differs from the lasing medium. Here it is shown that a laser with an optical medium that satisfies the parity-time (PT) symmetry condition {epsilon}(-r)={epsilon}*(r) for the dielectric constant behaves simultaneously as a laser oscillator (i.e., it canmore » emit outgoing coherent waves) and as a CPA (i.e., it can fully absorb incoming coherent waves with appropriate amplitudes and phases). Such a device can thus be referred to as a PT-symmetric CPA laser. The general amplification or absorption features of the PT CPA laser below lasing threshold driven by two fields are determined.« less

  1. Radar Mosaic of Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is an image of equatorial Africa, centered on the equator at longitude 15degrees east. This image is a mosaic of almost 4,000 separate images obtained in 1996 by the L-band imaging radar onboard the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite. Using radar to penetrate the persistent clouds prevalent in tropical forests, the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite was able for the first time to image at high resolution this continental scale region during single flooding seasons. The area shown covers about 7.4 million square kilometers (2.8 million square miles) of land surface, spans more than 5,000 kilometers(3,100 miles) east and west and some 2,000 kilometers (1,240 miles) north and south. North is up in this image. At the full resolution of the mosaic (100 meters or 330 feet), this image is more than 500 megabytes in size, and was processed from imagery totaling more than 60 gigabytes.

    Central Africa was imaged twice in 1996, once between January and March, which is the major low-flood season in the Congo Basin, and once between October and November, which is the major high-flood season in the Congo Basin. The red color corresponds to the data from the low-flood season, the green to the high-flood season, and the blue to the 'texture' of the low-flood data. The forests appear green as a result, the flooded and palm forests, as well as urban areas, appear yellow, the ocean and lakes appear black, and savanna areas appear blue, black or green, depending on the savanna type, surface topography and other factors. The areas of the image that are black and white were mapped only between January and March 1996. In these areas, the black areas are savanna or open water, the gray are forests, and the white areas are flooded forests or urban areas. The Congo River dominates the middle of the image, where the nearby forests that are periodically flooded by the Congo and its tributaries stand out as yellow. The Nile River flows north from Lake Victoria in the middle right of

  2. Bistatic synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, Gillian

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) allows all-weather, day and night, surface surveillance and has the ability to detect, classify and geolocate objects at long stand-off ranges. Bistatic SAR, where the transmitter and the receiver are on separate platforms, is seen as a potential means of countering the vulnerability of conventional monostatic SAR to electronic countermeasures, particularly directional jamming, and avoiding physical attack of the imaging platform. As the receiving platform can be totally passive, it does not advertise its position by RF emissions. The transmitter is not susceptible to jamming and can, for example, operate at long stand-off ranges to reduce its vulnerability to physical attack. This thesis examines some of the complications involved in producing high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery. The effect of bistatic operation on resolution is examined from a theoretical viewpoint and analytical expressions for resolution are developed. These expressions are verified by simulation work using a simple 'point by point' processor. This work is extended to look at using modern practical processing engines for bistatic geometries. Adaptations of the polar format algorithm and range migration algorithm are considered. The principal achievement of this work is a fully airborne demonstration of bistatic SAR. The route taken in reaching this is given, along with some results. The bistatic SAR imagery is analysed and compared to the monostatic imagery collected at the same time. Demonstrating high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery using two airborne platforms represents what I believe to be a European first and is likely to be the first time that this has been achieved outside the US (the UK has very little insight into US work on this topic). Bistatic target characteristics are examined through the use of simulations. This also compares bistatic imagery with monostatic and gives further insight into the utility of bistatic SAR.

  3. Hydrologic applications of weather radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Dong-Jun; Habib, Emad; Andrieu, Hervé; Morin, Efrat

    2015-12-01

    By providing high-resolution quantitative precipitation information (QPI), weather radars have revolutionized hydrology in the last two decades. With the aid of GIS technology, radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) have enabled routine high-resolution hydrologic modeling in many parts of the world. Given the ever-increasing need for higher-resolution hydrologic and water resources information for a wide range of applications, one may expect that the use of weather radar will only grow. Despite the tremendous progress, a number of significant scientific, technological and engineering challenges remain to realize its potential. New challenges are also emerging as new areas of applications are discovered, explored and pursued. The purpose of this special issue is to provide the readership with some of the latest advances, lessons learned, experiences gained, and science issues and challenges related to hydrologic applications of weather radar. The special issue features 20 contributions on various topics which reflect the increasing diversity as well as the areas of focus in radar hydrology today. The contributions may be grouped as follows:

  4. Radar Imaging with a Network of Digital Noise Radar Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    This chapter develops the theoretical foundations of noise radar technology. Comprehensive theoretical models are developed for UWB noise radar, digital...Power to the Antenna +23 dBm Polarization HH Antenna Gain 6 dB ADC 8 Bits Sampling Rate 1.5 GHz/per channel Dynamic Range (0.8 Pd, 0.2 Pf ) 20 dB Range...from Eq. 3.25, can be found by solving Eq. 3.23 for E[XY ]. µrXY = E[XY ] = 〈xy〉 = ρσ2 (3.26) σrXY , from Eq. 3.25 can be derived through the

  5. Planetary surface characterization from dual-polarization radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virkki, Anne; Planetary Radar Team of the Arecibo Observatory

