Science.gov

Sample records for radar velocity imaging

  1. Nonsearching Doppler parameter and velocity estimation method for synthetic aperture radar ground moving target imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongyu; Wu, Junjie; Huang, Yunlin; Yang, Haiguang; Yang, Jianyu

    2016-07-01

    For synthetic aperture radar (SAR), ground moving target (GMT) imaging necessitates the compensation of the additional azimuth modulation contributed by the unknown movement of the GMT. That is to say, it is necessary to estimate the Doppler parameters of the GMT without a priori knowledge of the GMT's motion parameters. This paper presents a Doppler parameter and velocity estimation method to refocus the GMT from its smeared response in SAR image. The main idea of this method is that an azimuth reference function is constructed to do the correlation integral with the azimuth signal of the GMT. And in general, the Doppler parameters of the presumed azimuth reference function are different from those of the GMT's azimuth signal since the velocity parameters of the GMT are unknown. Therefore, the correlation operation referred to here is actually mismatched, and the processing result of is shifted and defocused. The shifted and defocused result is utilized to get the real Doppler parameters and the velocity parameters of the GMT. One advantage of this method is that it is a nonsearching method. Another advantage is that both the Doppler centroid and the Doppler frequency rate of the GMT can be simultaneously estimated according to the relationships between the Doppler parameters and the smeared response of the GMT. In addition, the velocity of the GMT can also be obtained based on the estimated Doppler parameters. Numerical simulations and experimental data processing verify the validity of the method proposed.

  2. Tangential Velocity Measurement Using Interferometric MTI Radar

    SciTech Connect

    DOERRY, ARMIN W.; MILESHOSKY, BRIAN P.; BICKEL, DOUGLAS L.

    2002-11-01

    An Interferometric Moving Target Indicator radar can be used to measure the tangential velocity component of a moving target. Multiple baselines, along with the conventional radial velocity measurement, allow estimating the true 3-D velocity vector of a target.

  3. Tangential velocity measurement using interferometric MTI radar

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin W.; Mileshosky, Brian P.; Bickel, Douglas L.

    2006-01-03

    Radar systems use time delay measurements between a transmitted signal and its echo to calculate range to a target. Ranges that change with time cause a Doppler offset in phase and frequency of the echo. Consequently, the closing velocity between target and radar can be measured by measuring the Doppler offset of the echo. The closing velocity is also known as radial velocity, or line-of-sight velocity. Doppler frequency is measured in a pulse-Doppler radar as a linear phase shift over a set of radar pulses during some Coherent Processing Interval (CPI). An Interferometric Moving Target Indicator (MTI) radar can be used to measure the tangential velocity component of a moving target. Multiple baselines, along with the conventional radial velocity measurement, allow estimating the true 3-D velocity of a target.

  4. Tracking moving radar targets with parallel, velocity-tuned filters

    DOEpatents

    Bickel, Douglas L.; Harmony, David W.; Bielek, Timothy P.; Hollowell, Jeff A.; Murray, Margaret S.; Martinez, Ana

    2013-04-30

    Radar data associated with radar illumination of a movable target is processed to monitor motion of the target. A plurality of filter operations are performed in parallel on the radar data so that each filter operation produces target image information. The filter operations are defined to have respectively corresponding velocity ranges that differ from one another. The target image information produced by one of the filter operations represents the target more accurately than the target image information produced by the remainder of the filter operations when a current velocity of the target is within the velocity range associated with the one filter operation. In response to the current velocity of the target being within the velocity range associated with the one filter operation, motion of the target is tracked based on the target image information produced by the one filter operation.

  5. Material Property Estimation for Direct Detection of DNAPL using Integrated Ground-Penetrating Radar Velocity, Imaging and Attribute Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bradford, John; Smithson, Scott B.; Holbrook, Stephen

    2001-06-01

    The focus of our work is direct detection of DNAPLs, specifically chlorinated solvents, via material property estimation from surface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. We combine sophisticated GPR processing methodology with quantitative attribute analysis and material property estimation to determine the location and extent of residual and/or pooled DNAPL in both the vadose and saturated zones. An important byproduct of our research is state-of-the-art imaging which allows us to pinpoint attribute anomalies, characterize stratigraphy, identify fracture zones, and locate buried objects. Implementation and verification of these methodologies will be a significant advance in GPR research and in meeting DOE's need for reliable in-situ characterization of DNAPL contamination. Chlorinated solvents have much lower electric permittivity and conductivity than water. An electrical property contrast is induced when solvents displace water in the sediment column resulting in an anomalous GPR signature. To directly identify zones of DNAPL contamination, we focus on three aspects of reflected wave behavior--propagation velocity, frequency dependent attenuation, and amplitude variation with offset (AVO). Velocity analysis provides a direct estimate of electric permittivity, attenuation analysis provides a measure of conductivity, and AVO behavior is used to estimate the permittivity ratio at a reflecting boundary. Areas of anomalously low electric permittivity and conductivity are identified as potential DNAPL rich zones. Preliminary work illustrated significant potential for quantitative direct detection methodologies in identifying shallow DNAPL source zones. It is now necessary to verify these methodologies in a field setting. To this end, the project is field oriented and has three primary objectives: (1) Develop a suite of methodologies for direct detection of DNAPLs from surface GPR data (2) Controlled field verification at well characterized, contaminated sites (3

  6. Material Property Estimation for Direct Detections of DNAPL using Integrated Ground-Penetrating Radar Velocity, Imaging and Attribute Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bradford, John; Smithson, Scott B.; Holbrook, W. Stephen

    2004-06-14

    The focus of our work is direct detection of DNAPLs, specifically chlorinated solvents, via material property estimation from surface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. We combine sophisticated GPR processing methodology with quantitative attribute analysis and material property estimation to determine the location and extent of residual and/or pooled DNAPL in both the vadose and saturated zones. An important byproduct of our research is state-of-the-art imaging which allows us to pinpoint attribute anomalies, characterize stratigraphy, identify fracture zones, and locate buried objects. Implementation and verification of these methodologies will be a significant advance in GPR research and in meeting DOE's need for reliable in-situ characterization of DNAPL contamination. Chlorinated solvents have much lower electric permittivity and conductivity than water. An electrical property contrast is induced when solvents displace water in the sediment column resulting in an anomalous GPR signature. To directly identify zones of DNAPL contamination, we focus on three aspects of reflected wave behavior--propagation velocity, frequency dependent attenuation, and amplitude variation with offset (AVO). Velocity analysis provides a direct estimate of electric permittivity, attenuation analysis provides a measure of conductivity, and AVO behavior is used to estimate the permittivity ratio at a reflecting boundary. Areas of anomalously low electric permittivity and conductivity are identified as potential DNAPL rich zones. Preliminary work illustrated significant potential for quantitative direct detection methodologies in identifying shallow DNAPL source zones. It is now necessary to verify these methodologies in a field setting. To this end, the project is field oriented and has three primary objectives: (1) Develop a suite of methodologies for direct detection of DNAPLs from surface GPR data (2) Controlled field verification at well characterized, contaminated sites (3

  7. Material Property Estimation for Direct Detection of DNAPL using Integrated Ground-Penetrating Radar Velocity, Imaging and Attribute Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bradford, John; Smithson, Scott B.; Holbrook, W. Stephen

    2003-06-01

    The focus of our work is direct detection of DNAPLs, specifically chlorinated solvents, via material property estimation from surface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. We combine sophisticated GPR processing methodology with quantitative attribute analysis and material property estimation to determine the location and extent of residual and/or pooled DNAPL in both the vadose and saturated zones. An important byproduct of our research is state-of-the-art imaging which allows us to pinpoint attribute anomalies, characterize stratigraphy, identify fracture zones, and locate buried objects. Implementation and verification of these methodologies will be a significant advance in GPR research and in meeting DOE's need for reliable in-situ characterization of DNAPL contamination. Chlorinated solvents have much lower electric permittivity and conductivity than water. An electrical property contrast is induced when solvents displace water in the sediment column resulting in an anomalous GPR signature. To directly identify zones of DNAPL contamination, we focus on three aspects of reflected wave behavior--propagation velocity, frequency dependent attenuation, and amplitude variation with offset (AVO). Velocity analysis provides a direct estimate of electric permittivity, attenuation analysis provides a measure of conductivity, and AVO behavior is used to estimate the permittivity ratio at a reflecting boundary. Areas of anomalously low electric permittivity and conductivity are identified as potential DNAPL rich zones. Preliminary work illustrated significant potential for quantitative direct detection methodologies in identifying shallow DNAPL source zones. It is now necessary to verify these methodologies in a field setting. To this end, the project is field oriented and has three primary objectives: (1) Develop a suite of methodologies for direct detection of DNAPLs from surface GPR data (2) Controlled field verification at well characterized, contaminated sites (3

  8. Micropower impulse radar imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, M.S.

    1995-11-01

    From designs developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in radar and imaging technologies, there exists the potential for a variety of applications in both public and private sectors. Presently tests are being conducted for the detection of buried mines and the analysis of civil structures. These new systems use a patented ultra-wide band (impulse) radar technology known as Micropower Impulse Radar (GPR) imaging systems. LLNL has also developed signal processing software capable of producing 2-D and 3-D images of objects embedded in materials such as soil, wood and concrete. My assignment while at LLNL has focused on the testing of different radar configurations and applications, as well as assisting in the creation of computer algorithms which enable the radar to scan target areas of different geometeries.

  9. Estimating Radar Velocity using Direction of Arrival Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter; Horndt, Volker; Bickel, Douglas Lloyd; Naething, Richard M.

    2014-09-01

    Direction of Arrival (DOA) measurements, as with a monopulse antenna, can be compared against Doppler measurements in a Synthetic Aperture Radar ( SAR ) image to determine an aircraft's forward velocity as well as its crab angle, to assist the aircraft's navigation as well as improving high - performance SAR image formation and spatial calibration.

  10. Material Property Estimation for Direct Detection of DNAPL using Integrated Ground-Penetrating Radar Velocity, Imaging and Attribute Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bradford, John H.; Holbrook, W. Stephen; Smithson, Scott B.

    2004-12-31

    The focus of this project is direct detection of DNAPLs, specifically chlorinated solvents, via material property estimation from multi-fold surface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. We combine state-of-the-art GPR processing methodology with quantitative attribute analysis and material property estimation to determine the location and extent of residual and/or pooled DNAPL in both the vadose and saturated zones. An important byproduct of our research is state-of-the-art imaging which allows us to pinpoint attribute anomalies, characterize stratigraphy, identify fracture zones, and locate buried objects.

  11. Material Property Estimation for Direct Detection of DNAPL using Integrated Ground-Penetrating Radar Velocity, Imaging and Attribute Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Bradford; Stephen Holbrook; Scott B. Smithson

    2004-12-09

    The focus of this project is direct detection of DNAPL's specifically chlorinated solvents, via material property estimation from multi-fold surface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. We combine state-of-the-art GPR processing methodology with quantitative attribute analysis and material property estimation to determine the location and extent of residual and/or pooled DNAPL in both the vadose and saturated zones. An important byproduct of our research is state-of-the-art imaging which allows us to pinpoint attribute anomalies, characterize stratigraphy, identify fracture zones, and locate buried objects.

  12. Multispectral imaging radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porcello, L. J.; Rendleman, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A side-looking radar, installed in a C-46 aircraft, was modified to provide it with an initial multispectral imaging capability. The radar is capable of radiating at either of two wavelengths, these being approximately 3 cm and 30 cm, with either horizontal or vertical polarization on each wavelength. Both the horizontally- and vertically-polarized components of the reflected signal can be observed for each wavelength/polarization transmitter configuration. At present, two-wavelength observation of a terrain region can be accomplished within the same day, but not with truly simultaneous observation on both wavelengths. A multiplex circuit to permit this simultaneous observation has been designed. A brief description of the modified radar system and its operating parameters is presented. Emphasis is then placed on initial flight test data and preliminary interpretation. Some considerations pertinent to the calibration of such radars are presented in passing.

  13. Spaceborne Imaging Radar Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the present state of the art in the different scientific and technological fields related to spaceborne imaging radars was presented. The data acquired with the SEASAT SAR (1978) and Shuttle Imaging Radar, SIR-A (1981) clearly demonstrated the important emphasis in the 80's is going to be on in-depth research investigations conducted with the more flexible and sophisticated SIR series instruments and on long term monitoring of geophysical phenomena conducted from free-flying platforms such as ERS-1 and RADARSAT.

  14. Shuttle imaging radar experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elachi, C.; Brown, W.E.; Cimino, J.B.; Dixon, T.; Evans, D.L.; Ford, J.P.; Saunders, R.S.; Breed, C.; Masursky, H.; McCauley, J.F.; Schaber, G.; Dellwig, L.; England, A.; MacDonald, H.; Martin-Kaye, P.; Sabins, F.

    1982-01-01

    The shuttle imaging radar (SIR-A) acquired images of a variety of the earth's geologic areas covering about 10 million square kilometers. Structural and geomorphic features such as faults, folds, outcrops, and dunes are clearly visible in both tropical and arid regions. The combination of SIR-A and Seasat images provides additional information about the surface physical properties: topography and roughness. Ocean features were also observed, including large internal waves in the Andaman Sea. Copyright ?? 1982 AAAS.

  15. Spaceborne Radar Measurements of Rainfall Vertical Velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, Eastwood; Tanelli, Simone; Giuli, Dino; Durden, Stephen L.; Facheris, Luca

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies the performance of a spaceborne precipitation radar in measuring vertical Doppler velocity of rainfall. As far as a downward pointing precipitation radar is concerned, one of the major problems affecting Doppler measurement at the nadir direction arises from the Non-Uniform Beam-Filling effect (NUBF). That is, when significant variation in rain rate is present within the radar IFOV (Instrument Field of View) in the along track direction. the Doppler shift caused by the radial component of the horizontal speed of the satellite is weighted differently among the portions of IFOV. The effects of this non-uniform weighting may dominate any other contribution. Under this condition, shape, average value and width of the Doppler spectrum may not be directly correlated with the vertical velocity of the precipitating particles. However, by using an inversion technique which over-samples the radar measurements in the along track direction, we show that the shift due to NUBF can be evaluated, and that the NUBF induced errors on average fall speed can be reduced.

  16. Radar Image of Galapagos Island

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-10-23

    This is an image showing part of Isla Isabella in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar on the 40th orbit of NASA’s space shuttle Endeavour.

  17. Radar Image, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The southeast part of the island of Hokkaido, Japan, is an area dominated by volcanoes and volcanic caldera. The active Usu Volcano is at the lower right edge of the circular Lake Toya-Ko and near the center of the image. The prominent cone above and to the left of the lake is Yotei Volcano with its summit crater. The city of Sapporo lies at the base of the mountains at the top of the image and the town of Yoichi -- the hometown of SRTM astronaut Mamoru Mohri -- is at the upper left edge. The bay of Uchiura-Wan takes up the lower center of the image. In this image, color represents elevation, from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest. The radar image has been overlaid to provide more details of the terrain. Due to a processing problem, an island in the center of this crater lake is missing and will be properly placed when further SRTM swaths are processed. The horizontal banding in this image is a processing artifact that will be removed when the navigation information collected by SRTM is fully calibrated. This image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 100 by 150 kilometers

  18. The Radar Image Generation (RIG) model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Anthony J.

    1993-01-01

    RIG is a modeling system which creates synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and inverse SAR images from 3-D faceted data bases. RIG is based on a physical optics model and includes the effects of multiple reflections. Both conducting and dielectric surfaces can be modeled; each surface is labeled with a material code which is an index into a data base of electromagnetic properties. The inputs to the program include the radar processing parameters, the target orientation, the sensor velocity, and (for inverse SAR) the target angle rates. The current version of RIG can be run on any workstation, however, it is not a real-time model. We are considering several approaches to enable the program to generate realtime radar imagery. In addition to its image generation function, RIG can also generate radar cross-section (RCS) plots as well as range and doppler radar return profiles.

  19. Spaceborne Imaging Radar Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Neil

    1986-01-01

    In June of 1985 the Project Initiation Agreement was signed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications for the Spaceborne Imaging Radar Project (SIR). The thrust of the Spaceborne Imaging Radar Project is to continue the evolution of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) science and technology developed during SEASAT, SIR-A and SIR-B missions to meet the needs of the Earth Observing System (EOS) in the mid 1990's. As originally formulated, the Project plans were for a reflight of the SIR-B in 1987, the development of a new SAR, SIR-C, for missions in mid 1989 and early 1990, and the upgrade of SIR-C to EOS configuration with a qualification flight aboard the shuttle in the 1993 time frame (SIR-D). However, the loss of the shuttle Challenger has delayed the first manifest for SIR to early 1990. This delay prompted the decision to drop SIR-B reflight plans and move ahead with SIR-C to more effectively utilize this first mission opportunity. The planning for this project is discussed.

