Science.gov

Sample records for radar project interactive

  1. Equatorial MU Radar project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Mamoru; Hashiguchi, H.; Tsuda, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University (RISH) has been studying the atmosphere by using radars. The first big facility was the MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar installed in Shiga, Japan in 1984. This is one of the most powerful and multi-functional radar, and is successful of revealing importance of atmospheric waves for the dynamical vertical coupling processes. The next big radar was the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) installed at Kototabang, West Sumatra, Indonesia in 2001. The EAR was operated under close collaboration with LAPAN (Indonesia National Institute for Aeronautics and Space), and conducted the long-term continuous observations of the equatorial atmosphere/ionosphere for more than 10 years. The MU radar and the EAR are both utilized for inter-university and international collaborative research program for long time. National Institute for Polar Research (NIPR) joined EISCAT Scientific Association together with Nagoya University, and developed the PANSY radar at Syowa base in Antarctica as a joint project with University of Tokyo. These are the efforts of radar study of the atmosphere/ionosphere in the polar region. Now we can find that Japan holds a global network of big atmospheric/ionospheric radars. The EAR has the limitation of lower sensitivity compared with the other big radars shown above. RISH now proposes a plan of Equatorial MU Radar (EMU) that is to establish the MU-radar class radar next to the EAR. The EMU will have an active phased array antenna with the 163m diameter and 1055 cross-element Yagis. Total output power of the EMU will be more than 500kW. The EMU can detect turbulent echoes from the mesosphere (60-80km). In the ionosphere incoherent-scatter observations of plasma density, drift, and temperature would be possible. Multi-channel receivers will realize radar-imaging observations. The EMU is one of the key facilities in the project "Study of coupling processes in the solar-terrestrial system

  2. Radar-aeolian roughness project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Dobrovolskis, A.; Gaddis, L.; Iversen, J. D.; Lancaster, N.; Leach, Rodman N.; Rasnussen, K.; Saunders, S.; Vanzyl, J.; Wall, S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to establish an empirical relationship between measurements of radar, aeolian, and surface roughness on a variety of natural surfaces and to understand the underlying physical causes. This relationship will form the basis for developing a predictive equation to derive aeolian roughness from radar backscatter. Results are given from investigations carried out in 1989 on the principal elements of the project, with separate sections on field studies, radar data analysis, laboratory simulations, and development of theory for planetary applications.

  3. Operation Hardtack. Project 6. 5. Radar determination of fireball phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.; Viars, T.; McAfee, W.S.; Balton, I.A.

    1985-09-01

    The objectives of this project were to investigate the nature of radar echoes from the fireball produced by atomic detonations, and to determine the feasibility of finding ground zero, height-of-burst, and yield by means of radar echoes. It was concluded that no radar echoes were received from the fireballs of any Hardtack detonations. For surface shots, radar techniques can be used to determine ground zero to an accuracy of + or - 140 feet. The proportionality between maximum target size and yield of the device indicated that maximum size might be used as a rough measure of yield.

  4. BMEWS Radar Beam Generation and Projection Clear Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BMEWS Radar Beam Generation and Projection - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  5. Project Echo: Satellite-Tracking Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLange, O. E.

    1961-01-01

    The radar employed at the Bell Telephone Laboratories' Holmdel, New Jersey site for tracking the Echo I satellite was originally designed for the sole purpose of antenna pointing. Recently, however, it has also been employed to measure earth-balloon-earth path loss at regular intervals of time in order to ascertain the balloon's condition. The performance of the system and some of the data obtained are discussed.

  6. Interactive Genetics Tutorial Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Dept. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The Interactive Genetics Tutorial (IGT) project and the Intelligent Tutoring System for the IGT project named MENDEL supplement genetics instruction in biology courses by providing students with experience in designing, conducting, and evaluating genetics experiments. The MENDEL software is designed to: (1) simulate genetics experiments that…

  7. TOPEX Project Radar Altimeter Development Requirements and Specifications, Version 6.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossi, Laurence C.

    2003-01-01

    This document provides the guidelines by which the TOPEX Radar Altimeter hardware development effort for the TOPEX flight project shall be implemented and conducted. The conduct of this activity shall take maximum advantage of the efforts expended during the TOPEX Radar Altimeter Advanced Technology Model development program and other related Radar Altimeter development efforts. This document complies with the TOPEX Project Office document 633-420 (D-2218), entitled, "TOPEX Project Requirements and Constraints for the NASA Radar Altimeter" dated December 1987.

  8. An interactive system for compositing digital radar and satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, G. M.; Ghosh, K. K.; Chen, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for compositing digital radar data and GOES satellite data for meteorological analysis. The processing is performed on a user-oriented image processing system, and is designed to be used in the research mode. It has a capability to construct PPIs and three-dimensional CAPPIs using conventional as well as Doppler data, and to composite other types of data. In the remapping of radar data to satellite coordinates, two steps are necessary. First, PPI or CAPPI images are remapped onto a latitude-longitude projection. Then, the radar data are projected into satellite coordinates. The exact spherical trigonometric equations, and the approximations derived for simplifying the computations are given. The use of these approximations appears justified for most meteorological applications. The largest errors in the remapping procedure result from the satellite viewing angle parallax, which varies according to the cloud top height. The horizontal positional error due to this is of the order of the error in the assumed cloud height in mid-latitudes. Examples of PPI and CAPPI data composited with satellite data are given for Hurricane Frederic on 13 September 1979 and for a squall line on 2 May 1979 in Oklahoma.

  9. Radar Observations of Meteor Interactions in the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, I.; Pellinen-Wannberg, A.; Tjulin, A.

    2011-12-01

    Solid particles entering the Earth's atmosphere produce meteors in the ionosphere, typically at 80 to 120 km altitude, but also beyond. The major process causing the meteor is the vaporization of the solid after heating by collision with the atmospheric particles; sputtering also occurs. A fraction of the material that is ablated from the entering objects re-condenses into meteoric smoke particles. Meteors are actively detected by backscattering of radar signals and they are observed, for instance, with the EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association) radars. Meteor trail and headecho observations detect the ionisation that is associated with the meteor. They allow for studying the properties of the entering solid objects (dust and meteors) and the subsequent ionospheric interactions. We discuss the range of objects that can be detected with EISCAT and the capability of the measurements to find the formation of the meteoric smoke. We then consider the possibilities for measurements with the future EISCAT 3D.

  10. ULF wave interaction with the ionosphere: radar and magnetometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, Viacheslav; Fedorov, Evgeniy; Kozlovsky, Alexander; Belakhovsky, Vladimir; Teramoto, Mariko

    Combined usage of SuperDARN/EISCAT radars and magnetometers, supported by an adequate theory of ULF wave interaction with the multi-layer system magnetosphere - ionosphere - atmosphere - ground, is an effective way to reveal a physical mechanism of ULF disturbances. Many notions derived only from satellite or ground observations may be challenged by additional information from radars (e.g., association of ULF phenomena with magnetospheric domains, ULF wave spatial structure, etc.). To identify the physical nature of global Pc5 pulsations at the recovery phase of strong magnetic storms and to determine relative contributions of different MHD modes into their structure, the method of apparent impedance can be applied. These Pc5 pulsations are considered using the IMAGE magnetometer data and EISCAT radar data from Tromso-Kiruna-Sodankyla system. An approximate analytical relationship derived from the theory of ULF wave transmission through the thin ionosphere has been compared with the measured ratio between the simultaneous ionospheric electric and ground magnetic fields. The impedances of Alfven and compressional modes are to be essentially distinct. From these observations we conclude that the global Pc5 pulsations above the ionosphere are predominantly composed from Alfven waves with a small contribution of fast compressional mode. Combined SuperDARN Hokkaido radar and magnetometer observations of mid-latitude Pi2 pulsations showed that the concept of a pure cavity mode is not sufficient to explain these observations, and that the contribution of an Alfvén waves must be taken in account. ULF waves are not just sounding signals, but an active factor of the near-Earth environment. The comparison of magnetometer data with the ionospheric parameters shows a significant modulation of the electron density, ionospheric height-integrated conductance, and ion temperature by Pc5 pulsations, even in the absence of quasi-periodic electron precipitation. The mechanisms

  11. GEOS-2 C-band system project. C-band radars and their use on the GEOS-2 project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The material presented covers the general topic of C-band radars and their use throughout the GEOS-2 C-band Radar System Project and has direct application to the general problem of gathering accurate radar tracking data. The material is hardware oriented and all analyses and evaluations described pertain to the gathering of accurate data rather than to the application of the gathered data. The radar oriented investigations formed a basic and necessary part of the overall C-band experiment. The successful completion of these efforts led to the definition of how the radars were to be operated and calibrated. These hardware decisions directly affected the quality of the radar data and therefore played a large part in the successful application of these data to geodetic research.

  12. Analysis of Cassegrain Cloud Profiling Radar Antenna with Arbitrary Projected Apertures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussein, Z.; Im, E.

    2000-01-01

    A millimeter wave Cassegrain dual-reflector rada antenna (94GHz) with super-quadric projected aperture boundaries concept, that includes sub-reflector blockage effect, is evaluated for the spaceborne radar measurement of the vertical cloud profile structure.

  13. Signal Processing System for the CASA Integrated Project I Radars

    SciTech Connect

    Bharadwaj, Nitin; Chandrasekar, V.; Junyent, Francesc

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes the waveform design space and signal processing system for dual-polarization Doppler weather radar operating at X band. The performance of the waveforms is presented with ground clutter suppression capability and mitigation of range velocity ambiguity. The operational waveform is designed based on operational requirements and system/hardware requirements. A dual Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) waveform was developed and implemented for the first generation X-band radars deployed by the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA). This paper presents an evaluation of the performance of the waveforms based on simulations and data collected by the first-generation CASA radars during operations.

  14. Operation Hardtack. Project 6. 6. X-band radar determination of nuclear-cloud parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Bastian, C.W.; Robbiani, R.; Hargrave, J.

    1985-09-01

    The general objectives of this project were to make observations with weather Radar Set AN/CPS-9 in order to determine what characteristics and parameters of a nuclear detonation could be detected with X-band radar. The specific objectives were to obtain data that would lead to the determination of the following information relative to the nuclear cloud; rate of rise, rate of horizontal growth, maximum height, maximum diameter, stabilized height, fallout pattern due to the initial cloud formation, and range and azimuth versus time. As a result of this project, it was determined that the AN/CPS-9 radar is well suited for observations of surface or near-surface bursts, as would be expected from a comparison of its performance characteristics with those of other available radar sets.

  15. Unique interactive projection display screen

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1997-11-01

    Projection systems continue to be the best method to produce large (1 meter and larger) displays. However, in order to produce a large display, considerable volume is typically required. The Polyplanar Optic Display (POD) is a novel type of projection display screen, which for the first time, makes it possible to produce a large projection system that is self-contained and only inches thick. In addition, this display screen is matte black in appearance allowing it to be used in high ambient light conditions. This screen is also interactive and can be remotely controlled via an infrared optical pointer resulting in mouse-like control of the display. Furthermore, this display need not be flat since it can be made curved to wrap around a viewer as well as being flexible.

  16. A general interactive system for compositing digital radar and satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, K. K.; Chen, L. C.; Faghmous, M.; Heymsfield, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Reynolds and Smith (1979) have considered the combined use of digital weather radar and satellite data in interactive systems for case study analysis and forecasting. Satellites view the top of clouds, whereas radar is capable of observing the detailed internal structure of clouds. The considered approach requires the use of a common coordinate system. In the present investigation, it was decided to use the satellite coordinate system as the base system in order to maintain the fullest resolution of the satellite data. The investigation is concerned with the development of a general interactive software system called RADPAK for remapping and analyzing conventional and Doppler radar data. RADPAK is implemented as a part of a minicomputer-based image processing system, called Atmospheric and Oceanographic Image Processing System. Attention is given to a general description of the RADPAK system, remapping methodology, and an example of satellite remapping.

  17. Final report of LDRD project: Electromagnetic impulse radar for detection of underground structures

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, G.; Aurand, J.; Buttram, M.; Zutavern, F.; Brown, D.; Helgeson, W.

    1998-03-01

    This report provides a summary of the LDRD project titled: Electromagnetic impulse radar for the detection of underground structures. The project met all its milestones even with a tight two year schedule and total funding of $400 k. The goal of the LDRD was to develop and demonstrate a ground penetrating radar (GPR) that is based on high peak power, high repetition rate, and low center frequency impulses. The idea of this LDRD is that a high peak power, high average power radar based on the transmission of short impulses can be utilized effect can be utilized for ground penetrating radar. This direct time-domain system the authors are building seeks to increase penetration depth over conventional systems by using: (1) high peak power, high repetition rate operation that gives high average power, (2) low center frequencies that better penetrate the ground, and (3) short duration impulses that allow for the use of downward looking, low flying platforms that increase the power on target relative to a high flying platform. Specifically, chirped pulses that are a microsecond in duration require (because it is difficult to receive during transmit) platforms above 150 m (and typically 1 km) while this system, theoretically could be at 10 m above the ground. The power on target decays with distance squared so the ability to use low flying platforms is crucial to high penetration. Clutter is minimized by time gating the surface clutter return. Short impulses also allow gating (out) the coupling of the transmit and receive antennas.

  18. Radar Tracking with an Interacting Multiple Model and Probabilistic Data Association Filter for Civil Aviation Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Kao, Yu-Chun

    2013-01-01

    The current trend of the civil aviation technology is to modernize the legacy air traffic control (ATC) system that is mainly supported by many ground based navigation aids to be the new air traffic management (ATM) system that is enabled by global positioning system (GPS) technology. Due to the low receiving power of GPS signal, it is a major concern to aviation authorities that the operation of the ATM system might experience service interruption when the GPS signal is jammed by either intentional or unintentional radio-frequency interference. To maintain the normal operation of the ATM system during the period of GPS outage, the use of the current radar system is proposed in this paper. However, the tracking performance of the current radar system could not meet the required performance of the ATM system, and an enhanced tracking algorithm, the interacting multiple model and probabilistic data association filter (IMMPDAF), is therefore developed to support the navigation and surveillance services of the ATM system. The conventional radar tracking algorithm, the nearest neighbor Kalman filter (NNKF), is used as the baseline to evaluate the proposed radar tracking algorithm, and the real flight data is used to validate the IMMPDAF algorithm. As shown in the results, the proposed IMMPDAF algorithm could enhance the tracking performance of the current aviation radar system and meets the required performance of the new ATM system. Thus, the current radar system with the IMMPDAF algorithm could be used as an alternative system to continue aviation navigation and surveillance services of the ATM system during GPS outage periods. PMID:23686142

  19. MIT's role in project Apollo. Volume 2: Optical, radar, and candidate subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of optical, radar, and candidate subsystems for Project Apollo is discussed. The design and development of the optical subsystems for both the Apollo command and lunar spacecraft are described. Design approaches, problems, and solutions are presented. The evolution of radar interfaces with the GN&C system is discussed; these interfaces involved both hardware and software in a relatively complex interrelationship. The design and development of three candidate subsystems are also described. The systems were considered for use in Apollo, but were not incorporated into the final GN&C system. The three subsystems discussed are the star tracker-horizon photometer, the map and data viewer and the lunar module optical rendezvous system.

  20. The PHOCUS Project: Particle Interactions in the Polar Summer Mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbel, J.; Hedin, J.; Khaplanov, M.

    2012-12-01

    On the morning of July 21, 2011, the PHOCUS sounding rocket was launched from Esrange, Sweden, into strong noctilucent clouds (NLC) and polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE) observed by the Esrange lidar and the ESRAD MST radar. The aim of the PHOCUS project (Particles, Hydrogen and Oxygen Chemistry in the Upper Summer mesosphere) is to study mesospheric particles (ice and meteoric smoke) and their interaction with their neutral and charged environment. Starting out from first ideas in 2005, PHOCUS has developed into a comprehensive venture that connects to a number of new and renewed scientific questions. Interactions of interest comprise the charging and nucleation of particles, the relationship between meteoric smoke and ice, and the influence of these particles on gas-phase chemistry. This presentation gives an overview of the campaign and scientific results. The backbone of the campaign was a sounding rocket with 18 instruments from 8 scientific groups in Sweden, Norway, Germany, Austria and the USA. Atmospheric composition and ice particle properties were probed by a set of optical instruments from Stockholm University, in collaboration with the University in Trondheim. Exciting new instrument developments concerned microwave radiometers for in situ measurements of water vapour at 183 and 558 GHz by Chalmers University of Technology. Charged particles were probed by impact detectors from the University of Colorado, the University of Tromsø and the Leibniz Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), complemented by direct particle sampling from Stockholm University. The neutral and charged background state of the atmosphere was quantified by the Technical University Graz, IAP, and the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment. Important ground-based instrumentation included the Esrange lidar, the ESRAD MST radar, the SkiYMET meteor radar and EISCAT.

  1. From Bursts to Back-Projection: Signal Processing Techniques for Earth and Planetary Observing Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Discusses: (1) JPL Radar Overview and Historical Perspective (2) Signal Processing Needs in Earth and Planetary Radars (3) Examples of Current Systems and techniques (4) Future Perspectives in signal processing for radar missions

  2. Radar Remote Sensing of Ice and Sea State and Air-Sea Interaction in the Marginal Ice Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Radar Remote Sensing of Ice and Sea State and Air-Sea...Interaction in the Marginal Ice Zone Hans C. Graber RSMAS – Department of Ocean Sciences Center for Southeastern Tropical Advanced Remote Sensing...scattering and attenuation process of ocean waves interacting with ice . A nautical X-band radar on a vessel dedicated to science would be used to follow the

  3. Web-based Tools for Educators: Outreach Activities of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braaten, D. A.; Holvoet, J. F.; Gogineni, S.

    2003-12-01

    The Radar Systems and Remote Sensing Laboratory at the University of Kansas (KU) has implemented extensive outreach activities focusing on Polar Regions as part of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) project. The PRISM project is developing advanced intelligent remote sensing technology that involves radar systems, an autonomous rover, and communications systems to measure detailed ice sheet characteristics, and to determine bed conditions (frozen or wet) below active ice sheets in both Greenland and Antarctica. These measurements will provide a better understanding of the response of polar ice sheets to global climate change and the resulting impact the ice sheets will have on sea level rise. Many of the research and technological development aspects of the PRISM project, such as robotics, radar systems, climate change and exploration of harsh environments, can kindle an excitement and interest in students about science and technology. These topics form the core of our K-12 education and training outreach initiatives, which are designed to capture the imagination of young students, and prompt them to consider an educational path that will lead them to scientific or engineering careers. The K-12 PRISM outreach initiatives are being developed and implemented in a collaboration with the Advanced Learning Technology Program (ALTec) of the High Plains Regional Technology in Education Consortium (HPR*TEC). ALTec is associated with the KU School of Education, and is a well-established educational research center that develops and hosts web tools to enable teachers nationwide to network, collaborate, and share resources with other teachers. An example of an innovative and successful web interface developed by ALTec is called TrackStar. Teachers can use TrackStar over the Web to develop interactive, resource-based lessons (called tracks) on-line for their students. Once developed, tracks are added to the TrackStar database and can be accessed and modified

  4. Simultaneous Multi-angle Radar Observations of Langmuir Turbulence Excited by RF Ionospheric Interactions at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheerin, J. P.; Rayyan, N.; Watanabe, N.; Watkins, B. J.; Bristow, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    2013-10-01

    The high power HAARP HF transmitter is employed to generate and study strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) in the interaction region of overdense ionospheric plasma. Diagnostics included the Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) sited at HAARP, the SuperDARN-Kodiak HF radar, and HF receivers to record stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE). Dependence of diagnostic signals on HAARP HF parameters, including pulselength, duty-cycle, aspect angle, and frequency were recorded. Short pulse, low duty cycle experiments demonstrate control of artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAI) and isolation of ponderomotive effects. Among the effects observed and studied are: SLT spectra including cascade, collapse, and co-existence spectra and an outshifted plasma line under certain ionospheric conditions. High time resolution studies of the temporal evolution of the plasma line reveal the appearance of an overshoot effect on ponderomotive timescales. Bursty turbulence is observed in the collapse and cascade lines. For the first time, simultaneous multi-angle radar measurements of plasma line spectra are recorded demonstrating marked dependence on aspect angle with the strongest interaction region observed displaced southward of the HF zenith pointing angle. Numerous measurements of the outshifted plasma line are observed. Experimental results are compared to previous high latitude experiments and predictions from recent modeling efforts.

  5. Simultaneous Multi-angle Radar Observations of Langmuir Turbulence Excited by RF Ionospheric Interactions at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheerin, J. P.; Watanabe, N.; Rayyan, N.; Spry, D.; Adham, N.; Watkins, B. J.; Bristow, W. A.; Spaleta, J.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    The high power HAARP HF transmitter is employed to generate and study strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) in the interaction region of overdense ionospheric plasma. Diagnostics included the Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) sited at HAARP, the SuperDARN-Kodiak HF radar, and HF receivers to record stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE). Dependence of diagnostic signals on HAARP HF parameters, including pulselength, duty-cycle, aspect angle, and frequency were recorded. Short pulse, low duty cycle experiments demonstrate control of artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAI) and isolation of ponderomotive effects. Among the effects observed and studied are: SLT spectra including cascade, collapse, and co-existence spectra and an outshifted plasma line under certain ionospheric conditions. High time resolution studies of the temporal evolution of the plasma line reveal the appearance of an overshoot effect on ponderomotive timescales. Bursty turbulence is observed in the collapse and cascade lines. For the first time, simultaneous multi-angle radar measurements of plasma line spectra are recorded demonstrating marked dependence on aspect angle with the strongest interaction region observed displaced southward of the HF zenith pointing angle. Numerous measurements of the outshifted plasma line are observed. Experimental results are compared to previous high latitude experiments and predictions from recent modeling efforts.

  6. The Telescope Array RADAR (TARA) Project and the Search for the Radar Signature of Cosmic Ray Induced Extensive Air Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prohira, Steven; TARA Collaboration; Telescope Array Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The TARA (Telescope Array Radar) cosmic ray detector has been in operation since May 2013. It is the most ambitious effort to date to test an idea that originated in the 1940's: that ionization produced by cosmic ray extensive air showers should reflect electromagnetic radiation. The observation of this effect would open the possibility that remote-sensing radar technology could be used to detect and reconstruct extensive air showers, thus increasing the aperture available for the study of the highest-energy cosmic rays. TARA employs a bi-static radar configuration, consisting of a 25 kW, 5 MW ERP transmitter at 54.1 MHz broadcasting across the Telescope Array surface detector. 40 km distant, a set of log-periodic receiver antennas are read out by two independent data acquisition systems employing different techniques to select signals of the form expected for radar targets moving at close to the speed of light. In this talk, we describe the TARA detector and present the first quantitative limits on the radar cross-section of extensive air showers.

  7. Seasat synthetic aperture radar observations of wave-current and wave-topographic interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meadows, G. A.; Tseng, Y. C.; Shuchman, R. A.; Kasischke, E. S.

    1983-01-01

    This study investigated the capability of a spaceborne, imaging radar system to detect subtle changes in the propagation characteristics of ocean wave systems. Specifically, an evolving surface gravity wave system emanating from Hurricane Ella and propagating toward Cape Hatteras, NC, formed the basis of this investigation. This wave system was successfully imaged by the Seasat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) during revolution 974 on September 3, 1978. Estimates of the dominant wavelength and direction of the ocean waves were derived from the SAR data by using optical Fourier transforms. Environmental data of the test area, which included the surface velocity vector within the Gulf Stream, the location of Hurricane Ella, and local bathymetric information, were used in conjunction with the SAR data to form the basis of this comparative study. Favorable agreement was found between wave rays calculated by utilizing theoretical wave-current and wave-topographic interactions and SAR observed dominant wavelength and direction changes across the Gulf Stream and continental shelf.

  8. GEOS-2 C-band radar system project. Spectral analysis as related to C-band radar data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Work performed on spectral analysis of data from the C-band radars tracking GEOS-2 and on the development of a data compaction method for the GEOS-2 C-band radar data is described. The purposes of the spectral analysis study were to determine the optimum data recording and sampling rates for C-band radar data and to determine the optimum method of filtering and smoothing the data. The optimum data recording and sampling rate is defined as the rate which includes an optimum compromise between serial correlation and the effects of frequency folding. The goal in development of a data compaction method was to reduce to a minimum the amount of data stored, while maintaining all of the statistical information content of the non-compacted data. A digital computer program for computing estimates of the power spectral density function of sampled data was used to perform the spectral analysis study.

  9. Millimeter-Wave Radar Field Measurements and Inversion of Cloud Parameters for the 1999 Mt. Washington Icing Sensors Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pazmany, Andrew L.; Reehorst, Andrew (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Mount Washington Icing Sensors Project (MWISP) was a multi-investigator experiment with participants from Quadrant Engineering, NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL), the Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory (MIRSL) of the University of Massachusetts (UMass), and others. Radar systems from UMass and NOAA/ETL were used to measure X-, Ka-, and W-band backscatter data from the base of Mt. Washington, while simultaneous in-situ particle measurements were made from aircraft and from the observatory at the summit. This report presents range and time profiles of liquid water content and particle size parameters derived from range profiles of radar reflectivity as measured at X-, Ka-, and W-band (9.3, 33.1, and 94.9 GHz) using an artificial neural network inversion algorithm. In this report, we provide a brief description of the experiment configuration, radar systems, and a review of the artificial neural network used to extract cloud parameters from the radar data. Time histories of liquid water content (LWC), mean volume diameter (MVD) and mean Z diameter (MZD) are plotted at 300 m range intervals for slant ranges between 1.1 and 4 km. Appendix A provides details on the extraction of radar reflectivity from measured radar power, and Appendix B provides summary logs of the weather conditions for each day in which we processed data.

  10. Report of the "KPBS Interactive Videotex Project."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamberger, Nancy J.; Goodfriend, Kathleen K.

    Defining videotex and teletext as the most revolutionary innovations in communication since the invention of movable type, this paper describes The Interactive Videotex Project of public television station KPBS in San Diego, California. Following a brief overview of videotex and teletext technologies, the paper discusses (1) the development of the…

  11. Project - line interaction implementing projects in JPL's Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baroff, Lynn E.

    2006-01-01

    Can programmatic and line organizations really work interdependently, to accomplish their work as a community? Does the matrix produce a culture in which individuals take personal responsibility for both immediate mission success and long-term growth? What is the secret to making a matrix enterprise actually work? This paper will consider those questions, and propose that developing an effective project-line partnership demands primary attention to personal interactions among people. Many potential problems can be addressed by careful definition of roles, responsibilities, and work processes for both parts of the matrix -- and by deliberate and clear communication between project and line organizations and individuals.

  12. Spaceborne radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. K.; Eckerman, J.; Meneghini, R.; Atlas, D.; Boerner, W. M.; Cherry, S.; Clark, J. F.; Doviak, R. J.; Goldhirsh, J.; Lhermitte, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    The spaceborne radar panel considered how radar could be used to measure precipitation from satellites. The emphasis was on how radar could be used with radiometry (at microwave, visible (VIS), and infrared (IR) wavelengths) to reduce the uncertainties of measuring precipitation with radiometry alone. In addition, the fundamental electromagnetic interactions involved in the measurements were discussed to determine the key work areas for research and development to produce effective instruments. Various approaches to implementing radar systems on satellites were considered for both shared and dedicated instruments. Finally, a research and development strategy was proposed for establishing the parametric relations and retrieval algorithms required for extracting precipitation information from the radar and associated radiometric data.

  13. Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves with Two-Dimensional Metal Covered with Radar Absorbing Material and Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Chaohui; Hu, Xiwei; Jiang, Zhonghe

    2008-12-01

    A two-dimensional metal model is established to investigate the stealth mechanisms of radar absorbing material (RAM) and plasma when they cover the model together. Using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, the interaction of electromagnetic (EM) waves with the model can be studied. In this paper, three covering cases are considered: a. RAM or plasma covering the metal solely; b. RAM and plasma covering the metal, while plasma is placed outside; c. RAM and plasma covering the metal, while RAM is placed outside. The calculated results show that the covering order has a great influence on the absorption of EM waves. Compared to case a, case b has an advantage in the absorption of relatively high-frequency EM waves (HFWs), whereas case c has an advantage in the absorption of relatively low-frequency EM waves (LFWs). Through the optimization of the parameters of both plasma and RAM, it is hopeful to obtain a broad absorption band by RAM and plasma covering. Near-field attenuation rate and far-field radar cross section (RCS) are employed to compare the different cases.

  14. A New Illuminator of Opportunity Bistatic Radar Research Project at DSTO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    different transmitters’ waveform ambiguity functions is presented. Early results from field experi- ments demonstrating detections of cars, trucks, trains...results from field experiments demonstrating detections of cars, trucks, trains, helicopters and several aircraft using a terrestrial digital TV...James’ major research interests are in the field of bistatic radar and Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar. James has been with the Defence Science and

  15. A novel non-contact radar sensor for affective and interactive analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong-Dun; Lee, Yen-Shien; Shih, Hsiang-Lan; Chuang, Bor-Nian

    2013-01-01

    Currently, many physiological signal sensing techniques have been applied for affective analysis in Human-Computer Interaction applications. Most known maturely developed sensing methods (EEG/ECG/EMG/Temperature/BP etc. al.) replied on contact way to obtain desired physiological information for further data analysis. However, those methods might cause some inconvenient and uncomfortable problems, and not easy to be used for affective analysis in interactive performing. To improve this issue, a novel technology based on low power radar technology (Nanosecond Pulse Near-field Sensing, NPNS) with 300 MHz radio-frequency was proposed to detect humans' pulse signal by the non-contact way for heartbeat signal extraction. In this paper, a modified nonlinear HRV calculated algorithm was also developed and applied on analyzing affective status using extracted Peak-to-Peak Interval (PPI) information from detected pulse signal. The proposed new affective analysis method is designed to continuously collect the humans' physiological signal, and validated in a preliminary experiment with sound, light and motion interactive performance. As a result, the mean bias between PPI (from NPNS) and RRI (from ECG) shows less than 1ms, and the correlation is over than 0.88, respectively.

  16. Ocean-ice interaction in the marginal ice zone using synthetic aperture radar imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Antony K.; Peng, Chich Y.; Weingartner, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    Ocean-ice interaction processes in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) by wind, waves, and mesoscale features, such as up/downwelling and eddies are studied using Earth Remote-Sensing Satellite (ERS) 1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and an ocean-ice interaction model. A sequence of seven SAR images of the MIZ in the Chukchi Sea with 3 or 6 days interval are investigated for ice edge advance/retreat. Simultaneous current measurements from the northeast Chukchi Sea, as well as the Barrow wind record, are used to interpret the MIZ dynamics. SAR spectra of waves in ice and ocean waves in the Bering and Chukchi Sea are compared for the study of wave propagation and dominant SAR imaging mechanism. By using the SAR-observed ice edge configuration and wind and wave field in the Chukchi Sea as inputs, a numerical simulation has been performed with the ocean-ice interaction model. After 3 days of wind and wave forcing the resulting ice edge configuration, eddy formation, and flow velocity field are shown to be consistent with SAR observations.

  17. Radar absorption due to a corotating interaction region encounter with Mars detected by MARSIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, David D.; Gurnett, Donald A.; Kirchner, Donald L.; David Winningham, J.; Frahm, Rudy A.; Brain, David A.; Mitchell, David L.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Nielsen, Erling; Espley, Jared R.; Acuña, Mario H.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.

    2010-03-01

    Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) is a subsurface and topside ionosphere radar sounder aboard the European Space Agency spacecraft Mars Express, in orbit at Mars since 25 December 2003, and in operation since 17 June 2005. The ionospheric sounding mode of MARSIS is capable of detecting the reflection of the sounding wave from the martian surface. This ability has been used in previous work to show that the surface reflection is absorbed and disappears during periods when high fluxes of energetic particles are incident on the ionosphere of Mars. These absorption events are believed to be the result of increased collisional damping of the sounding wave, caused by increased electron density below the spacecraft, in turn caused by impact ionization from the impinging particles. In this work we identify two absorption events that were isolated during periods when the surface reflection is consistently visible and when Mars is nearly at opposition. The visibility of the surface reflection is viewed in conjunction with particle and photon measurements taken at both Mars and Earth. Both absorption events are found to coincide with Earth passing through solar wind speed and ion flux signatures indicative of a corotating interaction region (CIR). The two events are separated by an interval of approximately 27 days, corresponding to one solar rotation. The first of the two events coincides with abruptly enhanced particle fluxes seen in situ at Mars. Simultaneous with the particle enhancement there are an abrupt decrease in the intensity of electron oscillations, typically seen by the Mars Express particle instrument ASPERA-3 between the magnetic pileup boundary and the martian bow shock, and a sharp drop in the solar wind pressure, seen in the proxy quantity based on MGS magnetometer observations. The decrease in oscillation intensity is therefore the probable effect of a relaxation of the martian bow shock. The second absorption event does

  18. Analysis of borehole-radar reflection logs from selected HC boreholes at the Project Shoal area, Churchill County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, J.W.; Joesten, P.K.; Pohll, G.M.; Mihevic, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Single-hole borehole-radar reflection logs were collected and interpreted in support of a study to characterize ground-water flow and transport at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Churchill County, Nevada. Radar logging was conducted in six boreholes using 60-MHz omni-directional electric-dipole antennas and a 60-MHz magnetic-dipole directional receiving antenna.Radar data from five boreholes were interpreted to identify the location, orientation, estimated length, and spatial continuity of planar reflectors present in the logs. The overall quality of the radar data is marginal and ranges from very poor to good. Twenty-seven reflectors were interpreted from the directional radar reflection logs. Although the range of orientation interpreted for the reflectors is large, a significant number of reflectors strike northeast-southwest and east-west to slightly northwest-southeast. Reflectors are moderate to steeply dipping and reflector length ranged from less than 7 m to more than 133 m.Qualitative scores were assigned to each reflector to provide a sense of the spatial continuity of the reflector and the characteristics of the field data relative to an ideal planar reflector (orientation score). The overall orientation scores are low, which reflects the general data quality, but also indicates that the properties of most reflectors depart from the ideal planar case. The low scores are consistent with reflections from fracture zones that contain numerous, closely spaced, sub-parallel fractures.Interpretation of borehole-radar direct-wave velocity and amplitude logs identified several characteristics of the logged boreholes: (1) low-velocity zones correlate with decreased direct-wave amplitude, indicating the presence of fracture zones; (2) direct-wave amplitude increases with depth in three of the boreholes, suggesting an increase in electrical resistivity with depth resulting from changes in mineral assemblage or from a decrease in the specific conductance of ground

  19. Vesalius project: interactive computers in anatomical instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, Thomas O.; Roper, Stephen D.; Spurgeon, Thomas L.

    1991-04-01

    This project is based on an entirely new concept for teaching the structure and function of the human body a concept which combines traditional approaches gained from centuries of study of human anatomy with the most recent sophisticated 3-dimensional computer graphics display systems and laser disc technology. The end-point of the project is a high resolution interactive 3-D atlas of human/animal anatomy stored on a laser video disc and displayed on graphics workstations--an " electronic Gray''s Anatomy" . These displays will be used to teach the structure of the body and to give students and instructors an understanding of their own body in health and disease. To evaluate the software developed undergraduate students from the anatomy courses at CSU wil be allowed to work with the computer-generated images from the earliest stages of development. Feedback from these students will be incorporated into the software development. Furthermore once a relatively complete series of images has been generated groups of students will be selected at random to study anatomy with this new methodology and will be compared with control groups who utilize more traditional techniques. METHODOLOGY This is a complex project that requires many individual facets to be developed simultaneously (figure 1). We have established an important collaboration with the Uniformed Services University in Bethesda that will allow us to utilize a large cryotome with photographic systems and the expertise to operate it already available there. Indeed most of the elaborate apparatus such as graphics workstations needed for the project is currently available either at CSU or through collaborative arrangements with other institutions.

  20. Flash flood warning in mountaineous areas using X-band weather radars and the AIGA method in the framework of the RHYTMME project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javelle, Pierre; Defrance, Dimitri; Ecrepont, Stéphane; Fouchier, Catherine; Mériaux, Patrice; Tolsa, Mathieu; Westrelin, Samuel

    2013-04-01

    The knowledge of precipitations still remains a tricky issue in mountaineous areas: the available rain-gauges are in a limited number and most often located in the valleys, and the radar rainfall estimates have to deal with a lot of problems due to the relief and the difficulty to distinguish the different types of hydrometeors (snow, hail, rain). In this context, the "RHYTMME" project deals with two main issues: - Providing an accurate radar rainfall information in mountainous areas. - Developing a real-time hazards warning system based on this information. To answer to the first issue, a X-band doppler dual polarized radar network is currently implemented in the French South Alps. At the end of the project (2013), three new radars will be installed, completing a pre-existing radar already installed on the Mont Vial top since 2008 (Hydrix® technology developed by the Novimet company, and tested in a previous project). The present communication focuses on the flash flood warning issue. It presents some results obtained by coupling the radar estimates to a simple distributed hydrological model (the AIGA method). Results are compared on damages observed by end-users, which were strongly involved into the project. The RHYTMME project is co-piloted by Meteo-France and the Cemagref and has the financial support of the European Union, the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Region and the French Ministry in charge of Ecology.

  1. Radar Remote Sensing of Ice and Sea State and Air-Sea Interaction in the Marginal Ice Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    spectra to monitor the sea state surrounding floating ice especially as the vessel enters the MIZ. Figure 1 shows a photo of the MIZ in Antarctica ...interaction process. Figure 1: Photo of the MIZ in Antarctica taken from the bridge of a vessel (Meylan 2003). Single waves and wave groups are... extreme weather and sea state conditions. Standard methods are applied to derive directional wave spectra from a sequence of nautical radar images and

  2. OPERATION DOMINIC, FISH BOWL SERIES. Project Officer’s Report. Project 6.9. Radar Clutter Measurements - UHF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    area by the Johnston Island radars. Fireball/Debris Noise. Radio-noise emission was observed by the 398-, 850-, and 1210-Mc radars looking at the fire ...0 )N T2 T2~-Z3 12 TO~ tw/w- N30 :UM O83.IVS NM 1192 W 1s I IL 114; It 0 3"W -.IM 03d 120 W150.0 % I Ll 00 00 09 -- 34 - iiSwId~ 121 II ROOM manag ,20E

  3. Mission planning for Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) with a real-time interactive planning software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potts, Su K.

    1993-01-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) mission will operate from the payload bay of the space shuttle for 8 days, gathering Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data over specific sites on the Earth. The short duration of the mission and the requirement for realtime planning offer challenges in mission planning and in the design of the Planning and Analysis Subsystem (PAS). The PAS generates shuttle ephemerides and mission planning data and provides an interactive real-time tool for quick mission replanning. It offers a multi-user and multiprocessing environment, and it is able to keep multiple versions of the mission timeline data while maintaining data integrity and security. Its flexible design allows one software to provide different menu options based on the user's operational function, and makes it easy to tailor the software for other Earth orbiting missions.

  4. Ten years of experience from interactive ergonomics projects.

    PubMed

    Eklund, J; Karltun, J

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights experiences from ergonomics projects, applying an interactive research approach. The aim of this paper is to summarise experiences from seven interactive ergonomics projects with the aim to improve ergonomics and organizational performance jointly. Results from these seven projects were analysed with a model for assessing sustainable change, including the factors active ownership, professional management, competent project leadership, and involved participants. All factors were found giving support to impact and sustainability of the change projects. However, the role of the researcher is difficult and demanding.

  5. OPERATION HARDTACK. Project 6.6. X-Band Radar Determination of Nuclear-Cloud Parameters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    Review (NTPR) Program. The objective is to facilitate studies of the low levels of radiation received by some individuals during the atmospheric nuclear...the report accurately portrays the contents of the original. DNA also believes that the deleted material is of little or no significance to studies ...9. It la recommended that similar studies be conducted during future operations with radar sets such as the AN/MPS-34, as well as longer-wave-length

  6. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) project. VI - Spacecraft, scientific instruments, and launching rocket. Part 4 - TRMM rain radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, Robert; Atlas, David; Awaka, Jun; Okamoto, Ken'ichi; Ihara, Toshio; Nakamura, Kenji; Kozu, Toshiaki; Manabe, Takeshi

    1990-01-01

    The basic system parameters for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) radar system are frequency, beamwidth, scan angle, resolution, number of independent samples, pulse repetition frequency, data rate, and so on. These parameters were chosen to satisfy NASA's mission requirements. Six candidates for the TRMM rain radar were studied. The study considered three major competitive items: (1) a pulse-compression radar vs. a conventional radar; (2) an active-array radar with a solid state power amplifier vs. a passive-array radar with a traveling-wave-tube amplifier; and (3) antenna types (planar-array antenna vs. cylindrical parabolic antenna). Basic system parameters such as radar sensitivities, power consumption, weight, and size of these six types are described. Trade-off studies of these cases show that the non-pulse-compression active-array radar with a planar array is considered to be the most suitable candidate for the TRMM rain radar at 13.8 GHz.

  7. Nuclear reactor power for a space-based radar. SP-100 project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, Harvey; Heller, Jack; Jaffe, Leonard; Beatty, Richard; Bhandari, Pradeep; Chow, Edwin; Deininger, William; Ewell, Richard; Fujita, Toshio; Grossman, Merlin

    1986-01-01

    A space-based radar mission and spacecraft, using a 300 kWe nuclear reactor power system, has been examined, with emphasis on aspects affecting the power system. The radar antenna is a horizontal planar array, 32 X 64 m. The orbit is at 61 deg, 1088 km. The mass of the antenna with support structure is 42,000 kg; of the nuclear reactor power system, 8,300 kg; of the whole spacecraft about 51,000 kg, necessitating multiple launches and orbital assembly. The assembly orbit is at 57 deg, 400 km, high enough to provide the orbital lifetime needed for orbital assembly. The selected scenario uses six Shuttle launches to bring the spacecraft and a Centaur G upper-stage vehicle to assembly orbit. After assembly, the Centaur places the spacecraft in operational orbit, where it is deployed on radio command, the power system started, and the spacecraft becomes operational. Electric propulsion is an alternative and allows deployment in assembly orbit, but introduces a question of nuclear safety.

  8. Nonuniform fast Fourier transform-based fast back-projection algorithm for stepped frequency continuous wave ground penetrating radar imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Lele; Yin, Yuqing

    2016-10-01

    Stepped frequency continuous wave ground penetrating radar (SFCW-GPR) systems are becoming increasingly popular in the GPR community due to the wider dynamic range and higher immunity to radio interference. The traditional back-projection (BP) algorithm is preferable for SFCW-GPR imaging in layered mediums scenarios for its convenience and robustness. However, the existing BP imaging algorithms are usually very computationally intensive, which limits their practical applications to SFCW-GPR imaging. To solve the above problem, a fast SFCW-GPR BP imaging algorithm based on nonuniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) technique is proposed in this paper. By reformulating the traditional BP imaging algorithm into the evaluations of NUFFT, the computational efficiency of NUFFT is exploited to reduce the computational complexity of the imaging reconstruction. Both simulation and experimental results have verified the effectiveness and improvement of computational efficiency of the proposed imaging method.

  9. Student projects involving novel interaction with large displays.

    PubMed

    Dias, Paulo; Sousa, Tiago; Parracho, Joao; Cardoso, Igor; Monteiro, Andre; Sousa Santos, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    DETI-Interact is an interactive system that offers information relevant to students in the lobby of the University of Aveiro's Department of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics (DETI). The project started in 2009 with a master's thesis addressing interaction with public displays through Android smartphones. Since then, it has evolved considerably; it currently allows gesture interaction based on a Kinect sensor. Meanwhile, it has involved third-year students, master's students, and undergraduate students participating in a research initiation program.

  10. Interactive Learning for Global Education: Project ICONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, Brigid

    2001-01-01

    Describes the International Communication and Negotiation Simulations (ICONS) Project that teachers college students about cross-cultural communication, including the role of foreign language in diplomacy and the complexities of the international system. Discusses the role playing element, Web-based communication between teams, active student…

  11. Project InterActions: A Multigenerational Robotic Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Marina U.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents Project InterActions, a series of 5-week workshops in which very young learners (4- to 7-year-old children) and their parents come together to build and program a personally meaningful robotic project in the context of a multigenerational robotics-based community of practice. The goal of these family workshops is to teach both…

  12. Human-Robot Interaction Directed Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochlis, Jennifer; Ezer, Neta; Sandor, Aniko

    2011-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is about understanding and shaping the interactions between humans and robots (Goodrich & Schultz, 2007). It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces and command modalities affect the human s ability to perform tasks accurately, efficiently, and effectively (Crandall, Goodrich, Olsen Jr., & Nielsen, 2005) It is also critical to evaluate the effects of human-robot interfaces and command modalities on operator mental workload (Sheridan, 1992) and situation awareness (Endsley, Bolt , & Jones, 2003). By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed that support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for design. Because the factors associated with interfaces and command modalities in HRI are too numerous to address in 3 years of research, the proposed research concentrates on three manageable areas applicable to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) robot systems. These topic areas emerged from the Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 work that included extensive literature reviews and observations of NASA systems. The three topic areas are: 1) video overlays, 2) camera views, and 3) command modalities. Each area is described in detail below, along with relevance to existing NASA human-robot systems. In addition to studies in these three topic areas, a workshop is proposed for FY12. The workshop will bring together experts in human-robot interaction and robotics to discuss the state of the practice as applicable to research in space robotics. Studies proposed in the area of video overlays consider two factors in the implementation of augmented reality (AR) for operator displays during teleoperation. The first of these factors is the type of navigational guidance provided by AR symbology. In the proposed

  13. Environmental projects. Volume 15: Environmental assessment: Proposed 1-megawatt radar transmitter at the Mars site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the Mojave Desert about 64.5 km (40 mi) north of Barstow, California. and about 258 km (160 mi) northeast of Pasadena, California, is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Deep Space Network (DSN), one of the world's larger and more sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. The Goldstone Complex is managed, technically directed, and operated for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California. Activities at the GDSCC support the operation of six parabolic dish antennas located at five separate sites called Deep Space Stations (DSS's). Four sites, named Echo, Mars, Uranus, and Apollo, are operational for space missions, while the remaining Venus Site is devoted to research and development activities. The Mars Site at the GDSCC contains two antennas: the Uranus antenna (DSS 15, 34 m) and the Mars antenna (DSS 14, 70 m). This present volume deals solely with the DSS-14 Mars antenna. The Mars antenna not only can act as a sensitive receiver to detect signals from spacecraft, but it also can be used in radar astronomy as a powerful transmitter to send out signals to probe the solar system. At present, the Mars antenna operates as a continuous-wave microwave system at a frequency of 8.51 GHz at a power level of 0.5 MW. JPL has plans to upgrade the Mars antenna to a power level of 1 MW. Because of the anticipated increase in the ambient levels of radio frequency radiation (RFR), JPL retained Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BPNL), Richland, Washington, to conduct an environmental assessment with respect to this increased RFR. This present volume is a JPL-expanded version of the BPNL report titled Environmental Assessment of the Goldstone Solar System Radar, which was submitted to JPL in Nov. 1991. This BPNL report concluded that the operation of the upgraded Mars antenna at the

  14. A Critical Evaluation of Ground-Penetrating Radar Methodology on the Kalavasos and Maroni Built Environments (KAMBE) Project, Cyprus (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, J.; Urban, T.; Gerard-Little, P.; Kearns, C.; Manning, S. W.; Fisher, K.; Rogers, M.

    2013-12-01

    at these settlements. Having just completed this first phase of the project, we report on the results of large-scale geophysical survey, including the identification of at least two previously unknown building complexes (one at each site). Here we focus particularly on ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data and survey methodology, in an effort to critically examine the range of approaches applied throughout the project (e.g. various antennae frequencies, data-collection densities, soil moisture/seasonality of survey, and post-collection data processing [2]), and to identify the most effective parameters for archaeological geophysical survey in the region. This paper also advocates for the role of geophysical survey within a multi-component archaeological project, not simply as a prospection tool but as an archaeological data collection method in its own right. 1]Fisher, K. D., J. Leon, S. Manning, M. Rogers, and D. Sewell. In Press. 2011-2012. 'The Kalavasos and Maroni Built Environments Project: Introduction and preliminary report on the 2008 and 2010 seasons. Report of the Department of Antiquities, Cyprus. 2] e.g. Rogers, M., J. F. Leon, K. D. Fisher, S. W. Manning and D. Sewell. 2012. 'Comparing similar ground-penetrating radar surveys under different soil moisture conditions at Kalavasos-Ayios Dhimitrios, Cyprus.' Archaeological Prospection 19 (4): 297-305.

  15. FIRE_CI2_ETL_RADAR

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-11-25

    FIRE_CI2_ETL_RADAR Project Title:  FIRE II CIRRUS Discipline:  ... Platform:  Ground Station Instrument:  Radar Spatial Coverage:  (37.06, -95.34) Spatial ... Search Guide Documents:  ETL_RADAR Guide Readme Files:  Readme ETL_RADAR (PS) ...

  16. Human-Robot Interaction Directed Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, Ernest V., II; Chang, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces and command modalities affect the human's ability to perform tasks accurately, efficiently, and effectively when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. This DRP concentrates on three areas associated with interfaces and command modalities in HRI which are applicable to NASA robot systems: 1) Video Overlays, 2) Camera Views, and 3) Command Modalities. The first study focused on video overlays that investigated how Augmented Reality (AR) symbology can be added to the human-robot interface to improve teleoperation performance. Three types of AR symbology were explored in this study, command guidance (CG), situation guidance (SG), and both (SCG). CG symbology gives operators explicit instructions on what commands to input, whereas SG symbology gives operators implicit cues so that operators can infer the input commands. The combination of CG and SG provided operators with explicit and implicit cues allowing the operator to choose which symbology to utilize. The objective of the study was to understand how AR symbology affects the human operator's ability to align a robot arm to a target using a flight stick and the ability to allocate attention between the symbology and external views of the world. The study evaluated the effects type of symbology (CG and SG) has on operator tasks performance and attention allocation during teleoperation of a robot arm. The second study expanded on the first study by evaluating the effects of the type of

  17. Human-Robot Interaction Directed Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, Ernest V., II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2014-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces and command modalities affect the human's ability to perform tasks accurately, efficiently, and effectively when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. This DRP concentrates on three areas associated with interfaces and command modalities in HRI which are applicable to NASA robot systems: 1) Video Overlays, 2) Camera Views, and 3) Command Modalities. The first study focused on video overlays that investigated how Augmented Reality (AR) symbology can be added to the human-robot interface to improve teleoperation performance. Three types of AR symbology were explored in this study, command guidance (CG), situation guidance (SG), and both (SCG). CG symbology gives operators explicit instructions on what commands to input, whereas SG symbology gives operators implicit cues so that operators can infer the input commands. The combination of CG and SG provided operators with explicit and implicit cues allowing the operator to choose which symbology to utilize. The objective of the study was to understand how AR symbology affects the human operator's ability to align a robot arm to a target using a flight stick and the ability to allocate attention between the symbology and external views of the world. The study evaluated the effects type of symbology (CG and SG) has on operator tasks performance and attention allocation during teleoperation of a robot arm. The second study expanded on the first study by evaluating the effects of the type of

  18. Context-sensitive design and human interaction principles for usable, useful, and adoptable radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Laura A.; Klein, Laura M.

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of exquisitely sensitive Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems is positioning this technology for use in time-critical environments, such as search-and-rescue missions and improvised explosive device (IED) detection. SAR systems should be playing a keystone role in the United States' Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance activities. Yet many in the SAR community see missed opportunities for incorporating SAR into existing remote sensing data collection and analysis challenges. Drawing on several years' of field research with SAR engineering and operational teams, this paper examines the human and organizational factors that mitigate against the adoption and use of SAR for tactical ISR and operational support. We suggest that SAR has a design problem, and that context-sensitive, human and organizational design frameworks are required if the community is to realize SAR's tactical potential.

