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Sample records for radar ramer 7f

  1. Evaluation of the biological effects of police radar RAMER 7F

    SciTech Connect

    Rotkovska, D.; Kautska, J.; Bartonickova, A.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents results of experiments on the effects of electromagnetic radiation in the millimeter range (frequency 34.0 [+-] 0.1 GHz, power density 20 [mu]W/cm[sup 2]) emitted by a police radar device. Considering the physical properties of the radiation in millimeter range (skin effects), the experiments were carried out on hairless mice. The main physiological parameters tested were body mass, body temperature, peripheral blood, and mass and cellularity of several important organs. Critical organs, the skin, and cornea were examined by electron microscopy. Differentiation ability of hematopoietic cells, progenitors of granulocytes and macrophages, and DNA synthesis in the cornea weremore » compared in irradiated and nonirradiated animals. None of the parameters tested was affected to an extent that would indicate the start of a pathological process or the risk of damage to genetic material.« less

  2. Social Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    RTA HFM-201/RSM PAPER 3 - 1 © 2012 The MITRE Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Social Radar Barry Costa and John Boiney MITRE Corporation...defenders require an integrated set of capabilities that we refer to as a “ social radar.” Such a system would support strategic- to operational-level...situation awareness, alerting, course of action analysis, and measures of effectiveness for each action undertaken. Success of a social radar

  3. Planetary Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  4. 29 CFR 778.407 - The nature of the section 7(f) contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The nature of the section 7(f) contract. 778.407 Section 778.407 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... nature of the section 7(f) contract. Payment must be made “pursuant to a bona fide individual contract or...

  5. 29 CFR 778.407 - The nature of the section 7(f) contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The nature of the section 7(f) contract. 778.407 Section 778.407 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... nature of the section 7(f) contract. Payment must be made “pursuant to a bona fide individual contract or...

  6. 29 CFR 778.407 - The nature of the section 7(f) contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The nature of the section 7(f) contract. 778.407 Section 778.407 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... nature of the section 7(f) contract. Payment must be made “pursuant to a bona fide individual contract or...

  7. 29 CFR 778.407 - The nature of the section 7(f) contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The nature of the section 7(f) contract. 778.407 Section 778.407 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... nature of the section 7(f) contract. Payment must be made “pursuant to a bona fide individual contract or...

  8. 29 CFR 778.407 - The nature of the section 7(f) contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The nature of the section 7(f) contract. 778.407 Section 778.407 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... nature of the section 7(f) contract. Payment must be made “pursuant to a bona fide individual contract or...

  9. Potential proteins targeted by let-7f-5p in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Chen, Xiujuan; Zhang, Yi; Song, Jiandong

    2017-07-24

    MicroRNAs are a class of small, endogenous, non-coding RNAs mediating posttranscriptional gene silencing. The current authors hypothesized that let-7f-5p is likely involved in cell invasion and proliferation by regulating the expression of target genes. The current study combined let-7f-5p with iTRAQ to assess its effect on gene expression in HeLa cells. Results indicated that 164 proteins were expressed at different levels in HeLa cells overexpressing let-7f-5p and negative controls and that 172 proteins were expressed at different levels in let-7f-5p-silenced HeLa cells and negative controls. Results indicated that let-7f-5p may suppress insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) in HeLa cells.

  10. Radar Sounder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    S’ardard Form 298 Rev 2-89) • " Del " 1 , -iNS, 19 , q f .If - ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge the support of numerous...plates, etc.); estimation of rain rate and the observation of the horizontal and vertical structure of rain. The data from the radar sounder will be...crytal habit. The microphysical properties and vertical structure of the clouds are needed for applications of interest to the Air Force such as

  11. C_7F_16/He rf plasma CVD of a-C:F films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hokoi, Kohji; Akazawa, Masamichi; Sugawara, Hirotake; Sakai, Yosuke

    2000-10-01

    Fluorinated carbon is one of the most promissing materials with low dielectric constant ɛr and high dielectric strength V_b. We have deposited a-C:F films by rf (13.56 MHz) plasma enhanced CVD method using the following liquid materials; C_7F_16, (C_3F_7)_3N/(C_4F_9)_3N and C_8F_18/C_8F_16O.(C. P. Lungu et al.), Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1544--6 (1999) The films showed ɛr values in a range of 1.9--3.0 and V_b>2 MV/cm. In this work, we added He (3 Pa) to C_7F_16 (60 Pa) plasmas, expecting that He atoms in the metastable excited state (He*, 19.8 eV) would promote C_7F_16 decomposition in gas phase or activation of the film surface during deposition. The films with the thickness up to 2300 nm were deposited on unheated Si substrate with an rf power of 100 W. The deposition rate derived from the film thickness measurement by SEM and ellipsometry was about 230 nm/min. This value is roughly two times as large as that of the films deposited by C_7F_16 (60 Pa) plasmas without He. We discuss the mechanism that leads to such a significant increase in the deposition rate.

  12. 48 CFR 47.303-7 - F.o.b. destination, within consignee's premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. destination, within... REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-7 F.o.b. destination, within consignee's premises. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. destination, within consignee's...

  13. 29 CFR 778.414 - “Approval” of contracts under section 7(f).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âApprovalâ of contracts under section 7(f). 778.414 Section 778.414 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... perform his duties. During the past 6 months his weekly hours of work have varied from a low of 30 hours...

  14. Radar and Lidar Radar DEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liskovich, Diana; Simard, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Using radar and lidar data, the aim is to improve 3D rendering of terrain, including digital elevation models (DEM) and estimates of vegetation height and biomass in a variety of forest types and terrains. The 3D mapping of vegetation structure and the analysis are useful to determine the role of forest in climate change (carbon cycle), in providing habitat and as a provider of socio-economic services. This in turn will lead to potential for development of more effective land-use management. The first part of the project was to characterize the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM error with respect to ICESat/GLAS point estimates of elevation. We investigated potential trends with latitude, canopy height, signal to noise ratio (SNR), number of LiDAR waveform peaks, and maximum peak width. Scatter plots were produced for each variable and were fitted with 1st and 2nd degree polynomials. Higher order trends were visually inspected through filtering with a mean and median filter. We also assessed trends in the DEM error variance. Finally, a map showing how DEM error was geographically distributed globally was created.

  15. Nqrs Data for C6H7F4N2OSb (Subst. No. 0879)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C6H7F4N2OSb (Subst. No. 0879)

  16. Nqrs Data for C6H7F7N2OSb2 (Subst. No. 0880)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C6H7F7N2OSb2 (Subst. No. 0880)

  17. MicroRNA Let-7f Inhibits Tumor Invasion and Metastasis by Targeting MYH9 in Human Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yu; Gu, Yong; Guo, Changcun; Xue, Zengfu; Dou, Weijia; Hu, Fengrong; Wu, Kaichun; Nie, Yongzhan; Fan, Daiming

    2011-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators that play key roles in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. A previous report has shown that let-7 family members can act as tumor suppressors in many cancers. Through miRNA array, we found that let-7f was downregulated in the highly metastatic potential gastric cancer cell lines GC9811-P and SGC7901-M, when compared with their parental cell lines, GC9811 and SGC7901-NM; however, the mechanism was not clear. In this study, we investigate whether let-7f acts as a tumor suppressor to inhibit invasion and metastasis in gastric cancers. Methodology/Principal Real-time PCR showed decreased levels of let-7f expression in metastatic gastric cancer tissues and cell lines that are potentially highly metastatic. Cell invasion and migration were significantly impaired in GC9811-P and SGC7901-M cell lines after transfection with let-7f-mimics. Nude mice with xenograft models of gastric cancer confirmed that let-7f could inhibit gastric cancer metastasis in vivo after transfection by the lentivirus pGCsil-GFP- let-7f. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that let-7f directly binds to the 3′UTR of MYH9, which codes for myosin IIA, and real-time PCR and Western blotting further indicated that let-7f downregulated the expression of myosin IIA at the mRNA and protein levels. Conclusions/Significance Our study demonstrated that overexpression of let-7f in gastric cancer could inhibit invasion and migration of gastric cancer cells through directly targeting the tumor metastasis-associated gene MYH9. These data suggest that let-7f may be a novel therapeutic candidate for gastric cancer, given its ability to reduce cell invasion and metastasis. PMID:21533124

  18. The proposed flatland radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. L.; Gage, K. S.; Vanzandt, T. E.; Nastrom, G. D.

    1986-01-01

    A flexible very high frequency (VHF) stratosphere-troposphere (ST) radar configured for meteorological research is to be constructed near Urbana, Illinois. Measurement of small vertical velocities associated with synoptic-scale meteorology can be performed. A large Doppler microwave radar (CHILL) is located a few km from the site of the proposed ST radar. Since the microwave radar can measure the location and velocity of hydrometeors and the VHF ST radar can measure clear (or cloudy) air velocities, simultaneous observations by these two radars of stratiform or convective weather systems would provide valuable meteorological information.

  19. Solar Radar Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    communications satellites and electric power grids. RELATED PROJECTS Studies with the HAARP radar facility being constructed in Alaska are conducted with...on wave-plasma interactions and also are assessing the possible use of HAARP as a solar radar. REFERENCES James, J. C., Radar studies of the sun, in

  20. Radar: Human Safety Net

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Radar is a technology that can be used to detect distant objects not visible to the human eye. A predecessor of radar, called the telemobiloscope, was first used to detect ships in the fog in 1904 off the German coast. Many scientists have worked on the development and refinement of radar (Hertz with electromagnetic waves; Popov with determining…

  1. Radar stage uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, J.M.; Davies, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the performance of radars used for stage (or water-level) measurement. This paper presents a comparison of estimated uncertainties and data for radar water-level measurements with float, bubbler, and wire weight water-level measurements. The radar sensor was also temperature-tested in a laboratory. The uncertainty estimates indicate that radar measurements are more accurate than uncorrected pressure sensors at higher water stages, but are less accurate than pressure sensors at low stages. Field data at two sites indicate that radar sensors may have a small negative bias. Comparison of field radar measurements with wire weight measurements found that the radar tends to measure slightly lower values as stage increases. Copyright ASCE 2005.

  2. Aromatase inhibitor regulates let-7 expression and let-7f induced cell migration in endometrial cells from women with endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, SiHyun; Mutlu, Levent; Zhou, Yuping; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate associations between aromatase inhibitor (AI) treatment and let-7 family microRNA expression in endometriosis. Design In vitro study using Ishikawa cells and human endometrial stromal cells (HESC) obtained from patients with endometriosis Setting University research center. Patients Women undergoing laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis Interventions HESCs and Ishikawa cells treated with various letrozol concentrations and transfected with a mimic of let-7 subtypes of interest Main Outcome Measures microRNAs let7a-f and aromatase expression were evaluated. Migration potential after transfection with a let-7f mimic were analyzed. Results After letrozole treatment for 48 hours, all let-7 subtypes showed a trend toward increased expression in a dose dependent manner in Ishikawa cells, and significant differences were found in let-7b and let-7f between controls and the 20 μmol/L treated groups. Further, let-7f showed significant differences between control and 1.0 μmol/L treatment group, a typical therapeutic level, in HESCs. Transfection of a let-7f mimic decreased aromatase expression in both Ishikawa cells and HESC, and led to a significant decrease in number of migrating cells in both cell types. Conclusions AI treatment significantly increased expression of let-7f in Ishikawa cells and HESCs from patient with endometriosis; increased lef-7f expression effectively reduced the migration of endometrial cells. Modulation of miRNAs involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis may have therapeutic potential for endometriosis. PMID:27320036

  3. 2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar towards, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  4. Coordinated Radar Resource Management for Networked Phased Array Radars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Coordinated radar resource management for networked phased array radars Peter W. Moo and Zhen Ding Radar Sensing & Exploitation Section Defence...15] P.W. Moo . Scheduling for multifunction radar via two-slope benefit functions. Radar, Sonar Navigation, IET, 5(8):884 –894, Oct. 2011. [16] M.I

  5. Planetary radar studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Cutts, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A catalog of lunar and radar anomalies was generated to provide a base for comparison with Venusian radar signatures. The relationships between lunar radar anomalies and regolith processes were investigated, and a consortium was formed to compare lunar and Venusian radar images of craters. Time was scheduled at the Arecibo Observatory to use the 430 MHz radar to obtain high resolution radar maps of six areas of the lunar suface. Data from 1978 observations of Mare Serenitas and Plato are being analyzed on a PDP 11/70 computer to construct the computer program library necessary for the eventual reduction of the May 1981 and subsequent data acquisitions. Papers accepted for publication are presented.

  6. Apollo experience report: Lunar module landing radar and rendezvous radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozas, P.; Cunningham, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    A developmental history of the Apollo lunar module landing and rendezvous radar subsystems is presented. The Apollo radar subsystems are discussed from initial concept planning to flight configuration testing. The major radar subsystem accomplishments and problems are discussed.

  7. 3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  8. 30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. Console and line printers - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  9. CNTs-Modified Nb3O7F Hybrid Nanocrystal towards Faster Carrier Migration, Lower Bandgap and Higher Photocatalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fei; Li, Zhen; Yan, Aihua; Zhao, Hui; Liang, Huagen; Gao, Qingyu; Qiang, Yinghuai

    2017-01-06

    Novel semiconductor photocatalysts have been the research focus and received much attention in recent years. The key issues for novel semiconductor photocatalysts are to effectively harvest solar energy and enhance the separation efficiency of the electron-hole pairs. In this work, novel Nb 3 O 7 F/CNTs hybrid nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic activity have been successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal plus etching technique. The important finding is that appropriate pH values lead to the formation of Nb 3 O 7 F nanocrystal directly. A general strategy to introdue interaction between Nb 3 O 7 F and CNTs markedly enhances the photocatalytic activity of Nb 3 O 7 F. Comparatively, Nb 3 O 7 F/CNTs nanocomposites exhibit higher photodegradation efficiency and faster photodegradation rate in the solution of methylene blue (MB) under visible-light irradiation. The higher photocatalytic activity may be attributed to more exposed active sites, higher carrier migration and narrower bandgap because of good synergistic effect. The results here may inspire more engineering, new design and facile fabrication of novel photocatalysts with highly photocatalytic activity.

  10. CNTs-Modified Nb3O7F Hybrid Nanocrystal towards Faster Carrier Migration, Lower Bandgap and Higher Photocatalytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fei; Li, Zhen; Yan, Aihua; Zhao, Hui; Liang, Huagen; Gao, Qingyu; Qiang, Yinghuai

    2017-01-01

    Novel semiconductor photocatalysts have been the research focus and received much attention in recent years. The key issues for novel semiconductor photocatalysts are to effectively harvest solar energy and enhance the separation efficiency of the electron-hole pairs. In this work, novel Nb3O7F/CNTs hybrid nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic activity have been successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal plus etching technique. The important finding is that appropriate pH values lead to the formation of Nb3O7F nanocrystal directly. A general strategy to introdue interaction between Nb3O7F and CNTs markedly enhances the photocatalytic activity of Nb3O7F. Comparatively, Nb3O7F/CNTs nanocomposites exhibit higher photodegradation efficiency and faster photodegradation rate in the solution of methylene blue (MB) under visible-light irradiation. The higher photocatalytic activity may be attributed to more exposed active sites, higher carrier migration and narrower bandgap because of good synergistic effect. The results here may inspire more engineering, new design and facile fabrication of novel photocatalysts with highly photocatalytic activity. PMID:28059123

  11. Equatorial radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rukao, S.; Tsuda, T.; Sato, T.; Kato, S.

    1989-01-01

    A large clear air radar with the sensitivity of an incoherent scatter radar for observing the whole equatorial atmosphere up to 1000 km altitude is now being designed in Japan. The radar, called the Equatorial Radar, will be built in Pontianak, Kalimantan Island, Indonesia (0.03 N, 109.3 E). The system is a 47 MHz monostatic Doppler radar with an active phased array configuration similar to that of the MU radar in Japan, which has been in successful operation since 1983. It will have a PA product of more than 5 x 10(9) sq. Wm (P = average transmitter power, A = effective antenna aperture) with sensitivity more than 10 times that of the MU radar. This system configuration enables pulse-to-pulse beam steering within 25 deg from the zenith. As is the case of the MU radar, a variety of sophisticated operations will be made feasible under the supervision of the radar controller. A brief description of the system configuration is presented.

  12. Java Radar Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaczek, Mariusz P.

    2005-01-01

    Java Radar Analysis Tool (JRAT) is a computer program for analyzing two-dimensional (2D) scatter plots derived from radar returns showing pieces of the disintegrating Space Shuttle Columbia. JRAT can also be applied to similar plots representing radar returns showing aviation accidents, and to scatter plots in general. The 2D scatter plots include overhead map views and side altitude views. The superposition of points in these views makes searching difficult. JRAT enables three-dimensional (3D) viewing: by use of a mouse and keyboard, the user can rotate to any desired viewing angle. The 3D view can include overlaid trajectories and search footprints to enhance situational awareness in searching for pieces. JRAT also enables playback: time-tagged radar-return data can be displayed in time order and an animated 3D model can be moved through the scene to show the locations of the Columbia (or other vehicle) at the times of the corresponding radar events. The combination of overlays and playback enables the user to correlate a radar return with a position of the vehicle to determine whether the return is valid. JRAT can optionally filter single radar returns, enabling the user to selectively hide or highlight a desired radar return.

  13. The PROUST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertin, F.; Glass, M.; Ney, R.; Petitdidier, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Stratosphere-Troposphere (ST) radar called PROUST works at 935 MHz using the same klystron and antenna as the coherent-scatter radar. The use of this equipment for ST work has required some important modifications of the transmitting system and the development of receiving, data processing and acquisition (1984,1985) equipment. The modifications are discussed.

  14. Noncooperative rendezvous radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A fire control radar system was developed, assembled, and modified. The baseline system and modified angle tracking system are described along with the performance characteristics of the baseline and modified systems. Proposed changes to provide additional techniques for radar evaluation are presented along with flight test data.

  15. Radar, target and ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-09-01

    This Test Operations Procedure (TOP) provides conventional test methods employing conventional test instrumentation for testing conventional radars. Single tests and subtests designed to test radar components, transmitters, receivers, antennas, etc., and system performance are conducted with single item instruments such as meters, generators, attenuators, counters, oscillators, plotters, etc., and with adequate land areas for conducting field tests.

  16. Metamaterial for Radar Frequencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Circuit Board RAM Radar Absorbing Material RCS Radar Cross Section SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratio SNG Single-Negative SRR Split Ring Resonator...although some can be single-negative ( SNG ). DNG refers to material with simultaneous negative real parts of the permittivity r  and permeability

  17. 5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  18. 4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, emergency power building, and height finder radar tower - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  19. Uncertainty analysis of integrated gasification combined cycle systems based on Frame 7H versus 7F gas turbines.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yunhua; Frey, H Christopher

    2006-12-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology is a promising alternative for clean generation of power and coproduction of chemicals from coal and other feedstocks. Advanced concepts for IGCC systems that incorporate state-of-the-art gas turbine systems, however, are not commercially demonstrated. Therefore, there is uncertainty regarding the future commercial-scale performance, emissions, and cost of such technologies. The Frame 7F gas turbine represents current state-of-practice, whereas the Frame 7H is the most recently introduced advanced commercial gas turbine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risks and potential payoffs of IGCC technology based on different gas turbine combined cycle designs. Models of entrained-flow gasifier-based IGCC systems with Frame 7F (IGCC-7F) and 7H gas turbine combined cycles (IGCC-7H) were developed in ASPEN Plus. An uncertainty analysis was conducted. Gasifier carbon conversion and project cost uncertainty are identified as the most important uncertain inputs with respect to system performance and cost. The uncertainties in the difference of the efficiencies and costs for the two systems are characterized. Despite uncertainty, the IGCC-7H system is robustly preferred to the IGCC-7F system. Advances in gas turbine design will improve the performance, emissions, and cost of IGCC systems. The implications of this study for decision-making regarding technology selection, research planning, and plant operation are discussed.

  20. Compressive Sensing for Radar and Radar Sensor Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-02

    Zero Correlation Zone Sequence Pair Sets for MIMO Radar Inspired by recent advances in MIMO radar, we apply orthogonal phase coded waveforms to MIMO ...radar system in order to gain better range resolution and target direction finding performance [2]. We provide and investigate a generalized MIMO radar...ZCZ) sequence-Pair Set (ZCZPS). We also study the MIMO radar ambiguity function of the system using phase coded waveforms, based on which we analyze

  1. Radar remote sensing in biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Richard K.; Simonett, David S.

    1967-01-01

    The present status of research on discrimination of natural and cultivated vegetation using radar imaging systems is sketched. The value of multiple polarization radar in improved discrimination of vegetation types over monoscopic radars is also documented. Possible future use of multi-frequency, multi-polarization radar systems for all weather agricultural survey is noted.

  2. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1981-01-01

    Software to support all stages of asteroid radar observation and data analysis is developed. First-order analysis of all data in hand is complete. Estimates of radar cross sections, circular polarization ratios, and limb-to-limb echo spectral bandwidths for asteroids 7 Iris, 16 Psyche, 97 Klotho, 1862 Apollo, and 1915 Quetzalcoatl are reported. Radar observations of two previously unobserved asteroids were conducted. An Aten asteroid, 2100 Ra-Shalom, with the smallest known semimajor axis (0.83) was detected. Preliminary data reduction indicates a circular polarization ratio comparable to those of Apollo, Quetzalcoatl, and Toro.

  3. Radar cross section lectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhs, A. E.

    A comprehensive account is given of the principles that can be applied in military aircraft configuration studies to minimize the radar cross section (RCS) that will be presented by the resulting design to advanced radars under various mission circumstances. It is noted that, while certain ECM techniques can be nullified by improved enemy electronics in a very short time, RCS reductions may require as much as a decade of radar development before prior levels of detectability can be reestablished by enemy defenses. Attention is given to RCS magnitude determinants, inverse scattering, the polarization and scattering matrix, the RCSs of flat plates and conducting cylinders, and antenna geometry and beam patterns.

  4. A microprogrammable radar controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The Wave Propagation Lab. has completed the design and construction of a microprogrammable radar controller for atmospheric wind profiling. Unlike some radar controllers using state machines or hardwired logic for radar timing, this design is a high speed programmable sequencer with signal processing resources. A block diagram of the device is shown. The device is a single 8 1/2 inch by 10 1/2 inch printed circuit board and consists of three main subsections: (1) the host computer interface; (2) the microprogram sequencer; and (3) the signal processing circuitry. Each of these subsections are described in detail.

  5. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1984-07-01

    The initial radar observations of the mainbelt asteroids 9 Metis, 27 Euterpe, and 60 Echo are examined. For each target, data are taken simultaneously in the same sense of circular polarization as transmitted as well as in the opposite (OC) sense. Estimates of the radar cross sections provide estimates of the circular polarization ratio, and the normalized OC radar cross section. The circular polarization ratio, is comparable to values measured for other large S type asteroids and for a few much smaller, Earth approaching objects, most of the echo is due to single reflection backscattering from smooth surface elements.

  6. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    The initial radar observations of the mainbelt asteroids 9 Metis, 27 Euterpe, and 60 Echo are examined. For each target, data are taken simultaneously in the same sense of circular polarization as transmitted as well as in the opposite (OC) sense. Estimates of the radar cross sections provide estimates of the circular polarization ratio, and the normalized OC radar cross section. The circular polarization ratio, is comparable to values measured for other large S type asteroids and for a few much smaller, Earth approaching objects, most of the echo is due to single reflection backscattering from smooth surface elements.

  7. Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture was just a taste of radar remote sensing techniques and applications. Other important areas include Stereo radar grammetry. PolInSAR for volumetric structure mapping. Agricultural monitoring, soil moisture, ice-mapping, etc. The broad range of sensor types, frequencies of observation and availability of sensors have enabled radar sensors to make significant contributions in a wide area of earth and planetary remote sensing sciences. The range of applications, both qualitative and quantitative, continue to expand with each new generation of sensors.

  8. RADAR performance experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroux, C.; Bertin, F.; Mounir, H.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical studies and experimental results obtained at Coulommiers airport showed the capability of Proust radar to detect wind shears, in clear air condition as well as in presence of clouds or rain. Several examples are presented: in a blocking highs situation an atmospheric wave system at the Brunt-Vaisala frequency can be clearly distinguished; in a situation of clouds without rain the limit between clear air and clouds can be easily seen; and a windshear associated with a gust front in rainy conditions is shown. A comparison of 30 cm clear air radar Proust and 5 cm weather Doppler radar Ronsard will allow to select the best candidate for wind shear detection, taking into account the low sensibility to ground clutter of Ronsard radar.

  9. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    For 80 Sappho, 356 Liguria, 694 Ekard, and 2340 Hathor, data were taken simultaneously in the same sense of circular polarization as transmitted (SC) as well as in the opposite (OC) sense. Graphs show the average OC and SC radar echo power spectra soothed to a resolution of EFB Hz and plotted against Doppler frequency. Radar observations of the peculiar object 2201 Oljato reveal an unusual set of echo power spectra. The albedo and polarization ratio remain fairly constant but the bandwidths range from approximately 0.8 Hz to 1.4 Hz and the spectral shapes vary dramatically. Echo characteristics within any one date's approximately 2.5-hr observation period do not fluctuate very much. Laboratory measurements of the radar frequency electrical properties of particulate metal-plus-silicate mixtures can be combined with radar albedo estimates to constrain the bulk density and metal weight, fraction in a hypothetical asteroid regolith having the same particle size distribution as lab samples.

  10. Weather Radar Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-31

    radar operation and data - collection activities, a large data -analysis effort has been under way in support of automatic wind-shear detection algorithm ...REDUCTION AND ALGORITHM DEVELOPMENT 49 A. General-Purpose Software 49 B. Concurrent Computer Systems 49 C. Sun Workstations 51 D. Radar Data Analysis 52...1. Algorithm Verification 52 2. Other Studies 53 3. Translations 54 4. Outside Distributions 55 E. Mesonet/LLWAS Data Analysis 55 1. 1985 Data 55 2

  11. Radar Image Interpretability Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    the measured image properties with respect to image utility changed with image application. This study has provided useful information as to how...Eneea.d) ABSTRACT The utility of radar images with respect to trained image inter - preter ability to identify, classify and detect specific terrain... changed with image applica- tion. This study has provided useful information as to how certain image characteristics relate to radar image utility as

  12. Downhole pulse radar

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1987-09-28

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole. 7 figs.

  13. Downhole pulse radar

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1989-01-01

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole.

  14. Using SCC8, SCF27 and VMC7f2 markers in grapevine breeding for seedlessness via marker assisted selection.

    PubMed

    Akkurt, M; Çakır, A; Shidfar, M; Çelikkol, B P; Söylemezoğlu, G

    2012-08-13

    We used molecular markers associated with seedlessness in grapes, namely SCC8, SCF27 and VMC7f2, to improve the efficiency of seedless grapevine breeding via marker assisted selection (MAS). DNA from 372 F₁ hybrid progeny from the cross between seeded "Alphonse Lavallée" and seedless "Sultani" was amplified by PCR using three markers. After digestion of SCC8 marker amplification products by restriction enzyme BgIII, 40 individuals showed homozygous SCC8+/SCC8+ alleles at the seed development inhibitor (SdI) locus. DNA from 80 of the progeny amplified with the SCF27 marker produced bands; 174 individuals had 198-bp alleles of the VMC7f2 marker associated with seedlessness. In the second year, based on MAS, 183 F₁ hybrids were designated as seedless grapevine candidates because they were positive for a minimum of one marker. Twenty individuals were selected as genetic resources for future studies on seedless grapevine breeding because they carried alleles for the three markers associated with seedlessness. The VMC7f2 SSR marker was identified as the marker most associated with seedlessness.

  15. Borehole radar interferometry revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Lanbo; Ma, Chunguang; Lane, John W.; Joesten, Peter K.

    2014-01-01

    Single-hole, multi-offset borehole-radar reflection (SHMOR) is an effective technique for fracture detection. However, commercial radar system limitations hinder the acquisition of multi-offset reflection data in a single borehole. Transforming cross-hole transmission mode radar data to virtual single-hole, multi-offset reflection data using a wave interferometric virtual source (WIVS) approach has been proposed but not fully demonstrated. In this study, we compare WIVS-derived virtual single-hole, multi-offset reflection data to real SHMOR radar reflection profiles using cross-hole and single-hole radar data acquired in two boreholes located at the University of Connecticut (Storrs, CT USA). The field data results are similar to full-waveform numerical simulations developed for a two-borehole model. The reflection from the adjacent borehole is clearly imaged by both the real and WIVS-derived virtual reflection profiles. Reflector travel-time changes induced by deviation of the two boreholes from the vertical can also be observed on the real and virtual reflection profiles. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of the WIVS approach to improve bedrock fracture imaging for hydrogeological and petroleum reservoir development applications.

  16. 33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar operations center (PAROC), contains the tactical command and control group equipment required to control the par site. Showing spacetrack monitor console - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  17. Venus wind-altitude radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levanon, N.

    1974-01-01

    A design study on adding a radar altimeter to the Pioneer Venus small probe is review. Block and timing diagrams are provided. The inherent and interface ambiguities, resolution, and data handling logic for radar altimeters are described.

  18. Radar for tracer particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Felix; Herminghaus, Stephan; Huang, Kai

    2017-05-01

    We introduce a radar system capable of tracking a 5 mm spherical target continuously in three dimensions. The 10 GHz (X-band) radar system has a transmission power of 1 W and operates in the near field of the horn antennae. By comparing the phase shift of the electromagnetic wave traveling through the free space with an IQ-mixer, we obtain the relative movement of the target with respect to the antennae. From the azimuth and inclination angles of the receiving antennae obtained in the calibration, we reconstruct the target trajectory in a three-dimensional Cartesian system. Finally, we test the tracking algorithm with target moving in circular as well as in pendulum motions and discuss the capability of the radar system.

  19. Radar data smoothing filter study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. V.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of the current Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) data smoothing techniques for a variety of radars and payloads is examined. Alternative data reduction techniques are given and recommendations are made for improving radar data processing at WFF. A data adaptive algorithm, based on Kalman filtering and smoothing techniques, is also developed for estimating payload trajectories above the atmosphere from noisy time varying radar data. This algorithm is tested and verified using radar tracking data from WFF.

  20. Goldstone solar system radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurgens, R. F.; Clark, P. E.; Goldstein, R. M.; Ostro, S. J.; Slade, M. A.; Thompson, T. W.; Saunders, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    Information is provided about physical nature planetary surfaces and their topography as well as dynamical properties such as orbits and spin states using ground based radar as a remote sensing tool. Accessible targets are the terrestrial planets: the Earth's Moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars, the outer planets rings and major moons, and many transient objects such as asteroids and comets. Data acquisition utilizes the unique facilities of the Goldstone Deep Space Network, occasionally the Arecibo radar, and proposed use of the VLA (very large array).

  1. Threat radar system simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L.

    The capabilities, requirements, and goals of radar emitter simulators are discussed. Simulators are used to evaluate competing receiver designs, to quantify the performance envelope of a radar system, and to model the characteristics of a transmitted signal waveform. A database of candidate threat systems is developed and, in concert with intelligence data on a given weapons system, permits upgrading simulators to new projected threat capabilities. Four currently available simulation techniques are summarized, noting the usefulness of developing modular software for fast controlled-cost upgrades of simulation capabilities.

  2. Spaceborne Imaging Radar Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the present state of the art in the different scientific and technological fields related to spaceborne imaging radars was presented. The data acquired with the SEASAT SAR (1978) and Shuttle Imaging Radar, SIR-A (1981) clearly demonstrated the important emphasis in the 80's is going to be on in-depth research investigations conducted with the more flexible and sophisticated SIR series instruments and on long term monitoring of geophysical phenomena conducted from free-flying platforms such as ERS-1 and RADARSAT.

  3. Radar Investigations of Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    Radar investigations of asteroids, including observations during 1984 to 1985 of at least 8 potential targets and continued analyses of radar data obtained during 1980 to 1984 for 30 other asteroids is proposed. The primary scientific objectives include estimation of echo strength, polarization, spectral shape, spectral bandwidth, and Doppler shift. These measurements yield estimates of target size, shape, and spin vector; place constraints on topography, morphology, density, and composition of the planetary surface; yield refined estimates of target orbital parameters; and reveals the presence of asteroidal satellites.

  4. Radar detection of Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.; Jurgens, R. F.; Yeomans, D. K.; Standish, E. M.; Greiner, W.

    1989-01-01

    Radar echoes from the martian satellite Phobos provide information about that object's surface properties at scales near the 3.5-cm observing wavelength. Phobos appears less rough than the moon at centimeter-to-decimeter scales. The uppermost few decimeters of the satellite's regolith have a mean bulk density within 20 percent of 2.0 g/cu cm. The radar signature of Phobos (albedo, polarization ratio, and echo spectral shape) differs from signatures measured for small, earth-approaching objects, but resembles those of large (greater than 100-km), C-class, mainbelt asteroids.

  5. Systems and Methods for Radar Data Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, Brian (Inventor); Szeto, Roland (Inventor); Miller, Brad (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A radar information processing system is operable to process high bandwidth radar information received from a radar system into low bandwidth radar information that may be communicated to a low bandwidth connection coupled to an electronic flight bag (EFB). An exemplary embodiment receives radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth; processes the received radar information into processed radar information, the processed radar information configured for communication over a connection operable at a second bandwidth, the second bandwidth lower than the first bandwidth; and communicates the radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth.

  6. Coherent Laser Radar System Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-05

    This program is aimed at developing a system theory for the emerging technology of multifunction coherent CO2 laser radars. It builds upon previous...work funded by U.S. Army Research Office contract DAAG29-80-K-0022. Keywords include: Laser radar theory, Radar system theory , and Laser speckle.

  7. Radar Image of Galapagos Island

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-10-23

    This is an image showing part of Isla Isabella in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar on the 40th orbit of NASA’s space shuttle Endeavour.

  8. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    The number of radar detected asteroids has climbed from 6 to 40 (27 mainbelt plus 13 near-Earth). The dual-circular-polarization radar sample now comprises more than 1% of the numbered asteroids. Radar results for mainbelt asteroids furnish the first available information on the nature of these objects at macroscopic scales. At least one object (2 Pallas) and probably many others are extraordinarily smooth at centimeter-to-meter scales but are extremely rough at some scale between several meters and many kilometers. Pallas has essentially no small-scale structure within the uppermost several meters of the regolith, but the rms slope of this regolith exceeds 20 deg., much larger than typical lunar values (approx. 7 deg.). The origin of these slopes could be the hypervelocity impact cratering process, whose manifestations are likely to be different on low-gravity, low-radius-of-curvature objects from those on the terrestrial planets. The range of mainbelt asteroid radar albedoes is very broad and implies big variations in regolith porosity or metal concentration, or both. The highest albedo estimate, for 16 Psyche, is consistent with a surface having porosities typical of lunar soil and a composition nearly completely metallic. Therefore, Psyche might be the collisionally stripped core of a differentiated small plant, and might resemble mineralogically the parent bodies of iron meteorites.

  9. Retrodirective Radar Calibration Nanosatellite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Martin (Student Program Manager); Nicholas G. Fisher (Student Systems Engineer) University of Hawaii JULY 2013 Final Report...Cost-Effective, Rapid Design of a Student-Built Radar Calibration Nanosatellite Larry K. Martin , Nicholas G. Fisher, Toy Lim, John...University of Hawaii Reinventing Space Conference AIAA-RS-2012-3001 Martin 1 AIAA Reinventing Space Conference 2012

  10. Multiline radar scan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, S.

    1977-01-01

    Scanning scheme is more efficient than conventional scanning. Originally designed for optical radar in space vehicles, scheme may also find uses in site-surveillance security systems and in other industrial applications. It should be particularly useful when system must run on battery energy, as would be case in power outages.

  11. Passive bistatic radar analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hagan, Daniel W.; Kuschel, H.; Schiller, Joachim

    2009-06-01

    Passive Bistatic Radar (PBR) research is at its zenith with several notable PBR systems currently operational, or available for deployment. Such PBRs include the Manastash Ridge Radar (MRR) developed for and by academia; Silent Sentry developed as a commercial concern by Lockheed Martin; and Homeland Alerter (HA100) also a commercial system developed by Thales. However at present, despite the existence of numerous PBR prototypes, take up of commercial passive radar technology remains slow. This is due in part to technology immaturity, in part to politics, and particularly due to the fact that monostatic radars perform so well. If PBRs are to enjoy longevity as a viable technology then it is imperative that they address certain niche application areas, with the aforementioned MRR being one prime example of this. The focus of this paper will be an analysis of a PBR system that utilised FM radio signals of opportunity to detect aircraft targets with an RCS generally not lower than 20 m2. The paper will demonstrate the theoretical detection coverage of an FM based PBR operating in a severe interference environment.

  12. Impulse radar studfinder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    An impulse radar studfinder propagates electromagnetic pulses and detects reflected pulses from a fixed range. Unmodulated pulses, about 200 ps wide, are emitted. A large number of reflected pulses are sampled and averaged. Background reflections are subtracted. Reflections from wall studs or other hidden objects are detected and displayed using light emitting diodes.

  13. Air Traffic Control Radar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-13

    An Air Traffic Control radar has been constructed at Shiloh for the NASA control tower at the Shuttle Landing Facility. It will be used by NASA and the Eastern Range for surveillance of controlled air space in Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station restricted areas. Shiloh is on the northern end of Merritt Island.

  14. Air Traffic Control Radar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-13

    An Air Traffic Control radar is being constructed at Shiloh for the NASA control tower at the Shuttle Landing Facility. It will be used by NASA and the Eastern Range for surveillance of controlled air space in Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station restricted areas. Shiloh is on the northern end of Merritt Island.

  15. Impulse radar studfinder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-10-10

    An impulse radar studfinder propagates electromagnetic pulses and detects reflected pulses from a fixed range. Unmodulated pulses, about 200 ps wide, are emitted. A large number of reflected pulses are sampled and averaged. Background reflections are subtracted. Reflections from wall studs or other hidden objects are detected and displayed using light emitting diodes. 9 figs.

  16. Netted LPI RADARs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    CHALLENGES ............................66 1. Radar Processing Gain ........................66 2. High Sensitivity Requirement .................68 B...Relationship Between Network Space and Challenges .....................................127 Figure 42. Maneuverability................................129...virtually any kind of terrain. It has five modes: Normal, Weather, ECCM, LPI, and Very Low Clearance ( VLC ). Pictures of the LANTIRN pod aboard and F-16

  17. Frequency Diverse Array Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/A...given. Lastly, the radar applications of FDA are considered. The received power from a target at a fixed range is simulated in MATLAB and the

  18. Cognitive Nonlinear Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    intelligently selecting waveform parameters using adaptive algorithms. The adaptive algorithms optimize the waveform parameters based on (1) the EM...the environment. 15. SUBJECT TERMS cognitive radar, adaptive sensing, spectrum sensing, multi-objective optimization, genetic algorithms, machine...detection and classification block diagram. .........................................................6 Figure 5. Genetic algorithm block diagram

  19. Radar Absorbing Material Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    layer will depend on the angle of the incidence of the incoming wave. However, for large and ε µ values, the direction of the refracted ray in the...1995. 3. Federation of American Scientist Official Website (www.fas.org), 22 June 2003. 4. Asoke Bhattacharyya, D.L. Sengupta, Radar Cross Section

  20. Radar images of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhleman, Duane O.; Butler, Bryan J.; Grossman, Arie W.; Slade, Martin A.