  20. Imaging synthetic aperture radar

    DOEpatents

    Burns, Bryan L.; Cordaro, J. Thomas

    1997-01-01

    A linear-FM SAR imaging radar method and apparatus to produce a real-time image by first arranging the returned signals into a plurality of subaperture arrays, the columns of each subaperture array having samples of dechirped baseband pulses, and further including a processing of each subaperture array to obtain coarse-resolution in azimuth, then fine-resolution in range, and lastly, to combine the processed subapertures to obtain the final fine-resolution in azimuth. Greater efficiency is achieved because both the transmitted signal and a local oscillator signal mixed with the returned signal can be varied on a pulse-to-pulse basis as a function of radar motion. Moreover, a novel circuit can adjust the sampling location and the A/D sample rate of the combined dechirped baseband signal which greatly reduces processing time and hardware. The processing steps include implementing a window function, stabilizing either a central reference point and/or all other points of a subaperture with respect to doppler frequency and/or range as a function of radar motion, sorting and compressing the signals using a standard fourier transforms. The stabilization of each processing part is accomplished with vector multiplication using waveforms generated as a function of radar motion wherein these waveforms may be synthesized in integrated circuits. Stabilization of range migration as a function of doppler frequency by simple vector multiplication is a particularly useful feature of the invention; as is stabilization of azimuth migration by correcting for spatially varying phase errors prior to the application of an autofocus process.

  1. Space Radar Image of Weddell Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    Two radar images are shown in this composite to compare the size of a standard spaceborne radar image small inset to the image that is created when the radar instrument is used in the ScanSAR mode large image.

  2. Radar Imaging and Feature Extraction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    aperture radar (ISAR) autofocus and imaging, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) autofocus and motion compensation, superresolution SAR image formation... superresolution image formation, and two parametric methods, MCRELAX (Motion Compensation RELAX) and MCCLEAN (Motion Compensation CLEAN), for simultaneous target...Direction Estimation) together with WRELAX) algorithm is proposed for the superresolution time delay estimation.

  3. A radar image time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leberl, F.; Fuchs, H.; Ford, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    A set of ten side-looking radar images of a mining area in Arizona that were aquired over a period of 14 yr are studied to demonstrate the photogrammetric differential-rectification technique applied to radar images and to examine changes that occurred in the area over time. Five of the images are rectified by using ground control points and a digital height model taken from a map. Residual coordinate errors in ground control are reduced from several hundred meters in all cases to + or - 19 to 70 m. The contents of the radar images are compared with a Landsat image and with aerial photographs. Effects of radar system parameters on radar images are briefly reviewed.

  4. High-Resolution Radar Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-14

    vThe goal of this project is to formulate and investigate new approaches for forming images of radar targets from spotlight-mode, delay-doppler...the new methods we are studying. There are two modules in the program. The first module produces simulated radar back-scatter data. The simulation...gives the model and fundamental estimation equations for the method we are developing. The abstract is: "A new approach to high resolution radar

  5. Landform Identification on Radar Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, H. J.; Thompson, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    Polarized radar echo images of the Moon acquired using 3.8 and 70 cm wavelengths were examined to learn more about (1) the relationships between theoretical resolutions of the radars and the sizes of landforms that can be identified and (2) the factors that effect landform identification.

  6. Shuttle Imaging Radar - Geologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H.; Bridges, L.; Waite, W.; Kaupp, V.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Shuttle, on its second flight (November 12, 1981), carried the first science and applications payload which provided an early demonstration of Shuttle's research capabilities. One of the experiments, the Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A), had as a prime objective to evaluate the capability of spaceborne imaging radars as a tool for geologic exploration. The results of the experiment will help determine the value of using the combination of space radar and Landsat imagery for improved geologic analysis and mapping. Preliminary analysis of the Shuttle radar imagery with Seasat and Landsat imagery from similar areas provides evidence that spaceborne radars can significantly complement Landsat interpretation, and vastly improve geologic reconnaissance mapping in those areas of the world that are relatively unmapped because of perpetual cloud cover.

  7. Radar Imaging with a Network of Digital Noise Radar Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    III. Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 3.1 Radar Range Equation and Radar Cross Section . . . . . 29 3.2 UWB...noise radar system. This particular ap- plication tracked a corner reflector that moved from a range of 40 ft to 185 ft from the radar while using an...target scenario and the resulting SAR image. In this test, a radar was placed outside a room with a trihedral reflector placed on the other side of the

  8. Flyby Comet Imaged By Radar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-24

    Radar data of comet P/2016 BA14 taken over three days (March 21-23, 2016), when the comet was between 2.5 million miles and 2.2 million miles (4.1 million kilometers and 3.6 million kilometers) from Earth. Radar images from the flyby indicated that the comet is about 3,000 feet (1 kilometer) in diameter.

  9. Radar Imaging and Target Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-09

    Methods in Wave Propagation, Vaxjo, Swe- den. • February 19, 2008, "Radar Imaging", math colloquium, Brigham- Young University. • January 31, 2008...manuscript, namely "Radar detection using sparsely distributed 19 apertures in urban environments", Ling Wang, II- Young Son, Trond Varslot, C. Evren...Coinmun. COM- 20, pp. 774-780, 1972. [24] M. Tomlinson, "New automatic equalizer employing modulo arithmetic," Electron. Lett. 7, pp. 138-139, 1971

  10. Space Radar Image of Safsaf Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This three-frequency space radar image of south-central Egypt demonstrates the unique capability of imaging radar to penetrate thin sand cover in arid regions to reveal hidden details below the surface.

  11. Space Radar Image of Dublin, Ireland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This radar image of Dublin, Ireland, shows how the radar distinguishes between densely populated urban areas and nearby areas that are relatively unsettled. In the center of the image is the city natural harbor along the Irish Sea.

  12. High Resolution Radar Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-31

    9--A. *P P~- !I HGH RESOLUTION RADAIR IMAGhNG 1 4’Periio& 1December 1987-31 May 198-8 -’:14 HIGH RESOLUIMON RADAR IMALGLN-G Semi-Annual. Progress...Director, Electronic SysteMs and Signals Rlesearch 1 .bor~arry - ~Washington -univerit One Brookmngs flrive ~ACSOIF 1 -~ Stlcuis, fsor 631301 ,4...Chicago, Illinois 60605-1598 Dr. Rabinder Madan 1 Office of Naval Research Codle 1114SE 800 -Norath Quincy Street Ariin2toi, Virginia 222!-5Mo DirectorI IR

  13. Radar Image of Galapagos Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image showing part of Isla Isabella in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar on the 40th orbit of the space shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about 0.5 degree south latitude and 91 degrees west longitude and covers an area of 75 by 60 kilometers (47 by 37 miles). The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees.

    The western Galapagos Islands, which lie about 1,200 kilometers (750 miles) west of Ecuador in the eastern Pacific, have six active volcanoes similar to the volcanoes found in Hawaii. Since the time of Charles Darwin's visit to the area in 1835, there have been over 60 recorded eruptions of these volcanoes. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. A small portion of Isla Fernandina is visible in the extreme upper left corner of the image.

    The Galapagos Islands are one of the SIR-C/X-SAR supersites and data of this area will be taken several times during the flight to allow scientists to conduct topographic change studies and to search for different lava flow types, ash deposits and fault lines.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes

  14. Radar backscatter from the ocean - Dependence on surface friction velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. L.; Schroeder, L. C.

    1978-01-01

    From the mid 1960s to the present, the normalized radar cross-section (NRCS) of the ocean has been measured using airborne radars operating over a frequency range of 0.4 to 14 GHz. Analyses of these data have shown that the NRCS was proportional to the ocean surface wind speed raised to some power, but the values of the exponent remained in dispute. This paper extends previous work and uses these NRCS measurements to demonstrate that to the first order, the NRCS is a function of only the friction velocity at the ocean's surface. Further analyses characterize the dependence of the NRCS on radar variables such as frequency, incidence angle, polarization, etc. Finally, recommendations are made for using Ku-band radars at large incidence angles for remote sensing of the wind friction velocity vector.

  15. Space Radar Image of Maui, Hawaii

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This spaceborne radar image shows the Valley Island of Maui, Hawaii. The cloud-penetrating capabilities of radar provide a rare view of many parts of the island, since the higher elevations are frequently shrouded in clouds.

  16. Space Radar Image of Randonia Rain Cell

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This multi-frequency space radar image of a tropical rainforest in western Brazil shows rapidly changing land use patterns and it also demonstrates the capability of the different radar frequencies to detect and penetrate heavy rainstorms.

  17. Reducing Spaceborne-Doppler-Radar Rainfall-Velocity Error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanelli, Simone; Im, Eastwood; Durden, Stephen L.

    2008-01-01

    A combined frequency-time (CFT) spectral moment estimation technique has been devised for calculating rainfall velocity from measurement data acquired by a nadir-looking spaceborne Doppler weather radar system. Prior spectral moment estimation techniques used for this purpose are based partly on the assumption that the radar resolution volume is uniformly filled with rainfall. The assumption is unrealistic in general but introduces negligible error in application to airborne radar systems. However, for spaceborne systems, the combination of this assumption and inhomogeneities in rainfall [denoted non-uniform beam filling (NUBF)] can result in velocity measurement errors of several meters per second. The present CFT spectral moment estimation technique includes coherent processing of a series of Doppler spectra generated in a standard manner from data over measurement volumes that are partially overlapping in the along-track direction. Performance simulation of this technique using high-resolution data from an airborne rain-mapping radar shows that a spaceborne Ku-band Doppler radar operating at signal-to-noise ratios greater than 10 dB can achieve root-mean-square accuracy between 0.5 and 0.6 m/s in vertical-velocity estimates.

  18. Intercomparison of radar meteor velocity corrections using different ionization coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, E. R.; Wu, Y.-J.; Chau, J.; Hsu, R.-R.