    2017-10-01

    We present a new method to investigate the physical properties of planetary surfaces using dual-polarization radar measurements. The number of radar observations has increased radically during the last five years, allowing us to compare the radar scattering properties of different small-body populations and compositional types. There has also been progress in the laboratory studies of the materials that are relevant to asteroids and comets.In a typical planetary radar measurement a circularly polarized signal is transmitted using a frequency of 2380 MHz (wavelength of 12.6 cm) or 8560 MHz (3.5 cm). The echo is received simultaneously in the same circular (SC) and the opposite circular (OC) polarization as the transmitted signal. The delay and doppler frequency of the signal give highly accurate astrometric information, and the intensity and the polarization are suggestive of the physical properties of the target's near-surface.The radar albedo describes the radar reflectivity of the target. If the effective near-surface is smooth and homogeneous in the wavelength-scale, the echo is received fully in the OC polarization. Wavelength-scale surface roughness or boulders within the effective near-surface volume increase the received echo power in both polarizations. However, there is a lack in the literature describing exactly how the physical properties of the target affect the radar albedo in each polarization, or how they can be derived from the radar measurements.To resolve this problem, we utilize the information that the diffuse components of the OC and SC parts are correlated when the near-surface contains wavelength-scale scatterers such as boulders. A linear least-squares fit to the detected values of OC and SC radar albedos allows us to separate the diffusely scattering part from the quasi-specular part. Combined with the spectro-photometric information of the target and laboratory studies of the permittivity-density dependence, the method provides us with a

  6. Space Radar Image of Colombian Volcano

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-01-27

    This is a radar image of a little known volcano in northern Colombia. The image was acquired on orbit 80 of space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994, by NASA Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar SIR-C/X-SAR. The volcano near the center of the image is located at 5.6 degrees north latitude, 75.0 degrees west longitude, about 100 kilometers (65 miles) southeast of Medellin, Colombia. The conspicuous dark spot is a lake at the bottom of an approximately 3-kilometer-wide (1.9-mile) volcanic collapse depression or caldera. A cone-shaped peak on the bottom left (northeast rim) of the caldera appears to have been the source for a flow of material into the caldera. This is the northern-most known volcano in South America and because of its youthful appearance, should be considered dormant rather than extinct. The volcano's existence confirms a fracture zone proposed in 1985 as the northern boundary of volcanism in the Andes. The SIR-C/X-SAR image reveals another, older caldera further south in Colombia, along another proposed fracture zone. Although relatively conspicuous, these volcanoes have escaped widespread recognition because of frequent cloud cover that hinders remote sensing imaging in visible wavelengths. Four separate volcanoes in the Northern Andes nations of Colombia and Ecuador have been active during the last 10 years, killing more than 25,000 people, including scientists who were monitoring the volcanic activity. Detection and monitoring of volcanoes from space provides a safe way to investigate volcanism. The recognition of previously unknown volcanoes is important for hazard evaluations because a number of major eruptions this century have occurred at mountains that were not previously recognized as volcanoes. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01722

  7. Polymers used to absorb fats and oils: A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    One approach to problem of excessive oils and fats is to develop method by which oil is absorbed into solid mixture for elimination as solid waste. Materials proposed for these purposes are cross-linked (network) polymers that have high affinity for aliphatic substances, i. e., petroleum, animal, and vegetable oils.

  8. Cu-In Halide Perovskite Solar Absorbers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin-Gang; Yang, Dongwen; Sun, Yuanhui; Li, Tianshu; Zhang, Lijun; Yu, Liping; Zunger, Alex

    2017-05-17

    The long-term chemical instability and the presence of toxic Pb in otherwise stellar solar absorber APbX 3 made of organic molecules on the A site and halogens for X have hindered their large-scale commercialization. Previously explored ways to achieve Pb-free halide perovskites involved replacing Pb 2+ with other similar M 2+ cations in ns 2 electron configuration, e.g., Sn 2+ or by Bi 3+ (plus Ag + ), but unfortunately this showed either poor stability (M = Sn) or weakly absorbing oversized indirect gaps (M = Bi), prompting concerns that perhaps stability and good optoelectronic properties might be contraindicated. Herein, we exploit the electronic structure underpinning of classic Cu[In,Ga]Se 2 (CIGS) chalcopyrite solar absorbers to design Pb-free halide perovskites by transmuting 2Pb to the pair [B IB + C III ] such as [Cu + Ga] or [Ag + In] and combinations thereof. The resulting group of double perovskites with formula A 2 BCX 6 (A = K, Rb, Cs; B = Cu, Ag; C = Ga, In; X = Cl, Br, I) benefits from the ionic, yet narrow-gap character of halide perovskites, and at the same time borrows the advantage of the strong Cu(d)/Se(p) → Ga/In(s/p) valence-to-conduction-band absorption spectra known from CIGS. This constitutes a new group of CuIn-based Halide Perovskite (CIHP). Our first-principles calculations guided by such design principles indicate that the CIHPs class has members with clear thermodynamic stability, showing direct band gaps, and manifesting a wide-range of tunable gap values (from zero to about 2.5 eV) and combination of light electron and heavy-light hole effective masses. Materials screening of candidate CIHPs then identifies the best-of-class Rb 2 [CuIn]Cl 6 , Rb 2 [AgIn]Br 6 , and Cs 2 [AgIn]Br 6 , having direct band gaps of 1.36, 1.46, and 1.50 eV, and theoretical spectroscopic limited maximal efficiency comparable to chalcopyrites and CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 . Our finding offers a new routine for designing new-type Pb-free halide perovskite solar

  9. MST radar data-base management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickwar, V. B.

    1983-01-01

    Data management for Mesospheric-Stratospheric-Tropospheric, (MST) radars is addressed. An incoherent-scatter radar data base is discussed in terms of purpose, centralization, scope, and nature of the data base management system.