    1991-01-01

    VLA radar-reflected flux-density mappings have yielded full disk images of Mars which reveal near-surface features, including a region in the Tharsis volcano area that displayed no echo to the very low level of the radar-system noise. This feature is interpreted as a deposit of dust or ash whose density is less than about 0.5 g/cu cm; it must be several meters thick, and may be much deeper. The most strongly reflecting geological feature was the south polar ice cap, which is interpretable as arising from nearly-pure CO2 or H2O ice, with less than 2 vol pct Martian dust. Only one anomalous reflecting feature was identified outside the Tharsis region.

  1. RADAR Reveals Titan Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R. L.; Callahan, P.; Seu, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Paganelli, F.; Lopes, R.; Elachi, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Cassini Titan RADAR Mapper is a K(sub u)-band (13.78 GHz, lambda = 2.17 cm) linear polarized RADAR instrument capable of operating in synthetic aperture (SAR), scatterometer, altimeter and radiometer modes. During the first targeted flyby of Titan on 26 October, 2004 (referred to as Ta) observations were made in all modes. Evidence for topographic relief based on the Ta altimetry and SAR data are presented here. Additional SAR and altimetry observations are planned for the T3 encounter on 15 February, 2005, but have not been carried out at this writing. Results from the T3 encounter relevant to topography will be included in our presentation. Data obtained in the Ta encounter include a SAR image swath

  2. 41. Perimeter acquisition radar building radar element and coaxial display, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Perimeter acquisition radar building radar element and coaxial display, with drawing of typical antenna section. Drawing, from left to right, shows element, aluminum ground plane, cable connectors and hardware, cable, and back-up ring. Grey area is the concrete wall - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  3. 51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. View of upper radar scanner switch in radar scanner building 105 from upper catwalk level showing emanating waveguides from upper switch (upper one-fourth of photograph) and emanating waveguides from lower radar scanner switch in vertical runs. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  4. Ice sheet radar altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, J.

    1988-01-01

    The surface topography of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets between 72 degrees north and south was mapped using radar altimetry data from the U.S. Navy GEOSAT. The glaciological objectives of this activity were to study the dynamics of the ice flow, changes in the position of floating ice-shelf fronts, and ultimately to measure temporal changes in ice surface elevation indicative of ice sheet mass balance.

  5. Design of radar receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, M. A.

    This handbook treats the design and analysis of of pulsed radar receivers, with emphasis on elements (especially IC elements) that implement optimal and suboptimal algorithms. The design methodology is developed from the viewpoint of statistical communications theory. Particular consideration is given to the synthesis of single-channel and multichannel detectors, the design of analog and digital signal-processing devices, and the analysis of IF amplifiers.

  6. Imaging synthetic aperture radar

    DOEpatents

    Burns, Bryan L.; Cordaro, J. Thomas

    1997-01-01

    A linear-FM SAR imaging radar method and apparatus to produce a real-time image by first arranging the returned signals into a plurality of subaperture arrays, the columns of each subaperture array having samples of dechirped baseband pulses, and further including a processing of each subaperture array to obtain coarse-resolution in azimuth, then fine-resolution in range, and lastly, to combine the processed subapertures to obtain the final fine-resolution in azimuth. Greater efficiency is achieved because both the transmitted signal and a local oscillator signal mixed with the returned signal can be varied on a pulse-to-pulse basis as a function of radar motion. Moreover, a novel circuit can adjust the sampling location and the A/D sample rate of the combined dechirped baseband signal which greatly reduces processing time and hardware. The processing steps include implementing a window function, stabilizing either a central reference point and/or all other points of a subaperture with respect to doppler frequency and/or range as a function of radar motion, sorting and compressing the signals using a standard fourier transforms. The stabilization of each processing part is accomplished with vector multiplication using waveforms generated as a function of radar motion wherein these waveforms may be synthesized in integrated circuits. Stabilization of range migration as a function of doppler frequency by simple vector multiplication is a particularly useful feature of the invention; as is stabilization of azimuth migration by correcting for spatially varying phase errors prior to the application of an autofocus process.

  7. Heterogeneous genetic diversity pattern in Plasmodium vivax genes encoding merozoite surface proteins (MSP) -7E, -7F and -7L.

    PubMed

    Garzón-Ospina, Diego; Forero-Rodríguez, Johanna; Patarroyo, Manuel A

    2014-12-13

    The msp-7 gene has become differentially expanded in the Plasmodium genus; Plasmodium vivax has the highest copy number of this gene, several of which encode antigenic proteins in merozoites. DNA sequences from thirty-six Colombian clinical isolates from P. vivax (pv) msp-7E, -7F and -7L genes were analysed for characterizing and studying the genetic diversity of these pvmsp-7 members which are expressed during the intra-erythrocyte stage; natural selection signals producing the variation pattern so observed were evaluated. The pvmsp-7E gene was highly polymorphic compared to pvmsp-7F and pvmsp-7L which were seen to have limited genetic diversity; pvmsp-7E polymorphism was seen to have been maintained by different types of positive selection. Even though these copies seemed to be species-specific duplications, a search in the Plasmodium cynomolgi genome (P. vivax sister taxon) showed that both species shared the whole msp-7 repertoire. This led to exploring the long-term effect of natural selection by comparing the orthologous sequences which led to finding signatures for lineage-specific positive selection. The results confirmed that the P. vivax msp-7 family has a heterogeneous genetic diversity pattern; some members are highly conserved whilst others are highly diverse. The results suggested that the 3'-end of these genes encode MSP-7 proteins' functional region whilst the central region of pvmsp-7E has evolved rapidly. The lineage-specific positive selection signals found suggested that mutations occurring in msp-7s genes during host switch may have succeeded in adapting the ancestral P. vivax parasite population to humans.

  8. Radar-aeolian roughness project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Dobrovolskis, A.; Gaddis, L.; Iversen, J. D.; Lancaster, N.; Leach, Rodman N.; Rasnussen, K.; Saunders, S.; Vanzyl, J.; Wall, S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to establish an empirical relationship between measurements of radar, aeolian, and surface roughness on a variety of natural surfaces and to understand the underlying physical causes. This relationship will form the basis for developing a predictive equation to derive aeolian roughness from radar backscatter. Results are given from investigations carried out in 1989 on the principal elements of the project, with separate sections on field studies, radar data analysis, laboratory simulations, and development of theory for planetary applications.

  9. Low-Angle Radar Tracking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-02-01

    Transition from Specular Reflection to Diffuse Scattering. . . 10 Composition of the Electric-Field Vector as Seen at the Radar...r t (16) R • FIGURE P COMPOSITION OF THE ELECTRIC-FIELD VECTOR AS SEEN AT THE RADAR, R, IN FIG. 2. The electric field at the radar, E, is the sum...wavelengths in the VHP and UHF ranges even subsurface characteristics can be important. So in a field experiment one must be careful to measure

  10. Radar studies of bird migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Observations of bird migration with NASA radars were made at Wallops Island, Va. Simultaneous observations were made at a number of radar sites in the North Atlantic Ocean in an effort to discover what happened to those birds that were observed leaving the coast of North America headed toward Bermuda, the Caribbean and South America. Transatlantic migration, utilizing observations from a large number of radars is discussed. Detailed studies of bird movements at Wallops Island are presented.

  11. Radar data processing and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausherman, D.; Larson, R.; Liskow, C.

    1976-01-01

    Digitized four-channel radar images corresponding to particular areas from the Phoenix and Huntington test sites were generated in conjunction with prior experiments performed to collect X- and L-band synthetic aperture radar imagery of these two areas. The methods for generating this imagery are documented. A secondary objective was the investigation of digital processing techniques for extraction of information from the multiband radar image data. Following the digitization, the remaining resources permitted a preliminary machine analysis to be performed on portions of the radar image data. The results, although necessarily limited, are reported.

  12. Reconfigurable L-Band Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rincon, Rafael F.

    2008-01-01

    The reconfigurable L-Band radar is an ongoing development at NASA/GSFC that exploits the capability inherently in phased array radar systems with a state-of-the-art data acquisition and real-time processor in order to enable multi-mode measurement techniques in a single radar architecture. The development leverages on the L-Band Imaging Scatterometer, a radar system designed for the development and testing of new radar techniques; and the custom-built DBSAR processor, a highly reconfigurable, high speed data acquisition and processing system. The radar modes currently implemented include scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar, and altimetry; and plans to add new modes such as radiometry and bi-static GNSS signals are being formulated. This development is aimed at enhancing the radar remote sensing capabilities for airborne and spaceborne applications in support of Earth Science and planetary exploration This paper describes the design of the radar and processor systems, explains the operational modes, and discusses preliminary measurements and future plans.

  13. Comments on Doppler radar applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, E.

    1969-01-01

    The application of Doppler methods to theoretical or meteorological problems is discussed. Research for using radar to study and monitor severe thunderstorms, turbulence, and tornadoes is recommended.

  14. Space Radar Image of Weddell Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    Two radar images are shown in this composite to compare the size of a standard spaceborne radar image small inset to the image that is created when the radar instrument is used in the ScanSAR mode large image.

  15. Research on Radar Importance with Decision Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Lingjie; Du, Yu; Wang, Liuheng

    2017-12-01

    Considering the characteristic of radar, constructed the evaluation index system of radar importance, established the comprehensive evaluation model based on decision matrix. Finally, by means of an example, the methods of this evaluation on radar importance was right and feasibility.

  16. Removing interfering clutter associated with radar pulses that an airborne radar receives from a radar transponder

    DOEpatents

    Ormesher, Richard C.; Axline, Robert M.

    2008-12-02

    Interfering clutter in radar pulses received by an airborne radar system from a radar transponder can be suppressed by developing a representation of the incoming echo-voltage time-series that permits the clutter associated with predetermined parts of the time-series to be estimated. These estimates can be used to estimate and suppress the clutter associated with other parts of the time-series.

  17. Planetary radar studies. [radar mapping of the Moon and radar signatures of lunar and Venus craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Cutts, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Progress made in studying the evolution of Venusian craters and the evolution of infrared and radar signatures of lunar crater interiors is reported. Comparison of radar images of craters on Venus and the Moon present evidence for a steady state Venus crater population. Successful observations at the Arecibo Observatory yielded good data on five nights when data for a mix of inner and limb areas were acquired. Lunar craters with radar bright ejects are discussed. An overview of infrared radar crater catalogs in the data base is included.

  18. Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escolà, Roger; Garcia-Mondejar, Albert; Moyano, Gorka; Roca, Mònica; Terra-Homem, Miguel; Friaças, Ana; Martinho, Fernando; Schrama, Ernst; Naeije, Marc; Ambrozio, Americo; Restano, Marco; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    The universal altimetry toolbox, BRAT (Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry missions' data, incorporates now the capability to read the upcoming Sentinel-3 L1 and L2 products. ESA endeavoured to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales), and it is freely available at http://earth.esa.int/brat. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats. The BratGUI is the front-end for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with MATLAB/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the data-formatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as NetCDF, ASCII text files, KML (Google Earth) and raster images (JPEG, PNG, etc.). Several kinds of computations can be done within BRAT involving combinations of data fields that the user can save for posterior reuse or using the already embedded formulas that include the standard oceanographic altimetry formulas. The Radar Altimeter Tutorial, that contains a strong introduction to altimetry, shows its applications in different fields such as Oceanography, Cryosphere, Geodesy, Hydrology among others. Included are also "use cases", with step-by-step examples, on how to use the toolbox in the different contexts. The Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox shall benefit from the current BRAT version. While developing the toolbox we will revamp of the Graphical User Interface and provide, among other enhancements, support for reading the upcoming S3 datasets and

  19. Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondéjar, Albert; Benveniste, Jérôme; Naeije, Marc; Escolà, Roger; Moyano, Gorka; Roca, Mònica; Terra-Homem, Miguel; Friaças, Ana; Martinho, Fernando; Schrama, Ernst; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco

    2016-07-01

    The universal altimetry toolbox, BRAT (Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry missions' data, incorporates now the capability to read the upcoming Sentinel-3 L1 and L2 products. ESA endeavoured to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Études Spatiales), and it is freely available at http://earth.esa.int/brat. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats. The BratGUI is the front-end for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with MATLAB/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the data-formatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as NetCDF, ASCII text files, KML (Google Earth) and raster images (JPEG, PNG, etc.). Several kinds of computations can be done within BRAT involving combinations of data fields that the user can save for posterior reuse or using the already embedded formulas that include the standard oceanographic altimetry formulas. The Radar Altimeter Tutorial, that contains a strong introduction to altimetry, shows its applications in different fields such as Oceanography, Cryosphere, Geodesy, Hydrology among others. Included are also "use cases", with step-by-step examples, on how to use the toolbox in the different contexts. The Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox shall benefit from the current BRAT version. While developing the toolbox we will revamp of the Graphical User Interface and provide, among other enhancements, support for reading the upcoming S3 datasets and

  20. Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Mondejar, Albert; Escolà, Roger; Moyano, Gorka; Roca, Mònica; Terra-Homem, Miguel; Friaças, Ana; Martinho, Fernando; Schrama, Ernst; Naeije, Marc; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2017-04-01

    The universal altimetry toolbox, BRAT (Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry missions' data, incorporates now the capability to read the upcoming Sentinel3 L1 and L2 products. ESA endeavoured to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales), and it is freely available at http://earth.esa.int/brat. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats. The BratGUI is the frontend for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with MATLAB/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the dataformatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as NetCDF, ASCII text files, KML (Google Earth) and raster images (JPEG, PNG, etc.). Several kinds of computations can be done within BRAT involving combinations of data fields that the user can save for posterior reuse or using the already embedded formulas that include the standard oceanographic altimetry formulas. The Radar Altimeter Tutorial, that contains a strong introduction to altimetry, shows its applications in different fields such as Oceanography, Cryosphere, Geodesy, Hydrology among others. Included are also "use cases", with step-by-step examples, on how to use the toolbox in the different contexts. The Sentinel3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox shall benefit from the current BRAT version. While developing the toolbox we will revamp of the Graphical User Interface and provide, among other enhancements, support for reading the upcoming S3 datasets and specific

  1. Doppler radar flowmeter

    DOEpatents

    Petlevich, Walter J.; Sverdrup, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    A Doppler radar flowmeter comprises a transceiver which produces an audio frequency output related to the Doppler shift in frequency between radio waves backscattered from particulate matter carried in a fluid and the radiated radio waves. A variable gain amplifier and low pass filter are provided for amplifying and filtering the transceiver output. A frequency counter having a variable triggering level is also provided to determine the magnitude of the Doppler shift. A calibration method is disclosed wherein the amplifier gain and frequency counter trigger level are adjusted to achieve plateaus in the output of the frequency counter and thereby allow calibration without the necessity of being able to visually observe the flow.

  2. Frequency Agility Radar,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-06

    different model aircraft in different wave bands (P,L, S and X). Yet, the obtained results were relatively complex and it was not easy to find regularity...hertz for the S wave band . This type of narrow wave band signifies that the drift velocity of the target viewed in the reflection center is very low... Band of Airborne Radar With Pulse Width of 0.02)4 s and Grazing Angle of 470) Key: 1. Probability exceeding horizontal coordinates 2. Clutter section 3

  3. Absorption and emission spectroscopic characterization of photo-dynamics of photoactivated adenylyl cyclase mutant bPAC-Y7F of Beggiatoa sp.

    PubMed

    Penzkofer, Alfons; Stierl, Manuela; Mathes, Tilo; Hegemann, Peter

    2014-11-01

    The photoactivated cyclase bPAC of the microbial mats bacterium Beggiatoa sp. consists of a BLUF domain and an adenylyl cyclase domain. It has strong activity of photo-induced cyclic adenylyl monophosphate (cAMP) formation and is therefore an important optogenetic tool in neuroscience applications. The SUMO-bPAC-Y7F mutant where Tyr-7 is replaced by Phe-7 in the BLUF domain has lost the typical BLUF domain photo-cycle dynamics. Instead, the investigated SUMO-bPAC-Y7F mutant consisted of three protein conformations with different triplet based photo-dynamics: (i) reversible flavin quinone (Fl) cofactor reduction to flavin semiquinone (FlH), (ii) reversible violet/near ultraviolet absorbing flavin photoproduct (FlA) formation, and (iii) irreversible red absorbing flavin photoproduct (FlC) formation. Absorption and emission spectroscopic measurements on SUMO-bPAC-Y7F were carried out before, during and after light exposure. Flavin photo-dynamics schemes are developed for the SUMO-bPAC-Y7F fractions performing photo-induced FlH, FlA, and FlC formation. Quantitative parameters of the flavin cofactor excitation, relaxation and recovery dynamics in SUMO-bPAC-Y7F are determined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Shuttle Imaging Radar - Geologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H.; Bridges, L.; Waite, W.; Kaupp, V.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Shuttle, on its second flight (November 12, 1981), carried the first science and applications payload which provided an early demonstration of Shuttle's research capabilities. One of the experiments, the Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A), had as a prime objective to evaluate the capability of spaceborne imaging radars as a tool for geologic exploration. The results of the experiment will help determine the value of using the combination of space radar and Landsat imagery for improved geologic analysis and mapping. Preliminary analysis of the Shuttle radar imagery with Seasat and Landsat imagery from similar areas provides evidence that spaceborne radars can significantly complement Landsat interpretation, and vastly improve geologic reconnaissance mapping in those areas of the world that are relatively unmapped because of perpetual cloud cover.

  5. Investigation of the quasi-simultaneous arrival (QSA) effect on a CAMECA IMS 7f-GEO.

    PubMed

    Jones, Clive; Fike, David A; Peres, Paula

    2017-04-15

    IMS 7f-GEO isotope ratio applications increasingly involve analyses (e.g., S - or O - isotopes, coupled with primary ion currents <30 pA) for which quasi-simultaneous arrival (QSA) could compromise precision and accuracy of data. QSA and associated correction have been widely investigated for the CAMECA NanoSIMS instruments, but not for the IMS series. Sulfur and oxygen isotopic ratio experiments were performed using an electron multiplier (EM) detector, employing Cs + primary ion currents of 1, 2, 5 and 11.5 pA (nominal) and a variety of secondary ion transmissions to vary QSA probability. An experiment to distinguish between QSA undercounting and purported aperture-related mass fractionation was performed using an EM for 16 O - and 18 O - plus an additional 16 O - measurement using a Faraday cup (FC) detector. An experiment to investigate the accuracy of the QSA correction was performed by comparing S isotopic ratios obtained using an EM with those obtained on the same sample using dual FCs. The QSA effect was observed on the IMS-7f-GEO, and QSA coefficients (β) of ~0.66 were determined, in agreement with reported NanoSIMS measurements, but different from the value (0.5) predicted using Poisson statistics. Aperture-related fractionation was not sufficient to explain the difference but uncertainties in primary ion flux measurement could play a role. When QSA corrected, the isotope ratio data obtained using the EM agreed with the dual FC data, within statistical error. QSA undercounting could compromise isotope ratio analyses requiring ~1 × 10 5 counts per second for the major isotope and primary currents <20 pA. The error could be >8‰ for a 1 pA primary current. However, correction can be accurately applied. For instrumental mass fractionation (IMF)-corrected data, the magnitude of the error resulting from not correcting for QSA is dependent on the difference in secondary ion count rate between the unknown and standard analyses. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley

  6. The Anti-(+)-Methamphetamine Monoclonal Antibody mAb7F9 Attenuates Acute (+)-Methamphetamine Effects on Intracranial Self-Stimulation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Andrew C.; LeSage, Mark G.; Shelley, David; Perry, Jennifer L.; Pentel, Paul R.; Owens, S. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against (+)-methamphetamine (METH) is being evaluated for the treatment of METH addiction. A human/mouse chimeric form of the murine anti-METH mAb7F9 has entered clinical trials. This study examined the effects of murine mAb7F9 on certain addiction-related behavioral effects of METH in rats as measured using intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). Initial studies indicated that acute METH (0.1-0.56 mg/kg, s.c.) lowered the minimal (threshold) stimulation intensity that maintained ICSS. METH (0.3 mg/kg, s.c.) also blocked elevations in ICSS thresholds (anhedonia-like behavior) during spontaneous withdrawal from a chronic METH infusion (10 mg/kg/day x 7 days). In studies examining effects of i.v. pretreatment with mAb7F9 (at 30, 100, or 200 mg/kg), 200 mg/kg blocked the ability of an initial injection of METH (0.3 mg/kg, s.c.) to reduce baseline ICSS thresholds, but was less capable of attenuating the effect of subsequent daily injections of METH. MAb7F9 (200 mg/kg) also produced a small but significant reduction in the ability of METH (0.3 mg/kg, s.c.) to reverse METH withdrawal-induced elevations in ICSS thresholds. These studies demonstrate that mAb7F9 can partially attenuate some addiction-related effects of acute METH in an ICSS model, and provide some support for the therapeutic potential of mAb7F9 for the treatment of METH addiction. PMID:25742165

  7. POLCAL - POLARIMETRIC RADAR CALIBRATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzyl, J.

    1994-01-01

    Calibration of polarimetric radar systems is a field of research in which great progress has been made over the last few years. POLCAL (Polarimetric Radar Calibration) is a software tool intended to assist in the calibration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems. In particular, POLCAL calibrates Stokes matrix format data produced as the standard product by the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) airborne imaging synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR). POLCAL was designed to be used in conjunction with data collected by the NASA/JPL AIRSAR system. AIRSAR is a multifrequency (6 cm, 24 cm, and 68 cm wavelength), fully polarimetric SAR system which produces 12 x 12 km imagery at 10 m resolution. AIRSTAR was designed as a testbed for NASA's Spaceborne Imaging Radar program. While the images produced after 1991 are thought to be calibrated (phase calibrated, cross-talk removed, channel imbalance removed, and absolutely calibrated), POLCAL can and should still be used to check the accuracy of the calibration and to correct it if necessary. Version 4.0 of POLCAL is an upgrade of POLCAL version 2.0 released to AIRSAR investigators in June, 1990. New options in version 4.0 include automatic absolute calibration of 89/90 data, distributed target analysis, calibration of nearby scenes with calibration parameters from a scene with corner reflectors, altitude or roll angle corrections, and calibration of errors introduced by known topography. Many sources of error can lead to false conclusions about the nature of scatterers on the surface. Errors in the phase relationship between polarization channels result in incorrect synthesis of polarization states. Cross-talk, caused by imperfections in the radar antenna itself, can also lead to error. POLCAL reduces cross-talk and corrects phase calibration without the use of ground calibration equipment. Removing the antenna patterns during SAR processing also forms a very important part of the calibration of SAR data. Errors in the

  8. Meningitis complicated by subdural empyema and deafness caused by pneumoccoccal serotype 7F in a 17-month-old child: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bosis, S; Semino, M; Picciolli, I; Pinzani, R; Genitori, L; Principi, N; Esposito, S

    2012-06-01

    Despite the availability of effective antibacterial agents and vaccines, pneumococcal meningitis and sepsis are still associated with high mortality rates and a high risk of neurological sequelae. We describe the case of a 17-month-old boy vaccinated with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) who developed bacterial meningitis complicated by subdural empyema and deafness caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 7F. The 7F strain is not contained in PCV7 (the only vaccine on the market at the time of the onset of meningitis) but is included in the new pediatric 13-valent PCV, which may therefore prevent cases such as this in the future.

  9. Radar Imaging of Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1996-09-01

    Measurements of the distribution of echo power in time delay (range) and Doppler frequency (line-of-sight velocity) can synthesize images of near-Earth and main-belt asteroids (NEAs and MBAs) that traverse the detectability windows of groundbased radar telescopes. Under ideal circumstances, current radar waveforms can achieve decameter surface resolution. The number of useful pixels obtainable in an imaging data set is of the same order as the signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, of an optimally filtered, weighted sum of all the data. (SNR increases as the square root of the integration time.) The upgraded Arecibo telescope which is about to become operational, should be able to achieve single-date SNRs {\\underline>} (20,100) for an average of (35,5) MBAs per year and single-date SNRs {\\underline>} (20,100,1000) for an average of (10,6,2) of the currently catalogued NEAs per year; optical surveying of the NEA population could increase the frequency of opportunities by an order of magnitude. The strongest imaging opportunities predicted for Arecibo between now and the end of 1997 include (the peak SNR/date is in parentheses): 9 Metis (110), 27 Euterpe (170), 80 Sappho (100), 139 Juewa (140), 144 Vibilia (140), 253 Mathilde (100), 2102 Tantalus (570), 3671 Dionysus (170), 3908 1980PA (4400), 4179 Toutatis (16000), 4197 1982TA (1200), 1991VK (700), and 1994PC1 (7400). A delay-Doppler image projects the echo power distribution onto the target's apparent equatorial plane. One cannot know a priori whether one or two (or more) points on the asteroid contributed power to a given pixel, so accurate interpretation of delay-Doppler images requires modeling (Hudson, 1993, Remote Sensing Rev. 8, 195-203). Inversion of an imaging sequence with enough orientational coverage can remove "north/south" ambiguities and can provide estimates of the target's three-dimensional shape, spin state, radar scattering properties, and delay-Doppler trajectory (e.g., Ostro et al. 1995, Science 270, 80

  10. Interception of LPI radar signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jim P.

    1991-11-01

    Most current radars are designed to transmit short duration pulses with relatively high peak power. These radars can be detected easily by the use of relatively modest EW intercept receivers. Three radar functions (search, anti-ship missile (ASM) seeker, and navigation) are examined to evaluate the effectiveness of potential low probability of intercept (LPI) techniques, such as waveform coding, antenna profile control, and power management that a radar may employ against current Electronic Warfare (EW) receivers. The general conclusion is that it is possible to design a LPI radar which is effective against current intercept EW receivers. LPI operation is most easily achieved at close ranges and against a target with a large radar cross section. The general system sensitivity requirement for the detection of current and projected LPI radars is found to be on the order of -100 dBmi which cannot be met by current EW receivers. Finally, three potential LPI receiver architectures, using channelized, superhet, and acousto-optic receivers with narrow RF and video bandwidths are discussed. They have shown some potential in terms of providing the sensitivity and capability in an environment where both conventional and LPI signals are present.

  11. Evaluation of meteorological airborne Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, P. H.; Mueller, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper will discuss the capabilities of airborne Doppler radar for atmospheric sciences research. The evaluation is based on airborne and ground based Doppler radar observations of convective storms. The capability of airborne Doppler radar to measure horizontal and vertical air motions is evaluated. Airborne Doppler radar is shown to be a viable tool for atmospheric sciences research.

  12. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, all self... radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at the primary operating station. (b...

  13. FIRE_CI2_ETL_RADAR

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-11-25

    FIRE_CI2_ETL_RADAR Project Title:  FIRE II CIRRUS Discipline:  ... Platform:  Ground Station Instrument:  Radar Spatial Coverage:  (37.06, -95.34) Spatial ... Order Data Guide Documents:  ETL_RADAR Guide Readme Files:  Readme ETL_RADAR (PS) ...

  14. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273... MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar... with radar must comply with the following standards (all incorporated by reference, see § 80.7): (1...

  15. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273... MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar... with radar must comply with the following standards (all incorporated by reference, see § 80.7): (1...

  16. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, all self... radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at the primary operating station. (b...

  17. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, all self... radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at the primary operating station. (b...

  18. 47 CFR 80.273 - Radar standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar standards. 80.273 Section 80.273... MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.273 Radar standards. (a) Radar... with radar must comply with the following standards (all incorporated by reference, see § 80.7): (1...

  19. Radar, Insect Population Ecology, and Pest Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, C. R. (Editor); Wolf, W. (Editor); Klassen, W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Discussions included: (1) the potential role of radar in insect ecology studies and pest management; (2) the potential role of radar in correlating atmospheric phenomena with insect movement; (3) the present and future radar systems; (4) program objectives required to adapt radar to insect ecology studies and pest management; and (5) the specific action items to achieve the objectives.

  20. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, all self... radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at the primary operating station. (b...

  1. 46 CFR 121.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radars. 121.404 Section 121.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... Navigation Equipment § 121.404 Radars. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, all self... radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at the primary operating station. (b...

  2. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1981-01-01

    Radar investigations were conducted of selected minor planets, including: (1) observations during 1981-82 of 10 potential targets (2 Pallas, 8 Flora, 12 Victoria, 15 Eunomia, 19 Fortuna, 22 Kalliope, 132 Aethra, 219 Thusnelda, 433 Eros, and 2100 Ra-Shalom); and (2) continued analyses of observational data obtained during 1980-81 for 10 other asteroids (4 Vesta, 7 Iris, 16 Psyche, 75 Eurydike, 97 Klotho, 216 Kleopatra, 1685 Toro, 1862 Apollo, 1865 Cerberus, and 1915 Quetzalcoatl). Scientific objectives include estimation of echo strength, polarization, spectral shape, spectral bandwidth, and Doppler shift. These measurements: (1) yield estimates of target size, shape, and spin vector; (2) place constraints on topography, morphology, and composition of the planetary surface; (3) yield refined estimates of target orbital parameters; (4) reveal the presence of asteroidal satellites.

  3. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    The dual polarization CW radar system which permits simultaneous reception in the same rotational sense of circular polarization as transmitted (i.e., the "SC" sense) and in the opposite ("OC") sense, was used to observe five previously unobserved asteroids: 2 Pallas, 8 Flora, 22 Kalliope, 132 Aethra, and 471 Papagena. Echoes from Pallas and Flora were easily detected in the OC sense on each of several nights. Weighted mean echo power spectra also show marginally significant responses in the SC sense. An approximately 4.5 standard deviation signal was obtained for Aethra. The Doppler shift of the peak is about 10 Hz higher than that predicted from the a priori trial ephemeris. Calculations are performed to determine whether this frequency offset can be reconciled dynamically with optical positions reported for Aethra.

  4. Ganymede: observations by radar.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, R M; Morris, G A

    1975-06-20

    Radar cross-section measurements indicate that Ganymede scatters to Earth 12 percent of the power expected from a conducting sphere of the same size and distance. This compares with 8 percent for Mars, 12 percent for Venus, 6 percent for Mercury, and about 8 percent for the asteroid Toro. Furthermore, Ganymede is considerably rougher (to the scale of the wavelength used, 12.6 centimeters) than Mars, Venus, or Mercury. Roughness is made evident in this experiment by the presence of echoes away from the center of the disk. A perfectly smooth target would reflect only a glint from the center, whereas a very rough target would reflect power from over the entire disk.

  5. Radar images of Mars.

    PubMed

    Muhleman, D O; Butler, B J; Grossman, A W; Slade, M A

    1991-09-27

    Full disk images of Mars have been obtained with the use of the Very Large Array (VLA) to map the radar reflected flux density. The transmitter system was the 70-m antenna of the Deep Space Network at Goldstone, California. The surface of Mars was illuminated with continuous wave radiation at a wavelength of 3,5 cm. The reflected energy was mapped in individual 12-minute snapshots with the VLA in its largest configuration; fringe spacings as small as 67 km were obtained. The images reveal near-surface features including a region in the Tharsis volcano area, over 2000 km in east-west extent, that displayed no echo to the very low level of the radar system noise. The feature, called Stealth, is interpreted as a deposit of dust or ash with a density less than about 0.5 gram per cubic centimeter and free of rocks larger than 1 cm across. The deposit must be several meters thick and may be much deeper. The strongest reflecting geological feature was the south polar ice cap, which was reduced in size to the residual south polar ice cap at the season of observation. The cap image is interpreted as arising from nearly pure CO(2) or H(2)O ice with a small amount of martian dust (less than 2 percent by volume) and a depth greater than 2 to 5 m. Only one anomalous reflecting feature was identified outside of the Tharsis region, although the Elysium region was poorly sampled in this experiment and the north pole was not visible from Earth.

  6. The Clementine Bistatic Radar Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozette, S.; Lichtenberg, C. L.; Spudis, P.; Bonner, R.; Ort, W.; Malaret, E.; Robinson, M.; Shoemaker, E. M.

    1996-01-01

    During the Clementine 1 mission, a bistatic radar experiment measured the magnitude and polarization of the radar echo versus bistatic angle, beta, for selected lunar areas. Observations of the lunar south pole yield a same-sense polarization enhancement around beta = 0. Analysis shows that the observed enhancement is localized to the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. Radar observations of periodically solar-illuminated lunar surfaces, including the north pole, yielded no such enhancement. A probable explanation for these differences is the presence of low-loss volume scatterers, such as water ice, in the permanently shadowed region at the south pole.

  7. Radar Control Optimal Resource Allocation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-13

    other tunable parameters of radars [17, 18]. Such radar resource scheduling usually demands massive computation. Even myopic 14 Distribution A: Approved...reduced validity of the optimal choice of radar resource. In the non- myopic context, the computational problem becomes exponentially more difficult...computed as t? = ασ2 q + σ r √ α q (σ + r + α q) α q2 r − 1ασ q2 + q r2 . (19) We are only interested in t? > 1 and solving the inequality we obtain the

  8. Fly eye radar or micro-radar sensor technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, Pavlo; Asmolova, Olga

    2014-05-01

    To compensate for its eye's inability to point its eye at a target, the fly's eye consists of multiple angularly spaced sensors giving the fly the wide-area visual coverage it needs to detect and avoid the threats around him. Based on a similar concept a revolutionary new micro-radar sensor technology is proposed for detecting and tracking ground and/or airborne low profile low altitude targets in harsh urban environments. Distributed along a border or around a protected object (military facility and buildings, camp, stadium) small size, low power unattended radar sensors can be used for target detection and tracking, threat warning, pre-shot sniper protection and provides effective support for homeland security. In addition it can provide 3D recognition and targets classification due to its use of five orders more pulses than any scanning radar to each space point, by using few points of view, diversity signals and intelligent processing. The application of an array of directional antennas eliminates the need for a mechanical scanning antenna or phase processor. It radically decreases radar size and increases bearing accuracy several folds. The proposed micro-radar sensors can be easy connected to one or several operators by point-to-point invisible protected communication. The directional antennas have higher gain, can be multi-frequency and connected to a multi-functional network. Fly eye micro-radars are inexpensive, can be expendable and will reduce cost of defense.

  9. Historical aspects of radar atmospheric dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, Susumu

    1989-01-01

    A review of the history of radar techniques which have been applied to atmospheric observation is given. The author starts with ionosphere observation with the ionosonde, symbolizing as it does the earliest history of radar observation, and proceeds to later developments in radar observation such as the use of partial reflection, meteor, and incoherent scatter radars. Mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) radars are discussed in terms of lower atmosphere observation.

  10. Anion ordering, magnetic structure and properties of the vacancy ordered perovskite Ba{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 7}F

    SciTech Connect

    Clemens, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.clemens@nano.tu-darmstadt.de; Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut für Nanotechnologie, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen; University of Birmingham, School of Chemistry, Birmingham B152TT

    2016-11-15

    This article describes a detailed investigation of the crystallographic and magnetic structure of perovskite type Ba{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 7}F by a combined analysis of X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data. Complete ordering of vacancies within the perovskite lattice could be confirmed. In addition, the structure of the anion sublattice was studied by means of the valence bond method, which suggested partial ordering of the fluoride ions on two of the six crystallographically different anion sites. Moreover, the compound was found to show G-type antiferromagnetic ordering of Fe moments, in agreement with magnetometric measurements as well as previously recorded {sup 57}Femore » Mössbauer spectroscopy data. - Graphical abstract: The vacancy and anion ordered structure of Ba{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 7}F is described together with its magnetic properties. - Highlights: • Ba{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 7}F possesses a unique vacancy order not found for other perovskite type compounds. • The valence bond method was used to locate oxide and fluoride ions. • Fluoride ions are distributed only on two of the six anion sites in Ba{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 7}F. • The compound shows G-type antiferromagnetic ordering of magnetic moments. • The magnetic structure could be refined in one of the maximal magnetic subgroups of the nuclear structure.« less

  11. Intracoronary stent implantation: new approach using a monorail system and new large-lumen 7F catheters from the brachial route.

    PubMed

    Jenny, D B; Robert, G P; Fajadet, J C; Cassagneau, B G; Marco, J

    1992-04-01

    In this brief report we describe a case of successful multivessel PTCA with intracoronary stent implantation using a new large-lumen 7F catheter from the left brachial approach. The application of this technique should be considered for intravascular stent implantation when anticoagulation ideally should not be interrupted or in anatomical situations limiting femoral vascular access.

  12. Radar Shows Evidence of Seas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-13

    This movie, comprised of several detailed images taken by Cassini radar instrument, shows bodies of liquid near Titan north pole. These images show that many of the features commonly associated with lakes on Earth

  13. Ground Penetrating Radar, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer

    John Peterson

    2015-03-06

    This is 500 MHz Ground Penetrating Radar collected along the AB Line in Intensive Site 1 beginning in October 2012 and collected along L2 in Intensive Site 0 beginning in September 2011. Both continue to the present.

  14. Solid-state radar switchboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiebaud, P.; Cross, D. C.

    1980-07-01

    A new solid-state radar switchboard equipped with 16 input ports which will output data to 16 displays is presented. Each of the ports will handle a single two-dimensional radar input, or three ports will accommodate a three-dimensional radar input. A video switch card of the switchboard is used to switch all signals, with the exception of the IFF-mode-control lines. Each card accepts inputs from up to 16 sources and can pass a signal with bandwidth greater than 20 MHz to the display assigned to that card. The synchro amplifier of current systems has been eliminated and in the new design each PPI receives radar data via a single coaxial cable. This significant reduction in cabling is achieved by adding a serial-to-parallel interface and a digital-to-synchro converter located at the PPI.

  15. Radar Training Facility initial validation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1983-05-01

    The Radar Training Facility (RTF), part of the Federal Aviation Administration Academy located at the Oklahoma City Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center, is designed to identify, as early as possible, air traffic control specialists who do not demonstra...