  19. The relationship between the microwave radar cross section and both wind speed and stress: Model function studies using Frontal Air-Sea Interaction Experiment data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, David E.; Davidson, Kenneth L.; Brown, Robert A.; Friehe, Carl A.; Li, Fuk

    1994-01-01

    The Frontal Air-Sea Interaction Experiment (FASINEX) provided a unique data set with coincident airborne scatterometer measurements of the ocean surface radar cross section (RCS)(at Ku band) and near-surface wind and wind stress. These data have been analyzed to study new model functions which relate wind speed and surface friction velocity (square root of the kinematic wind stress) to the radar cross section and to better understand the processes in the boundary layer that have a strong influence on the radar backscatter. Studies of data from FASINEX indicate that the RCS has a different relation to the friction velocity than to the wind speed. The difference between the RCS models using these two variables depends on the polarization and the incidence angle. The radar data have been acquired from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne scatterometer. These data span 10 different flight days. Stress measurements were inferred from shipboard instruments and from aircraft flying at low altitudes, closely following the scatterometer. Wide ranges of radar incidence angles and environmental conditions needed to fully develop algorithms are available from this experiment.

  20. Monitoring by holographic radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Crocco, Lorenzo; Affinito, Antonio; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, radar technology represents a significant opportunity to collect useful information for the monitoring and conservation of critical infrastructures. Radar systems exploit the non-invasive interaction between the matter and the electromagnetic waves at microwave frequencies. Such an interaction allows obtaining images of the region under test from which one can infer the presence of potential anomalies such as deformations, cracks, water infiltrations, etc. This information turns out to be of primary importance in practical scenarios where the probed structure is in a poor state of preservation and renovation works must be planned. In this framework, the aim of this contribution is to describe the potentialities of the holographic radar Rascan 4/4000, a holographic radar developed by Remote Sensing Laboratory of Bauman Moscow State Technical University, as a non-destructive diagnostic tool capable to provide, in real-time, high resolution subsurface images of the sounded structure [1]. This radar provides holograms of hidden anomalies from the amplitude of the interference signal arising between the backscattered signal and a reference signal. The performance of the holographic radar is appraised by means of several experiments. Preliminary tests concerning the imaging below the floor and inside wood structures are carried out in controlled conditions at the Electromagnetic Diagnostic Laboratory of IREA-CNR. After, with reference to bridge monitoring for security aim, the results of a measurement campaign performed on the Musmeci bridge are presented [2]. Acknowledgments This research has been performed in the framework of the "Active and Passive Microwaves for Security and Subsurface imaging (AMISS)" EU 7th Framework Marie Curie Actions IRSES project (PIRSES-GA-2010-269157). REFERENCES [1] S. Ivashov, V. Razevig, I. Vasilyev, A. Zhuravlev, T. Bechtel, L. Capineri, The holographic principle in subsurface radar technology, International Symposium to

  1. Project ITCH: Interactive Digital Simulation in Electrical Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, F. N.; Kain, R. Y.

    A two-stage project is investigating the educational potential of a low-cost time-sharing system used as a simulation tool in Electrical Engineering (EE) education. Phase I involves a pilot study and Phase II a full integration. The system employs interactive computer simulation to teach engineering concepts which are not well handled by…

  2. Art History Interactive Videodisc Project at the University of Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sustik, Joan M.

    A project which developed a retrieval system to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of an interactive computer and video display system over traditional methods for using a slide library is described in this publication. The art school slide library of the University of Iowa stores transparencies which are arranged alphabetically within…

  3. Minnesota GPR Project 1998: testing ground penetrating radar technology on Minnesota roads and highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarenketo, Timo; van Deusen, David; Maijala, Pekka

    2000-04-01

    During May 1998, Roadscanners Oy together with the Office of Minnesota Road Research performed a series of GPR tests in Minnesota, in order to determine the level of accuracy of the GPR technology in pavement and subgrade soil testing. The project involved a total of 195 km of GPR surveys carried out in different locations throughout Minnesota. The test sections represented a range of pavement materials, structures and soils found in the state. A number of GPR tests were performed to evaluate different types of pavement defect and ascertain their causes. The results of the Minnesota GPR Project 1998 clearly show the potential benefits that GPR techniques could offer the Minnesota Department of Transportation (DOT). The results of the Mn/ROAD tests show that GPR can be applied in measuring the layer thickness of various pavement structures. The surface reflection technique can be used to determine the signal velocity of both asphalt and concrete pavement structures. Mn/ROAD surveys also revealed evidence of some previously unknown defects in test cells, e.g. stripping, voids and moisture anomalies. A good example of the benefits the GPR technique can offer in detecting stripping is the T.H. 23, T.H. 71 Willmar case, where reference data, drill cores and FWD data matched almost perfectly with the GPR data. Another notable case presented in the paper is U.S. 52, Oronoco, where defects due to differential frost heave were located.

  4. The intermountain power project commissioning - Subsynchronous torsional interaction tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.T.; Peterson, K.J. ); Pinko, R.J.; Kankam, M.D.; Baker, D.H. )

    1988-10-01

    Subsyncronous torsional vibration as a result of electrochemical interaction between the HVDC controls and a turbine-generator was first discovered during the commissioning of the Square Butte Project in 1977. The level of interaction between the HVDC controls and the turbine-generator depends on several interacting factors: the characteristic torsional frequencies of the turbine-generator, the bandwidth of the HVDC controls and the relative strength of the connecting ac system. For the Intermountain Power Project (IPP), early analysis of these interacting factors indicated that there exist definite potential for subsynchronous oscillation to occur. The calculated torsional frequencies of the IPP units showed that the first mode frequency is 14.0 Hz and is within the typical bandwidth of an HVDC control which is between 10-20 Hz. The HVDC controls, therefore, can influence the torsional stability of the IPP units. Further, the IPP turbine-generators are required to operate isolated on the HVDC rectifier terminal, with no other interconnecting ac network. This ''radial'' mode of operation will result in maximum interaction between the converter station and the IPP units. It became obvious that special measure must be implemented in the design of the IPP HVDC control system to modify its typical characteristics to avoid the occurrence of the subsynchronous oscillation. This paper presents the results of the subsynchronous torsional interaction (SSTI) tests that were performed during the commissioning of the IPP Unit 1 and the HVDC Transmission system.

  5. Interactive lecture demonstrations, active learning, and the ALOP project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2011-05-01

    There is considerable evidence from the physics education literature that traditional approaches are ineffective in teaching physics concepts. A better teaching method is to use the active learning environment, which can be created using interactive lecture demonstrations. Based on the active learning methodology and within the framework of the UNESCO mandate in physics education and introductory physics, the ALOP project (active learning in optics and photonics) was started in 2003, to provide a focus on an experimental area that is adaptable and relevant to research and educational conditions in many developing countries. This project is discussed in this paper.

  6. Laser-capillary interaction for the EXIN project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisesto, F. G.; Anania, M. P.; Bacci, A. L.; Bellaveglia, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Curcio, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Galletti, M.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Marocchino, A.; Mostacci, A.; Petrarca, M.; Pompili, R.; Rossi, A. R.; Serafini, L.; Vaccarezza, C.

    2016-09-01

    The EXIN project is under development within the SPARC_LAB facility of the National Laboratory of Frascati (LNF-INFN). This project aims to accelerate pre-existing electron bunches with high brightness by exploiting the wakefield plasma acceleration technique, while preserving the initial brightness. The wakefield is excited inside a dielectric capillary by high intensity laser pulses produced by the FLAME laser interacting with a gas. In this work, we present numerical simulations in order to optimize energy coupling between our laser with super-Gaussian transverse profile and a dielectric capillary. Moreover, an overview of the experimental layout will be given.

  7. Radar principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Toru

    1989-01-01

    Discussed here is a kind of radar called atmospheric radar, which has as its target clear air echoes from the earth's atmosphere produced by fluctuations of the atmospheric index of refraction. Topics reviewed include the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index and its fluctuations, the radar equation (a relation between transmitted and received power), radar equations for distributed targets and spectral echoes, near field correction, pulsed waveforms, the Doppler principle, and velocity field measurements.

  8. Radar and Lidar Radar DEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liskovich, Diana; Simard, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Using radar and lidar data, the aim is to improve 3D rendering of terrain, including digital elevation models (DEM) and estimates of vegetation height and biomass in a variety of forest types and terrains. The 3D mapping of vegetation structure and the analysis are useful to determine the role of forest in climate change (carbon cycle), in providing habitat and as a provider of socio-economic services. This in turn will lead to potential for development of more effective land-use management. The first part of the project was to characterize the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM error with respect to ICESat/GLAS point estimates of elevation. We investigated potential trends with latitude, canopy height, signal to noise ratio (SNR), number of LiDAR waveform peaks, and maximum peak width. Scatter plots were produced for each variable and were fitted with 1st and 2nd degree polynomials. Higher order trends were visually inspected through filtering with a mean and median filter. We also assessed trends in the DEM error variance. Finally, a map showing how DEM error was geographically distributed globally was created.

  9. From Speech to Emotional Interaction: EmotiRob Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Tallec, Marc; Saint-Aimé, Sébastien; Jost, Céline; Villaneau, Jeanne; Antoine, Jean-Yves; Letellier-Zarshenas, Sabine; Le-Pévédic, Brigitte; Duhaut, Dominique

    This article presents research work done in the domain of nonverbal emotional interaction for the EmotiRob project. It is a component of the MAPH project, the objective of which is to give comfort to vulnerable children and/or those undergoing long-term hospitalisation through the help of an emotional robot companion. It is important to note that we are not trying to reproduce human emotion and behavior, but trying to make a robot emotionally expressive. This paper will present the different hypotheses we have used from understanding to emotional reaction. We begin the article with a presentation of the MAPH and EmotiRob project. Then, we quickly describe the speech undestanding system, the iGrace computational model of emotions and integration of dynamics behavior. We conclude with a description of the architecture of Emi, as well as improvements to be made to its next generation.

  10. Project InterActions: A Multigenerational Robotic Learning Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bers, Marina U.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents Project InterActions, a series of 5-week workshops in which very young learners (4- to 7-year-old children) and their parents come together to build and program a personally meaningful robotic project in the context of a multigenerational robotics-based community of practice. The goal of these family workshops is to teach both parents and children about the mechanical and programming aspects involved in robotics, as well as to initiate them in a learning trajectory with and about technology. Results from this project address different ways in which parents and children learn together and provide insights into how to develop educational interventions that would educate parents, as well as children, in new domains of knowledge and skills such as robotics and new technologies.

  11. Flexibility and Project Value: Interactions and Multiple Real Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čulík, Miroslav

    2010-06-01

    This paper is focused on a project valuation with embedded portfolio of real options including their interactions. Valuation is based on the criterion of Net Present Value on the simulation basis. Portfolio includes selected types of European-type real options: option to expand, contract, abandon and temporarily shut down and restart a project. Due to the fact, that in reality most of the managerial flexibility takes the form of portfolio of real options, selected types of options are valued not only individually, but also in combination. The paper is structured as follows: first, diffusion models for forecasting of output prices and variable costs are derived. Second, project value is estimated on the assumption, that no real options are present. Next, project value is calculated with the presence of selected European-type options; these options and their impact on project value are valued first in isolation and consequently in different combinations. Moreover, intrinsic value evolution of given real options with respect to the time of exercising is analysed. In the end, results are presented graphically; selected statistics and risk measures (Value at Risk, Expected Shortfall) of the NPV's distributions are calculated and commented.

  12. Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondéjar, Albert; Benveniste, Jérôme; Naeije, Marc; Escolà, Roger; Moyano, Gorka; Roca, Mònica; Terra-Homem, Miguel; Friaças, Ana; Martinho, Fernando; Schrama, Ernst; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco

    2016-07-01

    The universal altimetry toolbox, BRAT (Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry missions' data, incorporates now the capability to read the upcoming Sentinel-3 L1 and L2 products. ESA endeavoured to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Études Spatiales), and it is freely available at http://earth.esa.int/brat. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats. The BratGUI is the front-end for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with MATLAB/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the data-formatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as NetCDF, ASCII text files, KML (Google Earth) and raster images (JPEG, PNG, etc.). Several kinds of computations can be done within BRAT involving combinations of data fields that the user can save for posterior reuse or using the already embedded formulas that include the standard oceanographic altimetry formulas. The Radar Altimeter Tutorial, that contains a strong introduction to altimetry, shows its applications in different fields such as Oceanography, Cryosphere, Geodesy, Hydrology among others. Included are also "use cases", with step-by-step examples, on how to use the toolbox in the different contexts. The Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox shall benefit from the current BRAT version. While developing the toolbox we will revamp of the Graphical User Interface and provide, among other enhancements, support for reading the upcoming S3 datasets and

  13. Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escolà, Roger; Garcia-Mondejar, Albert; Moyano, Gorka; Roca, Mònica; Terra-Homem, Miguel; Friaças, Ana; Martinho, Fernando; Schrama, Ernst; Naeije, Marc; Ambrozio, Americo; Restano, Marco; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    The universal altimetry toolbox, BRAT (Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry missions' data, incorporates now the capability to read the upcoming Sentinel-3 L1 and L2 products. ESA endeavoured to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales), and it is freely available at http://earth.esa.int/brat. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats. The BratGUI is the front-end for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with MATLAB/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the data-formatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as NetCDF, ASCII text files, KML (Google Earth) and raster images (JPEG, PNG, etc.). Several kinds of computations can be done within BRAT involving combinations of data fields that the user can save for posterior reuse or using the already embedded formulas that include the standard oceanographic altimetry formulas. The Radar Altimeter Tutorial, that contains a strong introduction to altimetry, shows its applications in different fields such as Oceanography, Cryosphere, Geodesy, Hydrology among others. Included are also "use cases", with step-by-step examples, on how to use the toolbox in the different contexts. The Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox shall benefit from the current BRAT version. While developing the toolbox we will revamp of the Graphical User Interface and provide, among other enhancements, support for reading the upcoming S3 datasets and

  14. Developing Dual Polarization Applications For 45th Weather Squadron's (45 WS) New Weather Radar: A Cooperative Project With The National Space Science and Technology Center (NSSTC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeder, W.P.; Peterson, W.A.; Carey, L.D.; Deierling, W.; McNamara, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    A new weather radar is being acquired for use in support of America s space program at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, NASA Kennedy Space Center, and Patrick AFB on the east coast of central Florida. This new radar includes dual polarization capability, which has not been available to 45 WS previously. The 45 WS has teamed with NSSTC with funding from NASA Marshall Spaceflight Flight Center to improve their use of this new dual polarization capability when it is implemented operationally. The project goals include developing a temperature profile adaptive scan strategy, developing training materials, and developing forecast techniques and tools using dual polarization products. The temperature profile adaptive scan strategy will provide the scan angles that provide the optimal compromise between volume scan rate, vertical resolution, phenomena detection, data quality, and reduced cone-of-silence for the 45 WS mission. The mission requirements include outstanding detection of low level boundaries for thunderstorm prediction, excellent vertical resolution in the atmosphere electrification layer between 0 C and -20 C for lightning forecasting and Lightning Launch Commit Criteria evaluation, good detection of anvil clouds for Lightning Launch Commit Criteria evaluation, reduced cone-of-silence, fast volume scans, and many samples per pulse for good data quality. The training materials will emphasize the appropriate applications most important to the 45 WS mission. These include forecasting the onset and cessation of lightning, forecasting convective winds, and hopefully the inference of electrical fields in clouds. The training materials will focus on annotated radar imagery based on products available to the 45 WS. Other examples will include time sequenced radar products without annotation to simulate radar operations. This will reinforce the forecast concepts and also allow testing of the forecasters. The new dual polarization techniques and tools will focus on

  15. An interactive flow model for projecting school enrolments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Edward

    1993-07-01

    Successful planning in educational administration is highly dependent on accurate student numbers. An interactive enrolment projection model is described which begins with pre-school age children to project the expected number of first grade entrants. These cohorts are then progressed through the school system. The model described can be implemented on a microcomputer and uses an interactive technique which enables human intervention in order to take full account of local knowledge in predicting the numbers in each year group. Control is maintained by allowing groups of schools to be amalgamated and then by applying to these larger groups the same techniques used to obtain the initial individual school enrolments. Adjustments to individual school enrolments are then possible following the reconciliation of larger group figures with known demographic statistics. This counteracts the effects of student mobility across wider areas and overcomes many of the problems associated with simple aggregation of individual school projections. The model provides a valuable planning tool when enrolment figures are needed for decision making.

  16. Quality interaction between mission assurance and project team members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong-Fu, Helenann; Wilson, Robert K.

    2006-06-01

    Mission Assurance's independent assessments started during the SPITZER development cycle and continued through post-launch operations. During the operations phase, the health and safety of the observatory is of utmost importance. Therefore, Mission Assurance must ensure requirements compliance and focus on the process improvements required across the operational systems, including new/modified products, tools, and procedures. To avoid problem reoccurrences, an interactive model involving three areas was deployed: Team Member Interaction, Root Cause Analysis Practices, and Risk Assessment. In applying this model, a metric-based measurement process was found to have the most significant benefit. Considering a combination of root cause analysis and risk approaches allows project engineers to the ability to prioritize and quantify their corrective actions based on a well-defined set of root cause definitions (i.e., closure criteria for problem reports), success criteria, and risk rating definitions.

  17. About uncertainties in sea ice thickness retrieval from satellite radar altimetry: results from the ESA-CCI Sea Ice ECV Project Round Robin Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, S.; Khvorostovsky, K.; Skourup, H.; Rinne, E.; Parsakhoo, Z. S.; Djepa, V.; Wadhams, P.; Sandven, S.

    2014-03-01

    One goal of the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative sea ice Essential Climate Variable project is to provide a quality controlled 20 year long data set of Arctic Ocean winter-time sea ice thickness distribution. An important step to achieve this goal is to assess the accuracy of sea ice thickness retrieval based on satellite radar altimetry. For this purpose a data base is created comprising sea ice freeboard derived from satellite radar altimetry between 1993 and 2012 and collocated observations of snow and sea ice freeboard from Operation Ice Bridge (OIB) and CryoSat Validation Experiment (CryoVEx) air-borne campaigns, of sea ice draft from moored and submarine Upward Looking Sonar (ULS), and of snow depth from OIB campaigns, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer aboard EOS (AMSR-E) and the Warren Climatology (Warren et al., 1999). An inter-comparison of the snow depth data sets stresses the limited usefulness of Warren climatology snow depth for freeboard-to-thickness conversion under current Arctic Ocean conditions reported in other studies. This is confirmed by a comparison of snow freeboard measured during OIB and CryoVEx and snow freeboard computed from radar altimetry. For first-year ice the agreement between OIB and AMSR-E snow depth within 0.02 m suggests AMSR-E snow depth as an appropriate alternative. Different freeboard-to-thickness and freeboard-to-draft conversion approaches are realized. The mean observed ULS sea ice draft agrees with the mean sea ice draft computed from radar altimetry within the uncertainty bounds of the data sets involved. However, none of the realized approaches is able to reproduce the seasonal cycle in sea ice draft observed by moored ULS satisfactorily. A sensitivity analysis of the freeboard-to-thickness conversion suggests: in order to obtain sea ice thickness as accurate as 0.5 m from radar altimetry, besides a freeboard estimate with centimetre accuracy, an ice-type dependent sea ice density is as mandatory

  18. Planetary Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  19. Interactive Web Interface to the Global Strain Rate Map Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meertens, C. M.; Estey, L.; Kreemer, C.; Holt, W.

    2004-05-01

    An interactive web interface allows users to explore the results of a global strain rate and velocity model and to compare them to other geophysical observations. The most recent model, an updated version of Kreemer et al., 2003, has 25 independent rigid plate-like regions separated by deformable boundaries covered by about 25,000 grid areas. A least-squares fit was made to 4900 geodetic velocities from 79 different geodetic studies. In addition, Quaternary fault slip rate data are used to infer geologic strain rate estimates (currently only for central Asia). Information about the style and direction of expected strain rate is inferred from the principal axes of the seismic strain rate field. The current model, as well as source data, references and an interactive map tool, are located at the International Lithosphere Program (ILP) "A Global Strain Rate Map (ILP II-8)" project website: http://www-world-strain-map.org. The purpose of the ILP GSRM project is to provide new information from this, and other investigations, that will contribute to a better understanding of continental dynamics and to the quantification of seismic hazards. A unique aspect of the GSRM interactive Java map tool is that the user can zoom in and make custom views of the model grid and results for any area of the globe selecting strain rate and style contour plots and principal axes, observed and model velocity fields in specified frames of reference, and geologic fault data. The results can be displayed with other data sets such Harvard CMT earthquake focal mechanisms, stress directions from the ILP World Stress Map Project, and topography. With the GSRM Java map tool, the user views custom maps generated by a Generic Mapping Tool (GMT) server. These interactive capabilities greatly extend what is possible to present in a published paper. A JavaScript version, using pre-constructed maps, as well as a related information site have also been created for broader education and outreach access

  20. Public Interaction and Educational Outreach on the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    A. Benson; Y. Riding

    2002-11-14

    In July 2002, the U.S. Congress approved Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the nation's first long-term geologic repository site for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This major milestone for the country's high-level radioactive waste disposal program comes after more than twenty years of scientific study and intense public interaction and outreach. This paper describes public interaction and outreach challenges faced by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Yucca Mountain Project in the past and what additional communication strategies may be instituted following the July 2002 approval by the U.S. Congress to develop the site as the nation's first long-term geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The DOE public involvement activities were driven by two federal regulations--the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982, as amended. The NEPA required that DOE hold public hearings at key points in the development of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the NWPA required the agency to conduct public hearings in the vicinity of the site prior to making a recommendation regarding the site's suitability. The NWPA also provided a roadmap for how DOE would interact with affected units of government, which include the state of Nevada and the counties surrounding the site. Because the Department anticipated and later received much public interest in this high-profile project, the agency decided to go beyond regulatory-required public involvement activities and created a broad-based program that implemented far-reaching public interaction and outreach tactics. Over the last two decades, DOE informed, educated, and engaged a myriad of interested local, national, and international parties using various traditional and innovative approaches. The Yucca Mountain Project's intensive public affairs initiatives were instrumental in involving the public, which in turn resulted in

  1. Radar Data Quality Control and Assimilation at the National Weather Radar Testbed (NWRT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-30

    Radar Data Quality Control and Assimilation at the National Weather Radar Testbed (NWRT) Dr. Qin Xu, CIMMS , University of Oklahoma, 120 David...scientists at CIMMS , the University of Oklahoma. Collaborations between this project and the development of the NWRT phased array radar is coordinated by

  2. Ground-based portable radar interferometer for imaging glacier flow, ocean-glacier ice interactions, and river ice breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahnestock, M. A.; Cassotto, R.; Truffer, M.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last 18 months we have deployed new 17 GHz imaging radars from Gamma Remote Sensing to document flow on land terminating and tidewater glaciers in Greenland and Alaska; to image glacier response to tides and calving; to track floating ice in fjords; and to document river ice movement, ice jams, and associated flooding during breakup on the Tanana River in Alaska. During these deployments we have learned much about atmospheric influences on interferometric measurements; combination of flow direction determinations from feature tracking in amplitude imagery with short-term flow variability from interferometry. We show examples documenting measurement capabilities and limitations from each of these deployments. These radars represent unique tools for study of rapid changes in dynamic parts of the cryosphere.

  3. Evaluating Types of Students' Interactions in a Wiki-Based Collaborative Learning Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokofieva, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Wiki technology has been promoted as a collaborative software platform. This study investigates interactions that occur in a wiki-based collaborative learning project. The study draws on interaction literature and investigates the types of interactions with which students are engaged in wiki-based group projects, clusters that reflect online…

  4. Coaching and Inspiring an Interactive Family Literacy Project of Excellence in a School-Based Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, M. Parker; Adelman, David

    2007-01-01

    This article features the Project of Excellence, a program that was designed to engage families in an interactive community-based school literacy program. The authors discuss how they created the Project of Excellence. Although the goal of the Project was to improve the reading skills of young children, the focus of the Project was directed toward…

  5. Research relative to weather radar measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul L.

    1992-01-01

    Research relative to weather radar measurement techniques, which involves some investigations related to measurement techniques applicable to meteorological radar systems in Thailand, is reported. A major part of the activity was devoted to instruction and discussion with Thai radar engineers, technicians, and meteorologists concerning the basic principles of radar meteorology and applications to specific problems, including measurement of rainfall and detection of wind shear/microburst hazards. Weather radar calibration techniques were also considered during this project. Most of the activity took place during two visits to Thailand, in December 1990 and February 1992.

  6. German Radar Observation Shuttle Experiment (ROSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleber, A. J.; Hartl, P.; Haydn, R.; Hildebrandt, G.; Konecny, G.; Muehlfeld, R.

    1984-01-01

    The success of radar sensors in several different application areas of interest depends on the knowledge of the backscatter of radar waves from the targets of interest, the variance of these interaction mechanisms with respect to changing measurement parameters, and the determination of the influence of he measuring systems on the results. The incidence-angle dependency of the radar cross section of different natural targets is derived. Problems involved by the combination of data gained with different sensors, e.g., MSS-, TM-, SPOTand SAR-images are analyzed. Radar cross-section values gained with ground-based radar spectrometers and spaceborne radar imaging, and non-imaging scatterometers and spaceborne radar images from the same areal target are correlated. The penetration of L-band radar waves into vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces is analyzed.

  7. RADAR WARNING SYSTEM,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    RADAR TRACKING, *AIRCRAFT DEFENSE SYSTEMS, RADAR EQUIPMENT, AIR TO AIR, SEARCH RADAR, GUIDED MISSILES, HIGH SPEED BOMBING, EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS, FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, AIRCRAFT, TIME, CHINA.

  8. Interactive Spherical Projection Presentations teach students about the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, S. B.; Pilger, E.; James, B.; Au, C.; Lum, K.; Gillis-Davis, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Using data from Clementine, Lunar Orbiter, Lunar Prospector, as well as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission we are creating multimedia applications for the Magic Planet (MP) and Science on a Sphere (SOS), spherical displays for digital media, for the Moon. Presenting the data on this innovative and stimulating medium captures the interest, stimulates curiosity, and inspires scientific learning in children, as well as general audiences. One such presentation is an interactive game where the audience uses "clickers" to vote on the location of their own lunar base determined by available resources, such as proximity to water ice, illumination (source of solar power), TiO,2, (oxygen production) and hydrogen abundances as well as local topography. The interactive nature accommodates a variety of knowledge levels and can be adapted in real-time accordingly. The clickers are used as an assessment tool as well as a means for audience to control the direction of the application. As an assessment tool audience members can make predictions and answer questions using the clicker. In addition, the audience can use the clickers to vote on what they want to do, see, or go next. Having control over the direction of the application increases the audiences' involvement and therefore interest in the activity. Both uses of the clickers engage the audience and they become active participants rather than passive observers. Undergraduates from the University of Hawaii and Leeward Community College, and a high school student from Moanalua High School, are actively involved in the design and execution of these applications. Their input help us to anticipate areas of interest, field test ease of use, and determine areas of potential confusion. In addition, their involvement in this project is intended to increase and foster their interest in planetary science, and/or another STEM related field, while at the same time gain practical experience. The applications are designed to run

  9. Ice-volcano interactions during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, as revealed by airborne imaging radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnússon, E.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Roberts, M. J.; Sigurã°Sson, G.; HöSkuldsson, F.; Oddsson, B.

    2012-07-01

    During the eruption of the ice-covered Eyjafjallajökull volcano, a series of images from an airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) were obtained by the Icelandic Coast Guard. Cloud obscured the summit from view during the first three days of the eruption, making the weather-independent SAR a valuable monitoring resource. Radar images revealed the development of ice cauldrons in a 200 m thick ice cover within the summit caldera, as well as the formation of cauldrons to the immediate south of the caldera. Additionally, radar images were used to document the subglacial and supraglacial passage of floodwater to the north and south of the eruption site. The eruption breached the ice surface about four hours after its onset at about 01:30 UTC on 14 April 2010. The first SAR images, obtained between 08:55 and 10:42 UTC, show signs of limited supraglacial drainage from the eruption site. Floodwater began to drain from the ice cap almost 5.5 h after the beginning of the eruption, implying storage of meltwater at the eruption site due to initially constricted subglacial drainage from the caldera. Heat transfer rates from magma to ice during early stages of cauldron formation were about 1 MW m-2 in the radial direction and about 4 MW m-2 vertically. Meltwater release was characterized by accumulation and drainage with most of the volcanic material in the ice cauldrons being drained in hyperconcentrated floods. After the third day of the eruption, meltwater generation at the eruption site diminished due to an insulating lag of tephra.

  10. C-band radar calibration using GEOS-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Martin, C. F.

    1978-01-01

    The various methods of determining tracking radar measurement error parameters are described, along with the projected accuracy of results. Typical examples and results for calibration of radars tracking the GEOS-3 satellite are presented.

  11. Interactions Between Large Bedrock Features and Ice Sheet Dynamics Interpreted From Deep-Penetrating Radar Along the US-ITASE Traverse Routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, B. C.; Jacobel, R. W.; Christianson, K.; Cofell-Dwyer, K.

    2003-12-01

    Ice-penetrating radar studies depicting the structure of internal stratigraphy in ice sheets can be used to infer information about past ice dynamics and changes in ice flow over time. To date, most radar studies in the interior of major ice sheets have shown internal layers draped smoothly over bed topography with decreasing relief toward the surface. This result is one consequence of ice frozen to the bed and accumulation patterns that do not vary substantially in space or time. In contrast, areas that show significant deformation of internal layers are typically found in ice streams, where sliding can cause large strains. Deep-penetrating radar profiles from the 2001 and 2002 US-ITASE traverses show several areas in the interior of West Antarctica and the transition region between the East and West Antarctic Ice Sheets where internal stratigraphy is disrupted and discontinuous in the vicinity of large topographic bed features with relief >50% of regional ice thickness. Ice in these areas is presumably frozen to the bed. In some locations these disruptions in internal layers appear to result from surface wind scouring and redeposition. The influence of bed features on surface topography evidently causes local changes in snow accumulation and the interactions between wind and snow surface may facilitate the development of wind ablation regions. In another area near Byrd Surface Camp a significant bed feature, "Mt. Resnik," appears to be causing breaks in internal stratigraphy imaged in a grid of 4 radar profiles oriented across the flow direction and several kilometers downstream. We hypothesize that there is a ratio of mountain height to regional ice thickness where the ice above the mountain will effectively decouple from the surrounding ice flow and crevasses will develop. Such a scenario would cause a seam to form and disruption of internal layers that is similar to what we have observed. The fact that deeper layers in the same region are continuous implies

  12. Watchdog for ARM Radar Network Operations

    SciTech Connect

    2016-07-28

    WARNO is a software system designed to monitor the radars in the ARM Radar Network. It allows real time monitoring and tracking of instrument state and condition. It provides a web portal on the front end to interact with users, a REST API webpoint for interactions with third party systems, and an internal distributed architecture to allow it to be deployed at multiple sites.

  13. Radar Data Quality Control and Assimilation at the National Weather Radar Testbed (NWRT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    Radar Data Quality Control and Assimilation at the National Weather Radar Testbed (NWRT) Qin Xu CIMMS ...University of Oklahoma, CIMMS ,120 David L. Boren Blvd,Norman,OK,73072 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S...performed by project- supported research scientists at CIMMS , the University of Oklahoma. Collaborations between this project and the development of

  14. Student Group Project Work: A Pioneering Experiment in Interactive Engagement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallow, Jeffry V.

    2001-01-01

    Fully half of the curriculum at Roskilde University in Denmark is student-driven group research project work that is often interdisciplinary. Describes the practice of group project work in the sciences at RUC and evaluates implications for educational practice in the United States. (Author/SAH)

  15. Mars Radar Observations with the Goldstone Solar System Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Jurgens, R. F.; Larsen, K. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Slade, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) has successfully collected radar echo data from Mars over the past 30 years. As such, the GSSR has played a role as a specific mission element within Mars exploration. The older data provided local elevation information for Mars, along with radar scattering information with global resolution. Since the upgrade to the 70-m Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna at Goldstone completed in 1986, Mars data has been collected during all but the 1997 Mars opposition. Radar data, and non-imaging delay-Doppler data in particular, requires significant data processing to extract elevation, reflectivity and roughness of the reflecting surface. The spatial resolution of these experiments is typically some 20 km in longitude by some 150 km in latitude. The interpretation of these parameters while limited by the complexities of electromagnetic scattering, do provide information directly relevant to geophysical and geomorphic analyses of Mars. The usefulness of radar data for Mars exploration has been demonstrated in the past. Radar data were critical in assessing the Viking Lander 1 site as well as, more recently, the Pathfinder landing site. In general, radar data have not been available to the Mars exploration community at large. A project funded initially by the Mars Exploration Directorate Science Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and later funded by NASA's Mars Data Analysis Program has reprocessed to a common format a decade's worth of raw GSSR Mars delay-Doppler data in aid of landing site characterization for the Mars Program. These data will soon be submitted to the Planetary Data System (PDS). The radar data used were obtained between 1988 and 1995 by the GSSR, and comprise some 63 delay-Doppler radar tracks. Of these, 15 have yet to be recovered from old 9-track tapes, and some of the data may be permanently lost.

  16. Planetary radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The radar astronomy activities supported by the Deep Space Network during June, July, and August 1980 are reported. The planetary bodies observed were Venus, Mercury, and the asteroid Toro. Data were obtained at both S and X band, and the observations were considered successful.

  17. The TREMOR Project: earthquake-shaking "radar" for the City of Oakland: a guide for users, sponsors, and the curious

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, John R.

    1998-01-01

    Both earthquake disaster preparation and emergency response benefit from clear knowledge of an earthquake's shaking strength and its effects. TREMOR is a project to produce real-time maps of this shaking strength down to a neighborhood level of detail by deploying a dense network of inexpensive seismographs equipped with rapid telemetry.

  18. Substorm auroral onset triggering by flow-wave interaction detected with high-resolution radar and imager measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, T.; Lyons, L. R.; Zou, Y.; Bristow, W. A.; Hampton, D. L.; Nicolls, M. J.; Michell, R.; Samara, M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Donovan, E.; Spanswick, E.

    2013-12-01

    A critical, long-standing problem in substorm research is identification of the sequence of events leading to substorm auroral onset. THEMIS all-sky imager (ASI) array observations have revealed a repeatable pre-onset sequence that begins with a poleward boundary intensification (PBI) followed by a north-south oriented streamer moving equatorward. Substorm auroral onset occurs soon after the streamer reaches near the substorm onset location. Since fast magnetotail flows are linked to PBIs and streamers, this sequence indicates that onset is preceded by enhanced earthward plasma flows associated with a localized reconnection region near the pre-existing open-closed field line boundary. On the other hand, THEMIS satellite and ASIs also show that substorms are preceded by azimuthally propagating waves of ~1-2 min periodicity, indicating that a wave mode within the near-Earth plasma sheet is important for triggering substorm onset. However, it has been difficult to identify the link between fast earthward flows and these near-Earth waves. We have found a substorm event for which there is excellent coverage from the Poker Flat incoherent scatter radar (PFISR), THEMIS white light and multi-spectral ASIs, where the auroral onset occurred within the PFISR field of view near the zenith of the ASIs. The substorm onset was preceded by a PBI, and one of the radar beams going through the PBI detected equatorward flows and reaching the growth phase arc. The flows appear to propagate from open magnetic field lines across the open-closed boundary, leading to the PBI and then to onset soon after they reach the near-Earth plasma sheet. We also identified oscillations of auroral luminosity along the growth phase arc with a ~1 min period. These waves were propagating westward with only small intensity variations. Soon after the equatorward flows reached the growth phase arc, the wave luminosity amplified abruptly, denoting the onset of a substorm. Based on this sequence, we suggest

  19. The Next Generation Airborne Polarimetric Doppler Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivekanandan, J.; Lee, Wen-Chau; Loew, Eric; Salazar, Jorge; Chandrasekar, V.

    2013-04-01

    NCAR's Electra Doppler radar (ELDORA) with a dual-beam slotted waveguide array using dual-transmitter, dual-beam, rapid scan and step-chirped waveform significantly improved the spatial scale to 300m (Hildebrand et al. 1996). However, ELDORA X-band radar's penetration into precipitation is limited by attenuation and is not designed to collect polarimetric measurements to remotely estimate microphysics. ELDORA has been placed on dormancy because its airborne platform (P3 587) was retired in January 2013. The US research community has strongly voiced the need to continue measurement capability similar to the ELDORA. A critical weather research area is quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting (QPE/QPF). In recent years, hurricane intensity change involving eye-eyewall interactions has drawn research attention (Montgomery et al., 2006; Bell and Montgomery, 2006). In the case of convective precipitation, two issues, namely, (1) when and where convection will be initiated, and (2) determining the organization and structure of ensuing convection, are key for QPF. Therefore collocated measurements of 3-D winds and precipitation microphysics are required for achieving significant skills in QPF and QPE. Multiple radars in dual-Doppler configuration with polarization capability estimate dynamical and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation are mostly available over land. However, storms over complex terrain, the ocean and in forest regions are not observable by ground-based radars (Bluestein and Wakimoto, 2003). NCAR/EOL is investigating potential configurations for the next generation airborne radar that is capable of retrieving dynamic and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation. ELDORA's slotted waveguide array radar is not compatible for dual-polarization measurements. Therefore, the new design has to address both dual-polarization capability and platform requirements to replace the ELDORA system. NCAR maintains a C-130

  20. The Interactions among Information Technology Organizational Learning, Project Learning, and Project Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Donald S., II

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge gained from completed information technology (IT) projects was not often shared with emerging project teams. Learning lessons from other project teams was not pursued because people lack time, do not see value in learning, fear a potentially painful process, and had concerns that sharing knowledge will hurt their career. Leaders could…

  1. On the Developmental Education Radar Screen--2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    This is the second iteration of the Developmental Education Radar Screen project. As with the first iteration, in 2011, the author uses a "radar screen" metaphor to discuss trends in developmental education based on responses to a series of topics and categories provided by a group of leaders in the educational field. The purpose of this…

  2. Incidence angle normalization of radar backscatter data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NASA’s Soil Moisture Passive Active (SMAP) satellite (~2014) will include a radar system that will provide L-band multi-polarization backscatter at a constant incidence angle of 40º. During the pre-launch phase of the project there is a need for observations that will support the radar-based soil mo...

  3. Comparison of radar and raingauge measurements during heavy rainfall.

    PubMed

    Einfalt, T; Jessen, M; Mehlig, B

    2005-01-01

    Five heavy small-scale rainfall events in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) were investigated with radar and raingauge data. Special attention was paid to quality check and adjustment of radar data. Attenuation effects could be observed on both, C-Band and on X-Band radar. Adjustment of radar data to raingauge values turned out to be very difficult in the vicinity of heavy local rain cells. For the five affected regions the precipitation was quantified in the form of areal time series and cumulated radar images. As further result of this project, the spatial extent of the precipitation fields was identified and compared with radar and raingauge data.

  4. Radars in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delnore, Victor E.

    1990-01-01

    The capabilities of active microwave devices operating from space (typically, radar, scatterometers, interferometers, and altimeters) are discussed. General radar parameters and basic radar principles are explained. Applications of these parameters and principles are also explained. Trends in space radar technology, and where space radars and active microwave sensors in orbit are going are discussed.

  5. Mechanical interactions of rough surfaces. Project status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This project addresses a number of unresolved issues which impact the design of mechanical systems in which surface microtopography per se or events which occur on the microgeometric scale play a critical role. The project is an experimental/analytical investigation to: (1) explore the behavior of lubricated concentrated contacts involving microscopically rough surfaces under conditions of combined rolling, sliding and spinning with and without the presence of contaminating particles; and (2) develop processing principles and techniques for the analysis of digitized rough surface profiles to yield surface descriptors that are predictive of functional performance and which have acceptable systematic and random error.

  6. TRMM radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okamoto, Kenichi

    1993-01-01

    The results of a conceptual design study and the performance of key components of the Bread Board Model (BBM) of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) radar are presented. The radar, which operates at 13.8 GHz and is designed to meet TRMM mission objectives, has a minimum measurable rain rate of 0.5 mm/h with a range resolution of 250 m, a horizontal resolution of about 4 km, and a swath width of 220 km. A 128-element active phased array system is adopted to achieve contiguous scanning within the swath. The basic characteristics of BBM were confirmed by experiments. The development of EM started with the cooperation of NASDA and CRL.

  7. Radar Sounder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    over the shorter time period (resulting in a multilook SAR ) with the result that spatial resolution, the usual r~ason for using SAR techniques, degrades...Field - - - ALT 21. Sea Surface Topography - - - SAR , ALT 22. Ocean Waves (sea, swell, surf) V. Good Some V. Good SAR , ALT * with additional lower freq...OLS - Operational Line-scan System radiometer (4-6 GHz?) ALT - Altimeter •* good at low microwave SAR - Synthetic Aperture frequencies Radar + over

  8. FIPSE Interactive Physics Project (October 1989-August 1993). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Priscilla W.; Thornton, Ronald K.

    This project focused on encouraging instructors at large universities to take advantage of the curricular materials and computer tools developed for two related programs funded originally by FIPSE. In particular, it involved reworking and integrating materials developed for the previously funded Workshop Physics and Tools for Scientific Thinking…

  9. Synthetic Aperture Radar Missions Study Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bard, S.

    2000-01-01

    This report reviews the history of the LightSAR project and summarizes actions the agency can undertake to support industry-led efforts to develop an operational synthetic aperture radar (SAR) capability in the United States.

  10. The Vesalius Project: Interactive Computers in Anatomical Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCracken, Thomas O.; Spurgeon, Thomas L.

    1991-01-01

    Described is a high-resolution, interactive 3-D atlas of human/animal anatomy that students will use to learn the structure of the body and to understand their own bodies in health and disease. This system can be used to reinforce cadaver study or to serve as a substitute for institutions where it is not practical to use cadavers. (KR)

  11. Review of Interactive Video--Romanian Project Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onita, Mihai; Petan, Sorin; Vasiu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, the globalization and massification of video education offer involved more and more eLearning scenarios within universities. This article refers to interactive video and proposes an overview of it. We analyze the background information, regarding the eLearning campus used in virtual universities around the world, the MOOC…

  12. Meteor head echo observations with the MU radar and future possibilities with EISCAT 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kero, Johan

    2013-01-01

    EISCAT 3D is a three-dimensional imaging radar project for atmospheric and geospace research. It will consist of multiple phased arrays located in northern Fenno-Scandia. The multi-purpose experiment and data analysis approach will enable continuous meteor observations, unique in terms of coverage and quality. The aim of this paper is to establish a channel through which the EISCAT and IMO communities can interact. A presentation of the meteor head echo observations using the Shigaraki Middle and Upper atmosphere (MU) radar in Japan gives a flavor of some of the possibilities of EISCAT 3D.

  13. Quality Interaction Between Mission Assurance and Project Team Members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwong-Fu, Helenann H.; Wilson, Robert K.

    2006-01-01

    Mission Assurance independent assessments started during the development cycle and continued through post launch operations. In operations, Health and Safety of the Observatory is of utmost importance. Therefore, Mission Assurance must ensure requirements compliance and focus on process improvements required across the operational systems including new/modified products, tools, and procedures. The deployment of the interactive model involves three objectives: Team member Interaction, Good Root Cause Analysis Practices, and Risk Assessment to avoid reoccurrences. In applying this model, we use a metric based measurement process and was found to have the most significant effect, which points to the importance of focuses on a combination of root cause analysis and risk approaches allowing the engineers the ability to prioritize and quantify their corrective actions based on a well-defined set of root cause definitions (i.e. closure criteria for problem reports), success criteria and risk rating definitions.

  14. Social Processes and Knowledge Building during Small Group Interaction in a School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvaja, Maarit; Hakkinen, Paivi; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Etelapelto, Anneli

    2002-01-01

    Studied the meaning of symmetry of knowledge-based roles for knowledge construction and sharing in social interaction during the report writing phase of an experimental science learning project with four ninth grade students in Finland. Identified four patterns of interaction that differed in terms of their symmetry of knowledge-based roles and…

  15. Open Educational Resources for Call Teacher Education: The iTILT Interactive Whiteboard Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Shona; Schmid, Euline Cutrim; van Hazebrouck Thompson, Sanderin; Oberhofer, Margret

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses challenges and opportunities arising during the development of open educational resources (OERs) to support communicative language teaching (CLT) with interactive whiteboards (IWBs). iTILT (interactive Technologies in Language Teaching), a European Lifelong Learning Project, has two main aims: (a) to promote "best…

  16. A Multi-Frequency Wide-Swath Spaceborne Cloud and Precipitation Imaging Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Lihua; Racette, Paul; Heymsfield, Gary; McLinden, Matthew; Venkatesh, Vijay; Coon, Michael; Perrine, Martin; Park, Richard; Cooley, Michael; Stenger, Pete; Spence, Thomas; Retelny, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Microwave and millimeter-wave radars have proven their effectiveness in cloud and precipitation observations. The NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey (DS) Aerosol, Cloud and Ecosystems (ACE) mission calls for a dual-frequency cloud radar (W band 94 GHz and Ka-band 35 GHz) for global measurements of cloud microphysical properties. Recently, there have been discussions of utilizing a tri-frequency (KuKaW-band) radar for a combined ACE and Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) follow-on mission that has evolved into the Cloud and Precipitation Process Mission (CaPPM) concept. In this presentation we will give an overview of the technology development efforts at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and at Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems (NGES) through projects funded by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). Our primary objective of this research is to advance the key enabling technologies for a tri-frequency (KuKaW-band) shared-aperture spaceborne imaging radar to provide unprecedented, simultaneous multi-frequency measurements that will enhance understanding of the effects of clouds and precipitation and their interaction on Earth climate change. Research effort has been focused on concept design and trade studies of the tri-frequency radar; investigating architectures that provide tri-band shared-aperture capability; advancing the development of the Ka band active electronically scanned array (AESA) transmitreceive (TR) module, and development of the advanced radar backend electronics.

  17. The Radar Software Toolkit: Anaylsis software for the ITM community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. J.; Greenwald, R.

    2005-05-01

    The Radar Software Toolkit is a collection of data analysis, modelling and visualization tools originally developed for the SuperDARN project. It has evolved over the years into a robust, multi-platform software toolkit for working with a variety of ITM data sets including data from the Polar, TIMED and ACE spacecraft, ground based magnetometers, Incoherrent Scatter Radars, and SuperDARN. The toolkit includes implementations of the Altitude Adjusted Coordinate System (AACGM), the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF), SGP4 and a set of coordinate transform functions. It also includes a sophisticated XML based data visualization system. The toolkit is written using a combination of ANSI C, Java and the Interactive Data Language (IDL) and has been tested on a variety of platforms.

  18. Under the radar: how unexamined biases in decision-making processes in clinical interactions can contribute to health care disparities.

    PubMed

    Dovidio, John F; Fiske, Susan T

    2012-05-01

    Several aspects of social psychological science shed light on how unexamined racial/ethnic biases contribute to health care disparities. Biases are complex but systematic, differing by racial/ethnic group and not limited to love-hate polarities. Group images on the universal social cognitive dimensions of competence and warmth determine the content of each group's overall stereotype, distinct emotional prejudices (pity, envy, disgust, pride), and discriminatory tendencies. These biases are often unconscious and occur despite the best intentions. Such ambivalent and automatic biases can influence medical decisions and interactions, systematically producing discrimination in health care and ultimately disparities in health. Understanding how these processes may contribute to bias in health care can help guide interventions to address racial and ethnic disparities in health.

  19. Enhancing Europa surface characterization with ice penetrating radar: A Comparative study in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curra, C.; Arnold, E.; Karwoski, B.; Grima, C.; Schroeder, D. M.; Young, D. A.; Blankenship, D. D.

    2013-12-01

    The shape and composition of the surface of Europa result from multiple processes, most of them involving direct and indirect interactions between the liquid and solid phases of its outer water layer. The surface ice composition is likely to reflect the material exchanged with the sub-glacial ocean and potentially holds signatures of organic compounds that could demonstrate the ability of the icy moon to sustain life. Therefore, the most likely targets for in-situ landing missions are primarily located in complex terrains disrupted by exchange mechanisms with the ocean/lenses of sub-glacial liquid water. Any landing site selection process to ensure a safe delivery of a future lander, will then have to confidently characterize its surface roughness. We evaluate the capability of an ice-penetrating radar to characterize the roughness using a statistical method applied to the surface echoes. Our approach is to compare radar-derived data with nadir-imagery and laser altimetry simultaneously acquired on an airborne platform over Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica, during the 2012-13 GIMBLE survey. The radar is the High-Capability Radar Sounder 2 (HiCARS 2, 60 MHz) system operated by the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG), with specifications similar to the Ice Penetrating Radar (IPR) of the Europa Clipper project. Surface textures as seen by simultaneously collected nadir imagery are manually classified, allowing individual contrast stretching for better identification. We identified crevasse fields, blue ice patches, and families of wind-blown patterns. Homogeneity/heterogeneity of the textures has also been an important classification criterion. The various textures are geolocated and compared to the evolution and amplitude of laser-derived and radar-derived roughness. Similarities and discrepancies between these three datasets are illustrated and analyzed to qualitatively constrain radar sensitivity to the surface textures. The result allows for a

  20. Radar Image, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The southeast part of the island of Hokkaido, Japan, is an area dominated by volcanoes and volcanic caldera. The active Usu Volcano is at the lower right edge of the circular Lake Toya-Ko and near the center of the image. The prominent cone above and to the left of the lake is Yotei Volcano with its summit crater. The city of Sapporo lies at the base of the mountains at the top of the image and the town of Yoichi -- the hometown of SRTM astronaut Mamoru Mohri -- is at the upper left edge. The bay of Uchiura-Wan takes up the lower center of the image. In this image, color represents elevation, from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest. The radar image has been overlaid to provide more details of the terrain. Due to a processing problem, an island in the center of this crater lake is missing and will be properly placed when further SRTM swaths are processed. The horizontal banding in this image is a processing artifact that will be removed when the navigation information collected by SRTM is fully calibrated. This image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 100 by 150 kilometers

  1. Signal to Noise Analysis of iRadar sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Fritzke, A; Top, P

    2009-09-10

    This document follows my process of testing; comparing; and contrasting several iRadars signal to noise ratios for both HH and VV polarization. A brief introduction is given explaining the basics of iRadar technology and what data I was collecting. The process section explains the steps I took to collect my data along with any procedures I followed. The analysis section compares and contrasts five different radars and the two different polarizations. The analysis also details the radars viewing limitations and area. Finally, the report delves into the effects of two radars interfering with each other. A conclusion goes over the success and findings of the project.

  2. Real-time interactive projection system based on infrared structured-light method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Xiaorui; Zhou, Qian; Ni, Kai; He, Liang; Wu, Guanhao; Mao, Leshan; Cheng, Xuemin; Ma, Jianshe

    2012-11-01

    Interactive technologies have been greatly developed in recent years, especially in projection field. However, at present, most interactive projection systems are based on special designed interactive pens or whiteboards, which is inconvenient and limits the improvement of user experience. In this paper, we introduced our recent progress on theoretically modeling a real-time interactive projection system. The system permits the user to easily operate or draw on the projection screen directly by fingers without any other auxiliary equipment. The projector projects infrared striping patterns onto the screen and the CCD captures the deformational image. We resolve the finger's position and track its movement by processing the deformational image in real-time. A new way to determine whether the finger touches the screen is proposed. The first deformational fringe on the fingertip and the first fringe at the finger shadow are the same one. The correspondence is obtained, so the location parameters can be decided by triangulation. The simulation results are given, and errors are analyzed.