    2017-06-01

    Sensitive long-wavelength radar observations of absolute velocity never previously published from Jicamarca are brought to bear on the long-standing problem of radar detection of slow-moving meteors. Attention is devoted to evaluating the ionization coefficient β(V) in the critically important velocity range of 11-20 km/s in recent laboratory measurements of Thomas et al. (2016). Theoretical predictions for β(V) based on the laboratory data, on Jones (1997), on Janches et al. (2014), and on Verniani and Hawkins (1964) are used to correct the incoming meteor velocities measured with the sensitive Jicamarca high-power, large-aperture radar operating at 6 m wavelength. All corrected distributions are consistent with the predictions of the Nesvorný model in showing pronounced monotonic increases down to the escape velocity (11 km/s). Such distributions may be essential to explaining the pronounced ledge in nighttime electron density and the rapid disappearance of electrons in meteor trails in the altitude range of 80-85 km.Plain Language SummaryIncoming meteors from space cannot be detected with <span class="hlt">radars</span> unless the medium around the meteor is strongly ionized. In this study, the distribution of meteor <span class="hlt">velocities</span> that are detected by the sensitive Jicamarca <span class="hlt">radar</span> is corrected following theoretical models for the ionization coefficient, a measure of what fraction of the ablated meteor atoms are ionized. The results show that when the distribution of <span class="hlt">velocities</span> is corrected, one is left with a large population of meteors that are entering the Earth's atmosphere close to the escape speed for the solar system which is 11 km/s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA02751.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA02751.html"><span><span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span>, Hokkaido, Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-05-18</p> <p>The southeast part of the island of Hokkaido, Japan, is an area dominated by volcanoes and volcanic caldera. The active Usu Volcano is at the lower right edge of the circular Lake Toya-Ko and near the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/907977','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/907977"><span>Obstacle penetrating dynamic <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Romero, Carlos E.; Zumstein, James E.; Chang, John T.; Leach, Jr.. Richard R.</p> <p>2006-12-12</p> <p>An obstacle penetrating dynamic <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> system for the detection, tracking, and <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of an individual, animal, or object comprising a multiplicity of low power ultra wideband <span class="hlt">radar</span> units that produce a set of return <span class="hlt">radar</span> signals from the individual, animal, or object, and a processing system for said set of return <span class="hlt">radar</span> signals for detection, tracking, and <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of the individual, animal, or object. The system provides a <span class="hlt">radar</span> video system for detecting and tracking an individual, animal, or object by producing a set of return <span class="hlt">radar</span> signals from the individual, animal, or object with a multiplicity of low power ultra wideband <span class="hlt">radar</span> units, and processing said set of return <span class="hlt">radar</span> signals for detecting and tracking of the individual, animal, or object.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20170927_Archive_e002080.jpg.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20170927_Archive_e002080.jpg.html"><span><span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Dublin, Ireland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-09-27</p> <p>Visualization Date 1994-04-11 This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of Dublin, Ireland, shows how the <span class="hlt">radar</span> distingishes between densely populated urban areas and nearby areas that are relatively unsettled. In the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the city's natural harbor along the Irish Sea. The pinkish areas in the center are the densely populated parts of the city and the blue/green areas are the suburbs. The two ends of the Dublin Bay are Howth Point, the circular peninsula near the upper right side of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, and Dun Laoghaire, the point to the south. The small island just north of Howth is called "Ireland's Eye," and the larger island, near the upper right corner of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is Lambay Island. The yellow/green mountains in the lower left of the <span class="hlt">image</span> (south) are the Wicklow Mountains. The large lake in the lower left, nestled within these mountains, is the Poulaphouca Reservoir along River Liffey. The River Liffey, the River Dodder and the Tolka River are the three rivers that flow into Dublin. The straight features west of the city are the Grand Canal and the three rivers are the faint lines above and below these structures. The dark X-shaped feature just to the north of the city is the Dublin International Airport. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 11, 1994. This area is centered at 53.3 degrees north latitude, 6.2 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 55 kilometers by 42 kilometers (34 miles by 26 miles). The colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: Red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. Credit: NASA/GSFC For more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870001031','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870001031"><span>Doppler effects on <span class="hlt">velocity</span> spectra observed by MST <span class="hlt">radars</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Scheffler, A. O.; Liu, C. H.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Recently, wind data from mesophere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) <span class="hlt">radars</span> have been used to study the spectra of gravity waves in the atmosphere (Scheffler and Liu, 1985; VanZandt et al., 1985). Since MST <span class="hlt">radar</span> measures the line-of-sight Doppler <span class="hlt">velocities</span>, it senses the components of the wave-associated <span class="hlt">velocities</span> along its beam directions. These components are related through the polarization relations which depend on the frequency and wave number of the wave. Therfore, the <span class="hlt">radar</span>-observed <span class="hlt">velocity</span> spectrum will be different from the original gravity-wave spectrum. Their relationship depends on the frequency and wave number of the wave as well as the propagation geometry. This relation can be used to interpret the observed data. It can also be used to test the assumption of gravity-wave spectrum (Scheffler and Liu, 1985). In deriving this relation, the background atmosphere has been assumed to be motionless. Obviously, the Doppler shift due to the background wind will change the shape of the gravity-wave power spectrum as well as its relation with the <span class="hlt">radar</span>-observed spectrum. Here, researcher's investigate these changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992STIN...9310394S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992STIN...9310394S"><span>Open Skies Treaty <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> technology issues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sandoval, M. B.</p> <p>1992-06-01</p> <p>This paper discusses the <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> technology requirements for the Open Skies regime, including the unresolved issues to be discussed at future Open Skies Consultative Commission (OSCC) meetings. Compliance with international rules on shared technology is addressed and some of the practical considerations for operational deployment of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> equipment in an Open Skies aircraft are presented. The Open Skies Treaty requirements and validation methodologies for <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radars</span> that were agreed on and those that will require future OSCC review are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730032638&hterms=ghosts&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dghosts','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730032638&hterms=ghosts&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dghosts"><span>A <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of Venus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goldstein, R. M.; Rumsey, H. C.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Radar</span> scans of Venus have yielded a brightness map of a large portion of the surface. The bright area in the south (alpha) and the twin such areas in the north (beta and delta) were first discovered by spectral analysis of <span class="hlt">radar</span> echos. When range-gating is also applied, their shapes are revealed, and they are seen to be roundish and about 1000 km across. Although <span class="hlt">radar</span> brightness can be the result of either intrinsic reflectivity or surface roughness, polarization studies show these features to be rough (to the scale of the wavelength, 12.5 cm). Dark, circular areas can also be seen, many with bright central spots. The dark areas are probably smooth. The blurring of the equatorial strip is an artifact of the range-Doppler geometry; all resolution disappears at the equator. Another artifact of the method is the 'ghost', in the south, of the <span class="hlt">images</span> of beta and delta. Such ghosts appear only at the eastern and western extremes of the map.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730032638&hterms=Ghost&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DGhost','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730032638&hterms=Ghost&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DGhost"><span>A <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of Venus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goldstein, R. M.; Rumsey, H. C.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Radar</span> scans of Venus have yielded a brightness map of a large portion of the surface. The bright area in the south (alpha) and the twin such areas in the north (beta and delta) were first discovered by spectral analysis of <span class="hlt">radar</span> echos. When range-gating is also applied, their shapes are revealed, and they are seen to be roundish and about 1000 km across. Although <span class="hlt">radar</span> brightness can be the result of either intrinsic reflectivity or surface roughness, polarization studies show these features to be rough (to the scale of the wavelength, 12.5 cm). Dark, circular areas can also be seen, many with bright central spots. The dark areas are probably smooth. The blurring of the equatorial strip is an artifact of the range-Doppler geometry; all resolution disappears at the equator. Another artifact of the method is the 'ghost', in the south, of the <span class="hlt">images</span> of beta and delta. Such ghosts appear only at the eastern and western extremes of the map.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060041321&hterms=glacier+velocity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dglacier%2Bvelocity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060041321&hterms=glacier+velocity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dglacier%2Bvelocity"><span>Flow of Moreno Glaciar, Argentina, from Repeat-Pass Shuttle <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Images</span>: Comparison of the Phase Correlation Method with <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Interferometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Michel, R.; Rignot, E.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>High-resolution <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> of Moreno Glaciar, Argentina, acquired by the Shuttle <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> C (SIR-C) on October 9 and 10 1994, at 24-cm wavelength (L-band), are utilized to map the glacier <span class="hlt">velocity</span> both interferometrically and using a novel feature tracking technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01764&hterms=Endangered+species&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DEndangered%2Bspecies','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01764&hterms=Endangered+species&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DEndangered%2Bspecies"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Bahia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is a color composite <span class="hlt">image</span> of southern Bahia, Brazil, centered at 15.22 degree south latitude and 39.07 degrees west longitude. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 38th orbit of Earth on October 2, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> covers an area centered over the Una Biological Reserve, one the largest protected areas in northeastern Brazil. The 7,000-hectare reserve is administered by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and is part of the larger Atlantic coastal forest, a narrow band of rain forest extending along the eastern coast of Brazil. The Atlantic coastal forest of southern Bahia is one of the world's most threatened and diverse ecosystems. Due to widespread settlement, only 2 to 5 percent of the original forest cover remains. Yet the region still contains an astounding variety of plants and animals, including a large number of endemic species. More than half of the region's tree species and 80 percent of its animal species are indigenous and found nowhere else on Earth. The Una Reserve is also the only federally protected habitat for the golden-headed lion tamarin, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkey and many other endangered species. In the past few years, scientists from Brazilian and international conservation organizations have coordinated efforts to study the biological diversity of this region and to develop practical and economically viable options for preserving the remaining primary forests in southern Bahia. The shuttle <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> is used in this study to identify various land uses and vegetation types, including remaining patches of primary forest, cabruca forest (cacao planted in the understory of the native forest), secondary forest, pasture and coastal mangrove. Standard remote-sensing technology that relies on light reflected from the forest canopy cannot accurately distinguish between cabruca and undisturbed forest. Optical remote sensing is also</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01764&hterms=importance+animals+laboratory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dimportance%2Banimals%2Blaboratory','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01764&hterms=importance+animals+laboratory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dimportance%2Banimals%2Blaboratory"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Bahia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is a color composite <span class="hlt">image</span> of southern Bahia, Brazil, centered at 15.22 degree south latitude and 39.07 degrees west longitude. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 38th orbit of Earth on October 2, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> covers an area centered over the Una Biological Reserve, one the largest protected areas in northeastern Brazil. The 7,000-hectare reserve is administered by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and is part of the larger Atlantic coastal forest, a narrow band of rain forest extending along the eastern coast of Brazil. The Atlantic coastal forest of southern Bahia is one of the world's most threatened and diverse ecosystems. Due to widespread settlement, only 2 to 5 percent of the original forest cover remains. Yet the region still contains an astounding variety of plants and animals, including a large number of endemic species. More than half of the region's tree species and 80 percent of its animal species are indigenous and found nowhere else on Earth. The Una Reserve is also the only federally protected habitat for the golden-headed lion tamarin, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkey and many other endangered species. In the past few years, scientists from Brazilian and international conservation organizations have coordinated efforts to study the biological diversity of this region and to develop practical and economically viable options for preserving the remaining primary forests in southern Bahia. The shuttle <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> is used in this study to identify various land uses and vegetation types, including remaining patches of primary forest, cabruca forest (cacao planted in the understory of the native forest), secondary forest, pasture and coastal mangrove. Standard remote-sensing technology that relies on light reflected from the forest canopy cannot accurately distinguish between cabruca and undisturbed forest. Optical remote sensing is also</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920039674&hterms=1583&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231583','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920039674&hterms=1583&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231583"><span><span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> polarimetry - A review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zebker, Howard A.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The authors present a tutorial review of the broad sweep of topics relating to <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> polarimetry, ranging from mathematical foundations to hardware and from implementation approaches to signal processing and calibration. The authors examine current developments in sensor technology and implementation for recording polarimetric measurements, and describe techniques and areas of application for this form of remotely sensed data. Those aspects of ground signal processing and calibration peculiar to the polarimetric signals are addressed. Several of the currently operating instruments and some of the implementations planned for future use are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01729&hterms=chernobyl&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dchernobyl','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01729&hterms=chernobyl&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dchernobyl"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Chernobyl</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is an <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its surroundings, centered at 51.17 north latitude and 30.15 west longitude. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 16th orbit on October 1, 1994. The area is located on the northern border of the Ukraine Republic and was produced by using the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization. The differences in the intensity are due to differences in vegetation cover, with brighter areas being indicative of more vegetation. These data were acquired as part of a collaboration between NASA and the National Space Agency of Ukraine in Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences. NASA has included several sites provided by the Ukrainian space agency as targets of opportunity during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The Ukrainian space agency also plans to conduct airborne surveys of these sites during the mission. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant is located toward the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span> near the Pripyat River. The 12-kilometer (7.44-mile)-long cooling pond is easily distinguishable as an elongated dark shape in the center near the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The reactor complex is visible as the bright area to the extreme left of the cooling pond and the city of Chernobyl is the bright area just below the cooling pond next to the Pripyat River. The large dark area in the bottom right of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the Kiev Reservoir just north of Kiev. Also visible is the Dnieper River, which feeds into the Kiev Reservoir from the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Soviet government evacuated 116,000 people within 30 kilometers (18.6 miles) of the Chernobyl reactor after the explosion and fire on April 26, 1986. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01729&hterms=Chernobyl&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DChernobyl','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01729&hterms=Chernobyl&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DChernobyl"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Chernobyl</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is an <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its surroundings, centered at 51.17 north latitude and 30.15 west longitude. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 16th orbit on October 1, 1994. The area is located on the northern border of the Ukraine Republic and was produced by using the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization. The differences in the intensity are due to differences in vegetation cover, with brighter areas being indicative of more vegetation. These data were acquired as part of a collaboration between NASA and the National Space Agency of Ukraine in Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences. NASA has included several sites provided by the Ukrainian space agency as targets of opportunity during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The Ukrainian space agency also plans to conduct airborne surveys of these sites during the mission. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant is located toward the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span> near the Pripyat River. The 12-kilometer (7.44-mile)-long cooling pond is easily distinguishable as an elongated dark shape in the center near the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The reactor complex is visible as the bright area to the extreme left of the cooling pond and the city of Chernobyl is the bright area just below the cooling pond next to the Pripyat River. The large dark area in the bottom right of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the Kiev Reservoir just north of Kiev. Also visible is the Dnieper River, which feeds into the Kiev Reservoir from the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Soviet government evacuated 116,000 people within 30 kilometers (18.6 miles) of the Chernobyl reactor after the explosion and fire on April 26, 1986. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01785&hterms=Barrier+islands&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DBarrier%2Bislands','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01785&hterms=Barrier+islands&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DBarrier%2Bislands"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Long Island Optical/<span class="hlt">Radar</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This pair of <span class="hlt">images</span> of the Long Island, New York region is a comparison of an optical photograph (top) and a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> (bottom), both taken in darkness in April 1994. The photograph at the top was taken by the Endeavour astronauts at about 3 a.m. Eastern time on April 20, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> at the bottom was acquired at about the same time four days earlier on April 16,1994 by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) system aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Both <span class="hlt">images</span> show an area approximately 100 kilometers by 40 kilometers (62 miles by 25 miles) that is centered at 40.7 degrees North latitude and 73.5 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper right. The optical <span class="hlt">image</span> is dominated by city lights, which are particularly bright in the densely developed urban areas of New York City located on the left half of the photo. The brightest white zones appear on the island of Manhattan in the left center, and Central Park can be seen as a darker area in the middle of Manhattan. To the northeast (right) of the city, suburban Long Island appears as a less densely illuminated area, with the brightest zones occurring along major transportation and development corridors. Since <span class="hlt">radar</span> is an active sensing system that provides its own illumination, the <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows a great amount of surface detail, despite the night-time acquisition. The colors in the <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> were obtained using the following <span class="hlt">radar</span> channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In this <span class="hlt">image</span>, the water surface - the Atlantic Ocean along the bottom edge and Long Island Sound shown at the top edge - appears red because small waves at the surface strongly reflect the horizontally transmitted and received L-band <span class="hlt">radar</span> signal. Networks of highways and railroad lines are clearly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770011365','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770011365"><span>Applications review for a Space Program <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SPIR)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Simonett, D. S.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The needs, applications, user support, research, and theoretical studies of <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> are reviewed. The applications of <span class="hlt">radar</span> in water resources, minerals and petroleum exploration, vegetation resources, ocean <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span>, and cartography are discussed. The advantages of space <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> are presented, and it is recommended that <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> be placed on the space shuttle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8394E..0EW','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8394E..0EW"><span>Passive synthetic aperture <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of ground moving targets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wacks, Steven; Yazici, Birsen</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>In this paper we present a method for <span class="hlt">imaging</span> ground moving targets using passive synthetic aperture <span class="hlt">radar</span>. A passive <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> system uses small, mobile receivers that do not radiate any energy. For these reasons, passive <span class="hlt">imaging</span> systems result in signicant cost, manufacturing, and stealth advantages. The received signals are obtained by multiple airborne receivers collecting scattered waves due to illuminating sources of opportunity such as commercial television, radio, and cell phone towers. We describe a novel forward model and a corresponding ltered-backprojection type <span class="hlt">image</span> reconstruction method combined with entropy optimization. Our method determines the location and <span class="hlt">velocity</span> of multiple targets moving at dierent <span class="hlt">velocities</span>. Furthermore, it can accommodate arbitrary <span class="hlt">imaging</span> geometries. we present numerical simulations to verify the <span class="hlt">imaging</span> method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870007702','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870007702"><span>The Second Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Symposium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Summaries of the papers presented at the Second Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Symposium are presented. The purpose of the symposium was to present an overwiew of recent developments in the different scientific and technological fields related to spaceborne <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radars</span> and to present future international plans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01710.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01710.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Kilauea, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-27</p> <p>This color composite C-band and L-band <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Kilauea volcano on the Big Island of Hawaii was acquired by NASA Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> SIR-C/X-SAR flying on space shuttle Endeavour.