  16. Advanced Borehole Radar for Hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar is a useful tool for monitoring the hydrogeological environment. We have developed GPR systems which can be applied to these purposes, and we will demonstrate examples borehole radar measurements. In order to have longer radar detection range, frequency lower than100MHz has been normally adopted in borehole radar. Typical subsurface fractures of our interests have a few mm aperture and radar resolution is much poorer than a few cm in this frequency range. We are proposing and demonstrating to use radar polarimetry to solve this problem. We have demonstrated that a full-polarimetry borehole radar can be used for characterization of subsurface fractures. Together with signal processing for antenna characteristic compensation to equalize the signal by a dipole antenna and slot antennas, we could demonstrate that polarimetric borehole radar can estimate the surface roughness of subsurface fractures, We believe the surface roughness is closely related to water permeability through the fractures. We then developed a directional borehole radar, which uses optical field sensor. A dipole antenna in a borehole has omni-directional radiation pattern, and we cannot get azimuthal information about the scatterers. We use multiple dipole antennas set around the borehole axis, and from the phase differences, we can estimate the 3-diemnational orientation of subsurface structures. We are using optical electric field sensor for receiver of borehole radar. This is a passive sensor and connected only with optical fibers and does not require any electric power supply to operate the receiver. It has two major advantages; the first one is that the receiver can be electrically isolated from other parts, and wave coupling to a logging cable is avoided. Then, secondary, it can operate for a long time, because it does not require battery installed inside the system. It makes it possible to set sensors in fixed positions to monitor the change of environmental

  17. SMAP RADAR Calibration and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, R. D.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Chaubel, M. J.; Spencer, M.; Chan, S. F.; Chen, C. W.; Fore, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission launched on Jan 31, 2015. The mission employs L-band radar and radiometer measurements to estimate soil moisture with 4% volumetric accuracy at a resolution of 10 km, and freeze-thaw state at a resolution of 1-3 km. Immediately following launch, there was a three month instrument checkout period, followed by six months of level 1 (L1) calibration and validation. In this presentation, we will discuss the calibration and validation activities and results for the L1 radar data. Early SMAP radar data were used to check commanded timing parameters, and to work out issues in the low- and high-resolution radar processors. From April 3-13 the radar collected receive only mode data to conduct a survey of RFI sources. Analysis of the RFI environment led to a preferred operating frequency. The RFI survey data were also used to validate noise subtraction and scaling operations in the radar processors. Normal radar operations resumed on April 13. All radar data were examined closely for image quality and calibration issues which led to improvements in the radar data products for the beta release at the end of July. Radar data were used to determine and correct for small biases in the reported spacecraft attitude. Geo-location was validated against coastline positions and the known positions of corner reflectors. Residual errors at the time of the beta release are about 350 m. Intra-swath biases in the high-resolution backscatter images are reduced to less than 0.3 dB for all polarizations. Radiometric cross-calibration with Aquarius was performed using areas of the Amazon rain forest. Cross-calibration was also examined using ocean data from the low-resolution processor and comparing with the Aquarius wind model function. Using all a-priori calibration constants provided good results with co-polarized measurements matching to better than 1 dB, and cross-polarized measurements matching to about 1 dB in the beta release. During the

  18. The NASA Polarimetric Radar (NPOL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Wolff, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of the NASA NPOL S-band dual-polarimetric radar are presented including its operating characteristics, field configuration, scanning capabilities and calibration approaches. Examples of precipitation science data collections conducted using various scan types, and associated products, are presented for different convective system types and previous field campaign deployments. Finally, the NASA NPOL radar location is depicted in its home base configuration within the greater Wallops Flight Facility precipitation research array supporting NASA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission ground validation.

  19. Flyby Comet Imaged By Radar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-24

    Radar data of comet P/2016 BA14 taken over three days (March 21-23, 2016), when the comet was between 2.5 million miles and 2.2 million miles (4.1 million kilometers and 3.6 million kilometers) from Earth. Radar images from the flyby indicated that the comet is about 3,000 feet (1 kilometer) in diameter.

  20. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, J. L.; Vierinen, J.; Pfeffer, N.; Clahsen, M.; Stober, G.

    2016-12-01

    The concept of a coded continuous wave specular meteor radar (SMR) is described. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudorandom phase-modulated waveform, which has several advantages compared to conventional pulsed SMRs. The coding avoids range and Doppler aliasing, which are in some cases problematic with pulsed radars. Continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation at lower peak power than a pulsed system. With continuous coding, the temporal and spectral resolution are not dependent on the transmit waveform and they can be fairly flexibly changed after performing a measurement. The low signal-to-noise ratio before pulse compression, combined with independent pseudorandom transmit waveforms, allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band simultaneously without significantly interfering with each other. Because the same frequency band can be used by multiple transmitters, the same interferometric receiver antennas can be used to receive multiple transmitters at the same time. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large-scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. Such a system would be useful for increasing the number of meteor detections to obtain improved meteor radar data products, such as wind fields. This type of a radar would also be useful for over-the-horizon radar, ionosondes, and observations of field-aligned-irregularities.

  1. Radar Mosaic of Africa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-09-23

    This is an image of equatorial Africa, centered on the equator at longitude 15degrees east. This image is a mosaic of almost 4,000 separate images obtained in 1996 by the L-band imaging radar onboard the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite. Using radar to penetrate the persistent clouds prevalent in tropical forests, the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite was able for the first time to image at high resolution this continental scale region during single flooding seasons. The area shown covers about 7.4 million square kilometers (2.8 million square miles) of land surface, spans more than 5,000 kilometers(3,100 miles) east and west and some 2,000 kilometers (1,240 miles) north and south. North is up in this image. At the full resolution of the mosaic (100 meters or 330 feet), this image is more than 500 megabytes in size, and was processed from imagery totaling more than 60 gigabytes. Central Africa was imaged twice in 1996, once between January and March, which is the major low-flood season in the Congo Basin, and once between October and November, which is the major high-flood season in the Congo Basin. The red color corresponds to the data from the low-flood season, the green to the high-flood season, and the blue to the "texture" of the low-flood data. The forests appear green as a result, the flooded and palm forests, as well as urban areas, appear yellow, the ocean and lakes appear black, and savanna areas appear blue, black or green, depending on the savanna type, surface topography and other factors. The areas of the image that are black and white were mapped only between January and March 1996. In these areas, the black areas are savanna or open water, the gray are forests, and the white areas are flooded forests or urban areas. The Congo River dominates the middle of the image, where the nearby forests that are periodically flooded by the Congo and its tributaries stand out as yellow. The Nile River flows north from Lake Victoria in the middle right of the

  2. Space Radar Image of Long Island Optical/Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This pair of images of the Long Island, New York region is a comparison of an optical photograph (top) and a radar image (bottom), both taken in darkness in April 1994. The photograph at the top was taken by the Endeavour astronauts at about 3 a.m. Eastern time on April 20, 1994. The image at the bottom was acquired at about the same time four days earlier on April 16,1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) system aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Both images show an area approximately 100 kilometers by 40 kilometers (62 miles by 25 miles) that is centered at 40.7 degrees North latitude and 73.5 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper right. The optical image is dominated by city lights, which are particularly bright in the densely developed urban areas of New York City located on the left half of the photo. The brightest white zones appear on the island of Manhattan in the left center, and Central Park can be seen as a darker area in the middle of Manhattan. To the northeast (right) of the city, suburban Long Island appears as a less densely illuminated area, with the brightest zones occurring along major transportation and development corridors. Since radar is an active sensing system that provides its own illumination, the radar image shows a great amount of surface detail, despite the night-time acquisition. The colors in the radar image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In this image, the water surface - the Atlantic Ocean along the bottom edge and Long Island Sound shown at the top edge - appears red because small waves at the surface strongly reflect the horizontally transmitted and received L-band radar signal. Networks of highways and railroad lines are clearly

  3. All-digital radar architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, Pavlo A.

    2014-10-01

    All digital radar architecture requires exclude mechanical scan system. The phase antenna array is necessarily large because the array elements must be co-located with very precise dimensions and will need high accuracy phase processing system for aggregate and distribute T/R modules data to/from antenna elements. Even phase array cannot provide wide field of view. New nature inspired all digital radar architecture proposed. The fly's eye consists of multiple angularly spaced sensors giving the fly simultaneously thee wide-area visual coverage it needs to detect and avoid the threats around him. Fly eye radar antenna array consist multiple directional antennas loose distributed along perimeter of ground vehicle or aircraft and coupled with receiving/transmitting front end modules connected by digital interface to central processor. Non-steering antenna array allows creating all-digital radar with extreme flexible architecture. Fly eye radar architecture provides wide possibility of digital modulation and different waveform generation. Simultaneous correlation and integration of thousands signals per second from each point of surveillance area allows not only detecting of low level signals ((low profile targets), but help to recognize and classify signals (targets) by using diversity signals, polarization modulation and intelligent processing. Proposed all digital radar architecture with distributed directional antenna array can provide a 3D space vector to the jammer by verification direction of arrival for signals sources and as result jam/spoof protection not only for radar systems, but for communication systems and any navigation constellation system, for both encrypted or unencrypted signals, for not limited number or close positioned jammers.

  4. Online clustering algorithms for radar emitter classification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Lee, Jim P Y; Senior; Li, Lingjie; Luo, Zhi-Quan; Wong, K Max

    2005-08-01

    Radar emitter classification is a special application of data clustering for classifying unknown radar emitters from received radar pulse samples. The main challenges of this task are the high dimensionality of radar pulse samples, small sample group size, and closely located radar pulse clusters. In this paper, two new online clustering algorithms are developed for radar emitter classification: One is model-based using the Minimum Description Length (MDL) criterion and the other is based on competitive learning. Computational complexity is analyzed for each algorithm and then compared. Simulation results show the superior performance of the model-based algorithm over competitive learning in terms of better classification accuracy, flexibility, and stability.

  5. Radar Mosaic of Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is an image of equatorial Africa, centered on the equator at longitude 15degrees east. This image is a mosaic of almost 4,000 separate images obtained in 1996 by the L-band imaging radar onboard the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite. Using radar to penetrate the persistent clouds prevalent in tropical forests, the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite was able for the first time to image at high resolution this continental scale region during single flooding seasons. The area shown covers about 7.4 million square kilometers (2.8 million square miles) of land surface, spans more than 5,000 kilometers(3,100 miles) east and west and some 2,000 kilometers (1,240 miles) north and south. North is up in this image. At the full resolution of the mosaic (100 meters or 330 feet), this image is more than 500 megabytes in size, and was processed from imagery totaling more than 60 gigabytes.

    Central Africa was imaged twice in 1996, once between January and March, which is the major low-flood season in the Congo Basin, and once between October and November, which is the major high-flood season in the Congo Basin. The red color corresponds to the data from the low-flood season, the green to the high-flood season, and the blue to the 'texture' of the low-flood data. The forests appear green as a result, the flooded and palm forests, as well as urban areas, appear yellow, the ocean and lakes appear black, and savanna areas appear blue, black or green, depending on the savanna type, surface topography and other factors. The areas of the image that are black and white were mapped only between January and March 1996. In these areas, the black areas are savanna or open water, the gray are forests, and the white areas are flooded forests or urban areas. The Congo River dominates the middle of the image, where the nearby forests that are periodically flooded by the Congo and its tributaries stand out as yellow. The Nile River flows north from Lake Victoria in the middle right of

  6. Bistatic synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, Gillian

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) allows all-weather, day and night, surface surveillance and has the ability to detect, classify and geolocate objects at long stand-off ranges. Bistatic SAR, where the transmitter and the receiver are on separate platforms, is seen as a potential means of countering the vulnerability of conventional monostatic SAR to electronic countermeasures, particularly directional jamming, and avoiding physical attack of the imaging platform. As the receiving platform can be totally passive, it does not advertise its position by RF emissions. The transmitter is not susceptible to jamming and can, for example, operate at long stand-off ranges to reduce its vulnerability to physical attack. This thesis examines some of the complications involved in producing high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery. The effect of bistatic operation on resolution is examined from a theoretical viewpoint and analytical expressions for resolution are developed. These expressions are verified by simulation work using a simple 'point by point' processor. This work is extended to look at using modern practical processing engines for bistatic geometries. Adaptations of the polar format algorithm and range migration algorithm are considered. The principal achievement of this work is a fully airborne demonstration of bistatic SAR. The route taken in reaching this is given, along with some results. The bistatic SAR imagery is analysed and compared to the monostatic imagery collected at the same time. Demonstrating high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery using two airborne platforms represents what I believe to be a European first and is likely to be the first time that this has been achieved outside the US (the UK has very little insight into US work on this topic). Bistatic target characteristics are examined through the use of simulations. This also compares bistatic imagery with monostatic and gives further insight into the utility of bistatic SAR.

  7. Hydrologic applications of weather radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Dong-Jun; Habib, Emad; Andrieu, Hervé; Morin, Efrat

    2015-12-01

    By providing high-resolution quantitative precipitation information (QPI), weather radars have revolutionized hydrology in the last two decades. With the aid of GIS technology, radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) have enabled routine high-resolution hydrologic modeling in many parts of the world. Given the ever-increasing need for higher-resolution hydrologic and water resources information for a wide range of applications, one may expect that the use of weather radar will only grow. Despite the tremendous progress, a number of significant scientific, technological and engineering challenges remain to realize its potential. New challenges are also emerging as new areas of applications are discovered, explored and pursued. The purpose of this special issue is to provide the readership with some of the latest advances, lessons learned, experiences gained, and science issues and challenges related to hydrologic applications of weather radar. The special issue features 20 contributions on various topics which reflect the increasing diversity as well as the areas of focus in radar hydrology today. The contributions may be grouped as follows:

  8. Radar Imaging with a Network of Digital Noise Radar Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    This chapter develops the theoretical foundations of noise radar technology. Comprehensive theoretical models are developed for UWB noise radar, digital...Power to the Antenna +23 dBm Polarization HH Antenna Gain 6 dB ADC 8 Bits Sampling Rate 1.5 GHz/per channel Dynamic Range (0.8 Pd, 0.2 Pf ) 20 dB Range...from Eq. 3.25, can be found by solving Eq. 3.23 for E[XY ]. µrXY = E[XY ] = 〈xy〉 = ρσ2 (3.26) σrXY , from Eq. 3.25 can be derived through the

  9. MST radar data-base management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickwar, V. B.

    1983-01-01

    Data management for Mesospheric-Stratospheric-Tropospheric, (MST) radars is addressed. An incoherent-scatter radar data base is discussed in terms of purpose, centralization, scope, and nature of the data base management system.

  10. Radar Imagery of Asteroid 2014 JO25

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-19

    This composite of 30 images of asteroid 2014 JO25 was generated with radar data collected using NASA Goldstone Solar System Radar in California Mojave Desert. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21594

  11. German Radar Observation Shuttle Experiment (ROSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleber, A. J.; Hartl, P.; Haydn, R.; Hildebrandt, G.; Konecny, G.; Muehlfeld, R.

    1984-01-01

    The success of radar sensors in several different application areas of interest depends on the knowledge of the backscatter of radar waves from the targets of interest, the variance of these interaction mechanisms with respect to changing measurement parameters, and the determination of the influence of he measuring systems on the results. The incidence-angle dependency of the radar cross section of different natural targets is derived. Problems involved by the combination of data gained with different sensors, e.g., MSS-, TM-, SPOTand SAR-images are analyzed. Radar cross-section values gained with ground-based radar spectrometers and spaceborne radar imaging, and non-imaging scatterometers and spaceborne radar images from the same areal target are correlated. The penetration of L-band radar waves into vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces is analyzed.

  12. Space Radar Image of Randonia Rain Cell

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This multi-frequency space radar image of a tropical rainforest in western Brazil shows rapidly changing land use patterns and it also demonstrates the capability of the different radar frequencies to detect and penetrate heavy rainstorms.

  13. Space Radar Image of Dublin, Ireland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This radar image of Dublin, Ireland, shows how the radar distinguishes between densely populated urban areas and nearby areas that are relatively unsettled. In the center of the image is the city natural harbor along the Irish Sea.

  14. Space Radar Image of Maui, Hawaii

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This spaceborne radar image shows the Valley Island of Maui, Hawaii. The cloud-penetrating capabilities of radar provide a rare view of many parts of the island, since the higher elevations are frequently shrouded in clouds.

  15. Extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yimin; Meng, Huadong; Liu, Yimin; Wang, Xiqin

    2010-01-01

    We address the problem of adaptive waveform design for extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks. A closed-loop active target recognition radar system is extended to the case of a centralized cognitive radar network, in which a generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) based sequential hypothesis testing (SHT) framework is employed. Using Doppler velocities measured by multiple radars, the target aspect angle for each radar is calculated. The joint probability of each target hypothesis is then updated using observations from different radar line of sights (LOS). Based on these probabilities, a minimum correlation algorithm is proposed to adaptively design the transmit waveform for each radar in an amplitude fluctuation situation. Simulation results demonstrate performance improvements due to the cognitive radar network and adaptive waveform design. Our minimum correlation algorithm outperforms the eigen-waveform solution and other non-cognitive waveform design approaches.

  16. Obstacle penetrating dynamic radar imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Romero, Carlos E [Livermore, CA; Zumstein, James E [Livermore, CA; Chang, John T [Danville, CA; Leach, Jr Richard R. [Castro Valley, CA

    2006-12-12

    An obstacle penetrating dynamic radar imaging system for the detection, tracking, and imaging of an individual, animal, or object comprising a multiplicity of low power ultra wideband radar units that produce a set of return radar signals from the individual, animal, or object, and a processing system for said set of return radar signals for detection, tracking, and imaging of the individual, animal, or object. The system provides a radar video system for detecting and tracking an individual, animal, or object by producing a set of return radar signals from the individual, animal, or object with a multiplicity of low power ultra wideband radar units, and processing said set of return radar signals for detecting and tracking of the individual, animal, or object.

  17. Levee Monitoring with Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Cathleen E.

    2012-01-01

    Topics in this presentation are: 1. Overview of radar remote sensing 2. Surface change detection with Differential Interferometric Radar Processing 3. Study of the Sacramento - San Joaquin levees 4. Mississippi River Levees during the Spring 2011 floods.

  18. Radar Testing for Mars Science Labotatory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-13

    This image, taken April 9, 2010, shows the test radar affixed to a gimbal mounting at the front of a helicopter, carrying an engineering test model of the landing radar for NASA Mars Science Laboratory.

  19. Space Radar Image of Safsaf Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This three-frequency space radar image of south-central Egypt demonstrates the unique capability of imaging radar to penetrate thin sand cover in arid regions to reveal hidden details below the surface.

  20. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and Northmore » Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.« less

  1. Radar Observation of Insects - Mosquitoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, E.; Downing, J.

    1979-01-01

    Tests were conducted at several sites over the coastal lowlands of New Jersey and over a region of high plains and low mountains in Oklahoma. In one area, a salt marsh in New Jersey, extensive ground tests were combined with laboratory data on expected insect backscatter to arrive at an extremely convincing model of the insect origin of most Dot Angels. A great deal of insight was studied from radar on the buildup and dispersal of insect swarms, since radar can follow where other means of trapping and observation cannot. Data on large-scale behavior as a function of wind and topography are presented. Displayed techniques which show individual or small swarm motion within some larger cloud or mass, or which can show the overall motion over great distances were developed. The influence of wind and terrain on insect motion and dispersal is determined from radar data.

  2. Synthetic aperture radar target simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebker, H. A.; Held, D. N.; Goldstein, R. M.; Bickler, T. C.

    1984-01-01

    A simulator for simulating the radar return, or echo, from a target seen by a SAR antenna mounted on a platform moving with respect to the target is described. It includes a first-in first-out memory which has digital information clocked in at a rate related to the frequency of a transmitted radar signal and digital information clocked out with a fixed delay defining range between the SAR and the simulated target, and at a rate related to the frequency of the return signal. An RF input signal having a frequency similar to that utilized by a synthetic aperture array radar is mixed with a local oscillator signal to provide a first baseband signal having a frequency considerably lower than that of the RF input signal.

  3. 29 CFR 778.406 - Nonovertime hours as well as overtime hours must be irregular if section 7(f) is to apply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Midland Finance Co. (N.D. Ga.), 16 WH Cases 141; Trager v. J. E. Plastics Mfg. Co. (S.D.N.Y.), 13 WH Cases... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nonovertime hours as well as overtime hours must be... must be irregular if section 7(f) is to apply. Any employment in which the employee's hours fluctuate...

  4. 29 CFR 778.406 - Nonovertime hours as well as overtime hours must be irregular if section 7(f) is to apply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Midland Finance Co. (N.D. Ga.), 16 WH Cases 141; Trager v. J. E. Plastics Mfg. Co. (S.D.N.Y.), 13 WH Cases... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonovertime hours as well as overtime hours must be... must be irregular if section 7(f) is to apply. Any employment in which the employee's hours fluctuate...

  5. 29 CFR 778.406 - Nonovertime hours as well as overtime hours must be irregular if section 7(f) is to apply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Midland Finance Co. (N.D. Ga.), 16 WH Cases 141; Trager v. J. E. Plastics Mfg. Co. (S.D.N.Y.), 13 WH Cases... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nonovertime hours as well as overtime hours must be... must be irregular if section 7(f) is to apply. Any employment in which the employee's hours fluctuate...

  6. 29 CFR 778.406 - Nonovertime hours as well as overtime hours must be irregular if section 7(f) is to apply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Midland Finance Co. (N.D. Ga.), 16 WH Cases 141; Trager v. J. E. Plastics Mfg. Co. (S.D.N.Y.), 13 WH Cases... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nonovertime hours as well as overtime hours must be... must be irregular if section 7(f) is to apply. Any employment in which the employee's hours fluctuate...

  7. 29 CFR 778.406 - Nonovertime hours as well as overtime hours must be irregular if section 7(f) is to apply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Midland Finance Co. (N.D. Ga.), 16 WH Cases 141; Trager v. J. E. Plastics Mfg. Co. (S.D.N.Y.), 13 WH Cases... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nonovertime hours as well as overtime hours must be... must be irregular if section 7(f) is to apply. Any employment in which the employee's hours fluctuate...

  8. Cassini's Final Titan Radar Swath

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-11

    During its final targeted flyby of Titan on April 22, 2017, Cassini's radar mapper got the mission's last close look at the moon's surface. On this 127th targeted pass by Titan (unintuitively named "T-126"), the radar was used to take two images of the surface, shown at left and right. Both images are about 200 miles (300 kilometers) in width, from top to bottom. Objects appear bright when they are tilted toward the spacecraft or have rough surfaces; smooth areas appear dark. At left are the same bright, hilly terrains and darker plains that Cassini imaged during its first radar pass of Titan, in 2004. Scientists do not see obvious evidence of changes in this terrain over the 13 years since the original observation. At right, the radar looked once more for Titan's mysterious "magic island" (PIA20021) in a portion of one of the large hydrocarbon seas, Ligeia Mare. No "island" feature was observed during this pass. Scientists continue to work on what the transient feature might have been, with waves and bubbles being two possibilities. In between the two parts of its imaging observation, the radar instrument switched to altimetry mode, in order to make a first-ever (and last-ever) measurement of the depths of some of the lakes that dot the north polar region. For the measurements, the spacecraft pointed its antenna straight down at the surface and the radar measured the time delay between echoes from the lakes' surface and bottom. A graph is available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21626

  9. Detection of Marine Radar Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, John N.

    A radar must detect targets before it can display them. Yet manufacturers' data sheets rarely tell us what the products will detect at what range. Many of the bigger radars are Type Approved so we consult the relevant IMO performance standard A 477 (XII). Paraphrasing Section 3.1 of the draft forthcoming revision (NAV 41/6): under normal propagation conditions with the scanner at height of 15 m, in the absence of clutter, the radar is required to give clear indication of an object such as a navigational buoy having a radar cross section area (RCS) of 10 m2 at 2 n.m. and, as examples, coastlines whose ground rises to 60/6 m at ranges of 20/7 n.m., a ship of 5000 tons at any aspect at 7 n.m. and a small vessel 10 m long at 3 n.m.This helps, but suppose we must pick up a 5 m2 buoy at g km? What happens in clutter? Should we prefer S- or X-band? To answer such questions we use equations which define the performance of surveillance radars, but the textbooks and specialist papers containing them often generalize with aeronautical and defence topics, making life difficult for the nonspecialist.This paper attempts a concise and self-contained engineering account of all main factors affecting detection of passive and active targets on civil marine and vessel traffic service (VTS) radars. We develop a set of equations for X- and S-band (3 and 10 cm, centred on 9400 and 3000 MHz respectively), suited for spreadsheet calculation.Sufficient theory is sketched in to indicate where results should be valid. Some simplifications of conventional treatments have been identified.

  10. Microwave emissions from police radar.

    PubMed

    Fink, J M; Wagner, J P; Congleton, J J; Rock, J C

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated police officers' exposures to microwaves emitted by traffic radar units. Exposure measurements were taken at approximated ocular and testicular levels of officers seated in patrol vehicles. Comparisons were made of the radar manufacturers' published maximum power density specifications and actual measured power densities taken at the antenna faces of those units. Four speed-enforcement agencies and one transportation research institute provided 54 radar units for evaluation; 17 different models, encompassing 4 frequency bands and 3 antenna configurations, were included. Four of the 986 measurements taken exceeded the 5 mW/cm2 limit accepted by the International Radiation Protection Association and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement, though none exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, American National Standards Institute, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, or Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard of 10 mW/cm2. The four high measurements were maximum power density readings taken directly in front of the radar. Of the 812 measurements taken at the officers' seated ocular and testicular positions, none exceeded 0.04 mW/cm2; the highest of these (0.034 mW/cm2) was less than 1% of the most conservative current safety standards. High exposures in the limited region directly in front of the radar aperture are easily avoided with proper training. Results of this study indicate that police officer exposure to microwave radiation is apparently minimal. However, because of uncertainty in the medical and scientific communities concerning nonionizing radiation, it is recommended that law enforcement agencies implement a policy of prudent avoidance, including purchasing units with the lowest published maximum power densities, purchasing dash/rear deck-mounted units with antennae mounted outside the patrol vehicle, and training police officers to use the "stand-by" mode

  11. Tunable band alignment in two-phase-coexistence Nb3O7F nanocrystals with enhanced light harvesting and photocatalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Huang, Fei; Feng, Xin; Yan, Aihua; Dong, Haiming; Hu, Miao; Li, Qi

    2018-06-01

    A two-phase-coexistence technique offers intriguing variables to maneuver novel and enhanced functionality in a single-component material. Most importantly, new band alignment and perfect interfaces between two phases can strongly affect local photoelectronic properties. However, previous efforts to achieve two-phase coexistence were mainly restricted to specific systems and methods. Here we demonstrate a phase-transition route to acquire two-phase-coexistence niobium oxyfluoride (Nb3O7F) nanocrystals for the first time. Based on key distinguishing features of the experimental results and theoretical analysis, the phase transition of Nb3O7F involves an organic/inorganic hybrid, heat treating, Al-doping, lattice deformation and structural rearrangement. The band gap can be effectively tuned from 3.03 eV to 2.84 eV, and the VBM can be tuned from 1.49 eV to 1.69 eV according to the phase proportion. Benefiting from uniform nanocrystal size, tunable band alignment and an optimized interfacial structure, the two-phase coexistence markedly enhances visible-light harvesting and the photocatalytic performance of Nb3O7F nanocrystals. The results not only demonstrate an opportunity to explore two-phase coexistence of novel nanocrystals, but also illustrate the role of two-phase coexistence in achieving enhanced photoelectronic properties.

  12. Tunable band alignment in two-phase-coexistence Nb3O7F nanocrystals with enhanced light harvesting and photocatalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Huang, Fei; Feng, Xin; Yan, Aihua; Dong, Haiming; Hu, Miao; Li, Qi

    2018-06-01

    A two-phase-coexistence technique offers intriguing variables to maneuver novel and enhanced functionality in a single-component material. Most importantly, new band alignment and perfect interfaces between two phases can strongly affect local photoelectronic properties. However, previous efforts to achieve two-phase coexistence were mainly restricted to specific systems and methods. Here we demonstrate a phase-transition route to acquire two-phase-coexistence niobium oxyfluoride (Nb 3 O 7 F) nanocrystals for the first time. Based on key distinguishing features of the experimental results and theoretical analysis, the phase transition of Nb 3 O 7 F involves an organic/inorganic hybrid, heat treating, Al-doping, lattice deformation and structural rearrangement. The band gap can be effectively tuned from 3.03 eV to 2.84 eV, and the VBM can be tuned from 1.49 eV to 1.69 eV according to the phase proportion. Benefiting from uniform nanocrystal size, tunable band alignment and an optimized interfacial structure, the two-phase coexistence markedly enhances visible-light harvesting and the photocatalytic performance of Nb 3 O 7 F nanocrystals. The results not only demonstrate an opportunity to explore two-phase coexistence of novel nanocrystals, but also illustrate the role of two-phase coexistence in achieving enhanced photoelectronic properties.

  13. Shuttle orbiter radar cross-sectional analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. W.; James, R.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and model simulation studies on signal to noise levels and shuttle radar cross section are described. Pre-mission system calibrations, system configuration, and postmission system calibration of the tracking radars are described. Conversion of target range, azimuth, and elevation into radar centered east north vertical position coordinates are evaluated. The location of the impinging rf energy with respect to the target vehicles body axis triad is calculated. Cross section correlation between the two radars is presented.

  14. SAR Ambiguity Study for the Cassini Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hensley, Scott; Im, Eastwood; Johnson, William T. K.

    1993-01-01

    The Cassini Radar's synthetic aperture radar (SAR) ambiguity analysis is unique with respect to other spaceborne SAR ambiguity analyses owing to the non-orbiting spacecraft trajectory, asymmetric antenna pattern, and burst mode of data collection. By properly varying the pointing, burst mode timing, and radar parameters along the trajectory this study shows that the signal-to-ambiguity ratio of better than 15 dB can be achieved for all images obtained by the Cassini Radar.

  15. Radar research at The Pennsylvania State University Radar and Communications Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Ram M.

    2017-05-01

    The Radar and Communications Laboratory (RCL) at The Pennsylvania State University is at the forefront of radar technology and is engaged in cutting edge research in all aspects of radar, including modeling and simulation studies of novel radar paradigms, design and development of new types of radar architectures, and extensive field measurements in realistic scenarios. This paper summarizes the research at The Pennsylvania State University's Radar and Communications Laboratory and relevant collaborative research with several groups over the past 15 years in the field of radar and related technologies, including communications, radio frequency identification (RFID), and spectrum sensing.

  16. Software development for airborne radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundstrom, Ingvar G.

    Some aspects for development of software in a modern multimode airborne nose radar are described. First, an overview of where software is used in the radar units is presented. The development phases-system design, functional design, detailed design, function verification, and system verification-are then used as the starting point for the discussion. Methods, tools, and the most important documents are described. The importance of video flight recording in the early stages and use of a digital signal generators for performance verification is emphasized. Some future trends are discussed.

  17. Portable receiver for radar detection

    DOEpatents

    Lopes, Christopher D.; Kotter, Dale K.

    2008-10-14

    Various embodiments are described relating to a portable antenna-equipped device for multi-band radar detection. The detection device includes a plurality of antennas on a flexible substrate, a detection-and-control circuit, an indicator and a power source. The antenna may include one or more planar lithographic antennas that may be fabricated on a thin-film substrate. Each antenna may be tuned to a different selection frequency or band. The antennas may include a bolometer for radar detection. Each antenna may include a frequency selective surface for tuning to the selection frequency.

  18. MIMO Radar - Diversity Means Superiority

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    Jian 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ESI 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Department of Electrical and...several estimators for the proposed MIMO radar system. The remainder of this report is organized as follows. Chapter 2 pres ,lt> t hc MIMO radar...A 17) with 0 denoting the Kronecker product. Substituting Equations (A 9) - (A 7) into (A ()). and after soic ( I I hIx II, nipulations, we get CRB(O

  19. Radar geomorphology of coastal and wetland environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, A. J.; Macdonald, H. C.

    1973-01-01

    Details regarding the collection of radar imagery over the past ten years are considered together with the geomorphic, geologic, and hydrologic data which have been extracted from radar imagery. Recent investigations were conducted of the Louisiana swamp marsh and the Oregon coast. It was found that radar imagery is a useful tool to the scientist involved in wetland research.

  20. Tracking radar studies of bird migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.; Teal, J. M.; Kanwisher, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The application of tracking radar for determining the flight paths of migratory birds is discussed. The effects produced by various meteorological parameters are described. Samples of radar scope presentations obtained during tracking studies are presented. The characteristics of the radars and their limitations are examined.

  1. Comparison of radar data versus rainfall data

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, B.; Hromadka, T.V.; Perez, R.

    2015-01-01

    Doppler radar data are increasingly used in rainfall-runoff synthesis studies, perhaps due to radar data availability, among other factors. However, the veracity of the radar data are often a topic of concern. In this paper, three Doppler radar outcomes developed by the United States National Weather Service at three radar sites are examined and compared to actual rain gage data for two separate severe storm events in order to assess accuracy in the published radar estimates of rainfall. Because the subject storms were very intense rainfall events lasting approximately one hour in duration, direct comparisons between the three radar gages themselves can be made, as well as a comparison to rain gage data at a rain gage location subjected to the same storm cells. It is shown that topographic interference with the radar outcomes can be a significant factor leading to differences between radar and rain gage readings, and that care is needed in calibrating radar outcomes using available rain gage data in order to interpolate rainfall estimates between rain gages using the spatial variation observed in the radar readings. The paper establishes and describes•the need for “ground-truthing” of radar data, and•possible errors due to topographic interference. PMID:26649276

  2. Efficient Ways to Learn Weather Radar Polarimetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Qing; Yeary, M. B.; Zhang, Guifu

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. weather radar network is currently being upgraded with dual-polarization capability. Weather radar polarimetry is an interdisciplinary area of engineering and meteorology. This paper presents efficient ways to learn weather radar polarimetry through several basic and practical topics. These topics include: 1) hydrometeor scattering model…

  3. 46 CFR 167.40-40 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar. 167.40-40 Section 167.40-40 Shipping COAST GUARD... Requirements § 167.40-40 Radar. All mechanically propelled vessels of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must be fitted with a marine radar system for surface navigation. Facilities for plotting...

  4. 46 CFR 169.726 - Radar reflector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar reflector. 169.726 Section 169.726 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.726 Radar reflector. Each nonmetallic vessel less than 90 feet in length must exhibit a radar reflector of suitable size and design while underway. Markings ...

  5. 46 CFR 169.726 - Radar reflector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar reflector. 169.726 Section 169.726 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.726 Radar reflector. Each nonmetallic vessel less than 90 feet in length must exhibit a radar reflector of suitable size and design while underway. Markings ...

  6. 46 CFR 184.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radars. 184.404 Section 184.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Navigation Equipment § 184.404 Radars. (a) A vessel must be fitted with a Federal Communications Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface navigation...

  7. 46 CFR 184.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radars. 184.404 Section 184.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Navigation Equipment § 184.404 Radars. (a) A vessel must be fitted with a Federal Communications Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface navigation...

  8. 46 CFR 130.310 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar. 130.310 Section 130.310 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Navigational Equipment § 130.310 Radar. Each vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be fitted with a general marine radar in the pilothouse. ...

  9. 46 CFR 108.717 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar. 108.717 Section 108.717 Shipping COAST GUARD... Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.717 Radar. Each self-propelled unit of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must have— (a) A marine radar system for surface navigation; and (b) Facilities on the...

  10. 46 CFR 130.310 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar. 130.310 Section 130.310 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Navigational Equipment § 130.310 Radar. Each vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be fitted with a general marine radar in the pilothouse. ...

  11. 46 CFR 169.726 - Radar reflector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar reflector. 169.726 Section 169.726 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.726 Radar reflector. Each nonmetallic vessel less than 90 feet in length must exhibit a radar reflector of suitable size and design while underway. Markings ...

  12. 46 CFR 11.480 - Radar observer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar observer. 11.480 Section 11.480 Shipping COAST... ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for National Deck Officer Endorsements § 11.480 Radar observer. (a) This section contains the requirements that an applicant must meet to qualify as a radar observer. (b) If an...

  13. 46 CFR 108.717 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar. 108.717 Section 108.717 Shipping COAST GUARD... Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.717 Radar. Each self-propelled unit of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must have— (a) A marine radar system for surface navigation; and (b) Facilities on the...

  14. 46 CFR 11.480 - Radar observer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar observer. 11.480 Section 11.480 Shipping COAST... ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.480 Radar observer. (a) This section contains the requirements that an applicant must meet to qualify as a radar observer. (Part 15 of this chapter specifies who...

  15. 46 CFR 167.40-40 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar. 167.40-40 Section 167.40-40 Shipping COAST GUARD... Requirements § 167.40-40 Radar. All mechanically propelled vessels of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must be fitted with a marine radar system for surface navigation. Facilities for plotting...

  16. 46 CFR 167.40-40 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar. 167.40-40 Section 167.40-40 Shipping COAST GUARD... Requirements § 167.40-40 Radar. All mechanically propelled vessels of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must be fitted with a marine radar system for surface navigation. Facilities for plotting...

  17. 46 CFR 108.717 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar. 108.717 Section 108.717 Shipping COAST GUARD... Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.717 Radar. Each self-propelled unit of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must have— (a) A marine radar system for surface navigation; and (b) Facilities on the...

  18. 46 CFR 11.480 - Radar observer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar observer. 11.480 Section 11.480 Shipping COAST... ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.480 Radar observer. (a) This section contains the requirements that an applicant must meet to qualify as a radar observer. (Part 15 of this chapter specifies who...

  19. 46 CFR 184.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radars. 184.404 Section 184.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Navigation Equipment § 184.404 Radars. (a) A vessel must be fitted with a Federal Communications Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface navigation...

  20. 46 CFR 130.310 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar. 130.310 Section 130.310 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Navigational Equipment § 130.310 Radar. Each vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be fitted with a general marine radar in the pilothouse. ...

  1. Survey of Radar Refraction Error Corrections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    ELECTRONIC TRAJECTORY MEASUREMENTS GROUP RCC 266-16 SURVEY OF RADAR REFRACTION ERROR CORRECTIONS DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for...DOCUMENT 266-16 SURVEY OF RADAR REFRACTION ERROR CORRECTIONS November 2016 Prepared by Electronic...This page intentionally left blank. Survey of Radar Refraction Error Corrections, RCC 266-16 iii Table of Contents Preface

  2. 46 CFR 108.717 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radar. 108.717 Section 108.717 Shipping COAST GUARD... Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.717 Radar. Each self-propelled unit of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must have— (a) A marine radar system for surface navigation; and (b) Facilities on the...

  3. 46 CFR 15.815 - Radar observers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radar observers. 15.815 Section 15.815 Shipping COAST... Computations § 15.815 Radar observers. (a) Each person in the required complement of deck officers, including the master, on inspected vessels of 300 gross tons or over which are radar equipped, shall hold an...

  4. 46 CFR 108.717 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radar. 108.717 Section 108.717 Shipping COAST GUARD... Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.717 Radar. Each self-propelled unit of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must have— (a) A marine radar system for surface navigation; and (b) Facilities on the...

  5. 46 CFR 130.310 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radar. 130.310 Section 130.310 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Navigational Equipment § 130.310 Radar. Each vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be fitted with a general marine radar in the pilothouse. ...