  3. Design, Utility, and History of the Colorado Adoption Project: Examples Involving Adjustment Interactions1

    PubMed Central

    Rhea, Sally Ann; Bricker, Josh B.; Corley, Robin P.; DeFries, John C.; Wadsworth, Sally J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), a longitudinal study in behavioral development, and discusses how adoption studies may be used to assess genetic and environmental etiologies of individual differences for important developmental outcomes. Previous CAP research on adjustment outcomes in childhood and adolescence which found significant interactions, including gene-environment interactions, is reviewed. New research suggests mediating effects of menarche and religiosity on age at first sex in this predominantly middle-class, Caucasian sample. PMID:23833552

  4. Application of radar for automotive collision avoidance. Volume 2: Development plan and progress reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtenberg, Christopher L. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this project was research and development of an automobile collision avoidance radar system. Items within the scope of the one-year effort were to: (1) review previous authors' work in this field; (2) select a suitable radar approach; (3) develop a system design; (4) perform basic analyses and observations pertinent to radar design, performance, and effects; (5) fabricate and collect radar data from a data collection radar; (6) analyze and derive conclusions from the radar data; and (7) make recommendations about the likelihood of success of the investigated radar techniques. The final technical report presenting all conclusions is contained in Volume 1.

  5. Space Radar Image of Baikal Lake, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band black-and-white image of the forests east of the Baikal Forest in the Jablonowy Mountains of Russia. The image is centered at 52.5 degrees north latitude and 116 degrees east longitude near the mining town of Bukatschatscha. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. This area is part of an international research project known as the Taiga Aerospace Investigation using Geographic Information System Applications.

  6. Addendum to proceedings of the 1978 Synthetic Aperture Radar Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Various research projects on synthetic aperture radar are reported, including SAR calibration techniques. Slot arrays, sidelobe suppression, and wide swaths on satellite-borne radar were examined. The SAR applied to remote sensing was also considered.

  7. The proposed flatland radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. L.; Gage, K. S.; Vanzandt, T. E.; Nastrom, G. D.

    1986-01-01

    A flexible very high frequency (VHF) stratosphere-troposphere (ST) radar configured for meteorological research is to be constructed near Urbana, Illinois. Measurement of small vertical velocities associated with synoptic-scale meteorology can be performed. A large Doppler microwave radar (CHILL) is located a few km from the site of the proposed ST radar. Since the microwave radar can measure the location and velocity of hydrometeors and the VHF ST radar can measure clear (or cloudy) air velocities, simultaneous observations by these two radars of stratiform or convective weather systems would provide valuable meteorological information.

  8. Project-Based Method as an Effective Means of Interdisciplinary Interaction While Teaching a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bondar, Irina Alekseevna; Kulbakova, Renata Ivanovna; Svintorzhitskaja, Irina Andreevna; Pilat, Larisa Pavlovna; Zavrumov, Zaur Aslanovich

    2016-01-01

    The article explains how to use a project-based method as an effective means of interdisciplinary interaction when teaching a foreign language on the example of The Institute of service, tourism and design (branch) of the North Caucasus Federal University (Pyatigorsk, Stavropol Territory Russia). The article holds the main objectives of the…

  9. Time Past: Impacts of ICT on the Pedagogic Discourse in the Interactive Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Neil R.

    2016-01-01

    The "pedagogic discourse" can describe the power relations and fields of influence within schools. This article extends the approach to include ICT-mediated learning in schools by considering evidence from the InterActive project, undertaken by the University of Bristol, England, in 2000-04. The article also considers how the pedagogic…

  10. The development of an Alzheimer's disease channel for the Michigan Interactive Health Kiosk Project.

    PubMed

    Connell, Cathleen M; Shaw, Benjamin A; Holmes, Sara B; Hudson, Margaret L; Derry, Holly A; Strecher, Victor J

    2003-01-01

    The overall objective of this article is to describe the development and implementation of an Alzheimer's disease (AD) module for the Michigan Interactive Health Kiosk Project. This project provides access to health information via 100 kiosks located in public places throughout the state (e.g., churches, senior centers, schools, shopping malls, grocery stores, hospitals) using interactive multimedia software. Because the kiosk screen was designed to resemble a television set, program modules are referred to as "channels." The AD channel is designed to increase knowledge and awareness of the disease among the general public. After an overview of the overall project, the steps involved in developing the AD channel and strategies designed to monitor its use are described, including touch-screen usage data and an on-line user survey. Finally, marketing and promotion of the channel and the implications of this initiative for disseminating information about AD are discussed.

  11. Leveraging Healthcare to Promote Responsive Parenting: Impacts of the Video Interaction Project on Parenting Stress.

    PubMed

    Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Weisleder, Adriana; Dreyer, Benard P; Johnson, Samantha Berkule; Vlahovicova, Kristina; Ledesma, Jennifer; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2016-03-01

    We sought to determine impacts of a pediatric primary care intervention, the Video Interaction Project, on 3-year trajectories of parenting stress related to parent-child interactions in low socioeconomic status (SES) families. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted, with random assignment to one of two interventions (Video Interaction Project [VIP]; Building Blocks [BB]) or control (C). As part of VIP, dyads attended one-on-one sessions with an interventionist who facilitated interactions in play and shared reading through review of videotaped parent-child interactions made on primary care visit days; learning materials and parenting pamphlets were also provided to facilitate parent-child interactions at home. Parenting stress related to parent-child interactions was assessed for VIP and Control groups at 6, 14, 24, and 36 months using the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscale of the Parenting Stress Index- Short Form, with 378 dyads (84%) assessed at least once. Group differences emerged at 6 months with VIP associated with lower parenting stress at 3 of 4 ages considered cross-sectionally and an 17.7% reduction in parenting stress overall during the study period based on multi-level modeling. No age by group interaction was observed, indicating persistence of early VIP impacts. Results indicated that VIP, a preventive intervention targeting parent-child interactions, is associated with decreased parenting stress. Results therefore support the expansion of pediatric interventions such as VIP as part of a broad public health strategy to address poverty-related disparities in school-readiness.

  12. Leveraging Healthcare to Promote Responsive Parenting: Impacts of the Video Interaction Project on Parenting Stress

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Weisleder, Adriana; Dreyer, Benard P.; Johnson, Samantha Berkule; Vlahovicova, Kristina; Ledesma, Jennifer; Mendelsohn, Alan L.

    2015-01-01

    We sought to determine impacts of a pediatric primary care intervention, the Video Interaction Project, on 3-year trajectories of parenting stress related to parent-child interactions in low socioeconomic status (SES) families. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted, with random assignment to one of two interventions (Video Interaction Project [VIP]; Building Blocks [BB]) or control (C). As part of VIP, dyads attended one-on-one sessions with an interventionist who facilitated interactions in play and shared reading through review of videotaped parent-child interactions made on primary care visit days; learning materials and parenting pamphlets were also provided to facilitate parent-child interactions at home. Parenting stress related to parent-child interactions was assessed for VIP and Control groups at 6, 14, 24, and 36 months using the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscale of the Parenting Stress Index- Short Form, with 378 dyads (84%) assessed at least once. Group differences emerged at 6 months with VIP associated with lower parenting stress at 3 of 4 ages considered cross-sectionally and an 17.7% reduction in parenting stress overall during the study period based on multi-level modeling. No age by group interaction was observed, indicating persistence of early VIP impacts. Results indicated that VIP, a preventive intervention targeting parent-child interactions, is associated with decreased parenting stress. Results therefore support the expansion of pediatric interventions such as VIP as part of a broad public health strategy to address poverty-related disparities in school-readiness. PMID:27134514

  13. Weather Radar Technology Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-15

    uelocitV WMs ) data processing systems such as NEXRAD to have a reliable technique for removing ambiguities due to velocity aliasing. Performance of many...intended for automated implementation on radar systems such as the NEXt generation weather RADar ( NEXRAD ) system. Several research areas were addressed...with Doppler radar will soon be realized with the deployment of the NEXRAD radar systems. Some of these large scale storms can have devastating wind

  14. VHF radar measurements during MAP/WINE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czechowsky, P.; Klostermeyer, J.; Ruster, R.; Schmidt, G.; Rottger, J.

    1983-01-01

    Sensitive Doppler radars which operate in the very high frequency (VHF) band, usually near 50 MHz can measure profiles of background winds, tides, atmospheric gravity waves and turbulence at tropospheric, stratospheric and mesospheric heights. Their ability to observe simultaneously large and small-scale processes makes them unique instruments for studying not only each process separately but also their nonlinear interactions. The mobile VHF radar to be used during the MAP/WINE campaign on Andoya is a modified version of the SOUSY VHF radar being in operation for six years in the Harz Mountains.

  15. Radar: Human Safety Net

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Radar is a technology that can be used to detect distant objects not visible to the human eye. A predecessor of radar, called the telemobiloscope, was first used to detect ships in the fog in 1904 off the German coast. Many scientists have worked on the development and refinement of radar (Hertz with electromagnetic waves; Popov with determining…

  16. Lunar radar backscatter studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    The lunar surface material in the Plato area is characterized using Earth based visual, infrared, and radar signatures. Radar scattering in the lunar regolith with an existing optical scattering computer program is modeled. Mapping with 1 to 2 km resolution of the Moon using a 70 cm Arecibo radar is presented.

  17. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Under an agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense's National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is distributing elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM is a joint project of NASA and NGA to map the Earth's land surface in three dimensions at an unprecedented level of detail. As part of space shuttle Endeavour's flight during February 11-22, 2000, the SRTM successfully collected data over 80 percent of the Earth's land surface for most of the area between latitudes 60 degrees north and 56 degrees south. The SRTM hardware included the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (X-SAR) systems that had flown twice previously on other space shuttle missions. The SRTM data were collected with a technique known as interferometry that allows image data from dual radar antennas to be processed for the extraction of ground heights.

  18. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    Under an agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense's National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is now distributing elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM is a joint project between NASA and NIMA to map the Earth's land surface in three dimensions at a level of detail unprecedented for such a large area. Flown aboard the NASA Space Shuttle Endeavour February 11-22, 2000, the SRTM successfully collected data over 80 percent of the Earth's land surface, for most of the area between 60? N. and 56? S. latitude. The SRTM hardware included the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (X-SAR) systems that had flown twice previously on other space shuttle missions. The SRTM data were collected specifically with a technique known as interferometry that allows image data from dual radar antennas to be processed for the extraction of ground heights.

  19. Ground and Space Radar Volume Matching and Comparison Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Kenneth; Schwaller, Mathew

    2010-01-01

    This software enables easy comparison of ground- and space-based radar observations. The software was initially designed to compare ground radar reflectivity from operational, ground based Sand C-band meteorological radars with comparable measurements from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite s Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument. The software is also applicable to other ground-based and space-based radars. The ground and space radar volume matching and comparison software was developed in response to requirements defined by the Ground Validation System (GVS) of Goddard s Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) project. This software innovation is specifically concerned with simplifying the comparison of ground- and spacebased radar measurements for the purpose of GPM algorithm and data product validation. This software is unique in that it provides an operational environment to routinely create comparison products, and uses a direct geometric approach to derive common volumes of space- and ground-based radar data. In this approach, spatially coincident volumes are defined by the intersection of individual space-based Precipitation Radar rays with the each of the conical elevation sweeps of the ground radar. Thus, the resampled volume elements of the space and ground radar reflectivity can be directly compared to one another.

  20. Acoustic Monitoring of Beluga Whale Interactions with Cook Inlet Tidal Energy Project

    SciTech Connect

    Worthington, Monty

    2014-02-05

    Cook Inlet, Alaska is home to some of the greatest tidal energy resources in the U.S., as well as an endangered population of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Successfully permitting and operating a tidal power project in Cook Inlet requires a biological assessment of the potential and realized effects of the physical presence and sound footprint of tidal turbines on the distribution, relative abundance, and behavior of Cook Inlet beluga whales. ORPC Alaska, working with the Project Team—LGL Alaska Research Associates, University of Alaska Anchorage, TerraSond, and Greeneridge Science—undertook the following U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) study to characterize beluga whales in Cook Inlet – Acoustic Monitoring of Beluga Whale Interactions with the Cook Inlet Tidal Energy Project (Project). ORPC Alaska, LLC, is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC, (collectively, ORPC). ORPC is a global leader in the development of hydrokinetic power systems and eco-conscious projects that harness the power of ocean and river currents to create clean, predictable renewable energy. ORPC is developing a tidal energy demonstration project in Cook Inlet at East Foreland where ORPC has a Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) preliminary permit (P-13821). The Project collected baseline data to characterize pre-deployment patterns of marine mammal distribution, relative abundance, and behavior in ORPC’s proposed deployment area at East Foreland. ORPC also completed work near Fire Island where ORPC held a FERC preliminary permit (P-12679) until March 6, 2013. Passive hydroacoustic devices (previously utilized with bowhead whales in the Beaufort Sea) were adapted for study of beluga whales to determine the relative abundance of beluga whale vocalizations within the proposed deployment areas. Hydroacoustic data collected during the Project were used to characterize the ambient acoustic environment of the project site pre-deployment to inform the

  1. Implementing Interactive Telecommunications Services. Final Report on Problems Which Arise During Implementation of Field Trials and Demonstration Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elton, Martin C. J.; Carey, John

    Intended primarily for use by individuals about to assume responsibility for the implementation of field trials and demonstration projects built around interactive telecommunication systems, this report provides brief descriptions of 20 telemedicine projects, 12 teleconferencing projects, and seven involving two-way applications of cable…

  2. A number-projected model with generalized pairing interaction in application to rotating nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Satula, W. |||; Wyss, R.

    1996-12-31

    A cranked mean-field model that takes into account both T=1 and T=0 pairing interactions is presented. The like-particle pairing interaction is described by means of a standard seniority force. The neutron-proton channel includes simultaneously correlations among particles moving in time reversed orbits (T=1) and identical orbits (T=0). The coupling between different pairing channels and nuclear rotation is taken into account selfconsistently. Approximate number-projection is included by means of the Lipkin-Nogami method. The transitions between different pairing phases are discussed as a function of neutron/proton excess, T{sub z}, and rotational frequency, {Dirac_h}{omega}.

  3. Radar stage uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, J.M.; Davies, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the performance of radars used for stage (or water-level) measurement. This paper presents a comparison of estimated uncertainties and data for radar water-level measurements with float, bubbler, and wire weight water-level measurements. The radar sensor was also temperature-tested in a laboratory. The uncertainty estimates indicate that radar measurements are more accurate than uncorrected pressure sensors at higher water stages, but are less accurate than pressure sensors at low stages. Field data at two sites indicate that radar sensors may have a small negative bias. Comparison of field radar measurements with wire weight measurements found that the radar tends to measure slightly lower values as stage increases. Copyright ASCE 2005.

  4. Implementing hospital library automation: the GaIN project. Georgia Interactive Network for Medical Information.

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, J A; McInnis, K A; Rosner, A L

    1995-01-01

    The GaIN (Georgia Interactive Network for Medical Information) Hospital Libraries' Local Automation Project was a one-year, grant-funded initiative to implement an integrated library system in three Georgia hospitals. The purpose of the project was to install the library systems, describe the steps in hospital library automation, and identify issues and barriers related to automation in small libraries. The participating hospitals included a small, a medium, and a large institution. The steps and time required for project implementation were documented in order to develop a decision checklist. Although library automation proved a desirable approach for improving collection accessibility, simplifying daily routines, and improving the library's image in the hospital, planners must be sure to consider equipment as well as software support, staffing for the conversion, and training of the library staff and end users. PMID:7581184

  5. Computer Interactives for the Mars Atmospheric and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) Mission through NASA's "Project Spectra!"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, E. L.

    2014-12-01

    "Project Spectra!" is a standards-based E-M spectrum and engineering program that includes paper and pencil activities as well as Flash-based computer games that help students solidify understanding of high-level planetary and solar physics. Using computer interactive games, students experience and manipulate information making abstract concepts accessible, solidifying understanding and enhancing retention of knowledge. Since students can choose what to watch and explore, the interactives accommodate a broad range of learning styles. Students can go back and forth through the interactives if they've missed a concept or wish to view something again. In the end, students are asked critical thinking questions and conduct web-based research. As part of the Mars Atmospheric and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission education programming, we've developed two new interactives. The MAVEN mission will study volatiles in the upper atmosphere to help piece together Mars' climate history. In the first interactive, students explore black body radiation, albedo, and a simplified greenhouse effect to establish what factors contribute to overall planetary temperature. Students design a planet that is able to maintain liquid water on the surface. In the second interactive, students are asked to consider conditions needed for Mars to support water on the surface, keeping some variables fixed. Ideally, students will walk away with the very basic and critical elements required for climate studies, which has far-reaching implications beyond the study of Mars. These interactives were pilot tested at Arvada High School in Colorado.

  6. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farr, T. G.; Kobrick, M.

    2001-12-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), which flew successfully aboard Endeavour in February 2000, is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, and the German and Italian Space Agencies. The mission was designed to use a single-pass radar interferometer to produce a digital elevation model of the Earth's land surface between about 60 degrees north and 56 degrees south latitude. The DEM will have 30 m horizontal resolution and better than 15 m vertical errors. Two ortho-rectified C-band image mosaics are also planned. Data processing will be completed by the end of 2002. SRTM used a modification of the radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Radar Laboratory that flew twice on the Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. To collect the interferometric data, a 60 m mast, additional C-band antenna, and improved tracking and navigation devices were added. A second X-band antenna was also added by the German Space Agency, and produced higher resolution topographic measurements in strips nested within the full, C-band coverage. First results indicate that the radars and ancillary instruments worked very well. Data played back to the ground during the flight were processed to DEMs and products released hours after acquisition. An extensive program for calibration and verification of the SRTM data is now underway. When complete later this year, systematic processing of the data will begin, with final products emerging a continent at a time. Products will be transferred to the US Geological Survey's EROS Data Center for civilian archive and distribution. NIMA will handle Department of Defense distribution. * Work performed under contract to NASA.

  7. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farr, T. G.; Kobrick, M.

    2001-05-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), which flew successfully aboard Endeavour in February 2000, is a cooperative project between NASA and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA). The mission was designed to use a single-pass radar interferometer to produce a digital elevation model of the Earth's land surface between about 60 degrees north and 56 degrees south latitude. The DEM will have 30 m horizontal resolution and about 15 m vertical errors. Two ortho-rectified C-band image mosaics are also planned. SRTM used a modification of the radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Radar Laboratory that flew twice on the Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. To collect the interferometric data, a 60 m mast, additional C-band antenna, and improved tracking and navigation devices were added. A second X-band antenna was also added by the German Space Agency, and produced higher resolution topographic measurements in strips nested within the full, C-band coverage. First results indicate that the radars and ancillary instruments worked very well. Data played back to the ground during the flight were processed to DEMs and products released hours after acquisition. An extensive program for calibration and verification of the SRTM data is now underway. When complete later this year, systematic processing of the data will begin, with final products emerging a continent at a time. Data processing will be completed by the end of 2002. Products will be transferred to the US Geological Survey's EROS Data Center for civilian archive and distribution. NIMA will handle Department of Defense distribution. * Work performed under contract to NASA.

  8. Radar sounder performances for ESA JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berquin, Y. P.; Kofman, W. W.; Heggy, E.; Hérique, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Jupiter Icy moons Explorer (JUICE) is the first Large-class mission chosen as part of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The mission will study Jovian icy moons Ganymede and Europa as potential habitats for life, addressing two key themes of Cosmic Vision namely the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life, and the Solar System interactions. The radar sounder instrument on this mission will have great potential to address specific science questions such as the presence of subsurface liquid water and ice shell geophysical structures. One major constraint for radar sounding is the roughness of the planetary surface. The work presented will focus on the characterization of Ganymede's surface topography to better understand its surface properties from a radar point of view. These results should help to put constraints on the design of JUICE's radar sounder. We use topographic data derived from the Voyager and Galileo missions images to try to characterize the surface structure and to quantify its geometry (in terms of slopes and RMS heights mainly). This study will help us evaluating the radar budget in a statistical approach. In addition, deterministic simulations of surface radar echoes conducted on synthetic surfaces -extrapolated from Digital Elevation Models- will be presented to better assess radar sounding performances.

  9. Radar image of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This radar image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The area is predominantly scrub forest. Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. Image brightness differences in this image are caused by differences in vegetation type and density. Tributaries of the Sao Francisco are visible in the upper right. The Sao Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

    This radar image was obtained by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission as part of its mission to map the Earth's topography. The image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas, and consequently does not show topographic data but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover, and urbanization.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

  10. Radar Location Equipment Development Program: Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Sandness, G.A.; Davis, K.C.

    1985-06-01

    The work described in this report represents the first phase of a planned three-phase project designed to develop a radar system for monitoring waste canisters stored in a thick layer of bedded salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The canisters will be contained in holes drilled into the floor of the underground waste storage facility. It is hoped that these measurements can be made to accuracies of +-5 cm and +-2/sup 0/, respectively. The initial phase of this project was primarily a feasibility study. Its principal objective was to evaluate the potential effectiveness of the radar method in the planned canister monitoring application. Its scope included an investigation of the characteristics of radar signals backscattered from waste canisters, a test of preliminary data analysis methods, an assessment of the effects of salt and bentonite (a proposed backfill material) on the propagation of the radar signals, and a review of current ground-penetrating radar technology. A laboratory experiment was performed in which radar signals were backscattered from simulated waste canisters. The radar data were recorded by a digital data acquisition system and were subsequently analyzed by three different computer-based methods to extract estimates of canister location and tilt. Each of these methods yielded results that were accurate within a few centimeters in canister location and within 1/sup 0/ in canister tilt. Measurements were also made to determine the signal propagation velocities in salt and bentonite (actually a bentonite/sand mixture) and to estimate the signal attenuation rate in the bentonite. Finally, a product survey and a literature search were made to identify available ground-penetrating radar systems and alternative antenna designs that may be particularly suitable for this unique application. 10 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Next generation paradigm for urban pluvial flood modelling, prediction, management and vulnerability reduction - Interaction between RainGain and Blue Green Dream projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimovic, C.

    2012-04-01

    The effects of climate change and increasing urbanisation call for a new paradigm for efficient planning, management and retrofitting of urban developments to increase resilience to climate change and to maximize ecosystem services. Improved management of urban floods from all sources in required. Time scale for well documented fluvial and coastal floods allows for timely response but surface (pluvial) flooding caused by intense local storms had not been given appropriate attention, Pitt Review (UK). Urban surface floods predictions require fine scale data and model resolutions. They have to be tackled locally by combining central inputs (meteorological services) with the efforts of the local entities. Although significant breakthrough in modelling of pluvial flooding was made there is a need to further enhance short term prediction of both rainfall and surface flooding. These issues are dealt with in the EU Iterreg project Rain Gain (RG). Breakthrough in urban flood mitigation can only be achieved by combined effects of advanced planning design, construction and management of urban water (blue) assets in interaction with urban vegetated areas' (green) assets. Changes in design and operation of blue and green assets, currently operating as two separate systems, is urgently required. Gaps in knowledge and technology will be introduced by EIT's Climate-KIC Blue Green Dream (BGD) project. The RG and BGD projects provide synergy of the "decoupled" blue and green systems to enhance multiple benefits to: urban amenity, flood management, heat island, biodiversity, resilience to drought thus energy requirements, thus increased quality of urban life at lower costs. Urban pluvial flood management will address two priority areas: Short Term rainfall Forecast and Short term flood surface forecast. Spatial resolution of short term rainfall forecast below 0.5 km2 and lead time of a few hours are needed. Improvements are achievable by combining data sources of raingauge networks

  12. 2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar towards, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  13. 16. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #102, electrical equipment room; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #102, electrical equipment room; the prime power distribution system. Excellent example of endulum-types shock isolation. The grey cabinet and barrel assemble is part of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) retrofill project - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  14. Radar Data Quality Control and Assimilation at the National Weather Radar Testbed (NWRT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    Radar Data Quality Control and Assimilation at the National Weather Radar Testbed (NWRT) Dr. Qin Xu CIMMS , University of Oklahoma 120 David L...5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Oklahoma, CIMMS ,120 David L. Boren Blvd...guidelines for the implementations. The data collections and QC algorithm developments are performed by project- supported research scientists at CIMMS , the

  15. Radar Data Quality Control and Assimilation at the National Weather Radar Testbed (NWRT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-30

    Radar Data Quality Control and Assimilation at the National Weather Radar Testbed (NWRT) Dr. Qin Xu CIMMS , University of Oklahoma, 100 E. Boyd...supported research scientists at CIMMS , the University of Oklahoma. Collaborations between this project and the development of the NWRT phased array...UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) CIMMS , University of Oklahoma,100 E. Boyd (Rm 1110),Norman,OK,73019 8. PERFORMING

  16. Response of Sierra Nevada forests to projected climate-wildfire interactions.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuang; Hurteau, Matthew D; Westerling, Anthony LeRoy

    2016-11-01

    Climate influences forests directly and indirectly through disturbance. The interaction of climate change and increasing area burned has the potential to alter forest composition and community assembly. However, the overall forest response is likely to be influenced by species-specific responses to environmental change and the scale of change in overstory species cover. In this study, we sought to quantify how projected changes in climate and large wildfire size would alter forest communities and carbon (C) dynamics, irrespective of competition from nontree species and potential changes in other fire regimes, across the Sierra Nevada, USA. We used a species-specific, spatially explicit forest landscape model (LANDIS-II) to evaluate forest response to climate-wildfire interactions under historical (baseline) climate and climate projections from three climate models (GFDL, CCSM3, and CNRM) forced by a medium-high emission scenario (A2) in combination with corresponding climate-specific large wildfire projections. By late century, we found modest changes in the spatial distribution of dominant species by biomass relative to baseline, but extensive changes in recruitment distribution. Although forest recruitment declined across much of the Sierra, we found that projected climate and wildfire favored the recruitment of more drought-tolerant species over less drought-tolerant species relative to baseline, and this change was greatest at mid-elevations. We also found that projected climate and wildfire decreased tree species richness across a large proportion of the study area and transitioned more area to a C source, which reduced landscape-level C sequestration potential. Our study, although a conservative estimate, suggests that by late century, forest community distributions may not change as intact units as predicted by biome-based modeling, but are likely to trend toward simplified community composition as communities gradually disaggregate and the least tolerant

  17. Managing uncertainty in collaborative robotics engineering projects: The influence of task structure and peer interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Michelle

    Uncertainty is ubiquitous in life, and learning is an activity particularly likely to be fraught with uncertainty. Previous research suggests that students and teachers struggle in their attempts to manage the psychological experience of uncertainty and that students often fail to experience uncertainty when uncertainty may be warranted. Yet, few educational researchers have explicitly and systematically observed what students do, their behaviors and strategies, as they attempt to manage the uncertainty they experience during academic tasks. In this study I investigated how students in one fifth grade class managed uncertainty they experienced while engaged in collaborative robotics engineering projects, focusing particularly on how uncertainty management was influenced by task structure and students' interactions with their peer collaborators. The study was initiated at the beginning of instruction related to robotics engineering and preceded through the completion of several long-term collaborative robotics projects, one of which was a design project. I relied primarily on naturalistic observation of group sessions, semi-structured interviews, and collection of artifacts. My data analysis was inductive and interpretive, using qualitative discourse analysis techniques and methods of grounded theory. Three theoretical frameworks influenced the conception and design of this study: community of practice, distributed cognition, and complex adaptive systems theory. Uncertainty was a pervasive experience for the students collaborating in this instructional context. Students experienced uncertainty related to the project activity and uncertainty related to the social system as they collaborated to fulfill the requirements of their robotics engineering projects. They managed their uncertainty through a diverse set of tactics for reducing, ignoring, maintaining, and increasing uncertainty. Students experienced uncertainty from more different sources and used more and

  18. Antarctica X-band MiniSAR crevasse detection radar : final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Sander, Grant J.; Bickel, Douglas Lloyd

    2007-09-01

    This document is the final report for the Antarctica Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Project. The project involved the modification of a Sandia National Laboratories MiniSAR system to operate at X-band in order to assess the feasibility of an airborne radar to detect crevasses in Antarctica. This radar successfully detected known crevasses at various geometries. The best results were obtained for synthetic aperture radar resolutions of at most one foot and finer. In addition to the main goal of detecting crevasses, the radar was used to assess conops for a future operational radar. The radar scanned large areas to identify potential safe landing zones. In addition, the radar was used to investigate looking at objects on the surface and below the surface of the ice. This document includes discussion of the hardware development, system capabilities, and results from data collections in Antarctica.

  19. 30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. Console and line printers - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  20. 3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  1. Verbal and social interaction patterns among elementary students during self-guided "I Wonder Projects"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huziak, Tracy Lynn

    National standards for science teaching stress the use of inquiry teaching methods. One example of inquiry teaching is the I Wonder Project, which has been used in the Madison, WI Metropolitan School District for over ten years. The purpose of the I Wonder Project is to promote scientific discourse among elementary students through the publication of their research in a journal, similar in some ways to the scientific discourse within a community of scientists. This research study utilizes the I Wonder Project method to encourage student communication and self-guided project work. Approximately fifteen students ages 6--12 participated in a six-week self-guided inquiry project called I Wonder. Students worked as a cohort to learn science process skills and to build a scientific community. During this time, each student designed and carried out a self-guided inquiry project and wrote an article about their findings, which was presented on the last day of summer camp. A mixed method approach was used conduct this study. Participants were given a pretest and a posttest to determine the changes in scientific process skills as a result of participation in the project. The students were interviewed to determine their ideas about science and how those ideas changed over the time of participation in summer camp. Also the students were observed by the researchers, as well as audio- and video-taped to capture the verbal conversations and debates that take place as a result of discussion of ideas during the program. Students participated in this study as individuals and group members. Teacher and student interactions were noted to follow three main interaction styles: structured, guided and open-ended. These interactions work much like the inquiry levels described in the literature. Students also interacted with each other in three different ways: independently, dependently, and multifunctioning. Some students wished to work alone, while others preferred others to contribute to

  2. Planetary radar studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Cutts, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A catalog of lunar and radar anomalies was generated to provide a base for comparison with Venusian radar signatures. The relationships between lunar radar anomalies and regolith processes were investigated, and a consortium was formed to compare lunar and Venusian radar images of craters. Time was scheduled at the Arecibo Observatory to use the 430 MHz radar to obtain high resolution radar maps of six areas of the lunar suface. Data from 1978 observations of Mare Serenitas and Plato are being analyzed on a PDP 11/70 computer to construct the computer program library necessary for the eventual reduction of the May 1981 and subsequent data acquisitions. Papers accepted for publication are presented.

  3. Comparison of lightning observations from the KSC LDAR system with radar observations from the NCAR CP-2 radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krehbiel, Paul; Rison, William

    1996-01-01

    This grant supported observations of thunderstorms at Kennedy Space Center during the summer of 1995. In particular, we obtained detailed observations of lightning-producing storms over KSC with the CP2 radar of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), for the purpose of comparing these with observations from KSC's Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) system. The NCAR radar was a special purpose dual-polarization system for studying the development of precipitation in storms and was at KSC for another project, the Small Cumulus Microphysics Study - SCMS. We used the radar on a non-interference basis to obtain the desired observations. In addition we recorded the electrostatic field change of the lightning discharges at two locations. Subsequent to the field observational period we compared the LDAR lightning observations with the storm structure as indicated by the radar. The results obtained to date are summarized briefly as follows: (1) The initial lightning sequence in a small developing storm was observed to occur in a region of the storm where supercooled raindrops had frozen within the previous few minutes. This is consistent with the idea that the storm electrification is produced by interactions between ice particles. (2) The lightning discharges tended to avoid regions of supercooled liquid raindrops, possibly indicating that corona from the drops reduces any electrification in the vicinity of the drops. (3) 'Bilevel' lightning discharges within storms have been confirmed to be between the level of negative charge at mid-levels in the storm and the upper storm level. This is consistent with and expands upon our understanding that storms have a basic dipolar charge structure. (4) The upward channels of the intracloud lightning discharges are often aligned with shafts of strong precipitation, and often begin just above the upper extent of 40 dBZ reflectivity in the precipitation shaft. This is consistent with a precipitation-based mechanism of

  4. Microcellular ceramic foams for radar absorbing structures

    SciTech Connect

    Huling, J.; Phillips, D.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project is to develop a lightweight, semi-structural, radar-absorbing ceramic foam that can be incorporated into aircraft exhaust systems to replace many of the currently used dense ceramic parts and thereby improve the radar cross section. Although the conventional processes for producing ceramic foams have not been able to provide materials that meet the design specifications for high strength at low density, we have developed and demonstrated a novel sol-gel emulsion process for preparing microcellular ceramic foams in which compositional and microstructural control is expected to provide the requisite high-temperature radar-absorption, strength-to-weight ratio, and thermal insulative properties.

  5. Public Engagement for the U.S. Rosetta Project using Interactive Multimedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, H.; Graham, S.; Alexander, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Rosetta Project is NASA contribution to the International Rosetta Mission. The mission is a long-duration mission to explore a comet and escort the nucleus from deep space around the Sun and for a portion of its outbound trajectory. The Rosetta stone, the symbol of the mission, is the inspiration for the mission’s name. As stated on by the European Space Agency, Rosetta is expected to provide the keys to the primordial solar system the way the original Rosetta Stone provided a key to ancient language. Four interactives serve as key components of the website portion of the project's public engagement efforts. This first is a presentation of the mission timeline using an interactive that resembles an iTunes front page. The second is a presentation of the space between Earth (Jupiter) and the next star (Proxima Centauri), in which the comet home of the Kuiper Belt with several of the planet-sized object embedded there, the Heliosphere, the comet home of the Oort Cloud, and other interstellar clouds are presented. The third is a presentation of ancient languages (still under development) - space terminology translated into Native American languages as part of the project's outreach to the Native American community. In the fourth interactive we have taken the relatively sophisticated scientific comet environment model, one that was produced on a super computer, and worked the output into 'representations' of how a comet changes as it moves around the Sun, with definitions of the scientific regions that evolve. Still under development, this interactive is expected to be a key component of explaining to the public what the instruments expect to measure and encounter as the target changes in time. A fifth animated component is addressed to informal education with younger audience members in the form of cartoon characters and their adventures on a comet. In this talk we will showcase these pieces and discuss how these interactives are intended for teaching and

  6. Historical sketch: Radar geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H.

    1980-01-01

    A chronological assessment is given of the broad spectra of technology associated with radar geology. Particular attention is given to the most recent developments made in the areas of microwave Earth resources applications and geologic remote sensing from aircraft and satellite. The significance of space derived radar in geologic investigations is discussed and the scientific basis for exploiting the sensitivity of radar signals to various aspects of geologic terrain is given.

  7. Wetland mapping with imaging radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, W. P.; Macdonald, H. C.; Kaupp, V. H.; Demarcke, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of Seasat radar imagery is presented to identify the radar signature of vegetation-covered water surfaces. Imagery taken on Aug. 21, 1978 displayed anomalously high returns over swamp lands near Lafayette, LA. Landsat scans of the area two days later revealed uniform vegetation cover in the area, and ground examination found the area to be filled with cypress trees in swamps. Similar results were obtained during an overflight above a region of southeast Arkansas. Mechanisms producing the high degree of reflectance are explored, and the possibility that the strong return is due to an interaction of the vegetation cover and the specular water surface underneath is mentioned. Further studies to identify the exact mechanisms producing the anomalous returns are recommended, as well as optimization of the viewing angle for general classes of vegetation density.

  8. Ultrawideband radar clutter measurements of forested terrain, 1991--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, D.M.; Severtsen, R.H.; Prince, J.M.; Davis, K.C.; Collins, H.D.

    1993-06-01

    The ultrawideband (UWB) radar clutter measurements project was conducted to provide radar clutter data for new ultrawideband radar systems which are currently under development. A particular goal of this project is to determine if conventional narrow band clutter data may be extrapolated to the UWB case. This report documents measurements conducted in 1991 and additional measurements conducted in 1992. The original project consisted of clutter measurements of forested terrain in the Olympic National Forest near Sequim, WA. The impulse radar system used a 30 kW peak impulse source with a 2 Gigasample/second digitizer to form a UHF (300--1000 MHz) ultrawideband impulse radar system. Additional measurements were conducted in parallel using a Systems Planning Corporation (SPC) step-chirp radar system. This system utilized pulse widths of 1330 nanoseconds over a bandwidth of 300--1000 MHz to obtain similar resolution to the impulse system. Due to the slow digitizer data throughput in the impulse radar system, data collection rates were significantly higher using the step-chirp system. Additional forest clutter measurements were undertaken in 1992 to increase the amount of data available, and especially to increase the amount of data from the impulse radar system.

  9. Communication: Configuration interaction combined with spin-projection for strongly correlated molecular electronic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi Ten-no, Seiichiro

    2016-01-07

    We present single and double particle-hole excitations in the recently revived spin-projected Hartree-Fock. Our motivation is to treat static correlation with spin-projection and recover the residual correlation, mostly dynamic in nature, with simple configuration interaction (CI). To this end, we introduce the Wick theorem for nonorthogonal determinants, which enables an efficient implementation in conjunction with the direct CI scheme. The proposed approach, termed spin-extended CI with singles and doubles, achieves a balanced treatment between dynamic and static correlations. To approximately account for the quadruple excitations, we also modify the well-known Davidson correction. We report that our approaches yield surprisingly accurate potential curves for HF, H{sub 2}O, N{sub 2}, and a hydrogen lattice, compared to traditional single reference wave function methods at the same computational scaling as regular CI.

  10. Knowledge based and interactive control for the Superfluid Helium On-orbit Transfer Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, Timothy P.; Raymond, Eric A.; Shapiro, Jeff C.; Robinson, Frank A.; Rosenthal, Donald A.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) project is a Shuttle-based experiment designed to acquire data on the properties of superfluid helium in micro-gravity. Aft Flight Deck Computer Software for the SHOOT experiment is comprised of several monitoring programs which give the astronaut crew visibility into SHOOT systems and a rule based system which will provide process control, diagnosis and error recovery for a helium transfer without ground intervention. Given present Shuttle manifests, this software will become the first expert system to be used in space. The SHOOT Command and Monitoring System (CMS) software will provide a near real time highly interactive interface for the SHOOT principal investigator to control the experiment and to analyze and display its telemetry. The CMS software is targeted for all phases of the SHOOT project: hardware development, pre-flight pad servicing, in-flight operations, and post-flight data analysis.

  11. Entanglement in bipartite pure states of an interacting boson gas obtained by local projective measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Paraan, Francis N. C.; Korepin, Vladimir E.; Molina-Vilaplana, Javier; Bose, Sougato

    2011-09-15

    We quantify the extractable entanglement of excited states of a Lieb-Liniger gas that are obtained from coarse-grained measurements on the ground state in which the boson number in one of two complementary contiguous partitions of the gas is determined. Numerically exact results obtained from the coordinate Bethe ansatz show that the von Neumann entropy of the resulting bipartite pure state increases monotonically with the strength of repulsive interactions and saturates to the impenetrable-boson limiting value. We also present evidence indicating that the largest amount of entanglement can be extracted from the most probable projected state having half the number of bosons in a given partition. Our study points to a fundamental difference between the nature of the entanglement in free-bosonic and free-fermionic systems, with the entanglement in the former being zero after projection, while that in the latter (corresponding to the impenetrable-boson limit) being nonzero.

  12. Using spectroscopy and interactive games to teach Solar System science: A decade of NASA's Project SPECTRA!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Project SPECTRA! has been in existance for nearly a decade. It highlights mission data and uses interactive games to engage students in middle and high school grades. Students learn about the electromagnetic spectrum and how we use this information to glean information about Solar System objects, and their atmospheres and climates. The program uses data from Cassini, Mars orbiters and rovers (most recently MAVEN), Venus Express, and several Earth orbiters to bring concepts of planetary comparison into focus. Using both traditional paper and pencil lessons and Flash and app based games, students are asked to conduct open ended research, make sense of the data they are presented with, and make scientific observations and hypothesis based upon their explorations. This talk will demonstrate how games are used to engage students in this process. Project SPECTRA! is a NASA product available through NASAWavelength.org, and is aligned to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS).

  13. The Use of Radar to Improve Rainfall Estimation over the Tennessee and San Joaquin River Valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Gatlin, Patrick N.; Felix, Mariana; Carey, Lawrence D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation provides an overview of the collaborative radar rainfall project between the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Von Braun Center for Science & Innovation (VCSI), NASA MSFC and UAHuntsville. Two systems were used in this project, Advanced Radar for Meteorological & Operational Research (ARMOR) Rainfall Estimation Processing System (AREPS), a demonstration project of real-time radar rainfall using a research radar and NEXRAD Rainfall Estimation Processing System (NREPS). The objectives, methodology, some results and validation, operational experience and lessons learned are reviewed. The presentation. Another project that is using radar to improve rainfall estimations is in California, specifically the San Joaquin River Valley. This is part of a overall project to develop a integrated tool to assist water management within the San Joaquin River Valley. This involves integrating several components: (1) Radar precipitation estimates, (2) Distributed hydro model, (3) Snowfall measurements and Surface temperature / moisture measurements. NREPS was selected to provide precipitation component.

  14. HF Radar Sea-echo from Shallow Water.

    PubMed

    Lipa, Belinda; Nyden, Bruce; Barrick, Don; Kohut, Josh

    2008-08-06

    HF radar systems are widely and routinely used for the measurement of ocean surface currents and waves. Analysis methods presently in use are based on the assumption of infinite water depth, and may therefore be inadequate close to shore where the radar echo is strongest. In this paper, we treat the situation when the radar echo is returned from ocean waves that interact with the ocean floor. Simulations are described which demonstrate the effect of shallow water on radar sea-echo. These are used to investigate limits on the existing theory and to define water depths at which shallow-water effects become significant. The second-order spectral energy increases relative to the first-order as the water depth decreases, resulting in spectral saturation when the waveheight exceeds a limit defined by the radar transmit frequency. This effect is particularly marked for lower radar transmit frequencies. The saturation limit on waveheight is less for shallow water. Shallow water affects second-order spectra (which gives wave information) far more than first-order (which gives information on current velocities), the latter being significantly affected only for the lowest radar transmit frequencies for extremely shallow water. We describe analysis of radar echo from shallow water measured by a Rutgers University HF radar system to give ocean wave spectral estimates. Radar-derived wave height, period and direction are compared with simultaneous shallow-water in-situ measurements.

  15. Designing an Interactive Web-based Tutorial for Health Sciences Students: A Collaborative Library Project.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    This column describes the creation of an online interactive tutorial for health sciences students in a general library at a large, urban university. The project was a collaborative effort among the health sciences subject librarian, the library's web programmer, an assessment and user services librarian, and an instructional support specialist. The column details the initial exploration, design, web programming, student usability study, and subsequent upgrades to the tutorial. Implementation of the tutorial is discussed as well as sampled student input. The effort resulted in the design of improved and more versatile open access coding available for any library to use.

  16. space Radar Image of Long Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    An area near Long Valley, California, was mapped by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavor on April 13, 1994, during the first flight of the radar instrument, and on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the radar instrument. The orbital configurations of the two data sets were ideal for interferometric combination -- that is overlaying the data from one image onto a second image of the same area to create an elevation map and obtain estimates of topography. Once the topography is known, any radar-induced distortions can be removed and the radar data can be geometrically projected directly onto a standard map grid for use in a geographical information system. The 50 kilometer by 50 kilometer (31 miles by 31 miles) map shown here is entirely derived from SIR-C L-band radar (horizontally transmitted and received) results. The color shown in this image is produced from the interferometrically determined elevations, while the brightness is determined by the radar backscatter. The map is in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. Elevation contour lines are shown every 50 meters (164 feet). Crowley Lake is the dark feature near the south edge of the map. The Adobe Valley in the north and the Long Valley in the south are separated by the Glass Mountain Ridge, which runs through the center of the image. The height accuracy of the interferometrically derived digital elevation model is estimated to be 20 meters (66 feet) in this image. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global

  17. "Show Me Where You Study!"--An Interactive Project between German Language Students in Nottingham and St Andrews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, Insa; Reisenleutner, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Interactive projects among students of a Common European Framework of Reference for languages (CEFR) A1+/A2 level seem difficult to set up due to the limited language repertoire of the students. Thus, our aim was to take up the challenge and start a project with the objective of applying their language skills. We chose a collaborative approach to…

  18. A scalable distributed paradigm for multi-user interaction with tiled rear projection display walls.

    PubMed

    Roman, Pablo; Lazarov, Maxim; Majumder, Aditi

    2010-01-01

    We present the first distributed paradigm for multiple users to interact simultaneously with large tiled rear projection display walls. Unlike earlier works, our paradigm allows easy scalability across different applications, interaction modalities, displays and users. The novelty of the design lies in its distributed nature allowing well-compartmented, application independent, and application specific modules. This enables adapting to different 2D applications and interaction modalities easily by changing a few application specific modules. We demonstrate four challenging 2D applications on a nine projector display to demonstrate the application scalability of our method: map visualization, virtual graffiti, virtual bulletin board and an emergency management system. We demonstrate the scalability of our method to multiple interaction modalities by showing both gesture-based and laser-based user interfaces. Finally, we improve earlier distributed methods to register multiple projectors. Previous works need multiple patterns to identify the neighbors, the configuration of the display and the registration across multiple projectors in logarithmic time with respect to the number of projectors in the display. We propose a new approach that achieves this using a single pattern based on specially augmented QR codes in constant time. Further, previous distributed registration algorithms are prone to large misregistrations. We propose a novel radially cascading geometric registration technique that yields significantly better accuracy. Thus, our improvements allow a significantly more efficient and accurate technique for distributed self-registration of multi-projector display walls.

  19. Radar illusion via metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2011-02-01

    An optical illusion is an image of a real target perceived by the eye that is deceptive or misleading due to a physiological illusion or a specific visual trick. The recently developed metamaterials provide efficient approaches to generate a perfect optical illusion. However, all existing research on metamaterial illusions has been limited to theory and numerical simulations. Here, we propose the concept of a radar illusion, which can make the electromagnetic (EM) image of a target gathered by radar look like a different target, and we realize a radar illusion device experimentally to change the radar image of a metallic target into a dielectric target with predesigned size and material parameters. It is well known that the radar signatures of metallic and dielectric objects are significantly different. However, when a metallic target is enclosed by the proposed illusion device, its EM scattering characteristics will be identical to that of a predesigned dielectric object under the illumination of radar waves. Such an illusion device will confuse the radar, and hence the real EM properties of the metallic target cannot be perceived. We designed and fabricated the radar illusion device using artificial metamaterials in the microwave frequency, and good illusion performances are observed in the experimental results.

  20. Metamaterial for Radar Frequencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Circuit Board RAM Radar Absorbing Material RCS Radar Cross Section SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratio SNG Single-Negative SRR Split Ring Resonator...although some can be single-negative ( SNG ). DNG refers to material with simultaneous negative real parts of the permittivity r  and permeability

  1. Synchronization in multistatic radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jubrink, H. G.

    1993-08-01

    This report gives a summary of multistatic radar principles and synchronization methods. Different methods are described using direct and indirect synchronization. The report also presents a general review of synchronization methods for the future. Two LORAN C receivers have been analyzed for use as local reference oscillators in multistatic radar.

  2. The PROUST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertin, F.; Glass, M.; Ney, R.; Petitdidier, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Stratosphere-Troposphere (ST) radar called PROUST works at 935 MHz using the same klystron and antenna as the coherent-scatter radar. The use of this equipment for ST work has required some important modifications of the transmitting system and the development of receiving, data processing and acquisition (1984,1985) equipment. The modifications are discussed.

  3. Noncooperative rendezvous radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A fire control radar system was developed, assembled, and modified. The baseline system and modified angle tracking system are described along with the performance characteristics of the baseline and modified systems. Proposed changes to provide additional techniques for radar evaluation are presented along with flight test data.

  4. Polarization Radar Processing Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    Oi"C FILE ( J qII RADC-TR-89-144 In-House Report October 1989 AD-A215 242 POLARIZATION RADAR PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY Kenneth C. Stiefvater, Russell D...NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 62702F 4506 11 58 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) POLARIZATION RADAR PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S

  5. Determination of radar MTF

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D.

    1994-11-15

    The ultimate goal of the Current Meter Array (CMA) is to be able to compare the current patterns detected with the array with radar images of the water surface. The internal wave current patterns modulate the waves on the water surface giving a detectable modulation of the radar cross-section (RCS). The function relating the RCS modulations to the current patterns is the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). By comparing radar images directly with co-located CMA measurements the MTF can be determined. In this talk radar images and CMA measurements from a recent experiment at Loch Linnhe, Scotland, will be used to make the first direct determination of MTF for an X and S band radar at low grazing angles. The technical problems associated with comparing radar images to CMA data will be explained and the solution method discussed. The results suggest the both current and strain rate contribute equally to the radar modulation for X band. For S band, the strain rate contributes more than the current. The magnitude of the MTF and the RCS modulations are consistent with previous estimates when the wind is blowing perpendicular to the radar look direction.

  6. Java Radar Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaczek, Mariusz P.

    2005-01-01

    Java Radar Analysis Tool (JRAT) is a computer program for analyzing two-dimensional (2D) scatter plots derived from radar returns showing pieces of the disintegrating Space Shuttle Columbia. JRAT can also be applied to similar plots representing radar returns showing aviation accidents, and to scatter plots in general. The 2D scatter plots include overhead map views and side altitude views. The superposition of points in these views makes searching difficult. JRAT enables three-dimensional (3D) viewing: by use of a mouse and keyboard, the user can rotate to any desired viewing angle. The 3D view can include overlaid trajectories and search footprints to enhance situational awareness in searching for pieces. JRAT also enables playback: time-tagged radar-return data can be displayed in time order and an animated 3D model can be moved through the scene to show the locations of the Columbia (or other vehicle) at the times of the corresponding radar events. The combination of overlays and playback enables the user to correlate a radar return with a position of the vehicle to determine whether the return is valid. JRAT can optionally filter single radar returns, enabling the user to selectively hide or highlight a desired radar return.

  7. Alpine radar conversion for LAWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savina, M.; Burlando, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) is a ship-born weather radar system operating in X-band developed by the DHI Group to detect precipitation in urban areas. To date more than thirty units are installed in different settings around the world. A LAWR was also deployed in the Alps, at 3883 m a.s.l. on the Kl. Matterhorn (Valais, Switzerland). This was the highest LAWR of the world and it led to the development of an Alpine LAWR system that, besides featuring important technological improvements needed to withstand the severe Alpine conditions, required the development of a new Alpine Radar COnversion Model (ARCOM), which is the main focus of this contribution. The LAWR system is equipped with the original FURUNO fan-beam slotted antenna and the original logarithmic receiver, which limits the radar observations to the video signal (L) withour providing the reflectivity (Z). The beam is 0.95 deg wide and 20 deg high. It can detect precipitation to a max range of 60 km. In order to account for the limited availability of raw signal and information and the specific mountain set-up, the conversion model had to be developed differently from the state-of-the-art radar conversion technique used for this class of radars. In particular, the ARCOM is based on a model used to simulate a spatial dependent factor, hereafter called ACF, which is in turn function of parameters that take in account climatological conditions, also used in other conversion methods, but additionally accounting for local radar beam features and for orographic forcings such as the effective sampling power (sP), which is modelled by means of antenna pattern, geometric ground clutter and their interaction. The result is a conversion factor formulated to account for a range correction that is based on the increase of the sampling volume, partial beam blocking and local climatological conditions. The importance of the latter in this study is double with respect to the standard conversion technique for this

  8. Spaceborne weather radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, Robert; Kozu, Toshiaki

    1990-01-01

    The present work on the development status of spaceborne weather radar systems and services discusses radar instrument complementarities, the current forms of equations for the characterization of such aspects of weather radar performance as surface and mirror-image returns, polarimetry, and Doppler considerations, and such essential factors in spaceborne weather radar design as frequency selection, scanning modes, and the application of SAR to rain detection. Attention is then given to radar signal absorption by the various atmospheric gases, rain drop size distribution and wind velocity determinations, and the characteristics of clouds, as well as the range of available estimation methods for backscattering, single- and dual-wavelength attenuation, and polarimetric and climatological characteristics.