  10. Radar Imagery of Asteroid 2014 JO25

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-19

    This composite of 30 images of asteroid 2014 JO25 was generated with radar data collected using NASA Goldstone Solar System Radar in California Mojave Desert. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21594

  11. German Radar Observation Shuttle Experiment (ROSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleber, A. J.; Hartl, P.; Haydn, R.; Hildebrandt, G.; Konecny, G.; Muehlfeld, R.

    1984-01-01

    The success of radar sensors in several different application areas of interest depends on the knowledge of the backscatter of radar waves from the targets of interest, the variance of these interaction mechanisms with respect to changing measurement parameters, and the determination of the influence of he measuring systems on the results. The incidence-angle dependency of the radar cross section of different natural targets is derived. Problems involved by the combination of data gained with different sensors, e.g., MSS-, TM-, SPOTand SAR-images are analyzed. Radar cross-section values gained with ground-based radar spectrometers and spaceborne radar imaging, and non-imaging scatterometers and spaceborne radar images from the same areal target are correlated. The penetration of L-band radar waves into vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces is analyzed.

  12. Space Radar Image of Randonia Rain Cell

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This multi-frequency space radar image of a tropical rainforest in western Brazil shows rapidly changing land use patterns and it also demonstrates the capability of the different radar frequencies to detect and penetrate heavy rainstorms.

  13. Space Radar Image of Dublin, Ireland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This radar image of Dublin, Ireland, shows how the radar distinguishes between densely populated urban areas and nearby areas that are relatively unsettled. In the center of the image is the city natural harbor along the Irish Sea.

  14. Space Radar Image of Maui, Hawaii

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This spaceborne radar image shows the Valley Island of Maui, Hawaii. The cloud-penetrating capabilities of radar provide a rare view of many parts of the island, since the higher elevations are frequently shrouded in clouds.

  15. Extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yimin; Meng, Huadong; Liu, Yimin; Wang, Xiqin

    2010-01-01

    We address the problem of adaptive waveform design for extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks. A closed-loop active target recognition radar system is extended to the case of a centralized cognitive radar network, in which a generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) based sequential hypothesis testing (SHT) framework is employed. Using Doppler velocities measured by multiple radars, the target aspect angle for each radar is calculated. The joint probability of each target hypothesis is then updated using observations from different radar line of sights (LOS). Based on these probabilities, a minimum correlation algorithm is proposed to adaptively design the transmit waveform for each radar in an amplitude fluctuation situation. Simulation results demonstrate performance improvements due to the cognitive radar network and adaptive waveform design. Our minimum correlation algorithm outperforms the eigen-waveform solution and other non-cognitive waveform design approaches.

  16. Obstacle penetrating dynamic radar imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Romero, Carlos E [Livermore, CA; Zumstein, James E [Livermore, CA; Chang, John T [Danville, CA; Leach, Jr Richard R. [Castro Valley, CA

    2006-12-12

    An obstacle penetrating dynamic radar imaging system for the detection, tracking, and imaging of an individual, animal, or object comprising a multiplicity of low power ultra wideband radar units that produce a set of return radar signals from the individual, animal, or object, and a processing system for said set of return radar signals for detection, tracking, and imaging of the individual, animal, or object. The system provides a radar video system for detecting and tracking an individual, animal, or object by producing a set of return radar signals from the individual, animal, or object with a multiplicity of low power ultra wideband radar units, and processing said set of return radar signals for detecting and tracking of the individual, animal, or object.

  17. Levee Monitoring with Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Cathleen E.

    2012-01-01

    Topics in this presentation are: 1. Overview of radar remote sensing 2. Surface change detection with Differential Interferometric Radar Processing 3. Study of the Sacramento - San Joaquin levees 4. Mississippi River Levees during the Spring 2011 floods.

  18. Radar Testing for Mars Science Labotatory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-13

    This image, taken April 9, 2010, shows the test radar affixed to a gimbal mounting at the front of a helicopter, carrying an engineering test model of the landing radar for NASA Mars Science Laboratory.

  19. Space Radar Image of Safsaf Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This three-frequency space radar image of south-central Egypt demonstrates the unique capability of imaging radar to penetrate thin sand cover in arid regions to reveal hidden details below the surface.

  20. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and Northmore » Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.« less

  1. Radar Observation of Insects - Mosquitoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, E.; Downing, J.

    1979-01-01

    Tests were conducted at several sites over the coastal lowlands of New Jersey and over a region of high plains and low mountains in Oklahoma. In one area, a salt marsh in New Jersey, extensive ground tests were combined with laboratory data on expected insect backscatter to arrive at an extremely convincing model of the insect origin of most Dot Angels. A great deal of insight was studied from radar on the buildup and dispersal of insect swarms, since radar can follow where other means of trapping and observation cannot. Data on large-scale behavior as a function of wind and topography are presented. Displayed techniques which show individual or small swarm motion within some larger cloud or mass, or which can show the overall motion over great distances were developed. The influence of wind and terrain on insect motion and dispersal is determined from radar data.

  2. Synthetic aperture radar target simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebker, H. A.; Held, D. N.; Goldstein, R. M.; Bickler, T. C.

    1984-01-01

    A simulator for simulating the radar return, or echo, from a target seen by a SAR antenna mounted on a platform moving with respect to the target is described. It includes a first-in first-out memory which has digital information clocked in at a rate related to the frequency of a transmitted radar signal and digital information clocked out with a fixed delay defining range between the SAR and the simulated target, and at a rate related to the frequency of the return signal. An RF input signal having a frequency similar to that utilized by a synthetic aperture array radar is mixed with a local oscillator signal to provide a first baseband signal having a frequency considerably lower than that of the RF input signal.