  6. 46 CFR 184.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radars. 184.404 Section 184.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Navigation Equipment § 184.404 Radars. (a) A vessel must be fitted with a Federal Communications Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface navigation...

  7. 46 CFR 11.480 - Radar observer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radar observer. 11.480 Section 11.480 Shipping COAST... ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.480 Radar observer. (a) This section contains the requirements that an applicant must meet to qualify as a radar observer. (Part 15 of this chapter specifies who...

  8. 46 CFR 130.310 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radar. 130.310 Section 130.310 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Navigational Equipment § 130.310 Radar. Each vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be fitted with a general marine radar in the pilothouse. ...

  9. 46 CFR 169.726 - Radar reflector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radar reflector. 169.726 Section 169.726 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.726 Radar reflector. Each nonmetallic vessel less than 90 feet in length must exhibit a radar reflector of suitable size and design while underway. Markings ...

  10. 46 CFR 167.40-40 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radar. 167.40-40 Section 167.40-40 Shipping COAST GUARD... Requirements § 167.40-40 Radar. All mechanically propelled vessels of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must be fitted with a marine radar system for surface navigation. Facilities for plotting...

  11. 46 CFR 11.480 - Radar observer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radar observer. 11.480 Section 11.480 Shipping COAST... ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.480 Radar observer. (a) This section contains the requirements that an applicant must meet to qualify as a radar observer. (Part 15 of this chapter specifies who...

  12. 46 CFR 167.40-40 - Radar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radar. 167.40-40 Section 167.40-40 Shipping COAST GUARD... Requirements § 167.40-40 Radar. All mechanically propelled vessels of 1,600 gross tons and over in ocean or coastwise service must be fitted with a marine radar system for surface navigation. Facilities for plotting...

  13. 46 CFR 184.404 - Radars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radars. 184.404 Section 184.404 Shipping COAST GUARD... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Navigation Equipment § 184.404 Radars. (a) A vessel must be fitted with a Federal Communications Commission (FCC) type accepted general marine radar system for surface navigation...

  14. 46 CFR 169.726 - Radar reflector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radar reflector. 169.726 Section 169.726 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.726 Radar reflector. Each nonmetallic vessel less than 90 feet in length must exhibit a radar reflector of suitable size and design while underway. Markings ...

  15. Research relative to weather radar measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul L.

    1992-01-01

    This grant provides for some investigations related to weather radar measurement techniques applicable to meteorological radar systems in Thailand. Quality data are needed from those systems to support TRMM and other scientific investigations. Activities carried out during a trip to the radar facilities at Phuket are described.

  16. Recent advances in radar applications to agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morain, S. A.

    1970-01-01

    A series of remote radar sensing studies are summarized. These efforts comprise geoscience interpretations of such complex phenomena as those manifested in agricultural patterns. Considered are basic remote sensing needs in agriculture and the design and implementation of radar keys in the active microwave region as well as fine resolution radar imagery techniques for agriculture determinations and soil mapping.

  17. Space Radar Image of Ubar Optical/Radar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-04-28

    This pair of images from space shows a portion of the southern Empty Quarter of the Arabian Peninsula in the country of Oman. On the left is a radar image of the region around the site of the fabled Lost City of Ubar, discovered in 1992 with the aid of remote sensing data. On the right is an enhanced optical image taken by the shuttle astronauts. Ubar existed from about 2800 BC to about 300 AD. and was a remote desert outpost where caravans were assembled for the transport of frankincense across the desert. The actual site of the fortress of the Lost City of Ubar, currently under excavation, is too small to show in either image. However, tracks leading to the site, and surrounding tracks, show as prominent, but diffuse, reddish streaks in the radar image. Although used in modern times, field investigations show many of these tracks were in use in ancient times as well. Mapping of these tracks on regional remote sensing images provided by the Landsat satellite was a key to recognizing the site as Ubar. The prominent magenta colored area is a region of large sand dunes. The green areas are limestone rocks, which form a rocky desert floor. A major wadi, or dry stream bed, runs across the scene and appears as a white line. The radar images, and ongoing field investigations, will help shed light on an early civilization about which little in known. The radar image was taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) and is centered at 18 degrees North latitude and 53 degrees East longitude. The image covers an area about 50 kilometers by 100 kilometers (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United

  18. Recommendation on Transition from Primary/Secondary Radar to Secondary- Only Radar Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    Radar Beacon Performance Monitor RCIU Remote Control Interface Unit RCL Remote Communications Link R E&D Research, Engineering and Development RML Radar...rate. 3.1.2.5 Maintenance The current LRRs have limited remote maintenance monitoring (RMM) capabilities via the Remote Control Interface Unit ( RCIU ...1, -2 and FPS-20 radars required an upgrade of some of the radar subsystems, namely the RCIU to respond as an RMS and the CD to interface with radar

  19. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Under an agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense's National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is distributing elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM is a joint project of NASA and NGA to map the Earth's land surface in three dimensions at an unprecedented level of detail. As part of space shuttle Endeavour's flight during February 11-22, 2000, the SRTM successfully collected data over 80 percent of the Earth's land surface for most of the area between latitudes 60 degrees north and 56 degrees south. The SRTM hardware included the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (X-SAR) systems that had flown twice previously on other space shuttle missions. The SRTM data were collected with a technique known as interferometry that allows image data from dual radar antennas to be processed for the extraction of ground heights.

  20. Bam, Iran, Radar Interferometry -- Earthquake

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-06-25

    A magnitude 6.5 earthquake devastated the small city of Bam in southeast Iran on December 26, 2003. The two images from ESA Envisat show similar measures of the radar interferometric correlation in grayscale on the left and in false colors on the right.

  1. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    Under an agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense's National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is now distributing elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM is a joint project between NASA and NIMA to map the Earth's land surface in three dimensions at a level of detail unprecedented for such a large area. Flown aboard the NASA Space Shuttle Endeavour February 11-22, 2000, the SRTM successfully collected data over 80 percent of the Earth's land surface, for most of the area between 60? N. and 56? S. latitude. The SRTM hardware included the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (X-SAR) systems that had flown twice previously on other space shuttle missions. The SRTM data were collected specifically with a technique known as interferometry that allows image data from dual radar antennas to be processed for the extraction of ground heights.

  2. SMAP Radar Processing and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Kwoun, O.; Chaubell, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is part of the NASA space-based Earth observation program, and consists of an L-band radar and radiometer scheduled for launch into sun synchronous orbit in late 2014. A joint effort of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the SMAP mission draws heavily on the design and risk reduction heritage of the Hydrosphere State (Hydros) mission [1], [2]. The SMAP science and applications objectives are to: 1) understand processes that link the terrestrial water, energy and carbon cycles, 2) estimate global water and energy fluxes at the land surface, 3) quantify net carbon flux in boreal landscapes, 4) enhance weather and climate forecast skill, and 5) develop improved flood prediction and drought monitoring capability. To meet these science objectives, SMAP ground processing will combine the attributes of the radar and radiometer observations (in terms of their spatial resolution and sensitivity to soil moisture, surface roughness, and vegetation) to estimate soil moisture with 4% volumetric accuracy at a resolution of 10 km, and freeze-thaw state at a resolution of 1-3 km. Model sensitivities translate the soil moisture accuracy to a radar backscatter accuracy of 1 dB (1 sigma) at 3 km resolution and a brightness temperature accuracy of 1.3 K at 40 km resolution. This paper will describe the level 1 radar processing and calibration challenges and the choices made so far for the algorithms and software implementation.

  3. Radar Cuts Subsoil Survey Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R.; Glaccum, R.

    1984-01-01

    Soil features located with minimum time and labor. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system supplements manual and mechanical methods in performing subsurface soil survey. Mobile system obtains graphic profile of soil discontinuities and interfaces as function of depth. One or two test borings necessary to substantiate soil profile. GPR proves useful as reconnaissance tool.

  4. Future of synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barath, F. T.

    1978-01-01

    The present status of the applications of Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs) is reviewed, and the technology state-of-the art as represented by the Seasat-A and SIR-A SARs examined. The potential of SAR applications, and the near- and longer-term technology trends are assessed.

  5. Radar Detection of Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    BFT-BPT algorithm for use with our radar data. This track - before - detect algorithm had been effective in enhancing small but persistent signatures in...will be possible with the detect before track algorithm. 4 We next evaluated the track before detect algorithm, the BFT-BPT, on the CEDAR data

  6. Synchronized Radar-Target Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, B. C.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus for testing radar system generates signals that simulate amplitude and phase characteristics of target returns and their variation with antenna-pointing direction. Antenna movement causes equipment to alter test signal in imitation of behavior of real signal received during tracking.

  7. Radar monitoring of oil pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinard, N. W.

    1970-01-01

    Radar is currently used for detecting and monitoring oil slicks on the sea surface. The four-frequency radar system is used to acquire synthetic aperature imagery of the sea surface on which the oil slicks appear as a nonreflecting area on the surface surrounded by the usual sea return. The value of this technique was demonstrated, when the four-frequency radar system was used to image the oil spill of tanker which has wrecked. Imagery was acquired on both linear polarization (horizontal, vertical) for frequencies of 428, 1228, and 8910 megahertz. Vertical returns strongly indicated the presence of oil while horizontal returns failed to detect the slicks. Such a result is characteristic of the return from the sea and cannot presently be interpreted as characteristics of oil spills. Because an airborne imaging radar is capable of providing a wide-swath coverage under almost all weather conditions, it offers promise in the development of a pollution-monitoring system that can provide a coastal watch for oil slicks.

  8. Debris Flux Comparisons From The Goldstone Radar, Haystack Radar, and Hax Radar Prior, During, and After the Last Solar Maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokely, C. L.; Stansbery, E. G.; Goldstein, R. M.

    2006-01-01

    The continual monitoring of low Earth orbit (LEO) debris environment using highly sensitive radars is essential for an accurate characterization of these dynamic populations. Debris populations are continually evolving since there are new debris sources, previously unrecognized debris sources, and debris loss mechanisms that are dependent on the dynamic space environment. Such radar data are used to supplement, update, and validate existing orbital debris models. NASA has been utilizing radar observations of the debris environment for over a decade from three complementary radars: the NASA JPL Goldstone radar, the MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL) Long Range Imaging Radar (known as the Haystack radar), and the MIT/LL Haystack Auxiliary radar (HAX). All of these systems are highly sensitive radars that operate in a fixed staring mode to statistically sample orbital debris in the LEO environment. Each of these radars is ideally suited to measure debris within a specific size region. The Goldstone radar generally observes objects with sizes from 2 mm to 1 cm. The Haystack radar generally measures from 5 mm to several meters. The HAX radar generally measures from 2 cm to several meters. These overlapping size regions allow a continuous measurement of cumulative debris flux versus diameter from 2 mm to several meters for a given altitude window. This is demonstrated for all three radars by comparing the debris flux versus diameter over 200 km altitude windows for 3 nonconsecutive years from 1998 through 2003. These years correspond to periods before, during, and after the peak of the last solar cycle. Comparing the year to year flux from Haystack for each of these altitude regions indicate statistically significant changes in subsets of the debris populations. Potential causes of these changes are discussed. These analysis results include error bars that represent statistical sampling errors, and are detailed in this paper.

  9. Mars Radar Opens a Planet's Third Dimension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Radar sounder instruments orbiting Mars have looked beneath the Martian surface and opened up the third dimension for planetary exploration. The technique's success is prompting scientists to think of all the other places in the Solar System where they would like to use radar sounders.

    The first radar sounder at Mars was the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) on the European Space Agency's Mars Express Orbiter. It has been joined by the complementary Shallow Subsurface Radar (SHARAD), operating at a different wavelength aboard NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The data in this animation are from SHARAD.

  10. Research relative to weather radar measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul L.

    1992-01-01

    Research relative to weather radar measurement techniques, which involves some investigations related to measurement techniques applicable to meteorological radar systems in Thailand, is reported. A major part of the activity was devoted to instruction and discussion with Thai radar engineers, technicians, and meteorologists concerning the basic principles of radar meteorology and applications to specific problems, including measurement of rainfall and detection of wind shear/microburst hazards. Weather radar calibration techniques were also considered during this project. Most of the activity took place during two visits to Thailand, in December 1990 and February 1992.

  11. Eyeballing oscillators for pulsed Doppler radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, S.

    1985-03-01

    The visibility of small targets to a Doppler radar system in the presence of large targets is limited by phase noise. Such limitations occur when an airborne radar searches the ground for a mobile vehicle. Under these conditions, the performance of the Doppler radar depends greatly on the specifications of its phased-locked oscillator. Goldman (1984) has discussed the steps required to evaluate the noise resulting from a pulsed Doppler radar system. In the present investigation, these techniques are applied in reverse to determine system specifications for oscillator noise. A 95-GHz pulsed Doppler radar system is used as an example of specifying system phase noise.

  12. Monitoring by holographic radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Crocco, Lorenzo; Affinito, Antonio; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, radar technology represents a significant opportunity to collect useful information for the monitoring and conservation of critical infrastructures. Radar systems exploit the non-invasive interaction between the matter and the electromagnetic waves at microwave frequencies. Such an interaction allows obtaining images of the region under test from which one can infer the presence of potential anomalies such as deformations, cracks, water infiltrations, etc. This information turns out to be of primary importance in practical scenarios where the probed structure is in a poor state of preservation and renovation works must be planned. In this framework, the aim of this contribution is to describe the potentialities of the holographic radar Rascan 4/4000, a holographic radar developed by Remote Sensing Laboratory of Bauman Moscow State Technical University, as a non-destructive diagnostic tool capable to provide, in real-time, high resolution subsurface images of the sounded structure [1]. This radar provides holograms of hidden anomalies from the amplitude of the interference signal arising between the backscattered signal and a reference signal. The performance of the holographic radar is appraised by means of several experiments. Preliminary tests concerning the imaging below the floor and inside wood structures are carried out in controlled conditions at the Electromagnetic Diagnostic Laboratory of IREA-CNR. After, with reference to bridge monitoring for security aim, the results of a measurement campaign performed on the Musmeci bridge are presented [2]. Acknowledgments This research has been performed in the framework of the "Active and Passive Microwaves for Security and Subsurface imaging (AMISS)" EU 7th Framework Marie Curie Actions IRSES project (PIRSES-GA-2010-269157). REFERENCES [1] S. Ivashov, V. Razevig, I. Vasilyev, A. Zhuravlev, T. Bechtel, L. Capineri, The holographic principle in subsurface radar technology, International Symposium to

  13. Radar Image of Galapagos Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image showing part of Isla Isabella in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar on the 40th orbit of the space shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about 0.5 degree south latitude and 91 degrees west longitude and covers an area of 75 by 60 kilometers (47 by 37 miles). The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees.

    The western Galapagos Islands, which lie about 1,200 kilometers (750 miles) west of Ecuador in the eastern Pacific, have six active volcanoes similar to the volcanoes found in Hawaii. Since the time of Charles Darwin's visit to the area in 1835, there have been over 60 recorded eruptions of these volcanoes. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. A small portion of Isla Fernandina is visible in the extreme upper left corner of the image.

    The Galapagos Islands are one of the SIR-C/X-SAR supersites and data of this area will be taken several times during the flight to allow scientists to conduct topographic change studies and to search for different lava flow types, ash deposits and fault lines.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes

  14. Space Radar Image of Long Island Optical/Radar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This pair of images of the Long Island, New York region is a comparison of an optical photograph (top) and a radar image (bottom), both taken in darkness in April 1994. The photograph at the top was taken by the Endeavour astronauts at about 3 a.m. Eastern time on April 20, 1994. The image at the bottom was acquired at about the same time four days earlier on April 16,1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) system aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Both images show an area approximately 100 kilometers by 40 kilometers (62 miles by 25 miles) that is centered at 40.7 degrees North latitude and 73.5 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper right. The optical image is dominated by city lights, which are particularly bright in the densely developed urban areas of New York City located on the left half of the photo. The brightest white zones appear on the island of Manhattan in the left center, and Central Park can be seen as a darker area in the middle of Manhattan. To the northeast (right) of the city, suburban Long Island appears as a less densely illuminated area, with the brightest zones occurring along major transportation and development corridors. Since radar is an active sensing system that provides its own illumination, the radar image shows a great amount of surface detail, despite the night-time acquisition. The colors in the radar image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In this image, the water surface - the Atlantic Ocean along the bottom edge and Long Island Sound shown at the top edge - appears red because small waves at the surface strongly reflect the horizontally transmitted and received L-band radar signal. Networks of highways and railroad lines are clearly

  15. Ultra Low-Cost Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P.; da Silva Curiel, A.; Eves, S.; Sweeting, M.; Thompson, A.; Hall, D.

    From early 2003, Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL), together with its partners from Algeria, Nigeria and Turkey, has operated the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC). During this period we have demonstrated the utility of a low-cost satellite system that uses optical sensors and is capable of providing daily imaging globally. For example, DMC data has been used operationally in the relief work in Darfur and following the Asian Tsunami. In addition to the use of the DMC to support disasters, the DMC has also been extensively used by the consortium members in support of national imaging needs and some residual system capacity has been provided to commercial customers. In the same timeframe, EADS Astrium Ltd has developed the technologies needed to implement the low-cost radar satellites of the MicroSAR range of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellites. EADS Astrium Ltd and SSTL are now looking to combine their expertises in low cost space technology and extend the capability of the DMC constellation by including a complementary small satellite radar sensor. The product of this activity is a satellite design that strikes an appropriate balance between revisit frequency and resolution. Hence, by comparison with other small satellite SAR concepts, the satellite described in this paper will provide broader area coverage at spatial resolutions in the region of 10 - 15m. Most significantly, perhaps, as a result of the specific cost targets imposed at the beginning of the design process, the satellite can provide this level of performance at a lower cost than other comparable space-based radar systems and significantly lower than larger, more performant, space-based radar systems.

  16. Enhanced Weather Radar (EWxR) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronfeld, Kevin M. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    An airborne weather radar system, the Enhanced Weather Radar (EWxR), with enhanced on-board weather radar data processing was developed and tested. The system features additional weather data that is uplinked from ground-based sources, specialized data processing, and limited automatic radar control to search for hazardous weather. National Weather Service (NWS) ground-based Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) information is used by the EWxR system to augment the on-board weather radar information. The system will simultaneously display NEXRAD and on-board weather radar information in a split-view format. The on-board weather radar includes an automated or hands-free storm-finding feature that optimizes the radar returns by automatically adjusting the tilt and range settings for the current altitude above the terrain and searches for storm cells near the atmospheric 0-degree isotherm. A rule-based decision aid was developed to automatically characterize cells as hazardous, possibly-hazardous, or non-hazardous based upon attributes of that cell. Cell attributes are determined based on data from the on-board radar and from ground-based radars. A flight path impact prediction algorithm was developed to help pilots to avoid hazardous weather along their flight plan and their mission. During development the system was tested on the NASA B757 aircraft and final tests were conducted on the Rockwell Collins Sabreliner.

  17. Radar research at the University of Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blunt, Shannon D.; Allen, Christopher; Arnold, Emily; Hale, Richard; Hui, Rongqing; Keshmiri, Shahriar; Leuschen, Carlton; Li, Jilu; Paden, John; Rodriguez-Morales, Fernando; Salandrino, Alessandro; Stiles, James

    2017-05-01

    Radar research has been synonymous with the University of Kansas (KU) for over half a century. As part of this special session organized to highlight significant radar programs in academia, this paper surveys recent and ongoing work at KU. This work encompasses a wide breadth of sensing applications including the remote sensing of ice sheets, autonomous navigation methods for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), novel laser radar capabilities, detection of highenergy cosmic rays using bistatic radar, different forms of waveform diversity such as MIMO radar and pulse agility, and various radar-embedded communication methods. The results of these efforts impact our understanding of the changing nature of the environment, address the proliferation of unmanned systems in the US airspace, realize new sensing modalities enabled by the joint consideration of electromagnetics and signal processing, and greater facilitate radar operation in an increasingly congested and contested spectrum.

  18. Alpine radar conversion for LAWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savina, M.; Burlando, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) is a ship-born weather radar system operating in X-band developed by the DHI Group to detect precipitation in urban areas. To date more than thirty units are installed in different settings around the world. A LAWR was also deployed in the Alps, at 3883 m a.s.l. on the Kl. Matterhorn (Valais, Switzerland). This was the highest LAWR of the world and it led to the development of an Alpine LAWR system that, besides featuring important technological improvements needed to withstand the severe Alpine conditions, required the development of a new Alpine Radar COnversion Model (ARCOM), which is the main focus of this contribution. The LAWR system is equipped with the original FURUNO fan-beam slotted antenna and the original logarithmic receiver, which limits the radar observations to the video signal (L) withour providing the reflectivity (Z). The beam is 0.95 deg wide and 20 deg high. It can detect precipitation to a max range of 60 km. In order to account for the limited availability of raw signal and information and the specific mountain set-up, the conversion model had to be developed differently from the state-of-the-art radar conversion technique used for this class of radars. In particular, the ARCOM is based on a model used to simulate a spatial dependent factor, hereafter called ACF, which is in turn function of parameters that take in account climatological conditions, also used in other conversion methods, but additionally accounting for local radar beam features and for orographic forcings such as the effective sampling power (sP), which is modelled by means of antenna pattern, geometric ground clutter and their interaction. The result is a conversion factor formulated to account for a range correction that is based on the increase of the sampling volume, partial beam blocking and local climatological conditions. The importance of the latter in this study is double with respect to the standard conversion technique for this

  19. Studies on Radar and Non-radar Sensor Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-15

    the following sections. ubiquitous and persistent sensor sources such as "* Organic sensors (e.g., radar, electro- optic and infrared, III. SITUATION...repetition frequency (PRF). Under these circumstances, target RSN, but in noncoherent systems as well. The latter scenario is more challenging as...signal propagation models. Section III and IV analyzes coherent andseletio an Ga ssin u equl me n trge mo els In [3] noncoherent detection

  20. Advances in Ice Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paden, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Radars have been employed for ice remote sensing since the mid-twentieth century. The original application in radioglaciology was to obtain ice thickness: an essential parameter in ice flux calculations and boundary condition in ice flow models. Later, radars were used to estimate basal conditions and track laterally persistent features in the ice. The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheet's recent hardware advances include multichannel systems and radar suites covering the usable frequency spectrum. These advances coupled with increased interest in the polar regions result in a concomitant exponential growth in data. We focus on a few results that have come from these changes. Multichannel radar systems improved clutter rejection and enabled 3D imaging. Using computer vision algorithms, we have automated the process of extracting the ice bottom surface in 3D imagery for complex topographies including narrow glacier channels where the ice surface and ice bottom merge together within the 3D images. We present results of wide swath imaging which have enabled narrow, 2-3 km wide, glacier channels to be fully imaged in a single pass. When radar data are available across the frequency spectrum, we have the ability to enhance target detection and measure frequency dependent properties. For example, we can couple HF sounder measurements in warmer ice where scattering attenuates and hides the signal of interest with VHF sounder measurements in cooler ice which have much improved resolution from a single flight line. We present examples of improved bed detection with coupled HF and VHF imagery in a temperate to cold ice transition that show the strong frequency dependence of englacial scattering. To handle the increased data rate, we developed a standard processing chain and data product for CReSIS radar systems, including legacy systems. Application specific GIS tools are an essential part and enable us to merge other data products during data analysis. By using imagery

  1. Penn State Radar Systems: Implementation and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbina, J. V.; Seal, R.; Sorbello, R.; Kuyeng, K.; Dyrud, L. P.

    2014-12-01

    Software Defined Radio/Radar (SDR) platforms have become increasingly popular as researchers, hobbyists, and military seek more efficient and cost-effective means for radar construction and operation. SDR platforms, by definition, utilize a software-based interface for configuration in contrast to traditional, hard-wired platforms. In an effort to provide new and improved radar sensing capabilities, Penn State has been developing advanced instruments and technologies for future radars, with primary objectives of making such instruments more capable, portable, and more cost effective. This paper will describe the design and implementation of two low-cost radar systems and their deployment in ionospheric research at both low and mid-latitudes. One radar has been installed near Penn State campus, University Park, Pennsylvania (77.97°W, 40.70°N), to make continuous meteor observations and mid-latitude plasma irregularities. The second radar is being installed in Huancayo (12.05°S, -75.33°E), Peru, which is capable of detecting E and F region plasma irregularities as well as meteor reflections. In this paper, we examine and compare the diurnal and seasonal variability of specular, non- specular, and head-echoes collected with these two new radar systems and discuss sampling biases of each meteor observation technique. We report our current efforts to validate and calibrate these radar systems with other VHF radars such as Jicamarca and SOUSY. We also present the general characteristics of continuous measurements of E-region and F-region coherent echoes using these modern radar systems and compare them with coherent radar events observed at other geographic mid-latitude radar stations.

  2. Radar observations of Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, D. B.; Harmon, J. K.; Shapiro, I. I.

    1989-01-01

    Five nights of Arecibo radar observations of Comet Halley are reported which reveal a feature in the overall average spectrum which, though weak, seems consistent with being an echo from the comet. The large radar cross section and large bandwidth of the feature suggest that the echo is predominantly from large grains which have been ejected from the nucleus. Extrapolation of the dust particle size distribution to large grain sizes gives a sufficient number of grains to account for the echo. The lack of a detectable echo from the nucleus, combined with estimates of its size and rotation rate from spacecraft encounters and other data, indicate that the nucleus has a surface of relatively high porosity.

  3. Two terminal micropower radar sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A simple, low power ultra-wideband radar motion sensor/switch configuration connects a power source and load to ground. The switch is connected to and controlled by the signal output of a radar motion sensor. The power input of the motion sensor is connected to the load through a diode which conducts power to the motion sensor when the switch is open. A storage capacitor or rechargeable battery is connected to the power input of the motion sensor. The storage capacitor or battery is charged when the switch is open and powers the motion sensor when the switch is closed. The motion sensor and switch are connected between the same two terminals between the source/load and ground.

  4. Two terminal micropower radar sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-11-07

    A simple, low power ultra-wideband radar motion sensor/switch configuration connects a power source and load to ground. The switch is connected to and controlled by the signal output of a radar motion sensor. The power input of the motion sensor is connected to the load through a diode which conducts power to the motion sensor when the switch is open. A storage capacitor or rechargeable battery is connected to the power input of the motion sensor. The storage capacitor or battery is charged when the switch is open and powers the motion sensor when the switch is closed. The motion sensor and switch are connected between the same two terminals between the source/load and ground. 3 figs.

  5. Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of the Goldstone Solar System Radar is the investigation of solar system bodies by means of Earth-based radar. Targets of primary interest include the Galilean moons, Saturn's rings and moons, and Earth-approaching asteroids and comets. Planets are also of interest, particularly Mercury and the planets to which NASA has not yet planned spacecraft visits. Based on a history of solid achievement, including the definition of the Astronomical Unit, imaging and topography of Mars, Venus, and Mercury, and contributions to the general theory of relativity, the program will continue to support flight project requirements and its primary objectives. The individual target objectives are presented, and information on the following topics are presented in tabular form: Deep Space Network support, compatibility tests, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibility.

  6. Terahertz radar cross section measurements.

    PubMed

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-12-06

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar on full-size objects. The measurements are performed in a terahertz time-domain system with freely propagating terahertz pulses generated by tilted pulse front excitation of lithium niobate crystals and measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The application of a time domain system provides ranging information and also allows for identification of scattering points such as weaponry attached to the aircraft. The shapes of the models and positions of reflecting parts are retrieved by the filtered back projection algorithm.

  7. Site Characterization for Radar Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    accomplished waz "New Mine Detection Technologies," Mr. Jack Stoll, Principal Investigator. The Environmental Systems Division (EST) of the Environmental...Mr. Steve Bong of Hilton Systems visiting the proposed study site in M’rch to select specific locations for the test plots. The field data coll in...Technology/Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL) described an airborne 35-Ghz radar imaging system . The MIT/LL would employ various kinds of processing on the

  8. Radar Imaging for Moving Targets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    MOVING TARGETS by Teo Beng Koon William June 2009 Thesis Advisor: Brett H. Borden Second Reader: Donald L. Walters THIS PAGE...Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Radar Imaging for Moving Targets 6. AUTHOR(S) Teo Beng Koon William 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S

  9. Radar based autonomous sensor module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styles, Tim

    2016-10-01

    Most surveillance systems combine camera sensors with other detection sensors that trigger an alert to a human operator when an object is detected. The detection sensors typically require careful installation and configuration for each application and there is a significant burden on the operator to react to each alert by viewing camera video feeds. A demonstration system known as Sensing for Asset Protection with Integrated Electronic Networked Technology (SAPIENT) has been developed to address these issues using Autonomous Sensor Modules (ASM) and a central High Level Decision Making Module (HLDMM) that can fuse the detections from multiple sensors. This paper describes the 24 GHz radar based ASM, which provides an all-weather, low power and license exempt solution to the problem of wide area surveillance. The radar module autonomously configures itself in response to tasks provided by the HLDMM, steering the transmit beam and setting range resolution and power levels for optimum performance. The results show the detection and classification performance for pedestrians and vehicles in an area of interest, which can be modified by the HLDMM without physical adjustment. The module uses range-Doppler processing for reliable detection of moving objects and combines Radar Cross Section and micro-Doppler characteristics for object classification. Objects are classified as pedestrian or vehicle, with vehicle sub classes based on size. Detections are reported only if the object is detected in a task coverage area and it is classified as an object of interest. The system was shown in a perimeter protection scenario using multiple radar ASMs, laser scanners, thermal cameras and visible band cameras. This combination of sensors enabled the HLDMM to generate reliable alerts with improved discrimination of objects and behaviours of interest.

  10. Haystack Ultrawideband Satellite Imaging Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Haystack Ultrawideband Satellite Imaging Radar 5a...www.ll.mit.edu September 2014 Since the launch of satellites into Earth orbits more than 50 years ago, space has become crowded. Commercial and military... satellites , both active and defunct, share the space environment with an assort- ment of space debris, such as remnants of damaged spacecraft and

  11. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  12. Alternatives for Military Space Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    transmitted microwaves to produce images of the Earth’s surface (somewhat akin to photographs produced by optical imaging).2 By providing their own...microwaves for illumination (rather than sunlight, as in an optical imaging system). By providing their own illu- mination, radars can produce...carry a variety of payloads, including electro- optical , infrared, and SAR imagers; a film camera; and signals- intelligence equipment. The aircraft’s

  13. Multifunction Radar for Airborne Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    de rapport ( doo roSarvre o ntn orcp tion To de 0 & TR. Pour chaque valour de To, on calculo de la m~me faqon quo prdcdmment PS lo rIpporr - pour...senseur primordial dfalts les aviotts militaires. (in certain ttimbreC de caracteristiulues imptirtantes donne anl radar Ia supuirioritui sur Ics...muitcoroliugiques 1ironillard. nuagesi. 1estimation de distance et lestimatitin Douppler. - la sonplesse de at ]’orientatiiin ilectritnique des

  14. Capabilities of radar as they might relate to entomological studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skolnik, M. I.

    1979-01-01

    A tutoral background of radar capabilities and its potential for insect research is provided. The basic principles and concepts of radar were reviewed. Information on current radar equipment was examined. Specific issues related to insect research included; target cross-section, radar frequency, tracking target recognition and false alarms, clutter reduction, radar transmitter power, and ascertained atmospheric processes.

  15. Applications review for a Space Program Imaging Radar (SPIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonett, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    The needs, applications, user support, research, and theoretical studies of imaging radar are reviewed. The applications of radar in water resources, minerals and petroleum exploration, vegetation resources, ocean radar imaging, and cartography are discussed. The advantages of space imaging radar are presented, and it is recommended that imaging radar be placed on the space shuttle.

  16. Time synchronization via lunar radar.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higa, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    The advent of round-trip radar measurements has permitted the determination of the ranges to the nearby planets with greater precision than was previously possible. When the distances to the planets are known with high precision, the propagation delay for electromagnetic waves reflected by the planets may be calculated and used to synchronize remotely located clocks. Details basic to the operation of a lunar radar indicate a capability for clock synchronization to plus or minus 20 microsec. One of the design goals for this system was to achieve a simple semiautomatic receiver for remotely located tracking stations. The lunar radar system is in operational use for deep space tracking at Jet Propulsion Laboratory and synchronizes five world-wide tracking stations with a master clock at Goldstone, Calif. Computers are programmed to correct the Goldstone transmissions for transit time delay and Doppler shifts so as to be received on time at the tracking stations; this dictates that only one station can be synchronized at a given time period and that the moon must be simultaneously visible to both the transmitter and receiver for a minimum time of 10 min.-

  17. A radar image of Venus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, R. M.; Rumsey, H. C.

    1972-01-01

    Radar scans of Venus have yielded a brightness map of a large portion of the surface. The bright area in the south (alpha) and the twin such areas in the north (beta and delta) were first discovered by spectral analysis of radar echos. When range-gating is also applied, their shapes are revealed, and they are seen to be roundish and about 1000 km across. Although radar brightness can be the result of either intrinsic reflectivity or surface roughness, polarization studies show these features to be rough (to the scale of the wavelength, 12.5 cm). Dark, circular areas can also be seen, many with bright central spots. The dark areas are probably smooth. The blurring of the equatorial strip is an artifact of the range-Doppler geometry; all resolution disappears at the equator. Another artifact of the method is the 'ghost', in the south, of the images of beta and delta. Such ghosts appear only at the eastern and western extremes of the map.

  18. The instrumental principles of MST radars and incoherent scatter radars and the configuration of radar system hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roettger, Juergen

    1989-01-01

    The principle of pulse modulation used in the case of coherent scatter radars (MST radars) is discussed. Coherent detection and the corresponding system configuration is delineated. Antenna requirements and design are outlined and the phase-coherent transmitter/receiver system is described. Transmit/receive duplexers, transmitters, receivers, and quadrature detectors are explained. The radar controller, integrator, decoder and correlator design as well as the data transfer and the control and monitoring by the host computer are delineated. Typical operation parameters of some well-known radars are summarized.

  19. Simulation of a weather radar display for over-water airborne radar approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clary, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Airborne radar approach (ARA) concepts are being investigated as a part of NASA's Rotorcraft All-Weather Operations Research Program on advanced guidance and navigation methods. This research is being conducted using both piloted simulations and flight test evaluations. For the piloted simulations, a mathematical model of the airborne radar was developed for over-water ARAs to offshore platforms. This simulated flight scenario requires radar simulation of point targets, such as oil rigs and ships, distributed sea clutter, and transponder beacon replies. Radar theory, weather radar characteristics, and empirical data derived from in-flight radar photographs are combined to model a civil weather/mapping radar typical of those used in offshore rotorcraft operations. The resulting radar simulation is realistic and provides the needed simulation capability for ongoing ARA research.

  20. Recommendation on transition from primary/secondary radar to secondary-only radar capability

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1994-10-01

    This recommendation has been prepared to support the FAA decision to deactivate primary Long-range radars and presents a : transition strategy and implementation plan for the transformation of the existing primary/secondary en route radar : system to...

  1. A new system model for radar polarimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    The validity of the 2 x 2 receive R and transmit T model for radar polarimeter systems, first proposed by Zebker et al. (1987), is questioned. The model is found to be invalid for many practical realizations of radar polarimeters, which can lead to significant errors in the calibration of polarimetric radar images. A more general model is put forward, which addresses the system defects which cause the 2 x 2 model to break down. By measuring one simple parameter from a polarimetric active radar calibration (PARC), it is possible to transform the scattering matrix measurements made by a radar polarimeter to a format compatible with a 2 x 2 R and T matrix model. Alternatively, the PARC can be used to verify the validity of the 2 x 2 model for any polarimetric radar system. Recommendations for the use of PARCs in polarimetric calibration and to measure the orientation angle of the horizontal (H) and vertical (V) coordinate system are also presented.

  2. A new system model for radar polarimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Anthony

    1991-09-01

    The validity of the 2 x 2 receive R and transmit T model for radar polarimeter systems, first proposed by Zebker et al. (1987), is questioned. The model is found to be invalid for many practical realizations of radar polarimeters, which can lead to significant errors in the calibration of polarimetric radar images. A more general model is put forward, which addresses the system defects which cause the 2 x 2 model to break down. By measuring one simple parameter from a polarimetric active radar calibration (PARC), it is possible to transform the scattering matrix measurements made by a radar polarimeter to a format compatible with a 2 x 2 R and T matrix model. Alternatively, the PARC can be used to verify the validity of the 2 x 2 model for any polarimetric radar system. Recommendations for the use of PARCs in polarimetric calibration and to measure the orientation angle of the horizontal (H) and vertical (V) coordinate system are also presented.

  3. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huneycutt, Bryan L.

    1993-01-01

    The Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C is the next radar in the series of spaceborne radar experiments, which began with Seasat and continued with SIR-A and SIR-B. The SIR-C instrument has been designed to obtain simultaneous multifrequency and simultaneous multipolarization radar images from a low earth orbit. It is a multiparameter imaging radar that will be flown during at least two different seasons. The instrument operates in the squint alignment mode, the extended aperture mode, the scansar mode, and the interferometry mode. The instrument uses engineering techniques such as beam nulling for echo tracking, pulse repetition frequency hopping for Doppler centroid tracking, generating the frequency step chirp for radar parameter flexibility, block floating-point quantizing for data rate compression, and elevation beamwidth broadening for increasing the swath illumination.

  4. Radar imaging of Saturn's rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Philip D.; French, Richard G.; Campbell, Donald B.; Margot, Jean-Luc; Nolan, Michael C.; Black, Gregory J.; Salo, Heikki J.