  9. Micropower impulse radar imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, M.S.

    1995-11-01

    From designs developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in radar and imaging technologies, there exists the potential for a variety of applications in both public and private sectors. Presently tests are being conducted for the detection of buried mines and the analysis of civil structures. These new systems use a patented ultra-wide band (impulse) radar technology known as Micropower Impulse Radar (GPR) imaging systems. LLNL has also developed signal processing software capable of producing 2-D and 3-D images of objects embedded in materials such as soil, wood and concrete. My assignment while at LLNL has focused on the testing of different radar configurations and applications, as well as assisting in the creation of computer algorithms which enable the radar to scan target areas of different geometeries.

  10. Intelligent radar data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzbaur, Ulrich D.

    The application of artificial intelligence principles to the processing of radar signals is considered theoretically. The main capabilities required are learning and adaptation in a changing environment, processing and modeling information (especially dynamics and uncertainty), and decision-making based on all available information (taking its reliability into account). For the application to combat-aircraft radar systems, the tasks include the combination of data from different types of sensors, reacting to electronic counter-countermeasures, evaluation of how much data should be acquired (energy and radiation management), control of the radar, tracking, and identification. Also discussed are related uses such as monitoring the avionics systems, supporting pilot decisions with respect to the radar system, and general applications in radar-system R&D.

  11. The nuclear weapons inheritance project: student-to-student dialogues and interactive peer education in disarmament activism.

    PubMed

    Buhmann, Caecilie Böck

    2007-01-01

    The Nuclear Weapons Inheritance Project is a student run and student initiated project founded in 2001 with the purpose of increasing awareness of health effects of nuclear policies and empowering university students to take action in a local and international context. The project uses dialogues to discuss nuclear disarmament with university students and a method of interactive peer education to train new trainers. The project has met more than 1500 students in nuclear weapon states in dialogue and trained about 400 students from all over the world. This article describes the methods and results of the project and discuss how the experience of the project can be used in other projects seeking to increase awareness of a topic and to initiate action on social injustice.

  12. Analysis of Aircraft, Radiosonde and Radar Observations in Cirrus Clouds Observed During FIRE II: The Interactions Between Environmental Structure, Turbulence and Cloud Microphysical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Samantha A.; DelGenio, Anthony D.

    1999-01-01

    Ways to determine the turbulence intensity and the horizontal variability in cirrus clouds have been investigated using FIRE-II aircraft, radiosonde and radar data. Higher turbulence intensities were found within some, but not all, of the neutrally stratified layers. It was also demonstrated that the stability of cirrus layers with high extinction values decrease in time, possibly as a result of radiative destabilization. However, these features could not be directly related to each other in any simple manner. A simple linear relationship was observed between the amount of horizontal variability in the ice water content and its average value. This was also true for the extinction and ice crystal number concentrations. A relationship was also suggested between the variability in cloud depth and the environmental stability across the depth of the cloud layer, which requires further investigation.

  13. 4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, emergency power building, and height finder radar tower - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  14. 5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  15. (abstract) Science-Project Interaction in the Low-Cost Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Stephen D.

    1994-01-01

    Large, complex, and highly optimized missions have performed most of the preliminary reconnaisance of the solar system. As a result we have now mapped significant fractions of its total surface (or surface-equivalent) area. Now, however, scientific exploration of the solar system is undergoing a major change in scale, and existing missions find it necessary to limit costs while fulfilling existing goals. In the future, NASA's Discovery program will continue the reconnaisance, exploration, and diagnostic phases of planetary research using lower cost missions, which will include lower cost mission operations systems (MOS). Historically, one of the more expensive functions of MOS has been its interaction with the science community. Traditional MOS elements that this interaction have embraced include mission planning, science (and engineering) event conflict resolution, sequence optimization and integration, data production (e.g., assembly, enhancement, quality assurance, documentation, archive), and other science support services. In the past, the payoff from these efforts has been that use of mission resources has been highly optimized, constraining resources have been generally completely consumed, and data products have been accurate and well documented. But because these functions are expensive we are now challenged to reduce their cost while preserving the benefits. In this paper, we will consider ways of revising the traditional MOS approach that might save project resources while retaining a high degree of service to the Projects' customers. Pre-launch, science interaction can be made simplier by limiting numbers of instruments and by providing greater redundancy in mission plans. Post launch, possibilities include prioritizing data collection into a few categories, easing requirements on real-time of quick-look data delivery, and closer integration of scientists into the mission operation.

  16. Precise Orbit Determination of Meteors by HPLA Radar and the MU Radar Meteor Head Echo Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Takuji; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Tanaka, Yoshi; Kero, Johan; Szasz, Csilla; Watanabe, Juniichi; Abe, Shinsuke; Kastinen, Daniel

    Mass influx from the space into the terrestrial atmosphere is mainly caused by meteors. Meteors delivers various elements into the atmosphere, but the meteoric dust particles are also of great importance in the terrestrial atmosphere, as they act as nucleus for condensation and clouds and affect various atmospheric phenomena both in physical and chemical aspects. Thus, to investigate the meteor flux, orbits and their interactions in the upper atmosphere is very important but at the same time the method of investigation is limited, especially for the precise measurements High power large aperture (HPLA) radar observation is a recent technique to provide useful information on meteor influx and orbits, as well as interactions with the atmosphere. The recent development of the technique carried out using the middle and upper atmosphere radar (MU radar) of Kyoto University at Shigaraki (34.9N, 136.1S), which is a large atmospheric VHF radar with 46.5 MHz frequency, 1 MW output transmission power and 8330 m2 aperture array antenna, has established very precise orbit observations from meteor head echoes. Since 2009, orbital data of about 120,000 meteors have been collected. An open database (MU radar meteor head echo database: MURMHED) for research and education is now being created. In this study, we present the physical quantities and precisions obtained from the MU radar meteor head echo observations and the details of the open database.

  17. Radar remote sensing in biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Richard K.; Simonett, David S.

    1967-01-01

    The present status of research on discrimination of natural and cultivated vegetation using radar imaging systems is sketched. The value of multiple polarization radar in improved discrimination of vegetation types over monoscopic radars is also documented. Possible future use of multi-frequency, multi-polarization radar systems for all weather agricultural survey is noted.

  18. Spaceborne meteorological radar studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, R.

    1988-01-01

    Various radar designs and methods are studied for the estimation of rainfall parameters from space. An immediate goal is to support the development of the spaceborne radar that has been proposed for the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM). The effort is divided into two activities: a cooperative airborne rain measuring experiment with the Radio Research Laboratory of Japan (RRL), and the modelling of spaceborne weather radars. An airborne rain measuring experiment was conducted at Wallops Flight Facility in 1985 to 1986 using the dual-wavelength radar/radiometer developed by RRL. The data are presently being used to test a number of methods that are relevant to spaceborne weather radars. An example is shown of path-averaged rain rates as estimated from three methods: the standard reflectivity rain rate method (Z-R), a dual-wavelength method, and a surface reference method. The results from the experiment shows for the first time the feasibility of using attenuation methods from space. The purposes of the modelling are twofold: to understand in a quantitative manner the relationships between a particular radar design and its capability for estimating precipitation parameters and to help devise and test new methods. The models are being used to study the impact of various TRMM radar designs on the accuracy of rain rate estimation as well as to test the performance of range-profiling algorithms, the mirror-image method, and some recently devised graphical methods for the estimation of the drop size distribution.

  19. Science Roles and Interactions in Adaptive Management of Large River Restoration Projects, Midwest United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, R. B.; Galat, D. L.; Smith, C. B.

    2010-12-01

    Most large-river restoration projects include formal or informal implementations of adaptive management strategies which acknowledge uncertainty and use scientific inquiry to learn and refine management options. Although the central role of science in reducing uncertainty is acknowledged in such projects, specific roles and interactions can vary widely, including how science relates to decision-making within the governance of these projects. Our objective is to present some structured generalizations about science roles and interactions as developed from the authors’ experiences in adaptive management of large river restoration in the Midwest United States. Scientific information may be introduced into decision making by scientists acting in any of the three roles common to adaptive management -- action agency representative, stakeholder, or science provider. We have observed that confusion and gridlock can arise when it is unclear if a scientist is acting as an advocate for a stakeholder or management position, or instead as an independent, “honest broker” of science. Although both advocacy and independence are proper and expected in public decision making, it is useful when scientists unambiguously identify their role. While complete scientific independence may be illusory, transparency and peer review can promote the ideal. Transparency comes from setting clear directions and objectives at the decision-making level and defining at the outset how learning will help assess progress and inform decisions. Independent peer reviews of proposals, study plans, and publications serve as a powerful tool to advance scientific independence, even if funding sources present a potential conflict of interest. Selection of experts for scientific advice and review often requires consideration of the balance between benefits of the “outside” expert (independent, knowledgeable but with little specific understanding of the river system), compared to those provided by the

  20. Radar applications overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenspan, Marshall

    1996-06-01

    During the fifty years since its initial development as a means of providing early warning of airborne attacks against allied countries during World War II, radar systems have developed to the point of being highly mobile and versatile systems capable of supporting a wide variety of remote sensing applications. Instead of being tied to stationary land-based sites, radar systems have found their way into highly mobile land vehicles as well as into aircraft, missiles, and ships of all sizes. Of all these applications, however, the most exciting revolution has occurred in the airborne platform arena where advanced technology radars can be found in all shapes and sizes...ranging from the large AWACS and Joint STARS long range surveillance and targeting systems to small millimeter wave multi-spectral sensors on smart weapons that can detect and identify their targets through the use of highly sophisticated digital signal processing hardware and software. This paper presents an overview of these radar applications with the emphasis on modern airborne sensors that span the RF spectrum. It will identify and describe the factors that influence the parameters of low frequency and ultra wide band radars designed to penetrate ground and dense foliage environments and locate within them buried mines, enemy armor, and other concealed or camouflaged weapons of war. It will similarly examine the factors that lead to the development of airborne radar systems that support long range extended endurance airborne surveillance platforms designed to detect and precision-located both small high speed airborne threats as well as highly mobile time critical moving and stationary surface vehicles. The mission needs and associated radar design impacts will be contrasted with those of radar systems designed for high maneuverability rapid acquisition tactical strike warfare platforms, and shorter range cued air-to-surface weapons with integral smart radar sensors.

  1. Radar frequency radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malowicki, E.

    1981-11-01

    A method is presented for the determination of radar frequency radiation power densities that the PAVE PAWS radar system could produce in its air and ground environment. The effort was prompted by the concern of the people in the vicinity of OTIS AFB MA and BEALE AFB CA about the possible radar frequency radiation hazard of the PAVE PAWS radar. The method is based on the following main assumptions that: (a) the total field can be computed as the vector summation of the individual fields due to each antenna element; (b) the individual field can be calculated using distances for which the field point is in the far field of the antenna element. An RFR computer program was coded for the RADC HE 6180 digital computer and exercised to calculate the radiation levels in the air and ground space for the present baseline and the possible Six DB and 10 DB growth systems of the PAVE PAWS radar system at OTIS AFB MA. The average radiation levels due to the surveillance fence were computed for three regions: in the air space in front of the radar, at the radar hazard fence at OTIS AFB MA and at representative ground points in the OTIS AFB vicinity. It was concluded that the radar frequency radiation of PAVE PAWS does not present a hazard to personnel provided there is no entry to the air hazard zone or to the area within the hazard fence. The method developed offers a cost effective way to determine radiation levels from a phased array radar especially in the near field and transition regions.

  2. A microprogrammable radar controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The Wave Propagation Lab. has completed the design and construction of a microprogrammable radar controller for atmospheric wind profiling. Unlike some radar controllers using state machines or hardwired logic for radar timing, this design is a high speed programmable sequencer with signal processing resources. A block diagram of the device is shown. The device is a single 8 1/2 inch by 10 1/2 inch printed circuit board and consists of three main subsections: (1) the host computer interface; (2) the microprogram sequencer; and (3) the signal processing circuitry. Each of these subsections are described in detail.

  3. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1981-01-01

    Efforts were focused on: (1) acquisition of radar data at Arecibo; (2) examination of raw data; (3) reduction of the unmodulated data to background-free, calibrated spectra; (4) integration and coherent analyses of the phase-coded data; and (5) calculation of Doppler shifts and preliminary values for echo limb-to-limb bandwidths, radar cross sections, and circular polarization ratios. Asteroids observed to data have radar properties distinct from those of the rocky terrestrial planets and those of the icy Galilean satellites.

  4. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1981-01-01

    Software to support all stages of asteroid radar observation and data analysis is developed. First-order analysis of all data in hand is complete. Estimates of radar cross sections, circular polarization ratios, and limb-to-limb echo spectral bandwidths for asteroids 7 Iris, 16 Psyche, 97 Klotho, 1862 Apollo, and 1915 Quetzalcoatl are reported. Radar observations of two previously unobserved asteroids were conducted. An Aten asteroid, 2100 Ra-Shalom, with the smallest known semimajor axis (0.83) was detected. Preliminary data reduction indicates a circular polarization ratio comparable to those of Apollo, Quetzalcoatl, and Toro.

  5. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    The initial radar observations of the mainbelt asteroids 9 Metis, 27 Euterpe, and 60 Echo are examined. For each target, data are taken simultaneously in the same sense of circular polarization as transmitted as well as in the opposite (OC) sense. Estimates of the radar cross sections provide estimates of the circular polarization ratio, and the normalized OC radar cross section. The circular polarization ratio, is comparable to values measured for other large S type asteroids and for a few much smaller, Earth approaching objects, most of the echo is due to single reflection backscattering from smooth surface elements.

  6. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1981-11-01

    Software to support all stages of asteroid radar observation and data analysis is developed. First-order analysis of all data in hand is complete. Estimates of radar cross sections, circular polarization ratios, and limb-to-limb echo spectral bandwidths for asteroids 7 Iris, 16 Psyche, 97 Klotho, 1862 Apollo, and 1915 Quetzalcoatl are reported. Radar observations of two previously unobserved asteroids were conducted. An Aten asteroid, 2100 Ra-Shalom, with the smallest known semimajor axis (0.83) was detected. Preliminary data reduction indicates a circular polarization ratio comparable to those of Apollo, Quetzalcoatl, and Toro.

  7. Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture was just a taste of radar remote sensing techniques and applications. Other important areas include Stereo radar grammetry. PolInSAR for volumetric structure mapping. Agricultural monitoring, soil moisture, ice-mapping, etc. The broad range of sensor types, frequencies of observation and availability of sensors have enabled radar sensors to make significant contributions in a wide area of earth and planetary remote sensing sciences. The range of applications, both qualitative and quantitative, continue to expand with each new generation of sensors.

  8. Cognitive nonlinear radar test-bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedden, Abigail S.; Wikner, David A.; Martone, Anthony; McNamara, David

    2013-05-01

    Providing situational awareness to the warfighter requires radar, communications, and other electronic systems that operate in increasingly cluttered and dynamic electromagnetic environments. There is a growing need for cognitive RF systems that are capable of monitoring, adapting to, and learning from their environments in order to maintain their effectiveness and functionality. Additionally, radar systems are needed that are capable of adapting to an increased number of targets of interest. Cognitive nonlinear radar may offer critical solutions to these growing problems. This work focuses on ongoing efforts at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) to develop a cognitive nonlinear radar test-bed. ARL is working toward developing a test-bed that uses spectrum sensing to monitor the RF environment and dynamically change the transmit waveforms to achieve detection of nonlinear targets with high confidence. This work presents the architecture of the test-bed system along with a discussion of its current capabilities and limitations. A brief outlook is presented for the project along with a discussion of a future cognitive nonlinear radar test-bed.

  9. Studies on Radar Sensor Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-08

    through-foliage target detection using UWB radar sensor network based on real-world data; 2. Foliage clutter modeling using UWB radars; 3. Outdoor UWB...channel modeling based on field data; 4. Multi-target detection using radar sensor networks (theoretical studies); 5. SVD-QR and graph theory for MIMO...Superimposed code based channel assignment in multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Radar Sensor Network, UWB Radar, Sense

  10. Observation and Theory of the Radar Aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahr, John David

    1990-01-01

    Plasma density irregularities occurring near the Aurora Borealis cause scattering of HF, VHF, and UHF radio waves. The scattering is so strong that a small radar, such a the Cornell University Portable Radar Interferometer (CUPRI), can easily detect this "radar aurora." Analysis of the resulting radar signal provides great detail about the spatial and temporal characteristics of these auroral E region irregularities. We present observations of the radar aurora from recent campaigns in northern Sweden. After reviewing the basic theory and observations of auroral electrojet irregularities, we introduce a simple nonlinear fluid theory of electrojet ion-acoustic waves, and reduce it to a form of the "three-wave interaction" equations. This theory provides a simple mechanism for excitation of linearly stable waves at large aspect and flow angles, as well as a prediction of the power spectra that a coherent scatter radar should observe. In addition, this theory may be able account for "type 3" waves without resorting to ion gyro modes, such as the electrostatic ion-cyclotron wave. During the course of our research we have generated a simple new radar transmitting mode and signal processing algorithm which very simply solves a frequency aliasing problem that often occurs in CUPRI auroral radar studies when a single-pulse spectral mode is used. Several new radar data analysis routines have been developed, including principally the "cross-beam image" and scatter plots of the second versus first moments of the power spectrum of the irregularities. Analysis of vertical interferometer data shows that "type 3" waves originate at ordinary electrojet altitudes, not in the upper E region, from which we conclude that the electrostatic ion-cyclotron mode does not generate "type 3" waves. The measured height of type 3 waves and other spectral analyses provide support for our pure ion -acoustic theory of type 3 waves. In closing, we offer suggestions for hardware improvements to the

  11. Observation and theory of the radar aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahr, John David

    Plasma density irregularities occurring near the Aurora Borealis cause scattering of HF, VHF, and UHF radio waves. The scattering is so strong that a small radar, such as the Cornell University Portable Radar Interferometer (CUPRI), can easily detect this radar aurora. Analysis of the resulting radar signal provides great detail about the spatial and temporal characteristics of these auroral E region irregularities. Observations are presented of the radar aurora from recent campaigns in northern Sweden. After reviewing the basic theory and observations of auroral electrojet irregularities, a simple nonlinear fluid theory of electrojet ion-acoustic waves is introduced, and reduced to a form of the three-wave interaction equations. This theory provides a simple mechanism for excitation of linearly stable waves at large aspect and flow angles, as well as a prediction of the power spectra that a coherent scatter radar should observe. In addition, this theory may be able to account for type 3 waves without resorting to ion gyro modes, such as the electrostatic ion-cyclotron wave. During the course of the research a simple new radar transmitting mode and signal processing algorithm was generated which very simply solves a frequency aliasing problem that often occurs in CUPRI auroral radar studies when a single-pulse spectral mode is used. Several new radar data analysis routines were developed, including the principally cross-beam image and scatter plots of the second versus first moments of the power spectrum of the irregularities. Analysis of vertical interferometer data shows that type 3 waves originate at ordinary electrojet altitudes, not in the upper E region, from which it is concluded that the electrostatic ion-cyclotron mode does not generate type 3 waves. The measured height of type 3 waves and other spectral analyses provide support for the pure ion-acoustic theory of type 3 waves. Suggestions are offered for hardware improvements to the CUPRI radar, new

  12. Project Hotspot - The Snake River Scientific Drilling Project - Investigating the Interactions of Mantle Plumes and Continental Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    The Yellowstone-Snake River Plain (YSRP) volcanic province is the world's best modern example of a time- transgressive hotspot track beneath continental crust. Recently, a 100 km wide thermal anomaly has been imaged by seismic tomography to depths of over 500 km beneath the Yellowstone Plateau. The Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field consists largely of rhyolite lavas and ignimbrites, with few mantle-derived basalts. In contrast, the Snake River Plain (SRP), which represents the track of the Yellowstone hotspot, consists of rhyolite caldera complexes that herald the onset of plume-related volcanism and basalts that are compositionally similar to ocean island basalts like Hawaii. The SRP preserves a record of volcanic activity that spans over 16 Ma and is still active today, with basalts as young as 200 ka in the west and 2 ka in the east. The SRP is unique because it is young and relatively undisturbed tectonically, and because it contains a complete record of volcanic activity associated with passage of the hotspot. This complete volcanic record can only be sampled by drilling. In addition, the western SRP rift basin preserves an unparalleled deep-water lacustrine archive of paleoclimate evolution in western North America during the late Neogene. The central question addressed by the Snake River Scientific Drilling Project is how do mantle hotspots interact with continental lithosphere, and how does this interaction affect the geochemical evolution of mantle-derived magmas and the continental lithosphere? Our hypothesis is that continental mantle lithosphere is constructed in part from the base up by the underplating of mantle plumes, which are compositionally distinct from cratonic lithosphere, and that plumes modify the impacted lithosphere by thermally and mechanically eroding cratonic mantle lithosphere, and by underplating depleted plume-source mantle. Addition of mafic magma to the crust represents a significant contribution to crustal growth, and densifies

  13. The Physics Education Technology Project: Web-based interactive simulations to support student learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Wendy; Perkins, Kathy; Finkelstein, Noah; Lemaster, Ron; Reid, Sam; Dubson, Mike; Wieman, Carl

    2004-05-01

    We introduce the Physics Education Technology (PhET) Project^1,2, a new initiative to provide a suite of online tools for teaching and learning introductory physics at the high school and college levels. The project focuses on the development of relatively elaborate Java- and Flash-based animated simulations that are designed to help students develop visual and conceptual models of physical phenomena. We are also developing guiding questions that will utilize the simulation to address specific conceptual difficulties, help students experience the relationships among variables, and connect physics to real-world experiences and observations. These simulations create an interactive experience for the student that is designed to promote active thinking and encourage experimentation. We have implemented the simulations as lecture demonstrations, homework tools, a replacement for laboratory equipment, and as a preparation activity for class. We will present a summary of the simulations currently available and our preliminary research results on what makes a simulation effective and how it can be used effectively as an educational tool. 1. See http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phet 2. Supported by NSF, the Kavli Foundation, and CU.

  14. Variation after parity projection calculation with the Skyrme interaction for light nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, H.; Yabana, K.; Nakatsukasa, T.

    2004-07-01

    A self-consistent calculation with variation after parity projection is proposed to study both ground and excited states of light nuclei. This procedure provides description of the ground state incorporating some correlation effects, and self-consistent solutions for the excited states of negative parity. For flexible description of nuclear shapes, single particle orbitals are represented on a uniform grid in the three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates. The angular momentum projection is performed after variation to calculate rotational spectra. To demonstrate the usefulness of the method, results are shown for two N=Z nuclei, {sup 20}Ne and {sup 12}C, for which clustering correlations are known to be important. In the {sup 20}Ne nucleus, both cluster-like and shell-model-like states are described simultaneously in the present framework. For {sup 12}C nucleus, the appearance of three-alpha clustering correlation in the ground state is investigated in relation to the strength of the two-body spin-orbit interaction.

  15. Nonlinear Internal Wave Interaction in the China Seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Antony K.; Hsu, Ming-K.

    1998-01-01

    This project researched the nonlinear wave interactions in the East China Sea, and the South China Sea, using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. The complicated nature of the internal wave field, including the generation mechanisms, was studied, and is discussed. Discussion of wave-wave interactions in the East China Sea, the area of the China Sea northeast of Taiwan, and the Yellow Sea is included.

  16. Observation and theory of the radar aurora

    SciTech Connect

    Sahr, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Plasma density irregularities occurring near the Aurora Borealis cause scattering of HF, VHF, and UHF radio waves. Analysis of the resulting radar signal provides great detail about the spatial and temporal characteristics of these auroral E region irregularities. Observations are presented of the radar aurora from recent campaigns in northern Sweden. After reviewing the basic theory and observations of auroral electrojet irregularities, a simple nonlinear fluid theory of electrojet ion-acoustic waves is introduced, and reduced to a form of the three-wave interaction equations. This theory provides a simple mechanism for excitation of linearly stable waves at large aspect and flow angles, as well as a prediction of the power spectra that a coherent scatter radar should observe. In addition, this theory may be able to account for type 3 waves without resorting to ion gyro modes, such as the electrostatic ion-cyclotron wave. During the course of the research a simple new radar transmitting mode and signal processing algorithm was generated which very simply solves a frequency aliasing problem that often occurs in CUPRI auroral radar studies. Several new radar data analysis routines were developed, including the principally cross-beam image and scatter plots of the second versus first moments of the power spectrum of the irregularities. Analysis of vertical interferometer data shows that type 3 waves originate at ordinary electrojet altitudes, not in the upper E region, from which it is concluded that the electrostatic ion-cyclotron mode does not generate type 3 waves. The measured height of type 3 waves and other spectral analyses provide support for the pure ion-acoustic theory of type 3 waves. Suggestions are offered for hardware improvements to the CUPRI radar, new experiments to test new and existing theories.

  17. Laser Radar Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Laser and radar instruments aboard NASA aircraft provide measurements of the snow and ice surface and down to the bedrock under the ice. Lasers, with a shorter wavelength, measure the surface eleva...

  18. Multispectral imaging radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porcello, L. J.; Rendleman, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A side-looking radar, installed in a C-46 aircraft, was modified to provide it with an initial multispectral imaging capability. The radar is capable of radiating at either of two wavelengths, these being approximately 3 cm and 30 cm, with either horizontal or vertical polarization on each wavelength. Both the horizontally- and vertically-polarized components of the reflected signal can be observed for each wavelength/polarization transmitter configuration. At present, two-wavelength observation of a terrain region can be accomplished within the same day, but not with truly simultaneous observation on both wavelengths. A multiplex circuit to permit this simultaneous observation has been designed. A brief description of the modified radar system and its operating parameters is presented. Emphasis is then placed on initial flight test data and preliminary interpretation. Some considerations pertinent to the calibration of such radars are presented in passing.

  19. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    For 80 Sappho, 356 Liguria, 694 Ekard, and 2340 Hathor, data were taken simultaneously in the same sense of circular polarization as transmitted (SC) as well as in the opposite (OC) sense. Graphs show the average OC and SC radar echo power spectra soothed to a resolution of EFB Hz and plotted against Doppler frequency. Radar observations of the peculiar object 2201 Oljato reveal an unusual set of echo power spectra. The albedo and polarization ratio remain fairly constant but the bandwidths range from approximately 0.8 Hz to 1.4 Hz and the spectral shapes vary dramatically. Echo characteristics within any one date's approximately 2.5-hr observation period do not fluctuate very much. Laboratory measurements of the radar frequency electrical properties of particulate metal-plus-silicate mixtures can be combined with radar albedo estimates to constrain the bulk density and metal weight, fraction in a hypothetical asteroid regolith having the same particle size distribution as lab samples.

  20. Radar Cross Section Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-30

    Radar 54 17. Measured Range Sidelobe Performance of Chirp Radar 56 18. Range and Cross Range Image of Target Dror.’ŕ Vehicle 57 19. Incoherent rms...the measured range resolution, 4.9 in, closely agrees with the theoretical performance for this weighting. The measured range sidelobe performance...Interval 4.89in. 2% kHz 300 kHz 310 kHz (b) Expanded Scale + 5 ft from Target Figure 17. Measured Range Sidelobe Performance of

  1. Downhole pulse radar

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1987-09-28

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole. 7 figs.

  2. Downhole pulse radar

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1989-01-01

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole.

  3. Airborne MIMO GMTI Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-31

    applications [1], [2], [3], [4]. [5]. [6]. [7]. [8]. [9]. [10]. [11]. [12]. Conventional phased array radars form a single coherent transmit beam and...intentionally left blank. 1. INTRODUCTION Conventional phased - array radars form a single coherent transmit beam and measure the backscattered response... steering vector for a SI MO array with nr"/? receiver phase centers located at positions xm + y„. This is how the MIMO virtual array arises. The waveforms

  4. Radar Mosaic of Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is an image of equatorial Africa, centered on the equator at longitude 15degrees east. This image is a mosaic of almost 4,000 separate images obtained in 1996 by the L-band imaging radar onboard the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite. Using radar to penetrate the persistent clouds prevalent in tropical forests, the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite was able for the first time to image at high resolution this continental scale region during single flooding seasons. The area shown covers about 7.4 million square kilometers (2.8 million square miles) of land surface, spans more than 5,000 kilometers(3,100 miles) east and west and some 2,000 kilometers (1,240 miles) north and south. North is up in this image. At the full resolution of the mosaic (100 meters or 330 feet), this image is more than 500 megabytes in size, and was processed from imagery totaling more than 60 gigabytes.

    Central Africa was imaged twice in 1996, once between January and March, which is the major low-flood season in the Congo Basin, and once between October and November, which is the major high-flood season in the Congo Basin. The red color corresponds to the data from the low-flood season, the green to the high-flood season, and the blue to the 'texture' of the low-flood data. The forests appear green as a result, the flooded and palm forests, as well as urban areas, appear yellow, the ocean and lakes appear black, and savanna areas appear blue, black or green, depending on the savanna type, surface topography and other factors. The areas of the image that are black and white were mapped only between January and March 1996. In these areas, the black areas are savanna or open water, the gray are forests, and the white areas are flooded forests or urban areas. The Congo River dominates the middle of the image, where the nearby forests that are periodically flooded by the Congo and its tributaries stand out as yellow. The Nile River flows north from Lake Victoria in the middle right of

  5. The DACCIWA Project: Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud interactions in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knippertz, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Massive economic and population growth and urbanisation are expected to lead to a tripling of anthropogenic emissions from southern West Africa (SWA) between 2000 and 2030, the impacts of which on human health, ecosystems, food security and the regional climate are largely unknown. An assessment of these impacts is complicated by (a) a superposition with effects of global climate change, (b) the strong dependence of SWA on the sensitive West African monsoon, (c) incomplete scientific understanding of interactions between emissions, clouds, radiation, precipitation and regional circulations and (d) by a lack of observations to advance our understanding and improve predictions. The purpose of this contribution is to introduce the research consortium DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud interactions in West Africa), which comprises 16 partners in six European and West African countries. The interdisciplinary DACCIWA team will build on the scientific and logistical foundations established by the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) project and collaborate closely with operational centres. DACCIWA will receive funding of about M8.75€ from the European Commission as part of Framework Programme 7 from 2015 until 2018. The DACCIWA project will conduct extensive fieldwork in SWA to collect high-quality observations, spanning the entire process chain from surface-based natural and anthropogenic emissions to impacts on health, ecosystems and climate. This will include a major field campaign in summer 2015 with three research aircrafts and two ground-based supersites. Combining the resulting benchmark dataset with a wide range of modelling activities will allow us: (a) to assess all relevant physical and chemical processes, (b) to improve the monitoring of climate and compositional parameters from space, (c) to determine health impacts from air pollution, and (d) to develop the next generation of weather and climate models capable of representing coupled

  6. ANDRILL educational activities in Italy: progettosmilla.it, a case-study of an interactive project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattadori, M.

    2008-12-01

    In January 2006, the Italian ANDRILL (Antartic Geological Drilling) team selected the project progettosmilla.it and its instructor Matteo Cattadori, a high school teacher and collaborator of Museo Tridentino di Scienze Naturali (TN - Italy) to represent Italy in the ANDRILL-ARISE team. The ARISE (Andrill Research Immersion for Science Educators) comprised a group of teachers from 4 nations (US, New Zealand, Germany and Italy) and is part of the initiative Public and Educational Outreach component of the ANDRILL project. The selected teachers are sent to Antarctica and are actively involved in all stages of the scientific investigation, with the main aim of establishing a bridge between research and the schools in the participating countries. Progettosmilla.it was selected to take part in the first edition of ANDRILL-ARISE held at the American Antarctic base of Mc Murdo during the 2006-2007 austral summer.The project makes use of different tools, techniques and forms of communication-education to stimulate the interest and motivation of students, teachers and organizers/trainers in ANDRILL research and polar sciences in general. Activities are organized and scheduled according to a fixed timetable that cover 2/3 of an academic year and are centered on the site www.progettosmilla.it. This site feature daily reports, as well as online activities and various services for users in Italian schools. Among the online materials, more conventional ones are: - summaries of the ANDRILL research and the Antarctic environment; including multimedia (1200 photos, 10 video and audio); resource folders for teachers on 10 different subjects of study; course work for the participating school students. - ITC-oriented materials such as: videoconferencing and chat sessions with Antarctica or between classes, blogs, web-quest, animations and interactive teaching. -Many services are implemented in collaboration with other teachers and allow the ARISE team to perform distant collaborative

  7. Three-dimensional mosaicking of the South Korean radar network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berenguer, Marc; Sempere-Torres, Daniel; Lee, GyuWon

    2016-04-01

    Dense radar networks offer the possibility of improved Quantitative Precipitation Estimation thanks to the additional information collected in the overlapping areas, which allows mitigating errors associated with the Vertical Profile of Reflectivity or path attenuation by intense rain. With this aim, Roca-Sancho et al. (2014) proposed a technique to generate 3-D reflectivity mosaics from the multiple radars of a network. The technique is based on an inverse method that simulates the radar sampling of the atmosphere considering the characteristics (location, frequency and scanning protocol) of each individual radar. This technique has been applied to mosaic the observations of the radar network of South Korea (composed of 14 S-band radars), and integrate the observations of the small X-band network which to be installed near Seoul in the framework of a project funded by the Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement (KAIA). The evaluation of the generated 3-D mosaics has been done by comparison with point measurements (i.e. rain gauges and disdrometers) and with the observations of independent radars. Reference: Roca-Sancho, J., M. Berenguer, and D. Sempere-Torres (2014), An inverse method to retrieve 3D radar reflectivity composites, Journal of Hydrology, 519, 947-965, doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.07.039.

  8. LANDSAT and radar mapping of intrusive rocks in SE-Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, A. R.; Dosanjos, C. E.; Moreira, J. C.; Barbosa, M. P.; Veneziani, P.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of intrusive rock mapping was investigated and criteria for regional geological mapping established at the scale of 1:500,00 in polycyclic and polymetamorphic areas using the logic method of photointerpretation of LANDSAT imagery and radar from the RADAMBRASIL project. The spectral behavior of intrusive rocks, was evaluated using the interactive multispectral image analysis system (Image-100). The region of Campos (city) in northern Rio de Janeiro State was selected as the study area and digital imagery processing and pattern recognition techniques were applied. Various maps at the 2:250,000 scale were obtained to evaluate the results of automatic data processing.

  9. A SEASAT-A synthetic aperture imaging radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, R. L.; Rodgers, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    The SEASAT, a synthetic aperture imaging radar system is the first radar system of its kind designed for the study of ocean wave patterns from orbit. The basic requirement of this system is to generate continuous radar imagery with a 100 km swath with 25m resolution from an orbital altitude of 800 km. These requirements impose unique system design problems. The end to end data system described including interactions of the spacecraft, antenna, sensor, telemetry link, and data processor. The synthetic aperture radar system generates a large quantity of data requiring the use of an analog link with stable local oscillator encoding. The problems associated in telemetering the radar information with sufficient fidelity to synthesize an image on the ground is described as well as the selected solutions to the problems.

  10. Evaluation of Various Radar Data Quality Control Algorithms Based on Accumulated Radar Rainfall Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Michael; Steiner, Matthias; Wolff, David B.; Ferrier, Brad S.; Kessinger, Cathy; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The primary function of the TRMM Ground Validation (GV) Program is to create GV rainfall products that provide basic validation of satellite-derived precipitation measurements for select primary sites. A fundamental and extremely important step in creating high-quality GV products is radar data quality control. Quality control (QC) processing of TRMM GV radar data is based on some automated procedures, but the current QC algorithm is not fully operational and requires significant human interaction to assure satisfactory results. Moreover, the TRMM GV QC algorithm, even with continuous manual tuning, still can not completely remove all types of spurious echoes. In an attempt to improve the current operational radar data QC procedures of the TRMM GV effort, an intercomparison of several QC algorithms has been conducted. This presentation will demonstrate how various radar data QC algorithms affect accumulated radar rainfall products. In all, six different QC algorithms will be applied to two months of WSR-88D radar data from Melbourne, Florida. Daily, five-day, and monthly accumulated radar rainfall maps will be produced for each quality-controlled data set. The QC algorithms will be evaluated and compared based on their ability to remove spurious echoes without removing significant precipitation. Strengths and weaknesses of each algorithm will be assessed based on, their abilit to mitigate both erroneous additions and reductions in rainfall accumulation from spurious echo contamination and true precipitation removal, respectively. Contamination from individual spurious echo categories will be quantified to further diagnose the abilities of each radar QC algorithm. Finally, a cost-benefit analysis will be conducted to determine if a more automated QC algorithm is a viable alternative to the current, labor-intensive QC algorithm employed by TRMM GV.

  11. Radar Data Quality Control and Assimilation at the National Weather Radar Testbed (NWRT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    Weather Radar Testbed (NWRT) Qin Xu CIMMS , University of Oklahoma 120 David L. Boren Blvd. Norman, OK 73072 phone: (405) 325-3041 fax: (405...AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Oklahoma, CIMMS ...supported research scientists at CIMMS , the University of Oklahoma. Collaborations between this project and the development of the NWRT PAR is coordinated

  12. Software For Clear-Air Doppler-Radar Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Bruce W.

    1990-01-01

    System of software developed to present plan-position-indicator scans of clear-air Doppler radar station on color graphical cathode-ray-tube display. Designed to incorporate latest accepted standards for equipment, computer programs, and meteorological data bases. Includes use of Ada programming language, of "Graphical-Kernel-System-like" graphics interface, and of Common Doppler Radar Exchange Format. Features include portability and maintainability. Use of Ada software packages produced number of software modules reused on other related projects.

  13. Beamforming for Radar Systems on COTS Heterogeneous Computing Platforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-20

    Beamforming for Radar Systems on COTS Heterogeneous Computing Platforms Mr. Jeffrey Rudin Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. Phone: (978) 967-1686...ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Mercury ...allocation and the resulting system topologies. © 2003 Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. Beamforming for Radar Systems on COTS Heterogeneous

  14. 66. VIEW SHOWING HOLD FOR RADAR CABLES AT RADAR SITE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. VIEW SHOWING HOLD FOR RADAR CABLES AT RADAR SITE, LOOKING NORTH Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Investigation of Advanced Radar Techniques for Atmospheric Hazard Detection with Airborne Weather Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pazmany, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013 ProSensing Inc. conducted a study to investigate the hazard detection potential of aircraft weather radars with new measurement capabilities, such as multi-frequency, polarimetric and radiometric modes. Various radar designs and features were evaluated for sensitivity, measurement range and for detecting and quantifying atmospheric hazards in wide range of weather conditions. Projected size, weight, power consumption and cost of the various designs were also considered. Various cloud and precipitation conditions were modeled and used to conduct an analytic evaluation of the design options. This report provides an overview of the study and summarizes the conclusions and recommendations.

  16. Radar Imaging of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, John K.

    2007-10-01

    Earth-based radar has been one of the few, and one of the most important, sources of new information about Mercury during the three decades since the Mariner 10 encounters. The emphasis during the past 15 years has been on full-disk, dual-polarization imaging of the planet, an effort that has been facilitated by the development of novel radar techniques and by improvements in radar systems. Probably the most important result of the imaging work has been the discovery and mapping of radar-bright features at the poles. The radar scattering properties of these features, and their confinement to permanently shaded crater floors, is consistent with volume backscatter from a low-loss volatile such as clean water ice. Questions remain, however, regarding the source and long-term stability of the putative ice, which underscores the need for independent confirmation by other observational methods. Radar images of the non-polar regions have also revealed a plethora of bright features, most of which are associated with fresh craters and their ejecta. Several very large impact features, with rays and other bright ejecta spreading over distances of 1,000 km or more, have been traced to source craters with diameters of 80-125 km. Among these large rayed features are some whose relative faintness suggests that they are being observed in an intermediate stage of degradation. Less extended ray/ejecta features have been found for some of the freshest medium-size craters such as Kuiper and Degas. Much more common are smaller (<40 km diameter) fresh craters showing bright rim-rings but little or no ray structure. These smaller radar-bright craters are particularly common over the H-7 quadrangle. Diffuse areas of enhanced depolarized brightness have been found in the smooth plains, including the circum-Caloris planitiae and Tolstoj Basin. This is an interesting finding, as it is the reverse of the albedo contrast seen between the radar-dark maria and the radar-bright cratered highlands

  17. Radar Imaging of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, John K.

    Earth-based radar has been one of the few, and one of the most important, sources of new information about Mercury during the three decades since the Mariner 10 encounters. The emphasis during the past 15 years has been on full-disk, dual-polarization imaging of the planet, an effort that has been facilitated by the development of novel radar techniques and by improvements in radar systems. Probably the most important result of the imaging work has been the discovery and mapping of radar-bright features at the poles. The radar scattering properties of these features, and their confinement to permanently shaded crater floors, is consistent with volume backscatter from a low-loss volatile such as clean water ice. Questions remain, however, regarding the source and long-term stability of the putative ice, which underscores the need for independent confirmation by other observational methods. Radar images of the non-polar regions have also revealed a plethora of bright features, most of which are associated with fresh craters and their ejecta. Several very large impact features, with rays and other bright ejecta spreading over distances of 1,000 km or more, have been traced to source craters with diameters of 80-125 km. Among these large rayed features are some whose relative faintness suggests that they are being observed in an intermediate stage of degradation. Less extended ray/ejecta features have been found for some of the freshest medium-size craters such as Kuiper and Degas. Much more common are smaller (<40 km diameter) fresh craters showing bright rim-rings but little or no ray structure. These smaller radar-bright craters are particularly common over the H-7 quadrangle. Diffuse areas of enhanced depolarized brightness have been found in the smooth plains, including the circum-Caloris planitiae and Tolstoj Basin. This is an interesting finding, as it is the reverse of the albedo contrast seen between the radar-dark maria and the radar-bright cratered highlands

  18. A barrier radar concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J.; Ball, C.; Weissman, I.

    A description is given of a low power, light-weight radar that can be quickly set up and operated on batteries for extended periods of time to detect airborne intruders. With low equipment and operating costs, it becomes practical to employ a multiplicity of such radars to provide an unbroken intrusion fence over the desired perimeter. Each radar establishes a single transmitted fan beam extending vertically from horizon to horizon. The beam is generated by a two-face array antenna built in an A-frame configuration and is shaped, through phasing of the array elements, to concentrate the transmitter power in a manner consistent with the expected operating altitude ceiling of the targets of interest. The angular width of this beam in the dimension transverse to the fan depends on the radar transmission frequency and the antenna aperture dimension, but is typically wide enough so that a target at the maximum altitude or range will require tens of seconds to pass through the beam. A large number of independent samples of radar data will thus be available to provide many opportunities for target detection.

  19. 33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar operations center (PAROC), contains the tactical command and control group equipment required to control the par site. Showing spacetrack monitor console - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  20. Coordinated Radar Resource Management for Networked Phased Array Radars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Research and Development Canada Ottawa, Canada K1A 0Z4 Email: Peter.Moo@drdc-rddc.gc.ca Abstract A phased array radar has the ability to rapidly and...search and Development Canada (DRDC) Ottawa to analyse the performance of radar resource management techniques for naval radars operating in a littoral

  1. The Use of Tablet PC and Interactive Board from the Perspectives of Teachers and Students: Evaluation of the FATIH Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pamuk, Sonmez; Cakir, Recep; Ergun, Mustafa; Yilmaz, H. Bayram; Ayas, Cemalettin

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the early implementation results of the "Movement of Enhancing Opportunities and Improving Technology", abbreviated as FATIH project from the perspectives of participating teachers and students. Specifically, to investigate (a) whether or not Interactive Boards (IB) and Tablet Computers…

  2. Analysis of an Interactive Technology Supported Problem-Based Learning STEM Project Using Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, David Devraj

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports an analysis of an interactive technology-supported, problem-based learning (PBL) project in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) from a Learning Sciences perspective using the Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA). The SLSIA was adapted from the "What kinds of topics do ISLS [International…

  3. Exploratory Study on the Patterns of Online Interaction and Knowledge Co-Construction in Project-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heo, Heeok; Lim, Kyu Yon; Kim, Youngsoo

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the patterns and the quality of online interaction during project-based learning (PjBL) on both micro and macro levels. To achieve this purpose, PjBL was implemented with online group activities in an undergraduate course. Social network analysis (SNA) and content analysis were employed to analyze online interaction…

  4. Overview of the Simulation of Wave Interactions with MHD Project (SWIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Donald

    2010-11-01

    The SWIM center has the scientific objectives of: improving our understanding of interactions that both RF wave and particle sources have on extended-MHD phenomena, improving our capability for predicting and optimizing the performance of burning plasmas, developing an integrated computational system for treating multi-physics phenomena with the required flexibility and extensibility to serve as a prototype for the Fusion Simulation Project, addressing mathematics issues related to the multi-scale, coupled physics of RF waves and extended MHD, and optimizing the integrated system on high performance computers. Our Center has now built an end-to-end computational system that allows existing physics codes to be able to function together in a parallel environment and connects them to utility software components and data management systems. We have used this framework to couple together state-of-the-art fusion energy codes to produce a unique and world-class simulation capability. A physicist's overview of the Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) will be given and applications described. For example the IPS is being employed to support ITER with operational scenario studies.

  5. Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project. Phase 2; Human Factors and Crew Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.; Hurlbert, K. M.; Kirby, G.; Lewis, J. F.; ORear, P.

    1997-01-01

    Phase 2 of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project was conducted in June and July of 1996 at the NASA Johnson Space Center. The primary objective of Phase 2 was to demonstrate and evaluate an integrated physicochemical air revitalization and regenerative water recovery system capable of sustaining a human crew of four for 30 days inside a closed chamber. The crew (3 males and 1 female) was continuously present inside a chamber throughout the 30-day test. The objective of this paper was to describe crew interactions and human factors for the test. Crew preparations for the test included training and familiarization of chamber systems and accommodations, and medical and psychological evaluations. During the test, crew members provided metabolic loads for the life support systems, performed maintenance on chamber systems, and evaluated human factors inside the chamber. Overall, the four crew members found the chamber to be comfortable for the 30-day test. The crew performed well together and this was attributed in part to team dynamics, skill mix (one commander, two system experts, and one logistics lead), and a complementary mix of personalities. Communication with and support by family, friends, and colleagues were identified as important contributors to the high morale of the crew during the test. Lessons learned and recommendations for future testing are presented by the crew in this paper.

  6. Phase modulating the Urbana radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrington, L. J., Jr.; Bowhill, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and operation of a switched phase modulation system for the Urbana Radar System are discussed. The system is implemented and demonstrated using a simple procedure. The radar system and circuits are described and analyzed.

  7. Evaluation of radar imagery for geological and cartographic applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Gerald K.; Sheehan, Cynthia A.

    1981-01-01

    The House/Senate conference report on H.R. 4930 (96th Congress), the Department of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations bill, 1980, stated that the U.S. Geological Survey should "begin the use of side-looking airborne radar imagery for topographic and geological mapping, and geological resource surveys in promising areas, particularly Alaska." In response to this mandate, the Survey acquired radar data and began scientific studies to analyze and interpret these data. About 70 percent of the project funding was used to acquire radar imagery and to evaluate Alaskan applications. Results of these studies indicate that radar images have a unique incremental value for certain geologic and cartographic applications but that the images are best suited for use as supplemental information sources or as primary data sources in areas of persistent cloud cover.The value of radar data is greatest for geologic mapping and resource surveys, particularly for mineral and petroleum exploration, where the objective is to locate any single feature or group of features that may control the occurrences of these resources. Radar images are considered by oil and gas companies to be worth the cost of data acquisition within a limited area of active exploration.Radar images also have incremental value for geologic site studies and hazard mapping. The need in these cases is TO inventory all geologic hazards to human life, property, resources, and the environment. For other geologic applications, radar images have a relatively small incremental value over a combination of Landsat images and aerial photographs.The value of radar images for cartographic applications is minimal, except when they are used as a substitute for aerial photographs and topographic maps in persistently cloud-covered areas. If conventional data sources are not available, radar images provide useful information on terrain relief, landforms, drainage patterns, and land cover. Screen less lithography is a low

  8. Coherent IR radar technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gschwendtner, A. B.; Harney, R. C.; Hull, R. J.

    Recent progress in the development of coherent IR radar equipment is reviewed, focusing on the Firepond laser radar installation and the more compact systems derived for it. The design and capabilities of Firepond as a long-range satellite-tracking device are outlined. The technological improvements necessary to make laser radar mobile are discussed: a lightweight, stable 5-10-W transmitter laser for both CW and pulsed operation, a 12-element HgCdTe detector array, an eccentric-pupil Ritchey-Chretien telescope, and a combination of near-field phase modification and anamorphic expansion to produce a fan beam of relatively uniform intensity. Sample images obtained with a prototype system are shown, and the applicability of the mobile system to range-resolved coherent DIAL measurement is found to be similar to that of a baseline DIAL system.

  9. The MST Radar Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsley, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    The past ten year have witnessed the development of a new radar technique to examine the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere between roughly 1 to 100 km on a continuous basis. The technique is known as the MST (for Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere) technique and is usable in all weather conditions, being unaffected by precipitation or cloud cover. MST radars make use of scattering from small scale structure in the atmospheric refractive index, with scales of the order of one-half the radar wavelength. Pertinent scale sizes for middle atmospheric studies typically range between a fraction of a meter and a few meters. The structure itself arises primarily from atmospheric turbulence. The technique is briefly described along with the meteorological parameters it measures.

  10. Mississippi Delta, Radar Image with Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    , engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C.

    Location: 30 degrees North latitude, 90 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 222.6 by 192.8 kilometers (138.3 by 119.8 miles) Image Data: Radar image and colored Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  11. The Merapi Interactive Project: Offering a Fancy Cross-Disciplinary Scientific Understanding of Merapi Volcano to a Wide Audience.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, J.; Kerlow, I.

    2015-12-01

    The Merapi volcano is of great interest to a wide audience as it is one of the most dangerous volcanoes worldwide and a beautiful touristic spot. The scientific literature available on that volcano both in Earth and Social sciences is rich but mostly inaccessible to the public because of the scientific jargon and the restricted database access. Merapi Interactive aims at developing clear information and attractive content about Merapi for a wide audience. The project is being produced by the Art and Media Group at the Earth Observatory of Singapore, and it takes the shape of an e-book. It offers a consistent, comprehensive, and jargon-filtered synthesis of the main volcanic-risk related topics about Merapi: volcanic mechanisms, eruptive history, associated hazards and risks, the way inhabitants and scientists deal with it, and what daily life at Merapi looks like. The project provides a background to better understand volcanoes, and it points out some interactions between scientists and society. We propose two levels of interpretation: one that is understandable by 10-year old kids and above and an expert level with deeper presentations of specific topics. Thus, the Merapi Interactive project intends to provide an engaging and comprehensive interactive book that should interest kids, adults, as well as Earth Sciences undergraduates and academics. Merapi Interactive is scheduled for delivery in mid-2016.