  3. Shock absorber operates over wide range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creasy, W. K.; Jones, J. C.

    1965-01-01

    Piston-type hydraulic shock absorber, with a metered damping system, operates over a wide range of kinetic energy loading rates. It is used for absorbing shock and vibration on mounted machinery and heavy earth-moving equipment.

  4. Cassini's Final Titan Radar Swath

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-11

    During its final targeted flyby of Titan on April 22, 2017, Cassini's radar mapper got the mission's last close look at the moon's surface. On this 127th targeted pass by Titan (unintuitively named "T-126"), the radar was used to take two images of the surface, shown at left and right. Both images are about 200 miles (300 kilometers) in width, from top to bottom. Objects appear bright when they are tilted toward the spacecraft or have rough surfaces; smooth areas appear dark. At left are the same bright, hilly terrains and darker plains that Cassini imaged during its first radar pass of Titan, in 2004. Scientists do not see obvious evidence of changes in this terrain over the 13 years since the original observation. At right, the radar looked once more for Titan's mysterious "magic island" (PIA20021) in a portion of one of the large hydrocarbon seas, Ligeia Mare. No "island" feature was observed during this pass. Scientists continue to work on what the transient feature might have been, with waves and bubbles being two possibilities. In between the two parts of its imaging observation, the radar instrument switched to altimetry mode, in order to make a first-ever (and last-ever) measurement of the depths of some of the lakes that dot the north polar region. For the measurements, the spacecraft pointed its antenna straight down at the surface and the radar measured the time delay between echoes from the lakes' surface and bottom. A graph is available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21626

  5. Detection of Marine Radar Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, John N.

    A radar must detect targets before it can display them. Yet manufacturers' data sheets rarely tell us what the products will detect at what range. Many of the bigger radars are Type Approved so we consult the relevant IMO performance standard A 477 (XII). Paraphrasing Section 3.1 of the draft forthcoming revision (NAV 41/6): under normal propagation conditions with the scanner at height of 15 m, in the absence of clutter, the radar is required to give clear indication of an object such as a navigational buoy having a radar cross section area (RCS) of 10 m2 at 2 n.m. and, as examples, coastlines whose ground rises to 60/6 m at ranges of 20/7 n.m., a ship of 5000 tons at any aspect at 7 n.m. and a small vessel 10 m long at 3 n.m.This helps, but suppose we must pick up a 5 m2 buoy at g km? What happens in clutter? Should we prefer S- or X-band? To answer such questions we use equations which define the performance of surveillance radars, but the textbooks and specialist papers containing them often generalize with aeronautical and defence topics, making life difficult for the nonspecialist.This paper attempts a concise and self-contained engineering account of all main factors affecting detection of passive and active targets on civil marine and vessel traffic service (VTS) radars. We develop a set of equations for X- and S-band (3 and 10 cm, centred on 9400 and 3000 MHz respectively), suited for spreadsheet calculation.Sufficient theory is sketched in to indicate where results should be valid. Some simplifications of conventional treatments have been identified.

  6. Microwave emissions from police radar.

    PubMed

    Fink, J M; Wagner, J P; Congleton, J J; Rock, J C

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated police officers' exposures to microwaves emitted by traffic radar units. Exposure measurements were taken at approximated ocular and testicular levels of officers seated in patrol vehicles. Comparisons were made of the radar manufacturers' published maximum power density specifications and actual measured power densities taken at the antenna faces of those units. Four speed-enforcement agencies and one transportation research institute provided 54 radar units for evaluation; 17 different models, encompassing 4 frequency bands and 3 antenna configurations, were included. Four of the 986 measurements taken exceeded the 5 mW/cm2 limit accepted by the International Radiation Protection Association and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement, though none exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, American National Standards Institute, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, or Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard of 10 mW/cm2. The four high measurements were maximum power density readings taken directly in front of the radar. Of the 812 measurements taken at the officers' seated ocular and testicular positions, none exceeded 0.04 mW/cm2; the highest of these (0.034 mW/cm2) was less than 1% of the most conservative current safety standards. High exposures in the limited region directly in front of the radar aperture are easily avoided with proper training. Results of this study indicate that police officer exposure to microwave radiation is apparently minimal. However, because of uncertainty in the medical and scientific communities concerning nonionizing radiation, it is recommended that law enforcement agencies implement a policy of prudent avoidance, including purchasing units with the lowest published maximum power densities, purchasing dash/rear deck-mounted units with antennae mounted outside the patrol vehicle, and training police officers to use the "stand-by" mode

  7. Shuttle orbiter radar cross-sectional analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. W.; James, R.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and model simulation studies on signal to noise levels and shuttle radar cross section are described. Pre-mission system calibrations, system configuration, and postmission system calibration of the tracking radars are described. Conversion of target range, azimuth, and elevation into radar centered east north vertical position coordinates are evaluated. The location of the impinging rf energy with respect to the target vehicles body axis triad is calculated. Cross section correlation between the two radars is presented.

  8. SAR Ambiguity Study for the Cassini Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hensley, Scott; Im, Eastwood; Johnson, William T. K.

    1993-01-01

    The Cassini Radar's synthetic aperture radar (SAR) ambiguity analysis is unique with respect to other spaceborne SAR ambiguity analyses owing to the non-orbiting spacecraft trajectory, asymmetric antenna pattern, and burst mode of data collection. By properly varying the pointing, burst mode timing, and radar parameters along the trajectory this study shows that the signal-to-ambiguity ratio of better than 15 dB can be achieved for all images obtained by the Cassini Radar.