    2005-09-01

    We present delay-Doppler images of Saturn's rings based on radar observations made at Arecibo Observatory between 1999 and 2003, at a wavelength of 12.6 cm and at ring opening angles of 20.1°⩽|B|⩽26.7°. The average radar cross-section of the A ring is ˜77% relative to that of the B ring, while a stringent upper limit of 3% is placed on the cross-section of the C ring and 9% on that of the Cassini Division. These results are consistent with those obtained by Ostro et al. [1982, Icarus 49, 367-381] from radar observations at |B|=21.4°, but provide higher resolution maps of the rings' reflectivity profile. The average cross-section of the A and B rings, normalized by their projected unblocked area, is found to have decreased from 1.25±0.31 to 0.74±0.19 as the rings have opened up, while the circular polarization ratio has increased from 0.64±0.06 to 0.77±0.06. The steep decrease in cross-section is at variance with previous radar measurements [Ostro et al., 1980, Icarus 41, 381-388], and neither this nor the polarization variations are easily understood within the framework of either classical, many-particle-thick or monolayer ring models. One possible explanation involves vertical size segregation in the rings, whereby observations at larger elevation angles which see deeper into the rings preferentially see the larger particles concentrated near the rings' mid-plane. These larger particles may be less reflective and/or rougher and thus more depolarizing than the smaller ones. Images from all four years show a strong m=2 azimuthal asymmetry in the reflectivity of the A ring, with an amplitude of ±20% and minima at longitudes of 67±4° and 247±4° from the sub-Earth point. We attribute the asymmetry to the presence of gravitational wakes in the A ring as invoked by Colombo et al. [1976, Nature 264, 344-345] to explain the similar asymmetry long seen at optical wavelengths. A simple radiative transfer model suggests that the enhancement of the azimuthal

  5. The Comet Radar Explorer Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, Erik; Belton, Mike; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Chesley, Steve; Delbo, Marco; Farnham, Tony; Gim, Yonggyu; Grimm, Robert; Herique, Alain; Kofman, Wlodek; Oberst, Juergen; Orosei, Roberto; Piqueux, Sylvain; Plaut, Jeff; Robinson, Mark; Sava, Paul; Heggy, Essam; Kurth, William; Scheeres, Dan; Denevi, Brett; Turtle, Elizabeth; Weissman, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Missions to cometary nuclei have revealed major geological surprises: (1) Global scale layers - do these persist through to the interior? Are they a record of primary accretion? (2) Smooth regions - are they landslides originating on the surface? Are they cryovolcanic? (3) Pits - are they impact craters or sublimation pits, or rooted in the interior? Unambiguous answers to these and other questions can be obtained by high definition 3D radar reflection imaging (RRI) of internal structure. RRI can answer many of the great unknowns in planetary science: How do primitive bodies accrete? Are cometary nuclei mostly ice? What drives their spectacular activity and evolution? The Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) mission will image the detailed internal structure of the nucleus of 10P/Tempel 2. This ~16 x 8 x 7 km Jupiter Family Comet (JFC), or its parent body, originated in the outer planets region possibly millions of years before planet formation. CORE arrives post-perihelion and observes the comet’s waning activity from safe distance. Once the nucleus is largely dormant, the spacecraft enters a ~20-km dedicated Radar Mapping Orbit (RMO). The exacting design of the RRI experiment and the precise navigation of RMO will achieve a highly focused 3D radar reflection image of internal structure, to tens of meters resolution, and tomographic images of velocity and attenuation to hundreds of meters resolution, tied to the gravity model and shape. Visible imagers will produce maps of the surface morphology, albedo, color, texture, and photometric response, and images for navigation and shape determination. The cameras will also monitor the structure and dynamics of the coma, and its dusty jets, allowing their correlation in 3D with deep interior structures and surface features. Repeated global high-resolution thermal images will probe the near-surface layers heated by the Sun. Derived maps of thermal inertia will be correlated with the radar boundary response, and photometry and

  6. Radar observations of asteroids and comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    Radar techniques for the observation of asteroids and comets are reviewed, emphasizing the logical basis for inferring physical properties from radar measurements. Results to date are reviewed, focusing on some recent highlights of the research to demonstrate the synergism between radar and other ground-based techniques. Particular attention is given to the asteroids 2 Pallas, 16 Psyche, 2101 Adonis, and the comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock.

  7. FMCW Radar Jamming Techniques and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    an education system that is compacted with various radar capabilities, the circuitry does not provide the full functionality of each type of radar as...example of a typical FMCW architecture. The hardware components and their functionalities are explained individually in the order of the signal processing...drawn. Chapter IV presents a MATLAB model that emulates the functionality of the homodyne FMCW radar discussed in Chapter II. The model design and

  8. Multimission airborne radar for the 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Thomas H.

    1986-07-01

    The continuing trend towards the development and production of aircraft capable of multiple missions indicates that future airborne radars must provide a broad spectrum of air-to-air and air-to-ground modes. This paper investigates the modal and functional requirements of a multimode radar projected for the mid-1990s period. The paper is divided into two sections. In the first, the multimission capabilities of current radars are presented to establish trends and capabilities. In the second, the requirements of the next generation system are established. Current multimode radars lay the basis for future systems. The experience gained on the APG-65 and APG-63/70 radars is presented and conclusions are drawn regarding their impact on future system requirements. Not only are modes and performance reviewed for these radars but also their system architecture. The discussion starts with the APG-65 radar which is the first true multimission radar with programmable signal and data processing. Following this, the evolution of the APG-63 radar, culminating with the most recent upgrading resulting in redesignation of APG-70, is presented. The incorporation of air-to-ground capabilities in the APG-70, resulting from the Dual Role Fighter program, is reviewed. Results from the Advanced Fighter Capabilities Demonstration program are presented showing how high resolution SAR was incorporated into a full weapon delivery solution. The specific radar requirements for the next decade radar system are developed. This development is done in two parts. First, mode requirements are synthesized for air superiority, navigation and strike/interdiction operation. This includes low altitude penetration requirements and a review of radar timeline constraints which arise. Second, the fundamental functional requirements needed to implement the mode requirements are explored. Architectural issues and their impact on reliability and sustainability are also considered.

  9. Agricultural and hydrological applications of radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.

    1976-01-01

    Program objectives, covering a wide range of disciplines and activities in radar remote sensing, include radar systems development and analysis, data processing and display, and data interpretation in geology, geography and oceanography. Research was focused on the evaluation of radar remote sensing applications in hydrology and agriculture based on data acquired with the Microwave Active Spectrometer (MAS) system. The title, author(s) and abstract of each of the 62 technical reports generated under this contract are appended.

  10. Coordinated Radar and Aircraft Observations of Turbulence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-26

    VELOCITY (il/) Jig. 10. Spectrum at two points having excessive radar c / 23 ACKNOWLEDGMENr The direction and support of Mr. 1. Goldman of the FAA...of Doppler Weather Radar to Turbulence Measure- ments Which Affect Aircraft," FAA Report RD-77-145 (March 1977). 2. R. T. Strauch, "Applications of...Meteorological Doppler Radar for Weather- Surveillance Near Air Terminals", IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron., G15-17, 4 (1979). 3. P. B. MacCready

  11. Textural features for radar image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanmugan, K. S.; Narayanan, V.; Frost, V. S.; Stiles, J. A.; Holtzman, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Texture is seen as an important spatial feature useful for identifying objects or regions of interest in an image. While textural features have been widely used in analyzing a variety of photographic images, they have not been used in processing radar images. A procedure for extracting a set of textural features for characterizing small areas in radar images is presented, and it is shown that these features can be used in classifying segments of radar images corresponding to different geological formations.

  12. Radar Performance Improvement. Angle Tracking Modification to Fire Control Radar System for Space Shuttle Rendezvous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    The AN/APQ-153 fire control radar modified to provide angle tracking was evaluated for improved performance. The frequency agile modifications are discussed along with the range-rate improvement modifications, and the radar to computer interface. A parametric design and comparison of noncoherent and coherent radar systems are presented. It is shown that the shuttle rendezvous range and range-rate requirements can be made by a Ku-Band noncoherent pulse radar.

  13. Multibeam synthetic aperture radar for global oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, A.

    1979-01-01

    A single-frequency multibeam synthetic aperture radar concept for large swath imaging desired for global oceanography is evaluated. Each beam iilluminates a separate range and azimuth interval, and images for different beams may be separated on the basis of the Doppler spectrum of the beams or their spatial azimuth separation in the image plane of the radar processor. The azimuth resolution of the radar system is selected so that the Doppler spectrum of each beam does not interfere with the Doppler foldover due to the finite pulse repetition frequency of the radar system.

  14. A satellite-based radar wind sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xin, Weizhuang

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to investigate the application of Doppler radar systems for global wind measurement. A model of the satellite-based radar wind sounder (RAWS) is discussed, and many critical problems in the designing process, such as the antenna scan pattern, tracking the Doppler shift caused by satellite motion, and backscattering of radar signals from different types of clouds, are discussed along with their computer simulations. In addition, algorithms for measuring mean frequency of radar echoes, such as the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) estimator, the covariance estimator, and the estimators based on autoregressive models, are discussed. Monte Carlo computer simulations were used to compare the performance of these algorithms. Anti-alias methods are discussed for the FFT and the autoregressive methods. Several algorithms for reducing radar ambiguity were studied, such as random phase coding methods and staggered pulse repitition frequncy (PRF) methods. Computer simulations showed that these methods are not applicable to the RAWS because of the broad spectral widths of the radar echoes from clouds. A waveform modulation method using the concept of spread spectrum and correlation detection was developed to solve the radar ambiguity. Radar ambiguity functions were used to analyze the effective signal-to-noise ratios for the waveform modulation method. The results showed that, with suitable bandwidth product and modulation of the waveform, this method can achieve the desired maximum range and maximum frequency of the radar system.

  15. Airborne radar radiometer measurements of tropical storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumagai, H.; Meneghini, R.; Kozu, T.; Okamoto, K.

    1992-01-01

    The results from an airborne radar radiometer experiment of rainfall measurement in tropical storms are presented. The experiment was conducted in the Western Pacific in September 1990 with the NASA/DC-8 aircraft which was equipped with a nadir-loking dual-frequency rain radar operating at X band and Ka band, and several channels of microwave radiometers. The X-band radar has a capability of dual-polarization reception which enables the measurements of Linear Depolarization Ratio (LDR). The data of the microwave radiometers are compared with the radar data.

  16. Ultra-wideband radar motion sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1994-11-01

    A motion sensor is based on ultra-wideband (UWB) radar. UWB radar range is determined by a pulse-echo interval. For motion detection, the sensors operate by staring at a fixed range and then sensing any change in the averaged radar reflectivity at that range. A sampling gate is opened at a fixed delay after the emission of a transmit pulse. The resultant sampling gate output is averaged over repeated pulses. Changes in the averaged sampling gate output represent changes in the radar reflectivity at a particular range, and thus motion. 15 figs.

  17. Ultra-wideband radar motion sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    A motion sensor is based on ultra-wideband (UWB) radar. UWB radar range is determined by a pulse-echo interval. For motion detection, the sensors operate by staring at a fixed range and then sensing any change in the averaged radar reflectivity at that range. A sampling gate is opened at a fixed delay after the emission of a transmit pulse. The resultant sampling gate output is averaged over repeated pulses. Changes in the averaged sampling gate output represent changes in the radar reflectivity at a particular range, and thus motion.

  18. Lunar and Venusian radar bright rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Saunders, R. S.; Weissman, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-one lunar craters have radar bright ring appearances which are analogous to eleven complete ring features in the earth-based 12.5 cm observations of Venus. Radar ring diameters and widths for the lunar and Venusian features overlap for sizes from 45 to 100 km. Radar bright areas for the lunar craters are associated with the slopes of the inner and outer rim walls, while level crater floors and level ejecta fields beyond the raised portion of the rim have average radar backscatter. It is proposed that the radar bright areas of the Venusian rings are also associated with the slopes on the rims of craters. The lunar craters have evolved to radar bright rings via mass wasting of crater rim walls and via post-impact flooding of crater floors. Aeolian deposits of fine-grained material on Venusian crater floors may produce radar scattering effects similar to lunar crater floor flooding. These Venusian aeolian deposits may preferentially cover blocky crater floors producing a radar bright ring appearance. It is proposed that the Venusian features with complete bright ring appearances and sizes less than 100 km are impact craters. They have the same sizes as lunar craters and could have evolved to radar bright rings via analogous surface processes.

  19. Bistatic and Multistatic Radar: Surveillance, Countermeasures, and Radar Cross Sections. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, testing, and evaluation of bistatic and multistatic radar used in surveillance and countermeasure technology. Citations discuss radar cross sections, target recognition and characteristics, ghost recognition, motion image compensation, and wavelet analysis. Stealth aircraft design, stealth target tracking, synthetic aperture radar, and space applications are examined.

  20. Bistatic and Multistatic Radar: Surveillance, Countermeasures, and Radar Cross Sections. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, testing, and evaluation of bistatic and multistatic radar used in surveillance and countermeasure technology. Citations discuss radar cross sections, target recognition and characteristics, ghost recognition, motion image compensation, and wavelet analysis. Stealth aircraft design, stealth target tracking, synthetic aperture radar, and space applications are examined.

  1. 1. VIEW NORTHWEST, operations building, height finder radar tower, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTHWEST, operations building, height finder radar tower, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  2. The NASA radar entomology program at Wallops Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, C. R.

    1979-01-01

    NASA contribution to radar entomology is presented. Wallops Flight Center is described in terms of its radar systems. Radar tracking of birds and insects was recorded from helicopters for airspeed and vertical speed.

  3. Radar network communication through sensing of frequency hopping

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, Farid; Nekoogar, Faranak

    2013-05-28

    In one embodiment, a radar communication system includes a plurality of radars having a communication range and being capable of operating at a sensing frequency and a reporting frequency, wherein the reporting frequency is different than the sensing frequency, each radar is adapted for operating at the sensing frequency until an event is detected, each radar in the plurality of radars has an identification/location frequency for reporting information different from the sensing frequency, a first radar of the radars which senses the event sends a reporting frequency corresponding to its identification/location frequency when the event is detected, and all other radars in the plurality of radars switch their reporting frequencies to match the reporting frequency of the first radar upon detecting the reporting frequency switch of a radar within the communication range. In another embodiment, a method is presented for communicating information in a radar system.

  4. Benthic Macro-Invertebrates of Bull Creek and Ramer Branch, Eglin AFB Reservation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    Oligochaeta, Coleoptera, Trichoptera, Plecoptera , Odonata, and Ephermeroptera. The faunas at the sites were similar with sites sharing from 69 to 82...Coleoptera (11.4 percent), Ephemeroptera (8.2 percent), Odonata (6.8 percent), Plecoptera (4.4 percent), and Oligochaeta (4.4 percent). In the light...Hexatoma sp. (Diptera); Stenelmis sp. (Coleoptera); Anisocentropus sp., Oecetis sp., and Agarodes sp. (Trichoptera); Allocapnia sp. ( Plecoptera ); Gomphus sp

  5. 2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  6. Radar Methods in Urban Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-26

    to appear in IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing. J8. M. Wang and A. Nehorai, “Coarrays, MUSIC , and the Cramér Rao bound,” to...Journal Papers: 1. P. Chavali and A. Nehorai, "Scheduling and resource allocation in a cognitive radar network for multiple- target tracking,’’ IEEE...Processing. 33. M. Wang and A. Nehorai, "Coarrays, MUSIC , and the Cramér Rao bound," to appear in IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing. 34. J. Li and A. Nehorai

  7. Radar Imaging and Target Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-09

    Ferrara , Ph.D. May 2006, now in RYAT. Thesis title: "Radar Signal Process- ing". • Postdoc supported by China Scholarship Council: Dr. Ling Wang...of the latter visits, I have brought with me Birsen Yazici, Liz Rachele, and/or Matt Ferrara . 2.3 Summer jobs for students • As part of his SMART...fellowship, Matt Ferrara spent the summer of 2006 in RYAT at Wright-Patterson, where he remained in the fall to finish his dissertation and where he

  8. Mars Express radar deployment postponed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-04-01

    New and improved computer models suggest that, during deployment, the radar booms may swing back and forth with larger amplitudes than previously expected. If this happened, the booms might come too close to delicate components of the spacecraft body. Further simulations and tests are under way to better understand the situation. The two main radar booms are 20-metre long hollow cylinders, of 2.5 centimetres diameter, folded up in a box like a concertina (accordion). When the box is opened, the elastic energy of the compressed glass-fibre booms will let them unfold like a jack-in-the-box. After the booms spring out, they will eventually lock in a straight line, taking up the shape that they had before being folded into the box. The deployment procedure of each boom is expected to last about 10 minutes. Simulations carried out four years ago by the radar boom's manufacturer, Astro Aerospace, California, USA, indicated that the deployment should be smooth, without significantly swinging back and forth. However, the radar team has now advised ESA that a new and refined analysis of the boom dynamics indicates that a sort of "backlash" might take place before the boom locks into its position. Although a successful deployment is not in question, Mars Express mission managers want to make sure that the booms are not subjected to excessive mechanical stress and that they do not interfere with the spacecraft as they deploy. The MARSIS team and their industrial contractors are now performing further tests and simulations to confirm that the deployment will have no impact on the safety of the spacecraft. These simulations will then be reviewed by ESA's experts. Based on the results, expected within a few weeks, ESA will decide when and how to activate MARSIS. MARSIS will study the sub-surface of Mars to a depth of a few kilometres. The instrument's antennas will send radio waves towards the planet and analyse how they are reflected by any surface that they encounter. In this

  9. Visual Attention to Radar Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moray, N.; Richards, M.; Brophy, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model is described which predicts the allocation of attention to the features of a radar display. It uses the growth of uncertainty and the probability of near collision to call the eye to a feature of the display. The main source of uncertainty is forgetting following a fixation, which is modelled as a two dimensional diffusion process. The model was used to predict information overload in intercept controllers, and preliminary validation obtained by recording eye movements of intercept controllers in simulated and live (practice) interception.

  10. Radar spectral measurements of vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Moore, R. K.

    1973-01-01

    Spectral data of 4-8 GHz radar backscatter were gathered during the 1972 growing season at look angles between 0 and 70 deg and for all four possible polarization linear combinations. The data covers four crop types (corn, milo, alfalfa, and soybeans) and a wide range of soil moisture content. To insure statistical representation of the results, measurements were conducted over 128 fields corresponding to a total of about 40,000 data points. The use of spectral response signatures to separate different crop types and to separate healthy corn from blighted corn was investigated.

  11. Radar Image of Dublin, Ireland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Visualization Date 1994-04-11 This radar image of Dublin, Ireland, shows how the radar distingishes between densely populated urban areas and nearby areas that are relatively unsettled. In the center of the image is the city's natural harbor along the Irish Sea. The pinkish areas in the center are the densely populated parts of the city and the blue/green areas are the suburbs. The two ends of the Dublin Bay are Howth Point, the circular peninsula near the upper right side of the image, and Dun Laoghaire, the point to the south. The small island just north of Howth is called "Ireland's Eye," and the larger island, near the upper right corner of the image is Lambay Island. The yellow/green mountains in the lower left of the image (south) are the Wicklow Mountains. The large lake in the lower left, nestled within these mountains, is the Poulaphouca Reservoir along River Liffey. The River Liffey, the River Dodder and the Tolka River are the three rivers that flow into Dublin. The straight features west of the city are the Grand Canal and the three rivers are the faint lines above and below these structures. The dark X-shaped feature just to the north of the city is the Dublin International Airport. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 11, 1994. This area is centered at 53.3 degrees north latitude, 6.2 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 55 kilometers by 42 kilometers (34 miles by 26 miles). The colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: Red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. Credit: NASA/GSFC For more

  12. Synthesis and Photoluminescence Properties of Ca2Ga2SiO7:Eu(3+) Red Phosphors with an Intense (5)D0 → (7)F4 Transition.

    PubMed

    Behrh, Gaganpreet Kaur; Gautier, Romain; Latouche, Camille; Jobic, Stéphane; Serier-Brault, Hélène

    2016-09-19

    Novel melilite-type Ca2Ga2SiO7:Eu(3+) red-emitting phosphors with different Eu(3+) contents were synthesized via high-temperature solid-state reaction. The crystal structure, optical absorption, and photoluminescence properties were investigated, while density functional theory calculations were performed on the host lattice. The excitation spectra indicate that phosphors can be effectively excited by near-UV light for a potential application in white-light-emitting diodes. Because of the abnormally high intensity emission at about 700 nm arising from the (5)D0 → (7)F4 transition of Eu(3+), the phosphors Ca2Ga2SiO7:Eu(3+) show a deep-red emission with chromaticity coordinates (0.639, 0.358).

  13. Comparative Study of Ureteral Stents Following Endoureterotomy in the Porcine Model: 3 vs 6 Weeks and 7F vs 14F

    SciTech Connect

    Soria, Federico; Sanchez, Francisco M.; Sun, Fei

    2005-12-15

    The aim of the study was to determine the optimal stent size and stenting duration following retrograde endoureterotomy of experimental ureteral strictures. Twenty healthy Large White female pigs were randomly divided into four groups, depending on stent size (7F vs 14F) and stenting duration (3 weeks vs 6 weeks). Three additional pigs were used as the control group. The internal ureteral diameter was measured 2 cm below the lower pole of the right kidney. Histopathological changes of the urinary tract, ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic studies, urine culture, and serum urea and creatine levels were analyzed during the different phases of themore » study. The study was divided into three phases. Phase I included premodel documentation of the normal urinary tract and laparoscopic ureteral stricture creation. During the second phase 1 month later, the diagnosis and endourologic treatment of strictures were performed. Phase III began 4 weeks after stent removal; follow-up imaging studies and postmortem evaluation of all animals were performed. Ureteral strictures developed in all animals 4 weeks after model creation. Results from ureteral diameter measurements and pathological studies revealed no statistically significant intergroup differences. However, prevalence of urinary infection proved to be directly related to stent size (14F) and permanence (6 weeks). The chi square results suggest a statistically significant relationship between the urinary tract infection and recurrent strictures ({alpha} = 0.046). We recommend the use of 7F stents for a period of 3 weeks or less, as these are more easily positioned and result in the reduction of secondary side effects (lower infection rate, less intramural ureteral lesions). A significant relationship between urinary tract infection and stricture recurrence was found in this experimental study.« less

  14. Temperature measurement based on photoluminescence of Er3+ doped Sr0.3Cd0.7F2 microcrystal coupled to scanning thermal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trannoy, N.; Sayoud, A.; Diaf, M.; Duvaut, Th.; Jouart, J. P.; Grossel, Ph.

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth doped sub-micrometric luminescent materials are promising candidates for temperature sensing and play an efficient role in many technological fields. In this paper, a new optical sensor is developed for measuring local temperatures. This sensor is based on a thermal-resistive probe and on photoluminescence of a luminescent fluoride microcrystal. The final purpose is to develop a device calibrated in temperature and capable of acquiring images of local temperature at sub-micrometric scale. Indeed, the sensor temperature can be obtained in two distinct ways: one from the thermal probe parameters and the other from the green photoluminescence generated in the anti-Stokes mode by the active Er ions directly excited by a red laser. The thermal probe is based on Wollaston wire whose thermal-resistive element is in platinum/rhodium. Its temperature is estimated from the probe electrical characteristics and a modeling. A microcrystal of Sr0.3Cd0.7F2: Er3+(4%)-Yb3+(6%) of about 25 μm in diameter is glued at the probe extremity. This luminescent material has the particularity to give a green emission spectrum with intensities sensitive to small temperature variations. Using the fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) technique, the crystal temperature is estimated from the intensity measurements at green wavelengths 522, 540 and 549 nm by taking advantage of particular optical properties due to the crystalline nature of Sr0.3Cd0.7F2: Er3+-Yb3+. The microcrystal temperature is then assessed as a function of electric current in the thermal probe by applying the Boltzmann's equations. The coupling of the scanning thermal microscope (SThM) with the photoluminescence probe reveals that the particle fluorescence signal is affected by the temperature rise of an electrical microsystem submitted to a Joule heating. The first results are presented and discussed.

  15. Novel compounds TAD-1822-7-F2 and F5 inhibited HeLa cells growth through the JAK/Stat signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianfeng; Shi, Xianpeng; Kang, Yuan; Zhu, Man; Fan, Mengying; Zhang, Dongdong; Zhang, Yanmin

    2018-07-01

    Cervical carcinoma remains the second most common malignancy with a high mortality rate among women worldwide. TAD-1822-7-F2 (F2) and TAD-1822-7-F5 (F5) are novel compounds synthesized on the chemical structure of taspine derivatives, and show an effective suppression for HeLa cells. Our study aims to confirm the potential targets of F2 and F5, and investigate the underlying mechanism of the inhibitory effect on HeLa cells. In this study, Real Time Cell Analysis and crystal violet staining assay were conducted to investigate the effect of F2 and F5 on HeLa cells proliferation. And the analytical methods of surface plasmon resonance and quartz crystal microbalance were established and employed to study the interaction between F2 and F5 and potential target protein JAK2, suggesting that both compounds have strong interaction with the JAK2 protein. Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence staining study and PCR was conducted to investigate the molecules of JAK/Stat signaling pathway. Interestingly, F2 and F5 showed diverse regulation for signaling molecules because of their different chemical structure. F2 increased the expression of JAK2 and downregulated the level of P-JAK1 and P-JAK2, and decreased P-Stat3 (Ser727). While F5 could increase the expression of JAK2 and naturally decrease the phosphorylation of JAK1 and Tyk2, and decreased the expression of P-Stat6. Moreover, F2 and F5 showed the same downregulation on the P-Stat3 (Tyr705). Therefore, F2 and F5 could target the JAK2 protein and prevent the phosphorylation of JAKs to suppress the phosphorylation of the downstream effector Stats, which suggested that F2 and F5 have great potential to be the inhibitors of the JAK/Stat signaling pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. On the Developmental Education Radar Screen--2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    This is the second iteration of the Developmental Education Radar Screen project. As with the first iteration, in 2011, the author uses a "radar screen" metaphor to discuss trends in developmental education based on responses to a series of topics and categories provided by a group of leaders in the educational field. The purpose of this…

  17. Incidence angle normalization of radar backscatter data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    NASA’s Soil Moisture Passive Active (SMAP) satellite (~2014) will include a radar system that will provide L-band multi-polarization backscatter at a constant incidence angle of 40º. During the pre-launch phase of the project there is a need for observations that will support the radar-based soil mo...

  18. The Second Spaceborne Imaging Radar Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Summaries of the papers presented at the Second Spaceborne Imaging Radar Symposium are presented. The purpose of the symposium was to present an overwiew of recent developments in the different scientific and technological fields related to spaceborne imaging radars and to present future international plans.

  19. Helicopter discrimination apparatus for the murine radar

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Jr., John G.; Gray, Roger M.

    1977-01-01

    A helicopter discrimination apparatus for a radar utilizing doppler filtering to discriminate between a missile and ground clutter. The short duration of the doppler filter pulses which are emitted by helicopter rotor blades are processed to prevent false alarms, thus allowing the radar-protected helicopter to operate in formation with other helicopters while maintaining protection against infra-red-seeking missiles.

  20. Kharkiv Meteor Radar System (the XX Age)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomiyets, S. V.

    2012-09-01

    Kharkiv meteor radar research are of historic value (Kolomiyets and Sidorov 2007). Kharkiv radar observations of meteors proved internationally as the best in the world, it was noted at the IAU General Assembly in 1958. In the 1970s Kharkiv meteor automated radar system (MARS) was recommended at the international level as a successful prototype for wide distribution. Until now, this radar system is one of the most sensitive instruments of meteor radars in the world for astronomical observations. In 2004 Kharkiv meteor radar system is included in the list of objects which compose the national property of Ukraine. Kharkiv meteor radar system has acquired the status of the important historical astronomical instrument in world history. Meteor Centre for researching meteors in Kharkiv is a analogue of the observatory and performs the same functions of a generator and a battery of special knowledge and skills (the world-famous studio). Kharkiv and the location of the instrument were brand points on the globe, as the place where the world-class meteor radar studies were carried out. They are inscribed in the history of meteor astronomy, in large letters and should be immortalized on a world-wide level.

  1. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-01-27

    This false-color L-band image of the Manaus region of Brazil was acquired by NASA Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar SIR-C/X-SAR aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 46 of the mission.

  2. Observation of the Earth by radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques and applications of radar observation from Earth satellites are discussed. Images processing and analysis of these images are discussed. Also discussed is radar imaging from aircraft. Uses of this data include ocean wave analysis, surface water evaluation, and topographic analysis.

  3. 46 CFR 15.815 - Radar observers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radar observers. 15.815 Section 15.815 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Computations § 15.815 Radar observers. (a) Each person in the required complement of deck officers, including...

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Radar Returns from Insects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    When a number of flying insects is low enough to permit their resolution as individual radar targets, quantitative estimates of their aerial density are developed. Accurate measurements of heading distribution using a rotating polarization radar to enhance the wingbeat frequency method of identification are presented.

  5. 46 CFR 15.815 - Radar observers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar observers. 15.815 Section 15.815 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Computations § 15.815 Radar observers. (a) Each person in the required complement of deck officers, including...

  6. 46 CFR 15.815 - Radar observers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar observers. 15.815 Section 15.815 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Computations § 15.815 Radar observers. (a) Each person in the required complement of deck officers, including...

  7. 46 CFR 15.815 - Radar observers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar observers. 15.815 Section 15.815 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING REQUIREMENTS Computations § 15.815 Radar observers. (a) Each person in the required complement of deck officers, including...

  8. Ultra-wideband radar sensors and networks

    DOEpatents

    Leach, Jr., Richard R; Nekoogar, Faranak; Haugen, Peter C

    2013-08-06

    Ultra wideband radar motion sensors strategically placed in an area of interest communicate with a wireless ad hoc network to provide remote area surveillance. Swept range impulse radar and a heart and respiration monitor combined with the motion sensor further improves discrimination.

  9. Space Radar Image of Kilauea, Hawaii

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-01-27

    This color composite C-band and L-band image of the Kilauea volcano on the Big Island of Hawaii was acquired by NASA Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar SIR-C/X-SAR flying on space shuttle Endeavour.

  10. Computing the apparent centroid of radar targets

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.E.

    1996-12-31

    A high-frequency multibounce radar scattering code was used as a simulation platform for demonstrating an algorithm to compute the ARC of specific radar targets. To illustrate this simulation process, several targets models were used. Simulation results for a sphere model were used to determine the errors of approximation associated with the simulation; verifying the process. The severity of glint induced tracking errors was also illustrated using a model of an F-15 aircraft. It was shown, in a deterministic manner, that the ARC of a target can fall well outside its physical extent. Finally, the apparent radar centroid simulation based onmore » a ray casting procedure is well suited for use on most massively parallel computing platforms and could lead to the development of a near real-time radar tracking simulation for applications such as endgame fuzing, survivability, and vulnerability analyses using specific radar targets and fuze algorithms.« less

  11. Remote sensing with laser spectrum radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianhe; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong

    2016-10-01

    The unmanned airborne (UAV) laser spectrum radar has played a leading role in remote sensing because the transmitter and the receiver are together at laser spectrum radar. The advantages of the integrated transceiver laser spectrum radar is that it can be used in the oil and gas pipeline leak detection patrol line which needs the non-contact reflective detection. The UAV laser spectrum radar can patrol the line and specially detect the swept the area are now in no man's land because most of the oil and gas pipelines are in no man's land. It can save labor costs compared to the manned aircraft and ensure the safety of the pilots. The UAV laser spectrum radar can be also applied in the post disaster relief which detects the gas composition before the firefighters entering the scene of the rescue.

  12. Tangential velocity measurement using interferometric MTI radar

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W.; Mileshosky, Brian P.; Bickel, Douglas L.

    2006-01-03

    Radar systems use time delay measurements between a transmitted signal and its echo to calculate range to a target. Ranges that change with time cause a Doppler offset in phase and frequency of the echo. Consequently, the closing velocity between target and radar can be measured by measuring the Doppler offset of the echo. The closing velocity is also known as radial velocity, or line-of-sight velocity. Doppler frequency is measured in a pulse-Doppler radar as a linear phase shift over a set of radar pulses during some Coherent Processing Interval (CPI). An Interferometric Moving Target Indicator (MTI) radar can be used to measure the tangential velocity component of a moving target. Multiple baselines, along with the conventional radial velocity measurement, allow estimating the true 3-D velocity of a target.

  13. Millimeter wave radars raise weapon IQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, E. J.

    1985-02-01

    The problems encountered by laser and IR homing devices for guided munitions may be tractable with warhead-mounted mm-wave radars. Operating at about 100 GHz and having several kilometers range, mm-wave radars see through darkness, fog, rain and smoke. The radar must be coupled with an analyzer that discerns moving and stationary targets and higher priority targets. The target lock-on can include shut-off of the transmitter and reception of naturally-generated mm-waves bouncing off the target when in the terminal phase of the flight. Monopulse transmitters have simplified the radar design, although mass production of finline small radar units has yet to be accomplished, particularly in combining GaAs, ferrites and other materials on one monolithic chip.

  14. Radar research on thunderstorms and lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, W. D.; Doviak, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Applications of Doppler radar to detection of storm hazards are reviewed. Normal radar sweeps reveal data on reflectivity fields of rain drops, ionized lightning paths, and irregularities in humidity and temperature. Doppler radar permits identification of the targets' speed toward or away from the transmitter through interpretation of the shifts in the microwave frequency. Wind velocity fields can be characterized in three dimensions by the use of two radar units, with a Nyquist limit on the highest wind speeds that may be recorded. Comparisons with models numerically derived from Doppler radar data show substantial agreement in storm formation predictions based on information gathered before the storm. Examples are provided of tornado observations with expanded Nyquist limits, gust fronts, turbulence, lightning and storm structures. Obtaining vertical velocities from reflectivity spectra is discussed.

  15. Magneto-Radar Hidden Metal Detector

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    2005-07-05

    A varying magnetic field excites slight vibrations in an object and a radar sensor detects the vibrations at a harmonic of the excitation frequency. The synergy of the magnetic excitation and radar detection provides increased detection range compared to conventional magnetic metal detectors. The radar rejects background clutter by responding only to reflecting objects that are vibrating at a harmonic excitation field, thereby significantly improving detection reliability. As an exemplary arrangement, an ultra-wideband micropower impulse radar (MIR) is capable of being employed to provide superior materials penetration while providing range information. The magneto-radar may be applied to pre-screening magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patients, landmine detection and finding hidden treasures.

  16. Space Radar Image of Bahia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a color composite image of southern Bahia, Brazil, centered at 15.22 degree south latitude and 39.07 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 38th orbit of Earth on October 2, 1994. The image covers an area centered over the Una Biological Reserve, one the largest protected areas in northeastern Brazil. The 7,000-hectare reserve is administered by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and is part of the larger Atlantic coastal forest, a narrow band of rain forest extending along the eastern coast of Brazil. The Atlantic coastal forest of southern Bahia is one of the world's most threatened and diverse ecosystems. Due to widespread settlement, only 2 to 5 percent of the original forest cover remains. Yet the region still contains an astounding variety of plants and animals, including a large number of endemic species. More than half of the region's tree species and 80 percent of its animal species are indigenous and found nowhere else on Earth. The Una Reserve is also the only federally protected habitat for the golden-headed lion tamarin, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkey and many other endangered species. In the past few years, scientists from Brazilian and international conservation organizations have coordinated efforts to study the biological diversity of this region and to develop practical and economically viable options for preserving the remaining primary forests in southern Bahia. The shuttle imaging radar is used in this study to identify various land uses and vegetation types, including remaining patches of primary forest, cabruca forest (cacao planted in the understory of the native forest), secondary forest, pasture and coastal mangrove. Standard remote-sensing technology that relies on light reflected from the forest canopy cannot accurately distinguish between cabruca and undisturbed forest. Optical remote sensing is also

  17. Program Analyzes Radar Altimeter Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandemark, Doug; Hancock, David; Tran, Ngan

    2004-01-01

    A computer program has been written to perform several analyses of radar altimeter data. The program was designed to improve on previous methods of analysis of altimeter engineering data by (1) facilitating and accelerating the analysis of large amounts of data in a more direct manner and (2) improving the ability to estimate performance of radar-altimeter instrumentation and provide data corrections. The data in question are openly available to the international scientific community and can be downloaded from anonymous file-transfer- protocol (FTP) locations that are accessible via links from altimetry Web sites. The software estimates noise in range measurements, estimates corrections for electromagnetic bias, and performs statistical analyses on various parameters for comparison of different altimeters. Whereas prior techniques used to perform similar analyses of altimeter range noise require comparison of data from repetitions of satellite ground tracks, the present software uses a high-pass filtering technique to obtain similar results from single satellite passes. Elimination of the requirement for repeat-track analysis facilitates the analysis of large amounts of satellite data to assess subtle variations in range noise.

  18. Progress in coherent laser radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable progress with coherent laser radar has been made over the last few years, most notably perhaps in the available range of high performance devices and components and the confidence with which systems may now be taken into the field for prolonged periods of operation. Some of this increasing maturity was evident at the 3rd Topical Meeting on Coherent Laser Radar: Technology and Applications. Topics included in discussions were: mesoscale wind fields, nocturnal valley drainage and clear air down bursts; airborne Doppler lidar studies and comparison of ground and airborne wind measurement; wind measurement over the sea for comparison with satellite borne microwave sensors; transport of wake vortices at airfield; coherent DIAL methods; a newly assembled Nd-YAG coherent lidar system; backscatter profiles in the atmosphere and wavelength dependence over the 9 to 11 micrometer region; beam propagation; rock and soil classification with an airborne 4-laser system; technology of a global wind profiling system; target calibration; ranging and imaging with coherent pulsed and CW system; signal fluctuations and speckle. Some of these activities are briefly reviewed.

  19. Space Radar Image of Chernobyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its surroundings, centered at 51.17 north latitude and 30.15 west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 16th orbit on October 1, 1994. The area is located on the northern border of the Ukraine Republic and was produced by using the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization. The differences in the intensity are due to differences in vegetation cover, with brighter areas being indicative of more vegetation. These data were acquired as part of a collaboration between NASA and the National Space Agency of Ukraine in Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences. NASA has included several sites provided by the Ukrainian space agency as targets of opportunity during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The Ukrainian space agency also plans to conduct airborne surveys of these sites during the mission. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant is located toward the top of the image near the Pripyat River. The 12-kilometer (7.44-mile)-long cooling pond is easily distinguishable as an elongated dark shape in the center near the top of the image. The reactor complex is visible as the bright area to the extreme left of the cooling pond and the city of Chernobyl is the bright area just below the cooling pond next to the Pripyat River. The large dark area in the bottom right of the image is the Kiev Reservoir just north of Kiev. Also visible is the Dnieper River, which feeds into the Kiev Reservoir from the top of the image. The Soviet government evacuated 116,000 people within 30 kilometers (18.6 miles) of the Chernobyl reactor after the explosion and fire on April 26, 1986. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight

  20. Radar cross calibration investigation TAMU radar polarimeter calibration measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, A. J.; Newton, R. W.; Bong, S.; Kronke, C.; Warren, G. L.; Carey, D.

    1982-01-01

    A short pulse, 20 MHz bandwidth, three frequency radar polarimeter system (RPS) operates at center frequencies of 10.003 GHz, 4.75 GHz, and 1.6 GHz and utilizes dual polarized transmit and receive antennas for each frequency. The basic lay-out of the RPS is different from other truck mounted systems in that it uses a pulse compression IF section common to all three RF heads. Separate transmit and receive antennas are used to improve the cross-polarization isolation at each particular frequency. The receive is a digitally controlled gain modulated subsystem and is interfaced directly with a microprocesser computer for control and data manipulation. Antenna focusing distance, focusing each antenna pair, rf head stability, and polarization characteristics of RPS antennas are discussed. Platform and data acquisition procedures are described.