  12. Radar data smoothing filter study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. V.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of the current Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) data smoothing techniques for a variety of radars and payloads is examined. Alternative data reduction techniques are given and recommendations are made for improving radar data processing at WFF. A data adaptive algorithm, based on Kalman filtering and smoothing techniques, is also developed for estimating payload trajectories above the atmosphere from noisy time varying radar data. This algorithm is tested and verified using radar tracking data from WFF.

  13. Systems and Methods for Radar Data Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, Brian (Inventor); Szeto, Roland (Inventor); Miller, Brad (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A radar information processing system is operable to process high bandwidth radar information received from a radar system into low bandwidth radar information that may be communicated to a low bandwidth connection coupled to an electronic flight bag (EFB). An exemplary embodiment receives radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth; processes the received radar information into processed radar information, the processed radar information configured for communication over a connection operable at a second bandwidth, the second bandwidth lower than the first bandwidth; and communicates the radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth.

  14. Radar Image, Color as Height , Salalah, Oman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This radar image includes the city of Salalah, the second largest city in Oman. It illustrates how topography determines local climate and, in turn, where people live. This area on the southern coast of the Arabian Peninsula is characterized by a narrow coastal plain (bottom) facing southward into the Arabian Sea, backed by the steep escarpment of the Qara Mountains. The backslope of the Qara Mountains slopes gently into the vast desert of the Empty Quarter (at top). This area is subject to strong monsoonal storms from the Arabian Sea during the summer, when the mountains are enveloped in a sort of perpetual fog. The moisture from the monsoon enables agriculture on the Salalah plain, and also provides moisture for Frankincense trees growing on the desert (north) side of the mountains. In ancient times, incense derived from the sap of the Frankincense tree was the basis for an extremely lucrative trade. Radar and topographic data are used by historians and archaeologists to discover ancient trade routes and other significant ruins.

    This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to brown at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1070 meters (3500 feet) of total relief. White speckles on the face of some of the mountains are holes in the data caused by steep terrain. These will be filled using coverage from an intersecting pass.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter

  15. System aspects of the Indian MST radar facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, G.

    1986-01-01

    One of the major objectives of the Indian Middle Atmosphere Program is to investigate the motions of the middle atmosphere on temporal and spatial scales and the interaction between the three height regions of the middle atmosphere. Realizing the fact that radar technique has proven to be a very powerful tool for the study of Earth atmosphere, the Indian Middle Atmosphere Program has recommended establishing a mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar as a national facility for atmospheric research. The major landmarks in this attempt to setup the MST radar as a national facility are described.

  16. Spaceborne Imaging Radar Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the present state of the art in the different scientific and technological fields related to spaceborne imaging radars was presented. The data acquired with the SEASAT SAR (1978) and Shuttle Imaging Radar, SIR-A (1981) clearly demonstrated the important emphasis in the 80's is going to be on in-depth research investigations conducted with the more flexible and sophisticated SIR series instruments and on long term monitoring of geophysical phenomena conducted from free-flying platforms such as ERS-1 and RADARSAT.

  17. Microwave radar oceanographic investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, F. C.

    1988-01-01

    The Radar Ocean Wave Spectrometer (ROWS) technique was developed and demonstrated for measuring ocean wave directional spectra from air and space platforms. The measurement technique was well demonstrated with data collected in a number of flight experiments involving wave spectral comparisons with wave buoys and the Surface Contour Radar (SCR). Recent missions include the SIR-B underflight experiment (1984), FASINEX (1986), and LEWEX (1987). ROWS related activity is presently concentrating on using the aircraft instrument for wave-processes investigations and obtaining the necessary support (consensus) for a satellite instrument development program. Prospective platforms include EOS and the Canadian RADARSAT.

  18. Spaceborne laser radar.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, T.

    1972-01-01

    Development of laser systems to acquire and track targets in applications such as the rendezvous and docking of two spacecraft. A scan technique is described whereby a narrow laser beam is simultaneously scanned with an equally narrow receiver field-of-view without the aid of mechanical gimbals. Equations are developed in order to examine the maximum acquisition and tracking rates, and the maximum target range for a scanning laser radar system. A recently built prototype of a small, lightweight, low-power-consuming scanning laser radar is described.

  19. Radar Investigations of Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    Radar investigations of asteroids, including observations during 1984 to 1985 of at least 8 potential targets and continued analyses of radar data obtained during 1980 to 1984 for 30 other asteroids is proposed. The primary scientific objectives include estimation of echo strength, polarization, spectral shape, spectral bandwidth, and Doppler shift. These measurements yield estimates of target size, shape, and spin vector; place constraints on topography, morphology, density, and composition of the planetary surface; yield refined estimates of target orbital parameters; and reveals the presence of asteroidal satellites.

  20. SEASAT Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. M.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of radar imagery from space altitudes is discussed and the advantages of radar over passive sensor systems are outlined. Specific reference is made to the SEASAT synthetic aperture radar. Possible applications include oil spill monitoring, snow and ice reconnaissance, mineral exploration, and monitoring phenomena in the urban environment.

  1. Side looking radar calibration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    Calibration of an airborne sidelooking radar is accomplished by the use of a model that relates the radar parameters to the physical mapping situation. Topics discussed include: characteristics of the transmitters; the antennas; target absorption and reradiation; the receiver and map making or radar data processing; and the calibration process.

  2. Space Radar Image of Mt. Etna, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The summit of the Mount Etna volcano on the island of Sicily, Italy, one of the most active volcanoes in the world, is shown near the center of this radar image. Lava flows of different ages and surface roughness appear in shades of purple, green, yellow and pink surrounding the four small craters at the summit. Etna is one of the best-studied volcanoes in the world and scientists are using this radar image to identify and distinguish a variety of volcanic features. Etna has erupted hundreds of times in recorded history, with the most recent significant eruption in 1991-1993. Scientists are studying Etna as part of the international 'Decade Volcanoes' project, because of its high level of activity and potential threat to local populations. This image was acquired on October 11, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered at 37.8 degrees North latitude and 15.1 degrees East longitude and covers an area of 51.2 kilometers by 22.6 kilometers (31.7 miles by 14.0 miles).

  3. Development and Testing of the VAHIRR Radar Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe III; Miller, Juli; Charnasky, Debbie; Gillen, Robert; Lafosse, Richard; Hoeth, Brian; Hood, Doris; McNamara, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) and Flight Rules (FR) are used for launches and landings at government and commercial spaceports. They are designed to avoid natural and triggered lightning strikes to space vehicles, which can endanger the vehicle, payload, and general public. The previous LLCC and FR were shown to be overly restrictive, potentially leading to costly launch delays and scrubs. A radar algorithm called Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), along with new LLCC and FR for anvil clouds, were developed using data collected by the Airborne Field Mill II research program. VAHIRR is calculated at every horizontal position in the coverage area of the radar and can be displayed similar to a two-dimensional derived reflectivity product, such as composite reflectivity or echo tops. It is the arithmetic product of two quantities not currently generated by the Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D): a volume average of the reflectivity measured in dBZ and the average cloud thickness based on the average echo top height and base height. This presentation will describe the VAHIRR algorithm, and then explain how the VAHIRR radar product was implemented and tested on a clone of the National Weather Service's (NWS) Open Radar Product Generator (ORPG-clone). The VAHIRR radar product was then incorporated into the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS), to make it more convenient for weather forecasters to utilize. Finally, the reliability of the VAHIRR radar product was tested with real-time level II radar data from the WSR-88D NWS Melbourne radar.

  4. Radar polarization studies of volcanic and impact cratered terrains on the Earth, Venus, and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Bruce Allan

    The results of four research projects which utilized imaging radar polarization data for remote sensing of volcanic and impact cratered terrains on the Earth, Venus, and the Moon are presented. The first project is an analysis of airborne multi-polarization radar data. A technique is developed for decomposing the polarized radar echo into components attributed to quasi-specular, small-perturbation, and 'dihedral' mechanisms. The second and third projects analyze the geomorphology and radar polarization properties of deposits on two volcanoes, Sif and Gula Montes, in western Eistla Regio, Venus. These analyses utilize radar images collected at Arecibo Observatory in 1988 (spatial resolution 1 km). Changes in the radar brightness of lava flows with downslope distance from possible vents are inconsistent with trends observed for single terrestrial lava flow. This observation, coupled with evidence of multiple eruptive vents, suggests that most of the large flows in western Eistla Regio are formed by coalescence of numerous smaller flows. The third project also compares the radar polarization properties of volcanic deposits on Sif and Gula Montes to data for terrestrial lava flows and a smooth desert area. The fourth project presents a study of lunar crater rays using high-resolution (30 m) radar images collected at Haystack Observatory, and focuses on the bright ray in Mare Serenitatis and ray segments attributed to Tycho and Copernicus craters.

  5. Power centroid radar and its rise from the universal cybernetics duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feria, Erlan H.

    2014-05-01

    Power centroid radar (PC-Radar) is a fast and powerful adaptive radar scheme that naturally surfaced from the recent discovery of the time-dual for information theory which has been named "latency theory." Latency theory itself was born from the universal cybernetics duality (UC-Duality), first identified in the late 1970s, that has also delivered a time dual for thermodynamics that has been named "lingerdynamics" and anchors an emerging lifespan theory for biological systems. In this paper the rise of PC-Radar from the UC-Duality is described. The development of PC-Radar, US patented, started with Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) funded research on knowledge-aided (KA) adaptive radar of the last decade. The outstanding signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) performance of PC-Radar under severely taxing environmental disturbances will be established. More specifically, it will be seen that the SINR performance of PC-Radar, either KA or knowledgeunaided (KU), approximates that of an optimum KA radar scheme. The explanation for this remarkable result is that PC-Radar inherently arises from the UC-Duality, which advances a "first principles" duality guidance theory for the derivation of synergistic storage-space/computational-time compression solutions. Real-world synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images will be used as prior-knowledge to illustrate these results.

  6. Space Radar Image of North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a radar image showing surface features on the open ocean in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. There is no land mass in this image. The purple line in the lower left of the image is the stern wake of a ship. The ship creating the wake is the bright white spot on the middle, left side of the image. The ship's wake is about 28 kilometers (17 miles) long in this image and investigators believe that is because the ship may be discharging oil. The oil makes the wake last longer and causes it to stand out in this radar image. A fairly sharp boundary or front extends from the lower left to the upper right corner of the image and separates two distinct water masses that have different temperatures. The different water temperature affects the wind patterns on the ocean. In this image, the light green area depicts rougher water with more wind, while the purple area is calmer water with less wind. The dark patches are smooth areas of low wind, probably related to clouds along the front, and the bright green patches are likely due to ice crystals in the clouds that scatter the radar waves. The overall 'fuzzy' look of this image is caused by long ocean waves, also called swells. Ocean radar imagery allows the fine detail of ocean features and interactions to be seen, such as the wake, swell, ocean front and cloud effects, which can then be used to enhance the understanding of ocean dynamics on smaller and smaller scales. The image is centered at 42.8 degrees north latitude, 26.2 degrees west longitude and shows an area approximately 35 kilometers by 65 kilometers (22 by 40 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is C-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; blue is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR

  7. The Interactive Virtual Earth Science Teaching (InVEST) project: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallus, W.; Cervato, C.; Parham, T.; Larsen, M.; Cruz-Neira, C.; Boudreaux, H.

    2009-04-01

    The InVEST (Interactive Virtual Earth Science Teaching) project has as its goal the development of state-of-the-art virtual reality geoscience tools that can be used to correct student misunderstandings about some geoscience phenomena. One tool, originally developed several years ago, the virtual tornadic thunderstorm, was recently modified based on feedback from instructors given the opportunity to use the tool. The modified virtual storm will be demonstrated during the presentation. In addition, a virtual volcano application is currently under development. To steer the development of this application, a Volcanic Concept Survey was recently administered to over 600 students at six U.S. institutions with the goal of identifying areas of greatest misconception relating to volcanoes. Both mean and median scores on the instrument were exceptionally low, indicating that students generally possessed minimal understanding of volcanic systems. High scores were restricted to the simplest aspects of volcanism (terminology, basic volcano shape) while questions requiring higher thinking and deeper conceptual connections (analysis of patterns, eruptive controls, and hazards) saw much lower scores. Categorical analysis of response types revealed the extent of specific misconceptions, the most predominant of which demonstrated a failure to link tectonics to a global volcanic pattern. Eruptive catalysts and controls also appear poorly understood, as are volcanic impacts on the environment and human endeavors. The survey also included demographic information which has been analyzed. Analysis of student sources of knowledge found that over 41% of students said that they had acquired most of their understanding about volcanoes from non-traditional sources such as the popular media and Hollywood films. Application of a multiple linear regression model and an expanded model suggests that these students were much less likely to receive high scores on questions relating to understanding

  8. No-core configuration-interaction model for the isospin- and angular-momentum-projected states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satuła, W.; Båczyk, P.; Dobaczewski, J.; Konieczka, M.

    2016-08-01

    Background: Single-reference density functional theory is very successful in reproducing bulk nuclear properties like binding energies, radii, or quadrupole moments throughout the entire periodic table. Its extension to the multireference level allows for restoring symmetries and, in turn, for calculating transition rates. Purpose: We propose a new variant of the no-core-configuration-interaction (NCCI) model treating properly isospin and rotational symmetries. The model is applicable to any nucleus irrespective of its mass and neutron- and proton-number parity. It properly includes polarization effects caused by an interplay between the long- and short-range forces acting in the atomic nucleus. Methods: The method is based on solving the Hill-Wheeler-Griffin equation within a model space built of linearly dependent states having good angular momentum and properly treated isobaric spin. The states are generated by means of the isospin and angular-momentum projection applied to a set of low-lying (multi)particle-(multi)hole deformed Slater determinants calculated using the self-consistent Skyrme-Hartree-Fock approach. Results: The theory is applied to calculate energy spectra in N ≈Z nuclei that are relevant from the point of view of a study of superallowed Fermi β decays. In particular, a new set of the isospin-symmetry-breaking corrections to these decays is given. Conclusions: It is demonstrated that the NCCI model is capable of capturing main features of low-lying energy spectra in light and medium-mass nuclei using relatively small model space and without any local readjustment of its low-energy coupling constants. Its flexibility and a range of applicability makes it an interesting alternative to the conventional nuclear shell model.

  9. Compilation of Data and Modelling of Nanoparticle Interactions and Toxicity in the NanoPUZZLES Project.

    PubMed

    Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Avramopoulos, Aggelos; Benfenati, Emilio; Gajewicz, Agnieszka; Golbamaki Bakhtyari, Nazanin; Leonis, Georgios; Marchese Robinson, Richard L; Papadopoulos, Manthos G; Cronin, Mark Td; Puzyn, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    The particular properties of nanomaterials have led to their rapidly increasing use in diverse fields of application. However, safety assessment is not keeping pace and there are still gaps in the understanding of their hazards. Computational models predicting nanotoxicity, such as (quantitative) structure-activity relationships ((Q)SARs), can contribute to safety evaluation, in line with general efforts to apply alternative methods in chemical risk assessment. Their development is highly dependent on the availability of reliable and high quality experimental data, both regarding the compounds' properties as well as the measured toxic effects. In particular, "nano-QSARs" should take the nano-specific characteristics into account. The information compiled needs to be well organized, quality controlled and standardized. Integrating the data in an overarching, structured data collection aims to (a) organize the data in a way to support modelling, (b) make (meta)data necessary for modelling available, and (c) add value by making a comparison between data from different sources possible.Based on the available data, specific descriptors can be derived to parameterize the nanomaterial-specific structure and physico-chemical properties appropriately. Furthermore, the interactions between nanoparticles and biological systems as well as small molecules, which can lead to modifications of the structure of the active nanoparticles, need to be described and taken into account in the development of models to predict the biological activity and toxicity of nanoparticles. The EU NanoPUZZLES project was part of a global cooperative effort to advance data availability and modelling approaches supporting the characterization and evaluation of nanomaterials.

  10. Interception of LPI Radar Signals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    AD-A246 315!I! I!! II I’ IIi INTERCEPTION OF LPI RADAR SIGNALS (U) by Jim P.Y. Lee DEFENCE RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT OTTAWA TECHNICAL NOTE 91-23 Canadd...November 1991Ottawa 92-041269’ 2 2 18 II.2t1111111I 111111! !_ 1+1 efrc nadonds INTERCEPTION OF LPI RADAR SIGNALS (U) by Jim P.Y. Lee Radar E"Sect&ion... radar may employ against current EW receivers. The general conclusion is that it is possible to design a LPI radar which is effective against current

  11. Surface Contour Radar (SCR) contributions to FASINEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, E. J.

    1988-01-01

    The SCR was asked to participate in the Frontal Air-Sea Interaction Experiment (FASINEX) to provide directional wave spectra. The NASA P-3 carrying the SCR, the Radar Ocean Wave Spectrometer, and the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar was one of five aircrafts and two ocean research ships participating in this coordinated study of the air sea interaction in the vicinity of a sea surface temperature front near 28 deg N, 70 deg W. Analysis of data from the February 1986 experiment is still ongoing, but results already submitted for publication strengthen the hypothesis that off-nadir radar backscatter is closely correlated to wind stress. The SCR provided valuable information on the directional wave spectrum and its spatial variation.

  12. The science case for the EISCAT_3D radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrea, Ian; Aikio, Anita; Alfonsi, Lucilla; Belova, Evgenia; Buchert, Stephan; Clilverd, Mark; Engler, Norbert; Gustavsson, Björn; Heinselman, Craig; Kero, Johan; Kosch, Mike; Lamy, Hervé; Leyser, Thomas; Ogawa, Yasunobu; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Pellinen-Wannberg, Asta; Pitout, Frederic; Rapp, Markus; Stanislawska, Iwona; Vierinen, Juha

    2015-12-01

    The EISCAT (European Incoherent SCATer) Scientific Association has provided versatile incoherent scatter (IS) radar facilities on the mainland of northern Scandinavia (the EISCAT UHF and VHF radar systems) and on Svalbard (the electronically scanning radar ESR (EISCAT Svalbard Radar) for studies of the high-latitude ionised upper atmosphere (the ionosphere). The mainland radars were constructed about 30 years ago, based on technological solutions of that time. The science drivers of today, however, require a more flexible instrument, which allows measurements to be made from the troposphere to the topside ionosphere and gives the measured parameters in three dimensions, not just along a single radar beam. The possibility for continuous operation is also an essential feature. To facilitatefuture science work with a world-leading IS radar facility, planning of a new radar system started first with an EU-funded Design Study (2005-2009) and has continued with a follow-up EU FP7 EISCAT_3D Preparatory Phase project (2010-2014). The radar facility will be realised by using phased arrays, and a key aspect is the use of advanced software and data processing techniques. This type of software radar will act as a pathfinder for other facilities worldwide. The new radar facility will enable the EISCAT_3D science community to address new, significant science questions as well as to serve society, which is increasingly dependent on space-based technology and issues related to space weather. The location of the radar within the auroral oval and at the edge of the stratospheric polar vortex is also ideal for studies of the long-term variability in the atmosphere and global change. This paper is a summary of the EISCAT_3D science case, which was prepared as part of the EU-funded Preparatory Phase project for the new facility. Three science working groups, drawn from the EISCAT user community, participated in preparing this document. In addition to these working group members, who

  13. Application of in situ observations, high frequency radars, and ocean color, to study suspended matter, particulate carbon, and dissolved organic carbon fluxes in coastal waters of the Barents Sea - the NORDFLUX project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stramska, Malgorzata; Yngve Børsheim, Knut; Białogrodzka, Jagoda; Cieszyńska, Agata; Ficek, Dariusz; Wereszka, Marzena

    2016-04-01

    There is still a limited knowledge about suspended and dissolved matter fluxes transported from coastal regions into the open sea regions in the Arctic. The land/sea interface is environmentally important and sensitive to climate change. Important biogeochemical material entering the oceans (including carbon) passes through this interface, but too little is known about the efficiency of this transport. Our goal in the NORDFLUX program is to improve quantitative understanding of the environmental feedbacks involved in these processes through an interdisciplinary study with innovative in situ observations. Completed work includes two in situ experiments in the Norwegian fiord (Porsangerfjorden) in the summers of 2014 and 2015. Experiments used research boat for collection of water samples and in situ bio-optical data, an autonomous glider, mooring with T S sensors, and a high frequency radar system. We have used these data to derive spatial maps of water temperature, salinity, surface currents, chlorophyll fluorescence, dissolved organic matter (DOM) fluorescence, and inherent optical properties (IOPs) of the water. The interpretation of these data in terms of suspended matter concentration and composition is possible by in situ 'calibrations' using water samples from discrete hydrographic stations. Total suspended matter (TSM), particulate carbon (POC and PIC), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations together with measured water currents will allow us to estimate reservoirs and fluxes. Concentrations and fluxes will be related to physical conditions and meteorological data. An important aspect of this project is the work on regional ocean color algorithms. Global ocean color (OC) algorithms currently used by NASA do not perform sufficiently well in coastal Case 2 waters. Our data sets will allow us to derive such local algorithms. We will then use these algorithms for interpretation of OC data in terms of TSM concentrations and composition and DOC. After

  14. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, P. A.; Hensley, S.; Joughin, I. R.; Li, F.; Madsen, S. N.; Rodriguez, E.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry is an imaging technique for measuring the topography of a surface, its changes over time, and other changes in the detailed characteristics of the surface. This paper reviews the techniques of interferometry, systems and limitations, and applications in a rapidly growing area of science and engineering.

  15. Netted LPI RADARs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Characteristics ALQ-172 B-52G/H Self- protection Track/search radar jamming, steerable jam beams , software programmable, phased array antenna ...bore sight: knowing the pattern of the antenna’s gain, two or more intercepts within the antenna main beam are sufficient to determine the...14 a. Low Level Antenna Sidelobes .............14 b. Antenna Scan Patterns ...................18 4. Carrier Frequency Selection

  16. Rain radar instrument definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Nicolas; Chenebault, J.; Suinot, Noel; Mancini, Paolo L.

    1996-12-01

    As a result of a pre-phase a study, founded by ESA, this paper presents the definition of a spaceborne Rain Radar, candidate instrument for earth explorer precipitation mission. Based upon the description of user requirements for such a dedicated mission, a mission analysis defines the most suitable space segment. At system level, a parametric analysis compares pros and cons of instrument concepts associated with rain rate retrieval algorithms in order to select the most performing one. Several trade-off analysis at subsystem level leads then to the definition of the proposed design. In particular, as pulse compression is implemented in order to increase the radar sensitivity, the selected method to achieve a pulse response with a side-lobe level below--60 dB is presented. Antenna is another critical rain radar subsystem and several designs are com pared: direct radiating array, single or dual reflector illuminated by single or dual feed arrays. At least, feasibility of centralized amplification using TWTA is compared with criticality of Tx/Rx modules for distributed amplification. Mass and power budgets of the designed instrument are summarized as well as standard deviations and bias of simulated rain rate retrieval profiles. The feasibility of a compliant rain radar instrument is therefore demonstrated.

  17. Frequency Diverse Array Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    the methods for electronic scanning of antenna systems. Techniques that have been studied in this connection include frequency variation, phase shift...an array antenna instantaneously into a desired direction where no mechanical mechanism is involved in the scanning process. Electronic scanning... methods including phase scanning, time delay scanning, and frequency scanning have been used in various radar applications; however new and cheaper

  18. Passive MIMO Radar Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3.3.3 Dependence on SNR...71 4.3.3 Dependence on SNR and DNR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 4.4 Interpretations...described as a passive radar network. The topology of such networks is described as bistatic, multistatic, or multiple-input multiple-output, depending on

  19. Passive bistatic radar analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hagan, Daniel W.; Kuschel, H.; Schiller, Joachim

    2009-06-01

    Passive Bistatic Radar (PBR) research is at its zenith with several notable PBR systems currently operational, or available for deployment. Such PBRs include the Manastash Ridge Radar (MRR) developed for and by academia; Silent Sentry developed as a commercial concern by Lockheed Martin; and Homeland Alerter (HA100) also a commercial system developed by Thales. However at present, despite the existence of numerous PBR prototypes, take up of commercial passive radar technology remains slow. This is due in part to technology immaturity, in part to politics, and particularly due to the fact that monostatic radars perform so well. If PBRs are to enjoy longevity as a viable technology then it is imperative that they address certain niche application areas, with the aforementioned MRR being one prime example of this. The focus of this paper will be an analysis of a PBR system that utilised FM radio signals of opportunity to detect aircraft targets with an RCS generally not lower than 20 m2. The paper will demonstrate the theoretical detection coverage of an FM based PBR operating in a severe interference environment.

  20. Impulse radar studfinder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-10-10

    An impulse radar studfinder propagates electromagnetic pulses and detects reflected pulses from a fixed range. Unmodulated pulses, about 200 ps wide, are emitted. A large number of reflected pulses are sampled and averaged. Background reflections are subtracted. Reflections from wall studs or other hidden objects are detected and displayed using light emitting diodes. 9 figs.

  1. Impulse radar studfinder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    An impulse radar studfinder propagates electromagnetic pulses and detects reflected pulses from a fixed range. Unmodulated pulses, about 200 ps wide, are emitted. A large number of reflected pulses are sampled and averaged. Background reflections are subtracted. Reflections from wall studs or other hidden objects are detected and displayed using light emitting diodes.

  2. Design and prototype of radar sensor with Vivaldi linear array for through-wall radar imaging: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yılmaz, Betül; Özdemir, Caner

    2016-10-01

    We present a radar sensor that was designed to detect and image moving objects/targets on the other side of a wall. The radar sensor was composed of a linear array of Vivaldi antenna elements, an radio frequency (RF) switch, a microcontroller unit, and an RF transceiver. For the linear array, a total of eight antenna elements were used as sensors in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) configuration in the cross-range axis to improve the resolution in this dimension. Design steps of Vivaldi antenna elements and the entire linear array were presented. After the design, the prototyping procedure and the details of the radar sensor were given. Through-the-wall radar (TWR) imaging experiments were performed for stationary and moving targets using the assembled sensor. The resultant TWR images after these experiments were presented. During the image formation, a back-projection type image focusing algorithm was implemented and applied to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the raw images. The constructed radar images demonstrated that our radar sensor could successfully detect and image both stationary and moving targets on the other side of the wall.

  3. Large uncertainties in projected European summer warming and drying due to ocean-atmosphere and land-atmosphere interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selten, Frank M.; Bintanja, Richard; Vautard, Robert; van den Hurk, Bart; Haarsma, Rein

    2016-04-01

    Europe is among the regions with the highest summer warming rates and largest spread in the projected warming in the latest CMIP5 climate model projections. The end-of-this-century summer warming under the RCP8.5 scenario ranges from about 3 to 9 degrees. Why do models disagree so much on the response of the summer climate in Europe to an increase in greenhouse gas concentrations? The origin of these uncertainties is traced through a combination of statistical analyses, theoretical arguments and additional model simulations to both the uncertain response of the ocean circulation to the warming and land-atmosphere interactions in continental Europe.

  4. Shuttle imaging radar-C science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) mission will yield new and advanced scientific studies of the Earth. SIR-C will be the first instrument to simultaneously acquire images at L-band and C-band with HH, VV, HV, or VH polarizations, as well as images of the phase difference between HH and VV polarizations. These data will be digitally encoded and recorded using onboard high-density digital tape recorders and will later be digitally processed into images using the JPL Advanced Digital SAR Processor. SIR-C geologic studies include cold-region geomorphology, fluvial geomorphology, rock weathering and erosional processes, tectonics and geologic boundaries, geobotany, and radar stereogrammetry. Hydrology investigations cover arid, humid, wetland, snow-covered, and high-latitude regions. Additionally, SIR-C will provide the data to identify and map vegetation types, interpret landscape patterns and processes, assess the biophysical properties of plant canopies, and determine the degree of radar penetration of plant canopies. In oceanography, SIR-C will provide the information necessary to: forecast ocean directional wave spectra; better understand internal wave-current interactions; study the relationship of ocean-bottom features to surface expressions and the correlation of wind signatures to radar backscatter; and detect current-system boundaries, oceanic fronts, and mesoscale eddies. And, as the first spaceborne SAR with multi-frequency, multipolarization imaging capabilities, whole new areas of glaciology will be opened for study when SIR-C is flown in a polar orbit.

  5. Rain volume estimation over areas using satellite and radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doneaud, A. A.; Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of rain volume estimation over fixed and floating areas was investigated using rapid scan satellite data following a technique recently developed with radar data, called the Area Time Integral (ATI) technique. The radar and rapid scan GOES satellite data were collected during the Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment (CCOPE) and North Dakota Cloud Modification Project (NDCMP). Six multicell clusters and cells were analyzed to the present time. A two-cycle oscillation emphasizing the multicell character of the clusters is demonstrated. Three clusters were selected on each day, 12 June and 2 July. The 12 June clusters occurred during the daytime, while the 2 July clusters during the nighttime. A total of 86 time steps of radar and 79 time steps of satellite images were analyzed. There were approximately 12-min time intervals between radar scans on the average.

  6. Ground Penetrating Radar Technologies in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pochanin, Gennadiy P.; Masalov, Sergey A.

    2014-05-01

    projects on the delineation of a diamond deposit in Karelia, on the localisation of unauthorized penetrations in product pipelines, and others. Since 2007, in close cooperation with researchers from V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University (www.univer.kharkov.ua/en) and Kharkiv National Automobile and Highway University (www.khadi.kharkov.ua), we have been developing a GPR to monitor road conditions. The main objective is the creation of an equipment suitable to determine the strength characteristics of pavements. A GPR allowing to measure thicknesses of asphalt pavement layers with an accuracy better than 3 mm has already been created; it was transferred to services responsible for maintaining roads in good condition. Specific standards and guidelines for the use of GPR has not been adopted in Ukraine, yet. GPRs are rarely used by public services. Nevertheless, recently the Ukrainian government has funded several projects on GPR technologies. Ukrainians seek to maintain old and to establish new relationships with colleagues around the world. We were partners of the Ultrawideband Radar Working Group, which developed the standard "IEEE P1672 TM Ultrawideband Radar Definitions." LLC "Transient Technologies" has cooperation agreements with more than a dozen of GPR companies all over the world. A group of scientists from IRE is working in cooperation with researchers from Italy, Holland, Turkey, Brazil, Russia and Ukraine on the project of FP-7-PEOPLE-2010-IRSES no 269157 "Active and Passive Microwaves for Security and Subsurface Imaging" (for more details, please visit www.irea.cnr.it/en/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=342:progetto-amiss&Itemid=165). In recent years, many representative companies have appeared, offering GPRs of foreign production on the market of Ukraine. The authors acknowledge COST for funding Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar," supporting this work.

  7. Oral Interaction around Computers in the Project-Oriented CALL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon-Ellis, Gumock; Debski, Robert; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2005-01-01

    Language teachers need to provide students with a context for genuine communication (Sullivan, 2000). Project-oriented computer-assisted language learning (PrOCALL) attempts to achieve this by orienting learners towards tasks, which encourages them to communicate in the target language while working towards completion of a project (Debski, 2000).…

  8. Campus Eco Tours: An Integrative & Interactive Field Project for Undergraduate Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boes, Katie E.

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor areas within or near college campuses offer an opportunity for biology students to observe the natural world and apply concepts from class. Here, I describe an engaging and integrative project where undergraduate non-major biology students work in teams to develop and present professional "eco tours." This project takes place over multiple…

  9. Scanning Radar Investigations to Characterize Cloud and Precipitation Processes for ASR

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatachalam, Chandrasekar

    2016-12-17

    The project conducted investigations in the following areas related to scanning radar retrievals: a) Development for Cloud drizzle separation studies for the ENA site based on Doppler Spectra b) Advanced radar retrieval for the SGP site c) Characterizing falling snow using multifrequency dual-polarization measurements d) BAECC field experiment. More details about these investigations can be found within each subtopic within the report.

  10. Student use of a Learning Management System for group projects: A case study investigating interaction, collaboration, and knowledge construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonn, Steven D.

    Web-based Learning Management Systems (LMS) allow instructors and students to share instructional materials, make class announcements, submit and return course assignments, and communicate with each other online. Previous LMS-related research has focused on how these systems deliver and manage instructional content with little concern for how students' constructivist learning can be encouraged and facilitated. This study investigated how students use LMS to interact, collaborate, and construct knowledge within the context of a group project but without mediation by the instructor. The setting for this case study was students' use in one upper-level biology course of the local LMS within the context of a course-related group project, a mock National Institutes of Health grant proposal. Twenty-one groups (82 students) voluntarily elected to use the LMS, representing two-thirds of all students in the course. Students' peer-to-peer messages within the LMS, event logs, online surveys, focus group interviews, and instructor interviews were used in order to answer the study's overarching research question. The results indicate that students successfully used the LMS to interact and, to a significant extent, collaborate, but there was very little evidence of knowledge construction using the LMS technology. It is possible that the ease and availability of face-to-face meetings as well as problems and limitations with the technology were factors that influenced whether students' online basic interaction could be further distinguished as collaboration or knowledge construction. Despite these limitations, students found several tools and functions of the LMS useful for their online peer interaction and completion of their course project. Additionally, LMS designers and implementers are urged to consider previous literature on computer-supported collaborative learning environments in order to better facilitate independent group projects within these systems. Further research is

  11. Collaborative project. Ocean-atmosphere interaction from meso- to planetary-scale. Mechanics, parameterization, and variability

    SciTech Connect

    Saravanan, Ramalingam; Small, Justin

    2015-12-01

    Most climate models are currently run with grid spacings of around 100km, which, with today’s computing power, allows for long (up to 1000 year) simulations, or ensembles of simulations to explore climate change and variability. However this grid spacing does not resolve important components of the weather/climate system such as atmospheric fronts and mesoscale systems, and ocean boundary currents and eddies. The overall aim of this project has been to look at the effect of these small-scale features on the weather/climate system using a suite of high and low resolution climate models, idealized models and observations. High-resolution global coupled integrations using CAM/CESM were carried out at NCAR by the lead PI. At TAMU, we have complemented the work at NCAR by analyzing datasets from the high-resolution (28km) CESM integrations (Small et al., 2014) as well as very high resolution (9km, 3km) runs using a coupled regional climate (CRCM) carried out locally. The main tasks carried out were: 1. Analysis of surface wind in observations and high-resolution CAM/CCSM simulations 2. Development of a feature-tracking algorithm for studying midlatitude air-sea interaction by following oceanic mesoscale eddies and creating composites of the atmospheric response overlying the eddies. 3. Applying the Lagrangian analysis technique in the Gulf Stream region to compare data from observational reanalyses, global CESM coupled simulations, 9km regional coupled simulations and 3km convection-resolving regional coupled simulations. Our main findings are that oceanic mesoscale eddies influence not just the atmospheric boundary layer above them, but also the lower portions of the free troposphere above the boundary layer. Such a vertical response could have implications for a remote influence of Gulf Stream oceanic eddies on North Atlantic weather patterns through modulation of the storm track, similar to what has been noted in the North Pacific. The coarse resolution

  12. Development of a Drillrod/Telemetry Radar

    SciTech Connect

    Raton Technology Research, Inc.

    1999-11-12

    Efficient extraction of deeply buried natural resources is dependent upon accurate geologic models. The model becomes the basis for developing plans for extraction of the resource. Geoscientists working in geothermal and hydrocarbon recovery have a great deal in common with fellow geoscientists working in the mining industry. They appreciate the intractable problem of increasing the depth of investigation to tens of meters from the wellbore. The goal of this project was to develop a borehole radar tool to acquire data within tens of meters from the wellbore. For geothermal and hydrocarbon applications, the tool was to acquire data for mapping fractures surrounding the wellbore. In mining of coal, the radar acquires data for determining coal seam thickness and detecting geologic anomalies ahead of mining.

  13. An MSK Radar Waveform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Srinivasan, Meera

    2012-01-01

    The minimum-shift-keying (MSK) radar waveform is formed by periodically extending a waveform that separately modulates the in-phase and quadrature- phase components of the carrier with offset pulse-shaped pseudo noise (PN) sequences. To generate this waveform, a pair of periodic PN sequences is each passed through a pulse-shaping filter with a half sinusoid impulse response. These shaped PN waveforms are then offset by half a chip time and are separately modulated on the in-phase and quadrature phase components of an RF carrier. This new radar waveform allows an increase in radar resolution without the need for additional spectrum. In addition, it provides self-interference suppression and configurable peak sidelobes. Compared strictly on the basis of the expressions for delay resolution, main-lobe bandwidth, effective Doppler bandwidth, and peak ambiguity sidelobe, it appears that bi-phase coded (BPC) outperforms the new MSK waveform. However, a radar waveform must meet certain constraints imposed by the transmission and reception of the modulation, as well as criteria dictated by the observation. In particular, the phase discontinuity of the BPC waveform presents a significant impediment to the achievement of finer resolutions in radar measurements a limitation that is overcome by using the continuous phase MSK waveform. The phase continuity, and the lower fractional out-of-band power of MSK, increases the allowable bandwidth compared with BPC, resulting in a factor of two increase in the range resolution of the radar. The MSK waveform also has been demonstrated to have an ambiguity sidelobe structure very similar to BPC, where the sidelobe levels can be decreased by increasing the length of the m-sequence used in its generation. This ability to set the peak sidelobe level is advantageous as it allows the system to be configured to a variety of targets, including those with a larger dynamic range. Other conventionally used waveforms that possess an even greater

  14. Out of equilibrium thermal field theories: Finite time after switching on the interaction and Wigner transforms of projected functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadić, I.

    2001-01-01

    We study out of equilibrium thermal field theories with switching on the interaction occurring at finite time using the Wigner transforms of two-point functions. For two-point functions we define the concept of a projected function: it is zero if any of the times refers to the time before switching on the interaction; otherwise it depends only on the relative coordinates. This definition includes bare propagators, one-loop self-energies, etc. For the infinite-average-time limit of the Wigner transforms of projected functions we define the analyticity assumptions: (1) The function of energy is analytic above (below) the real axis. (2) The function goes to zero as the absolute value of energy approaches infinity in the upper (lower) semiplane. Without use of the gradient expansion, we obtain the convolution product of projected functions. We sum the Schwinger-Dyson series in closed form. In the calculation of the Keldysh component (both resummed and single self-energy insertion approximation) contributions appear which are not the Fourier transforms of projected functions, signaling the limitations of the method. In the Feynman diagrams there is no explicit energy conservation at vertices; there is an overall energy-smearing factor taking care of the uncertainty relations. The relation between the theories with the Keldysh time path and with the finite time path enables one to rederive the results, such as the cancellation of pinching, collinear, and infrared singularities, hard thermal loop resummation, etc.

  15. NASA Computational Case Study SAR Data Processing: Ground-Range Projection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Rincon, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Radar technology is used extensively by NASA for remote sensing of the Earth and other Planetary bodies. In this case study, we learn about different computational concepts for processing radar data. In particular, we learn how to correct a slanted radar image by projecting it on the surface that was sensed by a radar instrument.

  16. Spaceborne synthetic-aperture imaging radars - Applications, techniques, and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.; Bicknell, T.; Jordan, R. L.; Wu, C.

    1982-01-01

    In June 1978, the Seasat satellite was placed into orbit around the earth with a synthetic-aperture imaging radar (SAR) as one of the payload sensors. The Seasat SAR provided, for the first time, synoptic radar images of the earth's surface with a resolution of 25 m. In November 1981, the second imaging radar was successfully operated from space on the Shuttle. The Shuttle Imaging Radar-A acquired images over a variety of regions around the world with an imaging geometry different from the one used by the Seasat SAR. The spaceborne SAR principle is discussed, taking into account ambiguities, orbital and environmental factors, range curvature and range walk, surface interaction mechanisms, thermal and speckle noise, key tradeoff parameters, and nonconventional SAR systems. Attention is also given to spaceborne SAR sensors, the digital processing of spaceborne SAR data, the optical processing of spaceborne SAR data, postimage formation processing, data interpretation techniques and applications, and the next decade.

  17. The SEASAT-A synthetic aperture radar design and implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The SEASAT-A synthetic aperture imaging radar system is the first imaging radar system intended to be used as a scientific instrument designed for orbital use. The requirement of the radar system is to generate continuous radar imagery with a 100 kilometer swath with 25 meter resolution from an orbital altitude of 800 kilometers. These requirements impose unique system design problems and a description of the implementation is given. The end-to-end system is described, including interactions of the spacecraft, antenna, sensor, telemetry link, recording subsystem, and data processor. Some of the factors leading to the selection of critical system parameters are listed. The expected error sources leading to degradation of image quality are reported as well as estimate given of the expected performance from data obtained during a ground testing of the completed subsystems.

  18. Radar Target Recognition Using Bispectrum Correlation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    21 2. Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar ...................................................22 3. Range Profiles...characteristics need to be stored. 2. Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar We often identify things based on pictures and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an...By taking multiple discrete measurements while translating the radar , a larger effective aperture can be created. Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar

  19. 51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner building 105 from upper catwalk level showing emanating waveguides from upper switch (upper one-fourth of photograph) and emanating waveguides from lower radar scanner switch in vertical runs. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  20. Radar cross-sectional study using noise radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freundorfer, A. P.; Siddiqui, J. Y.; Antar, Y. M. M.

    2015-05-01

    A noise radar system is proposed with capabilities to measure and acquire the radar cross-section (RCS) of targets. The proposed system can cover a noise bandwidth of near DC to 50 GHz. The noise radar RCS measurements were conducted for selective targets like spheres and carpenter squares with and without dielectric bodies for a noise band of 400MHz-5000MHz. The bandwidth of operation was limited by the multiplier and the antennae used.

  1. 41. Perimeter acquisition radar building radar element and coaxial display, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Perimeter acquisition radar building radar element and coaxial display, with drawing of typical antenna section. Drawing, from left to right, shows element, aluminum ground plane, cable connectors and hardware, cable, and back-up ring. Grey area is the concrete wall - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  2. Kuiper Belt Mapping Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, A.; Nilsen, E.

    2001-01-01

    Since their initial discovery in 1992, to date only a relatively small number of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBO's) have been discovered. Current detection techniques rely on frame-to-frame comparisons of images collected by optical telescopes such as Hubble, to detect KBO's as they move against the background stellar field. Another technique involving studies of KBO's through occultation of known stars has been proposed. Such techniques are serendipitous, not systematic, and may lead to an inadequate understanding of the size, range, and distribution of KBO's. In this paper, a future Kuiper Belt Mapping Radar is proposed as a solution to the problem of mapping the size distribution, extent, and range of KBO's. This approach can also be used to recover radar albedo and object rotation rates. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. RADAR Reveals Titan Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R. L.; Callahan, P.; Seu, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Paganelli, F.; Lopes, R.; Elachi, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Cassini Titan RADAR Mapper is a K(sub u)-band (13.78 GHz, lambda = 2.17 cm) linear polarized RADAR instrument capable of operating in synthetic aperture (SAR), scatterometer, altimeter and radiometer modes. During the first targeted flyby of Titan on 26 October, 2004 (referred to as Ta) observations were made in all modes. Evidence for topographic relief based on the Ta altimetry and SAR data are presented here. Additional SAR and altimetry observations are planned for the T3 encounter on 15 February, 2005, but have not been carried out at this writing. Results from the T3 encounter relevant to topography will be included in our presentation. Data obtained in the Ta encounter include a SAR image swath

  4. Floor-plan radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falconer, David G.; Ueberschaer, Ronald M.

    2000-07-01

    Urban-warfare specialists, law-enforcement officers, counter-drug agents, and counter-terrorism experts encounter operational situations where they must assault a target building and capture or rescue its occupants. To minimize potential casualties, the assault team needs a picture of the building's interior and a copy of its floor plan. With this need in mind, we constructed a scale model of a single- story house and imaged its interior using synthetic-aperture techniques. The interior and exterior walls nearest the radar set were imaged with good fidelity, but the distal ones appear poorly defined and surrounded by ghosts and artifacts. The latter defects are traceable to beam attenuation, wavefront distortion, multiple scattering, traveling waves, resonance phenomena, and other effects not accounted for in the traditional (noninteracting, isotropic point scatterer) model for radar imaging.

  5. Exploring the Use of Radar for a Physically Based Lightning Cessation Nowcasting Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Elise V.; Petersen, Walter A.; Carey, Lawrence D.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville) are collaborating with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to enable improved nowcasting of lightning cessation. This project centers on use of dual-polarimetric radar capabilities, and in particular, the new C-band dual-polarimetric weather radar acquired by the 45WS. Special emphasis is placed on the development of a physically based operational algorithm to predict lightning cessation. While previous studies have developed statistically based lightning cessation algorithms, we believe that dual-polarimetric radar variables offer the possibility to improve existing algorithms through the inclusion of physically meaningful trends reflecting interactions between in-cloud electric fields and hydrometeors. Specifically, decades of polarimetric radar research using propagation differential phase has demonstrated the presence of distinct phase and ice crystal alignment signatures in the presence of strong electric fields associated with lightning. One question yet to be addressed is: To what extent can these ice-crystal alignment signatures be used to nowcast the cessation of lightning activity in a given storm? Accordingly, data from the UAHuntsville Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR) along with the NASA-MSFC North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array are used in this study to investigate the radar signatures present before and after lightning cessation. Thus far, our case study results suggest that the negative differential phase shift signature weakens and disappears after the analyzed storms ceased lightning production (i.e., after the last lightning flash occurred). This is a key observation because it suggests that while strong electric fields may still have been present, the lightning cessation signature encompassed the period of the polarimetric negative phase shift signature. To the extent

  6. Exploring the Use of Radar for Physically-Based Nowcasting of Lightning Cessation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Elise V.; Petersen, Walter A.; Carey, Lawrence D.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville) are collaborating with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to enable improved nowcasting of lightning cessation. This project centers on use of dual-polarimetric radar capabilities, and in particular, the new C-band dual polarimetric weather radar acquired by the 45WS. Special emphasis is placed on the development of a physically-based operational algorithm to predict lightning cessation. While previous studies have developed statistically based lightning cessation algorithms driven primarily by trending in the actual total lightning flash rate, we believe that dual polarimetric radar variables offer the possibility to improve existing algorithms through the inclusion of physically meaningful trends reflecting interactions between in-cloud electric fields and ice-microphysics. Specifically, decades of polarimetric radar research using propagation differential phase has demonstrated the presence of distinct phase and ice crystal alignment signatures in the presence of strong electric fields associated with lightning. One question yet to be addressed is: To what extent can propagation phase-based ice-crystal alignment signatures be used to nowcast the cessation of lightning activity in a given storm? Accordingly, data from the UAHuntsville Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR) along with the NASA-MSFC North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array are used in this study to investigate the radar signatures present before and after lightning cessation. Thus far our case study results suggest that the negative differential phase shift signature weakens and disappears after the analyzed storms ceased lightning production (i.e., after the last lightning flash occurred). This is a key observation because it suggests that while strong electric fields may still have been present, the lightning cessation signature was

  7. Radar image San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    preliminary nature of this image product. These artifacts will be removed after further data processing.

    This image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian Space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 38 km (24 miles) by 71 km (44 miles) Location: 37.7 deg. North lat., 122.2 deg. West lon. Orientation: North to the upper right Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 16, 2000

  8. Spaceborne Radar Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-28

    If comm beam contact is lost, the instrumentation data are sent via the omnichannel transmitter on command of the ground station. There are six ways...comm’beam) at all times except when comm beam contact is lost. A two-way omnidirectional (backup) command link is provided for initial stabilization...via either the oomm beam or the omnichannel . Satellite instrumentation data are sent to the ground station following every radar signal transmission

  9. Shuttle imaging radar experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elachi, C.; Brown, W.E.; Cimino, J.B.; Dixon, T.; Evans, D.L.; Ford, J.P.; Saunders, R.S.; Breed, C.; Masursky, H.; McCauley, J.F.; Schaber, G.; Dellwig, L.; England, A.; MacDonald, H.; Martin-Kaye, P.; Sabins, F.

    1982-01-01

    The shuttle imaging radar (SIR-A) acquired images of a variety of the earth's geologic areas covering about 10 million square kilometers. Structural and geomorphic features such as faults, folds, outcrops, and dunes are clearly visible in both tropical and arid regions. The combination of SIR-A and Seasat images provides additional information about the surface physical properties: topography and roughness. Ocean features were also observed, including large internal waves in the Andaman Sea. Copyright ?? 1982 AAAS.

  10. Weather Radar Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    and Doppler weather radar data from the National Center for Atmospheric Research JAWS program and the National .Severe Storms Laboratory, are being...Atmospheric Research JAWS program and the National Severe Storms Laboratory, are being analyzed to develop low-altitude wind-shear detection algorithms...pictures, and dusted for fingerprints. The wind sensors, rain gauge, and antenna were destroyed but the DCP, solar panel, and other site components

  11. The Radar Roadmap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report ( SAR ) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 25 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c...ABSTRACT Same as Report ( SAR ) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 25 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE...object bistatic radars. The former allows high resolution without the use of pulse compression techniques and the latter promises cheaper systems by

  12. Imaging synthetic aperture radar

    DOEpatents

    Burns, Bryan L.; Cordaro, J. Thomas

    1997-01-01

    A linear-FM SAR imaging radar method and apparatus to produce a real-time image by first arranging the returned signals into a plurality of subaperture arrays, the columns of each subaperture array having samples of dechirped baseband pulses, and further including a processing of each subaperture array to obtain coarse-resolution in azimuth, then fine-resolution in range, and lastly, to combine the processed subapertures to obtain the final fine-resolution in azimuth. Greater efficiency is achieved because both the transmitted signal and a local oscillator signal mixed with the returned signal can be varied on a pulse-to-pulse basis as a function of radar motion. Moreover, a novel circuit can adjust the sampling location and the A/D sample rate of the combined dechirped baseband signal which greatly reduces processing time and hardware. The processing steps include implementing a window function, stabilizing either a central reference point and/or all other points of a subaperture with respect to doppler frequency and/or range as a function of radar motion, sorting and compressing the signals using a standard fourier transforms. The stabilization of each processing part is accomplished with vector multiplication using waveforms generated as a function of radar motion wherein these waveforms may be synthesized in integrated circuits. Stabilization of range migration as a function of doppler frequency by simple vector multiplication is a particularly useful feature of the invention; as is stabilization of azimuth migration by correcting for spatially varying phase errors prior to the application of an autofocus process.

  13. Goldstone solar system radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurgens, Raymond F.

    1991-01-01

    Caltech/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) radar astronomers made use of the Very Large Array (VLA) at Socorro, NM, during February 1990, to receive radio echoes from the planet Venus. The transmitter was the 70 meter antenna at the Goldstone complex northwest of Barstow, CA. These observations contain new information about the roughness of Venus at cm to decimeter scales and are complementary to information being obtained by the Magellan spacecraft. Asteroid observations are also discussed.

  14. Cognitive Nonlinear Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Devices and Method for Detecting Emplacement of Improvised Explosive Devices, U. S. Patent 7,680,599, Mar. 16, 2010. 11. Steele, D.; Rotondo, F.; Houck...Patent 7,987,068, Jul. 26, 2011. 9 14. Keller, W. Active Improvised Explosive Device (IED) Electronic Signature Detection , U. S. Patent...operate without interfering with each other. The CNR uses a narrowband, nonlinear radar target detection methodology. This methodology has the advantage

  15. Weather Radar Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-31

    National Center for Atmospheric Research JAWS program and the National Severe Storms Laboratory are being analyzed to develop low-altitude wind shear...public through low-altitude wind shear aviation weather products the National Technical Information Service, NEXR I turbulence., Springfield, VA 22161. 19...were analyzed preliminarily to determine wind shear characteristics in the Memphis area. Doppler weather radar data from the National Center for

  16. X-SAR: The X-band synthetic aperture radar on board the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, Marian U.