  9. Radar research at The Pennsylvania State University Radar and Communications Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Ram M.

    2017-05-01

    The Radar and Communications Laboratory (RCL) at The Pennsylvania State University is at the forefront of radar technology and is engaged in cutting edge research in all aspects of radar, including modeling and simulation studies of novel radar paradigms, design and development of new types of radar architectures, and extensive field measurements in realistic scenarios. This paper summarizes the research at The Pennsylvania State University's Radar and Communications Laboratory and relevant collaborative research with several groups over the past 15 years in the field of radar and related technologies, including communications, radio frequency identification (RFID), and spectrum sensing.

  10. Software development for airborne radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundstrom, Ingvar G.

    Some aspects for development of software in a modern multimode airborne nose radar are described. First, an overview of where software is used in the radar units is presented. The development phases-system design, functional design, detailed design, function verification, and system verification-are then used as the starting point for the discussion. Methods, tools, and the most important documents are described. The importance of video flight recording in the early stages and use of a digital signal generators for performance verification is emphasized. Some future trends are discussed.

  11. Portable receiver for radar detection

    DOEpatents

    Lopes, Christopher D.; Kotter, Dale K.

    2008-10-14

    Various embodiments are described relating to a portable antenna-equipped device for multi-band radar detection. The detection device includes a plurality of antennas on a flexible substrate, a detection-and-control circuit, an indicator and a power source. The antenna may include one or more planar lithographic antennas that may be fabricated on a thin-film substrate. Each antenna may be tuned to a different selection frequency or band. The antennas may include a bolometer for radar detection. Each antenna may include a frequency selective surface for tuning to the selection frequency.

  12. MIMO Radar - Diversity Means Superiority

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    Jian 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ESI 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Department of Electrical and...several estimators for the proposed MIMO radar system. The remainder of this report is organized as follows. Chapter 2 pres ,lt> t hc MIMO radar...A 17) with 0 denoting the Kronecker product. Substituting Equations (A 9) - (A 7) into (A ()). and after soic ( I I hIx II, nipulations, we get CRB(O

  13. Preparation of nanosize polyaniline and its utilization for microwave absorber.

    PubMed

    Abbas, S M; Dixit, A K; Chatterjee, R; Goel, T C

    2007-06-01

    Polyaniline powder in nanosize has been synthesized by chemical oxidative route. XRD, FTIR, and TEM were used to characterize the polyaniline powder. Crytallite size was estimated from XRD profile and also ascertained by TEM in the range of 15 to 20 nm. The composite absorbers have been prepared by mixing different ratios of polyaniline into procured polyurethane (PU) binder. The complex permittivity (epsilon' - jepsilon") and complex permeability (mu' - jmu") were measured in X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz) using Agilent network analyzer (model PNA E8364B) and its software module 85071 (version 'E'). Measured values of these parameters were used to determine the reflection loss at different frequencies and sample thicknesses, based on a model of a single layered plane wave absorber backed by a perfect conductor. An optimized polyaniline/PU ratio of 3:1 has given a minimum reflection loss of -30 dB (99.9% power absorption) at the central frequency 10 GHz and the bandwidth (full width at half minimum) of 4.2 GHz over whole X-band (8.2 to 12.4 GHz) in a sample thickness of 3.0 mm. The prepared composites can be fruitfully utilized for suppression of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and reduction of radar signatures (stealth technology).

  14. Radar geomorphology of coastal and wetland environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, A. J.; Macdonald, H. C.

    1973-01-01

    Details regarding the collection of radar imagery over the past ten years are considered together with the geomorphic, geologic, and hydrologic data which have been extracted from radar imagery. Recent investigations were conducted of the Louisiana swamp marsh and the Oregon coast. It was found that radar imagery is a useful tool to the scientist involved in wetland research.

  15. Tracking radar studies of bird migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.; Teal, J. M.; Kanwisher, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The application of tracking radar for determining the flight paths of migratory birds is discussed. The effects produced by various meteorological parameters are described. Samples of radar scope presentations obtained during tracking studies are presented. The characteristics of the radars and their limitations are examined.

  16. Comparison of radar data versus rainfall data

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, B.; Hromadka, T.V.; Perez, R.

    2015-01-01

    Doppler radar data are increasingly used in rainfall-runoff synthesis studies, perhaps due to radar data availability, among other factors. However, the veracity of the radar data are often a topic of concern. In this paper, three Doppler radar outcomes developed by the United States National Weather Service at three radar sites are examined and compared to actual rain gage data for two separate severe storm events in order to assess accuracy in the published radar estimates of rainfall. Because the subject storms were very intense rainfall events lasting approximately one hour in duration, direct comparisons between the three radar gages themselves can be made, as well as a comparison to rain gage data at a rain gage location subjected to the same storm cells. It is shown that topographic interference with the radar outcomes can be a significant factor leading to differences between radar and rain gage readings, and that care is needed in calibrating radar outcomes using available rain gage data in order to interpolate rainfall estimates between rain gages using the spatial variation observed in the radar readings. The paper establishes and describes•the need for “ground-truthing” of radar data, and•possible errors due to topographic interference. PMID:26649276

  17. Efficient Ways to Learn Weather Radar Polarimetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Qing; Yeary, M. B.; Zhang, Guifu

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. weather radar network is currently being upgraded with dual-polarization capability. Weather radar polarimetry is an interdisciplinary area of engineering and meteorology. This paper presents efficient ways to learn weather radar polarimetry through several basic and practical topics. These topics include: 1) hydrometeor scattering model…

  18. 46 CFR 167.40-40 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar. 167.40-40 Section 167.40-40 Shipping COAST GUARD... Requirements § 167.40-40 Radar. All mechanically propelled vessels of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must be fitted with a marine radar system for surface navigation. Facilities for plotting...