  1. Synthetic aperture radar interferometry of Okmok volcano, Alaska: radar observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhong; Mann, Dörte; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Meyer, David

    2000-01-01

    ERS-1/ERS-2 synthetic aperture radar interferometry was used to study the 1997 eruption of Okmok volcano in Alaska. First, we derived an accurate digital elevation model (DEM) using a tandem ERS-1/ERS-2 image pair and the preexisting DEM. Second, by studying changes in interferometric coherence we found that the newly erupted lava lost radar coherence for 5-17 months after the eruption. This suggests changes in the surface backscattering characteristics and was probably related to cooling and compaction processes. Third, the atmospheric delay anomalies in the deformation interferograms were quantitatively assessed. Atmospheric delay anomalies in some of the interferograms were significant and consistently smaller than one to two fringes in magnitude. For this reason, repeat observations are important to confidently interpret small geophysical signals related to volcanic activities. Finally, using two-pass differential interferometry, we analyzed the preemptive inflation, coeruptive deflation, and posteruptive inflation and confirmed the observations using independent image pairs. We observed more than 140 cm of subsidence associated with the 1997 eruption. This subsidence occurred between 16 months before the eruption and 5 months after the eruption, was preceded by ∼18 cm of uplift between 1992 and 1995 centered in the same location, and was followed by ∼10 cm of uplift between September 1997 and 1998. The best fitting model suggests the magma reservoir resided at 2.7 km depth beneath the center of the caldera, which was ∼5 km from the eruptive vent. We estimated the volume of the erupted material to be 0.055 km3 and the average thickness of the erupted lava to be ∼7.4 m. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Structural geologic interpretations from radar imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, Robert G.

    1969-01-01

    Certain structural geologic features may be more readily recognized on sidelooking airborne radar (SLAR) images than on conventional aerial photographs, other remote sensor imagery, or by ground observations. SLAR systems look obliquely to one or both sides and their images resemble aerial photographs taken at low sun angle with the sun directly behind the camera. They differ from air photos in geometry, resolution, and information content. Radar operates at much lower frequencies than the human eye, camera, or infrared sensors, and thus "sees" differently. The lower frequency enables it to penetrate most clouds and some precipitation, haze, dust, and some vegetation. Radar provides its own illumination, which can be closely controlled in intensity and frequency. It is narrow band, or essentially monochromatic. Low relief and subdued features are accentuated when viewed from the proper direction. Runs over the same area in significantly different directions (more than 45° from each other), show that images taken in one direction may emphasize features that are not emphasized on those taken in the other direction; optimum direction is determined by those features which need to be emphasized for study purposes. Lineaments interpreted as faults stand out on radar imagery of central and western Nevada; folded sedimentary rocks cut by faults can be clearly seen on radar imagery of northern Alabama. In these areas, certain structural and stratigraphic features are more pronounced on radar images than on conventional photographs; thus radar imagery materially aids structural interpretation.

  3. Pedestrian recognition using automotive radar sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, A.; Fitzek, F.; Rasshofer, R. H.

    2012-09-01

    The application of modern series production automotive radar sensors to pedestrian recognition is an important topic in research on future driver assistance systems. The aim of this paper is to understand the potential and limits of such sensors in pedestrian recognition. This knowledge could be used to develop next generation radar sensors with improved pedestrian recognition capabilities. A new raw radar data signal processing algorithm is proposed that allows deep insights into the object classification process. The impact of raw radar data properties can be directly observed in every layer of the classification system by avoiding machine learning and tracking. This gives information on the limiting factors of raw radar data in terms of classification decision making. To accomplish the very challenging distinction between pedestrians and static objects, five significant and stable object features from the spatial distribution and Doppler information are found. Experimental results with data from a 77 GHz automotive radar sensor show that over 95% of pedestrians can be classified correctly under optimal conditions, which is compareable to modern machine learning systems. The impact of the pedestrian's direction of movement, occlusion, antenna beam elevation angle, linear vehicle movement, and other factors are investigated and discussed. The results show that under real life conditions, radar only based pedestrian recognition is limited due to insufficient Doppler frequency and spatial resolution as well as antenna side lobe effects.

  4. Survey of Ultra-wideband Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokole, Eric L.; Hansen, Pete

    The development of UWB radar over the last four decades is very briefly summarized. A discussion of the meaning of UWB is followed by a short history of UWB radar developments and discussions of key supporting technologies and current UWB radars. Selected UWB radars and the associated applications are highlighted. Applications include detecting and imaging buried mines, detecting and mapping underground utilities, detecting and imaging objects obscured by foliage, through-wall detection in urban areas, short-range detection of suicide bombs, and the characterization of the impulse responses of various artificial and naturally occurring scattering objects. In particular, the Naval Research Laboratory's experimental, low-power, dual-polarized, short-pulse, ultra-high resolution radar is used to discuss applications and issues of UWB radar. Some crucial issues that are problematic to UWB radar are spectral availability, electromagnetic interference and compatibility, difficulties with waveform control/shaping, hardware limitations in the transmission chain, and the unreliability of high-power sources for sustained use above 2 GHz.

  5. Space Radar Image of Munich, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image of Munich, Germany illustrates the capability of a multi-frequency radar system to highlight different land use patterns in the area surrounding Bavaria's largest city. Central Munich is the white area at the middle of the image, on the banks of the Isar River. Pink areas are forested, while green areas indicate clear-cut and agricultural terrain. The Munich region served as a primary 'supersite' for studies in ecology, hydrology and radar calibration during the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) missions. Scientists were able to use these data to map patterns of forest damage from storms and areas affected by bark beetle infestation. The image was acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 18, 1994. The image is 37 kilometers by 32 kilometers (23 miles by 20 miles) and is centered at 48.2 degrees North latitude, 11.5 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  6. Applications of high-frequency radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headrick, J. M.; Thomason, J. F.

    1998-07-01

    Efforts to extend radar range by an order of magnitude with use of the ionosphere as a virtual mirror started after the end of World War II. A number of HF radar programs were pursued, with long-range nuclear burst and missile launch detection demonstrated by 1956. Successful east coast radar aircraft detect and track tests extending across the Atlantic were conducted by 1961. The major obstacles to success, the large target-to-clutter ratio and low signal-to-noise ratio, were overcome with matched filter Doppler processing. To search the areas that a 2000 nautical mile (3700 km) radar can reach, very complex and high dynamic range processing is required. The spectacular advances in digital processing technology have made truly wide-area surveillance possible. Use of the surface attached wave over the oceans can enable HF radar to obtain modest extension of range beyond the horizon. The decameter wavelengths used by both skywave and surface wave radars require large physical antenna apertures, but they have unique capabilities for air and surface targets, many of which are of resonant scattering dimensions. Resonant scattering from the ocean permits sea state and direction estimation. Military and commercial applications of HF radar are in their infancy.

  7. Using phase for radar scatterer classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Linda J.; Rigling, Brian D.; Penno, Robert P.; Zelnio, Edmund G.

    2017-04-01

    Traditional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems tend to discard phase information of formed complex radar imagery prior to automatic target recognition (ATR). This practice has historically been driven by available hardware storage, processing capabilities, and data link capacity. Recent advances in high performance computing (HPC) have enabled extremely dense storage and processing solutions. Therefore, previous motives for discarding radar phase information in ATR applications have been mitigated. First, we characterize the value of phase in one-dimensional (1-D) radar range profiles with respect to the ability to correctly estimate target features, which are currently employed in ATR algorithms for target discrimination. These features correspond to physical characteristics of targets through radio frequency (RF) scattering phenomenology. Physics-based electromagnetic scattering models developed from the geometrical theory of diffraction are utilized for the information analysis presented here. Information is quantified by the error of target parameter estimates from noisy radar signals when phase is either retained or discarded. Operating conditions (OCs) of signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) and bandwidth are considered. Second, we investigate the value of phase in 1-D radar returns with respect to the ability to correctly classify canonical targets. Classification performance is evaluated via logistic regression for three targets (sphere, plate, tophat). Phase information is demonstrated to improve radar target classification rates, particularly at low SNRs and low bandwidths.

  8. 46 CFR 28.400 - Radar and depth sounding devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radar and depth sounding devices. 28.400 Section 28.400... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.400 Radar and depth sounding devices. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a general marine radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at...

  9. 46 CFR 28.400 - Radar and depth sounding devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radar and depth sounding devices. 28.400 Section 28.400... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.400 Radar and depth sounding devices. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a general marine radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at...

  10. 46 CFR 28.400 - Radar and depth sounding devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radar and depth sounding devices. 28.400 Section 28.400... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.400 Radar and depth sounding devices. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a general marine radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at...

  11. Advanced Architectures for Modern Weather/Multifunction Radars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    Advanced Architectures for Modern Weather /Multifunction Radars Caleb Fulton The University of Oklahoma Advanced Radar Research Center Norman...and all of them are addressing the need to lower cost while improving beamforming flexibility in future weather radar systems that will be tasked...with multiple non- weather functions. Keywords: Phased arrays, digital beamforming, multifunction radar. Introduction and Overview As the performance

  12. 47 CFR 80.273 - Technical requirements for radar equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Technical requirements for radar equipment. 80... Technical requirements for radar equipment. (a) Radar installations on board ships that are required by the Safety Convention or the U.S. Coast Guard to be equipped with radar must comply with the documents...

  13. 46 CFR 28.400 - Radar and depth sounding devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radar and depth sounding devices. 28.400 Section 28.400... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.400 Radar and depth sounding devices. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a general marine radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at...

  14. 46 CFR 28.400 - Radar and depth sounding devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radar and depth sounding devices. 28.400 Section 28.400... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.400 Radar and depth sounding devices. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a general marine radar system for surface navigation with a radar screen mounted at...

  15. 47 CFR 80.273 - Technical requirements for radar equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical requirements for radar equipment. 80... Technical requirements for radar equipment. (a) Radar installations on board ships that are required by the Safety Convention or the U.S. Coast Guard to be equipped with radar must comply with the documents...

  16. Radar ornithology and the conservation of migratory birds

    Treesearch

    Sidney A. Gauthreaux; Carroll G. Belser

    2005-01-01

    It is possible to study with surveillance radar the movements of migrating birds in the atmosphere at different spatial scales. At a spatial scale within a range of 6 kilometers, high-resolution, 3-centimeter wavelength surveillance radar (e.g. BIRDRAD) can detect the departure of migrants from different types of habitat within a few kilometers of the radar. The radar...

  17. High-Resolution Radar Imagery of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, John K.; Nolan, M. C.

    2009-09-01

    We present high-resolution radar images of Mars obtained during the 2005 and 2007 oppositions. The images were constructed from long-code delay-Doppler observations made with the Arecibo S-band (13-cm) radar. The average image resolution of 3 km represented a better than order-of-magnitude improvement over pre-upgrade Arecibo imagery of the planet. Images of depolarized reflectivity (an indicator primarily of wavelength-scale surface roughness) show the same bright volcanic flow features seen in earlier imagery, but with much finer detail. A new image of the Elysium region shows fine detail in the radar-bright channels of Athabasca Vallis, Marte Vallis, and Grjota Vallis. The new images of Tharsis and Olympus Mons also show a complex array of radar-bright and radar-dark features. Southern Amazonis exhibits some of the most complex and puzzling radar-bright structure on the planet. Another curiosity is the Chryse/Xanthe/Channels region, where we find some radar-bright features in or adjacent to fluvial chaos structures. Chryse/Xanthe is also the only region of Mars showing radar-bright craters (which are rare on Mars but common on the Moon and Mercury). We also obtained the first delay-Doppler image showing the enhanced backscatter from the residual south polar ice cap. In addition to the depolarized imagery, we were able to make the first delay-Doppler images of the circular polarization ratio (an important diagnostic for surface roughness texture). We find that vast areas of the radar-bright volcanic regions have polarization ratios close to unity. Such high ratios are rare for terrestrial lava flows and only seen for extremely blocky surfaces giving high levels of multiple scattering.

  18. Radar image of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This radar image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The area is predominantly scrub forest. Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. Image brightness differences in this image are caused by differences in vegetation type and density. Tributaries of the Sao Francisco are visible in the upper right. The Sao Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

    This radar image was obtained by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission as part of its mission to map the Earth's topography. The image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas, and consequently does not show topographic data but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover, and urbanization.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

  19. Navigator alignment using radar scan

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W.; Marquette, Brandeis

    2016-04-05

    The various technologies presented herein relate to the determination of and correction of heading error of platform. Knowledge of at least one of a maximum Doppler frequency or a minimum Doppler bandwidth pertaining to a plurality of radar echoes can be utilized to facilitate correction of the heading error. Heading error can occur as a result of component drift. In an ideal situation, a boresight direction of an antenna or the front of an aircraft will have associated therewith at least one of a maximum Doppler frequency or a minimum Doppler bandwidth. As the boresight direction of the antenna strays from a direction of travel at least one of the maximum Doppler frequency or a minimum Doppler bandwidth will shift away, either left or right, from the ideal situation.

  20. Bistatic radar sea state monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruck, G. T.; Barrick, D. E.; Kaliszewski, T.

    1972-01-01

    Bistatic radar techniques were examined for remote measurement of the two-dimensional surface wave height spectrum of the ocean. One technique operates at high frequencies (HF), 3-30 MHz, and the other at ultrahigh frequencies (UHF), approximately 1 GHz. Only a preliminary theoretical examination of the UHF technique was performed; however the principle underlying the HF technique was demonstrated experimentally with results indicating that an HF bistatic system using a surface transmitter and an orbital receiver would be capable of measuring the two-dimensional wave height spectrum in the vicinity of the transmitter. An HF bistatic system could also be used with an airborne receiver for ground truth ocean wave spectrum measurements. Preliminary system requirements and hardware configurations are discussed for both an orbital system and an aircraft verification experiment.

  1. Radar Attitude Sensing System (RASS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The initial design and fabrication efforts for a radar attitude sensing system (RASS) are covered. The design and fabrication of the RASS system is being undertaken in two phases, 1B1 and 1B2. The RASS system as configured under phase 1B1 contains the solid state transmitter and local oscillator, the antenna system, the receiving system, and the altitude electronics. RASS employs a pseudo-random coded cw signal and receiver correlation techniques to measure range. The antenna is a planar, phased array, monopulse type, whose beam is electronically steerable using diode phase shifters. The beam steering computer and attitude sensing circuitry are to be included in Phase 1B2 of the program.

  2. Underwater probing with laser radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, A. I.; Sizgoric, S.

    1975-01-01

    Recent advances in laser and electro optics technology have greatly enhanced the feasibility of active optical probing techniques aimed at the remote sensing of water parameters. This paper describes a LIDAR (laser radar) that has been designed and constructed for underwater probing. The influence of the optical properties of water on the general design parameters of a LIDAR system is considered. Discussion of the specific details in the choice of the constructed LIDAR is given. This system utilizes a cavity dumped argon ion laser transmitter capable of 50 watt peak powers, 10 nanosecond pulses and megahertz pulse repetition rates at 10 different wavelengths in the blue green region of the spectrum. The performance of the system, in proving various types of water, is demonstrated by summarizing the results of initial laboratory and field experiments.

  3. VHF radar measurements during MAP/WINE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czechowsky, P.; Klostermeyer, J.; Ruster, R.; Schmidt, G.; Rottger, J.

    1983-01-01

    Sensitive Doppler radars which operate in the very high frequency (VHF) band, usually near 50 MHz can measure profiles of background winds, tides, atmospheric gravity waves and turbulence at tropospheric, stratospheric and mesospheric heights. Their ability to observe simultaneously large and small-scale processes makes them unique instruments for studying not only each process separately but also their nonlinear interactions. The mobile VHF radar to be used during the MAP/WINE campaign on Andoya is a modified version of the SOUSY VHF radar being in operation for six years in the Harz Mountains.

  4. Space Radar Image of Baikal Lake, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band black-and-white image of the forests east of the Baikal Forest in the Jablonowy Mountains of Russia. The image is centered at 52.5 degrees north latitude and 116 degrees east longitude near the mining town of Bukatschatscha. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. This area is part of an international research project known as the Taiga Aerospace Investigation using Geographic Information System Applications.

  5. Space Radar Image of Baikal Lake, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is an X-band black-and-white image of the forests east of the Baikal Forest in the Jablonowy Mountains of Russia. The image is centered at 52.5 degrees north latitude and 116 degrees east longitude near the mining town of Bukatschatscha. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. This area is part of an international research project known as the Taiga Aerospace Investigation using Geographic Information System Applications. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01754

  6. Radar return from a continuous vegetation canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, T. F.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1975-01-01

    The radar backscatter coefficient, sigma deg, of alfalfa was investigated as a function of both radar parameters and the physical characteristics of the alfalfa canopy. Measurements were acquired with an 8-18 GHz FM-CW mobile radar over an angular range of 0 - 70 deg as measured from nadir. The experimental data indicates that the excursions of sigma deg at nadir cover a range of nearly 18 dB during one complete growing cycle. An empirical model for sigma deg was developed which accounts for its variability in terms of soil moisture, plant moisture and plant height.

  7. Simultaneous dual-band radar development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liskow, C. L.

    1974-01-01

    Efforts to design and construct an airborne imaging radar operating simultaneously at L band and X band with an all-inertial navigation system in order to form a dual-band radar system are described. The areas of development include duplex transmitters, receivers, and recorders, a control module, motion compensation for both bands, and adaptation of a commercial inertial navigation system. Installation of the system in the aircraft and flight tests are described. Circuit diagrams, performance figures, and some radar images are presented.

  8. Determination of the Sources of Radar Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. K.; Zoughi, R.

    1984-01-01

    Fine-resolution radar backscattering measurements were proposed to determine the backscattering sources in various vegetation canopies and surface targets. The results were then used to improve the existing theoretical models of terrain scattering, and also to enhance understanding of the radar signal observed by an imaging radar over a vegetated area. Various experiments were performed on targets such as corn, milo, soybeans, grass, asphalt pavements, soil and concrete walkways. Due to the lack of available references on measurements of this type, the obtained results will be used primarily as a foundation or future experiments. The constituent backscattering characteristics of the vegetation canopies was also examined.

  9. Radar orthogonality and radar length in Finsler and metric spacetime geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifer, Christian

    2014-09-01

    The radar experiment connects the geometry of spacetime with an observers measurement of spatial length. We investigate the radar experiment on Finsler spacetimes which leads to a general definition of radar orthogonality and radar length. The directions radar orthogonal to an observer form the spatial equal time surface an observer experiences and the radar length is the physical length the observer associates to spatial objects. We demonstrate these concepts on a forth order polynomial Finsler spacetime geometry which may emerge from area metric or premetric linear electrodynamics or in quantum gravity phenomenology. In an explicit generalization of Minkowski spacetime geometry we derive the deviation from the Euclidean spatial length measure in an observers rest frame explicitly.

  10. Reflectivity retrieval in a networked radar environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sanghun

    Monitoring of precipitation using a high-frequency radar system such as X-band is becoming increasingly popular due to its lower cost compared to its counterpart at S-band. Networks of meteorological radar systems at higher frequencies are being pursued for targeted applications such as coverage over a city or a small basin. However, at higher frequencies, the impact of attenuation due to precipitation needs to be resolved for successful implementation. In this research, new attenuation correction algorithms are introduced to compensate the attenuation impact due to rain medium. In order to design X-band radar systems as well as evaluate algorithm development, it is useful to have simultaneous X-band observation with and without the impact of path attenuation. One way to obtain that data set is through theoretical models. Methodologies for generating realistic range profiles of radar variables at attenuating frequencies such as X-band for rain medium are presented here. Fundamental microphysical properties of precipitation, namely size and shape distribution information, are used to generate realistic profiles of X-band starting with S-band observations. Conditioning the simulation from S-band radar measurements maintains the natural distribution of microphysical parameters associated with rainfall. In this research, data taken by the CSU-CHILL radar and the National Center for Atmospheric Research S-POL radar are used to simulate X-band radar variables. Three procedures to simulate the radar variables at X-band and sample applications are presented. A new attenuation correction algorithm based on profiles of reflectivity, differential reflectivity, and differential propagation phase shift is presented. A solution for specific attenuation retrieval in rain medium is proposed that solves the integral equations for reflectivity and differential reflectivity with cumulative differential propagation phase shift constraint. The conventional rain profiling algorithms

  11. A 10 cm Dual Frequency Doppler Weather Radar. Part I. The Radar System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-25

    Evaluation System ( RAMCES )". The step attenuator required for this calibration can be programmed remotely, has low power and temperature coefficients, and...Control and Evaluation System". The Quality Assurance/Fault Location Network makes use of fault location techniques at critical locations in the radar and...quasi-con- tinuous monitoring of radar performance. The Radar Monitor, Control and Evaluation System provides for automated system calibration and

  12. Using doppler radar images to estimate aircraft navigational heading error

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W [Albuquerque, NM; Jordan, Jay D [Albuquerque, NM; Kim, Theodore J [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-07-03

    A yaw angle error of a motion measurement system carried on an aircraft for navigation is estimated from Doppler radar images captured using the aircraft. At least two radar pulses aimed at respectively different physical locations in a targeted area are transmitted from a radar antenna carried on the aircraft. At least two Doppler radar images that respectively correspond to the at least two transmitted radar pulses are produced. These images are used to produce an estimate of the yaw angle error.

  13. Preparation and photoluminescence properties of red-emitting phosphor ZnAl2O4:Eu3+ with an intense 5D0 → 7F2 transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Can; Ji, Haipeng; Huang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Liu, Haitao; Liu, Silin; Liu, Yangai; Fang, Minghao; Wu, Xiaowen; Min, Xin

    2018-02-01

    A series of ZnAl2-x O4:xEu3+ phosphors was synthesized by a modified co-precipitation method. The phase structure and photoluminescence properties were examined and extensively discussed. Composition-optimized ZnAl1.97O4:0.03Eu3+ exhibited sharp, intense red characteristic emissions with the Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage coordinates of (0.62, 0.33) peaking at 620 nm under an excitation at 394 nm, corresponding to the 5D0 → 7F2 transition of Eu3+. The quenching concentration of Eu3+ in ZnAl2-x O4:xEu3+ phosphors was approximately 0.03. In addition, the concentration quenching mechanism, fluorescence decay curves, and thermally stable luminescence properties of ZnAl2-x O4:xEu3+ phosphors were investigated. The results indicated that ZnAl2-x O4:xEu3+ phosphors demonstrate potential applications in near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode pumped white light lamps.

  14. Space Radar Image of Saline Valley, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Saline Valley, about 30 km 19 miles east of the town of Independence, California created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry.

  15. Data volume reduction for imaging radar polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebker, Howard A. (Inventor); Held, Daniel N. (Inventor); van Zul, Jakob J. (Inventor); Dubois, Pascale C. (Inventor); Norikane, Lynne (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Two alternative methods are disclosed for digital reduction of synthetic aperture multipolarized radar data using scattering matrices, or using Stokes matrices, of four consecutive along-track pixels to produce averaged data for generating a synthetic polarization image.

  16. Data volume reduction for imaging radar polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebker, Howard A. (Inventor); Held, Daniel N. (Inventor); Vanzyl, Jakob J. (Inventor); Dubois, Pascale C. (Inventor); Norikane, Lynne (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Two alternative methods are presented for digital reduction of synthetic aperture multipolarized radar data using scattering matrices, or using Stokes matrices, of four consecutive along-track pixels to produce averaged data for generating a synthetic polarization image.

  17. Space Radar Image of Dnieper River, Ukraine

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This spaceborne radar image shows the intensive agricultural development in central Ukraine, along the Dnieper River. The area shown lies about 320 kilometers 198 miles southeast of Kiev and about 360 kilometers 223 miles northeast of Odessa.

  18. Space Radar Image of Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-01-27

    This is a false-color, three-frequency image of the Oberpfaffenhofen supersite, southwest of Munich in southern Germany, which shows the differences in what the three radar bands can see on the ground.

  19. Lunar Radar Cross Section at Low Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Kennedy, E. J.; Kossey, P.; McCarrick, M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Tokarev, Y. V.

    2002-01-01

    Recent bistatic measurements of the lunar radar cross-section have extended the spectrum to long radio wavelength. We have utilized the HF Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) radar facility near Gakona, Alaska to transmit high power pulses at 8.075 MHz to the Moon; the echo pulses were received onboard the NASA/WIND spacecraft by the WAVES HF receiver. This lunar radar experiment follows our previous use of earth-based HF radar with satellites to conduct space experiments. The spacecraft was approaching the Moon for a scheduled orbit perturbation when our experiment of 13 September 2001 was conducted. During the two-hour experiment, the radial distance of the satellite from the Moon varied from 28 to 24 Rm, where Rm is in lunar radii.

  20. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) analysis : Phase I.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-11-01

    "The objective of this work is to evaluate the feasibility of expanding the MDT's Ground Penetrating : Radar (GPR) program to a broader range of pavement evaluation activities. Currently, MDT uses GPR in : conjunction with its Falling Weight Deflecto...

  1. Preparation for Testing of Mars Landing Radar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-13

    This image taken March 25, 2010 shows preparations for radar testing for NASA Mars Science Laboratory. This day work evaluated a setup for suspending a rover mock-up beneath a helicopter at Hawthorne Municipal Airport, Hawthorne, Calif.

  2. Probabilistic forecasts based on radar rainfall uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liguori, S.; Rico-Ramirez, M. A.

    2012-04-01

    The potential advantages resulting from integrating weather radar rainfall estimates in hydro-meteorological forecasting systems is limited by the inherent uncertainty affecting radar rainfall measurements, which is due to various sources of error [1-3]. The improvement of quality control and correction techniques is recognized to play a role for the future improvement of radar-based flow predictions. However, the knowledge of the uncertainty affecting radar rainfall data can also be effectively used to build a hydro-meteorological forecasting system in a probabilistic framework. This work discusses the results of the implementation of a novel probabilistic forecasting system developed to improve ensemble predictions over a small urban area located in the North of England. An ensemble of radar rainfall fields can be determined as the sum of a deterministic component and a perturbation field, the latter being informed by the knowledge of the spatial-temporal characteristics of the radar error assessed with reference to rain-gauges measurements. This approach is similar to the REAL system [4] developed for use in the Southern-Alps. The radar uncertainty estimate can then be propagated with a nowcasting model, used to extrapolate an ensemble of radar rainfall forecasts, which can ultimately drive hydrological ensemble predictions. A radar ensemble generator has been calibrated using radar rainfall data made available from the UK Met Office after applying post-processing and corrections algorithms [5-6]. One hour rainfall accumulations from 235 rain gauges recorded for the year 2007 have provided the reference to determine the radar error. Statistics describing the spatial characteristics of the error (i.e. mean and covariance) have been computed off-line at gauges location, along with the parameters describing the error temporal correlation. A system has then been set up to impose the space-time error properties to stochastic perturbations, generated in real-time at

  3. Remotely sensing wheat maturation with radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, T. F.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1975-01-01

    The scattering properties of wheat were studied in the 8-18 GHz band as a function of frequency, polarization, incidence angle, and crop maturity. Supporting ground truth was collected at the time of measurement. The data indicate that the radar backscattering coefficient is sensitive to both radar system parameters and crop characteristics particularly at incidence angles near nadir. Linear regression analyses of the radar backscattering coefficient on both time and plant moisture content result in rather good correlation. Furthermore, by calculating the average time rate of change of the radar backscattering coefficient it is found that it undergoes rapid variations shortly before and after the wheat is harvested. Both of these analyses suggest methods for estimating wheat maturity and for monitoring the progress of harvest.

  4. Ground radar detection of meteoroids in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, D. J.; Landry, P. M.; Gabbard, J. R.; Moran, J. L. T.

    1980-01-01

    A special test to lower the detection threshold for satellite fragments potentially dangerous to spacecraft was carried out by NORAD for NASA, using modified radar software. The Perimeter Acquisition Radar Attack Characterization System, a large, planar face, phased radar, operates at a nominal 430 MHz and produces 120 pulses per second, 45 of which were dedicated to search. In a time period of 8.4 hours of observations over three days, over 6000 objects were detected and tracked of which 37 were determined to have velocities greater than escape velocity. Six of these were larger objects with radar cross sections greater than 0.1 sq m and were probably orbiting satellites. A table gives the flux of both observed groups.

  5. Ground penetrating radar evaluation and implementation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-07-01

    Six commercial ground penetrating radar (GPR) : systems were evaluated to determine the state-of-the-art of GPR technologies for railroad track : substructure inspection. : Phase 1 evaluated GPR ballast inspection : techniques by performing testing a...

  6. Ground Penetrating Radar : Pavement Layer Thickness Evaluation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-12-01

    The following report demonstrates the accuracy of using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to determine both the surface layer thickness for asphalt, and concrete pavements. In addition tests were conducted to identify GPR's repeatability on dry pavement...

  7. Ground penetrating radar, pavement layer thickness evaluation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-12-01

    The following report demonstrates the accuracy of using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to determine both the surface layer thickness for asphalt, and concrete pavements. In addition tests were conducted to identify GPR's repeatability on dry pavement...

  8. Ground Penetrating Radar : Pavement Layer Thickness Evaluation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-12-01

    The following report demonstrates the accuracy of using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to determine both the surface layer thickness for asphalt, and concrete pavements. In addition tests were conducted to identify GPR's repeatability on dry pavement...

  9. DC coupled Doppler radar physiological monitor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi; Song, Chenyan; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2011-01-01

    One of the challenges in Doppler radar systems for physiological monitoring is a large DC offset in baseband outputs. Typically, AC coupling is used to eliminate this DC offset. Since the physiological signals of interest include frequency content near DC, it is not desirable to simply use AC coupling on the radar outputs. While AC coupling effectively removes DC offset, it also introduces a large time delay and distortion. This paper presents the first DC coupled IQ demodulator printed circuit board (PCB) design and measurements. The DC coupling is achieved by using a mixer with high LO to RF port isolation, resulting in a very low radar DC offset on the order of mV. The DC coupled signals from the PCB radar system were successfully detected with significant LNA gain without saturation. Compared to the AC coupled results, the DC coupled results show great advantages of less signal distortion and more accurate rate estimation.

  10. Physical working principles of medical radar.

    PubMed

    Aardal, Øyvind; Paichard, Yoann; Brovoll, Sverre; Berger, Tor; Lande, Tor Sverre; Hamran, Svein-Erik

    2013-04-01

    There has been research interest in using radar for contactless measurements of the human heartbeat for several years. While many systems have been demonstrated, not much attention have been given to the actual physical causes of why this work. The consensus seems to be that the radar senses small body movements correlated with heartbeats, but whether only the movements of the body surface or reflections from internal organs are also monitored have not been answered definitely. There has recently been proposed another theory that blood perfusion in the skin could be the main reason radars are able to detect heartbeats. In this paper, an experimental approach is given to determine the physical causes. The measurement results show that it is the body surface reflections that dominate radar measurements of human heartbeats.

  11. Space Radar Image of Lisbon, Portugal

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This radar image of Lisbon, Portugal illustrates the different land use patterns that are present in coastal Portugal. Lisbon, the national capital, lies on the north bank of the Rio Tejo where the river enters the Atlantic Ocean.

  12. Space Radar Image of Victoria, Canada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This three-frequency spaceborne radar image shows the southern end of Vancouver Island on the west coast of Canada. The white area in the lower right is the city of Victoria, the capital of the province of British Columbia.

  13. Delineation of fault zones using imaging radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toksoz, M. N.; Gulen, L.; Prange, M.; Matarese, J.; Pettengill, G. H.; Ford, P. G.

    1986-01-01

    The assessment of earthquake hazards and mineral and oil potential of a given region requires a detailed knowledge of geological structure, including the configuration of faults. Delineation of faults is traditionally based on three types of data: (1) seismicity data, which shows the location and magnitude of earthquake activity; (2) field mapping, which in remote areas is typically incomplete and of insufficient accuracy; and (3) remote sensing, including LANDSAT images and high altitude photography. Recently, high resolution radar images of tectonically active regions have been obtained by SEASAT and Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A and SIR-B) systems. These radar images are sensitive to terrain slope variations and emphasize the topographic signatures of fault zones. Techniques were developed for using the radar data in conjunction with the traditional types of data to delineate major faults in well-known test sites, and to extend interpretation techniques to remote areas.

  14. Use of radar in urban studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, M. L.

    1976-01-01

    The use of side-looking airborne radar for urban studies is reviewed with attention given to the work of Moore (1969) and Lewis (1968) which may be summarized as follows: (1) linear elements of the transportation net were easily defined, (2) gross patterns of industry, residential and open space land were identified, but it was not possible to map the land use boundaries in great detail, (3) commercial land areas were often difficult to identify, and (4) multiple polarized imagery was helpful in correctly interpreting the total scene. It is found that the sensitivity of radar to surface roughness and the availability of multiple wavelength data allow the discrimination of variations in the surface roughness of intra-urban areas. An L-band imaging radar (25 cm; 1215-1225 GHz) of 25 m resolution will be operating from satellite altitudes in 1978 and will increase the availability of radar data.

  15. Space Radar Image of Samara, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This three-frequency space radar image shows the city of Samara, Russia in pink and light green right of center. Samara is at the junction of the Volga and Samara Rivers approximately 800 kilometers 500 miles southeast of Moscow.

  16. Space Radar Image of Reunion Island

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This radar image shows the volcanic island of Reunion, about 700 km 434 miles east of Madagascar in the southwest Indian Ocean. The southern half of the island is dominated by the active volcano, Piton de la Fournaise.

  17. A radar-echo model for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Moore, H. J.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers developed a radar-echo model for Mars based on 12.6 cm continuous wave radio transmissions backscattered from the planet. The model broadly matches the variations in depolarized and polarized total radar cross sections with longitude observed by Goldstone in 1986 along 7 degrees S. and yields echo spectra that are generally similiar to the observed spectra. Radar map units in the model include an extensive cratered uplands unit with weak depolarized echo cross sections, average thermal inertias, moderate normal refelectivities, and moderate rms slopes; the volcanic units of Tharsis, Elysium, and Amazonis regions with strong depolarized echo cross sections, low thermal inertia, low normal reflectivities, and large rms slopes; and the northern planes units with moderate to strong depolarized echo cross sections, moderate to very high thermal inertias, moderate to large normal reflectivities, and moderate rms slopes. The relevance of the model to the interpretation of radar echoes from Mars is discussed.

  18. Space Radar Image of Tuva, Central Asia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This spaceborne radar image shows part of the remote central Asian region of Tuva, an autonomous republic of the Russian Federation. Tuva is a mostly mountainous region that lies between western Mongolia and southern Siberia.

  19. Investigating nearby exoplanets via interstellar radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffer, Louis K.

    2014-01-01

    Interstellar radar is a potential intermediate step between passive observation of exoplanets and interstellar exploratory missions. Compared with passive observation, it has the traditional advantages of radar astronomy. It can measure surface characteristics, determine spin rates and axes, provide extremely accurate ranges, construct maps of planets, distinguish liquid from solid surfaces, find rings and moons, and penetrate clouds. It can do this even for planets close to the parent star. Compared with interstellar travel or probes, it also offers significant advantages. The technology required to build such a radar already exists, radar can return results within a human lifetime, and a single facility can investigate thousands of planetary systems. The cost, although too high for current implementation, is within the reach of Earth's economy.

  20. Satellite Radar Measures Tohoku, Japan Earthquake

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-01

    This radar image, called a coseismic interferogram, using satellite data from the European Space Agency Envisat depicts ground displacements resulting from the March 11, 2011, magnitude 9.0 Tohoku earthquake in Japan.

  1. Baja Earthquake, Radar Image and Colored Height

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-05

    The topography surrounding the Laguna Salada Fault in the Mexican state of Baja, California, is shown in this perspective view with data from NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission where a 7.2 earthquake struck on April 4, 2010.

  2. Space Radar Image of Taipei, Taiwan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    The northern end of the island country of Taiwan, including the capital city of Taipei, is shown in this spaceborne radar image. Taipei is the bright blue and red area in the lower center of the image.

  3. Space Radar Image of Ruiz Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This spaceborne radar image shows the Ruiz-Tolima volcanic region in central Colombia, about 150 kilometers 93 miles west of Bogata. The town of Manizales, Colombia, is the pinkish area in the upper right of the image.

  4. Space Radar Image of County Kerry, Ireland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    The Iveragh Peninsula, one of the four peninsulas in southwestern Ireland, is shown in this spaceborne radar image. The lakes of Killarney National Park are the green patches on the left side of the image.

  5. Space Radar Image of Bahia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is a color composite image of southern Bahia, Brazil, centered at 15.22 degree south latitude and 39.07 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 38th orbit of Earth on October 2, 1994. The image covers an area centered over the Una Biological Reserve, one the largest protected areas in northeastern Brazil. The 7,000-hectare reserve is administered by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and is part of the larger Atlantic coastal forest, a narrow band of rain forest extending along the eastern coast of Brazil. The Atlantic coastal forest of southern Bahia is one of the world's most threatened and diverse ecosystems. Due to widespread settlement, only 2 to 5 percent of the original forest cover remains. Yet the region still contains an astounding variety of plants and animals, including a large number of endemic species. More than half of the region's tree species and 80 percent of its animal species are indigenous and found nowhere else on Earth. The Una Reserve is also the only federally protected habitat for the golden-headed lion tamarin, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkey and many other endangered species. In the past few years, scientists from Brazilian and international conservation organizations have coordinated efforts to study the biological diversity of this region and to develop practical and economically viable options for preserving the remaining primary forests in southern Bahia. The shuttle imaging radar is used in this study to identify various land uses and vegetation types, including remaining patches of primary forest, cabruca forest (cacao planted in the understory of the native forest), secondary forest, pasture and coastal mangrove. Standard remote-sensing technology that relies on light reflected from the forest canopy cannot accurately distinguish between cabruca and undisturbed forest. Optical remote sensing is also

  6. Radar Studies in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Irwin I.

    1996-01-01

    We aid in a study of the solar system by means of ground-based radar. We have concentrated on (1) developing the ephemerides needed to acquire radar data at Arecibo Observatory and (2) analyzing the resultant data to: test fundamental laws of gravitation; determine the size, shape, topography, and spin vectors of the targets; and study the surface properties of these objects, through their scattering law and polarization characteristics.