    1993-01-01

    The X-band synthetic aperture radar (X-SAR) is the German/Italian contribution to the NASA/JPL Shuttle Radar Lab missions as part of the preparation for the Earth Observation System (EOS) program. The Shuttle Radar Lab is a combination of several radars: an L-band (1.2 GHz) and a C-band (5.3 GHz) multipolarization SAR known as SIR-C (Shuttle Imaging Radar); and an X-band (9.6 GHz) vertically polarized SAR which will be operated synchronously over the same target areas to deliver calibrated multifrequency and multipolarization SAR data at multiple incidence angles from space. A joint German/Italian project office at DARA (German Space Agency) is responsible for the management of the X-SAR project. The space hardware has been developed and manufactured under industrial contract by Dornier and Alenia Spazio. Besides supporting all the technical and scientific tasks, DLR, in cooperation with ASI (Agencia Spaziale Italiano) is responsible for mission operation, calibration, and high precision SAR processing. In addition, DLR developed an airborne X-band SAR to support the experimenters with campaigns to prepare for the missions. The main advantage of adding a shorter wavelength (3 cm) radar to the SIR-C radars is the X-band radar's weaker penetration into vegetation and soil and its high sensitivity to surface roughness and associated phenomena. The performance of each of the three radars is comparable with respect to radiometric and geometric resolution.

  17. X-SAR: The X-band synthetic aperture radar on board the Space Shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Marian U.

    1993-05-01

    The X-band synthetic aperture radar (X-SAR) is the German/Italian contribution to the NASA/JPL Shuttle Radar Lab missions as part of the preparation for the Earth Observation System (EOS) program. The Shuttle Radar Lab is a combination of several radars: an L-band (1.2 GHz) and a C-band (5.3 GHz) multipolarization SAR known as SIR-C (Shuttle Imaging Radar); and an X-band (9.6 GHz) vertically polarized SAR which will be operated synchronously over the same target areas to deliver calibrated multifrequency and multipolarization SAR data at multiple incidence angles from space. A joint German/Italian project office at DARA (German Space Agency) is responsible for the management of the X-SAR project. The space hardware has been developed and manufactured under industrial contract by Dornier and Alenia Spazio. Besides supporting all the technical and scientific tasks, DLR, in cooperation with ASI (Agencia Spaziale Italiano) is responsible for mission operation, calibration, and high precision SAR processing. In addition, DLR developed an airborne X-band SAR to support the experimenters with campaigns to prepare for the missions. The main advantage of adding a shorter wavelength (3 cm) radar to the SIR-C radars is the X-band radar's weaker penetration into vegetation and soil and its high sensitivity to surface roughness and associated phenomena. The performance of each of the three radars is comparable with respect to radiometric and geometric resolution.

  18. Final Report 2175 Modular Radar Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-30

    AFC Amplifier AGC Module L.V. LC FUter SYS Power Converter (DC) SYS Power Converter (AC) AUX Power Supply (DC) AUX Power Supply (AC) +5VRec/Fil...Pos. Series Reg. 4* 4 2 1C - $200 ND „ HV Rectifier/ FUter I* 1 1 IB - $150 ND LV Rectifier/ FUter 3* 3 2 1C - $175 ND _ Comparator 1* 1 1 1A - $100...Status F1LXFMR/XIST0RS & Line Rect/ FUter (Special for each magnetron) 1* — — 2G 20X10-6 $350 ND Modular Isolation LC Filter(Special for each

  19. Application of radar for automotive collision avoidance. Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtenberg, C. L. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this project was research and development of an automobile collision avoidance radar system. The major finding was that the application of radar to the automobile collision avoidance problem deserves continued research even though the specific approach investigated in this effort did not perform adequately in its angle measurement capability. Additional findings were that: (1) preliminary performance requirements of a candidate radar system are not unreasonable; (2) the number and severity of traffic accidents could be reduced by using a collision avoidance radar system which observes a fairly wide (at least + or - 10 deg) field of view ahead of the vehicle; (3) the health radiation hazards of a probable radar design are not significant even when a large number of radar-equipped vehicles are considered; (4) effects of inclement weather on radar operation can be accommodated in most cases; (5) the phase monopulse radar technique as implemented demonstrated inferior angle measurement performance which warrants the recommendation of investigating alternative radar techniques; and (6) extended target and multipath effects, which presumably distort the amplitude and phase distribution across the antenna aperture, are responsible for the observed inadequate phase monopulse radar performance.

  20. Radar Data Quality Control and Assimilation at the National Weather Radar Testbed (NWRT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    National Weather Radar Testbed (NWRT) Qin Xu CIMMS , University of Oklahoma 120 David L. Boren Blvd. Norman, OK 73072 phone: (405) 325-3041 fax... CIMMS ,120 David L. Boren Blvd,Norman,OK,73072 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10...for the implementations. The data collections and QC algorithm developments are performed by project- supported research scientists at CIMMS , the

  1. Comet radar explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnham, Tony; Asphaug, Erik; Barucci, Antonella; Belton, Mike; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Brownlee, Donald; Capria, Maria Teresa; Carter, Lynn; Chesley, Steve; Farnham, Tony; Gaskell, Robert; Gim, Young; Heggy, Essam; Herique, Alain; Klaasen, Ken; Kofman, Wlodek; Kreslavsky, Misha; Lisse, Casey; Orosei, Roberto; Plaut, Jeff; Scheeres, Dan

    The Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) is designed to perform a comprehensive and detailed exploration of the interior, surface, and inner coma structures of a scientifically impor-tant Jupiter family comet. These structures will be used to investigate the origins of cometary nuclei, their physical and geological evolution, and the mechanisms driving their spectacular activity. CORE is a high heritage spacecraft, injected by solar electric propulsion into orbit around a comet. It is capable of coherent deep radar imaging at decameter wavelengths, high resolution stereo color imaging, and near-IR imaging spectroscopy. Its primary objective is to obtain a high-resolution map of the interior structure of a comet nucleus at a resolution of ¿100 elements across the diameter. This structure shall be related to the surface geology and morphology, and to the structural details of the coma proximal to the nucleus. This is an ideal complement to the science from recent comet missions, providing insight into how comets work. Knowing the structure of the interior of a comet-what's inside-and how cometary activity works, is required before we can understand the requirements for a cryogenic sample return mission. But more than that, CORE is fundamental to understanding the origin of comets and their evolution in time. The mission is made feasible at low cost by the use of now-standard MARSIS-SHARAD reflec-tion radar imaging hardware and data processing, together with proven flight heritage of solar electric propulsion. Radar flight heritage has been demonstrated by the MARSIS radar on Mars Express (Picardi et al., Science 2005; Plaut et al., Science 2007), the SHARAD radar onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Seu et al., JGR 2007), and the LRS radar onboard Kaguya (Ono et al, EPS 2007). These instruments have discovered detailed subsurface structure to depths of several kilometers in a variety of terrains on Mars and the Moon. A reflection radar deployed in orbit about a comet

  2. Radar clutter classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehwien, Wolfgang

    1989-11-01

    The problem of classifying radar clutter as found on air traffic control radar systems is studied. An algorithm based on Bayes decision theory and the parametric maximum a posteriori probability classifier is developed to perform this classification automatically. This classifier employs a quadratic discriminant function and is optimum for feature vectors that are distributed according to the multivariate normal density. Separable clutter classes are most likely to arise from the analysis of the Doppler spectrum. Specifically, a feature set based on the complex reflection coefficients of the lattice prediction error filter is proposed. The classifier is tested using data recorded from L-band air traffic control radars. The Doppler spectra of these data are examined; the properties of the feature set computed using these data are studied in terms of both the marginal and multivariate statistics. Several strategies involving different numbers of features, class assignments, and data set pretesting according to Doppler frequency and signal to noise ratio were evaluated before settling on a workable algorithm. Final results are presented in terms of experimental misclassification rates and simulated and classified plane position indicator displays.

  3. Radar gun hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-20

    Radar guns - hand-held units used by the law to nail speeders - have been in use since the early '60s. Now they've been accused of causing cancer. Police officers in several states have so far filed eight suits against the manufacturer, claiming that they have contracted rare forms of cancer, such as of the eyelid and the testicle, from frequent proximity to the devices. Spurred by concerns expressed by police groups, researchers at the Rochester Institute of Technology are conducting what they believe to be the first research of its kind in the nation. Last month psychologist John Violanti, an expert in policy psychology and health, sent out a one-page survey to 6,000 active and retired police officers in New York State, asking them about their health and their use of radar guns. Violanti says melanoma, leukemia, and lymph node cancer may be linked to these as well as other electromagnetic devices. The Food and Drug Administration earlier this year issued a warning about radar guns, telling users not to operate them closer than 6 inches from the body. But this may not be a sufficient safeguard since the instruments can give off crisscrossing wave emissions within a police vehicle. The survey will be used to help determine if it would be safer to mount the guns, which are currently either hand-held or mounted on dashboards, outside troopers' cars.

  4. Nordic Snow Radar Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmetyinen, Juha; Kontu, Anna; Pulliainen, Jouni; Vehviläinen, Juho; Rautiainen, Kimmo; Wiesmann, Andreas; Mätzler, Christian; Werner, Charles; Rott, Helmut; Nagler, Thomas; Schneebeli, Martin; Proksch, Martin; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Kern, Michael; Davidson, Malcolm W. J.

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the Nordic Snow Radar Experiment (NoSREx) campaign was to provide a continuous time series of active and passive microwave observations of snow cover at a representative location of the Arctic boreal forest area, covering a whole winter season. The activity was a part of Phase A studies for the ESA Earth Explorer 7 candidate mission CoReH2O (Cold Regions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory). The NoSREx campaign, conducted at the Finnish Meteorological Institute Arctic Research Centre (FMI-ARC) in Sodankylä, Finland, hosted a frequency scanning scatterometer operating at frequencies from X- to Ku-band. The radar observations were complemented by a microwave dual-polarization radiometer system operating from X- to W-bands. In situ measurements consisted of manual snow pit measurements at the main test site as well as extensive automated measurements on snow, ground and meteorological parameters. This study provides a summary of the obtained data, detailing measurement protocols for each microwave instrument and in situ reference data. A first analysis of the microwave signatures against snow parameters is given, also comparing observed radar backscattering and microwave emission to predictions of an active/passive forward model. All data, including the raw data observations, are available for research purposes through the European Space Agency and the Finnish Meteorological Institute. A consolidated dataset of observations, comprising the key microwave and in situ observations, is provided through the ESA campaign data portal to enable easy access to the data.

  5. High-resolution instrumentation radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dydbal, Robert B.; Hurlbut, Keith H.; Mori, Tsutomu T.

    1987-03-01

    An instrumentation radar that uses a chirp waveform to achieve high-range resolution is described. High-range-resolution instrumentation radars evaluate the target response to operational waveforms used in high-performance radars and/or obtain a display of the individual target scattering mechanisms to better understand the scattering process. This particular radar was efficiently constructed from a combination of commercially available components and in-house fabricated circuitry. This instrumentation radar operates at X-band and achieves a 4.9-in-range resolution. A key feature of the radar is the combination of amplitude weighting with a high degree of waveform fidelity to achieve a very good range sidelobe performance. This range sidelobe performance is important to avoid masking lower level target returns in the range sidelobes of higher target returns.

  6. Integrating Radar Image Data with Google Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Bruce D.; Gibas, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    A public Web site has been developed as a method for displaying the multitude of radar imagery collected by NASA s Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) instrument during its 16-year mission. Utilizing NASA s internal AIRSAR site, the new Web site features more sophisticated visualization tools that enable the general public to have access to these images. The site was originally maintained at NASA on six computers: one that held the Oracle database, two that took care of the software for the interactive map, and three that were for the Web site itself. Several tasks were involved in moving this complicated setup to just one computer. First, the AIRSAR database was migrated from Oracle to MySQL. Then the back-end of the AIRSAR Web site was updated in order to access the MySQL database. To do this, a few of the scripts needed to be modified; specifically three Perl scripts that query that database. The database connections were then updated from Oracle to MySQL, numerous syntax errors were corrected, and a query was implemented that replaced one of the stored Oracle procedures. Lastly, the interactive map was designed, implemented, and tested so that users could easily browse and access the radar imagery through the Google Maps interface.

  7. Optimized Radar Remote Sensing for Levee Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Cathleen E.

    2013-01-01

    Radar remote sensing offers great potential for high resolution monitoring of ground surface changes over large areas at one time to detect movement on and near levees and for location of seepage through levees. Our NASA-funded projects to monitor levees in the Sacramento Delta and the Mississippi River have developed and demonstrated methods to use radar remote sensing to measure quantities relevant to levee health and of great value to emergency response. The DHS-funded project will enable us is to define how to optimally monitor levees in this new way and set the stage for transition to using satellite SAR (synthetic aperture radar) imaging for better temporal and spatial coverage at lower cost to the end users.

  8. Modeling Forest Composition and Carbon Dynamics Under Projected Climate-Fire Interactions in the Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, S.; Hurteau, M. D.; Westerling, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Sierra Nevada Mountains are occupied by a diversity of forest types that sort by elevation. The interaction of changing climate and altered disturbance regimes (e.g. fire) has the potential to drive changes in forest distribution as a function of species-specific response. Quantifying the effects of these drivers on species distributions and productivity under future climate-fire interactions is necessary for informing mitigation and adaptation efforts. In this study, we assimilated forest inventory and soil survey data and species life history traits into a landscape model, LANDIS-II, to quantify the response of forest dynamics to the interaction of climate change and large wildfire frequency in the Sierra Nevada. We ran 100-year simulations forced with historical climate and climate projections from three models (GFDL, CNRM and CCSM3) driven by the A2 emission scenario. We found that non-growing season NPP is greatly enhanced by 15%-150%, depending on the specific climate projection. The greatest increase occurs in subalpine forests. Species-specific response varied as a function of life history characteristics. The distribution of drought and fire-tolerant species, such as ponderosa pine, expanded by 7.3-9.6% from initial conditions, while drought and fire-intolerant species, such as white fir, showed little change in the absence of fire. Changes in wildfire size and frequency influence species distributions by altering the successional stage of burned patches. The range of responses to different climate models demonstrates the sensitivity of these forests to climate variability. The scale of climate projections relative to the scale of forest simulations presents a source of uncertainty, particularly at the ecotone between forest types and for identifying topographically mediated climate refugia. Improving simulations will likely require higher resolution climate projections.

  9. Radar studies of bird migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Observations of bird migration with NASA radars were made at Wallops Island, Va. Simultaneous observations were made at a number of radar sites in the North Atlantic Ocean in an effort to discover what happened to those birds that were observed leaving the coast of North America headed toward Bermuda, the Caribbean and South America. Transatlantic migration, utilizing observations from a large number of radars is discussed. Detailed studies of bird movements at Wallops Island are presented.

  10. Radar Studies of Aviation Hazards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-31

    4. TITLE AND SURTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS RADAR STUDIES OF AVIATION HAZARDS F1 9628-93- C -0054 _____________ __PE63707F 6. AUTHOR(S) PR278 1...foilowing processing steps have been adopted: a. acquire single scan radar data, b. distinguish individual storms, c . eliminate spurious data for...occurred only with radar reflectivities above 40 dBZ at the -10° C level and cloud tops above the -200C level. Lightning occurred only when tops extended

  11. Teacher/Student Classroom Interaction in Vocational Education. A Sex Bias/Sex Stereotyping Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omvig, Clayton P.

    A study examined teacher-student interaction in Kentucky's secondary and postsecondary vocational education classrooms. It investigated whether sex bias or inequities were present and what might explain such differences. A literature review focused on studies conducted at different grade levels with relation to sex bias and classroom interactions.…

  12. GeoSAR: A Radar Terrain Mapping System for the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Thomas; vanZyl, Jakob; Hensley, Scott; Reis, James; Munjy, Riadh; Burton, John; Yoha, Robert

    2000-01-01

    GeoSAR Geographic Synthetic Aperture Radar) is a new 3 year effort to build a unique, dual-frequency, airborne Interferometric SAR for mapping of terrain. This is being pursued via a Consortium of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Calgis, Inc., and the California Department of Conservation. The airborne portion of this system will operate on a Calgis Gulfstream-II aircraft outfitted with P- and X-band Interferometric SARs. The ground portions of this system will be a suite of Flight Planning Software, an IFSAR Processor and a Radar-GIS Workstation. The airborne P-band and X-band radars will be constructed by JPL with the goal of obtaining foliage penetration at the longer P-band wavelengths. The P-band and X-band radar will operate at frequencies of 350 Mhz and 9.71 Ghz with bandwidths of either 80 or 160 Mhz. The airborne radars will be complemented with airborne laser system for measuring antenna positions. Aircraft flight lines and radar operating instructions will be computed with the Flight Planning Software The ground processing will be a two-step step process. First, the raw radar data will be processed into radar images and interferometer derived Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). Second, these radar images and DEMs will be processed with a Radar GIS Workstation which performs processes such as Projection Transformations, Registration, Geometric Adjustment, Mosaicking, Merging and Database Management. JPL will construct the IFSAR Processor and Calgis, Inc. will construct the Radar GIS Workstation. The GeoSAR Project was underway in November 1996 with a goal of having the radars and laser systems fully integrated onto the Calgis Gulfstream-II aircraft in early 1999. Then, Engineering Checkout and Calibration-Characterization Flights will be conducted through November 1999. The system will be completed at the end of 1999 and ready for routine operations in the year 2000.

  13. High-resolution mapping of soil moisture at the field scale using ground-penetrating radar for improving remote sensing data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambot, Sébastien; Mahmoudzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Phuong Tran, Anh; Nottebaere, Martijn; Leonard, Aline; Defourny, Pierre; Neyt, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Characterizing the spatiotemporal distribution of soil moisture at various scales is essential in agricultural, hydrological, meteorological, and climatological research and applications. Soil moisture determines the boundary condition between the soil and the atmosphere and governs key processes of the hydrological cycle such as infiltration, runoff, root water uptake, evaporation, as well as energy exchanges between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere. In that respect, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is of particular interest for field-scale soil moisture mapping as soil moisture is highly correlated to its permittivity, which controls radar wave propagation in the soil. Yet, accurate determination of the electrical properties of a medium using GPR requires full-wave inverse modeling, which has remained a major challenge in applied geophysics for many years. We present a new near-field radar modeling approach for wave propagation in layered media. Radar antennas are modeled using an equivalent set of infinitesimal electric dipoles and characteristic, frequency-dependent, global reflection and transmission coefficients. These coefficients determine wave propagation between the radar reference plane, point sources, and field points. The interactions between the antenna and the soil are inherently accounted for. The fields are calculated using three-dimensional Green's functions. We validated the model using both time and frequency domain radars. The radars were mounted on a quad and controlled by a computer for real-time radar and dGPS data acquisition. Several fields were investigated and time-lapse measurements were performed on some of them to analyze temporal stability in soil moisture patterns and the repeatability of the measurements. The results were compared to ground-truths. The proposed technique is presently being applied to improve space-borne remote sensing data products for soil moisture by providing high-resolution observational information that

  14. Chemical projectile-target interaction during hypervelocity cratering experiments (MEMIN project).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, M.; Hecht, L.; Deutsch, A.; Kenkmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    The detection and identification of meteoritic components in impact-derived rocks are of great value for confirming an impact origin and reconstructing the type of extraterrestrial material that repeatedly stroke the Earth during geologic evolution [1]. However, little is known about processes that control the projectile distribution into the various impactites that originate during the cratering and excavation process, and inter-element fractionation between siderophile elements during impact cratering. In the context of the MEMIN project, cratering experiments have been performed using spheres of Cr-V-Co-Mo-W-rich steel and of the iron meteorite Campo del Cielo (IAB) as projectiles accelerated to about 5 km/s, and blocks of Seeberger sandstone as target. The experiments were carried out at the two-stage acceleration facilities of the Fraunhofer Ernst-Mach-Institute (Freiburg). Our results are based on geochemical analyses of highly shocked ejecta material. The ejecta show various shock features including multiple sets of planar deformations features (PDF) in quartz, diaplectic quartz, and partial melting of the sandstone. Melting is concentrated in the phyllosilicate-bearing sandstone matrix but involves quartz, too. Droplets of molten projectile have entered the low-viscosity sandstone melt but not quartz glass. Silica-rich sandstone melts are enriched in the elements that are used to trace the projectile, like Fe, Ni, Cr, Co, and V (but no or little W and Mo). Inter-element ratios of these "projectile" tracer elements within the contaminated sandstone melt may be strongly modified from the original ratios in the projectiles. This fractionation most likely result from variation in the lithophile or siderophile character and/or from differences in reactivity of these tracer elements with oxygen [2] during interaction of metal melt with silicate melt. The shocked quartz with PDF is also enriched in Fe and Ni (experiment with a meteorite iron projectile) and in Fe

  15. Reconfigurable L-Band Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rincon, Rafael F.

    2008-01-01

    The reconfigurable L-Band radar is an ongoing development at NASA/GSFC that exploits the capability inherently in phased array radar systems with a state-of-the-art data acquisition and real-time processor in order to enable multi-mode measurement techniques in a single radar architecture. The development leverages on the L-Band Imaging Scatterometer, a radar system designed for the development and testing of new radar techniques; and the custom-built DBSAR processor, a highly reconfigurable, high speed data acquisition and processing system. The radar modes currently implemented include scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar, and altimetry; and plans to add new modes such as radiometry and bi-static GNSS signals are being formulated. This development is aimed at enhancing the radar remote sensing capabilities for airborne and spaceborne applications in support of Earth Science and planetary exploration This paper describes the design of the radar and processor systems, explains the operational modes, and discusses preliminary measurements and future plans.

  16. Python-ARM Radar Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Helmus, Scott Collis

    2013-03-17

    The Python-ARM Radar Toolkit (Py-ART) is a collection of radar quality control and retrieval codes which all work on two unifying Python objects: the PyRadar and PyGrid objects. By building ingests to several popular radar formats and then abstracting the interface Py-ART greatly simplifies data processing over several other available utilities. In addition Py-ART makes use of Numpy arrays as its primary storage mechanism enabling use of existing and extensive community software tools.

  17. On 3D radar data visualization and merging with camera images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjellgren, J.

    2008-10-01

    The possibilities to support the interpretation of spatial 3D-radar data visually both with and without camera images are studied. Radar measurements and camera pictures of a person are analyzed. First, the received signal amplitudes distributed in three dimensions, spherical range and two angles, are fed to a selection procedure using amplitude and the scene volume of interest. A number of resolution cells will then form images based on a volume representation depending upon the amplitude and location. Projecting the images of all the cells upon an imaging plane then forms the total image. Different images of a radar data set are performed for different projecting planes. The images were studied to find efficient aspect angles to get the target information of most interest. Rotating the target data around a suitable axis may perform such search. In addition, a visualization method for presenting radar data merged with a camera picture has been developed. An aim in this part of the work has been to keep the high information content of the camera image in the merged image. From the 3D-radar measurements the radar data may be projected upon the imaging plane of a camera with an arbitrary viewing center. This possibility is presented in examples with one camera looking at the target scene from the radar location and another camera looking from an aspect angle differing 45° relative to the aspect angle of the radar.

  18. Identification of Geometrical Structural Changes in Agriculture by Optical and Radar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surek, Gyorgy; Nador, Gizella; Akos Gera, David; Hubik, Iren; Kulesar Aniko, Rotterne; Torok, Cecilia

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the project was to monitor the temporal behaviour of geometrical structural change of cropland affected by four different damages: weed infection, Western Corn Rootworm (WCR), storm damage and drought by optical and radar time series data. Based on our preliminary results it is established that ragweed infection in sunflower can be well identified by evaluation of radar (acquired in mid-June) and optical (mid-August) satellite images. Effect of drought in sunflower is well recognizable by spectral indexes from optical, as well as "I"-component of Shannon entropy (SEI) derived from radar satellite images. Detecting damage caused by WCR and storm in maize field is the most efficient by evaluation of radar and optical satellite images acquired in late-July. Components of Shannon entropy have significant role in identification. This project demonstrates the potential of integrated usage of polarimetric radar and optical satellite images for mapping several types of damages in agriculture.

  19. HIGH ALTITUDE WIND MEASUREMENTS BY COLLECTING AND PROCESSING METEOR RADAR ECHOES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    respectively. A system will be implemented according to these design criteria in Havana, Illinois, before the end of 1965, by modifications of the existing radar system of the Harvard University Radio Meteor Project. (Author)

  20. Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar (MMCR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    KB Widener; K Johnson

    2005-01-30

    The millimeter cloud radar (MMCR) systems probe the extent and composition of clouds at millimeter wavelengths. The MMCR is a zenith-pointing radar that operates at a frequency of 35 GHz. The main purpose of this radar is to determine cloud boundaries (e.g., cloud bottoms and tops). This radar will also report radar reflectivity (dBZ) of the atmosphere up to 20 km. The radar possesses a doppler capability that will allow the measurement of cloud constituent vertical velocities.

  1. Removing interfering clutter associated with radar pulses that an airborne radar receives from a radar transponder

    DOEpatents

    Ormesher, Richard C.; Axline, Robert M.

    2008-12-02

    Interfering clutter in radar pulses received by an airborne radar system from a radar transponder can be suppressed by developing a representation of the incoming echo-voltage time-series that permits the clutter associated with predetermined parts of the time-series to be estimated. These estimates can be used to estimate and suppress the clutter associated with other parts of the time-series.

  2. Radar Monitoring of Wetlands for Malaria Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Kevin O.

    1997-01-01

    Malaria is the most important vector-borne tropical disease (Collins and Paskewitz, 1995) and there is no simple and universally applicable form of vector control. While new methods such as malaria vaccine or genetic manipulation of mosquitoes are being explored in the laboratories, the need for more field research on malaria transmission remains very strong. For the foreseeable future many malaria programs must focus on controlling the vector, the anopheline mosquito, often under the specter of shrinking budgets. Therefore information on which human populations are at the greatest risk is especially valuable when allocating scarce resources. The goal of the Radar Monitoring of Wetlands for Malaria Control Project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using Radarsat or other comparable satellite radar imaging systems to determine where and when human populations are at greatest risk for contracting malaria. The study area is northern Belize, a region with abundant wetlands and a potentially serious malaria problem. A key aspect of this study is the analysis of multi-temporal satellite imagery to track seasonal flooding of anopheline mosquito breeding sites. Radarsat images of the test site in Belize have been acquired one to three times a month over the last year, however,, to date only one processed image has been received from the Alaska SAR Facility for analysis. Therefore analysis at this stage is focussed on determining the radar backscatter characteristics of known anopheline breeding sites, with future work to be dedicated toward seasonal changes.

  3. Counter-sniper 3D laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Orr; LePage, Andrew J.; Wijntjes, Geert J.; Zehnpfennig, Theodore F.; Sackos, John T.; Nellums, Robert O.

    1999-01-01

    Visidyne, Inc., teaming with Sandia National Laboratories, has developed the preliminary design for an innovative scannerless 3-D laser radar capable of acquiring, tracking, and determining the coordinates of small caliber projectiles in flight with sufficient precision, so their origin can be established by back projecting their tracks to their source. The design takes advantage of the relatively large effective cross-section of a bullet at optical wavelengths. Kay to its implementation is the use of efficient, high- power laser diode arrays for illuminators and an imaging laser receiver using a unique CCD imager design, that acquires the information to establish x, y (angle-angle) and range coordinates for each bullet at very high frame rates. The detection process achieves a high degree of discrimination by using the optical signature of the bullet, solar background mitigation, and track detection. Field measurements and computer simulations have been used to provide the basis for a preliminary design of a robust bullet tracker, the Counter Sniper 3-D Laser Radar. Experimental data showing 3-D test imagery acquired by a lidar with architecture similar to that of the proposed Counter Sniper 3-D Lidar are presented. A proposed Phase II development would yield an innovative, compact, and highly efficient bullet-tracking laser radar. Such a device would meet the needs of not only the military, but also federal, state, and local law enforcement organizations.

  4. Planetary radar studies. [radar mapping of the Moon and radar signatures of lunar and Venus craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Cutts, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Progress made in studying the evolution of Venusian craters and the evolution of infrared and radar signatures of lunar crater interiors is reported. Comparison of radar images of craters on Venus and the Moon present evidence for a steady state Venus crater population. Successful observations at the Arecibo Observatory yielded good data on five nights when data for a mix of inner and limb areas were acquired. Lunar craters with radar bright ejects are discussed. An overview of infrared radar crater catalogs in the data base is included.

  5. Spin-flip configuration interaction singles with exact spin-projection: Theory and applications to strongly correlated systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi

    2015-10-14

    Spin-flip approaches capture static correlation with the same computational scaling as the ordinary single reference methods. Here, we extend spin-flip configuration interaction singles (SFCIS) by projecting out intrinsic spin-contamination to make it spin-complete, rather than by explicitly complementing it with spin-coupled configurations. We give a general formalism of spin-projection for SFCIS, applicable to any spin states. The proposed method is viewed as a natural unification of SFCIS and spin-projected CIS to achieve a better qualitative accuracy at a low computational cost. While our wave function ansatz is more compact than previously proposed spin-complete SF approaches, it successfully offers more general static correlation beyond biradicals without sacrificing good quantum numbers. It is also shown that our method is invariant with respect to open-shell orbital rotations, due to the uniqueness of spin-projection. We will report benchmark calculations to demonstrate its qualitative performance on strongly correlated systems, including conical intersections that appear both in ground-excited and excited-excited degeneracies.

  6. Spin-flip configuration interaction singles with exact spin-projection: Theory and applications to strongly correlated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi

    2015-10-01

    Spin-flip approaches capture static correlation with the same computational scaling as the ordinary single reference methods. Here, we extend spin-flip configuration interaction singles (SFCIS) by projecting out intrinsic spin-contamination to make it spin-complete, rather than by explicitly complementing it with spin-coupled configurations. We give a general formalism of spin-projection for SFCIS, applicable to any spin states. The proposed method is viewed as a natural unification of SFCIS and spin-projected CIS to achieve a better qualitative accuracy at a low computational cost. While our wave function ansatz is more compact than previously proposed spin-complete SF approaches, it successfully offers more general static correlation beyond biradicals without sacrificing good quantum numbers. It is also shown that our method is invariant with respect to open-shell orbital rotations, due to the uniqueness of spin-projection. We will report benchmark calculations to demonstrate its qualitative performance on strongly correlated systems, including conical intersections that appear both in ground-excited and excited-excited degeneracies.

  7. OECD MCCI project long-term 2-D molten core concrete interaction test design report, Rev. 0. September 30, 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschliman, R. W.; Basu, S.

    2011-05-23

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core-concrete interaction when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. As a follow-on program to MACE, The Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction Experiments (MCCI) project is conducting reactor material experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following two technical objectives: (1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue through a program that focuses on providing both confirmatory evidence and test data for the coolability mechanisms identified in MACE integral effects tests, and (2) address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensional molten core-concrete interactions under both wet and dry cavity conditions. Achievement of these two objectives will demonstrate the efficacy of severe accident management guidelines for existing plants, and provide the technical basis for better containment designs for future plants. In terms of the first program objective, the Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength (SSWICS) test series has been initiated to provide fundamental information on the ability of water to ingress into cracks and fissures that form in the debris during quench, thereby augmenting the otherwise conduction-limited heat transfer process. A test plan for Melt Eruption Separate Effects Tests (MESET) has also been developed to provide information on the extent of crust growth and melt eruptions as a function of gas sparging rate under well-controlled experiment conditions. In terms of the second program objective, the project Management Board (MB) has approved startup activities required to carry out

  8. The Interactive Potential of Multiple Media: A New Look at Inquiry Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranker, Jason

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the inquiry and literacy processes of two fifth-grade students as they created a digital video about African American history for a school project. During this process, the students gained experience in researching (both on the Web and in books) and writing, with the overall goal of creating a digital documentary video about…

  9. The Rural Recreation Integration Project: Reaching Out with Interactive Video Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lynn; And Others

    1996-01-01

    North Dakota's Rural Recreation Integration Project disseminates innovative training and technical assistance from therapeutic recreation specialists to recreation and human service providers. The information helps facilitate the inclusion of people with disabilities into recreation/leisure activities. To make the training accessible, they use the…

  10. Generalizing in Interaction: Middle School Mathematics Students Making Mathematical Generalizations in a Population-Modeling Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurow, A. Susan

    2004-01-01

    Generalizing or making claims that extend beyond particular situations is a central mathematical practice and a focus of classroom mathematics instruction. This study examines how aspects of generality are produced through the situated activities of a group of middle school mathematics students working on an 8-week population-modeling project. The…

  11. Undergraduate Projects Linking Science, Technology and Society. Interdisciplinary Programs and Activities, 1986-87. Interactions:8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachterle, Lance E., Ed.; Shanahan, Joan M., Ed.

    In 1970, Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) radically revised its curriculum by replacing specific course distributions with a new program, emphasizing projects at various levels. In instituting this change, faculty were especially concerned to encourage engineering, science, and management students to recognize how their professional work…

  12. Hypermedia Learning and Evaluation: A Qualitative Study of Learners' Interaction with the Perseus Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shu Ching

    2000-01-01

    This exploratory study provides a qualitative report on the integration of the extensive use of a large-scale hypermedia information system (Perseus) on CD-ROM in university class settings. Examines how the learners use Perseus to create their projects, and what their affective attitude and cognitive perceptions are towards hypermedia. (Contains…

  13. Engaging L2 Undergraduates in Relevant Project Work and Interaction: A Role for Video Conferencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colwell O'Callaghan, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on two small-scale international projects, both outcomes of a teaching staff exchange, which seek to exploit the potential afforded by new technologies to enrich L2 learning conditions and learners' experience of using the L2 (in this case English) as a lingua franca. Two undergraduate courses, one for professional and one for…

  14. An interactive computer approach to performing resource analysis for a multi-resource/multi-project problem. [Spacelab inventory procurement planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlagheck, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    New planning techniques and supporting computer tools are needed for the optimization of resources and costs for space transportation and payload systems. Heavy emphasis on cost effective utilization of resources has caused NASA program planners to look at the impact of various independent variables that affect procurement buying. A description is presented of a category of resource planning which deals with Spacelab inventory procurement analysis. Spacelab is a joint payload project between NASA and the European Space Agency and will be flown aboard the Space Shuttle starting in 1980. In order to respond rapidly to the various procurement planning exercises, a system was built that could perform resource analysis in a quick and efficient manner. This system is known as the Interactive Resource Utilization Program (IRUP). Attention is given to aspects of problem definition, an IRUP system description, questions of data base entry, the approach used for project scheduling, and problems of resource allocation.

  15. The ``Adopt A Microbe'' project: Web-based interactive education connected with scientific ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, B. N.; Bowman, D.; Turner, A.; Inderbitzen, K. E.; Fisher, A. T.; Peart, L. W.; Iodp Expedition 327 Shipboard Party

    2010-12-01

    We launched the "Adopt a Microbe" project as part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 327 in Summer 2010. This eight-week-long education and outreach effort was run by shipboard scientists and educators from the research vessel JOIDES Resolution, using a web site (https://sites.google.com/site/adoptamicrobe) to engage students of all ages in an exploration of the deep biosphere inhabiting the upper ocean crust. Participants were initially introduced to a cast of microbes (residing within an ‘Adoption Center’ on the project website) that live in the dark ocean and asked to select and virtually ‘adopt’ a microbe. A new educational activity was offered each week to encourage learning about microbiology, using the adopted microbe as a focal point. Activities included reading information and asking questions about the adopted microbes (with subsequent responses from shipboard scientists), writing haiku about the adopted microbes, making balloon and fabric models of the adopted microbes, answering math questions related to the study of microbes in the ocean, growing cultures of microbes, and examining the gases produced by microbes. In addition, the website featured regular text, photo and video updates about the science of the expedition using a toy microbe as narrator, as well as stories written by shipboard scientists from the perspective of deep ocean microbes accompanied by watercolor illustrations prepared by a shipboard artist. Assessment methods for evaluating the effectiveness of the Adopt a Microbe project included participant feedback via email and online surveys, website traffic monitoring, and online video viewing rates. Quantitative metrics suggest that the “Adope A Microbe” project was successful in reaching target audiences and helping to encourage and maintain interest in topics related to IODP Expedition 327. The “Adopt A Microbe” project mdel can be adapted for future oceanographic expeditions to help connect the

  16. Prediction and archival tools for asteroid radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margot, J.

    2014-07-01

    The Earth-based radar facilities at Arecibo and Goldstone have provided very powerful tools for characterizing the trajectories and physical properties of asteroids. This is especially important for near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) which are key in the contexts of hazard mitigation, spacecraft exploration, and resource utilization. Over 10,000 NEAs have been identified and over 430 have been detected with radar (http://radarastronomy.org). Both of these numbers are growing rapidly, necessitating efficient tools for data archival and observation planning. The asteroid radar database hosted at radarastronomy.org keeps track of all radar detections, documents NEA physical properties, and provides NEA observability conditions. With the help of UCLA students, we are integrating a number of tools with the database to facilitate recordkeeping and observation planning. For instance, a geometry-finder tool allows us to identify the optimal times to observe specific NEAs and to compute rise-transit-set windows. Signal-to-noise (SNR) tools allow us to compute SNR values for both Arecibo and Goldstone observations. Python-based graphical tools help visualize the history of asteroid detections and plan future observations. A collaborative research environment (wiki) facilitates interactions among radar observers. These tools and others in preparation enable a more coordinated and efficient process for asteroid radar observations.

  17. Role of surface-water and groundwater interactions on projected summertime streamflow in snow dominated regions : An integrated modeling approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntington, Justin L.; Niswonger, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies indicate predominantly increasing trends in precipitation across the Western United States, while at the same time, historical streamflow records indicate decreasing summertime streamflow and 25th percentile annual flows. These opposing trends could be viewed as paradoxical, given that several studies suggest that increased annual precipitation will equate to increased annual groundwater recharge, and therefore increased summertime flow. To gain insight on mechanisms behind these potential changes, we rely on a calibrated, integrated surface and groundwater model to simulate climate impacts on surface water/groundwater interactions using 12 general circulation model projections of temperature and precipitation from 2010 to 2100, and evaluate the interplay between snowmelt timing and other hydrologic variables, including streamflow, groundwater recharge, storage, groundwater discharge, and evapotranspiration. Hydrologic simulations show that the timing of peak groundwater discharge to the stream is inversely correlated to snowmelt runoff and groundwater recharge due to the bank storage effect and reversal of hydraulic gradients between the stream and underlying groundwater. That is, groundwater flow to streams peaks following the decrease in stream depth caused by snowmelt recession, and the shift in snowmelt causes a corresponding shift in groundwater discharge to streams. Our results show that groundwater discharge to streams is depleted during the summer due to earlier drainage of shallow aquifers adjacent to streams even if projected annual precipitation and groundwater recharge increases. These projected changes in surface water/groundwater interactions result in more than a 30% decrease in the projected ensemble summertime streamflow. Our findings clarify causality of observed decreasing summertime flow, highlight important aspects of potential climate change impacts on groundwater resources, and underscore the need for integrated hydrologic

  18. Interferometric radar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ronald A.; Shipman, Mark; Holder, E. J.; Williams, James K.

    2002-08-01

    The United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command (USASMDC) has interest in a technology demonstration that capitalizes on investment in fire control and smart interceptor technologies that have matured beyond basic research. The concept SWORD (Short range missile defense With Optimized Radar Distribution) consists of a novel approach utilizing a missile interceptor and interferometric fire control radar. A hit-to-kill, closed-loop, command guidance scheme is planned that takes advantage of extremely accurate target and interceptor state vectors derived via the fire control radar. The fire control system has the capability to detect, track, and classify multiple threats in a tactical regime as well as simultaneously provide command guidance updates to multiple missile interceptors. The missile interceptor offers a cost reduction potential as well as an enhancement to the kinematics range and lethality over existing SHORAD systems. Additionally, the Radio Frequency (RF) guidance scheme offers increased battlefield weather performance. The Air Defense (AD) community, responding to current threat capabilities and trends, has identified an urgent need to have a capability to counter proliferated, low cost threats with a low cost-per-kill weapon system. The SWORD system will offer a solution that meets this need. The SWORD critical technologies will be identified including a detailed description of each. Validated test results and basic principles of operation will be presented to prove the merit of past investments. The Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Technology (DAS(R&T) has a three- year Science and Technology Program to evaluate the errors and proposed mitigation techniques associated with target spectral dispersion and range gate straddle. Preliminary bench-top experiment results will be presented in this paper.

  19. RADAR "SAIL" satellite concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguttes, Jean Paul; Sombrin, Jacques; Conde, Eric

    1996-11-01

    The Radar SAIL concept is based on the use of a rectangular antenna lying in the dawn-dusk orbital plane with the length (along speed vector) smaller than the height. Such geometry makes it possible to place the solar cells on the back of the antenna, to use gravity gradient stabilisation, and to implement multipath-free GPS interferometric measurement of the antenna deformation thus allowing structural relaxation. Less obviously, the geometry favours the RADAR design too, by allowing grating lobes and therefore a lower density of built-in electronic in the active antenna. The antenna can be thin and packed for launch inside a cylinder-shaped bus having pyrotechnic doors for the antenna deployement and bearing the rest of the payload and the service equipment. With respect to a standard design of performant missions, cost savings come from the bus, whose functions (AOCS, power supply) are simplified, from the launch since the mass budget and the stowing configuration become compatible with medium size rockets (LLV2/3, DELTA-LITE, LM-4.), and from the active antenna built-in electronics. The RADAR SAIL concept is all the more cost effective when the mission requires a large, high and short antenna, i.e. high resolution (<5m), low frequency band (L or S or even P), high revisiting, multiple frequencies. Mission implementation and funding can be favored by the new capability to share the satellite between autonomous regional operators. Combined with ground DBF (digital beam forming) technique, the concept allows extremely simple and low cost missions providing a fixed wide swath (10 to 15 m resolution within 500km to 1000 km swath) for systematic surveillance or monitoring.

  20. Venus - First Radar Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    After traveling more than 1.5 billion kilometers (948 million miles), the Magellan spacecraft was inserted into orbit around Venus on Aug. 10, 1990. This mosaic consists of adjacent pieces of two Magellan image strips obtained on Aug. 16 in the first radar test. The radar test was part of a planned In Orbit Checkout sequence designed to prepare the Magellan spacecraft and radar to begin mapping after Aug. 31. The strip on the left was returned to the Goldstone Deep Space Network station in California; the strip to the right was received at the DSN in Canberra, Australia. A third station that will be receiving Magellan data is located near Madrid, Spain. Each image strip is 20 km (12 miles) wide and 16,000 km (10,000 miles) long. This mosaic is a small portion 80 km (50 miles) long. This image is centered at 21 degrees north latitude and 286.8 degrees east longitude, southeast of a volcanic highland region called Beta Regio. The resolution of the image is about 120 meters (400 feet), 10 times better than previous images of the same area of Venus, revealing many new geologic features. The bright line trending northwest southeast across the center of the image is a fracture or fault zone cutting the volcanic plains. In the upper left corner of the image, a multiple ring circular feature of probable volcanic origin can be seen, approximately 4.27 km (2.65 miles) across. The bright and dark variations seen in the plains surrounding these features correspond to volcanic lava flows of varying ages. The volcanic lava flows in the southern half of the image have been cut by north south trending faults. This area is similar geologically to volcanic deposits seen on Earth at Hawaii and the Snake River Plains in Idaho.

  1. Space Radar Image of Harvard Forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a radar image of the area surrounding the Harvard Forest in north-central Massachusetts that has been operated as a ecological research facility by Harvard University since 1907. At the center of the image is the Quabbin Reservoir, and the Connecticut River is at the lower left of the image. The Harvard Forest itself is just above the reservoir. Researchers are comparing the naturally occurring physical disturbances in the forest and the recent and projected chemical disturbances and their effects on the forest ecosystem. Agricultural land appears dark blue/purple, along with low shrub vegetation and some wetlands. Urban development is bright pink; the yellow to green tints are conifer-dominated vegetation with the pitch pine sand plain at the middle left edge of the image appearing very distinctive. The green tint may indicate pure pine plantation stands, and deciduous broadleaf trees appear gray/pink with perhaps wetter sites being pinker. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered at 42.50 degrees North latitude and 72.33 degrees West longitude and covers an area of 53 kilometers 63 by kilometers (33 miles by 39 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received.

  2. Space Radar Image of Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The summits of two large volcanoes in Central Java, Indonesia are shown in the center of this radar image. Lava flows of different ages and surface roughness appear in shades of green and yellow surrounding the summit of Mt. Merbabu (mid-center) and Mt. Merapi (lower center). Mt. Merapi erupted on November 28, 1994 about six weeks after this image was taken. The eruption killed more than 60 people and forced the evacuation of more than 6,000 others. Thousands of other residents were put on alert due to the possibility of volcanic debris mudflows, called lahars, that threatened nearby towns. Mt. Merapi is located approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) north of Yogyakarta, the capital of Central Java. The older volcano at the top of the image is unnamed. Lake Rawapening is the dark blue feature in the upper right. The light blue area southeast of the lake is the city of Salatiga. Directly south of Salatiga and southeast of Mt. Merapi is the city of Boyolali. Scientists are studying Mt. Merapi as part of the international 'Decade Volcanoes' project, because of its recent activity and potential threat to local populations. The radar data are being used to identify and distinguish a variety of volcanic features. This image was acquired on October 10, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered at 7.5 degrees South latitude and 110.5 degrees East longitude and covers an area of 33 kilometers by 65 kilometers (20 miles by 40 miles).

  3. Unification of radar phenomena as spacetime curvature: prediction and observation of an affine-phase effect.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Andrew K

    2004-07-01

    The many properties of radar echoes and other radiative systems were recently described by Gabriel [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 946 (2002)] as lower-dimensional projections of simple forms in special relativity. A broader treatment including coherent phenomena is summarized, in which the phase properties of radar images and interferograms are also shown to have a simple unified structure. Their apparent complexity is a result of projection onto the lower dimension(s) of the observation. A predicted new property, locally scalable (affine) phase, is observed in a radar interferogram.

  4. Track Performance Considerations for Monopulse Radars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-08

    10 SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS Vi,-,.u AM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT Warminster. PA 18974-5000 ELEMENT NO NO NO ACCESSION NORS34-372-00 " 62113N...track performance of monopulse radars is reported here. The study validates results of model simulation and also provides detailed insight into how...POSITIONSTRE AHHR ANTENNAGAORNS) Fig I.SZSM ERROR. adrmoeln RADIATIONTFOO .’T , - SE BALNCE -IE EL; I -’ (" .S FILTER F1N TEGRATOR11 A. T 4 .I,2. SfLIfM

  5. Doppler radar flowmeter

    DOEpatents

    Petlevich, Walter J.; Sverdrup, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    A Doppler radar flowmeter comprises a transceiver which produces an audio frequency output related to the Doppler shift in frequency between radio waves backscattered from particulate matter carried in a fluid and the radiated radio waves. A variable gain amplifier and low pass filter are provided for amplifying and filtering the transceiver output. A frequency counter having a variable triggering level is also provided to determine the magnitude of the Doppler shift. A calibration method is disclosed wherein the amplifier gain and frequency counter trigger level are adjusted to achieve plateaus in the output of the frequency counter and thereby allow calibration without the necessity of being able to visually observe the flow.

  6. Weather Radar Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-31

    Reflectivity Core Recognition 68 IV-10 Middle-Level Precursor Recognition 69 IV-l I Early Microburst Hazard Declaration 70 IV-12 Example of Results from...Denver Test Bed 106 V-I Selected Product Types 14 V-2 Encoded Map Size (in ELMs ) for Terminal Map Data Set 119 V-3 Encoded Map Size (in ELMs ) for En...Route Data Sets 119 V-4 Encoded Map Size (in ELMs ) for Terminal Map Data Set 125 xiii WEATHER RADAR STUDIES 1. INTRODUCTION The principal areas of

  7. Radar Imaging and Feature Extraction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    aperture radar (ISAR) autofocus and imaging, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) autofocus and motion compensation, superresolution SAR image formation... superresolution image formation, and two parametric methods, MCRELAX (Motion Compensation RELAX) and MCCLEAN (Motion Compensation CLEAN), for simultaneous target...Direction Estimation) together with WRELAX) algorithm is proposed for the superresolution time delay estimation.

  8. Millimeter radar improves target identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAulay, Alastair D.

    2011-06-01

    Recently developed millimeter wave radar has advantages for target identification over conventional microwave radar which typically use lower frequencies. We describe the pertinent features involved in the construction of the new millimeter wave radar, the pseudo-optical cavity source and the quasi-optical duplexer. The long wavelength relative to light allows the radar beam to penetrate through most weather because the wavelength is larger than the particle size for dust, drizzle rain, fog. Further the mm wave beam passes through an atmospheric transmission window that provides a dip in attenuation. The higher frequency than conventional radar provides higher Doppler frequencies, for example, than X-band radar. We show by simulation that small characteristic vibrations and slow turns of an aircraft become visible so that the Doppler signature improves identification. The higher frequency also reduces beam width, which increases transmit and receive antenna gains. For the same power the transmit beam extends to farther range and the increase in receive antenna gain increases signal to noise ratio for improved detection and identification. The narrower beam can also reduce clutter and reject other noise more readily. We show by simulation that the radar can be used at lower elevations over the sea than conventional radar.

  9. Radar Control Optimal Resource Allocation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-13

    Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada by the McMaster University Intelligent PIXel (IPIX) X-band Polarimetric Coherent Radar during the OHGR - Dartmouth...Distribution is unlimited Wind Direction N Figure 7: Radar data collection site at OHGR, Nova Scotia. Source:[15] to having a significant wave height of 0.7 m

  10. Making projects, making friends: online community as catalyst for interactive media creation.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Karen; Monroy-Hernández, Andrés; Resnick, Mitchel

    2010-01-01

    To become full and active participants in today's technologically saturated society, young people need to become creators (and not just consumers) of interactive media. Developing the requisite abilities and capacities is not a wholly individual process; it is important for young people to have access to communities where they can collaborate and share ideas. This article uses the Scratch online community for exploring how different forms of participation and collaboration can support and shape the ways in which young people develop as creators of interactive media. We describe participation in this community in terms of a spectrum ranging from socializing to creating and present examples of three forms of collaboration within the community. We argue that the most exciting interactive media creation and valuable learning experiences are taking place in the middle space, where participants draw on the best of socializing and creating practices.

  11. High-resolution instrumentation radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybdal, Robert B.; Hurlbut, Keith H.; Mori, Tsutomu T.

    1986-09-01

    The development of an instrumentation radar that uses a chirp waveform to achieve high range resolution is described. Such range resolution capability is required for two reasons: (1) to evaluate the response of targets to the operational waveforms used in high-performance radars; and (2) to obtain a means of separating the individual mechanisms that comprise the target scattering response to better understand the scattering process. This particular radar was efficiently constructed from a combination of commercially available components and in-house-fabricated circuitry. This instrumentation radar operates at X-band and achieves a 4.9-in. range resolution. A key feature of the radar is its ability to combine amplitude weighting with a high degree of waveform fidelity, with the result being very good range sidelobe performance.

  12. A radar image time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leberl, F.; Fuchs, H.; Ford, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    A set of ten side-looking radar images of a mining area in Arizona that were aquired over a period of 14 yr are studied to demonstrate the photogrammetric differential-rectification technique applied to radar images and to examine changes that occurred in the area over time. Five of the images are rectified by using ground control points and a digital height model taken from a map. Residual coordinate errors in ground control are reduced from several hundred meters in all cases to + or - 19 to 70 m. The contents of the radar images are compared with a Landsat image and with aerial photographs. Effects of radar system parameters on radar images are briefly reviewed.