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01706.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01706.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Manaus, Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-27</p> <p>This false-color L-band <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Manaus region of Brazil was acquired by NASA Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> SIR-C/X-SAR aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 46 of the mission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011417','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011417"><span>Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C instrument</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Huneycutt, Bryan L.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C is the next <span class="hlt">radar</span> in the series of spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> experiments, which began with Seasat and continued with SIR-A and SIR-B. The SIR-C instrument has been designed to obtain simultaneous multifrequency and simultaneous multipolarization <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> from a low earth orbit. It is a multiparameter <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> that will be flown during at least two different seasons. The instrument operates in the squint alignment mode, the extended aperture mode, the scansar mode, and the interferometry mode. The instrument uses engineering techniques such as beam nulling for echo tracking, pulse repetition frequency hopping for Doppler centroid tracking, generating the frequency step chirp for <span class="hlt">radar</span> parameter flexibility, block floating-point quantizing for data rate compression, and elevation beamwidth broadening for increasing the swath illumination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA16474.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA16474.html"><span>Nine <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Images</span> of Asteroid PA8</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-11-26</p> <p><span class="hlt">Images</span> of asteroid 2007 PA8 have been generated with data collected by NASA Goldstone Solar System <span class="hlt">Radar</span>. The <span class="hlt">images</span> of 2007 PA8 reveal possible craters, boulders, an irregular, asymmetric shape, and very slow rotation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01827.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01827.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Ruiz Volcano, Colombia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>This spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the Ruiz-Tolima volcanic region in central Colombia, about 150 kilometers 93 miles west of Bogata. The town of Manizales, Colombia, is the pinkish area in the upper right of the <span class="hlt">image</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01848.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01848.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of County Kerry, Ireland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>The Iveragh Peninsula, one of the four peninsulas in southwestern Ireland, is shown in this spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>. The lakes of Killarney National Park are the green patches on the left side of the <span class="hlt">image</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01853.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01853.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Taipei, Taiwan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>The northern end of the island country of Taiwan, including the capital city of Taipei, is shown in this spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>. Taipei is the bright blue and red area in the lower center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01764.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01764.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Bahia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>This is a color composite <span class="hlt">image</span> of southern Bahia, Brazil, centered at 15.22 degree south latitude and 39.07 degrees west longitude. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 38th orbit of Earth on October 2, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> covers an area centered over the Una Biological Reserve, one the largest protected areas in northeastern Brazil. The 7,000-hectare reserve is administered by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and is part of the larger Atlantic coastal forest, a narrow band of rain forest extending along the eastern coast of Brazil. The Atlantic coastal forest of southern Bahia is one of the world's most threatened and diverse ecosystems. Due to widespread settlement, only 2 to 5 percent of the original forest cover remains. Yet the region still contains an astounding variety of plants and animals, including a large number of endemic species. More than half of the region's tree species and 80 percent of its animal species are indigenous and found nowhere else on Earth. The Una Reserve is also the only federally protected habitat for the golden-headed lion tamarin, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkey and many other endangered species. In the past few years, scientists from Brazilian and international conservation organizations have coordinated efforts to study the biological diversity of this region and to develop practical and economically viable options for preserving the remaining primary forests in southern Bahia. The shuttle <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> is used in this study to identify various land uses and vegetation types, including remaining patches of primary forest, cabruca forest (cacao planted in the understory of the native forest), secondary forest, pasture and coastal mangrove. Standard remote-sensing technology that relies on light reflected from the forest canopy cannot accurately distinguish between cabruca and undisturbed forest. Optical remote sensing is also</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01302&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01302&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of Ubar optical/<span class="hlt">radar</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This pair of <span class="hlt">images</span> from space shows a portion of the southern Empty Quarter of the Arabian Peninsula in the country of Oman. On the left is a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the region around the site of the fabled Lost City of Ubar, discovered in 1992 with the aid of remote sensing data. On the right is an enhanced optical <span class="hlt">image</span> taken by the shuttle astronauts. Ubar existed from about 2800 BC to about 300 AD. and was a remote desert outpost where caravans were assembled for the transport of frankincense across the desert. The actual site of the fortress of the Lost City of Ubar, currently under excavation, is too small to show in either <span class="hlt">image</span>. However, tracks leading to the site, and surrounding tracks, show as prominent, but diffuse, reddish streaks in the <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>. Although used in modern times, field investigations show many of these tracks were in use in ancient times as well. Mapping of these tracks on regional remote sensing <span class="hlt">images</span> provided by the Landsat satellite was a key to recognizing the site as Ubar. The prominent magenta colored area is a region of large sand dunes. The green areas are limestone rocks, which form a rocky desert floor. A major wadi, or dry stream bed, runs across the scene and appears as a white line. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span>, and ongoing field investigations, will help shed light on an early civilization about which little in known. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> was taken by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) and is centered at 18 degrees North latitude and 53 degrees East longitude. The <span class="hlt">image</span> covers an area about 50 kilometers by 100 kilometers (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01302.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01302.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Ubar Optical/<span class="hlt">Radar</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-04-28</p> <p>This pair of <span class="hlt">images</span> from space shows a portion of the southern Empty Quarter of the Arabian Peninsula in the country of Oman. On the left is a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the region around the site of the fabled Lost City of Ubar, discovered in 1992 with the aid of remote sensing data. On the right is an enhanced optical <span class="hlt">image</span> taken by the shuttle astronauts. Ubar existed from about 2800 BC to about 300 AD. and was a remote desert outpost where caravans were assembled for the transport of frankincense across the desert. The actual site of the fortress of the Lost City of Ubar, currently under excavation, is too small to show in either <span class="hlt">image</span>. However, tracks leading to the site, and surrounding tracks, show as prominent, but diffuse, reddish streaks in the <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>. Although used in modern times, field investigations show many of these tracks were in use in ancient times as well. Mapping of these tracks on regional remote sensing <span class="hlt">images</span> provided by the Landsat satellite was a key to recognizing the site as Ubar. The prominent magenta colored area is a region of large sand dunes. The green areas are limestone rocks, which form a rocky desert floor. A major wadi, or dry stream bed, runs across the scene and appears as a white line. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span>, and ongoing field investigations, will help shed light on an early civilization about which little in known. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> was taken by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) and is centered at 18 degrees North latitude and 53 degrees East longitude. The <span class="hlt">image</span> covers an area about 50 kilometers by 100 kilometers (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01754.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01754.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Baikal Lake, Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>This is an X-band black-and-white <span class="hlt">image</span> of the forests east of the Baikal Forest in the Jablonowy Mountains of Russia. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 52.5 degrees north latitude and 116 degrees east longitude near the mining town of Bukatschatscha. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span>. This area is part of an international research project known as the Taiga Aerospace Investigation using Geographic Information System Applications. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01754</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01754&hterms=taiga&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtaiga','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01754&hterms=taiga&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtaiga"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Baikal Lake, Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is an X-band black-and-white <span class="hlt">image</span> of the forests east of the Baikal Forest in the Jablonowy Mountains of Russia. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 52.5 degrees north latitude and 116 degrees east longitude near the mining town of Bukatschatscha. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span>. This area is part of an international research project known as the Taiga Aerospace Investigation using Geographic Information System Applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01856&hterms=Hyper+sea&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DHyper%2Bsea','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01856&hterms=Hyper+sea&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DHyper%2Bsea"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Namibia Sand Dunes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows part of the vast Namib Sand Sea on the west coast of southern Africa, just northeast of the city of Luderitz, Namibia. The magenta areas in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are fields of sand dunes, and the orange area along the bottom of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the surface of the South Atlantic Ocean. The region receives only a few centimeters (inches) of rain per year. In most <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span>, sandy areas appear dark due to their smooth texture, but in this area the sand is organized into steep dunes, causing bright <span class="hlt">radar</span> reflections off the dune 'faces.' This effect is especially pronounced in the lower center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, where many glints of bright <span class="hlt">radar</span> reflections are seen. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> of this hyper-arid region have been used to <span class="hlt">image</span> sub-surface features, such as abandoned stream courses. The bright green features in the upper right are rocky hills poking through the sand sea. The peninsula in the lower center, near Hottentott Bay, is Diaz Point; Elizabeth Point is south of Diaz Point. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 11, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is 54.2 kilometers by 82.2 kilometers (33.6 miles by 51.0 miles) and is centered at 26.2 degrees South latitude, 15.1 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6622E..0JH','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6622E..0JH"><span>Numerical simulation of <span class="hlt">imaging</span> laser <span class="hlt">radar</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Han, Shaokun; Lu, Bo; Jiang, Ming; Liu, Xunliang</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>Rational and effective design of <span class="hlt">imaging</span> laser <span class="hlt">radar</span> systems is the key of <span class="hlt">imaging</span> laser <span class="hlt">radar</span> system research. Design must fully consider the interrelationship between various parameters. According to the parameters, choose suitable laser, detector and other components. To use of mathematical modeling and computer simulation is an effective <span class="hlt">imaging</span> laser <span class="hlt">radar</span> system design methods. This paper based on the distance equation, using the detection statistical methods, from the laser <span class="hlt">radar</span> range coverage, detection probability, false-alarm rate, SNR to build the laser <span class="hlt">radar</span> system mathematical models. In the process of setting up the mathematical models to fully consider the laser, atmosphere, detector and other factors on the performance that is to make the models be able to respond accurately the real situation. Based on this using C# and Matlab designed a simulation software.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840009367','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840009367"><span>APQ-102 <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> digital <span class="hlt">image</span> quality study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Griffin, C. R.; Estes, J. M.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A modified APQ-102 sidelooking <span class="hlt">radar</span> collected synthetic aperture <span class="hlt">radar</span> (SAR) data which was digitized and recorded on wideband magnetic tape. These tapes were then ground processed into computer compatible tapes (CCT's). The CCT's may then be processed into high resolution <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> by software on the CYBER computer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01785.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01785.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Long Island Optical/<span class="hlt">Radar</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>This pair of <span class="hlt">images</span> of the Long Island, New York region is a comparison of an optical photograph (top) and a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> (bottom), both taken in darkness in April 1994. The photograph at the top was taken by the Endeavour astronauts at about 3 a.m. Eastern time on April 20, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> at the bottom was acquired at about the same time four days earlier on April 16,1994 by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) system aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Both <span class="hlt">images</span> show an area approximately 100 kilometers by 40 kilometers (62 miles by 25 miles) that is centered at 40.7 degrees North latitude and 73.5 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper right. The optical <span class="hlt">image</span> is dominated by city lights, which are particularly bright in the densely developed urban areas of New York City located on the left half of the photo. The brightest white zones appear on the island of Manhattan in the left center, and Central Park can be seen as a darker area in the middle of Manhattan. To the northeast (right) of the city, suburban Long Island appears as a less densely illuminated area, with the brightest zones occurring along major transportation and development corridors. Since <span class="hlt">radar</span> is an active sensing system that provides its own illumination, the <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows a great amount of surface detail, despite the night-time acquisition. The colors in the <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> were obtained using the following <span class="hlt">radar</span> channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In this <span class="hlt">image</span>, the water surface - the Atlantic Ocean along the bottom edge and Long Island Sound shown at the top edge - appears red because small waves at the surface strongly reflect the horizontally transmitted and received L-band <span class="hlt">radar</span> signal. Networks of highways and railroad lines are clearly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02701&hterms=hydroelectric&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dhydroelectric','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02701&hterms=hydroelectric&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dhydroelectric"><span><span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The area is predominantly scrub forest. Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. <span class="hlt">Image</span> brightness differences in this <span class="hlt">image</span> are caused by differences in vegetation type and density. Tributaries of the Sao Francisco are visible in the upper right. The Sao Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.<p/>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> was obtained by the Shuttle <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Topography Mission as part of its mission to map the Earth's topography. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas, and consequently does not show topographic data but only the strength of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as <span class="hlt">radar</span> backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover, and urbanization.<p/>The Shuttle <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same <span class="hlt">radar</span> instrument that comprised the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band <span class="hlt">imaging</span> antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02701&hterms=Urbanization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DUrbanization','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02701&hterms=Urbanization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DUrbanization"><span><span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The area is predominantly scrub forest. Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. <span class="hlt">Image</span> brightness differences in this <span class="hlt">image</span> are caused by differences in vegetation type and density. Tributaries of the Sao Francisco are visible in the upper right. The Sao Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.<p/>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> was obtained by the Shuttle <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Topography Mission as part of its mission to map the Earth's topography. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas, and consequently does not show topographic data but only the strength of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as <span class="hlt">radar</span> backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover, and urbanization.<p/>The Shuttle <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same <span class="hlt">radar</span> instrument that comprised the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band <span class="hlt">imaging</span> antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01845&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01845&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Munich, Germany</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of Munich, Germany illustrates the capability of a multi-frequency <span class="hlt">radar</span> system to highlight different land use patterns in the area surrounding Bavaria's largest city. Central Munich is the white area at the middle of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, on the banks of the Isar River. Pink areas are forested, while green areas indicate clear-cut and agricultural terrain. The Munich region served as a primary 'supersite' for studies in ecology, hydrology and <span class="hlt">radar</span> calibration during the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) missions. Scientists were able to use these data to map patterns of forest damage from storms and areas affected by bark beetle infestation. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 18, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is 37 kilometers by 32 kilometers (23 miles by 20 miles) and is centered at 48.2 degrees North latitude, 11.5 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870007704','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870007704"><span>Space shuttle <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> of Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sabins, Floyd F.; Ford, John P.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Sabins (1983) interpreted Shuttle <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR)-A <span class="hlt">images</span> of Indonesia; Sabins and Ford (1985) interpreted SIR-B <span class="hlt">images</span>. These investigations had the following major results: (1) major lithologic assemblages are recognizable by their terrain characteristics in the SIR <span class="hlt">images</span>, and (2) both local and regional geologic structures are mappable. These results are summarized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790030631&hterms=qualitative+observation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dqualitative%2Bobservation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790030631&hterms=qualitative+observation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dqualitative%2Bobservation"><span><span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> observations of Askja Caldera, Iceland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Malin, M. C.; Evans, D.; Elachi, C.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>A 'blind' test involving interpretation of computer-enhanced like- and cross-polarized <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> is used to evaluate the surface roughness of Askja Caldera, a large volcanic complex in central Iceland. The 'blind' test differs from earlier analyses of <span class="hlt">radar</span> observations in that computer-processes <span class="hlt">images</span> and both qualitative and quantitative analyses are used. Attention is given to photogeologic examination and subsequent survey-type field observations, along with aerial photography during the field trip. The results indicate that the 'blind' test of <span class="hlt">radar</span> interpretation of the Askja volcanic area can be considered suitable within the framework of limitations of <span class="hlt">radar</span> data considered explicitly from the onset. The limitations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> techniques can be eliminated by using oblique-viewing conditions to remove geometric distortions and slope effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790030631&hterms=Iceland&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DIceland','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790030631&hterms=Iceland&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DIceland"><span><span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> observations of Askja Caldera, Iceland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Malin, M. C.; Evans, D.; Elachi, C.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>A 'blind' test involving interpretation of computer-enhanced like- and cross-polarized <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> is used to evaluate the surface roughness of Askja Caldera, a large volcanic complex in central Iceland. The 'blind' test differs from earlier analyses of <span class="hlt">radar</span> observations in that computer-processes <span class="hlt">images</span> and both qualitative and quantitative analyses are used. Attention is given to photogeologic examination and subsequent survey-type field observations, along with aerial photography during the field trip. The results indicate that the 'blind' test of <span class="hlt">radar</span> interpretation of the Askja volcanic area can be considered suitable within the framework of limitations of <span class="hlt">radar</span> data considered explicitly from the onset. The limitations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> techniques can be eliminated by using oblique-viewing conditions to remove geometric distortions and slope effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SPIE.3370..250G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SPIE.3370..250G"><span>Comparison of various enhanced <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gupta, Inder J.; Gandhe, Avinash</p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p>Recently, many techniques have been proposed to enhance the quality of <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> obtained using SAR and/or ISAR. These techniques include spatially variant apodization (SVA), adaptive sidelobe reduction (ASR), the Capon method, amplitude and phase estimation of sinusoids (APES) and data extrapolation. SVA is a special case of ASR; whereas the APES algorithm is similar to the Capon method except that it provides a better amplitude estimate. In this paper, the ASR technique, the APES algorithm and data extrapolation are used to generate <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> of two experimental targets and an airborne target. It is shown that although for ideal situations (point targets) the APES algorithm provides the best <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> (reduced sidelobe level and sharp main lobe), its performance degrades quickly for real world targets. The ASR algorithm gives <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> with low sidelobes but at the cost of some loss of information about the target. Also, there is not much improvement in <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> resolution. Data extrapolation, on the other hand, improves <span class="hlt">image</span> resolution. In this case one can reduce the sidelobes by using non-uniform weights. Any loss in the <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> resolution due to non-uniform weights can be compensated by further extrapolating the scattered field data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080008748','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080008748"><span>Data volume reduction for <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> polarimetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zebker, Howard A. (Inventor); Held, Daniel N. (Inventor); van Zul, Jakob J. (Inventor); Dubois, Pascale C. (Inventor); Norikane, Lynne (Inventor)</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Two alternative methods are disclosed for digital reduction of synthetic aperture multipolarized <span class="hlt">radar</span> data using scattering matrices, or using Stokes matrices, of four consecutive along-track pixels to produce averaged data for generating a synthetic polarization <span class="hlt">image</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880017157','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880017157"><span>Data volume reduction for <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> polarimetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zebker, Howard A. (Inventor); Held, Daniel N. (Inventor); Vanzyl, Jakob J. (Inventor); Dubois, Pascale C. (Inventor); Norikane, Lynne (Inventor)</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Two alternative methods are presented for digital reduction of synthetic aperture multipolarized <span class="hlt">radar</span> data using scattering matrices, or using Stokes matrices, of four consecutive along-track pixels to produce averaged data for generating a synthetic polarization <span class="hlt">image</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01811.