  19. 46 CFR 169.726 - Radar reflector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar reflector. 169.726 Section 169.726 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.726 Radar reflector. Each nonmetallic vessel less than 90 feet in length must exhibit a radar reflector of suitable size and design while underway. Markings ...

  20. 46 CFR 169.726 - Radar reflector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar reflector. 169.726 Section 169.726 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.726 Radar reflector. Each nonmetallic vessel less than 90 feet in length must exhibit a radar reflector of suitable size and design while underway. Markings ...

  1. 46 CFR 184.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radars. 184.404 Section 184.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Navigation Equipment § 184.404 Radars. (a) A vessel must be fitted with a Federal Communications Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface navigation...

  2. 46 CFR 184.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radars. 184.404 Section 184.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Navigation Equipment § 184.404 Radars. (a) A vessel must be fitted with a Federal Communications Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface navigation...

  3. 46 CFR 130.310 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar. 130.310 Section 130.310 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Navigational Equipment § 130.310 Radar. Each vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be fitted with a general marine radar in the pilothouse. ...

  4. 46 CFR 108.717 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar. 108.717 Section 108.717 Shipping COAST GUARD... Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.717 Radar. Each self-propelled unit of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must have— (a) A marine radar system for surface navigation; and (b) Facilities on the...

  5. 46 CFR 130.310 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar. 130.310 Section 130.310 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Navigational Equipment § 130.310 Radar. Each vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be fitted with a general marine radar in the pilothouse. ...

  6. 46 CFR 169.726 - Radar reflector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar reflector. 169.726 Section 169.726 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.726 Radar reflector. Each nonmetallic vessel less than 90 feet in length must exhibit a radar reflector of suitable size and design while underway. Markings ...

  7. 46 CFR 11.480 - Radar observer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar observer. 11.480 Section 11.480 Shipping COAST... ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for National Deck Officer Endorsements § 11.480 Radar observer. (a) This section contains the requirements that an applicant must meet to qualify as a radar observer. (b) If an...

  8. 46 CFR 108.717 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar. 108.717 Section 108.717 Shipping COAST GUARD... Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.717 Radar. Each self-propelled unit of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must have— (a) A marine radar system for surface navigation; and (b) Facilities on the...

  9. 46 CFR 11.480 - Radar observer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar observer. 11.480 Section 11.480 Shipping COAST... ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.480 Radar observer. (a) This section contains the requirements that an applicant must meet to qualify as a radar observer. (Part 15 of this chapter specifies who...

  10. 46 CFR 167.40-40 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar. 167.40-40 Section 167.40-40 Shipping COAST GUARD... Requirements § 167.40-40 Radar. All mechanically propelled vessels of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must be fitted with a marine radar system for surface navigation. Facilities for plotting...

  11. 46 CFR 167.40-40 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar. 167.40-40 Section 167.40-40 Shipping COAST GUARD... Requirements § 167.40-40 Radar. All mechanically propelled vessels of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must be fitted with a marine radar system for surface navigation. Facilities for plotting...

  12. 46 CFR 108.717 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar. 108.717 Section 108.717 Shipping COAST GUARD... Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.717 Radar. Each self-propelled unit of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must have— (a) A marine radar system for surface navigation; and (b) Facilities on the...

  13. 46 CFR 11.480 - Radar observer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar observer. 11.480 Section 11.480 Shipping COAST... ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.480 Radar observer. (a) This section contains the requirements that an applicant must meet to qualify as a radar observer. (Part 15 of this chapter specifies who...

  14. 46 CFR 184.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radars. 184.404 Section 184.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Navigation Equipment § 184.404 Radars. (a) A vessel must be fitted with a Federal Communications Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface navigation...

  15. 46 CFR 130.310 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar. 130.310 Section 130.310 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Navigational Equipment § 130.310 Radar. Each vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be fitted with a general marine radar in the pilothouse. ...

  16. Survey of Radar Refraction Error Corrections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    ELECTRONIC TRAJECTORY MEASUREMENTS GROUP RCC 266-16 SURVEY OF RADAR REFRACTION ERROR CORRECTIONS DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for...DOCUMENT 266-16 SURVEY OF RADAR REFRACTION ERROR CORRECTIONS November 2016 Prepared by Electronic...This page intentionally left blank. Survey of Radar Refraction Error Corrections, RCC 266-16 iii Table of Contents Preface

  17. 46 CFR 108.717 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radar. 108.717 Section 108.717 Shipping COAST GUARD... Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.717 Radar. Each self-propelled unit of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must have— (a) A marine radar system for surface navigation; and (b) Facilities on the...

  18. 46 CFR 15.815 - Radar observers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radar observers. 15.815 Section 15.815 Shipping COAST... Computations § 15.815 Radar observers. (a) Each person in the required complement of deck officers, including the master, on inspected vessels of 300 gross tons or over which are radar equipped, shall hold an...

  19. 46 CFR 108.717 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radar. 108.717 Section 108.717 Shipping COAST GUARD... Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.717 Radar. Each self-propelled unit of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must have— (a) A marine radar system for surface navigation; and (b) Facilities on the...