  13. Shuttle Imaging Radar - Geologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H.; Bridges, L.; Waite, W.; Kaupp, V.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Shuttle, on its second flight (November 12, 1981), carried the first science and applications payload which provided an early demonstration of Shuttle's research capabilities. One of the experiments, the Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A), had as a prime objective to evaluate the capability of spaceborne imaging radars as a tool for geologic exploration. The results of the experiment will help determine the value of using the combination of space radar and Landsat imagery for improved geologic analysis and mapping. Preliminary analysis of the Shuttle radar imagery with Seasat and Landsat imagery from similar areas provides evidence that spaceborne radars can significantly complement Landsat interpretation, and vastly improve geologic reconnaissance mapping in those areas of the world that are relatively unmapped because of perpetual cloud cover.

  14. Low-brightness quantum radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco

    2015-05-01

    One of the major scientific thrusts from recent years has been to try to harness quantum phenomena to dramatically increase the performance of a wide variety of classical information processing devices. These advances in quantum information science have had a considerable impact on the development of standoff sensors such as quantum radar. In this paper we analyze the theoretical performance of low-brightness quantum radar that uses entangled photon states. We use the detection error probability as a measure of sensing performance and the interception error probability as a measure of stealthiness. We compare the performance of quantum radar against a coherent light sensor (such as lidar) and classical radar. In particular, we restrict our analysis to the performance of low-brightness standoff sensors operating in a noisy environment. We show that, compared to the two classical standoff sensing devices, quantum radar is stealthier, more resilient to jamming, and more accurate for the detection of low reflectivity targets.

  15. Radar SLAM using visual features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callmer, Jonas; Törnqvist, David; Gustafsson, Fredrik; Svensson, Henrik; Carlbom, Pelle

    2011-12-01

    A vessel navigating in a critical environment such as an archipelago requires very accurate movement estimates. Intentional or unintentional jamming makes GPS unreliable as the only source of information and an additional independent supporting navigation system should be used. In this paper, we suggest estimating the vessel movements using a sequence of radar images from the preexisting body-fixed radar. Island landmarks in the radar scans are tracked between multiple scans using visual features. This provides information not only about the position of the vessel but also of its course and velocity. We present here a navigation framework that requires no additional hardware than the already existing naval radar sensor. Experiments show that visual radar features can be used to accurately estimate the vessel trajectory over an extensive data set.

  16. Projection on a Sphere for a More Interactive Approach for Education and Outreach in Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, A.; King, S. D.

    2011-12-01

    Anna Hardy, Scott D. King, Department of Geosciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 Systems that project images onto a spherical surface are relatively new, moderately priced technology that could change the way students and the general public learn about Earth Sciences. For classroom and small museum spaces, such as the Geoscience Museum at Virginia Tech, a globe of about one-meter diameter can be used. Such a system has been recently installed in our 2500 square foot museum space. With this system we are able to display many types of Earth Science data including: global sea rise, weather and climate data, plate reconstructions, and projections of planets in the solar system. Animations show phenomenon over time including motions of plates over millions of years or evolution of global weather patterns over periods of days to weeks. We are importing other deep Earth data sets including global tomographic models to the system. As an outreach tool, one advantage of this technology is that it allows visitors to view global data in its natural spherical geometry and does not require them to visualize global spherical data or models from two-dimensional maps or displays. We will report on the effectiveness of this tool at communicating concepts with both college general education students and museum guests (pre-school through adult) via general surveying. Our initial comparison will be comprehension from classes with and without access to the spherical projection system.

  17. Examining the Impact of Interaction Project with Students with Special Needs on Development of Positive Attitude and Awareness of General Education Teachers towards Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce a project developed to promote interaction of teacher candidates from different areas with individuals with special needs within the scope of a Special Education course and examine the impact of this project on developing positive attitude and awareness on teacher candidates. In this study, a mixed…

  18. A Follow-Up Study of the Facebook Project for Japanese University Students: Has It Been Enhancing Student Interaction, Learner Autonomy, and English Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamada, Mayumi

    2014-01-01

    This is a follow-up study of the Facebook (FB) project conducted from October 2011 to January 2013. The purpose of the project was to investigate how FB can help Japanese university students improve their English, and determine whether FB can facilitate student interaction and learner autonomy by integrating FB activities into English lessons. In…

  19. UHF and VHF radar observations of thunderstorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, D. N.; Ulbrich, C. W.; Larsen, M. F.; Rottger, J.; Ierkic, H. M.; Swartz, W.

    1986-01-01

    A study of thunderstorms was made in the Summer of 1985 with the 430-MHz and 50-MHz radars at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. Both radars use the 300-meter dish, which gives a beam width of less than 2 degrees even at these long wavelengths. Though the radars are steerable, only vertical beams were used in this experiment. The height resolution was 300 and 150 meters for the UHF and VHF, respectively. Lightning echoes, as well as returns from precipitation and clear-air turbulence were detected with both wavelengths. Large increases in the returned power were found to be coincident with increasing downward vertical velocities at UHF, whereas at VHF the total power returned was relatively constant during the life of a storm. This was attributed to the fact that the VHF is more sensitive to scattering from the turbulence-induced inhomogeneities in the refractive index and less sensitive to scatter from precipitation particles. On occasion, the shape of the Doppler spectra was observed to change with the occurrence of a lightning discharge in the pulse volume. Though the total power and mean reflectivity weighted Doppler velocity changed little during these events, the power is Doppler frequency bins near that corresponding to the updraft did increase substantially within a fraction of a second after a discharge was detected in the beam. This suggests some interaction between precipitation and lightning.

  20. Use of radar to assess aeolian processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Lancaster, N.; Gaddis, L.; Blumberg, D.; Debrovolskis, A.; Saunders, R. S.; Wall, S.; Iversen, J. D.; White, B.; Rasmussen, K. R.

    1991-06-01

    The interaction between wind and desert surfaces has important implications for sediment transport on Earth, Mars, and Venus, and for understanding the relationship between radar backscatter and aerodynamic roughness. Here, researchers report results from measurements of atmospheric boundary layer profiles, assessment of radar backscatter at P, L, and C wavelengths, and surface roughness in Death Valley, the Mojave Desert, and Lunar Lake, NV, and discuss the implications for aeolian process. The sites include playas, gravel and sand regs, alluvial fans, and lava flows. Boundary layer wind profiles were measured using anemometers at heights of 0.75, 1.25, 2.07, 3.44, 5.72, and 9.5 m; temperature sensors at heights of 1.3 and 9.6 m; and wind vanes at 9.7 and 1.5 m. Microtopographic measurements were made using a template and a laser-photo device to obtain RMS height. This study demonstrates that radar backscatter coefficients obtained from airborne and perhaps orbiting instruments could permit the derivation of aerodynamic roughness values for large areas. Such values, when combined with wind frequency data, could enable assessment of aeolian processes on a regional scale.

  1. Use of radar to assess aeolian processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Lancaster, N.; Gaddis, L.; Blumberg, D.; Debrovolskis, A.; Saunders, R. S.; Wall, S.; Iversen, J. D.; White, B.; Rasmussen, K. R.

    1991-01-01

    The interaction between wind and desert surfaces has important implications for sediment transport on Earth, Mars, and Venus, and for understanding the relationship between radar backscatter and aerodynamic roughness. Here, researchers report results from measurements of atmospheric boundary layer profiles, assessment of radar backscatter at P, L, and C wavelengths, and surface roughness in Death Valley, the Mojave Desert, and Lunar Lake, NV, and discuss the implications for aeolian process. The sites include playas, gravel and sand regs, alluvial fans, and lava flows. Boundary layer wind profiles were measured using anemometers at heights of 0.75, 1.25, 2.07, 3.44, 5.72, and 9.5 m; temperature sensors at heights of 1.3 and 9.6 m; and wind vanes at 9.7 and 1.5 m. Microtopographic measurements were made using a template and a laser-photo device to obtain RMS height. This study demonstrates that radar backscatter coefficients obtained from airborne and perhaps orbiting instruments could permit the derivation of aerodynamic roughness values for large areas. Such values, when combined with wind frequency data, could enable assessment of aeolian processes on a regional scale.

  2. Urban ninth-grade girls interactions with and outcomes from a design-oriented physics project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginbotham, Thomas Eric Miksad

    Past literature has documented a shrinking but persistent gap in physics and engineering for females, both in school and in the workforce. A commonly recommended strategy to invite girls into science at the school level is to have students work on design-projects in groups, which has been shown to increase all students' learning outcomes and attitudes towards science. Students (n=28) in a ninth-grade inner-city physics class participated in such a project, in which they built remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROV's) over the course of one month. Students (n=23) in a comparison classroom learned the same content using the Active Physics curriculum during the same time frame. Mixed methods were used to study the ROV classroom. Students in both classes were given pre- and post-physics content tests. Qualitative data collected during the project included field notes, video, and teacher interviews. Macro-level data analysis was done, which informed further micro-analysis. Macro-analysis revealed significantly higher learning outcomes for the ROV class than for the non-ROV class. Within the ROV class, girls, and in particular, girls in female-majority groups had increased learning outcomes and high levels of interest and engagement with the project, while girls in mixed-sex and male-majority groups did not. Qualitative macro-analysis revealed that in all of the female-majority groups, females took leadership roles within the groups, while in all of the non female-majority groups, males took leadership roles. The only groups in which girls completely disengaged from the project were mixed-sex or male majority groups. Case studies and cross case analysis suggested that girls foregrounded group process over product, and used the level of group unity as a metric of the groups' success. Groups led by girls were more cooperative and exhibited distributed leadership and participation. These findings were interpreted through lenses of expectation states theory and social

  3. Efficacy of Interactive Whiteboard on Psychomotor Skills Achievement of Students in Isometric and Orthographic Projection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Isiaka A.; Balogun, Sherifat A.; Alfa, Ahmadu S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses importance of technology education and evidences of declining performance of junior secondary school students in basic technology subject. Potentials on interactive whiteboard (IWB) as one of the new technologies to meet the challenges of the 21st century are also discussed. The efficacy of IWB for teaching Isometric and…

  4. Collaborative Interactivity and Integrated Thinking in Brazilian Business Schools Using Cognitive Flexibility Hypertexts: The Panteon Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Marcos; Koehler, Matthew J.; Spiro, Rand J.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we discuss how the Harvard Method of case study, Interactive Communication Technologies, and Cognitive Flexibility Theory may contribute to case-based learning about business decision-making. In particular, we are interested in designing learning environments that foster critical thinking, creativity, and reasoning that entertains…

  5. The Yugtarvik Museum Project: Using Interactive Multimedia for Cross-Cultural Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sponder, Barry; Schall, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Teachers and students at the University of Alaska-Fairbanks developed an interactive Macintosh-videodisc program that features the exhibits of the Yugtarvik Yup'ik Eskimo Museum in Bethel, Alaska. The exhibits teach people about many aspects of traditional Alaska Native culture. The videodisc program carries both Yup'ik and English audiotracks,…

  6. Facing the Challenge of New Technologies: Interactive Video and the AUTOTUTOR Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David; Davis, Eugene

    Interactive video allows the learner controlled access to data stored on videodisc or videotape and in the computer, by means of the keyboard. The technology has excellent graphic display capabilities and allows immediate access to any video frame. However, it is not yet possible to record directly onto the videodisc, there is no generally…

  7. A Project-Based Learning Setting to Human-Computer Interaction for Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geyer, Cornelia; Geisler, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of fundamentals of human-computer interaction resp. usability engineering is getting more and more important in technical domains. However this interdisciplinary field of work and corresponding degree programs are not broadly known. Therefore at the Hochschule Ruhr West, University of Applied Sciences, a program was developed to give…

  8. Health Education through Interactive Radio: A Child-to-Child Project in Bolivia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryer, Michelle L.

    1991-01-01

    Because older children in developing countries often assume responsibility for the care of their younger siblings, health education programs are aimed to these older children. An interactive radio health curriculum was developed in Bolivia that includes lessons on personal hygiene, rehydration, home sanitation, and nutrition. (JOW)

  9. How Do Parents of Children with Communication Difficulties Experience Video Interaction Guidance? A Practitioner Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Amelia Fay

    2016-01-01

    This practitioner research article sought to provide an interpretation of the parental experience of video interaction guidance (VIG). Two mothers and one grandmother participated in one cycle of VIG and one interview about their experiences. Transcripts were analysed using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Findings indicated that…

  10. Michigan-Ohio Regional Educational Laboratory's Computerization of Interaction Analysis Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smidchens, Uldis; Roth, Rod

    A computerized system is described which assists in collecting and processing interaction analysis data. This type of data can be a valuable source of feedback in such situations as a teachers' inservice training program. In this approach, observed behaviors are classified into one or more of 10 different categories, and a digit is assigned to…

  11. Experimental and theoretical determination of sea-state bias in radar altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    The major unknown error in radar altimetry is due to waves on the sea surface which cause the mean radar-reflecting surface to be displaced from mean sea level. This is the electromagnetic bias. The primary motivation for the project was to understand the causes of the bias so that the error it produces in radar altimetry could be calculated and removed from altimeter measurements made from space by the Topex/Poseidon altimetric satellite. The goals of the project were: (1) observe radar scatter at vertical incidence using a simple radar on a platform for a wide variety of environmental conditions at the same time wind and wave conditions were measured; (2) calculate electromagnetic bias from the radar observations; (3) investigate the limitations of the present theory describing radar scatter at vertical incidence; (4) compare measured electromagnetic bias with bias calculated from theory using measurements of wind and waves made at the time of the radar measurements; and (5) if possible, extend the theory so bias can be calculated for a wider range of environmental conditions.

  12. Adaptive Radar Data Quality Control and Ensemble-Based Assimilation for Analyzing and Forecasting High-Impact Weather

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    Forecasting High-Impact Weather 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER N000141010778 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) QinXu 5d. PROJECT...Doppler wind information from WSR-88D and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) but also take full advantage of rapid and flexible agile-beam scans...from the phased array radar (PAR) at NWRT. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Weather Radar, Data Ouality Control, Assimilation. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a

  13. UAVSAR: Airborne L-band Radar for Repeat Pass Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moes, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The primary objectives of the UAVSAR Project were to: a) develop a miniaturized polarimetric L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for use on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or piloted vehicle. b) develop the associated processing algorithms for repeat-pass differential interferometric measurements using a single antenna. c) conduct measurements of geophysical interest, particularly changes of rapidly deforming surfaces such as volcanoes or earthquakes. Two complete systems were developed. Operational Science Missions began on February 18, 2009 ... concurrent development and testing of the radar system continues.

  14. The impact of snow depth, snow density and ice density on sea ice thickness retrieval from satellite radar altimetry: results from the ESA-CCI Sea Ice ECV Project Round Robin Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, S.; Khvorostovsky, K.; Skourup, H.; Rinne, E.; Parsakhoo, Z. S.; Djepa, V.; Wadhams, P.; Sandven, S.

    2015-01-01

    We assess different methods and input parameters, namely snow depth, snow density and ice density, used in freeboard-to-thickness conversion of Arctic sea ice. This conversion is an important part of sea ice thickness retrieval from spaceborne altimetry. A data base is created comprising sea ice freeboard derived from satellite radar altimetry between 1993 and 2012 and co-locate observations of total (sea ice + snow) and sea ice freeboard from the Operation Ice Bridge (OIB) and CryoSat Validation Experiment (CryoVEx) airborne campaigns, of sea ice draft from moored and submarine upward looking sonar (ULS), and of snow depth from OIB campaigns, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and the Warren climatology (Warren et al., 1999). We compare the different data sets in spatiotemporal scales where satellite radar altimetry yields meaningful results. An inter-comparison of the snow depth data sets emphasizes the limited usefulness of Warren climatology snow depth for freeboard-to-thickness conversion under current Arctic Ocean conditions reported in other studies. We test different freeboard-to-thickness and freeboard-to-draft conversion approaches. The mean observed ULS sea ice draft agrees with the mean sea ice draft derived from radar altimetry within the uncertainty bounds of the data sets involved. However, none of the approaches are able to reproduce the seasonal cycle in sea ice draft observed by moored ULS. A sensitivity analysis of the freeboard-to-thickness conversion suggests that sea ice density is as important as snow depth.

  15. Capabilities and limitations of the Jicamarca radar as an MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, R. F.; Farley, D. T.

    1983-01-01

    The Jicamarca radar (Long. 76.52W, Lat. 11.56S), located at 20 km from Lima at approximately 500 meters over sea level, is surrounded by mountains which provide a good shield from man-made interference. The radio horizon goes from a few hundred meters, across the dry valley where it is located, to 15 km, along the valley in the direction of the continental divide. This limits the clutter to 15 km, except for one high peak at 21 km. It is the most equatorial of all existing MST radars. Its proximity to the Andes, makes its location unique for the study of lee waves and orographic-induced turbulence. Vertical as well as horizontal projections of MST velocities are obtained by simultaneously pointing with different sections of the antenna into three or four different directions. The transmitters, receivers, and systems for data acquisition, processing, and control are included.

  16. A multidisciplinary project to address the onset of rifting and the interaction between deformation and inherited fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiberi, Christel; Gautier, Stéphanie; Albaric, Julie; Ebinger, Cindy; Déverchère, Jacques; Wambura, Richard Ferdinand; Muzuka, Alfred

    2016-04-01

    Onset of continental rifting and the role of the different factors involved in the deformation when breakup occurs is still a pending question. We started a new project in 2013 in North Tanzania, near Natron and Manyara areas to tackle these questions. Besides, these two regions present clearly opposite seismological and magmatic behaviours: near Natron the seismicity is well located within the upper crust and linked to present day magmatism (Lengai), whereas Manyara area is characterized by a deep seismicity and no evidence of present magmatic activity at the surface. This project gathers different approaches in geophysics, geochemistry, petrophysics,… to enhance our understanding of an active region where both tectonic and magmatic processes clearly interact. We present here the preliminary results from classic seismology, gravity and magnetotelluric studies we lead from 2013 to 2014 in this region. We take advantage of the distribution of our networks (both in 3D and 2D profiles) to investigate different scales and to better image the crustal and lithospheric structures beneath Natron and Manyara regions. Moreover, the combination of those geophysical technics with geochemistry should contribute to a more constrained understanding of the differences between Natron and Manyara areas. This integrated study will bring new insight on the interactions between magmatic and tectonic processes in this rifting area.

  17. A time splitting projection scheme for compressible two-phase flows. Application to the interaction of bubbles with ultrasound waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Grégory; Tanguy, Sébastien; Béra, Jean-Christophe; Gilles, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    This paper is focused on the numerical simulation of the interaction of an ultrasound wave with a bubble. Our interest is to develop a fully compressible solver in the two phases and to account for surface tension effects. As the volume oscillation of the bubble occurs in a low Mach number regime, a specific care must be paid to the effectiveness of the numerical method which is chosen to solve the compressible Euler equations. Three different numerical solvers, an explicit HLLC (Harten-Lax-van Leer-Contact) solver [48], a preconditioning explicit HLLC solver [14] and the compressible projection method [21,53,55], are described and assessed with a one dimensional spherical benchmark. From this preliminary test, we can conclude that the compressible projection method outclasses the other two, whether the spatial accuracy or the time step stability are considered. Multidimensional numerical simulations are next performed. As a basic implementation of the surface tension leads to strong spurious currents and numerical instabilities, a specific velocity/pressure time splitting is proposed to overcome this issue. Numerical evidences of the efficiency of this new numerical scheme are provided, since both the accuracy and the stability of the overall algorithm are enhanced if this new time splitting is used. Finally, the numerical simulation of the interaction of a moving and deformable bubble with a plane wave is presented in order to bring out the ability of the new method in a more complex situation.

  18. Fermion sign problem in imaginary-time projection continuum quantum Monte Carlo with local interaction.

    PubMed

    Calcavecchia, Francesco; Holzmann, Markus

    2016-04-01

    We use the shadow wave function formalism as a convenient model to study the fermion sign problem affecting all projector quantum Monte Carlo methods in continuum space. We demonstrate that the efficiency of imaginary-time projection algorithms decays exponentially with increasing number of particles and/or imaginary-time propagation. Moreover, we derive an analytical expression that connects the localization of the system with the magnitude of the sign problem, illustrating this behavior through numerical results. Finally, we discuss the computational complexity of the fermion sign problem and methods for alleviating its severity.

  19. The Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox for Sentinel 3 Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Bruno; Rosmorduc, Vinca; Niemeijer, Sander; Bronner, Emilie; Dinardo, Salvatore; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2013-04-01

    The Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox (BRAT) is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2006 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales). The latest version of the software, 3.1, was released on March 2012. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats, being the most used way, the Graphical User Interface (BratGui). This GUI is a front-end for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with Matlab/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the data-formatting hassle. The BratDisplay (graphic visualizer) can be launched from BratGui, or used as a stand-alone tool to visualize netCDF files - it is distributed with another ESA toolbox (GUT) as the visualizer. The most frequent uses of BRAT are teaching remote sensing, altimetry data reading (all missions from ERS-1 to Saral and soon Sentinel-3), quick data visualization/export and simple computation on the data fields. BRAT can be used for importing data and having a quick look at his contents, with several different types of plotting available. One can also use it to translate the data into other formats such as netCDF, ASCII text files, KML (Google Earth) and raster images (JPEG, PNG, etc.). Several kinds of computations can be done within BratGui involving combinations of data fields that the user can save for posterior reuse or using the already embedded formulas that include the standard oceanographic altimetry formulas (MSS, -SSH, MSLA, editing of spurious data, etc.). The documentation collection includes the standard user manual explaining all the ways to interact with the set of software tools but the most important item is the Radar Altimeter Tutorial, that contains a strong introduction to

  20. Evaluation of smartphone-based interaction techniques in a CAVE in the context of immersive digital project review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Paul; Kemeny, Andras; Colombet, Florent; Merienne, Frédéric; Chardonnet, Jean-Rémy; Thouvenin, Indira Mouttapa

    2014-02-01

    Immersive digital project reviews consist in using virtual reality (VR) as a tool for discussion between various stakeholders of a project. In the automotive industry, the digital car prototype model is the common thread that binds them. It is used during immersive digital project reviews between designers, engineers, ergonomists, etc. The digital mockup is also used to assess future car architecture, habitability or perceived quality requirements with the aim to reduce using physical mockups for optimized cost, delay and quality efficiency. Among the difficulties identified by the users, handling the mockup is a major one. Inspired by current uses of nomad devices (multi-touch gestures, IPhone UI look'n'feel and AR applications), we designed a navigation technique taking advantage of these popular input devices: Space scrolling allows moving around the mockup. In this paper, we present the results of a study we conducted on the usability and acceptability of the proposed smartphone-based interaction metaphor compared to traditional technique and we provide indications of the most efficient choices for different use-cases accordingly. It was carried out in a traditional 4-sided CAVE and its purpose is to assess a chosen set of interaction techniques to be implemented in Renault's new 5-sides 4K x 4K wall high performance CAVE. The proposed new metaphor using nomad devices is well accepted by novice VR users and future implementation should allow an efficient industrial use. Their use is an easy and user friendly alternative of the existing traditional control devices such as a joystick.

  1. Cloudnet Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hogan, Robin

    2008-01-15

    Cloudnet is a research project supported by the European Commission. This project aims to use data obtained quasi-continuously for the development and implementation of cloud remote sensing synergy algorithms. The use of active instruments (lidar and radar) results in detailed vertical profiles of important cloud parameters which cannot be derived from current satellite sensing techniques. A network of three already existing cloud remote sensing stations (CRS-stations) will be operated for a two year period, activities will be co-ordinated, data formats harmonised and analysis of the data performed to evaluate the representation of clouds in four major european weather forecast models.

  2. A computer graphics pilot project - Spacecraft mission support with an interactive graphics workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, John; Ehrner, Marie-Jacqueline; Reese, Jodi; Chang, Kan; Tseng, Irene

    1986-01-01

    The NASA Computer Graphics Pilot Project was undertaken to enhance the quality control, productivity and efficiency of mission support operations at the Goddard Operations Support Computing Facility. The Project evolved into a set of demonstration programs for graphics intensive simulated control room operations, particularly in connection with the complex space missions that began in the 1980s. Complex mission mean more data. Graphic displays are a means to reduce the probabilities of operator errors. Workstations were selected with 1024 x 768 pixel color displays controlled by a custom VLSI chip coupled to an MC68010 chip running UNIX within a shell that permits operations through the medium of mouse-accessed pulldown window menus. The distributed workstations run off a host NAS 8040 computer. Applications of the system for tracking spacecraft orbits and monitoring Shuttle payload handling illustrate the system capabilities, noting the built-in capabilities of shifting the point of view and rotating and zooming in on three-dimensional views of spacecraft.

  3. The Legacy Project Intervention to Enhance Meaningful Family Interactions: Case Examples

    PubMed Central

    ALLEN, REBECCA S.

    2009-01-01

    Manualized reminiscence and life review therapies are supported as an evidence-based, effective treatment for depression among older adults, but this therapeutic approach is usually individually administered and has rarely been applied in palliative care settings. We combined mutual reminiscence and life review with engagement in meaningful activity and examined the efficacy of this family-based dyadic intervention to decrease caregiving stress and increase family communication. Seventeen individuals living with chronic, life-limiting illnesses in the community and their family caregivers received three home visits with a master’s-level interventionist. During these sessions and through structured homework activities, the interventionist actively worked with the family to construct a personal Legacy Project, usually a scrapbook with photos, a cookbook, or audiotaped stories that celebrated the life of the ill individual. All participants in the intervention group initiated a Legacy Project and reported that Legacy activities improved family communication. Participation in Legacy creation also resulted in increased positive emotional experiences in patient and caregiver groups. These results are illustrated through careful examination of three case studies. PMID:20046967

  4. The Legacy Project Intervention to Enhance Meaningful Family Interactions: Case Examples.

    PubMed

    Allen, Rebecca S

    2009-01-01

    Manualized reminiscence and life review therapies are supported as an evidence-based, effective treatment for depression among older adults, but this therapeutic approach is usually individually administered and has rarely been applied in palliative care settings. We combined mutual reminiscence and life review with engagement in meaningful activity and examined the efficacy of this family-based dyadic intervention to decrease caregiving stress and increase family communication. Seventeen individuals living with chronic, life-limiting illnesses in the community and their family caregivers received three home visits with a master's-level interventionist. During these sessions and through structured homework activities, the interventionist actively worked with the family to construct a personal Legacy Project, usually a scrapbook with photos, a cookbook, or audiotaped stories that celebrated the life of the ill individual. All participants in the intervention group initiated a Legacy Project and reported that Legacy activities improved family communication. Participation in Legacy creation also resulted in increased positive emotional experiences in patient and caregiver groups. These results are illustrated through careful examination of three case studies.

  5. Quantifying Microbe-Mineral Interactions Leading to Remotely Detectable Induced Polarization Signals (Final Project Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Moysey, Stephen; Dean, Delphine; Dimitrios, Ntarlagiannis

    2013-11-13

    The objective of this project was to investigate controls on induced polarization responses in porous media. The approach taken in the project was to compare electrical measurements made on mineral surfaces with atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques to observations made at the column-scale using traditional spectral induced polarization measurements. In the project we evaluated a number of techniques for investigating the surface properties of materials, including the development of a new AFM measurement protocol that utilizes an external electric field to induce grain-scale polarizations that can be probed using a charged AFM tip. The experiments we performed focused on idealized systems (i.e., glass beads and silica gel) where we could obtain the high degree of control needed to understand how changes in the pore environment, which are determined by biogeochemical controls in the subsurface, affect mechanisms contributing to complex electrical conductivity, i.e., conduction and polarization, responses. The studies we performed can be classified into those affecting the chemical versus physical properties of the grain surface and pore space. Chemical alterations of the surface focused on evaluating how changes in pore fluid pH and ionic composition control surface conduction. These were performed as column flow through experiments where the pore fluid was exchanged in a column of silica gel. Given that silica gel has a high surface area due to internal grain porosity, high-quality data could be obtained where the chemical influences on the surface are clearly apparent and qualitatively consistent with theories of grain (i.e., Stern layer) polarization controlled by electrostatic surface sorption processes (i.e., triple layer theory). Quantitative fitting of the results by existing process-based polarization models (e.g., Leroy et al., 2008) has been less successful, however, due to what we have attributed to differences between existing models developed for

  6. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273... MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar... with radar must comply with the following standards (all incorporated by reference, see § 80.7):...

  7. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273... MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar... with radar must comply with the following standards (all incorporated by reference, see § 80.7):...

  8. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273... MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar... with radar must comply with the following standards (all incorporated by reference, see § 80.7):...

  9. RADAR OBSERVATION CONDITIONS OF POOR VISIBILITY,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Ship navigational radar is an effective means for revealing above-water objects in conditions of poor visibility. A radar image of the surrounding...radar observation and with the competent operation of the set, radar is a reliable means of detection of encountered vessels in conditions of poor

  10. Radar, Insect Population Ecology, and Pest Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, C. R. (Editor); Wolf, W. (Editor); Klassen, W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Discussions included: (1) the potential role of radar in insect ecology studies and pest management; (2) the potential role of radar in correlating atmospheric phenomena with insect movement; (3) the present and future radar systems; (4) program objectives required to adapt radar to insect ecology studies and pest management; and (5) the specific action items to achieve the objectives.

  11. Evaluation of meteorological airborne Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, P. H.; Mueller, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper will discuss the capabilities of airborne Doppler radar for atmospheric sciences research. The evaluation is based on airborne and ground based Doppler radar observations of convective storms. The capability of airborne Doppler radar to measure horizontal and vertical air motions is evaluated. Airborne Doppler radar is shown to be a viable tool for atmospheric sciences research.

  12. ASSIMILATION OF DOPPLER RADAR DATA INTO NUMERICAL WEATHER MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Chiswell, S.; Buckley, R.

    2009-01-15

    During the year 2008, the United States National Weather Service (NWS) completed an eight fold increase in sampling capability for weather radars to 250 m resolution. This increase is expected to improve warning lead times by detecting small scale features sooner with increased reliability; however, current NWS operational model domains utilize grid spacing an order of magnitude larger than the radar data resolution, and therefore the added resolution of radar data is not fully exploited. The assimilation of radar reflectivity and velocity data into high resolution numerical weather model forecasts where grid spacing is comparable to the radar data resolution was investigated under a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) 'quick hit' grant to determine the impact of improved data resolution on model predictions with specific initial proof of concept application to daily Savannah River Site operations and emergency response. Development of software to process NWS radar reflectivity and radial velocity data was undertaken for assimilation of observations into numerical models. Data values within the radar data volume undergo automated quality control (QC) analysis routines developed in support of this project to eliminate empty/missing data points, decrease anomalous propagation values, and determine error thresholds by utilizing the calculated variances among data values. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) three dimensional variational data assimilation package (WRF-3DVAR) was used to incorporate the QC'ed radar data into input and boundary conditions. The lack of observational data in the vicinity of SRS available to NWS operational models signifies an important data void where radar observations can provide significant input. These observations greatly enhance the knowledge of storm structures and the environmental conditions which influence their development. As the increase in computational power and availability has made higher

  13. Large phased-array radars

    SciTech Connect

    Brookner, D.E.

    1988-12-15

    Large phased-array radars can play a very important part in arms control. They can be used to determine the number of RVs being deployed, the type of targeting of the RVs (the same or different targets), the shape of the deployed objects, and possibly the weight and yields of the deployed RVs. They can provide this information at night as well as during the day and during rain and cloud covered conditions. The radar can be on the ground, on a ship, in an airplane, or space-borne. Airborne and space-borne radars can provide high resolution map images of the ground for reconnaissance, of anti-ballistic missile (ABM) ground radar installations, missile launch sites, and tactical targets such as trucks and tanks. The large ground based radars can have microwave carrier frequencies or be at HF (high frequency). For a ground-based HF radar the signal is reflected off the ionosphere so as to provide over-the-horizon (OTH) viewing of targets. OTH radars can potentially be used to monitor stealth targets and missile traffic.

  14. Wideband Waveform Design principles for Solid-state Weather Radars

    SciTech Connect

    Bharadwaj, Nitin; Chandrasekar, V.

    2012-01-01

    The use of solid-state transmitter is becoming a key part of the strategy to realize a network of low cost electronically steered radars. However, solid-state transmitters have low peak powers and this necessitates the use of pulse compression waveforms. In this paper a frequency diversity wideband waveforms design is proposed to mitigate low sensitivity of solid-state transmitters. In addition, the waveforms mitigate the range eclipsing problem associated with long pulse compression. An analysis of the performance of pulse compression using mismatched compression filters designed to minimize side lobe levels is presented. The impact of range side lobe level on the retrieval of Doppler moments are presented. Realistic simulations are performed based on CSU-CHILL radar data and Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) Integrated Project I (IP1) radar data.

  15. Laser radar observation of the polar stratospheric aerosol layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwasaka, Y.; Hirasawa, T.; Fukunishi, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Fujii, R.; Miyaoka, H.

    1985-01-01

    The polar stratosphere has been speculated to be an active sink region of various stratospheric materials; ozone, water vapor, NOX, aerosol particles and so on, but this process is not theoretically and/or observationally made clear. The observation of the polar stratospheric aerosol layer using laser radar certainly contributes to the study of the global transport of these stratospheric minor constituents. In addition to this, from the viewpoint of aerosol science, there may be many interesting phenomena which cannot be found in the stratosphere at mid and low latitudes; the effect of precipitation of high energy molecules and atoms, of very cold winter stratosphere, of very cold mesopause in summer. Laser radar observation is one of the main activities of the Antarctic Middle Atmosphere (AMA) project at Syowa Station (69.00 deg S, 39.35 deg E), Antarctica since May 1983. Laser radar measurement at Syowa Station is discussed in detail.

  16. Runoff simulation using radar and rain gauge data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. Y.; Mao, J. T.; Zhu, Y. J.; Li, J. R.

    2003-03-01

    The conceptual rainfall-runoff model TOPMODEL is used to simulate runoffs of the Meishan and Nianyushan catchments during the summers of 1998 and 1999 in the GAME/HUBEX (GEWEX Asia Monsoon Experiment /HUAIHE River Basin Experiment) project. The rainfall distributions are estimated by weather radar and rain gauge networks according to different methods. Observed and simulated runoffs are compared and analyzed for both catchments. Results show that (1) the runoff of the catchment is best simulated by radar data combined with rain gauge network data from inside the catchment, and (2) the rainfall estimated by radar adjusted by a few rain gauges outside the catchment can be used to simulate runoff equally as well as using the dense rain gauge network alone.

  17. Output tube emission characteristics of operational radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheson, R. J.; Smilley, J. D.; Falcon, G. D.; Lawrence, V. S.

    1982-01-01

    Measurement of the emission spectra and other characteristics of many radars operating in the government frequency bands is described. The emission spectra of 19 different types of radars, selected to show the different emission spectrum characteristics produced by a variety of radar output tube technologies are presented. The radars include examples of ground based search, airport surveillance, weather, and height finding radars operating in L band, S band, or C band. The RSMS, contained within a mobile van, is described, along with the measurement techniques used for obtaining radar emission characteristics. The emission limits imposed by the Radar Spectrum Engineering Criteria (RSEC) are displayed with each emission spectrum.

  18. The Clementine bistatic radar experiment.

    PubMed

    Nozette, S; Lichtenberg, C L; Spudis, P; Bonner, R; Ort, W; Malaret, E; Robinson, M; Shoemaker, E M

    1996-11-29

    During the Clementine 1 mission, a bistatic radar experiment measured the magnitude and polarization of the radar echo versus bistatic angle, beta, for selected lunar areas. Observations of the lunar south pole yield a same-sense polarization enhancement around beta = 0. Analysis shows that the observed enhancement is localized to the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. Radar observations of periodically solar-illuminated lunar surfaces, including the north pole, yielded no such enhancement. A probable explanation for these differences is the presence of low-loss volume scatterers, such as water ice, in the permanently shadowed region at the south pole.

  19. Gyroklystron-Powered WARLOC Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danly, B. G.; Cheung, W. J.; Gregers-Hansen, V.; Linde, G.; Ngo, M.

    2003-12-01

    A high-power, coherent, W-band (94 GHz) millimeter-wave radar has been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. This radar, named WARLOC, employs a 100 kW peak power, 10 kW average power gyro-klystron as the final power amplifier, an overmoded transmission line system, and a quasi-optical duplexer, together with a high gain antenna, four-channel receiver, and state-of-the-art signal processing. The gyro-amplifiers and the implementation in the WARLOC radar will be described.

  20. The Clementine Bistatic Radar Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozette, S.; Lichtenberg, C. L.; Spudis, P.; Bonner, R.; Ort, W.; Malaret, E.; Robinson, M.; Shoemaker, E. M.

    1996-01-01

    During the Clementine 1 mission, a bistatic radar experiment measured the magnitude and polarization of the radar echo versus bistatic angle, beta, for selected lunar areas. Observations of the lunar south pole yield a same-sense polarization enhancement around beta = 0. Analysis shows that the observed enhancement is localized to the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. Radar observations of periodically solar-illuminated lunar surfaces, including the north pole, yielded no such enhancement. A probable explanation for these differences is the presence of low-loss volume scatterers, such as water ice, in the permanently shadowed region at the south pole.

  1. The Clementine bistatic radar experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nozette, S.; Lichtenberg, C.L.; Spudis, P.; Bonner, R.; Ort, W.; Malaret, E.; Robinson, M.; Shoemaker, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    During the Clementine 1 mission, a bistatic radar experiment measured the magnitude and polarization of the radar echo versus bistatic angle, ??, for selected lunar areas. Observations of the lunar south pole yield a same- sense polarization enhancement around ?? = 0. Analysis shows that the observed enhancement is localized to the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. Radar observations of periodically solar-illuminated lunar surfaces, including the north pole, yielded no such enhancement. A probable explanation for these differences is the presence of low-loss volume scatterers, such as water ice, in the permanently shadowed region at the south pole.

  2. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    The dual polarization CW radar system which permits simultaneous reception in the same rotational sense of circular polarization as transmitted (i.e., the "SC" sense) and in the opposite ("OC") sense, was used to observe five previously unobserved asteroids: 2 Pallas, 8 Flora, 22 Kalliope, 132 Aethra, and 471 Papagena. Echoes from Pallas and Flora were easily detected in the OC sense on each of several nights. Weighted mean echo power spectra also show marginally significant responses in the SC sense. An approximately 4.5 standard deviation signal was obtained for Aethra. The Doppler shift of the peak is about 10 Hz higher than that predicted from the a priori trial ephemeris. Calculations are performed to determine whether this frequency offset can be reconciled dynamically with optical positions reported for Aethra.

  3. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1981-07-01

    Radar investigations were conducted of selected minor planets, including: (1) observations during 1981-82 of 10 potential targets (2 Pallas, 8 Flora, 12 Victoria, 15 Eunomia, 19 Fortuna, 22 Kalliope, 132 Aethra, 219 Thusnelda, 433 Eros, and 2100 Ra-Shalom); and (2) continued analyses of observational data obtained during 1980-81 for 10 other asteroids (4 Vesta, 7 Iris, 16 Psyche, 75 Eurydike, 97 Klotho, 216 Kleopatra, 1685 Toro, 1862 Apollo, 1865 Cerberus, and 1915 Quetzalcoatl). Scientific objectives include estimation of echo strength, polarization, spectral shape, spectral bandwidth, and Doppler shift. These measurements: (1) yield estimates of target size, shape, and spin vector; (2) place constraints on topography, morphology, and composition of the planetary surface; (3) yield refined estimates of target orbital parameters; (4) reveal the presence of asteroidal satellites.

  4. Highlights of Project Accomplishments (2000-2004): Redshift Dependence of the Interaction-Activity Connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borne, Kirk D.

    2004-01-01

    We completed this project by developing the new galaxy-galaxy collision simulation code that we originally proposed. We included star formation heuristically, along with gas recycling and energetic feedback into the interstellar medium of the galaxies. We ran several test simulations. And we finally validated the code by running models to emulate the double-ring galaxy AM 0644-741. Most of the exotic and unique features of this collisional ring galaxy were matched by our models, thereby validating our algorithm, which may now be used by us and by the community for additional dynamic studies of galaxies. A paper has been submitted to the Astrophysical Journal describing our algorithm and the results of the AM 0644-741 modeling.

  5. A fully photonics-based coherent radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghelfi, Paolo; Laghezza, Francesco; Scotti, Filippo; Serafino, Giovanni; Capria, Amerigo; Pinna, Sergio; Onori, Daniel; Porzi, Claudio; Scaffardi, Mirco; Malacarne, Antonio; Vercesi, Valeria; Lazzeri, Emma; Berizzi, Fabrizio; Bogoni, Antonella

    2014-03-01

    The next generation of radar (radio detection and ranging) systems needs to be based on software-defined radio to adapt to variable environments, with higher carrier frequencies for smaller antennas and broadened bandwidth for increased resolution. Today's digital microwave components (synthesizers and analogue-to-digital converters) suffer from limited bandwidth with high noise at increasing frequencies, so that fully digital radar systems can work up to only a few gigahertz, and noisy analogue up- and downconversions are necessary for higher frequencies. In contrast, photonics provide high precision and ultrawide bandwidth, allowing both the flexible generation of extremely stable radio-frequency signals with arbitrary waveforms up to millimetre waves, and the detection of such signals and their precise direct digitization without downconversion. Until now, the photonics-based generation and detection of radio-frequency signals have been studied separately and have not been tested in a radar system. Here we present the development and the field trial results of a fully photonics-based coherent radar demonstrator carried out within the project PHODIR. The proposed architecture exploits a single pulsed laser for generating tunable radar signals and receiving their echoes, avoiding radio-frequency up- and downconversion and guaranteeing both the software-defined approach and high resolution. Its performance exceeds state-of-the-art electronics at carrier frequencies above two gigahertz, and the detection of non-cooperating aeroplanes confirms the effectiveness and expected precision of the system.

  6. A fully photonics-based coherent radar system.

    PubMed

    Ghelfi, Paolo; Laghezza, Francesco; Scotti, Filippo; Serafino, Giovanni; Capria, Amerigo; Pinna, Sergio; Onori, Daniel; Porzi, Claudio; Scaffardi, Mirco; Malacarne, Antonio; Vercesi, Valeria; Lazzeri, Emma; Berizzi, Fabrizio; Bogoni, Antonella

    2014-03-20

    The next generation of radar (radio detection and ranging) systems needs to be based on software-defined radio to adapt to variable environments, with higher carrier frequencies for smaller antennas and broadened bandwidth for increased resolution. Today's digital microwave components (synthesizers and analogue-to-digital converters) suffer from limited bandwidth with high noise at increasing frequencies, so that fully digital radar systems can work up to only a few gigahertz, and noisy analogue up- and downconversions are necessary for higher frequencies. In contrast, photonics provide high precision and ultrawide bandwidth, allowing both the flexible generation of extremely stable radio-frequency signals with arbitrary waveforms up to millimetre waves, and the detection of such signals and their precise direct digitization without downconversion. Until now, the photonics-based generation and detection of radio-frequency signals have been studied separately and have not been tested in a radar system. Here we present the development and the field trial results of a fully photonics-based coherent radar demonstrator carried out within the project PHODIR. The proposed architecture exploits a single pulsed laser for generating tunable radar signals and receiving their echoes, avoiding radio-frequency up- and downconversion and guaranteeing both the software-defined approach and high resolution. Its performance exceeds state-of-the-art electronics at carrier frequencies above two gigahertz, and the detection of non-cooperating aeroplanes confirms the effectiveness and expected precision of the system.

  7. Studies on Radar and Non-radar Sensor Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-15

    selection based on specific applications. References [1] Q . Liang, "Waveform Design and Diversity in Radar Sensor Networks: Theoretical Analysis and...Application to Automatic Target Recognition," submitted to IEEE Trans on Aerospace and Electronic Systems. [2] Q . Liang, "Waveform Design and Diversity in...Sensor Networks, June 2006, New York. [3] Q . Liang, "Radar Sensor Networks: Algorithms for Waveform Design and Diversity with Appli- cation to ATR with

  8. Historical aspects of radar atmospheric dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, Susumu

    1989-01-01

    A review of the history of radar techniques which have been applied to atmospheric observation is given. The author starts with ionosphere observation with the ionosonde, symbolizing as it does the earliest history of radar observation, and proceeds to later developments in radar observation such as the use of partial reflection, meteor, and incoherent scatter radars. Mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) radars are discussed in terms of lower atmosphere observation.

  9. Ocean circulation modeling by use of radar altimeter data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olbers, Dirk; Alpers, W.; Hasselmann, K.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Kase, R.; Krauss, W.; Siedler, G.; Willebrand, J.; Zahel, W.

    1991-01-01

    The project will investigate the use of radar altimetry (RA) data in the determination of the ocean circulation models. RA data will be used to verify prognostic experiments of the steady state and seasonal cycle of large-scale circulation models and the statistical steady state of eddy-resolving models. The data will serve as initial and update conditions in data assimilation experiments and as constraints in inverse calculations. The aim of the project is a better understanding of ocean physics, the determination and mapping of ocean currents, and a contribution to the establishment of ocean circulation models for climate studies. The goal of the project is to use satellite radar altimetry data for improving our knowledge of ocean circulation both in a descriptive sense and through the physics that govern the circulation state. The basic tool is a series of ocean circulation models. Depending on the model, different techniques will be applied to incorporate the RA data.

  10. Fly eye radar or micro-radar sensor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, Pavlo; Asmolova, Olga

    2014-05-01

    To compensate for its eye's inability to point its eye at a target, the fly's eye consists of multiple angularly spaced sensors giving the fly the wide-area visual coverage it needs to detect and avoid the threats around him. Based on a similar concept a revolutionary new micro-radar sensor technology is proposed for detecting and tracking ground and/or airborne low profile low altitude targets in harsh urban environments. Distributed along a border or around a protected object (military facility and buildings, camp, stadium) small size, low power unattended radar sensors can be used for target detection and tracking, threat warning, pre-shot sniper protection and provides effective support for homeland security. In addition it can provide 3D recognition and targets classification due to its use of five orders more pulses than any scanning radar to each space point, by using few points of view, diversity signals and intelligent processing. The application of an array of directional antennas eliminates the need for a mechanical scanning antenna or phase processor. It radically decreases radar size and increases bearing accuracy several folds. The proposed micro-radar sensors can be easy connected to one or several operators by point-to-point invisible protected communication. The directional antennas have higher gain, can be multi-frequency and connected to a multi-functional network. Fly eye micro-radars are inexpensive, can be expendable and will reduce cost of defense.

  11. Millimeter Wave Radar for detecting the speech signal applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zong-Wen

    1996-12-01

    MilliMeter Wave (MMW) Doppler Radar with grating structures for the applications of detecting speech signals has been discovered in our laboratory. The operating principle of detection the acoustic wave signals based on the Wave Propagation Theory and Wave Equations of The ElectroMagnetic Wave (EMW) and Acoustic Wave (AW) propagating, scattering, reflecting and interacting has been investigated. The experimental and observation results have been provided to verify that MMW CW 40GHz dielectric integrated radar can detect and identify out exactly the existential speech signals in free space from a person speaking. The received sound signal have been reproduced by the DSP and the reproducer.

  12. Interactions between cutaneous and muscle afferent projections to cerebral cortex in man.

    PubMed

    Burke, D; Gandevia, S C; McKeon, B; Skuse, N F

    1982-04-01

    In order to demonstrate interactions between cutaneous and muscle afferent volleys in the ascending somatosensory pathways, different nerves of the lower limb were stimulated together in a conditioning-test paradigm, the changes in the earliest component of the cerebral potential evoked by the test stimulus being taken to indicate such an interaction. It was first confirmed that the cerebral potential evoked by stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve at the ankle is derived from muscle afferents in the mixed nerve and has shorter latencies than the cerebral potential evoked by purely cutaneous volleys in the sural nerve (see Burke et al. 1981). Complete suppression of the cerebral potential evoked by stimulation of muscle or cutaneous afferents was produced by conditioning volleys in a different nerve or in a different fascicle of the same nerve. The major factors determining the degree of suppression were found to be the relative sizes of the conditioning and test volleys and their timing, rather than whether the volleys were of cutaneous or muscular origin. It is concluded that the transmission of cutaneous or muscle afferent volleys to cortex can be profoundly altered in normal subjects by conditioning activity. The possibility that normal background afferent activity can similarly modify afferent transmission has implications for diagnostic studies, particularly when they are performed under non-standard conditions, such as in the operating theatre or intensive care unit. It is also concluded that, although a subject may perceive cutaneous paraesthesiae when the posterior tibial nerve is stimulated at the ankle, there may be no cutaneous component to the evoked cerebral potential.

  13. Ground Penetrating Radar, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer

    John Peterson

    2015-03-06

    This is 500 MHz Ground Penetrating Radar collected along the AB Line in Intensive Site 1 beginning in October 2012 and collected along L2 in Intensive Site 0 beginning in September 2011. Both continue to the present.

  14. NASA Radar Images Asteroid Toutatis

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 64-frame movie of asteroid Toutatis was generated from data by Goldstone's Solar System Radar on Dec. 12 and 13, 2012. In the movie clips, the rotation of the asteroid appears faster than it o...

  15. Advanced Borehole Radar for Hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar is a useful tool for monitoring the hydrogeological environment. We have developed GPR systems which can be applied to these purposes, and we will demonstrate examples borehole radar measurements. In order to have longer radar detection range, frequency lower than100MHz has been normally adopted in borehole radar. Typical subsurface fractures of our interests have a few mm aperture and radar resolution is much poorer than a few cm in this frequency range. We are proposing and demonstrating to use radar polarimetry to solve this problem. We have demonstrated that a full-polarimetry borehole radar can be used for characterization of subsurface fractures. Together with signal processing for antenna characteristic compensation to equalize the signal by a dipole antenna and slot antennas, we could demonstrate that polarimetric borehole radar can estimate the surface roughness of subsurface fractures, We believe the surface roughness is closely related to water permeability through the fractures. We then developed a directional borehole radar, which uses optical field sensor. A dipole antenna in a borehole has omni-directional radiation pattern, and we cannot get azimuthal information about the scatterers. We use multiple dipole antennas set around the borehole axis, and from the phase differences, we can estimate the 3-diemnational orientation of subsurface structures. We are using optical electric field sensor for receiver of borehole radar. This is a passive sensor and connected only with optical fibers and does not require any electric power supply to operate the receiver. It has two major advantages; the first one is that the receiver can be electrically isolated from other parts, and wave coupling to a logging cable is avoided. Then, secondary, it can operate for a long time, because it does not require battery installed inside the system. It makes it possible to set sensors in fixed positions to monitor the change of environmental

  16. Solar Radar Astronomy with LOFAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, P.

    2003-04-01

    A new approach to the study of the Sun's corona and its dynamical processes is possible with radar investigations in the frequency range of about 10-50 MHz. The range of electron densities of the solar corona is such that radio waves at these frequencies can provide diagnostic radar echoes of large scale phenomena such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We expect that the frequency shift imposed on the echo signal by an earthward-moving CME will provide a direct measurement of the velocity, thereby providing a good estimate of the arrival time at Earth. It is known that CMEs are responsible for the largest geomagnetic storms at Earth, which are capable of causing power grid blackouts, satellite electronic upsets, and degradation of radio communications circuits. Thus, having accurate forecasts of potential CME-initiated geomagnetic storms is of practical space weather interest. New high power transmitting arrays are becoming available, along with proposed modifications to existing research facilities, that will allow the use of radio waves to study the solar corona by the radar echo technique. Of particular interest for such solar radar investigations is the bistatic configuration with the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR). The LOFAR facility will have an effective receiving area of about 1 square km at solar radar frequencies. Such large effective area will provide the receiving antenna gain needed for detailed investigations of solar coronal dynamics. Conservative estimates of the signal-to-noise ratio for solar radar echoes as a function of the integration time required to achieve a specified detection level (e.g., ~ 5 dB) indicate that time resolutions of 10s of seconds can be achieved. Thus, we are able to resolve variations in the solar radar cross section on time scales which will provide new information on the plasma dynamical processes associated with the solar corona, such as CMEs. It is the combination of high transmitted power and large effective receiving

  17. The NASA Polarimetric Radar (NPOL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Wolff, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of the NASA NPOL S-band dual-polarimetric radar are presented including its operating characteristics, field configuration, scanning capabilities and calibration approaches. Examples of precipitation science data collections conducted using various scan types, and associated products, are presented for different convective system types and previous field campaign deployments. Finally, the NASA NPOL radar location is depicted in its home base configuration within the greater Wallops Flight Facility precipitation research array supporting NASA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission ground validation.