  7. space Radar Image of Long Valley, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    An area near Long Valley, California, was mapped by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavor on April 13, 1994, during the first flight of the radar instrument, and on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the radar instrument. The orbital configurations of the two data sets were ideal for interferometric combination -- that is overlaying the data from one image onto a second image of the same area to create an elevation map and obtain estimates of topography. Once the topography is known, any radar-induced distortions can be removed and the radar data can be geometrically projected directly onto a standard map grid for use in a geographical information system. The 50 kilometer by 50 kilometer (31 miles by 31 miles) map shown here is entirely derived from SIR-C L-band radar (horizontally transmitted and received) results. The color shown in this image is produced from the interferometrically determined elevations, while the brightness is determined by the radar backscatter. The map is in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. Elevation contour lines are shown every 50 meters (164 feet). Crowley Lake is the dark feature near the south edge of the map. The Adobe Valley in the north and the Long Valley in the south are separated by the Glass Mountain Ridge, which runs through the center of the image. The height accuracy of the interferometrically derived digital elevation model is estimated to be 20 meters (66 feet) in this image. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01749

  8. Millimeter Wave Radar Applications to Weapons Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    meter wave region compared with the high attenuation in the optical region. It is this unique characteristic of millimeter waves to penetrate fog...miiliaeter wave radars in graund-to-- air , ground-to-ground, and air -to-ground weapons systems aye presented. The advantages and limitation~s¶ of operating...MILLIMETER WAVE RADAR CHARACTERISTICS ..... ............ .. 27 A, General ................ ......................... ... 27 B. Ground-to- Air Millimeter

  9. High Frequency Radar Astronomy With HAARP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    High Frequency Radar Astronomy With HAARP Paul Rodriguez Naval Research Laboratory Information Technology Division Washington, DC 20375, USA Edward...a period of several years, the High frequency Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ) transmitting array near Gakona, Alaska, has increased in total...high frequency (HF) radar facility used for research purposes. The basic science objective of HAARP is to study nonlinear effects associated with

  10. The Surface of Titan: Arecibo Radar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, D. B.; Black, G. J.; Carter, L. M.; Hine, A. A.; Margot, J. L.; Nolan, M. C.; Ostro, S. J.

    2002-01-01

    The Arecibo 12.6 cm radar system was used to observe Titan in 1999, 2000 and 2001. The mean value of the radar albedo is 0.16 and the polarization ratio is 0.35. For some longitudes the echo has a specular component although most of the echo power is contained in a diffuse component. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Architecture for a 1-GHz Digital RADAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallik, Udayan

    2011-01-01

    An architecture for a Direct RF-digitization Type Digital Mode RADAR was developed at GSFC in 2008. Two variations of a basic architecture were developed for use on RADAR imaging missions using aircraft and spacecraft. Both systems can operate with a pulse repetition rate up to 10 MHz with 8 received RF samples per pulse repetition interval, or at up to 19 kHz with 4K received RF samples per pulse repetition interval. The first design describes a computer architecture for a Continuous Mode RADAR transceiver with a real-time signal processing and display architecture. The architecture can operate at a high pulse repetition rate without interruption for an infinite amount of time. The second design describes a smaller and less costly burst mode RADAR that can transceive high pulse repetition rate RF signals without interruption for up to 37 seconds. The burst-mode RADAR was designed to operate on an off-line signal processing paradigm. The temporal distribution of RF samples acquired and reported to the RADAR processor remains uniform and free of distortion in both proposed architectures. The majority of the RADAR's electronics is implemented in digital CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor), and analog circuits are restricted to signal amplification operations and analog to digital conversion. An implementation of the proposed systems will create a 1-GHz, Direct RF-digitization Type, L-Band Digital RADAR--the highest band achievable for Nyquist Rate, Direct RF-digitization Systems that do not implement an electronic IF downsample stage (after the receiver signal amplification stage), using commercially available off-the-shelf integrated circuits.

  12. Integration and Validation of Avian Radars (IVAR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    IVAR study locations. ‘X’ indicates the specified type of demonstration was conducted at that location; ‘B’ indicates a potential Back-up locations... nation two radar with parabolic dishes tilted nsor (AR-1; specifically The initial deployment of avian radar systems at a civil airport was completed...ARTI. 45 Table 4-1. Summary of the IVAR study locations. ‘X’ indicates the specified type of demonstration was conducted at that

  13. Wideband radar for airborne minefield detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, William W.; Burns, Brian; Dorff, Gary; Plasky, Brian; Moussally, George; Soumekh, Mehrdad

    2006-05-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been applied for several years to the problem of detecting both antipersonnel and anti-tank landmines. RDECOM CERDEC NVESD is developing an airborne wideband GPR sensor for the detection of minefields including surface and buried mines. In this paper, we describe the as-built system, data and image processing techniques to generate imagery, and current issues with this type of radar. Further, we will display images from a recent field test.

  14. Antenna induced range smearing in MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, B. J.; Johnston, P. E.

    1984-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing stratosphere troposphere (ST) and mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) radars for higher resolution to study small-scale turbulent structures and waves. At present most ST and MST radars have resolutions of 150 meters or larger, and are not able to distinguish the thin (40 - 100 m) turbulent layers that are known to occur in the troposphere and stratosphere, and possibly in the mesosphere. However the antenna beam width and sidelobe level become important considerations for radars with superior height resolution. The objective of this paper is to point out that for radars with range resolutions of about 150 meters or less, there may be significant range smearing of the signals from mesospheric altitudes due to the finite beam width of the radar antenna. At both stratospheric and mesospheric heights the antenna sidelobe level for lear equally spaced phased arrays may also produce range aliased signals. To illustrate this effect the range smearing functions for two vertically directed antennas have been calculated, (1) an array of 32 coaxial-collinear strings each with 48 elements that simulates the vertical beam of the Poker Flat, Glaska, MST radar; and (2) a similar, but smaller, array of 16 coaxial-collinear strings each with 24 elements.

  15. Radar images analysis for scattering surfaces characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazza, Enrico

    1998-10-01

    According to the different problems and techniques related to the detection and recognition of airplanes and vehicles moving on the Airport surface, the present work mainly deals with the processing of images gathered by a high-resolution radar sensor. The radar images used to test the investigated algorithms are relative to sequence of images obtained in some field experiments carried out by the Electronic Engineering Department of the University of Florence. The radar is the Ka band radar operating in the'Leonardo da Vinci' Airport in Fiumicino (Rome). The images obtained from the radar scan converter are digitized and putted in x, y, (pixel) co- ordinates. For a correct matching of the images, these are corrected in true geometrical co-ordinates (meters) on the basis of fixed points on an airport map. Correlating the airplane 2-D multipoint template with actual radar images, the value of the signal in the points involved in the template can be extracted. Results for a lot of observation show a typical response for the main section of the fuselage and the wings. For the fuselage, the back-scattered echo is low at the prow, became larger near the center on the aircraft and than it decrease again toward the tail. For the wings the signal is growing with a pretty regular slope from the fuselage to the tips, where the signal is the strongest.

  16. Airborne Radar Interferometric Repeat-Pass Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hensley, Scott; Michel, Thierry R.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Fore, Alexander; Simard, Marc; Zebker, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    Earth science research often requires crustal deformation measurements at a variety of time scales, from seconds to decades. Although satellites have been used for repeat-track interferometric (RTI) synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) mapping for close to 20 years, RTI is much more difficult to implement from an airborne platform owing to the irregular trajectory of the aircraft compared with microwave imaging radar wavelengths. Two basic requirements for robust airborne repeat-pass radar interferometry include the ability to fly the platform to a desired trajectory within a narrow tube and the ability to have the radar beam pointed in a desired direction to a fraction of a beam width. Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is equipped with a precision auto pilot developed by NASA Dryden that allows the platform, a Gulfstream III, to nominally fly within a 5 m diameter tube and with an electronically scanned antenna to position the radar beam to a fraction of a beam width based on INU (inertial navigation unit) attitude angle measurements.

  17. Radar/radiometer facilities for precipitation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, D. B.; Taylor, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    The OSU ElectroScience Laboratory Radar/Radiometer Facilities are described. This instrumentation includes a high-resolution radar/radiometer system, a fully automated low-resolution radar system, and a small surveillance radar system. The high-resolution radar/radiometer system operates at 3, 9, and 15 GHz using two 9.1 m and one 4.6 m parabolic antennas, respectively. The low-resolution and surveillance radars operate at 9 and 15 GHz, respectively. Both the high- and low-resolution systems are interfaced to real-time digital processing and recording systems. This capability was developed for the measurement of the temporal and spatial characteristics of precipitation in conjunction with millimeter wavelength propagation studies utilizing the Advanced Technology Satellites. Precipitation characteristics derived from these measurements could also be of direct benefit in such diverse areas as: the atmospheric sciences, meteorology, water resources, flood control and warning, severe storm warning, agricultural crop studies, and urban and regional planning.

  18. Fusion of radar and satellite target measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, Gabriel; Blaty, Donald; Farber, Morton; Nealy, Carlton

    2011-06-01

    A potentially high payoff for the ballistic missile defense system (BMDS) is the ability to fuse the information gathered by various sensor systems. In particular, it may be valuable in the future to fuse measurements made using ground based radars with passive measurements obtained from satellite-based EO/IR sensors. This task can be challenging in a multitarget environment in view of the widely differing resolution between active ground-based radar and an observation made by a sensor at long range from a satellite platform. Additionally, each sensor system could have a residual pointing bias which has not been calibrated out. The problem is further compounded by the possibility that an EO/IR sensor may not see exactly the same set of targets as a microwave radar. In order to better understand the problems involved in performing the fusion of metric information from EO/IR satellite measurements with active microwave radar measurements, we have undertaken a study of this data fusion issue and of the associated data processing techniques. To carry out this analysis, we have made use of high fidelity simulations to model the radar observations from a missile target and the observations of the same simulated target, as gathered by a constellation of satellites. In the paper, we discuss the improvements seen in our tests when fusing the state vectors, along with the improvements in sensor bias estimation. The limitations in performance due to the differing phenomenology between IR and microwave radar are discussed as well.

  19. The design of broadband radar absorbing surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suk, Go H.

    1990-09-01

    There has been a growing and widespread interest in radar absorbing material technology. As the name implies, radar absorbing materials or RAM's are coatings whose electric and magnetic properties have been selected to allow the absorption of microwave energy at discrete or broadband frequencies. In military applications low radar cross section (RCS) of a vehicle may be required in order to escape detection while a covert mission is being carried on. These requirements have led to the very low observable or stealth technology that reduces the probability of detection of an aircraft. The design of radar absorbing materials is limited by constraints on the allowable volume and weight of the surface coating, and it is difficult to design a broadband radar absorbing structure in limited volume. This thesis investigates the use of lossy dielectric materials of high dielectric permittivity in multilayer composites for the production of low radar cross section (RCS). The analysis is done by computing the plane wave reflection coefficient at the exterior surface of the composite coating by means of a computer program which selects layer parameters which determine low reflection coefficients for electromagnetic radiation under constraint of limited layer thickness as well as maximum frequency bandwidth.

  20. Rain volume estimation over areas using satellite and radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doneaud, A. A.; Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation of the feasibility of rain volume estimation using satellite data following a technique recently developed with radar data called the Arera Time Integral was undertaken. Case studies were selected on the basis of existing radar and satellite data sets which match in space and time. Four multicell clusters were analyzed. Routines for navigation remapping amd smoothing of satellite images were performed. Visible counts were normalized for solar zenith angle. A radar sector of interest was defined to delineate specific radar echo clusters for each radar time throughout the radar echo cluster lifetime. A satellite sector of interest was defined by applying small adjustments to the radar sector using a manual processing technique. The radar echo area, the IR maximum counts and the IR counts matching radar echo areas were found to evolve similarly, except for the decaying phase of the cluster where the cirrus debris keeps the IR counts high.

  1. Radar Polarimetry: Theory, Analysis, and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbert, John Clark

    The fields of radar polarimetry and optical polarimetry are compared. The mathematics of optic polarimetry are formulated such that a local right handed coordinate system is always used to describe the polarization states. This is not done in radar polarimetry. Radar optimum polarization theory is redeveloped within the framework of optical polarimetry. The radar optimum polarizations and optic eigenvalues of common scatterers are compared. In addition a novel definition of an eigenpolarization state is given and the accompanying mathematics is developed. The polarization response calculated using optic, radar and novel definitions is presented for a variety of scatterers. Polarimetric transformation provides a means to characterize scatters in more than one polarization basis. Polarimetric transformation for an ensemble of scatters is obtained via two methods: (1) the covariance method and (2) the instantaneous scattering matrix (ISM) method. The covariance method is used to relate the mean radar parameters of a +/-45^circ linear polarization basis to those of a horizontal and vertical polarization basis. In contrast the ISM method transforms the individual time samples. Algorithms are developed for transforming the time series from fully polarimetric radars that switch between orthogonal states. The transformed time series are then used to calculate the mean radar parameters of interest. It is also shown that propagation effects do not need to be removed from the ISM's before transformation. The techniques are demonstrated using data collected by POLDIRAD, the German Aerospace Research Establishment's fully polarimetric C-band radar. The differential phase observed between two copolar states, Psi_{CO}, is composed of two phases: (1) differential propagation phase, phi_{DP}, and (2) differential backscatter phase, delta. The slope of phi_{DP } with range is an estimate of the specific differential phase, K_{DP}. The process of estimating K_{DP} is complicated when

  2. UAS-Based Radar Sounding of Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, R. D.; Keshmiri, S.; Leuschen, C.; Ewing, M.; Yan, J. B.; Rodriguez-Morales, F.; Gogineni, S.

    2014-12-01

    The University of Kansas Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets developed two Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) to support polar research. We developed a mid-range UAS, called the Meridian, for operating a radar depth sounder/imager at 195 MHz with an eight-element antenna array. The Meridian weighs 1,100 lbs, has a 26-foot wingspan, and a range of 950 nm at its full payload capacity of 120 lbs. Ice-penetrating radar performance drove the configuration design, though additional payloads and sensors were considered to ensure adaptation to multi-mission science payloads. We also developed a short range UAS called the G1X for operating a low-frequency radar sounder that operates at 14 and 35 MHz. The G1X weighs 85 lbs, has a 17-foot wingspan, and a range of about 60 nm per gallon of fuel. The dual-frequency HF/VHF radar depth sounder transmits at 100 W peak power at a pulse repetition frequency of 10 KHz and weighs approximately 4.5 lbs. We conducted flight tests of the G1X integrated with the radar at the Sub-glacial Lake Whillans ice stream and the WISSARD drill site. The tests included pilot-controlled and fully autonomous flights to collect data over closely-spaced lines to synthesize a 2-D aperture. We obtained clear bed echoes with a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of more than 50 dB at this location. These are the first-ever successful soundings of glacial ice with a UAS-based radar. Although ice attenuation losses in this location are low in comparison to more challenging targets, in-field performance improvements to the UAS and HF/VHF radar system enabled significant gains in the signal-to-noise ratio, such that the system can now be demonstrated on more challenging outlet glaciers. We are upgrading the G1X UAS and radar system for further tests and data collection in Greenland. We are reducing the weight and volume of the radar, which, when coupled with further reductions in airframe and avionics weight and a larger fuel bladder, will offer extended range. Finally

  3. Stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOEpatents

    Vadnais, Kenneth G.; Bashforth, Michael B.; Lewallen, Tricia S.; Nammath, Sharyn R.

    1994-01-01

    A stepped frequency ground penetrating radar system is described comprising an RF signal generating section capable of producing stepped frequency signals in spaced and equal increments of time and frequency over a preselected bandwidth which serves as a common RF signal source for both a transmit portion and a receive portion of the system. In the transmit portion of the system the signal is processed into in-phase and quadrature signals which are then amplified and then transmitted toward a target. The reflected signals from the target are then received by a receive antenna and mixed with a reference signal from the common RF signal source in a mixer whose output is then fed through a low pass filter. The DC output, after amplification and demodulation, is digitized and converted into a frequency domain signal by a Fast Fourier Transform. A plot of the frequency domain signals from all of the stepped frequencies broadcast toward and received from the target yields information concerning the range (distance) and cross section (size) of the target.

  4. Optimal aperture synthesis radar imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hysell, D. L.; Chau, J. L.

    2006-03-01

    Aperture synthesis radar imaging has been used to investigate coherent backscatter from ionospheric plasma irregularities at Jicamarca and elsewhere for several years. Phenomena of interest include equatorial spread F, 150-km echoes, the equatorial electrojet, range-spread meteor trails, and mesospheric echoes. The sought-after images are related to spaced-receiver data mathematically through an integral transform, but direct inversion is generally impractical or suboptimal. We instead turn to statistical inverse theory, endeavoring to utilize fully all available information in the data inversion. The imaging algorithm used at Jicamarca is based on an implementation of the MaxEnt method developed for radio astronomy. Its strategy is to limit the space of candidate images to those that are positive definite, consistent with data to the degree required by experimental confidence limits; smooth (in some sense); and most representative of the class of possible solutions. The algorithm was improved recently by (1) incorporating the antenna radiation pattern in the prior probability and (2) estimating and including the full error covariance matrix in the constraints. The revised algorithm is evaluated using new 28-baseline electrojet data from Jicamarca.

  5. Laboratory Measurements of Radar Transmission Through Dust with Implications for Radar Imaging on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, K. K.; Greeley, R.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of radar transmission through a Mars analog dust are used to calculate values of signal attenuation over a frequency range of 0.5-12 GHz. These values are discussed in the context of a Mars radar imaging mission. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. A 100 GHz Polarimetric Compact Radar Range for Scale-Model Radar Cross Section Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    common radar bands. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors wish to thank David Jillson (UML STL – Electrical Engineer) for efforts involved in RF and DC wiring...Waldman J., Fetterman H.R., Duffy P.E., Bryant T.G., Tannenwald P.E., “Submillimeter Model Measurements and Their Applications to Millimeter Radar

  7. Rapid decrease of radar cross section of meteor head echo observed by the MU radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, T.; Nishio, M.; Sato, T.; Tsutsumi, S.; Tsuda, T.; Fushimi, K.

    The meteor head echo observation using the MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar (46.5M Hz, 1MW), Shigaraki, Japan, was carried out simultaneously with a high sensitive ICCD (Image-intensified CCD) camera observation in November 2001. The time records were synchronized using GPS satellite signals, in order to compare instantaneous radar and optical meteor magnitudes. 26 faint meteors were successfully observed simultaneously by both equipments. Detailed comparison of the time variation of radar echo intensity and absolute optical magnitude showed that the radar scattering cross section is likely to decrease rapidly by 5 - 20 dB without no corresponding magnitude variation in the optical data. From a simple modeling, we concluded that such decrease of RCS (radar cross section ) is probably due to the transition from overdense head echo to underd ense head echo.

  8. Space Radar Image of Wenatchee, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows a segment of the Columbia River as it passes through the area of Wenatchee, Washington, about 220 kilometers (136 miles) east of Seattle. The Wenatchee Mountains, part of the Cascade Range, are shown in green at the lower left of the image. The Cascades create a 'rain shadow' for the region, limiting rainfall east of the range to less than 26 centimeters (10 inches) per year. The radar's ability to see different types of vegetation is highlighted in the contrast between the pine forests, that appear in green and the dry valley plain that shows up as dark purple. The cities of Wenatchee and East Wenatchee are the grid-like areas straddling the Columbia River in the left center of the image. With a population of about 60,000, the region produces about half of Washington state's lucrative apple crop. Several orchard areas appear as green rectangular patches to the right of the river in the lower right center. Radar images such as these can be used to monitor land use patterns in areas such as Wenatchee, that have diverse and rapidly changing urban, agricultural and wild land pressures. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 10, 1994. The image is 38 kilometers by 45 kilometers (24 miles by 30 miles) and is centered at 47.3 degrees North latitude, 120.1 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  9. Cassini radar : system concept and simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melacci, P. T.; Orosei, R.; Picardi, G.; Seu, R.

    1998-10-01

    The Cassini mission is an international venture, involving NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Italian Space Agency (ASI), for the investigation of the Saturn system and, in particular, Titan. The Cassini radar will be able to see through Titan's thick, optically opaque atmosphere, allowing us to better understand the composition and the morphology of its surface, but the interpretation of the results, due to the complex interplay of many different factors determining the radar echo, will not be possible without an extensive modellization of the radar system functioning and of the surface reflectivity. In this paper, a simulator of the multimode Cassini radar will be described, after a brief review of our current knowledge of Titan and a discussion of the contribution of the Cassini radar in answering to currently open questions. Finally, the results of the simulator will be discussed. The simulator has been implemented on a RISC 6000 computer by considering only the active modes of operation, that is altimeter and synthetic aperture radar. In the instrument simulation, strict reference has been made to the present planned sequence of observations and to the radar settings, including burst and single pulse duration, pulse bandwidth, pulse repetition frequency and all other parameters which may be changed, and possibly optimized, according to the operative mode. The observed surfaces are simulated by a facet model, allowing the generation of surfaces with Gaussian or non-Gaussian roughness statistic, together with the possibility of assigning to the surface an average behaviour which can represent, for instance, a flat surface or a crater. The results of the simulation will be discussed, in order to check the analytical evaluations of the models of the average received echoes and of the attainable performances. In conclusion, the simulation results should allow the validation of the theoretical evaluations of the capabilities of microwave instruments, when

  10. Phased-array radar for airborne systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahim, Raghbir S.; Foshee, James J.; Chang, Kai

    2003-09-01

    Phased array antenna systems, which support high pulse rates and high transmit power, are well suited for radar and large-scale surveillance. Sensors and communication systems can function as the eyes and ears for ballistic missile defense applications, providing early warning of attack, target detection and identification, target tracking, and countermeasure decision. In such applications, active array radar systems that contain solid-state transmitter sources and low-noise preamplifiers for transmission and reception are preferred over the conventional radar antennas, because the phased array radar offers the advantages of power management and efficiency, reliability, signal reception, beam steering target detection. The current phased array radar designs are very large, complex and expensive and less efficient because of high RF losses in the phase control circuits used for beam scan. Several thousands of phase shifters and drivers may be required for a single system thus making the system very complex and expensive. This paper describes the phased array radar system based on high power T/R modules, wide-band radiating planar antenna elements and very low loss wide-band phase control circuits (requiring reduced power levels) for beam scan. The phase shifter design is based on micro-strip feed lines perturbed by the proximity of voltage controlled piezoelectric transducer (PET). Measured results have shown an added insertion loss of less than 1 dB for a phase shift of 450 degrees from 2 to 20 GHz. The new wideband phased array radar design provides significant reduction in size cost and weight. Compared to the conventional phased array systems, the cost saving is more than 15 to 1.

  11. Radar activities of the DFVLR Institute for Radio Frequency Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keydel, W.

    1983-01-01

    Aerospace research and the respective applications microwave tasks with respect to remote sensing, position finding and communication are discussed. The radar activities are directed at point targets, area targets and volume targets; they center around signature research for earth and ocean remote sensing, target recognition, reconnaissance and camouflage and imaging and area observation radar techniques (SAR and SLAR). The radar activities cover a frequency range from 1 GHz up to 94 GHz. The radar program is oriented to four possible application levels: ground, air, shuttle orbits and satellite orbits. Ground based studies and measurements, airborne scatterometers and imaging radars, a space shuttle radar, the MRSE, and follow on experiments are considered.

  12. Space Radar Image of Saline Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Saline Valley, about 30 km (19 miles) east of the town of Independence, California created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this one are helpful to scientists because they clarify the relationships of the different types of surfaces detected by the radar and the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. The view is looking southwest across Saline Valley. The high peaks in the background are the Inyo Mountains, which rise more than 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) above the valley floor. The dark blue patch near the center of the image is an area of sand dunes. The brighter patches to the left of the dunes are the dry, salty lake beds of Saline Valley. The brown and orange areas are deposits of boulders, gravel and sand known as alluvial fans. The image was constructed by overlaying a color composite radar image on top of a digital elevation map. The radar image was taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-bandSynthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttleEndeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was producedusing radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The elevation data were derived from a 1,500-km-long (930-mile) digital topographic map processed at JPL. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vetically received; and blue is the ratio of C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received to L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This image is centered near 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude. No vertical exaggeration factor has been applied to the data. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint

  13. Space Radar Image of Owens Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Owens Valley, near the town of Bishop, California that was created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this one are helpful to scientists because they clarify the relationships of the different types of surfaces detected by the radar and the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. The view is looking southeast along the eastern edge of Owens Valley. The White Mountains are in the center of the image, and the Inyo Mountains loom in the background. The high peaks of the White Mountains rise more than 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) above the valley floor. The runways of the Bishop airport are visible at the right edge of the image. The meandering course of the Owens River and its tributaries appear light blue on the valley floor. Blue areas in the image are smooth, yellow areas are rock outcrops, and brown areas near the mountains are deposits of boulders, gravel and sand known as alluvial fans. The image was constructed by overlaying a color composite radar image on top of a digital elevation map. The radar data were taken by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttle Endeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was produced using radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The elevation data were derived from a 1,500-km-long (930-mile) digital topographic map processed at JPL. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; and blue is the ratio of C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received to L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This image is

  14. Doppler radar sensing of fish physiological motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafner, Noah

    The monitoring vital of signs for fish is critical for advancing the study of trophic and energetic strategies, distributions and behavior, environmental impact, and aquaculture approaches. Presented here is a new approach for monitoring fish metabolic state without the trauma and stress associated with capture, surgical ECG, or other implanted sensing systems. Original research contributions include analysis for radar operation under water, development of radar systems for aquatic operation, and application of these systems to non invasively sense the heart and gill motion of fish. Tilapia and Sturgeon were studied to test the efficacy across varied fish body shapes and sizes, ranging from 0.1 to 1.3m in snout to tail length. Monitoring experiments were conducted with eleven tilapia and three sturgeons to assess activity level participated in these experiments, the results from which include activity level monitoring (tilapia: still or fidgeting 94% of time observed), ventilation rate (tilapia: 42 bpm, sturgeon: 145 bpm), and heart rate (tilapia: 41 bpm, sturgeon: 35 bpm). Bland-Altman analysis of radar and ECG measured heart rate indicate agreement between the two measurement techniques and the suitability of radar as an alternative to ECG. The initial steps for developing a system for practical application is also presented including designs for radar system miniaturization and discussion on further characterization steps with less constrained environments.

  15. RAPIER: a new relocatable VHF coherent radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popple, M.; Chapman, P. J.; Thomas, E. C.; Jones, T. B.

    1997-06-01

    VHF coherent radar observations of the high latitude ionosphere have contributed significantly to our understanding of the complex processes which couple the ionosphere, magnetosphere and the solar wind. In addition, these observations have also improved our knowledge of the physics of the ionospheric plasma irregularities and their scattering properties. In this article the design of a new mobile coherent radar system is described. The new system, RAPIER (Relocatable Auroral Polar Ionospheric Radar), was initially collocated with the existing SABRE radar and simultaneous operations undertaken to evaluate RAPIER's performance in its beam scanning mode. In this way the performance of the new system was quantitatively compared with that of a well established auroral radar facility. The velocities measured by the new RAPIER system are well correlated with those observed by SABRE. The received backscatter powers observed by the two systems were, however, less well correlated, mainly caused by differences between their respective antenna elevation polar diagrams. As expected from system considerations, SABRE was found to be more sensitive than RAPIER at slant ranges corresponding to the maxima in the SABRE elevation polar diagrams. However, RAPIER's improved elevation polar diagram, superior instantaneous dynamic range and its ability to alter its receiver gain with pointing direction ensured that it could accurately measure targets over a much greater spatial region than SABRE. This effect became more pronounced when regions of intense backscatter were monitored.

  16. Imaging terahertz radar for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Alexei; Richter, Heiko; Böttger, Ute; Hübers, Heinz-Wilhelm

    2008-04-01

    Detection of concealed threats is a key issue in public security. In short range applications, passive imagers operating at millimeter wavelengths fulfill this task. However, for larger distances, they will suffer from limited spatial resolution. We will describe the design and performance of 0.8-THz imaging radar that is capable to detect concealed objects at a distance of more than 20 meter. The radar highlights the target with the built-in cw transmitter and analyses the returned signal making use of a heterodyne receiver with a single superconducting hot-electron bolometric mixer. With an integration time of 0.3 sec, the receiver distinguishes a temperature difference of 2 K at the 20 m distance. Both the transmitter and the receiver use the same modified Gregorian telescope consisting from two offset elliptic mirrors. The primary mirror defines limits the lateral resolution of the radar to 2 cm at 20 m distance. At this distance, the field of view of the radar has the diameter 0.5 m. It is sampled with a high-speed conical scanner that allows for a frame time less than 5 sec. The transmitter delivers to the target power with a density less than ten microwatt per squared centimeter, which is harmless for human beings. The radar implements a sensor fusion technique that greatly improves the ability to identify concealed objects.

  17. Radar Movie of Asteroid 1999 JD6

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-31

    This frame from a movie made from radar images of asteroid 1999 JD6 was collected by NASA scientists on July 25, 2015. The images show the rotation of the asteroid, which made its closest approach on July 24 at 9:55 p.m. PDT (12:55 a.m. EDT on July 25) at a distance of about 4.5 million miles (7.2 million kilometers, or about 19 times the distance from Earth to the moon). The asteroid appears to be a contact binary -- an asteroid with two lobes that are stuck together. The radar images show the asteroid is highly elongated, with a length of approximately 1.2 miles (2 kilometers) on its long axis. These images are radar echoes, which are more like a sonogram than a photograph. The views were obtained by pairing NASA's 230-foot-wide (70-meter) Deep Space Network antenna at Goldstone, California, with the 330-foot (100-meter) National Science Foundation Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia. Using this approach, the Goldstone antenna beams a radar signal at an asteroid and Green Bank receives the reflections. The technique, referred to as a bistatic observation, dramatically improves the amount of detail that can be seen in radar images. The new views obtained with the technique show features as small as about 25 feet (7.5 meters) wide. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19646

  18. Radar sensors for intersection collision avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jocoy, Edward H.; Phoel, Wayne G.

    1997-02-01

    On-vehicle sensors for collision avoidance and intelligent cruise control are receiving considerably attention as part of Intelligent Transportation Systems. Most of these sensors are radars and `look' in the direction of the vehicle's headway, that is, in the direction ahead of the vehicle. Calspan SRL Corporation is investigating the use of on- vehicle radar for Intersection Collision Avoidance (ICA). Four crash scenarios are considered and the goal is to design, develop and install a collision warning system in a test vehicle, and conduct both test track and in-traffic experiments. Current efforts include simulations to examine ICA geometry-dependent design parameters and the design of an on-vehicle radar and tracker for threat detection. This paper discusses some of the simulation and radar design efforts. In addition, an available headway radar was modified to scan the wide angles (+/- 90 degree(s)) associated with ICA scenarios. Preliminary proof-of-principal tests are underway as a risk reduction effort. Some initial target detection results are presented.

  19. Doppler radar detection of vortex hazard indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nespor, Jerald D.; Hudson, B.; Stegall, R. L.; Freedman, Jerome E.

    1994-01-01

    Wake vortex experiments were conducted at White Sands Missile Range, NM using the AN/MPS-39 Multiple Object Tracking Radar (MOTR). The purpose of these experiments was twofold. The first objective was to verify that radar returns from wake vortex are observed for some time after the passage of an aircraft. The second objective was to verify that other vortex hazard indicators such as ambient wind speed and direction could also be detected. The present study addresses the Doppler characteristics of wake vortex and clear air returns based upon measurements employing MOTR, a very sensitive C-Band phased array radar. In this regard, the experiment was conducted so that the spectral characteristics could be determined on a dwell to-dwell basis. Results are presented from measurements of the backscattered power (equivalent structure constant), radial velocity and spectral width when the aircraft flies transverse and axial to the radar beam. The statistics of the backscattered power and spectral width for each case are given. In addition, the scan strategy, experimental test procedure and radar parameters are presented.

  20. Radar detection during scintillation. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Knepp, D.L.; Reinking, J.T.

    1990-04-01

    Electromagnetic signals that propagate through a disturbed region of the ionosphere can experience scattering which can cause fluctuations in the received amplitude, phase, and angle-of-arrival. This report considers the performance of a radar that must operate through a disturbed propagation environment such as might occur during strong equatorial scintillation, during a barium release experiment or after a high altitude nuclear detonation. The severity of the channel disturbance is taken to range from weak scattering where the signal quadrature components are uncorrelated Gaussian variates. The detection performance of noncoherent combining is compared to that of double threshold (M out of N)more » combining under various levels of scintillation disturbance. Results are given for detection sensitivity as a function of the scintillation index and the ratio of the radar hopping bandwidth to the channel bandwidth. It is shown that both types of combining can provide mitigation of fading, and that noncoherent combining generally enjoys an advantage in detection sensitivity of about 2 dB. This work serves as a quantitative guideline to the advantages and disadvantages of certain types of detection strategies during scintillation and is, therefore, useful in the radar design process. However, a detailed simulation of the radar detection algorithms is necessary to evaluate a radar design strategy to predict performance under scintillation conditions.« less

  1. Space Radar Image of Belgrade, Serbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image of Belgrade, Serbia, illustrates the variety of land use patterns that can be observed with a multiple wavelength radar system. Belgrade, the capital of Serbia and former capital of Yugoslavia, is the bright area in the center of the image. The Danube River flows from the top to the bottom of the image, and the Sava River flows into the Danube from the left. Agricultural fields appear in shades of dark blue, purple and brown in outlying areas. Vegetated areas along the rivers appear in light blue-green, while dense forests in hillier areas in the lower left appear in a darker shade of green. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1994. The image is centered at 44.5 degrees north latitude and 20.5 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The image shows an area 36 kilometers by 32 kilometers 22 miles by 20 miles). The colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  2. Space Radar Image of San Francisco, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is a radar image of San Francisco, California, taken on October 3,1994. The image is about 40 kilometers by 55 kilometers (25 miles by 34 miles) with north toward the upper right. Downtown San Francisco is visible in the center of the image with the city of Oakland east (to the right) across San Francisco Bay. Also visible in the image is the Golden Gate Bridge (left center) and the Bay Bridge connecting San Francisco and Oakland. North of the Bay Bridge is Treasure Island. Alcatraz Island appears as a small dot northwest of Treasure Island. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 56. The image is centered at 37 degrees north latitude, 122degrees west longitude. This single-frequency SIR-C image was obtained by the L-band (24 cm) radar channel, horizontally transmitted and received. Portions of the Pacific Ocean visible in this image appear very dark as do other smooth surfaces such as airport runways. Suburban areas, with the low-density housing and tree-lined streets that are typical of San Francisco, appear as lighter gray. Areas with high-rise buildings, such as those seen in the downtown areas, appear in very bright white, showing a higher density of housing and streets which run parallel to the radar flight track. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01751

  3. Ground penetrating radar for asparagus detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfried, Daniel; Schoebel, Joerg

    2016-03-01

    Ground penetrating radar is a promising technique for detection of buried objects. Recently, radar has more and more been identified to provide benefits for a plurality of applications, where it can increase efficiency of operation. One of these fields is the industrial automatic harvesting process of asparagus, which is performed so far by cutting the soil ridge at a certain height including all the asparagus spears and subsequently sieving the latter out of the soil. However, the height where the soil is cut is a critical parameter, since a wrong value leads to either damage of the roots of the asparagus plants or to a reduced crop yield as a consequence of too much biomass remaining in the soil. In this paper we present a new approach which utilizes ground penetrating radar for non-invasive sensing in order to obtain information on the optimal height for cutting the soil. Hence, asparagus spears of maximal length can be obtained, while keeping the roots at the same time undamaged. We describe our radar system as well as the subsequent digital signal processing steps utilized for extracting the information required from the recorded radar data, which then can be fed into some harvesting unit for setting up the optimal cutting height.

  4. Clean to dirty limit and T c suppression in NdFeAsO0.7F0.3 studied by H c2 analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallecchi, I.; Tarantini, C.; Shen, Y.; Singh, R. K.; Newman, N.; Cheng, P.; Jia, Y.; Wen, H.-H.; Putti, M.

    2018-07-01

    In this work, we investigate the temperature dependence of the upper critical field, dH c2/dT, in an increasingly disordered NdFeAsO0.7F0.3 (NdFeAs(O,F)) single crystal that has been progressively irradiated up to a 5.25 × 1016 cm- 2 total α-particle dose. For the H∣∣ab-plane, dH c2/dT does not vary remarkably with irradiation, while for the H∣∣c-axis it increases sharply after the first irradiation of 3.60 × 1015 cm-2 and then more gradually with further irradiation doses. Focusing on the H∣∣c-axis, we develop a phenomenological analysis of the H c2 slope which allows us to inspect the crossover from the clean to the dirty regime. From the H c2 slope normalized to the critical temperature and to its clean limit value, we extract the ratio of the coherence length ξ BCS to the mean free path {\\ell } and we find that when T c is reduced by a factor of four from its pristine value, ξ BCS/{\\ell } becomes as large as ˜7 and {\\ell } reaches values of ˜1.8 nm, indicating that NdFeAs(O,F) is well into the dirty regime. Our analysis of the H c2 slope also allows us to compare the pair-breaking effectiveness of scattering in different superconductors, showing similarity between unconventional NdFeAs(O,F) and moderate-T c phonon-mediated devices, such as MgB2 and A15 compounds, but much a stronger difference with YBa2Cu3O7-δ . This work thus shows that dH c2/dT is a reliable parameter, providing an alternative to residual resistivity, for investigating the pair-breaking mechanism induced by impurity scattering in superconductors.

  5. UAVSAR Radar Imagery of Boreal Forests Around Quebec City, Canada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-01

    JPL Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar collected this composite radar image around Québec City, Canada, during an 11-day campaign to study the structure of temperate and boreal forests.

  6. Radar derived spatial statistics of summer rain. Volume 3: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronnenburg, C.; Bassnett, A.; Knapp, H.; Vann, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    A collection of selected important memoranda written during the course of the experiment. It contains detailed information on: (1) frequency diversity, (2) radar controller and radar video processor, (3) SPANDAR calibration, and (4) meteorological summaries.

  7. 35. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #325, showing hard disc ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #325, showing hard disc drive - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  8. C-band radar calibration using GEOS-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Martin, C. F.

    1978-01-01

    The various methods of determining tracking radar measurement error parameters are described, along with the projected accuracy of results. Typical examples and results for calibration of radars tracking the GEOS-3 satellite are presented.

  9. 21. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #200, electrical equipment room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #200, electrical equipment room - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  10. Asteroid Radar Astronomy at the Dawn of the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.; Benner, L. A. M.; Giorgini, J. D.; Magri, C.; Margot, J-L.; Nolan, M. C.

    2002-01-01

    This talk will use images, movies, and radar-derived three-dimensional models to present recent highlights of asteroid radar research, concentrating on low-V mission candidates. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. San Gabriel Mountains, California, Radar Image, Color as Height

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-02-17

    This topographic radar image acquired by NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SRTM from data collected on February 16, 2000 shows the relationship of the urban area of Pasadena, California to the natural contours of the land.

  12. Los Angeles, California, Radar Image, Wrapped Color as Height

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-02-17

    This topographic radar image acquired by NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SRTM in Feb. 2000 shows the relationships of the dense urban development of Los Angeles, Calif. and the natural contours of the land.

  13. 2. VIEW EAST, East Control Area, west radar tower in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW EAST, East Control Area, west radar tower in foreground, east radar lower in background - Newport NIKE Missile Battery D-57/58, Integrated Fire Control Area, Newport Road, Carleton, Monroe County, MI

  14. 14. Inner double blast door entrance to perimeter acquisition radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Inner double blast door entrance to perimeter acquisition radar building security area - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  15. Applicability of radar subsurface profiling in estimating sidewalk undermining.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the applicability of the geophysical technique of radar subsurface profiling to estimating the extent of sidewalk undermining. It was found that there is a distinct difference between the observed radar echo patterns of a no...