  20. 46 CFR 130.310 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radar. 130.310 Section 130.310 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Navigational Equipment § 130.310 Radar. Each vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be fitted with a general marine radar in the pilothouse. ...

  1. 46 CFR 184.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radars. 184.404 Section 184.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Navigation Equipment § 184.404 Radars. (a) A vessel must be fitted with a Federal Communications Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface navigation...

  2. 46 CFR 11.480 - Radar observer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radar observer. 11.480 Section 11.480 Shipping COAST... ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.480 Radar observer. (a) This section contains the requirements that an applicant must meet to qualify as a radar observer. (Part 15 of this chapter specifies who...

  3. 46 CFR 130.310 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radar. 130.310 Section 130.310 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Navigational Equipment § 130.310 Radar. Each vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be fitted with a general marine radar in the pilothouse. ...

  4. 46 CFR 169.726 - Radar reflector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radar reflector. 169.726 Section 169.726 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.726 Radar reflector. Each nonmetallic vessel less than 90 feet in length must exhibit a radar reflector of suitable size and design while underway. Markings ...

  5. 46 CFR 167.40-40 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radar. 167.40-40 Section 167.40-40 Shipping COAST GUARD... Requirements § 167.40-40 Radar. All mechanically propelled vessels of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must be fitted with a marine radar system for surface navigation. Facilities for plotting...

  6. 46 CFR 11.480 - Radar observer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radar observer. 11.480 Section 11.480 Shipping COAST... ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.480 Radar observer. (a) This section contains the requirements that an applicant must meet to qualify as a radar observer. (Part 15 of this chapter specifies who...

  7. 46 CFR 167.40-40 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radar. 167.40-40 Section 167.40-40 Shipping COAST GUARD... Requirements § 167.40-40 Radar. All mechanically propelled vessels of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must be fitted with a marine radar system for surface navigation. Facilities for plotting...

  8. 46 CFR 184.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radars. 184.404 Section 184.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Navigation Equipment § 184.404 Radars. (a) A vessel must be fitted with a Federal Communications Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface navigation...

  9. 46 CFR 169.726 - Radar reflector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radar reflector. 169.726 Section 169.726 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.726 Radar reflector. Each nonmetallic vessel less than 90 feet in length must exhibit a radar reflector of suitable size and design while underway. Markings ...

  10. Research relative to weather radar measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul L.

    1992-01-01

    This grant provides for some investigations related to weather radar measurement techniques applicable to meteorological radar systems in Thailand. Quality data are needed from those systems to support TRMM and other scientific investigations. Activities carried out during a trip to the radar facilities at Phuket are described.

  11. Recent advances in radar applications to agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morain, S. A.

    1970-01-01

    A series of remote radar sensing studies are summarized. These efforts comprise geoscience interpretations of such complex phenomena as those manifested in agricultural patterns. Considered are basic remote sensing needs in agriculture and the design and implementation of radar keys in the active microwave region as well as fine resolution radar imagery techniques for agriculture determinations and soil mapping.

  12. Direct detection of the Yarkovsky effect by radar ranging to ateroid 6489 Golevka

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesley, S. R.; Ostro, S. J.; Vokrouhlicky, D.; Capek, D.; Giorgini, J. D.; Nolan, M. C.; Margot, J. L.; Hine, A. A.; Benner, L. A. M.; Chamberlin, A. B.

    2003-01-01

    Radar ranging from Arecibo, Puerto Rico, to the 0.5-kilometer near-Earth asteroid 6489 Golevka unambiguously reveals a small nongravitational acceleration caused by the anisotropic thermal emission of absorbed sunlight. The magnitude of this perturbation, known as the Yarkovsky effect, is a function of the asteroid's mass and surface thermal characteristics. Direct detection of the Yarkovsky effect on asteroids will help constrain their physical properties, such as bulk density, and refine their orbital paths.

  13. Electronic and thermally tunable infrared metamaterial absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrekenhamer, David; Miragliotta, Joseph A.; Brinkley, Matthew; Fan, Kebin; Peng, Fenglin; Montoya, John A.; Gauza, Sebastian; Wu, Shin-Tson; Padilla, Willie J.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we report a computational and experimental study using tunable infrared (IR) metamaterial absorbers (MMAs) to demonstrate frequency tunable (7%) and amplitude modulation (61%) designs. The dynamic tuning of each structure was achieved through the addition of an active material—liquid crystals (LC) or vanadium dioxide (VO2)-within the unit cell of the MMA architecture. In both systems, an applied stimulus (electric field or temperature) induced a dielectric change in the active material and subsequent variation in the absorption and reflection properties of the MMA in the mid- to long-wavelength region of the IR (MWIR and LWIR, respectively). These changes were observed to be reversible for both systems and dynamic in the LC-based structure.