  18. Radar Imaging and Target Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-09

    Methods in Wave Propagation, Vaxjo, Swe- den. • February 19, 2008, "Radar Imaging", math colloquium, Brigham- Young University. • January 31, 2008...manuscript, namely "Radar detection using sparsely distributed 19 apertures in urban environments", Ling Wang, II- Young Son, Trond Varslot, C. Evren...Coinmun. COM- 20, pp. 774-780, 1972. [24] M. Tomlinson, "New automatic equalizer employing modulo arithmetic," Electron. Lett. 7, pp. 138-139, 1971

  19. Synthetic Aperture Radar Simulation Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    multilook are discussed. A chapter is devoted to elevation and planimetric data bases. In addition, six- teen pictures of SAR images from Hughes Aircraft, as...scans. Figure 5.4-1 is a photograph ot two SAR displays. The tirst display is made up ot six subscans and has a multilook ot one. Note that tading is...dentfi by block number) * Synthetic Aperture Radar ( SAR ) Simulation Study Radar Simulation Data Bases 5/~t. 4th.- Computer Image Generation Display 20

  20. Representing radar QPE and QPF uncertainties using radar ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sempere-Torres, D.; Llort, X.; Roca, J.; Pegram, G.

    2009-09-01

    In the last years, new comprehension of the physics underlying the radar measurements as well as new technological advancements have allowed radar community to propose better algorithms and methodologies and significant advancements have been achieved in improving Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE) and Quantitative Precipitation forecasting (QPF) by radar. Thus the study of the 2D uncertainties field associated to these estimates has become an important subject, specially to enhance the use of radar QPE and QPF in hydrological studies, as well as in providing a reference for satellite precipitations measurements. In this context the use of radar-based rainfall ensembles (i.e. equiprobable rainfall field scenarios generated to be compatible with the observations/forecasts and with the inferred structure of the uncertainties) has been seen as an extremely interesting tool to represent their associated uncertainties. The generation of such radar ensembles requires first the full characterization of the 3D field of associated uncertainties (2D spatial plus temporal), since rainfall estimates show an error structure highly correlated in space and time. A full methodology to deal with this kind of radar-based rainfall ensembles is presented. Given a rainfall event, the 2D uncertainty fields associated to the radar estimates are defined for every time step using a benchmark, or reference field, based on the best available estimate of the rainfall field. This benchmark is built using an advanced non parametric interpolation of a dense raingauge network able to use the spatial structure provided by the radar observations, and is confined to the region in which this combination could be taken as a reference measurement (Velasco-Forero et al. 2008, doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2008.10.004). Then the spatial and temporal structures of these uncertainty fields are characterized and a methodology to generate consistent multiple realisations of them is used to generate the

  1. Hydrologic applications of weather radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Dong-Jun; Habib, Emad; Andrieu, Hervé; Morin, Efrat

    2015-12-01

    By providing high-resolution quantitative precipitation information (QPI), weather radars have revolutionized hydrology in the last two decades. With the aid of GIS technology, radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) have enabled routine high-resolution hydrologic modeling in many parts of the world. Given the ever-increasing need for higher-resolution hydrologic and water resources information for a wide range of applications, one may expect that the use of weather radar will only grow. Despite the tremendous progress, a number of significant scientific, technological and engineering challenges remain to realize its potential. New challenges are also emerging as new areas of applications are discovered, explored and pursued. The purpose of this special issue is to provide the readership with some of the latest advances, lessons learned, experiences gained, and science issues and challenges related to hydrologic applications of weather radar. The special issue features 20 contributions on various topics which reflect the increasing diversity as well as the areas of focus in radar hydrology today. The contributions may be grouped as follows: Radar QPE (Kwon et al.; Hall et al.; Chen and Chandrasekar; Seo and Krajewski; Sandford).

  2. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierinen, Juha; Chau, Jorge L.; Pfeffer, Nico; Clahsen, Matthias; Stober, Gunter

    2016-03-01

    The concept of a coded continuous wave specular meteor radar (SMR) is described. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudorandom phase-modulated waveform, which has several advantages compared to conventional pulsed SMRs. The coding avoids range and Doppler aliasing, which are in some cases problematic with pulsed radars. Continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation at lower peak power than a pulsed system. With continuous coding, the temporal and spectral resolution are not dependent on the transmit waveform and they can be fairly flexibly changed after performing a measurement. The low signal-to-noise ratio before pulse compression, combined with independent pseudorandom transmit waveforms, allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band simultaneously without significantly interfering with each other. Because the same frequency band can be used by multiple transmitters, the same interferometric receiver antennas can be used to receive multiple transmitters at the same time. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large-scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. Such a system would be useful for increasing the number of meteor detections to obtain improved meteor radar data products.

  3. Rice Annotation Project Database (RAP-DB): an integrative and interactive database for rice genomics.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Lee, Sung Shin; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Numa, Hisataka; Kim, Jungsok; Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Wakimoto, Hironobu; Yang, Ching-chia; Iwamoto, Masao; Abe, Takashi; Yamada, Yuko; Muto, Akira; Inokuchi, Hachiro; Ikemura, Toshimichi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Sasaki, Takuji; Itoh, Takeshi

    2013-02-01

    The Rice Annotation Project Database (RAP-DB, http://rapdb.dna.affrc.go.jp/) has been providing a comprehensive set of gene annotations for the genome sequence of rice, Oryza sativa (japonica group) cv. Nipponbare. Since the first release in 2005, RAP-DB has been updated several times along with the genome assembly updates. Here, we present our newest RAP-DB based on the latest genome assembly, Os-Nipponbare-Reference-IRGSP-1.0 (IRGSP-1.0), which was released in 2011. We detected 37,869 loci by mapping transcript and protein sequences of 150 monocot species. To provide plant researchers with highly reliable and up to date rice gene annotations, we have been incorporating literature-based manually curated data, and 1,626 loci currently incorporate literature-based annotation data, including commonly used gene names or gene symbols. Transcriptional activities are shown at the nucleotide level by mapping RNA-Seq reads derived from 27 samples. We also mapped the Illumina reads of a Japanese leading japonica cultivar, Koshihikari, and a Chinese indica cultivar, Guangluai-4, to the genome and show alignments together with the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and gene functional annotations through a newly developed browser, Short-Read Assembly Browser (S-RAB). We have developed two satellite databases, Plant Gene Family Database (PGFD) and Integrative Database of Cereal Gene Phylogeny (IDCGP), which display gene family and homologous gene relationships among diverse plant species. RAP-DB and the satellite databases offer simple and user-friendly web interfaces, enabling plant and genome researchers to access the data easily and facilitating a broad range of plant research topics.

  4. Troposphere-Stratosphere Coupled Chemistry-Climate Interactions: From Global Warming Projections to Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowack, P. J.; Abraham, N. L.; Maycock, A. C.; Braesicke, P.; Pyle, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in stratospheric composition can affect tropospheric composition and vice versa. Of particular interest are trace gas concentrations at the interface between these two atmospheric layers in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). This is due to the crucial importance of composition changes in the UTLS for the global energy budget. In a recent study (Nowack et al., 2015), we provided further evidence that composition changes in the tropical UTLS can significantly affect global warming projections. Using a state-of-the-art atmosphere-ocean chemistry-climate model, we found a ~20% smaller global warming in response to an abrupt 4xCO2 forcing if composition feedbacks were included in the calculations as compared to simulations in which composition feedbacks were not considered. We attributed this large difference in surface warming mainly to circulation-driven decreases in tropical UTLS ozone and related changes in stratospheric water vapor, partly counteracted by simultaneous changes in ice clouds. Here, we explain why this result is expected to differ between models and how, inter alia, tropospheric chemical mechanisms can contribute to this uncertainty. We highlight that improving our understanding of processes in the tropical UTLS and their representation in Earth system models remains a key challenge in climate research.Finally, taking geoengineering as a new example, we show that changes in the stratosphere can have an impact on air quality in the troposphere. In particular, we explain for a simple solar radiation management scenario how changes in surface ozone can be linked to changes in meteorology and composition in the troposphere and stratosphere. In conclusion, we highlight the importance of considering air quality impacts when evaluating a variety of geoengineering scenarios. Reference: Nowack, P.J., Abraham, N.L., Maycock, A.C., Braesicke, P., Gregory, J.M., Joshi, M.M., Osprey, A., and Pyle, J.A. Nature Climate Change 5, 41

  5. Rapid and slow chemical synaptic interactions of cholinergic projection neurons and GABAergic local interneurons in the insect antennal lobe.

    PubMed

    Warren, Ben; Kloppenburg, Peter

    2014-09-24

    The antennal lobe (AL) of insects constitutes the first synaptic relay and processing center of olfactory information, received from olfactory sensory neurons located on the antennae. Complex synaptic connectivity between olfactory neurons of the AL ultimately determines the spatial and temporal tuning profile of (output) projection neurons to odors. Here we used paired whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in the cockroach Periplaneta americana to characterize synaptic interactions between cholinergic uniglomerular projection neurons (uPNs) and GABAergic local interneurons (LNs), both of which are key components of the insect olfactory system. We found rapid, strong excitatory synaptic connections between uPNs and LNs. This rapid excitatory transmission was blocked by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor blocker mecamylamine. IPSPs, elicited by synaptic input from a presynaptic LN, were recorded in both uPNs and LNs. IPSPs were composed of both slow, sustained components and fast, transient components which were coincident with presynaptic action potentials. The fast IPSPs were blocked by the GABAA receptor chloride channel blocker picrotoxin, whereas the slow sustained IPSPs were blocked by the GABAB receptor blocker CGP-54626. This is the first study to directly show the predicted dual fast- and slow-inhibitory action of LNs, which was predicted to be key in shaping complex odor responses in the AL of insects. We also provide the first direct characterization of rapid postsynaptic potentials coincident with presynaptic spikes between olfactory processing neurons in the AL.

  6. Synthetic aperture radar and interferometry development at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    1993-04-01

    Environmental monitoring, earth-resource mapping, and military systems require broad-area imaging at high resolutions. Many times the imagery must be acquired in inclement weather or during night as well as day. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides such a capability. SAR systems take advantage of the long-range propagation characteristics of radar signals and the complex information processing capability of modern digital electronics to provide high resolution imagery. SAR complements photographic and other optical imaging capabilities because of the minimum constrains on time-of-day and atmospheric conditions and because of the unique responses of terrain and cultural targets to radar frequencies. Interferometry is a method for generating a three-dimensional image of terrain. The height projection is obtained by acquiring two SAR images from two slightly differing locations. It is different from the common method of stereoscopic imaging for topography. The latter relies on differing geometric projections for triangulation to define the surface geometry whereas interferometry relies on differences in radar propagation times between the two SAR locations. This paper presents the capabilities of SAR, explains how SAR works, describes a few SAR applications, provides an overview of SAR development at Sandia, and briefly describes the motion compensation subsystem.

  7. Radar imaging of intense nonlinear Ekman divergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guoqiang; Perrie, William; Kudryavtsev, Vladimir; He, Yijun; Shen, Hui; Zhang, Biao; Hu, Haibo

    2016-09-01

    In general, given an oceanic thermal front, there is a strong positive correlation between sea surface temperature (SST) gradients and surface winds, and the marine atmospheric boundary layer is unstable over the warm side of the oceanic thermal front. The Gulf Stream is a notable example of an oceanic thermal front, and its warm side is often detected as enhanced backscatter in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. However, in some "anomalous" SAR images, low backscatter is sometimes observed on the warm side of the front, which seems inconsistent. Therefore, we propose a mechanism to interpret the generation of the low backscatter, based on interactions between ocean surface wind waves and intense nonlinear Ekman divergence. This mechanism is verified by showing that patterns in an observed anomalous SAR image are in good agreement with those in the simulated radar signature. In addition, this methodology and analysis demonstrate that SAR is potentially important for detecting and diagnosing small scale air-sea interactions and upper ocean dynamics with strong vertical transports induced by submesoscale processes.

  8. Haemophilia at various stages of life: design of new therapeutic strategies through an interactive course - the Kogeniale project

    PubMed Central

    Santagostino, Elena; Messina, Maria; Tagliaferri, Annarita; Iorio, Alfonso; Morfini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Background High-quality evidence is lacking in several areas of haemophilia treatment, in part because little time is allocated to the treatment and care of haemophilia in university education in Italy. Physicians caring for patients with haemophilia must, therefore, rely on their information on background pathophysiology and more experienced colleagues. This makes diagnostic and therapeutic choices difficult, especially when the patient has concomitant disorders or psychological issues. Material and methods This article describes a course to educate young physicians who were already engaged in the management of haemophilia on the emerging and unmet issues of haemophilia care and to implement existing guidelines. Physicians (n=53) already caring for patients with haemophilia in their haematology, internal medicine, or paediatric practices in Italy attended the course. Problem-solving group activity and open discussion were the methods chosen to formulate consensus statements. During the specifically designed interactive course, three clinical cases were simulated: a young child with congenital dislocation of the hip, an adolescent refusing prophylactic treatment, and an elderly man with cardiovascular disorders. The physicians were asked questions during the course and, through a Wi-Fi console, were able to answer and discuss each case interactively. Results Following discussion of each case, agreement was reached regarding general statements on the management of patients with severe haemophilia A in the three different age ranges considered. Discussion This project helped to outline useful decision-making tools for handling diagnostic and treatment issues in the field of haemophilia. PMID:23399360

  9. Radar imaging of shallow water bathymetry: A case study in the Yangtze Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Peng; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Kudryavtsev, Vladimir; Zhong, Xiaojing; Zhou, Yunxuan

    2016-12-01

    This study focuses on 2-dimensional (2-D) radar imaging of bathymetric features in the shallow water of the Yangtze Estuary using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations and model simulations. A validated 2-D shallow water numerical model simulates the barotropic current velocity, and the simulated current fields together with the relevant parameters of radar observations are then invoked in the radar imaging model as the input. The results show that variations in the simulated image intensity are mainly dominated by distinct radar backscatter anomalies caused by wave-current interactions in the vicinity of rapidly changing underwater topographies. The comparison between the simulated and observed SAR images shows a reasonable agreement, demonstrating that our approach may be implemented to monitor changes in the shallow water bathymetry of the Yangtze Estuary in the future.

  10. Space Radar Image of Long Island Optical/Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This pair of images of the Long Island, New York region is a comparison of an optical photograph (top) and a radar image (bottom), both taken in darkness in April 1994. The photograph at the top was taken by the Endeavour astronauts at about 3 a.m. Eastern time on April 20, 1994. The image at the bottom was acquired at about the same time four days earlier on April 16,1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) system aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Both images show an area approximately 100 kilometers by 40 kilometers (62 miles by 25 miles) that is centered at 40.7 degrees North latitude and 73.5 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper right. The optical image is dominated by city lights, which are particularly bright in the densely developed urban areas of New York City located on the left half of the photo. The brightest white zones appear on the island of Manhattan in the left center, and Central Park can be seen as a darker area in the middle of Manhattan. To the northeast (right) of the city, suburban Long Island appears as a less densely illuminated area, with the brightest zones occurring along major transportation and development corridors. Since radar is an active sensing system that provides its own illumination, the radar image shows a great amount of surface detail, despite the night-time acquisition. The colors in the radar image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In this image, the water surface - the Atlantic Ocean along the bottom edge and Long Island Sound shown at the top edge - appears red because small waves at the surface strongly reflect the horizontally transmitted and received L-band radar signal. Networks of highways and railroad lines are clearly

  11. Online clustering algorithms for radar emitter classification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Lee, Jim P Y; Senior; Li, Lingjie; Luo, Zhi-Quan; Wong, K Max

    2005-08-01

    Radar emitter classification is a special application of data clustering for classifying unknown radar emitters from received radar pulse samples. The main challenges of this task are the high dimensionality of radar pulse samples, small sample group size, and closely located radar pulse clusters. In this paper, two new online clustering algorithms are developed for radar emitter classification: One is model-based using the Minimum Description Length (MDL) criterion and the other is based on competitive learning. Computational complexity is analyzed for each algorithm and then compared. Simulation results show the superior performance of the model-based algorithm over competitive learning in terms of better classification accuracy, flexibility, and stability.

  12. All-digital radar architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, Pavlo A.

    2014-10-01

    All digital radar architecture requires exclude mechanical scan system. The phase antenna array is necessarily large because the array elements must be co-located with very precise dimensions and will need high accuracy phase processing system for aggregate and distribute T/R modules data to/from antenna elements. Even phase array cannot provide wide field of view. New nature inspired all digital radar architecture proposed. The fly's eye consists of multiple angularly spaced sensors giving the fly simultaneously thee wide-area visual coverage it needs to detect and avoid the threats around him. Fly eye radar antenna array consist multiple directional antennas loose distributed along perimeter of ground vehicle or aircraft and coupled with receiving/transmitting front end modules connected by digital interface to central processor. Non-steering antenna array allows creating all-digital radar with extreme flexible architecture. Fly eye radar architecture provides wide possibility of digital modulation and different waveform generation. Simultaneous correlation and integration of thousands signals per second from each point of surveillance area allows not only detecting of low level signals ((low profile targets), but help to recognize and classify signals (targets) by using diversity signals, polarization modulation and intelligent processing. Proposed all digital radar architecture with distributed directional antenna array can provide a 3D space vector to the jammer by verification direction of arrival for signals sources and as result jam/spoof protection not only for radar systems, but for communication systems and any navigation constellation system, for both encrypted or unencrypted signals, for not limited number or close positioned jammers.

  13. Robust Modulo Remaindering and Applications in Radar and Sensor Signal Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-27

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0254 Robust Modulo Remaindering and Applications in Radar and Sensor Signal Processing Xiang-Gen Xia UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE...Remaindering and Applications in Radar and Sensor Signal Processing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0055 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...This report describes the main research achievements during the time period cited above on the research project in the area of digital signal processing

  14. Simulation of imaging radar for obstacle avoidance and enhanced vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doehler, Hans-Ullrich; Bollmeyer, Dirk

    1997-06-01

    One of the main advantages of millimeter wave (MMW) imaging radar systems result from the fact that their imaging performance does nearly not depend on atmospheric affects such as fog, rain and snow. That is the reason that MMW radar seems to be one of the most promising sensors for enhanced vision systems (EVS), which can aid the pilot during approach, landing and taxiing, especially under bad weather conditions. Compared to other imaging devices, MMW radar system deliver a lower image resolution and update rate, and have a worse signal to noise ratio. Moreover, the commonly proposed method of the perspective view projection in EVS applications results in some imaging errors and artifacts. These sensor specific effects should be taken into account during the presently conducted EVS research and development. To get the opportunity of studying imaging radar systems in ground based research environments, we have developed a new type of a MMW radar sensor simulator. Our approach is based on detailed terrain and/or airport databases, as they are available for normal visual simulations or VR applications. We have augmented these databases with some specific attributes which describe object surface properties with respect to MMW. Our approach benefits from the state of the art of high speed computer graphics hard- and software. It is implemented in C/C++ and uses the Open GL graphic standard and the SGI Performer database handler. It runs on every SGI graphic workstation, and achieves an image update rate of about 20 Hz, which is more than actual available radar systems deliver. One of the main advantages of our approach is, that it can be integrated easily in emergent multisensor based enhanced vision systems and it is a useful tool for EVS research and development.

  15. Improving Ground Penetrating Radar Imaging in High Loss Environments by Coordinated System Development, Data Processing, Numerical Modeling, & Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, David L.

    2004-12-01

    Improving Ground Penetrating Radar Imaging in High Loss Environments by Coordinated System Development, Data Processing, Numerical Modeling, and Visualization Methods with Applications to Site Characterization EMSP Project 86992 Progress Report as of 9/2004.

  16. Radar Monitoring of Wetlands for Malaria Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Kevin O.

    1997-01-01

    Malaria is perhaps the most serious human disease problem. It inflicts millions worldwide and is on the rise in many countries where it was once under control. This rise is in part due to the high costs, both economic and environmental, of current control programs. The search for more cost-effective means to combat malaria has focussed attention on new technologies, one of which is remote sensing. Remote sensing has become an important tool in the effort to control a variety of diseases worldwide and malaria is perhaps one of the most promising. This study is part of the malaria control effort in the Central American country of Belize, which has experienced a resurgence of malaria in the last two decades. The proposed project is a feasibility study of the use of Radarsat (and other similar radar systems) to monitor seasonal changes in the breeding sites of the anopheline mosquito, which is responsible for malaria transmission. We propose that spatial and temporal changes in anopheline mosquito production can be predicted by sensing where and when their breeding sites are flooded. Timely knowledge of anopheline mosquito production is a key factor in control efforts. Such knowledge can be used by local control agencies to direct their limited resources to selected areas and time periods when the human population is at greatest risk. Radar is a key sensor in this application because frequent cloud cover during the peak periods of malaria transmission precludes the use of optical sensors.

  17. Radar based rainfall forecast for sewage systems control.

    PubMed

    Aspegren, H; Bailly, C; Mpé, A; Bazzurro, N; Morgavi, A; Prem, E; Jensen, N E

    2001-01-01

    There has been an increasing demand for accurate rainfall forecast in urban areas from the water industry. Current forecasting systems provided mainly by meteorological offices are based on large-scale prediction and are not well suited for this application. In order to devise a system especially designed for the dynamic management of a sewerage system the "RADAR" project was launched. The idea of this project was to provide a short-term small-scale prediction of rain based on radar images. The prediction methodology combines two methods. An extrapolation method based on a sophisticated cross correlation of images is optimised by a neural network technique. Three different application sites in Europe have been used to validate the system.

  18. Application of ARM Cloud Radar Simulator to GCMs: Plan, Issues, and Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Xie, S.; Klein, S. A.; Marchand, R.; Lin, W.; Kollias, P.; Clothiaux, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    It has been challenging to directly compare ARM ground-based cloud radar measurements with climate model output because of limitations or features of the observing process. To address this issue, an ongoing effort in ARM is to implement ARM cloud radar simulator, similar to satellite simulators that have been widely used in the global climate modeling community, to convert model data into pseudo-ARM cloud radar observations. The simulator mimics the instrument view of a narrow atmospheric column (as compared to a large GCM grid-cell) thus allowing meaningful comparison between model output and ARM cloud observations. This work is being closely coordinated with the CFMIP (the Cloud-Feedback Model Intercomparison Project) Observation Simulator Package (COSP, www.cfmip.net; Bodas-Salcedo et al. 2011) project. The goal is to incorporate ARM simulators into COSP with the global climate modeling community as the target user. This poster provides details about the implementation plan, discusses potential issues with ground-based simulators for both ARM radars, and presents preliminary results in evaluating the DOE Accelerated Climate Model for Energy (ACME) simulated clouds with ARM radar observations through applying the ARM radar simulator to ACME. Future plans on this project are discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  19. Bistatic synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, Gillian

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) allows all-weather, day and night, surface surveillance and has the ability to detect, classify and geolocate objects at long stand-off ranges. Bistatic SAR, where the transmitter and the receiver are on separate platforms, is seen as a potential means of countering the vulnerability of conventional monostatic SAR to electronic countermeasures, particularly directional jamming, and avoiding physical attack of the imaging platform. As the receiving platform can be totally passive, it does not advertise its position by RF emissions. The transmitter is not susceptible to jamming and can, for example, operate at long stand-off ranges to reduce its vulnerability to physical attack. This thesis examines some of the complications involved in producing high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery. The effect of bistatic operation on resolution is examined from a theoretical viewpoint and analytical expressions for resolution are developed. These expressions are verified by simulation work using a simple 'point by point' processor. This work is extended to look at using modern practical processing engines for bistatic geometries. Adaptations of the polar format algorithm and range migration algorithm are considered. The principal achievement of this work is a fully airborne demonstration of bistatic SAR. The route taken in reaching this is given, along with some results. The bistatic SAR imagery is analysed and compared to the monostatic imagery collected at the same time. Demonstrating high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery using two airborne platforms represents what I believe to be a European first and is likely to be the first time that this has been achieved outside the US (the UK has very little insight into US work on this topic). Bistatic target characteristics are examined through the use of simulations. This also compares bistatic imagery with monostatic and gives further insight into the utility of bistatic SAR.

  20. Bloom Chasing With a Wave Glider: The MAGI (Mesoscale Features Aggregates Interaction) Project in the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C.; Villareal, T. A.; Anderson, E.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite ocean color data over the past decade has revealed the existence of large phytoplankton blooms in the North Pacific Ocean - specifically in the region NE of Hawai´I near 30°N. These blooms cover thousands of km2, persist for weeks or longer, and are often dominated by nitrogen-fixing diatom symbioses. These events have proven difficult to study outside of the time series station ALOHA at Hawai´i. The limited data indicates that the 30°N blooms are longer-lived, larger, and occur at a greater temperature range than the blooms that develop closer to Hawai´i. In the NE Pacific, at least some of these blooms occur at or near the subtropical front, a salinity-defined temperature compensated frontal zone that has a number of fronts imbedded in it. Here we will report on the results from the MAGI (Mesoscale features Aggregates Interaction) project. In this project, we deployed a Liquid Robotics SV2 Wave Glider® in June, 2015 for a multiple (up to 6) month mission to sample these features and assist in characterizing the bloom dynamics of this region. The Wave Gliders are the first unmanned autonomous marine robots to use only the ocean's wave energy for propulsion. The gliders are navigated remotely allowing a dynamic route through the keying of unique waypoints. Waypoints can be changed to sample features as they develop in the near-real time satellite imagery. The wave glider named Honey Badger is equipped with a CTD, two C3 fluorometers (one with an anti-biofouling coating applied), a Turner Designs PhytoFlash, meteorology and wave sensors, a downward facing camera, a Vengmar passive acoustic monitor, and a towed LISST-Holo.

  1. Space Radar Image of Bebedauro, Brazil, seasonal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band image showing seasonal changes at the hydrological test site of Bebedouro in Brazil. The image is centered at 9 degrees south latitude and 40.2 degrees west longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10, 1994, during the first flight of the radar system, and on October 1, 1994, during the second mission. The swath width is approximately 16.5 kilometers (10.5 miles) wide. The image channels have the following color assignments: red represents data acquired on April 10; green represents data acquired on October 1; blue corresponds to the ratio of the two data sets. Agriculture plays an important economic and social role in Brazil. One of the major problems related to Brazilian agriculture is estimating the size of planting areas and their productivity. Due to cloud cover and the rainy season, which occurs from November through April, optical and infrared Earth observations are seldom used to survey the region. An additional goal of monitoring this region is to watch the floodplains of rivers like Rio Sao Francisco in order to determine suitable locations for additional agricultural fields. This area belongs to the semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil, where estimates have suggested that about 10 times more land could be used for agriculture, including some locations which could be used for irrigation projects. Monitoring of soil moisture during the important summer crop season is of high priority for the future development and productivity of this region. In April the area was covered with vegetation because of the moisture of the soil and only small differences could be seen in X-band data. In October the run-off channels of this hilly region stand out quite clearly because the greenish areas indicated much less soil moisture and water content in plants. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR

  2. Rapid and Robust Damage Detection using Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, S.; Fielding, E. J.; Simons, M.; Webb, F.; Rosen, P. A.; Owen, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Under ARIA (Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis) project at JPL and Caltech, we developed a prototype algorithm and data system to rapidly detect surface change caused by natural or man-made damage using a radar remote sensing technique of InSAR coherence. We tested the algorithm with a building demolition site in the City of Pasadena, California. The results show clear signal at the demolition site, with about 150% SNR improvement compared to conventional approach. Out of fourteen strongest detected signals, we confirmed that at least eleven of them were associated with real demolition and construction projects. We applied the algorithm to the February 2011 M6.3 Christchurch earthquake in New Zealand, which killed 185 people and caused financial damage of US $16-24 billion. We produced a damage proxy map (DPM) using radar data from ALOS satellite (Figure A), where red pixels identify regions where there may have been earthquake induced building damage, landslides, and liquefaction. The distribution of the red regions agrees well with the post-earthquake assessment performed on the ground by inspectors from the New Zealand government and summarized in their damage assessment zone map (Figure B). The DPM was derived from radar data acquired 3 days after the earthquake, whereas the ground truth zone map was first published 4 months after the earthquake. In addition to all-weather and day-and-night capability of radar, the sensitivity of radar signal to surface property change is high enough for reliable damage assessment. Current and future satellite and airborne missions should keep the expected composite data acquisition latency within a day. Rapidly produced accurate damage assessment maps will help saving people, assisting effective prioritization of rescue operations at early stage of response, and significantly improve timely situational awareness for emergency management and national / international assessment for response and recovery.

  3. Detection and Characterization of Phase-Coded Radar Signals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Detection and Characterization of Phase-Coded Radar Signals 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5d. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) Dr...Ernest R. Adams 5e. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Cranfield University (RMCS) Shrivenham SN6 8LA United...Kingdom 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER N/A 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM( S ) 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND

  4. Technology: Photonics illuminates the future of radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinney, Jason D.

    2014-03-01

    The first implementation of a fully photonics-based coherent radar system shows how photonic methods for radio-frequency signal generation and measurement may facilitate the development of software-defined radar systems. See Letter p.341

  5. Obstacle penetrating dynamic radar imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Romero, Carlos E.; Zumstein, James E.; Chang, John T.; Leach, Jr.. Richard R.

    2006-12-12

    An obstacle penetrating dynamic radar imaging system for the detection, tracking, and imaging of an individual, animal, or object comprising a multiplicity of low power ultra wideband radar units that produce a set of return radar signals from the individual, animal, or object, and a processing system for said set of return radar signals for detection, tracking, and imaging of the individual, animal, or object. The system provides a radar video system for detecting and tracking an individual, animal, or object by producing a set of return radar signals from the individual, animal, or object with a multiplicity of low power ultra wideband radar units, and processing said set of return radar signals for detecting and tracking of the individual, animal, or object.

  6. Meteorological radar facility. Part 1: System design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brassaw, L. L., Jr.; Hamren, S. D.; Mullins, W. H.; Schweitzer, B. P.

    1976-01-01

    A compilation of information regarding systems design of space shuttles used in meteorological radar probes is presented. Necessary radar equipment is delineated, while space system elements, calibration techniques, antenna systems and other subsystems are reviewed.

  7. Extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yimin; Meng, Huadong; Liu, Yimin; Wang, Xiqin

    2010-01-01

    We address the problem of adaptive waveform design for extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks. A closed-loop active target recognition radar system is extended to the case of a centralized cognitive radar network, in which a generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) based sequential hypothesis testing (SHT) framework is employed. Using Doppler velocities measured by multiple radars, the target aspect angle for each radar is calculated. The joint probability of each target hypothesis is then updated using observations from different radar line of sights (LOS). Based on these probabilities, a minimum correlation algorithm is proposed to adaptively design the transmit waveform for each radar in an amplitude fluctuation situation. Simulation results demonstrate performance improvements due to the cognitive radar network and adaptive waveform design. Our minimum correlation algorithm outperforms the eigen-waveform solution and other non-cognitive waveform design approaches.

  8. Images of gravitational and magnetic phenomena derived from two-dimensional back-projection Doppler tomography of interacting binary stars

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Mercedes T.; Cocking, Alexander S.; Fisher, John G.; Conover, Marshall J. E-mail: asc5097@psu.edu

    2014-11-10

    We have used two-dimensional back-projection Doppler tomography as a tool to examine the influence of gravitational and magnetic phenomena in interacting binaries that undergo mass transfer from a magnetically active star onto a non-magnetic main-sequence star. This multitiered study of over 1300 time-resolved spectra of 13 Algol binaries involved calculations of the predicted dynamical behavior of the gravitational flow and the dynamics at the impact site, analysis of the velocity images constructed from tomography, and the influence on the tomograms of orbital inclination, systemic velocity, orbital coverage, and shadowing. The Hα tomograms revealed eight sources: chromospheric emission, a gas stream along the gravitational trajectory, a star-stream impact region, a bulge of absorption or emission around the mass-gaining star, a Keplerian accretion disk, an absorption zone associated with hotter gas, a disk-stream impact region, and a hot spot where the stream strikes the edge of a disk. We described several methods used to extract the physical properties of the emission sources directly from the velocity images, including S-wave analysis, the creation of simulated velocity tomograms from hydrodynamic simulations, and the use of synthetic spectra with tomography to sequentially extract the separate sources of emission from the velocity image. In summary, the tomography images have revealed results that cannot be explained solely by gravitational effects: chromospheric emission moving with the mass-losing star, a gas stream deflected from the gravitational trajectory, and alternating behavior between stream state and disk state. Our results demonstrate that magnetic effects cannot be ignored in these interacting binaries.

  9. Radar Observation of Insects - Mosquitoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, E.; Downing, J.

    1979-01-01

    Tests were conducted at several sites over the coastal lowlands of New Jersey and over a region of high plains and low mountains in Oklahoma. In one area, a salt marsh in New Jersey, extensive ground tests were combined with laboratory data on expected insect backscatter to arrive at an extremely convincing model of the insect origin of most Dot Angels. A great deal of insight was studied from radar on the buildup and dispersal of insect swarms, since radar can follow where other means of trapping and observation cannot. Data on large-scale behavior as a function of wind and topography are presented. Displayed techniques which show individual or small swarm motion within some larger cloud or mass, or which can show the overall motion over great distances were developed. The influence of wind and terrain on insect motion and dispersal is determined from radar data.

  10. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

  11. Airborne Differential Doppler Weather Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, R.; Bidwell, S.; Liao, L.; Rincon, R.; Heymsfield, G.; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Precipitation Radar aboard the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) Satellite has shown the potential for spaceborne sensing of snow and rain by means of an incoherent pulsed radar operating at 13.8 GHz. The primary advantage of radar relative to passive instruments arises from the fact that the radar can image the 3-dimensional structure of storms. As a consequence, the radar data can be used to determine the vertical rain structure, rain type (convective/stratiform) effective storm height, and location of the melting layer. The radar, moreover, can be used to detect snow and improve the estimation of rain rate over land. To move toward spaceborne weather radars that can be deployed routinely as part of an instrument set consisting of passive and active sensors will require the development of less expensive, lighter-weight radars that consume less power. At the same time, the addition of a second frequency and an upgrade to Doppler capability are features that are needed to retrieve information on the characteristics of the drop size distribution, vertical air motion and storm dynamics. One approach to the problem is to use a single broad-band transmitter-receiver and antenna where two narrow-band frequencies are spaced apart by 5% to 10% of the center frequency. Use of Ka-band frequencies (26.5 GHz - 40 GHz) affords two advantages: adequate spatial resolution can be attained with a relatively small antenna and the differential reflectivity and mean Doppler signals are directly related to the median mass diameter of the snow and raindrop size distributions. The differential mean Doppler signal has the additional property that this quantity depends only on that part of the radial speed of the hydrometeors that is drop-size dependent. In principle, the mean and differential mean Doppler from a near-nadir viewing radar can be used to retrieve vertical air motion as well as the total mean radial velocity. In the paper, we present theoretical calculations for the

  12. Radar operation in a hostile electromagnetic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-03-01

    Radar ISR does not always involve cooperative or even friendly targets. An adversary has numerous techniques available to him to counter the effectiveness of a radar ISR sensor. These generally fall under the banner of jamming, spoofing, or otherwise interfering with the EM signals required by the radar sensor. Consequently mitigation techniques are prudent to retain efficacy of the radar sensor. We discuss in general terms a number of mitigation techniques.

  13. Goldstone solar system radar signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurgens, R. F.; Satorius, E.; Sanchez, O.

    1992-01-01

    A performance analysis of the planetary radar data acquisition system is presented. These results extend previous computer simulation analysis and are facilitated by the development of a simple analytical model that predicts radar system performance over a wide range of operational parameters. The results of this study are useful to both the radar systems designer and the science investigator in establishing operational radar data acquisition parameters which result in the best systems performance for a given set of input conditions.

  14. Goldstone solar system radar signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurgens, R.; Satorius, E.; Sanchez, O.

    1992-01-01

    A performance analysis of the planetary radar data acquisition system is presented. These results extend previous computer simulation analysis and are facilitated by the development of a simple analytical model that predicts radar system performance over a wide range of operational parameters. The results of this study are useful to both the radar system designer and the science investigator in establishing operational radar data acquisition parameters which result in the best systems performance for a given set of input conditions.

  15. An MSK Waveform for Radar Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Srinivasan, Meera

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a minimum shift keying (MSK) waveform developed for use in radar applications. This waveform is characterized in terms of its spectrum, autocorrelation, and ambiguity function, and is compared with the conventionally used bi-phase coded (BPC) radar signal. It is shown that the MSK waveform has several advantages when compared with the BPC waveform, and is a better candidate for deep-space radar imaging systems such as NASA's Goldstone Solar System Radar.

  16. SAR Ambiguity Study for the Cassini Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hensley, Scott; Im, Eastwood; Johnson, William T. K.

    1993-01-01

    The Cassini Radar's synthetic aperture radar (SAR) ambiguity analysis is unique with respect to other spaceborne SAR ambiguity analyses owing to the non-orbiting spacecraft trajectory, asymmetric antenna pattern, and burst mode of data collection. By properly varying the pointing, burst mode timing, and radar parameters along the trajectory this study shows that the signal-to-ambiguity ratio of better than 15 dB can be achieved for all images obtained by the Cassini Radar.

  17. FMCW Radar Jamming Techniques and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    discussed. 14. SUBJECT TERMS FMCW Radar , LPI , Jamming, Electronic Warfare 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 103 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Among the many variations of LPI radar systems, Frequency-Modulated Continuous Wave ( FMCW ) radar has not only the ability to avoid detection, but... LPI radars and possible electronic protection (EP) mechanisms that may be implemented in the FMCW emitter. The research questions can be summarized

  18. European coordination for coastal HF radar data in EMODnet Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, Julien; Novellino, Antonio; Gorringe, Patrick; Griffa, Annalisa; Schulz-Stellenfleth, Johannes; Montero, Pedro; Montovani, Carlo; Ayensa, Garbi; Vila, Begoña; Rubio, Anna; Sagarminaga, Yolanda

    2015-04-01

    Historically, joint effort has been put on observing open ocean, organizing, homogenizing, sharing and reinforcing the impact of the acquired information based on one technology: ARGO with profilers Argo floats, EuroSites, ESONET-NoE, FixO3 for deep water platforms, Ferrybox for stations in ships of opportunities, and GROOM for the more recent gliders. This kind of networking creates synergies and makes easier the implementation of this source of data in the European Data exchange services like EMODnet, ROOSs portals, or any applied services in the Blue economy. One main targeted improvement in the second phase of EMODnet projects is the assembling of data along coastline. In that sense, further coordination is recommended between platform operators around a specific technology in order to make easier the implementation of the data in the platforms (4th EuroGOOS DATAMEQ WG). HF radar is today recognized internationally as a cost-effective solution to provide high spatial and temporal resolution current maps (depending on the instrument operation frequency, covering from a few kilometres offshore up to 200 km) that are needed for many applications for issues related to ocean surface drift or sea state characterization. Significant heterogeneity still exists in Europe concerning technological configurations, data processing, quality standards and data availability. This makes more difficult the development of a significant network for achieving the needed accessibility to HF Radar data for a pan European use. EuroGOOS took the initiative to lead and coordinate activities within the various observation platforms by establishing a number of Ocean Observing Task Teams such as HF-Radars. The purpose is to coordinate and join the technological, scientific and operational HF radar communities at European level. The goal of the group is on the harmonization of systems requirements, systems design, data quality, improvement and proof of the readiness and standardization of

  19. Program of the Antarctic Syowa MST/IS radar (PANSY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kaoru; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Sato, Toru; Nakamura, Takuji; Saito, Akinori; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro; Nishimura, Koji; Kohma, Masashi; Yamagishi, Hisao; Yamanouchi, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    The PANSY radar is the first Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere/Incoherent Scatter (MST/IS) radar in the Antarctic region. It is a large VHF monostatic pulse Doppler radar operating at 47 MHz, consisting of an active phased array of 1045 Yagi antennas and an equivalent number of transmit-receive (TR) modules with a total peak output power of 500 kW. The first stage of the radar was installed at Syowa Station (69°00‧S, 39°35‧E) in early 2011, and is currently operating with 228 antennas and modules. This paper reports the project's scientific objectives, technical descriptions, and the preliminary results of observations made to date. The radar is designed to clarify the role of atmospheric gravity waves at high latitudes in the momentum budget of the global circulation in the troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere, and to explore the dynamical aspects of unique polar phenomena such as polar mesospheric clouds (PMC) and polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). The katabatic winds as a branch of Antarctic tropospheric circulation and as an important source of gravity waves are also of special interest. Moreover, strong and sporadic energy inputs from the magnetosphere by energetic particles and field-aligned currents can be quantitatively assessed by the broad height coverage of the radar which extends from the lower troposphere to the upper ionosphere. From engineering points of view, the radar had to overcome restrictions related to the severe environments of Antarctic research, such as very strong winds, limited power availability, short construction periods, and limited manpower availability. We resolved these problems through the adoption of specially designed class-E amplifiers, light weight and tough antenna elements, and versatile antenna arrangements. Although the radar is currently operating with only about a quarter of its full designed system components, we have already obtained interesting results on the Antarctic troposphere, stratosphere and

  20. Radar image with color as height, Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This radar image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the leftside of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

    This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. The three dark vertical stripes show the boundaries where four segments of the swath are merged to form the full scanned swath. These will be removed in later processing. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space

  1. Non-contact Doppler radar monitoring of cardiorespiratory motion for Siberian sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Noah; Massagram, Wansuree; Lubecke, Victor

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first reported use of Doppler radar to remotely sense heart and ventilation rates of fish. The Radar reported 35 to 40 BPM heart rate and 115 to 145 BPM ventilation rates for Siberian Sturgeon, with agreement from a video reference. Conventional fish vital signs measurements require invasive surgery and human handling--these are problematic for large scale monitoring, for measuring deep sea fish, and other situations which preclude human interaction with each individual subject. These results show a useful application of radar to augment existing cardiovascular and ventilatory activity sensing techniques and enable monitoring in a wider range of situations.

  2. Scaling features of polarimetric radar parameters retrieved from 3 disdrometers and an X-band radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    -band radar. Authors acknowledge the financial support of the Interreg IV NEW RainGain project (www.raingain.eu) and the chair "hydrology for resilient cities" sponsored by Véolia.

  3. Detection of Marine Radar Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, John N.

    A radar must detect targets before it can display them. Yet manufacturers' data sheets rarely tell us what the products will detect at what range. Many of the bigger radars are Type Approved so we consult the relevant IMO performance standard A 477 (XII). Paraphrasing Section 3.1 of the draft forthcoming revision (NAV 41/6): under normal propagation conditions with the scanner at height of 15 m, in the absence of clutter, the radar is required to give clear indication of an object such as a navigational buoy having a radar cross section area (RCS) of 10 m2 at 2 n.m. and, as examples, coastlines whose ground rises to 60/6 m at ranges of 20/7 n.m., a ship of 5000 tons at any aspect at 7 n.m. and a small vessel 10 m long at 3 n.m.This helps, but suppose we must pick up a 5 m2 buoy at g km? What happens in clutter? Should we prefer S- or X-band? To answer such questions we use equations which define the performance of surveillance radars, but the textbooks and specialist papers containing them often generalize with aeronautical and defence topics, making life difficult for the nonspecialist.This paper attempts a concise and self-contained engineering account of all main factors affecting detection of passive and active targets on civil marine and vessel traffic service (VTS) radars. We develop a set of equations for X- and S-band (3 and 10 cm, centred on 9400 and 3000 MHz respectively), suited for spreadsheet calculation.Sufficient theory is sketched in to indicate where results should be valid. Some simplifications of conventional treatments have been identified.

  4. Dunes on Titan observed by Cassini Radar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radebaugh, J.; Lorenz, R.D.; Lunine, J.I.; Wall, S.D.; Boubin, G.; Reffet, E.; Kirk, R.L.; Lopes, R.M.; Stofan, E.R.; Soderblom, L.; Allison, M.; Janssen, M.; Paillou, P.; Callahan, P.; Spencer, C.; ,

    2008-01-01

    Thousands of longitudinal dunes have recently been discovered by the Titan Radar Mapper on the surface of Titan. These are found mainly within ??30?? of the equator in optically-, near-infrared-, and radar-dark regions, indicating a strong proportion of organics, and cover well over 5% of Titan's surface. Their longitudinal duneform, interactions with topography, and correlation with other aeolian forms indicate a single, dominant wind direction aligned with the dune axis plus lesser, off-axis or seasonally alternating winds. Global compilations of dune orientations reveal the mean wind direction is dominantly eastwards, with regional and local variations where winds are diverted around topographically high features, such as mountain blocks or broad landforms. Global winds may carry sediments from high latitude regions to equatorial regions, where relatively drier conditions prevail, and the particles are reworked into dunes, perhaps on timescales of thousands to tens of thousands of years. On Titan, adequate sediment supply, sufficient wind, and the absence of sediment carriage and trapping by fluids are the dominant factors in the presence of dunes. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Polarimetric radar data decomposition and interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Guoqing; Ranson, K. Jon

    1993-01-01

    Significant efforts have been made to decompose polarimetric radar data into several simple scattering components. The components which are selected because of their physical significance can be used to classify SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) image data. If particular components can be related to forest parameters, inversion procedures may be developed to estimate these parameters from the scattering components. Several methods have been used to decompose an averaged Stoke's matrix or covariance matrix into three components representing odd (surface), even (double-bounce) and diffuse (volume) scatterings. With these decomposition techniques, phenomena, such as canopy-ground interactions, randomness of orientation, and size of scatters can be examined from SAR data. In this study we applied the method recently reported by van Zyl (1992) to decompose averaged backscattering covariance matrices extracted from JPL SAR images over forest stands in Maine, USA. These stands are mostly mixed stands of coniferous and deciduous trees. Biomass data have been derived from field measurements of DBH and tree density using allometric equations. The interpretation of the decompositions and relationships with measured stand biomass are presented in this paper.

  6. Measurement of Turbulence in the Oceanic Mixed Layer Using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Simon G.; Tatnall, Adrian R. L.

    2012-03-01

    Improved understanding of the cause and character of turbulence is increasingly important for applications such as climate change: Turbulent processes near the surface layer of the ocean contribute greatly to momentum, heat and flux transfers across the air-sea boundary. Such processes are most commonly observed in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery as the turbulent wake present behind a moving surface vessel or ship, but also in the radar backscatter signatures of breaking surface & internal waves, convection, eddies, etc. Fine-resolution turbulent wake flows were computed numerically using Direct Numerical Simulation and the interaction of small-scale wake turbulence with the free surface studied using a hydrodynamic interaction model. The resulting modulated surface currents were subsequently processed through radar simulation algorithms to generate simulated radar images of the wake and demonstrating the ability of SAR to observe and characterise surface turbulent flows which contribute to exchange processes at the air-sea interface.

  7. Portable receiver for radar detection

    DOEpatents

    Lopes, Christopher D.; Kotter, Dale K.

    2008-10-14

    Various embodiments are described relating to a portable antenna-equipped device for multi-band radar detection. The detection device includes a plurality of antennas on a flexible substrate, a detection-and-control circuit, an indicator and a power source. The antenna may include one or more planar lithographic antennas that may be fabricated on a thin-film substrate. Each antenna may be tuned to a different selection frequency or band. The antennas may include a bolometer for radar detection. Each antenna may include a frequency selective surface for tuning to the selection frequency.

  8. Synthetic Aperture Radar Oceanographic Investigations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Shuchman, P.G. Teleki, S.V. Hsiao, O.H. Shemdin , and W.E. Brown, Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging of Ocean Waves : Comparison with Wave Measurements, J... Shemdin , Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging of Ocean Waves during the Marineland Experiment, IEEE J. Oceanic Eg., OE-8, pp. 83-90, 1983. 12. R.A...If the surface reflectivity is assumed to be spatially un- section. are computed from the wave height spectrum as correlated, i.e. follows . (x. Y. t

  9. 46 CFR 130.310 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radar. 130.310 Section 130.310 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Navigational Equipment § 130.310 Radar. Each vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be fitted with a general marine radar in the pilothouse....

  10. 46 CFR 15.815 - Radar observers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radar observers. 15.815 Section 15.815 Shipping COAST... Computations § 15.815 Radar observers. (a) Each person in the required complement of deck officers, including the master, on inspected vessels of 300 gross tons or over which are radar equipped, shall hold...

  11. 46 CFR 167.40-40 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radar. 167.40-40 Section 167.40-40 Shipping COAST GUARD... Requirements § 167.40-40 Radar. All mechanically propelled vessels of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must be fitted with a marine radar system for surface navigation. Facilities for...

  12. 46 CFR 169.726 - Radar reflector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radar reflector. 169.726 Section 169.726 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.726 Radar reflector. Each nonmetallic vessel less than 90 feet in length must exhibit a radar reflector of suitable size and design while underway. Markings...

  13. 46 CFR 169.726 - Radar reflector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radar reflector. 169.726 Section 169.726 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.726 Radar reflector. Each nonmetallic vessel less than 90 feet in length must exhibit a radar reflector of suitable size and design while underway. Markings...

  14. 46 CFR 130.310 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radar. 130.310 Section 130.310 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Navigational Equipment § 130.310 Radar. Each vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be fitted with a general marine radar in the pilothouse....

  15. 46 CFR 15.815 - Radar observers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radar observers. 15.815 Section 15.815 Shipping COAST... Computations § 15.815 Radar observers. (a) Each person in the required complement of deck officers, including the master, on inspected vessels of 300 gross tons or over which are radar equipped, shall hold...

  16. 46 CFR 167.40-40 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radar. 167.40-40 Section 167.40-40 Shipping COAST GUARD... Requirements § 167.40-40 Radar. All mechanically propelled vessels of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must be fitted with a marine radar system for surface navigation. Facilities for...

  17. 46 CFR 167.40-40 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar. 167.40-40 Section 167.40-40 Shipping COAST GUARD... Requirements § 167.40-40 Radar. All mechanically propelled vessels of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must be fitted with a marine radar system for surface navigation. Facilities for...

  18. 46 CFR 11.480 - Radar observer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar observer. 11.480 Section 11.480 Shipping COAST... ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for National Deck Officer Endorsements § 11.480 Radar observer. (a) This section contains the requirements that an applicant must meet to qualify as a radar observer. (b) If...

  19. 46 CFR 169.726 - Radar reflector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar reflector. 169.726 Section 169.726 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.726 Radar reflector. Each nonmetallic vessel less than 90 feet in length must exhibit a radar reflector of suitable size and design while underway. Markings...

  20. 46 CFR 169.726 - Radar reflector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar reflector. 169.726 Section 169.726 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.726 Radar reflector. Each nonmetallic vessel less than 90 feet in length must exhibit a radar reflector of suitable size and design while underway. Markings...