  16. Workshop on Radar Investigations of Planetary and Terrestrial Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Salt Kinematics and InSAR. SAR Interferometry as a Tool for Monitoring Coastal Changes in the Nile River Delta of Egypt. Modem Radar Techniques for Geophysical Applications: Two Examples. WISDOM Experiment on the EXOMARS ESA Mission. An Ice Thickness Study Utilizing Ground Penetrating Radar on the Lower Jamapa. Probing the Martian Subsurface with Synthetic Aperture Radar. Planetary Surface Properties from Radar Polarimetric Observations. Imaging the Sub-surface Reflectors : Results From the RANETA/NETLANDER Field Test on the Antarctic Ice Shelf. Strategy for Selection of Mars Geophysical Analogue Sites. Observations of Low Frequency Low Altitude Plasma Oscillations at Mars and Implications for Electromagnetic Sounding of the Subsurface. Ionospheric Transmission Losses Associated with Mars-orbiting Radar. A Polarimetric Scattering Model for the 2-Layer Problem. Radars for Imaging and Sounding of Polar Ice Sheets. Strata: Ground Penetrating Radar for Mars Rovers. Scattering Limits to Depth of Radar Investigation: Lessons from the Bishop Tuff.

  17. Space Radar Image of Mammoth, California in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-01-27

    This is a three-dimensional perspective of Mammoth Mountain, California. This view was constructed by overlaying a NASA Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C SIR-C radar image on a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation map.

  18. Honolulu, Hawaii Radar Image, Wrapped Color as Height

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-02-18

    This topographic radar image acquired by NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SRTM in Feb. 2000 shows the city of Honolulu, Hawaii and adjacent areas on the island of Oahu. Honolulu lies on the south shore of the island.

  19. NASA Radar Captures Earth Deformation from 2010 Baja Calif. Quake

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-04

    This radar image from NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar UAVSAR shows the deformed Earth caused by a 7.2 earthquake in Mexico state of Baja California and parts of the American Southwest on April 4, 2010.

  20. Magellan: Radar performance and data products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettengill, G.H.; Ford, P.G.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Raney, R.K.; Soderblom, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Magellan Venus orbiter carries only one scientific instrument: a 12.6-centimeter-wavelength radar system shared among three data-taking modes. The syntheticaperture mode images radar echoes from the Venus surface at a resolution of between 120 and 300 meters, depending on spacecraft altitude. In the altimetric mode, relative height measurement accuracies may approach 5 meters, depending on the terrain's roughness, although orbital uncertainties place a floor of about 50 meters on the absolute uncertainty. In areas of extremely rough topography, accuracy is limited by the inherent line-of-sight radar resolution of about 88 meters. The maximum elevation observed to date, corresponding to a planetary radius of 6062 kilometers, lies within Maxwell Mons. When used as a thermal emission radiometer, the system can determine surface emissivities to an absolute accuracy of about 0.02. Mosaicked and archival digital data products will be released in compact disk (CDROM) format.

  1. The radar cross section of dielectric disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A solution is presented for the backscatter (nonstatic) radar cross section of dielectric disks of arbitrary shape, thickness and dielectric constant. The result is obtained by employing a Kirchhoff type approximation to obtain the fields inside the disk. The internal fields induce polarization and conduction currents from which the scattered fields and the radar cross section can be computed. The solution for the radar cross section obtained in this manner is shown to agree with known results in the special cases of normal incidence, thin disks and perfect conductivity. The solution can also be written as a product of the reflection coefficient of an identically oriented slab times the physical optics solution for the backscatter cross section of a perfectly conducting disk of the same shape. This result follows directly from the Kirchhoff type approximation without additional assumptions.

  2. Radar-acoustic interaction for IFF applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffold, James A.; Williamson, Frank R.; Ahuja, Krishan; Stein, Lawrence R.; Muller, Marjorie

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes the results of an internal development program (IDP) No. 97-1 conducted from August 1-October 1 1996 at the Georgia Tech Research Institute. The IDP program was implemented to establish theoretical relationships and verify the interaction between X-band radar waves and ultrasonic acoustics. Low cost, off-the-shelf components were used for the verification in order to illustrate the cost savings potential of developing and utilizing these systems. The measured data was used to calibrate the developed models of the phenomenology and to support extrapolation for radar systems which can exploit these interactions. One such exploitation is for soldier identification IFF and radar taggant concepts. The described IDP program provided the phenomenological data which is being used to extrapolate concept system performances based on technological limitations and battlefield conditions for low cost IFF and taggant configurations.

  3. A transceiver module of the Mu radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, S.; Ogawa, T.; Tsuda, T.; Sato, T.; Kimura, I.; Fukao, S.

    1983-01-01

    The transceiver (TR) module of a middle and upper atmospheric radar is described. The TR module used in the radar is mainly composed of two units: a mixer (MIX unit) and a power amplifier (PA unit). The former generates the RF wave for transmission and converts the received echo to the IF signal. A 41.5-MHz local signal fed to mixers passes through a digitally controlled 8-bit phase shifter which can change its value up to 1,000 times in a second, so that the MU radar has the ability to steer its antenna direction quickly and flexibly. The MIX unit also contains a buffer amplifier and a gate for the transmitting signal and preamplifier for the received one whose noise figure is less than 5 dB. The PA unit amplifies the RF signal supplied from the MIX unit up to 63.7 dBm (2350 W), and feeds it to the crossed Yagi antenna.

  4. Venus radar mapper attitude reference quaternion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, D. T.

    1986-01-01

    Polynomial functions of time are used to specify the components of the quaternion which represents the nominal attitude of the Venus Radar mapper spacecraft during mapping. The following constraints must be satisfied in order to obtain acceptable synthetic array radar data: the nominal attitude function must have a large dynamic range, the sensor orientation must be known very accurately, the attitude reference function must use as little memory as possible, and the spacecraft must operate autonomously. Fitting polynomials to the components of the desired quaternion function is a straightforward method for providing a very dynamic nominal attitude using a minimum amount of on-board computer resources. Although the attitude from the polynomials may not be exactly the one requested by the radar designers, the polynomial coefficients are known, so they do not contribute to the attitude uncertainty. Frequent coefficient updates are not required, so the spacecraft can operate autonomously.

  5. Mississippi Delta, Radar Image with Colored Height

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-08-29

    The geography of the New Orleans and Mississippi delta region is well shown in this radar image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. In this image, bright areas show regions of high radar reflectivity, such as from urban areas, and elevations have been coded in color using height data also from the mission. Dark green colors indicate low elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. New Orleans is situated along the southern shore of Lake Pontchartrain, the large, roughly circular lake near the center of the image. The line spanning the lake is the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, the world's longest over water highway bridge. Major portions of the city of New Orleans are below sea level, and although it is protected by levees and sea walls, flooding during storm surges associated with major hurricanes is a significant concern. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04175

  6. Mercury radar imaging: evidence for polar ice.

    PubMed

    Slade, M A; Butler, B J; Muhleman, D O

    1992-10-23

    The first unambiguous full-disk radar mapping of Mercury at 3.5-centimeter wavelength, with the Goldstone 70-meter antenna transmitting and 26 antennas of the Very Large Array receiving, has provided evidence for the presence of polar ice. The radar experiments, conducted on 8 and 23 August 1991, were designed to image the half of Mercury not photographed by Mariner 10. The orbital geometry allowed viewing beyond the north pole of Mercury; a highly reflective region was clearly visible on the north pole during both experiments. This polar region has areas in which the circular polarization ratio (pt) was 1.0 to 1.4; values < approximately 0.1 are typical for terrestrial planets. Such high values of have hitherto been observed in radar observations only from icy regions of Mars and icy outer planet satellites.

  7. Relative planetary radar sensitivities: Arecibo and Goldstone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A.; Thompson, T. W.; Slade, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    The increase of the Deep Space Network antennas from 64 meter to 70 meter diameter represents the first of several improvements that will be made over the next decade to enhance earth based radar sensitivity to solar system targets. The aperture increase at the Goldstone DSS-14 site, coupled with a proposed increase in transmitter power to 1000 kW, will improve the 3.5 cm radar by about one order of magnitude. Similarly, proposed Arecibo Observatory upgrades of a Gregorian feed structure and an increase of transmitter power to 1000 kW will increase the sensitivity of this radar about 20 fold. In addition, a Goldstone to Very Large Array bistatic observation with horizon to horizon tracking will have 3.5 times more sensitivity than will a Goldstone horizon to horizon monostatic observation. All of these improvements, which should be in place within the next decade, will enrich an already fertile field of planetary exploration.

  8. Space Radar Image of Wadi Kufra, Libya

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-04-14

    The ability of a sophisticated radar instrument to image large regions of the world from space, using different frequencies that can penetrate dry sand cover, produced the discovery in this image: a previously unknown branch of an ancient river, buried under thousands of years of windblown sand in a region of the Sahara Desert in North Africa. This area is near the Kufra Oasis in southeast Libya, centered at 23.3 degrees north latitude, 22.9 degrees east longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 60th orbit on October 4, 1994. This SIR-C image reveals a system of old, now inactive stream valleys, called "paleodrainage systems, http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01310

  9. Air-to-air radar flight testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Randall E.

    1988-06-01

    This volume in the AGARD Flight Test Techniques Series describes flight test techniques, flight test instrumentation, ground simulation, data reduction and analysis methods used to determine the performance characteristics of a modern air-to-air (a/a) radar system. Following a general coverage of specification requirements, test plans, support requirements, development and operational testing, and management information systems, the report goes into more detailed flight test techniques covering a/a radar capabilities of: detection, manual acquisition, automatic acquisition, tracking a single target, and detection and tracking of multiple targets. There follows a section on additional flight test considerations such as electromagnetic compatibility, electronic countermeasures, displays and controls, degraded and backup modes, radome effects, environmental considerations, and use of testbeds. Other sections cover ground simulation, flight test instrumentation, and data reduction and analysis. The final sections deal with reporting and a discussion of considerations for the future and how they may affect radar flight testing.

  10. Comments on airborne ISR radar utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerry, A. W.

    2016-05-01

    A sensor/payload operator for modern multi-sensor multi-mode Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) platforms is often confronted with a plethora of options in sensors and sensor modes. This often leads an over-worked operator to down-select to favorite sensors and modes; for example a justifiably favorite Full Motion Video (FMV) sensor at the expense of radar modes, even if radar modes can offer unique and advantageous information. At best, sensors might be used in a serial monogamous fashion with some cross-cueing. The challenge is then to increase the utilization of the radar modes in a manner attractive to the sensor/payload operator. We propose that this is best accomplished by combining sensor modes and displays into `super-modes'.

  11. Radar polarimetry - Analysis tools and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane L.; Farr, Tom G.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.; Zebker, Howard A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have developed several techniques to analyze polarimetric radar data from the NASA/JPL airborne SAR for earth science applications. The techniques determine the heterogeneity of scatterers with subregions, optimize the return power from these areas, and identify probable scattering mechanisms for each pixel in a radar image. These techniques are applied to the discrimination and characterization of geologic surfaces and vegetation cover, and it is found that their utility varies depending on the terrain type. It is concluded that there are several classes of problems amenable to single-frequency polarimetric data analysis, including characterization of surface roughness and vegetation structure, and estimation of vegetation density. Polarimetric radar remote sensing can thus be a useful tool for monitoring a set of earth science parameters.

  12. Radar sensitivity to human heartbeats and respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aardal, Øyvind; Brovoll, Sverre; Paichard, Yoann; Berger, Tor; Lande, Tor Sverre; Hamran, Svein-Erik

    2015-05-01

    Human heartbeats and respiration can be detected from a distance using radar. This can be used for medical applications and human being detection. It is useful to have a system independent measure of how detectable the vital signs are. In radar applications, the Radar Cross Section (RCS) is normally used to characterize the detectability of an object. Since the human vital signs are seen by the radar as movements of the torso, the modulations in the person RCS can be used as a system independent measure of the vital signs detectability. In this paper, measurements of persons seated in an anechoic chamber are presented. The measurements were calibrated using empty room and a metallic calibration sphere. A narrowband radar operating at frequencies from 500 MHz to 18 GHz in discrete steps was used. A turntable provided measurements at precise aspect angles all around the person under test. In an I & Q receiver, the heartbeat and respiration modulation is a combination of amplitude and phase mod- modulations. The measurements were filtered, leaving the modulations from the vital signs in the radar recordings. The procedure for RCS computation was applied to these filtered data, capturing the complex signatures. It was found that both the heartbeat and respiration detectability increase with increasing frequency. The heartbeat signatures are almost equal from the front and the back, while being almost undetectable from the sides of the person. The respiration signatures are slightly higher from the front than from the back, and smaller from the sides. The signature measurements presented in this paper provide an objective system independent measure of the detectability of human vital signs as a function of frequency and aspect angle. These measures are useful for example in system design and in assessing real measurement scenarios.

  13. Space Radar Image of Boston, Massachusetts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of the area surrounding Boston, Mass., shows how a spaceborne radar system distinguishes between densely populated urban areas and nearby areas that are relatively unsettled. The bright white area at the right center of the image is downtown Boston. The wide river below and to the left of the city is the Charles River in Boston's Back Bay neighborhood. The dark green patch to the right of the Back Bay is Boston Common. A bridge across the north end of Back Bay connects the cities of Boston and Cambridge. The light green areas that dominate most of the image are the suburban communities surrounding Boston. The many ponds that dot the region appear as dark irregular spots. Many densely populated urban areas show up as red in the image due to the alignment of streets and buildings to the incoming radar beam. North is toward the upper left. The image was acquired on October 9, 1994, by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) as it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. This area is centered at 42.4 degrees north latitude, 71.2 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 37 km by 18 km (23 miles by 11 miles). Colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a cooperative mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  14. Space radar image of Galeras Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This radar image of the area surrounding the Galeras volcano in southern Colombia shows the ability of a multi-frequency radar to map volcanic structures that can be dangerous to study on the ground. Galeras has erupted more than 20 times since the area was first visited by European explorers in the 1500s. Volcanic activity levels have been high in the last five years, including an eruption in January 1993 that killed nine people on a scientific expedition to the volcano summit. Galeras is the light green area near the center of the image. The active cone, with a small summit pit, is the red feature nestled against the lower right edge of the caldera (crater) wall. The city of Pasto, with a population of 300,000, is shown in orange near the bottom of the image, just 8 kilometers (5 miles) from the volcano. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/ X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 96th orbit on April 15, 1994. North is toward the upper right. The area shown is 49.1 by 36.0 kilometers (30.5 by 22.3 miles), centered at 1.2 degrees north latitude and 77.4 degrees west longitude. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The false colors in this image were created using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received). Galeras is one of 15 volcanoes worldwide that are being monitored by the scientific community as an 'International Decade Volcano' because of the hazard that it represents to the local population.

  15. Space Radar Image of Samara, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This three-frequency space radar image shows the city of Samara, Russia in pink and light green right of center. Samara is at the junction of the Volga and Samara Rivers approximately 800 kilometers (500 miles) southeast of Moscow. The wide river in the center of the image is the Volga. Samara, formerly Kuybyshev, is a busy industrial city known for its chemical, mechanical and petroleum industries. Northwest of the Volga (upper left corner of the image) are deciduous forests of the Samarskaya Luka National Park. Complex patterns in the floodplain of the Volga are caused by 'cut-off' lakes and channels from former courses of the meandering river. The three radar frequencies allow scientists to distinguish different types of agricultural fields in the lower right side of the image. For example, fields which appear light blue are short grass or cleared fields. Purple and green fields contain taller plants or rough plowed soil. Scientists hope to use radar data such as these to understand the environmental consequences of industrial, agricultural and natural preserve areas coexisting in close proximity. This image is 50 kilometers by 26 kilometers (31 by 16 miles) and is centered at 53.2 degrees north latitude, 50.1 degrees east longitude. North is toward the top of the image. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 1, 1994 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  16. Space Radar Image of Central Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a radar image of the central part of the island of Sumatra in Indonesia that shows how the tropical rainforest typical of this country is being impacted by human activity. Native forest appears in green in this image, while prominent pink areas represent places where the native forest has been cleared. The large rectangular areas have been cleared for palm oil plantations. The bright pink zones are areas that have been cleared since 1989, while the dark pink zones are areas that were cleared before 1989. These radar data were processed as part of an effort to assist oil and gas companies working in the area to assess the environmental impact of both their drilling operations and the activities of the local population. Radar images are useful in these areas because heavy cloud cover and the persistent smoke and haze associated with deforestation have prevented usable visible-light imagery from being acquired since 1989. The dark shapes in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image are a chain of lakes in flat coastal marshes. This image was acquired in October 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Environmental changes can be easily documented by comparing this image with visible-light data that were acquired in previous years by the Landsat satellite. The image is centered at 0.9 degrees north latitude and 101.3 degrees east longitude. The area shown is 50 kilometers by 100 kilometers (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  17. Comparison of Image Processing Techniques using Random Noise Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    detection UWB ultra-wideband EM electromagnetic CW continuous wave RCS radar cross section RFI radio frequency interference FFT fast Fourier transform...several factors including radar cross section (RCS), orientation, and material makeup. A single monostatic radar at some position collects only range and...Chapter 2 is to provide the theory behind noise radar and SAR imaging. Section 2.1 presents the basic concepts in transmitting and receiving random

  18. Comparison of Two Detection Combination Algorithms for Phased Array Radars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    data were generated by a simulator of multi-function radar ( MFR ) and the combination algorithms are evaluated with the recorded simulation data. With...electronically scanned phased array Multi-Function Radar ( MFR ), is a type of radar whose transmitter and receiver functions are composed of numerous...small transmit/receive modules. An MFR can perform many functions previously performed by individual, dedicated radars for search, tracking and

  19. Spaceborne imaging radar - Geologic and oceanographic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.

    1980-01-01

    Synoptic, large-area radar images of the earth's land and ocean surface, obtained from the Seasat orbiting spacecraft, show the potential for geologic mapping and for monitoring of ocean surface patterns. Structural and topographic features such as lineaments, anticlines, folds and domes, drainage patterns, stratification, and roughness units can be mapped. Ocean surface waves, internal waves, current boundaries, and large-scale eddies have been observed in numerous images taken by the Seasat imaging radar. This article gives an illustrated overview of these applications.

  20. Radar Images of Asteroid 2017 BQ6

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-10

    This composite of 11 images of asteroid 2017 BQ6 was generated with radar data collected using NASA's Goldstone Solar System Radar in California's Mojave Desert on Feb. 5, 2017, between 5:24 and 5:52 p.m. PST (8:24 to 8:52 p.m. EST / 1:24 to 1:52 UTC). The images have resolutions as fine as 12 feet (3.75 meters) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21453

  1. Radiation pattern of a borehole radar antenna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, K.J.; Wright, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    To understand better how a borehole antenna radiates radar waves into a formation, this phenomenon is simulated numerically using the finite-difference, time-domain method. The simulations are of two different antenna models that include features like a driving point fed by a coaxial cable, resistive loading of the antenna, and a water-filled borehole. For each model, traces are calculated in the far-field region, and then, from these traces, radiation patterns are calculated. The radiation patterns show that the amplitude of the radar wave is strongly affected by its frequency, its propagation direction, and the resistive loading of the antenna.

  2. First Radar Images of Halloween Asteroid

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-30

    These first radar images of 2015 TB145 from the National Science Foundation 1,000-foot 305-meter Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, indicate the near-Earth object is spherical in shape and approximately 2,000 feet 600 meters in diameter. The radar images were taken on Oct. 30, 2015, and the image resolution is 25 feet (7.5 meters) per pixel. The celestial object is more than likely a dead comet that has shed its volatiles after numerous passes around the sun. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20040

  3. Broad perspectives in radar for ocean measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, A.

    1978-01-01

    The various active radar implementation options available for the measurement functions of interest for the SEASAT follow-on missions were evaluated. These functions include surface feature imaging, surface pressure and vertical profile, atmospheric sounding, surface backscatter and wind speed determination, surface current location, wavelength spectra, sea surface topography, and ice/snow thickness. Some concepts for the Synthetic Aperture Imaging Radar were examined that may be useful in the design and selection of the implementation options for these missions. The applicability of these instruments for the VOIR mission was also kept under consideration.

  4. Measuring Balance Across Multiple Radar Receiver Channels.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin W.; Bickel, Douglas L.

    When radar receivers employ multiple channels, the general intent is for the receive channels to be as alike as possible, if not as ideal as possible. This is usually done via prudent hardware design, supplemented by system calibration. Towards this end, we require a quality metric for ascertaining the goodness of a radar channel, and the degree of match to sibling channels. We propose a relevant and useable metric to do just that. Acknowledgements This report was the result of an unfunded research and development activity.

  5. Cassini radar views the surface of Titan.

    PubMed

    Elachi, C; Wall, S; Allison, M; Anderson, Y; Boehmer, R; Callahan, P; Encrenaz, P; Flamini, E; Franceschetti, G; Gim, Y; Hamilton, G; Hensley, S; Janssen, M; Johnson, W; Kelleher, K; Kirk, R; Lopes, R; Lorenz, R; Lunine, J; Muhleman, D; Ostro, S; Paganelli, F; Picardi, G; Posa, F; Roth, L; Seu, R; Shaffer, S; Soderblom, L; Stiles, B; Stofan, E; Vetrella, S; West, R; Wood, C; Wye, L; Zebker, H

    2005-05-13

    The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper imaged about 1% of Titan's surface at a resolution of approximately 0.5 kilometer, and larger areas of the globe in lower resolution modes. The images reveal a complex surface, with areas of low relief and a variety of geologic features suggestive of dome-like volcanic constructs, flows, and sinuous channels. The surface appears to be young, with few impact craters. Scattering and dielectric properties are consistent with porous ice or organics. Dark patches in the radar images show high brightness temperatures and high emissivity and are consistent with frozen hydrocarbons.

  6. Radar soundings of the ionosphere of Mars.

    PubMed

    Gurnett, D A; Kirchner, D L; Huff, R L; Morgan, D D; Persoon, A M; Averkamp, T F; Duru, F; Nielsen, E; Safaeinili, A; Plaut, J J; Picardi, G

    2005-12-23

    We report the first radar soundings of the ionosphere of Mars with the MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding) instrument on board the orbiting Mars Express spacecraft. Several types of ionospheric echoes are observed, ranging from vertical echoes caused by specular reflection from the horizontally stratified ionosphere to a wide variety of oblique and diffuse echoes. The oblique echoes are believed to arise mainly from ionospheric structures associated with the complex crustal magnetic fields of Mars. Echoes at the electron plasma frequency and the cyclotron period also provide measurements of the local electron density and magnetic field strength.

  7. Cassini radar views the surface of Titan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elachi, C.; Wall, S.; Allison, M.; Anderson, Y.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Franceschetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Janssen, M.; Johnson, W.; Kelleher, K.; Kirk, R.; Lopes, R.; Lorenz, R.; Lunine, J.; Muhleman, D.; Ostro, S.; Paganelli, F.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Soderblom, L.; Stiles, B.; Stofan, E.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.; Wood, C.; Wye, L.; Zebker, H.

    2005-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper imaged about 1% of Titan's surface at a resolution of ???0.5 kilometer, and larger areas of the globe in lower resolution modes. The images reveal a complex surface, with areas of low relief and a variety of geologic features suggestive of dome-like volcanic constructs, flows, and sinuous channels. The surface appears to be young, with few impact craters. Scattering and dielectric properties are consistent with porous ice or organics. Dark patches in the radar images show high brightness temperatures and high emissivity and are consistent with frozen hydrocarbons.

  8. Space Radar Image of Raco Biomass Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This biomass map of the Raco, Michigan, area was produced from data acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour. Biomass is the amount of plant material on an area of Earth's surface. Radar can directly sense the quantity and organizational structure of the woody biomass in the forest. Science team members at the University of Michigan used the radar data to estimate the standing biomass for this Raco site in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Detailed surveys of 70 forest stands will be used to assess the accuracy of these techniques. The seasonal growth of terrestrial plants, and forests in particular, leads to the temporary storage of large amounts of carbon, which could directly affect changes in global climate. In order to accurately predict future global change, scientists need detailed information about current distribution of vegetation types and the amount of biomass present around the globe. Optical techniques to determine net biomass are frustrated by chronic cloud-cover. Imaging radar can penetrate through cloud-cover with negligible signal losses. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German

  9. The 8-18 GHz radar spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, T. F.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1973-01-01

    The design, construction, testing, and accuracy of an 8-18 GHz radar spectrometer, an FM-CW system which employs a dual antenna system, is described. The antennas, transmitter, and a portion of the receiver are mounted at the top of a 26 meter hydraulic boom which is in turn mounted on a truck for system mobility. HH and VV polarized measurements are possible at incidence angles ranging from 0 deg. to 80 deg. Calibration is accomplished by referencing the measurements against a Luneberg lens of known radar cross section.

  10. Space Radar Image of Safsaf Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This three-frequency space radar image of south-central Egypt demonstrates the unique capability of imaging radar to penetrate thin sand cover in arid regions to reveal hidden details below the surface. Nearly all of the structures seen in this image are invisible to the naked eye and to conventional optical satellite sensors. Features appear in various colors because the three separate radar wavelengths are able to penetrate the sand to different depths. Areas that appear red or orange are places that can be seen only by the longest wavelength, L-band, and they are the deepest of the buried structures. Field studies in this area indicate L-band can penetrate as much as 2 meters (6.5 feet) of very dry sand to image buried rock structures. Ancient drainage channels at the bottom of the image are filled with sand more than 2 meters (6.5 feet) thick and therefore appear dark because the radar waves cannot penetrate them. The fractured orange areas at the top of the image and the blue circular structures in the center of the image are granitic areas that may contain mineral ore deposits. Scientists are using the penetrating capabilities of radar imaging in desert areas in studies of structural geology, mineral exploration, ancient climates, water resources and archaeology. This image is 51.9 kilometers by 30.2 kilometers (32.2 miles by 18.7 miles) and is centered at 22.7 degrees north latitude, 29.3degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 16, 1994, on board the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission

  11. Radar Image, Color as Height , Salalah, Oman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This radar image includes the city of Salalah, the second largest city in Oman. It illustrates how topography determines local climate and, in turn, where people live. This area on the southern coast of the Arabian Peninsula is characterized by a narrow coastal plain (bottom) facing southward into the Arabian Sea, backed by the steep escarpment of the Qara Mountains. The backslope of the Qara Mountains slopes gently into the vast desert of the Empty Quarter (at top). This area is subject to strong monsoonal storms from the Arabian Sea during the summer, when the mountains are enveloped in a sort of perpetual fog. The moisture from the monsoon enables agriculture on the Salalah plain, and also provides moisture for Frankincense trees growing on the desert (north) side of the mountains. In ancient times, incense derived from the sap of the Frankincense tree was the basis for an extremely lucrative trade. Radar and topographic data are used by historians and archaeologists to discover ancient trade routes and other significant ruins.

    This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to brown at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1070 meters (3500 feet) of total relief. White speckles on the face of some of the mountains are holes in the data caused by steep terrain. These will be filled using coverage from an intersecting pass.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter

  12. Space Radar Image of Star City, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image shows the Star City cosmonaut training center, east of Moscow, Russia. Four American astronauts are training here for future long-duration flights aboard the Russian Mir space station. These joint flights are giving NASA and the Russian Space Agency experience necessary for the construction of the international Alpha space station, beginning in late 1997. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR), on its 62nd orbit on October 3, 1994. This Star City image is centered at 55.55 degrees north latitude and 38.0 degrees east longitude. The area shown is approximately 32 kilometers by 49 kilometers (20 miles by 30 miles). North is to the top in this image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The image was produced using three channels of SIR-C radar data: red indicates L-band (23 cm wavelength, horizontally transmitted and received); green indicates L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue indicates C-band (6 cm wavelength, horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In general, dark pink areas are agricultural; pink and light blue areas are urban communities; black areas represent lakes and rivers; dark blue areas are cleared forest; and light green areas are forested. The prominent black runways just right of center are Shchelkovo Airfield, about 4 km long. The textured pale blue-green area east and southeast of Shchelkovo Airfield is forest. Just east of the runways is a thin railroad line running southeast; the Star City compound lies just east of the small bend in the rail line. Star City contains the living quarters and training facilities for Russian cosmonauts and their families. Moscow's inner loop road is visible at the lower left edge of the image. The Kremlin is just off the left edge, on the banks of the meandering Moskva River. The Klyazma River snakes to the southeast from the reservoir in the upper left (shown in bright red

  13. Space radar image of New York City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This radar image of the New York city metropolitan area. The island of Manhattan appears in the center of the image. The green-colored rectangle on Manhattan is Central Park. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/ X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 10, 1994. North is toward the upper right. The area shown is 75.0 kilometers by 48.8 kilometers (46.5 miles by 30.2 miles). The image is centered at 40.7 degrees north latitude and 73.8 degrees west longitude. In general, light blue areas correspond to dense urban development, green areas to moderately vegetated zones and black areas to bodies of water. The Hudson River is the black strip that runs from the left edge to the upper right corner of the image. It separates New Jersey, in the upper left of the image, from New York. The Atlantic Ocean is at the bottom of the image where two barrier islands along the southern shore of Long Island are also visible. John F. Kennedy International Airport is visible above these islands. Long Island Sound, separating Long Island from Connecticut, is the dark area right of the center of the image. Many bridges are visible in the image, including the Verrazano Narrows, George Washington and Brooklyn bridges. The radar illumination is from the left of the image; this causes some urban zones to appear red because the streets are at a perpendicular angle to the radar pulse. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received). Radar images like this one could be used as a tool for city planners and resource managers to map and monitor land use patterns. The radar imaging systems can clearly detect the variety of landscapes in the area, as well as the density of urban

  14. Radar fall detection using principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokanovic, Branka; Amin, Moeness; Ahmad, Fauzia; Boashash, Boualem

    2016-05-01

    Falls are a major cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries in people aged 65 years and older. Radar has the potential to become one of the leading technologies for fall detection, thereby enabling the elderly to live independently. Existing techniques for fall detection using radar are based on manual feature extraction and require significant parameter tuning in order to provide successful detections. In this paper, we employ principal component analysis for fall detection, wherein eigen images of observed motions are employed for classification. Using real data, we demonstrate that the PCA based technique provides performance improvement over the conventional feature extraction methods.

  15. Space Shuttle radar investigations of Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, J. P.; Sabins, F. F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A preliminary interpretation of structure and lithology from selected Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) images of Borneo, collected in October 1984, is presented. The SIR-B images, obtained at depression angles that ranged from 40 to 50 deg, were interpreted by using the approaches suggested by Sabins (1983). On the basis of radar signatures, six terrain categories; coastal and alluvial plains, and carbonate, clastic, volcanic, and melange, rocks, were defined in east, central, and south Kalimantan, and in the Malaysian state of Sarawak.

  16. STS-68 radar image: Kilauea, Hawaii

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-10-10

    STS068-S-054 (10 October 1994) --- This is a deformation map of the south flank of Kilauea volcano on the big island of Hawaii, centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude and 155.25 degrees west longitude. The map was created by combining interferometric radar data - that is data acquired on different passes of the Space Shuttle Endeavour which are then overlaid to obtain elevation information - acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) during its first flight in April 1994 and its second flight in October 1994. The area shown is approximately 40 by 80 kilometers (25 by 50 miles). North is toward the upper left of the image. The colors indicate the displacement of the surface in that direction that the radar instrument was pointed (toward the right of the image) in the six months between images. The analysis of ground movement is preliminary, but appears consistent with the motions detected by the Global Positioning System ground receivers that have been used over the past five years. The south flank of the Kilauea volcano is among the most rapidly deforming terrain's on Earth. Several regions show motion over the six-month time period. Most obvious is at the base of Hilina Pali, where 10 centimeters (4 inches) or more of crustal deformation can be seen in a concentrated area near the coastline. On a more localized scale, the currently active Pu'u O'o summit also shows about 10 centimeters (4 inches) of change near the vent area. Finally, there are indications of additional movement along the upper southwest rift zone, just below the Kilauea caldera in the image. Deformation of the south flank is believed to be the result of movements along faults deep beneath the surface of the volcano, as well as injections of magma, or molten rock, into the volcano's "plumbing" system. Detection of ground motions from space has proven to be a unique capability of imaging radar technology. Scientists hope to use deformation data

  17. Space Radar Image of Maui, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows the 'Valley Island' of Maui, Hawaii. The cloud-penetrating capabilities of radar provide a rare view of many parts of the island, since the higher elevations are frequently shrouded in clouds. The light blue and yellow areas in the lowlands near the center are sugar cane fields. The three major population centers, Lahaina on the left at the western tip of island, Wailuku left of center, and Kihei in the lower center appear as small yellow, white or purple mottled areas. West Maui volcano, in the lower left, is 1800 meters high (5900 feet) and is considered extinct. The entire eastern half of the island consists of East Maui volcano, which rises to an elevation of 3200 meters (10,500 feet) and features a spectacular crater called Haleakala at its summit. Haleakala Crater was produced by erosion during previous ice ages rather than by volcanic activity, although relatively recent small eruptions have produced the numerous volcanic cones and lava flows that can be seen on the floor of the crater. The most recent eruption took place near the coast at the southwestern end of East Maui volcano in the late 1700s. Such a time frame indicates that East Maui should be considered a dormant, rather than an extinct volcano. A new eruption is therefore possible in the next few hundred years. The multi-wavelength capability of the SIR-C radar also permits differences in the vegetation cover on the middle flanks of East Maui to be identified. Rain forests appear in yellow, while grassland is shown in dark green, pink and blue. Radar images such as this one are being used by scientists to understand volcanic processes and to assess potential threats that future activity may pose to local populations. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 16, 1994. The image is 73.7 kilometers by 48.7 kilometers (45.7 miles by 30.2 miles) and is centered at 20

  18. Space Radar Image of North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This is a radar image showing surface features on the open ocean in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. There is no land mass in this image. The purple line in the lower left of the image is the stern wake of a ship. The ship creating the wake is the bright white spot on the middle, left side of the image. The ship's wake is about 28 kilometers (17 miles) long in this image and investigators believe that is because the ship may be discharging oil. The oil makes the wake last longer and causes it to stand out in this radar image. A fairly sharp boundary or front extends from the lower left to the upper right corner of the image and separates two distinct water masses that have different temperatures. The different water temperature affects the wind patterns on the ocean. In this image, the light green area depicts rougher water with more wind, while the purple area is calmer water with less wind. The dark patches are smooth areas of low wind, probably related to clouds along the front, and the bright green patches are likely due to ice crystals in the clouds that scatter the radar waves. The overall "fuzzy" look of this image is caused by long ocean waves, also called swells. Ocean radar imagery allows the fine detail of ocean features and interactions to be seen, such as the wake, swell, ocean front and cloud effects, which can then be used to enhance the understanding of ocean dynamics on smaller and smaller scales. The image is centered at 42.8 degrees north latitude, 26.2 degrees west longitude and shows an area approximately 35 kilometers by 65 kilometers (22 by 40 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is C-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; blue is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR

  19. Space Radar Image of San Francisco, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a radar image of San Francisco, California, taken on October 3,1994. The image is about 40 kilometers by 55 kilometers (25 miles by 34 miles) with north toward the upper right. Downtown San Francisco is visible in the center of the image with the city of Oakland east (to the right) across San Francisco Bay. Also visible in the image is the Golden Gate Bridge (left center) and the Bay Bridge connecting San Francisco and Oakland. North of the Bay Bridge is Treasure Island. Alcatraz Island appears as a small dot northwest of Treasure Island. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 56. The image is centered at 37 degrees north latitude, 122degrees west longitude. This single-frequency SIR-C image was obtained by the L-band (24 cm) radar channel, horizontally transmitted and received. Portions of the Pacific Ocean visible in this image appear very dark as do other smooth surfaces such as airport runways. Suburban areas, with the low-density housing and tree-lined streets that are typical of San Francisco, appear as lighter gray. Areas with high-rise buildings, such as those seen in the downtown areas, appear in very bright white, showing a higher density of housing and streets which run parallel to the radar flight track. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: the L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes

  20. Study to investigate and evaluate means of optimizing the radar function for the space shuttle. [(pulse radar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Results are discussed of a study to define a radar and antenna system which best suits the space shuttle rendezvous requirements. Topics considered include antenna characteristics and antenna size tradeoffs, fundamental sources of measurement errors inherent in the target itself, backscattering crosssection models of the target and three basic candidate radar types. Antennas up to 1.5 meters in diameter are within specified installation constraints, however, a 1 meter diameter paraboloid and a folding, four slot backfeed on a two gimbal mount implemented for a spiral acquisition scan is recommended. The candidate radar types discussed are: (1) noncoherent pulse radar (2) coherent pulse radar and (3) pulse Doppler radar with linear FM ranging. The radar type recommended is a pulse Doppler with linear FM ranging. Block diagrams of each radar system are shown.

  1. Terahertz (THz) Radar: A Solution for Degraded Visibility Environments (DVE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT RDMR-WD-16-49 TERAHERTZ (THZ) RADAR: A SOLUTION FOR DEGRADED VISIBILITY ENVIRONMENTS (DVE) Henry O...Terahertz (THz) Radar: A Solution For Degraded Visibility Environments (DVE) 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Henry O. Everitt...to compensate for environmental conditions, allowing for actionable images in Degraded Visibility Environments (DVE). 14. SUBJECT TERMS Radar

  2. 33 CFR 118.120 - Radar reflectors and racons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Radar reflectors and racons. 118... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.120 Radar reflectors and racons. The District Commander may require or authorize the installation of radar reflectors and racons on bridge structures, stakes...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.85 - Vessel radar and communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vessel radar and communication systems. 1915.85 Section... Working Conditions § 1915.85 Vessel radar and communication systems. (a) The employer shall service each vessel's radar and communication systems in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.89, Control of Hazardous Energy...

  4. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull vessel...

  5. 33 CFR 118.120 - Radar reflectors and racons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Radar reflectors and racons. 118... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.120 Radar reflectors and racons. The District Commander may require or authorize the installation of radar reflectors and racons on bridge structures, stakes...

  6. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull vessel...

  7. 29 CFR 1915.85 - Vessel radar and communication systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vessel radar and communication systems. 1915.85 Section... Working Conditions § 1915.85 Vessel radar and communication systems. (a) The employer shall service each vessel's radar and communication systems in accordance with 29 CFR 1915.89, Control of Hazardous Energy...

  8. 33 CFR 118.120 - Radar reflectors and racons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Radar reflectors and racons. 118... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.120 Radar reflectors and racons. The District Commander may require or authorize the installation of radar reflectors and racons on bridge structures, stakes...

  9. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull vessel...

  10. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane. (b...

  11. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane. (b...

  12. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather radar...

  13. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather radar...

  14. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather radar...

  15. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane. (b...

  16. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane. (b...

  17. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather radar...

  18. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather radar...

  19. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane. (b...

  20. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull vessel...