  14. Space Radar Image of Ubar Optical/Radar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-04-28

    This pair of images from space shows a portion of the southern Empty Quarter of the Arabian Peninsula in the country of Oman. On the left is a radar image of the region around the site of the fabled Lost City of Ubar, discovered in 1992 with the aid of remote sensing data. On the right is an enhanced optical image taken by the shuttle astronauts. Ubar existed from about 2800 BC to about 300 AD. and was a remote desert outpost where caravans were assembled for the transport of frankincense across the desert. The actual site of the fortress of the Lost City of Ubar, currently under excavation, is too small to show in either image. However, tracks leading to the site, and surrounding tracks, show as prominent, but diffuse, reddish streaks in the radar image. Although used in modern times, field investigations show many of these tracks were in use in ancient times as well. Mapping of these tracks on regional remote sensing images provided by the Landsat satellite was a key to recognizing the site as Ubar. The prominent magenta colored area is a region of large sand dunes. The green areas are limestone rocks, which form a rocky desert floor. A major wadi, or dry stream bed, runs across the scene and appears as a white line. The radar images, and ongoing field investigations, will help shed light on an early civilization about which little in known. The radar image was taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) and is centered at 18 degrees North latitude and 53 degrees East longitude. The image covers an area about 50 kilometers by 100 kilometers (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United

  15. Recommendation on Transition from Primary/Secondary Radar to Secondary- Only Radar Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    Radar Beacon Performance Monitor RCIU Remote Control Interface Unit RCL Remote Communications Link R E&D Research, Engineering and Development RML Radar...rate. 3.1.2.5 Maintenance The current LRRs have limited remote maintenance monitoring (RMM) capabilities via the Remote Control Interface Unit ( RCIU ...1, -2 and FPS-20 radars required an upgrade of some of the radar subsystems, namely the RCIU to respond as an RMS and the CD to interface with radar

  16. Parametric study on the performance of automotive MR shock absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gołdasz, J.; Dzierżek, S.

    2016-09-01

    The paper contains the results of a parametric study to explore the influence of various quantities on the performance range of semi-active automotive shock absorbers using the magnetorheological (MR) fluid under steady-state and transient excitations. The analysis was performed with simulated data and using a standard single-tube shock absorber configuration with a single-gap MR valve. Additionally, the impact of material variables and valves geometry was examined as the parameters were varied and its dynamic range studied.

  17. The First Year of Cassini RADAR Observations of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elachi, C.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2005-12-01

    Titan`s atmosphere is essentially transparent to Radar, making it an ideal technique to study Titan`s surface. Cassini`s Titan Radar Mapper operates as a passive radiometer, scatterometer, altimeter, and synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Here we review data from four fly-bys in the first year of Cassini`s tour (Ta: October 2004, T3: February 2005, T7: September 2005, and T8: October 2005.) Early SAR images from Ta and T3 (showing < 3% of Titan`s surface) reveal that Titan is geologically young and complex (see Elachi et al., 2005, Science 13, 970-4). Significant variations were seen between the range of features seen in the Ta swath (centered at ~50N, 80W) and T3 (~ 30N, 70W) : the large-scale radiometric properties also differed, with T3 being radar-brighter. A variety of features have been identified in SAR, including two large impact craters, cryovolcanic flows and a probable volcanic dome. Dendritic and braided radar-bright sinuous channels, some 180km long, are evidence of fluvial activity. `Cat scratches`, arrays of linear dark features seem most likely to be Aeolian. Radar provides unique topographic information on Titan`s landscape e.g. the depth of the 80km crater observed in T3 can be geometrically determined to be around 1300m deep. Despite the shallow large-scale slopes indicated in altimetry to date, many small hills are seen in T3. Scatterometry and radiometry maps provide large-scale classification of surface types and polarization and incidence angle coverage being assembled will constrain dielectric and scattering properties of the surface. Judging from the TA/T3 diversity, we expect further variations in the types and distribution of surface materials and geologic features in T7, which spans a wide range of Southern latitudes. T8 SAR will cover a near-equatorial dark region, including the landing site of the Huygens probe.

  18. Space Radar Image of Colombian Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a radar image of a little known volcano in northern Colombia. The image was acquired on orbit 80 of space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994, by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The volcano near the center of the image is located at 5.6 degrees north latitude, 75.0 degrees west longitude, about 100 kilometers (65 miles) southeast of Medellin, Colombia. The conspicuous dark spot is a lake at the bottom of an approximately 3-kilometer-wide (1.9-mile) volcanic collapse depression or caldera. A cone-shaped peak on the bottom left (northeast rim) of the caldera appears to have been the source for a flow of material into the caldera. This is the northern-most known volcano in South America and because of its youthful appearance, should be considered dormant rather than extinct. The volcano's existence confirms a fracture zone proposed in 1985 as the northern boundary of volcanism in the Andes. The SIR-C/X-SAR image reveals another, older caldera further south in Colombia, along another proposed fracture zone. Although relatively conspicuous, these volcanoes have escaped widespread recognition because of frequent cloud cover that hinders remote sensing imaging in visible wavelengths. Four separate volcanoes in the Northern Andes nations ofColombia and Ecuador have been active during the last 10 years, killing more than 25,000 people, including scientists who were monitoring the volcanic activity. Detection and monitoring of volcanoes from space provides a safe way to investigate volcanism. The recognition of previously unknown volcanoes is important for hazard evaluations because a number of major eruptions this century have occurred at mountains that were not previously recognized as volcanoes. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of

  19. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Under an agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense's National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is distributing elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM is a joint project of NASA and NGA to map the Earth's land surface in three dimensions at an unprecedented level of detail. As part of space shuttle Endeavour's flight during February 11-22, 2000, the SRTM successfully collected data over 80 percent of the Earth's land surface for most of the area between latitudes 60 degrees north and 56 degrees south. The SRTM hardware included the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (X-SAR) systems that had flown twice previously on other space shuttle missions. The SRTM data were collected with a technique known as interferometry that allows image data from dual radar antennas to be processed for the extraction of ground heights.

  20. Bam, Iran, Radar Interferometry -- Earthquake

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-06-25

    A magnitude 6.5 earthquake devastated the small city of Bam in southeast Iran on December 26, 2003. The two images from ESA Envisat show similar measures of the radar interferometric correlation in grayscale on the left and in false colors on the right.