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01811.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Reunion Island</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the volcanic island of Reunion, about 700 km 434 miles east of Madagascar in the southwest Indian Ocean. The southern half of the island is dominated by the active volcano, Piton de la Fournaise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01823.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01823.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Samara, Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>This three-frequency space <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the city of Samara, Russia in pink and light green right of center. Samara is at the junction of the Volga and Samara Rivers approximately 800 kilometers 500 miles southeast of Moscow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01716.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01716.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-27</p> <p>This is a false-color, three-frequency <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Oberpfaffenhofen supersite, southwest of Munich in southern Germany, which shows the differences in what the three <span class="hlt">radar</span> bands can see on the ground.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01808.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01808.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Saline Valley, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Saline Valley, about 30 km 19 miles east of the town of Independence, California created by combining two spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> using a technique known as interferometry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01830.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01830.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Victoria, Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>This three-frequency spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the southern end of Vancouver Island on the west coast of Canada. The white area in the lower right is the city of Victoria, the capital of the province of British Columbia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01807.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01807.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Lisbon, Portugal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of Lisbon, Portugal illustrates the different land use patterns that are present in coastal Portugal. Lisbon, the national capital, lies on the north bank of the Rio Tejo where the river enters the Atlantic Ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870007705','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870007705"><span>Delineation of fault zones using <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Toksoz, M. N.; Gulen, L.; Prange, M.; Matarese, J.; Pettengill, G. H.; Ford, P. G.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The assessment of earthquake hazards and mineral and oil potential of a given region requires a detailed knowledge of geological structure, including the configuration of faults. Delineation of faults is traditionally based on three types of data: (1) seismicity data, which shows the location and magnitude of earthquake activity; (2) field mapping, which in remote areas is typically incomplete and of insufficient accuracy; and (3) remote sensing, including LANDSAT <span class="hlt">images</span> and high altitude photography. Recently, high resolution <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> of tectonically active regions have been obtained by SEASAT and Shuttle <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-A and SIR-B) systems. These <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> are sensitive to terrain slope variations and emphasize the topographic signatures of fault zones. Techniques were developed for using the <span class="hlt">radar</span> data in conjunction with the traditional types of data to delineate major faults in well-known test sites, and to extend interpretation techniques to remote areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01850.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01850.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Dnieper River, Ukraine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>This spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the intensive agricultural development in central Ukraine, along the Dnieper River. The area shown lies about 320 kilometers 198 miles southeast of Kiev and about 360 kilometers 223 miles northeast of Odessa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01846.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01846.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Tuva, Central Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>This spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows part of the remote central Asian region of Tuva, an autonomous republic of the Russian Federation. Tuva is a mostly mountainous region that lies between western Mongolia and southern Siberia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SPIE.3462..147Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SPIE.3462..147Z"><span>Jamming cancellation algorithm for wideband <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zheng, Yibin; Yu, Kai-Bor</p> <p>1998-10-01</p> <p>We describe a jamming cancellation algorithm for wide-band <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span>. After reviewing high range resolution <span class="hlt">imaging</span> principle, several key factors affecting jamming cancellation performances, such as the 'instantaneous narrow-band' assumption, bandwidth, de-chirped interference, are formulated and analyzed. Some numerical simulation results, using a hypothetical phased array <span class="hlt">radar</span> and synthetic point targets, are presented. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01821&hterms=destruction+rainforest&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddestruction%2Brainforest','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01821&hterms=destruction+rainforest&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddestruction%2Brainforest"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Randonia Rain Cell</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This multi-frequency space <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of a tropical rainforest in western Brazil shows rapidly changing land use patterns and it also demonstrates the capability of the different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies to detect and penetrate heavy rainstorms. This color <span class="hlt">image</span> was created by combining the three separate <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies into a composite <span class="hlt">image</span>. The three black and white <span class="hlt">images</span> below represent the individual frequencies. The lower left <span class="hlt">image</span>, X-band vertically transmitted and received, is blue in the color <span class="hlt">image</span>; the lower center <span class="hlt">image</span>, C-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received is green; and the lower right <span class="hlt">image</span>, L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received is red. A heavy downpour in the lower center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> appears as a black 'cloud' in the X-band <span class="hlt">image</span>, the same area is shows up faintly in the C-band <span class="hlt">image</span>, and is invisible in the L-band <span class="hlt">image</span>. When combined in the color <span class="hlt">image</span>, the rain cell appears red and yellow. Although <span class="hlt">radar</span> can usually 'see' through clouds, short <span class="hlt">radar</span> wavelengths (high frequency), such as X and C-band, can be changed by unusually heavy rain cells. L-band, at a 24 cm (9 inches) wavelength, is unaffected by such rain cells. By analyzing the way the <span class="hlt">radar</span> changes, scientist can estimate rainfall rates. The area shown is in the state of Rondonia, in western Brazil. The pink areas are pristine tropical rainforest, and the blue and green patches are areas where the forest has been cleared for agriculture. Cleared areas are typically able to support intense farming for a only few years, before soil erosion renders the fields unusable. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> can be used to monitor not only the rainforest destruction, but also the rates of recovery of abandoned fields. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is 35.2 kilometers by 21.3 kilometers (21.8 miles by 13.2 miles) and is centered at 11.2 degrees south latitude, 61.7 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper left. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01821&hterms=space+agriculture&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dspace%2Bagriculture','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01821&hterms=space+agriculture&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dspace%2Bagriculture"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Randonia Rain Cell</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This multi-frequency space <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of a tropical rainforest in western Brazil shows rapidly changing land use patterns and it also demonstrates the capability of the different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies to detect and penetrate heavy rainstorms. This color <span class="hlt">image</span> was created by combining the three separate <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies into a composite <span class="hlt">image</span>. The three black and white <span class="hlt">images</span> below represent the individual frequencies. The lower left <span class="hlt">image</span>, X-band vertically transmitted and received, is blue in the color <span class="hlt">image</span>; the lower center <span class="hlt">image</span>, C-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received is green; and the lower right <span class="hlt">image</span>, L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received is red. A heavy downpour in the lower center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> appears as a black 'cloud' in the X-band <span class="hlt">image</span>, the same area is shows up faintly in the C-band <span class="hlt">image</span>, and is invisible in the L-band <span class="hlt">image</span>. When combined in the color <span class="hlt">image</span>, the rain cell appears red and yellow. Although <span class="hlt">radar</span> can usually 'see' through clouds, short <span class="hlt">radar</span> wavelengths (high frequency), such as X and C-band, can be changed by unusually heavy rain cells. L-band, at a 24 cm (9 inches) wavelength, is unaffected by such rain cells. By analyzing the way the <span class="hlt">radar</span> changes, scientist can estimate rainfall rates. The area shown is in the state of Rondonia, in western Brazil. The pink areas are pristine tropical rainforest, and the blue and green patches are areas where the forest has been cleared for agriculture. Cleared areas are typically able to support intense farming for a only few years, before soil erosion renders the fields unusable. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> can be used to monitor not only the rainforest destruction, but also the rates of recovery of abandoned fields. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is 35.2 kilometers by 21.3 kilometers (21.8 miles by 13.2 miles) and is centered at 11.2 degrees south latitude, 61.7 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper left. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01301&hterms=degree+branching&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Ddegree%2Bbranching','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01301&hterms=degree+branching&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Ddegree%2Bbranching"><span>Space <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of Mount Everest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>These are two comparison <span class="hlt">images</span> of Mount Everest and its surroundings, along the border of Nepal and Tibet. The peak of Mount Everest, the highest elevation on Earth at 8,848 meters (29,028 feet), can be seen near the center of each <span class="hlt">image</span>. The <span class="hlt">image</span> at the top was acquired through thick cloud cover by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 16, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> on the bottom is an optical photograph taken by the Endeavour crew under clear conditions during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR on October 10, 1994. Both <span class="hlt">images</span> show an area approximately 70 kilometers by 38 kilometers (43 miles by 24 miles) that is centered at 28.0 degrees north latitude and 86.9 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors in the <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> were obtained using the following <span class="hlt">radar</span> channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). <span class="hlt">Radar</span> illumination is from the top of the frame. The optical photograph has been geometrically adjusted to better match the area shown in the <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>. Many features of the Himalayan terrain are visible in both <span class="hlt">images</span>. Snow covered areas appear white in the optical photograph while the same areas appear bright blue in the <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> was taken in early spring and shows deep snow cover, while the optical photograph was taken in late summer and shows minimum snow cover. The curving and branching features seen in both <span class="hlt">images</span> are glaciers. The two wavelengths and multiple polarizations of the SIR-C <span class="hlt">radar</span> are sensitive to characteristics of the glacier surfaces that are not detected by conventional photography, such as the ice roughness, water content and stratification. For this reason, the glaciers show a variety of colors in the <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> (blue, purple, red</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910031209&hterms=dimensionality+reduction&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Ddimensionality%2Breduction','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910031209&hterms=dimensionality+reduction&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Ddimensionality%2Breduction"><span>Feature utility in polarimetric <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> classification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cumming, Ian G.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The information content in polarimetric SAR <span class="hlt">images</span> is examined, and the polarimetric <span class="hlt">image</span> variables containing the information that is important to the classification of terrain features in the <span class="hlt">images</span> are determined. It is concluded that accurate classification can be done when just over half of the <span class="hlt">image</span> variables are retained. A reduction in <span class="hlt">image</span> data dimensionality gives storage savings, and can lead to the improvement of classifier performance. In addition, it is shown that a simplified <span class="hlt">radar</span> system with only phase-calibrated CO-POL or SINGLE TX channels can give classification performance which approaches that of a fully polarimetric <span class="hlt">radar</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SPIE.3462...52P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SPIE.3462...52P"><span><span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> analysis for scattering surfaces characterization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Piazza, Enrico</p> <p>1998-10-01</p> <p>According to the different problems and techniques related to the detection and recognition of airplanes and vehicles moving on the Airport surface, the present work mainly deals with the processing of <span class="hlt">images</span> gathered by a high-resolution <span class="hlt">radar</span> sensor. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> used to test the investigated algorithms are relative to sequence of <span class="hlt">images</span> obtained in some field experiments carried out by the Electronic Engineering Department of the University of Florence. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> is the Ka band <span class="hlt">radar</span> operating in the'Leonardo da Vinci' Airport in Fiumicino (Rome). The <span class="hlt">images</span> obtained from the <span class="hlt">radar</span> scan converter are digitized and putted in x, y, (pixel) co- ordinates. For a correct matching of the <span class="hlt">images</span>, these are corrected in true geometrical co-ordinates (meters) on the basis of fixed points on an airport map. Correlating the airplane 2-D multipoint template with actual <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span>, the value of the signal in the points involved in the template can be extracted. Results for a lot of observation show a typical response for the main section of the fuselage and the wings. For the fuselage, the back-scattered echo is low at the prow, became larger near the center on the aircraft and than it decrease again toward the tail. For the wings the signal is growing with a pretty regular slope from the fuselage to the tips, where the signal is the strongest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01847&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01847&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Phnom Phen, Cambodia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the city of Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia. Phnom Penh lies at the confluence of the Mekong River and the Basak Sab. The city was originally established in 1434 to succeed Angkor Thom as capital of the Khmer Nation. Phnom Penh is the bright blue and orange area west of the rivers, near the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The red, light blue and purple colors indicate differences in vegetation height and structure. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> like this one are being used by archaeologists to investigate ruins in the Angkor area in northern Cambodia. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 15, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is 27 kilometers by 27 kilometers (17 miles by 17 miles) and is centered at 11.5 degrees north latitude, 105.0 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01751.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01751.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of San Francisco, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>This is a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of San Francisco, California, taken on October 3,1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is about 40 kilometers by 55 kilometers (25 miles by 34 miles) with north toward the upper right. Downtown San Francisco is visible in the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> with the city of Oakland east (to the right) across San Francisco Bay. Also visible in the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the Golden Gate Bridge (left center) and the Bay Bridge connecting San Francisco and Oakland. North of the Bay Bridge is Treasure Island. Alcatraz Island appears as a small dot northwest of Treasure Island. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 56. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 37 degrees north latitude, 122degrees west longitude. This single-frequency SIR-C <span class="hlt">image</span> was obtained by the L-band (24 cm) <span class="hlt">radar</span> channel, horizontally transmitted and received. Portions of the Pacific Ocean visible in this <span class="hlt">image</span> appear very dark as do other smooth surfaces such as airport runways. Suburban areas, with the low-density housing and tree-lined streets that are typical of San Francisco, appear as lighter gray. Areas with high-rise buildings, such as those seen in the downtown areas, appear in very bright white, showing a higher density of housing and streets which run parallel to the <span class="hlt">radar</span> flight track. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01751</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01310.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01310.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Wadi Kufra, Libya</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-04-14</p> <p>The ability of a sophisticated <span class="hlt">radar</span> instrument to <span class="hlt">image</span> large regions of the world from space, using different frequencies that can penetrate dry sand cover, produced the discovery in this <span class="hlt">image</span>: a previously unknown branch of an ancient river, buried under thousands of years of windblown sand in a region of the Sahara Desert in North Africa. This area is near the Kufra Oasis in southeast Libya, centered at 23.3 degrees north latitude, 22.9 degrees east longitude. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 60th orbit on October 4, 1994. This SIR-C <span class="hlt">image</span> reveals a system of old, now inactive stream valleys, called "paleodrainage systems, http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01310</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01310&hterms=kufra&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dkufra','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01310&hterms=kufra&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dkufra"><span>Space <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of Wadi Kufra, Libya</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The ability of a sophisticated <span class="hlt">radar</span> instrument to <span class="hlt">image</span> large regions of the world from space, using different frequencies that can penetrate dry sand cover, produced the discovery in this <span class="hlt">image</span>: a previously unknown branch of an ancient river, buried under thousands of years of windblown sand in a region of the Sahara Desert in North Africa. This area is near the Kufra Oasis in southeast Libya, centered at 23.3 degrees north latitude, 22.9 degrees east longitude. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 60th orbit on October 4, 1994. This SIR-C <span class="hlt">image</span> reveals a system of old, now inactive stream valleys, called 'paleodrainage systems,</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850024237','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850024237"><span>Measurements of vertical <span class="hlt">velocity</span> over flat terrain by ST <span class="hlt">radar</span> and other related uses of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> data set</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Green, J. L.; Nastrom, G. D.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The need to study vertical <span class="hlt">velocity</span> measurements from an ST <span class="hlt">radar</span> located on the plains, far from the mountains is pointed out, as all presently available clear-air <span class="hlt">radars</span> are located in or near mountains. The construction and operation of a VHF Doppler (ST) <span class="hlt">radar</span> in the midwestern part of the United States to make meteorological measurements is also discussed. While primary interest is in measuring the synoptic-scale vertical <span class="hlt">velocities</span> in the troposphere and lower stratosphere, it should be stressed, however, that the <span class="hlt">radar</span> data set generated during the <span class="hlt">radar</span> experiment would have many other valuable uses of interest to us and others some of whom are listed below. The required <span class="hlt">radar</span> parameters, approximate costs, and recommended mode of operation are also detailed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01749.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01749.html"><span>space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Long Valley, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>An area near Long Valley, California, was mapped by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> aboard the space shuttle Endeavor on April 13, 1994, during the first flight of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> instrument, and on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> instrument. The orbital configurations of the two data sets were ideal for interferometric combination -- that is overlaying the data from one <span class="hlt">image</span> onto a second <span class="hlt">image</span> of the same area to create an elevation map and obtain estimates of topography. Once the topography is known, any <span class="hlt">radar</span>-induced distortions can be removed and the <span class="hlt">radar</span> data can be geometrically projected directly onto a standard map grid for use in a geographical information system. The 50 kilometer by 50 kilometer (31 miles by 31 miles) map shown here is entirely derived from SIR-C L-band <span class="hlt">radar</span> (horizontally transmitted and received) results. The color shown in this <span class="hlt">image</span> is produced from the interferometrically determined elevations, while the brightness is determined by the <span class="hlt">radar</span> backscatter. The map is in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. Elevation contour lines are shown every 50 meters (164 feet). Crowley Lake is the dark feature near the south edge of the map. The Adobe Valley in the north and the Long Valley in the south are separated by the Glass Mountain Ridge, which runs through the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The height accuracy of the interferometrically derived digital elevation model is estimated to be 20 meters (66 feet) in this <span class="hlt">image</span>. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01749</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fo38qU00HlQ','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fo38qU00HlQ"><span>NASA <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Images</span> Asteroid Toutatis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This 64-frame movie of asteroid Toutatis was generated from data by Goldstone's Solar System <span class="hlt">Radar</span> on Dec. 12 and 13, 2012. In the movie clips, the rotation of the asteroid appears faster than it o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01749&hterms=adobe&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dadobe','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01749&hterms=adobe&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dadobe"><span>space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Long Valley, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>An area near Long Valley, California, was mapped by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> aboard the space shuttle Endeavor on April 13, 1994, during the first flight of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> instrument, and on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> instrument. The orbital configurations of the two data sets were ideal for interferometric combination -- that is overlaying the data from one <span class="hlt">image</span> onto a second <span class="hlt">image</span> of the same area to create an elevation map and obtain estimates of topography. Once the topography is known, any <span class="hlt">radar</span>-induced distortions can be removed and the <span class="hlt">radar</span> data can be geometrically projected directly onto a standard map grid for use in a geographical information system. The 50 kilometer by 50 kilometer (31 miles by 31 miles) map shown here is entirely derived from SIR-C L-band <span class="hlt">radar</span> (horizontally transmitted and received) results. The color shown in this <span class="hlt">image</span> is produced from the interferometrically determined elevations, while the brightness is determined by the <span class="hlt">radar</span> backscatter. The map is in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. Elevation contour lines are shown every 50 meters (164 feet). Crowley Lake is the dark feature near the south edge of the map. The Adobe Valley in the north and the Long Valley in the south are separated by the Glass Mountain Ridge, which runs through the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The height accuracy of the interferometrically derived digital elevation model is estimated to be 20 meters (66 feet) in this <span class="hlt">image</span>. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01749&hterms=company+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcompany%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01749&hterms=company+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcompany%2Bimage"><span>space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Long Valley, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>An area near Long Valley, California, was mapped by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> aboard the space shuttle Endeavor on April 13, 1994, during the first flight of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> instrument, and on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> instrument. The orbital configurations of the two data sets were ideal for interferometric combination -- that is overlaying the data from one <span class="hlt">image</span> onto a second <span class="hlt">image</span> of the same area to create an elevation map and obtain estimates of topography. Once the topography is known, any <span class="hlt">radar</span>-induced distortions can be removed and the <span class="hlt">radar</span> data can be geometrically projected directly onto a standard map grid for use in a geographical information system. The 50 kilometer by 50 kilometer (31 miles by 31 miles) map shown here is entirely derived from SIR-C L-band <span class="hlt">radar</span> (horizontally transmitted and received) results. The color shown in this <span class="hlt">image</span> is produced from the interferometrically determined elevations, while the brightness is determined by the <span class="hlt">radar</span> backscatter. The map is in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. Elevation contour lines are shown every 50 meters (164 feet). Crowley Lake is the dark feature near the south edge of the map. The Adobe Valley in the north and the Long Valley in the south are separated by the Glass Mountain Ridge, which runs through the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The height accuracy of the interferometrically derived digital elevation model is estimated to be 20 meters (66 feet) in this <span class="hlt">image</span>. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01849&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01849&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Wenatchee, Washington</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows a segment of the Columbia River as it passes through the area of Wenatchee, Washington, about 220 kilometers (136 miles) east of Seattle. The Wenatchee Mountains, part of the Cascade Range, are shown in green at the lower left of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Cascades create a 'rain shadow' for the region, limiting rainfall east of the range to less than 26 centimeters (10 inches) per year. The <span class="hlt">radar</span>'s ability to see different types of vegetation is highlighted in the contrast between the pine forests, that appear in green and the dry valley plain that shows up as dark purple. The cities of Wenatchee and East Wenatchee are the grid-like areas straddling the Columbia River in the left center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. With a population of about 60,000, the region produces about half of Washington state's lucrative apple crop. Several orchard areas appear as green rectangular patches to the right of the river in the lower right center. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> such as these can be used to monitor land use patterns in areas such as Wenatchee, that have diverse and rapidly changing urban, agricultural and wild land pressures. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 10, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is 38 kilometers by 45 kilometers (24 miles by 30 miles) and is centered at 47.3 degrees North latitude, 120.1 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01849&hterms=Apples&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DApples','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01849&hterms=Apples&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DApples"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Wenatchee, Washington</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows a segment of the Columbia River as it passes through the area of Wenatchee, Washington, about 220 kilometers (136 miles) east of Seattle. The Wenatchee Mountains, part of the Cascade Range, are shown in green at the lower left of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Cascades create a 'rain shadow' for the region, limiting rainfall east of the range to less than 26 centimeters (10 inches) per year. The <span class="hlt">radar</span>'s ability to see different types of vegetation is highlighted in the contrast between the pine forests, that appear in green and the dry valley plain that shows up as dark purple. The cities of Wenatchee and East Wenatchee are the grid-like areas straddling the Columbia River in the left center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. With a population of about 60,000, the region produces about half of Washington state's lucrative apple crop. Several orchard areas appear as green rectangular patches to the right of the river in the lower right center. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> such as these can be used to monitor land use patterns in areas such as Wenatchee, that have diverse and rapidly changing urban, agricultural and wild land pressures. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 10, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is 38 kilometers by 45 kilometers (24 miles by 30 miles) and is centered at 47.3 degrees North latitude, 120.1 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01309&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01309&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace"><span>Space <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of New York City</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the New York city metropolitan area. The island of Manhattan appears in the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The green-colored rectangle on Manhattan is Central Park. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/ X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 10, 1994. North is toward the upper right. The area shown is 75.0 kilometers by 48.8 kilometers (46.5 miles by 30.2 miles). The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 40.7 degrees north latitude and 73.8 degrees west longitude. In general, light blue areas correspond to dense urban development, green areas to moderately vegetated zones and black areas to bodies of water. The Hudson River is the black strip that runs from the left edge to the upper right corner of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. It separates New Jersey, in the upper left of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, from New York. The Atlantic Ocean is at the bottom of the <span class="hlt">image</span> where two barrier islands along the southern shore of Long Island are also visible. John F. Kennedy International Airport is visible above these islands. Long Island Sound, separating Long Island from Connecticut, is the dark area right of the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Many bridges are visible in the <span class="hlt">image</span>, including the Verrazano Narrows, George Washington and Brooklyn bridges. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> illumination is from the left of the <span class="hlt">image</span>; this causes some urban zones to appear red because the streets are at a perpendicular angle to the <span class="hlt">radar</span> pulse. The colors in this <span class="hlt">image</span> were obtained using the following <span class="hlt">radar</span> channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received). <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> like this one could be used as a tool for city planners and resource managers to map and monitor land use patterns. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> systems can clearly detect the variety of landscapes in the area, as well as the density of urban</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01799.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01799.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of North Atlantic Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>This is a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> showing surface features on the open ocean in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. There is no land mass in this <span class="hlt">image</span>. The purple line in the lower left of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the stern wake of a ship. The ship creating the wake is the bright white spot on the middle, left side of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The ship's wake is about 28 kilometers (17 miles) long in this <span class="hlt">image</span> and investigators believe that is because the ship may be discharging oil. The oil makes the wake last longer and causes it to stand out in this <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>. A fairly sharp boundary or front extends from the lower left to the upper right corner of the <span class="hlt">image</span> and separates two distinct water masses that have different temperatures. The different water temperature affects the wind patterns on the ocean. In this <span class="hlt">image</span>, the light green area depicts rougher water with more wind, while the purple area is calmer water with less wind. The dark patches are smooth areas of low wind, probably related to clouds along the front, and the bright green patches are likely due to ice crystals in the clouds that scatter the <span class="hlt">radar</span> waves. The overall "fuzzy" look of this <span class="hlt">image</span> is caused by long ocean waves, also called swells. Ocean <span class="hlt">radar</span> imagery allows the fine detail of ocean features and interactions to be seen, such as the wake, swell, ocean front and cloud effects, which can then be used to enhance the understanding of ocean dynamics on smaller and smaller scales. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 42.8 degrees north latitude, 26.2 degrees west longitude and shows an area approximately 35 kilometers by 65 kilometers (22 by 40 miles). The colors in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is C-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; blue is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01309&hterms=BODY+IMAGE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DBODY%2BIMAGE','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01309&hterms=BODY+IMAGE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DBODY%2BIMAGE"><span>Space <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of New York City</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the New York city metropolitan area. The island of Manhattan appears in the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The green-colored rectangle on Manhattan is Central Park. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/ X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 10, 1994. North is toward the upper right. The area shown is 75.0 kilometers by 48.8 kilometers (46.5 miles by 30.2 miles). The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 40.7 degrees north latitude and 73.8 degrees west longitude. In general, light blue areas correspond to dense urban development, green areas to moderately vegetated zones and black areas to bodies of water. The Hudson River is the black strip that runs from the left edge to the upper right corner of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. It separates New Jersey, in the upper left of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, from New York. The Atlantic Ocean is at the bottom of the <span class="hlt">image</span> where two barrier islands along the southern shore of Long Island are also visible. John F. Kennedy International Airport is visible above these islands. Long Island Sound, separating Long Island from Connecticut, is the dark area right of the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Many bridges are visible in the <span class="hlt">image</span>, including the Verrazano Narrows, George Washington and Brooklyn bridges. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> illumination is from the left of the <span class="hlt">image</span>; this causes some urban zones to appear red because the streets are at a perpendicular angle to the <span class="hlt">radar</span> pulse. The colors in this <span class="hlt">image</span> were obtained using the following <span class="hlt">radar</span> channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received). <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> like this one could be used as a tool for city planners and resource managers to map and monitor land use patterns. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> systems can clearly detect the variety of landscapes in the area, as well as the density of urban</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01799&hterms=parts+space+ship&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dparts%2Bspace%2Bship','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01799&hterms=parts+space+ship&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dparts%2Bspace%2Bship"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of North Atlantic Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> showing surface features on the open ocean in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. There is no land mass in this <span class="hlt">image</span>. The purple line in the lower left of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the stern wake of a ship. The ship creating the wake is the bright white spot on the middle, left side of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The ship's wake is about 28 kilometers (17 miles) long in this <span class="hlt">image</span> and investigators believe that is because the ship may be discharging oil. The oil makes the wake last longer and causes it to stand out in this <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>. A fairly sharp boundary or front extends from the lower left to the upper right corner of the <span class="hlt">image</span> and separates two distinct water masses that have different temperatures. The different water temperature affects the wind patterns on the ocean. In this <span class="hlt">image</span>, the light green area depicts rougher water with more wind, while the purple area is calmer water with less wind. The dark patches are smooth areas of low wind, probably related to clouds along the front, and the bright green patches are likely due to ice crystals in the clouds that scatter the <span class="hlt">radar</span> waves. The overall 'fuzzy' look of this <span class="hlt">image</span> is caused by long ocean waves, also called swells. Ocean <span class="hlt">radar</span> imagery allows the fine detail of ocean features and interactions to be seen, such as the wake, swell, ocean front and cloud effects, which can then be used to enhance the understanding of ocean dynamics on smaller and smaller scales. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 42.8 degrees north latitude, 26.2 degrees west longitude and shows an area approximately 35 kilometers by 65 kilometers (22 by 40 miles). The colors in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is C-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; blue is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01797&hterms=palm+oil+deforestation&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dpalm%2Boil%2Bdeforestation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01797&hterms=palm+oil+deforestation&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dpalm%2Boil%2Bdeforestation"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Central Sumatra, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the central part of the island of Sumatra in Indonesia that shows how the tropical rainforest typical of this country is being impacted by human activity. Native forest appears in green in this <span class="hlt">image</span>, while prominent pink areas represent places where the native forest has been cleared. The large rectangular areas have been cleared for palm oil plantations. The bright pink zones are areas that have been cleared since 1989, while the dark pink zones are areas that were cleared before 1989. These <span class="hlt">radar</span> data were processed as part of an effort to assist oil and gas companies working in the area to assess the environmental impact of both their drilling operations and the activities of the local population. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> are useful in these areas because heavy cloud cover and the persistent smoke and haze associated with deforestation have prevented usable visible-light imagery from being acquired since 1989. The dark shapes in the upper right (northeast) corner of the <span class="hlt">image</span> are a chain of lakes in flat coastal marshes. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired in October 1994 by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Environmental changes can be easily documented by comparing this <span class="hlt">image</span> with visible-light data that were acquired in previous years by the Landsat satellite. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 0.9 degrees north latitude and 101.3 degrees east longitude. The area shown is 50 kilometers by 100 kilometers (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01797&hterms=palm+oil&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dpalm%2Boil','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01797&hterms=palm+oil&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dpalm%2Boil"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Central Sumatra, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the central part of the island of Sumatra in Indonesia that shows how the tropical rainforest typical of this country is being impacted by human activity. Native forest appears in green in this <span class="hlt">image</span>, while prominent pink areas represent places where the native forest has been cleared. The large rectangular areas have been cleared for palm oil plantations. The bright pink zones are areas that have been cleared since 1989, while the dark pink zones are areas that were cleared before 1989. These <span class="hlt">radar</span> data were processed as part of an effort to assist oil and gas companies working in the area to assess the environmental impact of both their drilling operations and the activities of the local population. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> are useful in these areas because heavy cloud cover and the persistent smoke and haze associated with deforestation have prevented usable visible-light imagery from being acquired since 1989. The dark shapes in the upper right (northeast) corner of the <span class="hlt">image</span> are a chain of lakes in flat coastal marshes. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired in October 1994 by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Environmental changes can be easily documented by comparing this <span class="hlt">image</span> with visible-light data that were acquired in previous years by the Landsat satellite. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 0.9 degrees north latitude and 101.3 degrees east longitude. The area shown is 50 kilometers by 100 kilometers (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01789&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01789&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Los Angeles, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the massive urbanization of Los Angeles, California. The <span class="hlt">image</span> extends from the Santa Monica Bay at the left to the San Gabriel Mountains at the right. Downtown Los Angeles is in the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The runways of the Los Angeles International Airport appear as black strips at the left center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The waterways of Marina del Rey are seen just above the airport. The San Gabriel Mountains and the city of Pasadena are at the right center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Black areas on the mountains on the right are fire scars from the 1993 Altadena fire. The Rose Bowl is shown as a small circle near the right center. The complex freeway system is visible as dark lines throughout the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Some city areas, such as Santa Monica in the upper left, appear red due to the alignment of streets and buildings to the incoming <span class="hlt">radar</span> beam. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 3, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 34.04 degrees North latitude and 118.2 degrees West longitude with North pointing toward the upper right. The area shown measures 40 kilometers by 50 kilometers (25 miles by 31 miles).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02770&hterms=instruments+meaning&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dinstruments%2Bmeaning','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02770&hterms=instruments+meaning&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dinstruments%2Bmeaning"><span>SRTM <span class="hlt">Radar</span> - Landsat <span class="hlt">Image</span> Comparison, Patagonia, Argentina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p><p/> In addition to an elevation model of most of Earth'slandmass, the Shuttle <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Topography Mission will produce C-band <span class="hlt">radar</span> imagery of the same area. This imagery is essentially a 10-day snapshot view of the Earth, as observed with 5.8 centimeter wavelength <span class="hlt">radar</span> signals that were transmitted from the Shuttle, reflected by the Earth, and then recorded on the Shuttle. This six-<span class="hlt">image</span> mosaic shows two examples of SRTM <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> (center) with comparisons to <span class="hlt">images</span> acquired by the Landsat 7 satellite in the visible wavelengths (left) and an infrared wavelength (right). Both sets of <span class="hlt">images</span> show lava flows in northern Patagonia, Argentina. In each case, the lava flows are relatively young compared to the surrounding rock formations.<p/>In visible light (left) <span class="hlt">image</span> brightness corresponds to mineral chemistry and -- as expected -- both lava flows appear dark. Generally, the upper flow sits atop much lighter bedrock, providing good contrast and making the edges of the flow distinct. However, the lower flow borders some rocks that are similarly dark, and the flow boundaries are somewhat obscured. Meanwhile, in the <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> (center), <span class="hlt">image</span> brightness corresponds to surface roughness (and topographic orientation) and substantial differences between the flows are visible. Much of the top flow appears dark, meaning it is fairly smooth. Consequently, it forms little or no contrast with the smooth and dark surrounding bedrock and thus virtually vanishes from view. However, the lower flow appears rough and bright and mostly forms good contrast with adjacent bedrock such that the flow is locally more distinct here than in the visible Landsat view. For further comparison, infrared Landsat <span class="hlt">images</span> (right) again show <span class="hlt">image</span> brightnesses related to mineral chemistry, but the lava flows appear lighter than in the visible wavelengths. Consequently, the lower lava flow becomes fairly obscure among the various surrounding rocks, just as the upper flow did in the <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01809&hterms=gravel&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dgravel','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01809&hterms=gravel&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dgravel"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Owens Valley, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Owens Valley, near the town of Bishop, California that was created by combining two spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this one are helpful to scientists because they clarify the relationships of the different types of surfaces detected by the <span class="hlt">radar</span> and the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. The view is looking southeast along the eastern edge of Owens Valley. The White Mountains are in the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, and the Inyo Mountains loom in the background. The high peaks of the White Mountains rise more than 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) above the valley floor. The runways of the Bishop airport are visible at the right edge of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The meandering course of the Owens River and its tributaries appear light blue on the valley floor. Blue areas in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are smooth, yellow areas are rock outcrops, and brown areas near the mountains are deposits of boulders, gravel and sand known as alluvial fans. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was constructed by overlaying a color composite <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> on top of a digital elevation map. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> data were taken by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttle Endeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was produced using <span class="hlt">radar</span> interferometry, a process in which <span class="hlt">radar</span> data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The elevation data were derived from a 1,500-km-long (930-mile) digital topographic map processed at JPL. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; and blue is the ratio of C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received to L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01809&hterms=owen&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dowen','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01809&hterms=owen&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dowen"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Owens Valley, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Owens Valley, near the town of Bishop, California that was created by combining two spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this one are helpful to scientists because they clarify the relationships of the different types of surfaces detected by the <span class="hlt">radar</span> and the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. The view is looking southeast along the eastern edge of Owens Valley. The White Mountains are in the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, and the Inyo Mountains loom in the background. The high peaks of the White Mountains rise more than 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) above the valley floor. The runways of the Bishop airport are visible at the right edge of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The meandering course of the Owens River and its tributaries appear light blue on the valley floor. Blue areas in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are smooth, yellow areas are rock outcrops, and brown areas near the mountains are deposits of boulders, gravel and sand known as alluvial fans. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was constructed by overlaying a color composite <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> on top of a digital elevation map. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> data were taken by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttle Endeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was produced using <span class="hlt">radar</span> interferometry, a process in which <span class="hlt">radar</span> data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The elevation data were derived from a 1,500-km-long (930-mile) digital topographic map processed at JPL. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; and blue is the ratio of C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received to L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800063310&hterms=1082&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231082','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800063310&hterms=1082&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231082"><span>Spaceborne <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> - Geologic and oceanographic applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Elachi, C.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Synoptic, large-area <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> of the earth's land and ocean surface, obtained from the Seasat orbiting spacecraft, show the potential for geologic mapping and for monitoring of ocean surface patterns. Structural and topographic features such as lineaments, anticlines, folds and domes, drainage patterns, stratification, and roughness units can be mapped. Ocean surface waves, internal waves, current boundaries, and large-scale eddies have been observed in numerous <span class="hlt">images</span> taken by the Seasat <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span>. This article gives an illustrated overview of these applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA20040.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA20040.html"><span>First <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Images</span> of Halloween Asteroid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-10-30</p> <p>These first <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> of 2015 TB145 from the National Science Foundation 1,000-foot 305-meter Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, indicate the near-Earth object is spherical in shape and approximately 2,000 feet 600 meters in diameter. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> were taken on Oct. 30, 2015, and the <span class="hlt">image</span> resolution is 25 feet (7.5 meters) per pixel. The celestial object is more than likely a dead comet that has shed its volatiles after numerous passes around the sun. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20040</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01837&hterms=mining+China&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmining%2BChina','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01837&hterms=mining+China&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmining%2BChina"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Mineral Resources, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of a mineral-rich region in southern China is being used by geologists to identify potential new areas for mineral exploration. The area shown is the vicinity of the city of Zhao Qing, the light blue area along the banks of the River Xi Jiang in the lower left. This is in the southern Chinese province of Guangdong, about 75 kilometers (46 miles) west of Guangzhou (Canton). The largest gold mine in southern China is located in the far upper left of the <span class="hlt">image</span> along a brightly reflective mountain ridge. Using the <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> as a guide, geologists are tracing the extension of the ridge structure to the east (right) to identify possible mining areas. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> is especially useful for this purpose because of its sensitivity to subtle topographic structure, even in areas such as these, which have a dense vegetation cover. The Xi Jiang area is one of the most productive mining regions in China, with deposits of tungsten, lead, zinc and gold. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttleEndeavour on April 17, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 37.2 degreesnorth latitude and 112.5 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The <span class="hlt">image</span> shows an area 60 kilometers by 38 kilometers (37.2 miles by 23.6 miles) The colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earthprogram.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01823&hterms=Russia&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DRussia','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01823&hterms=Russia&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DRussia"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Samara, Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This three-frequency space <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the city of Samara, Russia in pink and light green right of center. Samara is at the junction of the Volga and Samara Rivers approximately 800 kilometers (500 miles) southeast of Moscow. The wide river in the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the Volga. Samara, formerly Kuybyshev, is a busy industrial city known for its chemical, mechanical and petroleum industries. Northwest of the Volga (upper left corner of the <span class="hlt">image</span>) are deciduous forests of the Samarskaya Luka National Park. Complex patterns in the floodplain of the Volga are caused by 'cut-off' lakes and channels from former courses of the meandering river. The three <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies allow scientists to distinguish different types of agricultural fields in the lower right side of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. For example, fields which appear light blue are short grass or cleared fields. Purple and green fields contain taller plants or rough plowed soil. Scientists hope to use <span class="hlt">radar</span> data such as these to understand the environmental consequences of industrial, agricultural and natural preserve areas coexisting in close proximity. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is 50 kilometers by 26 kilometers (31 by 16 miles) and is centered at 53.2 degrees north latitude, 50.1 degrees east longitude. North is toward the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 1, 1994 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01823&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01823&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Samara, Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This three-frequency space <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the city of Samara, Russia in pink and light green right of center. Samara is at the junction of the Volga and Samara Rivers approximately 800 kilometers (500 miles) southeast of Moscow. The wide river in the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the Volga. Samara, formerly Kuybyshev, is a busy industrial city known for its chemical, mechanical and petroleum industries. Northwest of the Volga (upper left corner of the <span class="hlt">image</span>) are deciduous forests of the Samarskaya Luka National Park. Complex patterns in the floodplain of the Volga are caused by 'cut-off' lakes and channels from former courses of the meandering river. The three <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies allow scientists to distinguish different types of agricultural fields in the lower right side of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. For example, fields which appear light blue are short grass or cleared fields. Purple and green fields contain taller plants or rough plowed soil. Scientists hope to use <span class="hlt">radar</span> data such as these to understand the environmental consequences of industrial, agricultural and natural preserve areas coexisting in close proximity. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is 50 kilometers by 26 kilometers (31 by 16 miles) and is centered at 53.2 degrees north latitude, 50.1 degrees east longitude. North is toward the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 1, 1994 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01837&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01837&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Mineral Resources, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of a mineral-rich region in southern China is being used by geologists to identify potential new areas for mineral exploration. The area shown is the vicinity of the city of Zhao Qing, the light blue area along the banks of the River Xi Jiang in the lower left. This is in the southern Chinese province of Guangdong, about 75 kilometers (46 miles) west of Guangzhou (Canton). The largest gold mine in southern China is located in the far upper left of the <span class="hlt">image</span> along a brightly reflective mountain ridge. Using the <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> as a guide, geologists are tracing the extension of the ridge structure to the east (right) to identify possible mining areas. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> is especially useful for this purpose because of its sensitivity to subtle topographic structure, even in areas such as these, which have a dense vegetation cover. The Xi Jiang area is one of the most productive mining regions in China, with deposits of tungsten, lead, zinc and gold. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttleEndeavour on April 17, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 37.2 degreesnorth latitude and 112.5 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The <span class="hlt">image</span> shows an area 60 kilometers by 38 kilometers (37.2 miles by 23.6 miles) The colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earthprogram.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01818.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01818.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Colorado River</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>This space <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> illustrates the recent rapid urban development occurring along the lower Colorado River at the Nevada/Arizona state line. Lake Mojave is the dark feature that occupies the river valley in the upper half of the <span class="hlt">image</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01810.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01810.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of North Ecuador</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>A family of dormant volcanoes dominates the landscape in this <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Andes Mountains in northern Ecuador. The city of Otavalo, shown in pink, and Lake Otavalo lie within the triangle formed by three volcanoes in the upper part of the <span class="hlt">image</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01817.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01817.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of St. Louis, Missouri</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>This is a spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the area surrounding St. Louis, Missouri, where the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers come together. The city of St. Louis is the bright gold area within a bend in the Mississippi River at the lower center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01712.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01712.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Manaus, Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-27</p> <p>These two <span class="hlt">images</span> were created using data from the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR). On the left is a false-color <span class="hlt">image</span> of Manaus, Brazil acquired April 12, 1994, onboard space shuttle Endeavour. In the center of this <span class="hlt">image</span> is the Solimoes River just west of Manaus before it combines with the Rio Negro to form the Amazon River. The scene is around 8 by 8 kilometers (5 by 5 miles) with north toward the top. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> was produced in L-band where red areas correspond to high backscatter at HH polarization, while green areas exhibit high backscatter at HV polarization. Blue areas show low backscatter at VV polarization. The <span class="hlt">image</span> on the right is a classification map showing the extent of flooding beneath the forest canopy. The classification map was developed by SIR-C/X-SAR science team members at the University of California,Santa Barbara. The map uses the L-HH, L-HV, and L-VV <span class="hlt">images</span> to classify the <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> into six categories: Red flooded forest Green unflooded tropical rain forest Blue open water, Amazon river Yellow unflooded fields, some floating grasses Gray flooded shrubs Black floating and flooded grasses Data like these help scientists evaluate flood damage on a global scale. Floods are highly episodic and much of the area inundated is often tree-covered. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01712</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01745.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01745.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Glascow, Missouri</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>This is a false-color L-band <span class="hlt">image</span> of an area near Glasgow, Missouri, centered at about 39.2 degrees north latitude and 92.8 degrees west longitude. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired using the L-band <span class="hlt">radar</span> channel (horizontally transmitted and received and horizontally transmitted/vertically received) polarizations combined. The data were acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 50 on October 3,1994. The area shown is approximately 37 kilometers by 25 kilometers (23 miles by 16 miles). The <span class="hlt">radar</span> data, coupled with pre-flood aerial photography and satellite data and post-flood topographic and field data, are being used to evaluate changes associated with levee breaks in landforms, where deposits formed during the widespread flooding in 1993 along the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. The distinct <span class="hlt">radar</span> scattering properties of farmland, sand fields and scoured areas will be used to inventory floodplains along the Missouri River and determine the processes by which these areas return to preflood conditions. The <span class="hlt">image</span> shows one such levee break near Glasgow, Missouri. In the upper center of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>, below the bend of the river, is a region covered by several meters of sand, shown as dark regions. West (left) of the dark areas, a gap in the levee tree canopy shows the area where the levee failed. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> data such as these can help scientists more accurately assess the potential for future flooding in this region and how that might impact surrounding communities. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01745</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1069119','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1069119"><span>Using doppler <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> to estimate aircraft navigational heading error</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Doerry, Armin W [Albuquerque, NM; Jordan, Jay D [Albuquerque, NM; Kim, Theodore J [Albuquerque, NM</p> <p>2012-07-03</p> <p>A yaw angle error of a motion measurement system carried on an aircraft for navigation is estimated from Doppler <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> captured using the aircraft. At least two <span class="hlt">radar</span> pulses aimed at respectively different physical locations in a targeted area are transmitted from a <span class="hlt">radar</span> antenna carried on the aircraft. At least two Doppler <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> that respectively correspond to the at least two transmitted <span class="hlt">radar</span> pulses are produced. These <span class="hlt">images</span> are used to produce an estimate of the yaw angle error.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01825&hterms=ancient+egypt&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dancient%2Begypt','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01825&hterms=ancient+egypt&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dancient%2Begypt"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Safsaf Oasis, Egypt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This three-frequency space <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of south-central Egypt demonstrates the unique capability of <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> to penetrate thin sand cover in arid regions to reveal hidden details below the surface. Nearly all of the structures seen in this <span class="hlt">image</span> are invisible to the naked eye and to conventional optical satellite sensors. Features appear in various colors because the three separate <span class="hlt">radar</span> wavelengths are able to penetrate the sand to different depths. Areas that appear red or orange are places that can be seen only by the longest wavelength, L-band, and they are the deepest of the buried structures. Field studies in this area indicate L-band can penetrate as much as 2 meters (6.5 feet) of very dry sand to <span class="hlt">image</span> buried rock structures. Ancient drainage channels at the bottom of the <span class="hlt">image</span> are filled with sand more than 2 meters (6.5 feet) thick and therefore appear dark because the <span class="hlt">radar</span> waves cannot penetrate them. The fractured orange areas at the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span> and the blue circular structures in the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> are granitic areas that may contain mineral ore deposits. Scientists are using the penetrating capabilities of <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> in desert areas in studies of structural geology, mineral exploration, ancient climates, water resources and archaeology. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is 51.9 kilometers by 30.2 kilometers (32.2 miles by 18.7 miles) and is centered at 22.7 degrees north latitude, 29.3degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 16, 1994, on board the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01825&hterms=Egypt+Ancient&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DEgypt%252C%2BAncient','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01825&hterms=Egypt+Ancient&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DEgypt%252C%2BAncient"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Safsaf Oasis, Egypt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This three-frequency space <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of south-central Egypt demonstrates the unique capability of <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> to penetrate thin sand cover in arid regions to reveal hidden details below the surface. Nearly all of the structures seen in this <span class="hlt">image</span> are invisible to the naked eye and to conventional optical satellite sensors. Features appear in various colors because the three separate <span class="hlt">radar</span> wavelengths are able to penetrate the sand to different depths. Areas that appear red or orange are places that can be seen only by the longest wavelength, L-band, and they are the deepest of the buried structures. Field studies in this area indicate L-band can penetrate as much as 2 meters (6.5 feet) of very dry sand to <span class="hlt">image</span> buried rock structures. Ancient drainage channels at the bottom of the <span class="hlt">image</span> are filled with sand more than 2 meters (6.5 feet) thick and therefore appear dark because the <span class="hlt">radar</span> waves cannot penetrate them. The fractured orange areas at the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span> and the blue circular structures in the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> are granitic areas that may contain mineral ore deposits. Scientists are using the penetrating capabilities of <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> in desert areas in studies of structural geology, mineral exploration, ancient climates, water resources and archaeology. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is 51.9 kilometers by 30.2 kilometers (32.2 miles by 18.7 miles) and is centered at 22.7 degrees north latitude, 29.3degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 16, 1994, on board the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01808&hterms=gravel&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dgravel','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01808&hterms=gravel&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dgravel"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Saline Valley, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Saline Valley, about 30 km (19 miles) east of the town of Independence, California created by combining two spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this one are helpful to scientists because they clarify the relationships of the different types of surfaces detected by the <span class="hlt">radar</span> and the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. The view is looking southwest across Saline Valley. The high peaks in the background are the Inyo Mountains, which rise more than 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) above the valley floor. The dark blue patch near the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is an area of sand dunes. The brighter patches to the left of the dunes are the dry, salty lake beds of Saline Valley. The brown and orange areas are deposits of boulders, gravel and sand known as alluvial fans. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was constructed by overlaying a color composite <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> on top of a digital elevation map. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> was taken by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-bandSynthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttleEndeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was producedusing <span class="hlt">radar</span> interferometry, a process in which <span class="hlt">radar</span> data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The elevation data were derived from a 1,500-km-long (930-mile) digital topographic map processed at JPL. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vetically received; and blue is the ratio of C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received to L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered near 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude. No vertical exaggeration factor has been applied to the data. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01827&hterms=red+mud&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dred%2Bmud','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01827&hterms=red+mud&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dred%2Bmud"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Ruiz Volcano, Colombia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the Ruiz-Tolima volcanic region in central Colombia, about 150 kilometers (93 miles) west of Bogata. The town of Manizales, Colombia, is the pinkish area in the upper right of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Ruiz Volcano, also known as Nevado del Ruiz, is the dark red peak below and right of the <span class="hlt">image</span> center. A small circular summit crater is visible at the top of Ruiz. Tolima Volcano is the sharp peak near the lower left corner of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The red color of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is due to the snow cover and the lack of vegetation at high elevations in these volcanic mountains. Ruiz Volcano, at 5,389 meters (17,681 feet) elevation, is capped by glaciers. In 1985, an explosive eruption melted parts of these glaciers, triggering mudflows along narrow canyons on the sides of the volcano. The town of Armero, located just off the right side of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, was buried by mud and 21,000 residents were killed. Scientists are using <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> of these remote yet dangerous volcanoes to understand the threats they pose to local populations. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 4.8 degrees north latitude and 75.3 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper right. The <span class="hlt">image</span> shows an area 40 kilometers by 48 kilometers (24.8 miles by 29.8 miles). The colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01305&hterms=active+volcano&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dactive%2Bvolcano','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01305&hterms=active+volcano&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dactive%2Bvolcano"><span>Space <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of Galeras Volcano, Colombia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the area surrounding the Galeras volcano in southern Colombia shows the ability of a multi-frequency <span class="hlt">radar</span> to map volcanic structures that can be dangerous to study on the ground. Galeras has erupted more than 20 times since the area was first visited by European explorers in the 1500s. Volcanic activity levels have been high in the last five years, including an eruption in January 1993 that killed nine people on a scientific expedition to the volcano summit. Galeras is the light green area near the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The active cone, with a small summit pit, is the red feature nestled against the lower right edge of the caldera (crater) wall. The city of Pasto, with a population of 300,000, is shown in orange near the bottom of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, just 8 kilometers (5 miles) from the volcano. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/ X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 96th orbit on April 15, 1994. North is toward the upper right. The area shown is 49.1 by 36.0 kilometers (30.5 by 22.3 miles), centered at 1.2 degrees north latitude and 77.4 degrees west longitude. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> illumination is from the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The false colors in this <span class="hlt">image</span> were created using the following <span class="hlt">radar</span> channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received). Galeras is one of 15 volcanoes worldwide that are being monitored by the scientific community as an 'International Decade Volcano' because of the hazard that it represents to the local population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01305&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01305&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of Galeras Volcano, Colombia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the area surrounding the Galeras volcano in southern Colombia shows the ability of a multi-frequency <span class="hlt">radar</span> to map volcanic structures that can be dangerous to study on the ground. Galeras has erupted more than 20 times since the area was first visited by European explorers in the 1500s. Volcanic activity levels have been high in the last five years, including an eruption in January 1993 that killed nine people on a scientific expedition to the volcano summit. Galeras is the light green area near the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The active cone, with a small summit pit, is the red feature nestled against the lower right edge of the caldera (crater) wall. The city of Pasto, with a population of 300,000, is shown in orange near the bottom of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, just 8 kilometers (5 miles) from the volcano. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/ X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 96th orbit on April 15, 1994. North is toward the upper right. The area shown is 49.1 by 36.0 kilometers (30.5 by 22.3 miles), centered at 1.2 degrees north latitude and 77.4 degrees west longitude. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> illumination is from the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The false colors in this <span class="hlt">image</span> were created using the following <span class="hlt">radar</span> channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received). Galeras is one of 15 volcanoes worldwide that are being monitored by the scientific community as an 'International Decade Volcano' because of the hazard that it represents to the local population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01775&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01775&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Star City, Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the Star City cosmonaut training center, east of Moscow, Russia. Four American astronauts are training here for future long-duration flights aboard the Russian Mir space station. These joint flights are giving NASA and the Russian Space Agency experience necessary for the construction of the international Alpha space station, beginning in late 1997. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR), on its 62nd orbit on October 3, 1994. This Star City <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 55.55 degrees north latitude and 38.0 degrees east longitude. The area shown is approximately 32 kilometers by 49 kilometers (20 miles by 30 miles). North is to the top in this <span class="hlt">image</span>. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> illumination is from the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was produced using three channels of SIR-C <span class="hlt">radar</span> data: red indicates L-band (23 cm wavelength, horizontally transmitted and received); green indicates L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue indicates C-band (6 cm wavelength, horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In general, dark pink areas are agricultural; pink and light blue areas are urban communities; black areas represent lakes and rivers; dark blue areas are cleared forest; and light green areas are forested. The prominent black runways just right of center are Shchelkovo Airfield, about 4 km long. The textured pale blue-green area east and southeast of Shchelkovo Airfield is forest. Just east of the runways is a thin railroad line running southeast; the Star City compound lies just east of the small bend in the rail line. Star City contains the living quarters and training facilities for Russian cosmonauts and their families. Moscow's inner loop road is visible at the lower left edge of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Kremlin is just off the left edge, on the banks of the meandering Moskva River. The Klyazma River snakes to the southeast from the reservoir in the upper left (shown in bright red</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01751&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01751&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of San Francisco, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of San Francisco, California, taken on October 3,1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is about 40 kilometers by 55 kilometers (25 miles by 34 miles) with north toward the upper right. Downtown San Francisco is visible in the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> with the city of Oakland east (to the right) across San Francisco Bay. Also visible in the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the Golden Gate Bridge (left center) and the Bay Bridge connecting San Francisco and Oakland. North of the Bay Bridge is Treasure Island. Alcatraz Island appears as a small dot northwest of Treasure Island. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 56. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 37 degrees north latitude, 122degrees west longitude. This single-frequency SIR-C <span class="hlt">image</span> was obtained by the L-band (24 cm) <span class="hlt">radar</span> channel, horizontally transmitted and received. Portions of the Pacific Ocean visible in this <span class="hlt">image</span> appear very dark as do other smooth surfaces such as airport runways. Suburban areas, with the low-density housing and tree-lined streets that are typical of San Francisco, appear as lighter gray. Areas with high-rise buildings, such as those seen in the downtown areas, appear in very bright white, showing a higher density of housing and streets which run parallel to the <span class="hlt">radar</span> flight track. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: the L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01775&hterms=Green+living&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DGreen%2Bliving','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01775&hterms=Green+living&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DGreen%2Bliving"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Star City, Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the Star City cosmonaut training center, east of Moscow, Russia. Four American astronauts are training here for future long-duration flights aboard the Russian Mir space station. These joint flights are giving NASA and the Russian Space Agency experience necessary for the construction of the international Alpha space station, beginning in late 1997. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR), on its 62nd orbit on October 3, 1994. This Star City <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 55.55 degrees north latitude and 38.0 degrees east longitude. The area shown is approximately 32 kilometers by 49 kilometers (20 miles by 30 miles). North is to the top in this <span class="hlt">image</span>. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> illumination is from the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was produced using three channels of SIR-C <span class="hlt">radar</span> data: red indicates L-band (23 cm wavelength, horizontally transmitted and received); green indicates L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue indicates C-band (6 cm wavelength, horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In general, dark pink areas are agricultural; pink and light blue areas are urban communities; black areas represent lakes and rivers; dark blue areas are cleared forest; and light green areas are forested. The prominent black runways just right of center are Shchelkovo Airfield, about 4 km long. The textured pale blue-green area east and southeast of Shchelkovo Airfield is forest. Just east of the runways is a thin railroad line running southeast; the Star City compound lies just east of the small bend in the rail line. Star City contains the living quarters and training facilities for Russian cosmonauts and their families. Moscow's inner loop road is visible at the lower left edge of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Kremlin is just off the left edge, on the banks of the meandering Moskva River. The Klyazma River snakes to the southeast from the reservoir in the upper left (shown in bright red</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01738&hterms=hollywood&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dhollywood','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01738&hterms=hollywood&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dhollywood"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Los Angeles, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of Los Angeles, California, taken on October 2, 1994. Visible in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are Long Beach Harbor at the bottom right (south corner of the <span class="hlt">image</span>), Los Angeles International Airport at the bottom center, with Santa Monica just to the left of it and the Hollywood Hills to the left of Santa Monica. Also visible in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are the freeway systems of Los Angeles, which appear as dark lines. The San Gabriel Mountains (center top) and the communities of San Fernando Valley, Simi Valley and Palmdale can be seen on the left-hand side. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 24th orbit. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 34 degrees north latitude, 118 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 100 kilometers by 52 kilometers (62 miles by 32 miles). This single-frequency SIR-C <span class="hlt">image</span> was obtained by the L-band (24 cm) <span class="hlt">radar</span> channel, horizontally transmitted and received. Portions of the Pacific Ocean visible in this <span class="hlt">image</span> appear very dark as do freeways and other flat surfaces such as the airport runways. Mountains in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are dark grey, with brighter patches on the mountain slopes, which face in the direction of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> illumination (from the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span>). Suburban areas, with the low-density housing and tree-lined streets that are typical of Los Angeles, appear as lighter grey. Areas with high-rise buildings, such as downtown Los Angeles, appear in very bright white, showing a higher density of housing and streets which run parallel to the <span class="hlt">radar</span> flight track. Scientists hope to use <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> data from SIR-C/X-SAR to map fire scars in areas prone to brush fires, such as Los Angeles. In this <span class="hlt">image</span>, the Altadena fire area is visible in the top center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> as a patch of mountainous terrain which is slightly darker than the nearby mountains. Using all the <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequency and polarization <span class="hlt">images</span> provided by SIR</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01860&hterms=Citrus&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DCitrus','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01860&hterms=Citrus&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DCitrus"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Ventura County, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of Ventura County, California, shows the Santa Clara River valley and the surrounding mountains. The river valley is the linear feature that extends from the lower right to the upper left (east to west), where it empties into the Pacific Ocean (dark patches in upper and lower left). The cities of Ventura and Oxnard are seen along the left side of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Simi Valley is located in the lower center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, between the Santa Monica Mountains (purple area in lower left) and the Santa Susanna Mountains to the north. This area of California is known for its fruit; strawberry fields are shown in red and purple rectangular areas on the coastal plain, and citrus groves are the yellow green areas adjacent to the river. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 34.33 degrees north latitude, 119 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 53 kilometers by 35 kilometers (33 miles by 22 miles). Colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 6, 1994.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01860&hterms=strawberries&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dstrawberries','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01860&hterms=strawberries&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dstrawberries"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Ventura County, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of Ventura County, California, shows the Santa Clara River valley and the surrounding mountains. The river valley is the linear feature that extends from the lower right to the upper left (east to west), where it empties into the Pacific Ocean (dark patches in upper and lower left). The cities of Ventura and Oxnard are seen along the left side of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Simi Valley is located in the lower center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, between the Santa Monica Mountains (purple area in lower left) and the Santa Susanna Mountains to the north. This area of California is known for its fruit; strawberry fields are shown in red and purple rectangular areas on the coastal plain, and citrus groves are the yellow green areas adjacent to the river. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 34.33 degrees north latitude, 119 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 53 kilometers by 35 kilometers (33 miles by 22 miles). Colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 6, 1994.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA04175.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA04175.html"><span>Mississippi Delta, <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> with Colored Height</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-08-29</p> <p>The geography of the New Orleans and Mississippi delta region is well shown in this <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> from the Shuttle <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Topography Mission. In this <span class="hlt">image</span>, bright areas show regions of high <span class="hlt">radar</span> reflectivity, such as from urban areas, and elevations have been coded in color using height data also from the mission. Dark green colors indicate low elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. New Orleans is situated along the southern shore of Lake Pontchartrain, the large, roughly circular lake near the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The line spanning the lake is the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, the world's longest over water highway bridge. Major portions of the city of New Orleans are below sea level, and although it is protected by levees and sea walls, flooding during storm surges associated with major hurricanes is a significant concern. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04175</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01812&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01812&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Boston, Massachusetts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the area surrounding Boston, Mass., shows how a spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> system distinguishes between densely populated urban areas and nearby areas that are relatively unsettled. The bright white area at the right center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is downtown Boston. The wide river below and to the left of the city is the Charles River in Boston's Back Bay neighborhood. The dark green patch to the right of the Back Bay is Boston Common. A bridge across the north end of Back Bay connects the cities of Boston and Cambridge. The light green areas that dominate most of the <span class="hlt">image</span> are the suburban communities surrounding Boston. The many ponds that dot the region appear as dark irregular spots. Many densely populated urban areas show up as red in the <span class="hlt">image</span> due to the alignment of streets and buildings to the incoming <span class="hlt">radar</span> beam. North is toward the upper left. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired on October 9, 1994, by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) as it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. This area is centered at 42.4 degrees north latitude, 71.2 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 37 km by 18 km (23 miles by 11 miles). Colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a cooperative mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01812&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01812&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Boston, Massachusetts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the area surrounding Boston, Mass., shows how a spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> system distinguishes between densely populated urban areas and nearby areas that are relatively unsettled. The bright white area at the right center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is downtown Boston. The wide river below and to the left of the city is the Charles River in Boston's Back Bay neighborhood. The dark green patch to the right of the Back Bay is Boston Common. A bridge across the north end of Back Bay connects the cities of Boston and Cambridge. The light green areas that dominate most of the <span class="hlt">image</span> are the suburban communities surrounding Boston. The many ponds that dot the region appear as dark irregular spots. Many densely populated urban areas show up as red in the <span class="hlt">image</span> due to the alignment of streets and buildings to the incoming <span class="hlt">radar</span> beam. North is toward the upper left. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired on October 9, 1994, by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) as it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. This area is centered at 42.4 degrees north latitude, 71.2 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 37 km by 18 km (23 miles by 11 miles). Colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a cooperative mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26955012','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26955012"><span>Compound <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Approach for Breast <span class="hlt">Imaging</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Byrne, Dallan; Sarafianou, Mantalena; Craddock, Ian J</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Multistatic <span class="hlt">radar</span> apertures record scattering at a number of receivers when the target is illuminated by a single transmitter, providing more scattering information than its monostatic counterpart per transmission angle. This paper considers the well-known problem of detecting tumor targets within breast phantoms using multistatic <span class="hlt">radar</span>. To accurately <span class="hlt">image</span> potentially cancerous targets size within the breast, a significant number of multistatic channels are required in order to adequately calibrate-out unwanted skin reflections, increase the immunity to clutter, and increase the dynamic range of a breast <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> system. However, increasing the density of antennas within a physical array is inevitably limited by the geometry of the antenna elements designed to operate with biological tissues at microwave frequencies. A novel compound <span class="hlt">imaging</span> approach is presented to overcome these physical constraints and improve the <span class="hlt">imaging</span> capabilities of a multistatic <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> modality for breast scanning applications. The number of transmit-receive (TX-RX) paths available for <span class="hlt">imaging</span> are increased by performing a number of breast scans with varying array positions. A skin calibration method is presented to reduce the influence of skin reflections from each channel. Calibrated signals are applied to receive a beamforming method, compounding the data from each scan to produce a microwave <span class="hlt">radar</span> breast profile. The proposed <span class="hlt">imaging</span> method is evaluated with experimental data obtained from constructed phantoms of varying complexity, skin contour asymmetries, and challenging tumor positions and sizes. For each <span class="hlt">imaging</span> scenario outlined in this study, the proposed compound <span class="hlt">imaging</span> technique improves skin calibration, clearly detects small targets, and substantially reduces the level of undesirable clutter within the profile.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01862&hterms=parts+space+ship&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dparts%2Bspace%2Bship','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01862&hterms=parts+space+ship&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dparts%2Bspace%2Bship"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Hampton Roads, Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the Hampton Roads, Virginia region, where the James River (upper left center) flows into the Chesapeake Bay. The city of Norfolk is the bright area on the peninsula in the lower center. Norfolk is home to a large naval base, part of which can be seen as the bright white port facilities near the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The cities of Hampton and Newport News occupy the peninsula in the upper right of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The dark blue areas on this peninsula are the runways of Langley Air Force Base, which also houses NASA's Langley Research Center. Forested areas, including suburbs, appear as green on the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Cities appear as green, white and orange. The purple areas along the shorelines are wetlands; blue areas are cleared for agricultural use. Faint ship wakes can be seen in the water behind ships entering and leaving Hampton Roads. Scientists are using <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> like this one to study delicate coastal environments and the effects of urbanization and other human activities on the ecosystem and landscape. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 5, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 36.9 degrees north latitude, 76.4 degrees west longitude. North is towards the upper right. The area shown is 37 kilometers by 29 kilometers (23 miles by 18 miles). Colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's ongoing Mission to Planet Earth program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920001696','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920001696"><span>Triangulation using synthetic aperture <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Sherman S. C.; Howington-Kraus, Annie E.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>For the extraction of topographic information about Venus from stereoradar <span class="hlt">images</span> obtained from the Magellan Mission, a Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SAR) compilation system was developed on analytical stereoplotters. The system software was extensively tested by using stereoradar <span class="hlt">images</span> from various spacecraft and airborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> systems, including Seasat, SIR-B, ERIM XCL, and STAR-1. Stereomodeling from <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> was proven feasible, and development is on a correct approach. During testing, the software was enhanced and modified to obtain more flexibility and better precision. Triangulation software for establishing control points by using SAR <span class="hlt">images</span> was also developed through a joint effort with the Defense Mapping Agency. The SAR triangulation system comprises four main programs, TRIDATA, MODDATA, TRISAR, and SHEAR. The first two programs are used to sort and update the data; the third program, the main one, performs iterative statistical adjustment; and the fourth program analyzes the results. Also, input are flight data and data from the Global Positioning System and Inertial System (navigation information). The SAR triangulation system was tested with six strips of STAR-1 <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> on a VAX-750 computer. Each strip contains <span class="hlt">images</span> of 10 minutes flight time (equivalent to a ground distance of 73.5 km); the <span class="hlt">images</span> cover a ground width of 22.5 km. All <span class="hlt">images</span> were collected from the same side. With an input of 44 primary control points, 441 ground control points were produced. The adjustment process converged after eight iterations. With a 6-m/pixel resolution of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span>, the triangulation adjustment has an average standard elevation error of 81 m. Development of Magellan radargrammetry will be continued to convert both SAR compilation and triangulation systems into digital form.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-sts068-s-054.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-sts068-s-054.html"><span>STS-68 <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>: Kilauea, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-10-10</p> <p>STS068-S-054 (10 October 1994) --- This is a deformation map of the south flank of Kilauea volcano on the big island of Hawaii, centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude and 155.25 degrees west longitude. The map was created by combining interferometric <span class="hlt">radar</span> data - that is data acquired on different passes of the Space Shuttle Endeavour which are then overlaid to obtain elevation information - acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) during its first flight in April 1994 and its second flight in October 1994. The area shown is approximately 40 by 80 kilometers (25 by 50 miles). North is toward the upper left of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The colors indicate the displacement of the surface in that direction that the <span class="hlt">radar</span> instrument was pointed (toward the right of the <span class="hlt">image</span>) in the six months between <span class="hlt">images</span>. The analysis of ground movement is preliminary, but appears consistent with the motions detected by the Global Positioning System ground receivers that have been used over the past five years. The south flank of the Kilauea volcano is among the most rapidly deforming terrain's on Earth. Several regions show motion over the six-month time period. Most obvious is at the base of Hilina Pali, where 10 centimeters (4 inches) or more of crustal deformation can be seen in a concentrated area near the coastline. On a more localized scale, the currently active Pu'u O'o summit also shows about 10 centimeters (4 inches) of change near the vent area. Finally, there are indications of additional movement along the upper southwest rift zone, just below the Kilauea caldera in the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Deformation of the south flank is believed to be the result of movements along faults deep beneath the surface of the volcano, as well as injections of magma, or molten rock, into the volcano's "plumbing" system. Detection of ground motions from space has proven to be a unique capability of <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> technology. Scientists hope to use deformation data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA21453.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA21453.html"><span><span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Images</span> of Asteroid 2017 BQ6</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-02-10</p> <p>This composite of 11 <span class="hlt">images</span> of asteroid 2017 BQ6 was generated with <span class="hlt">radar</span> data collected using NASA's Goldstone Solar System <span class="hlt">Radar</span> in California's Mojave Desert on Feb. 5, 2017, between 5:24 and 5:52 p.m. PST (8:24 to 8:52 p.m. EST / 1:24 to 1:52 UTC). The <span class="hlt">images</span> have resolutions as fine as 12 feet (3.75 meters) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21453</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01824&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01824&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Athens, Greece</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This space <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of Athens, Greece, shows the sprawling, modern development of this ancient capital city. Densely populated urban areas appear in shades of pink and light green. The Acropolis the dark green triangular patch in the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Archaeological discoveries indicate Athens has been continuously occupied for at least the last 5,000 years. Numerous ships, shown as bright dots, are seen in the harbor areas in the upper left part of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The port city of Piraeus is at the left center. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is 45 kilometers by 45 kilometers (28 miles by 28 miles) and is centered at 37.9 degrees north latitude, 23.7 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies and polarizations are as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 2, 1994 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01824&hterms=parts+space+ship&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dparts%2Bspace%2Bship','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01824&hterms=parts+space+ship&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dparts%2Bspace%2Bship"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Athens, Greece</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This space <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of Athens, Greece, shows the sprawling, modern development of this ancient capital city. Densely populated urban areas appear in shades of pink and light green. The Acropolis the dark green triangular patch in the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Archaeological discoveries indicate Athens has been continuously occupied for at least the last 5,000 years. Numerous ships, shown as bright dots, are seen in the harbor areas in the upper left part of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The port city of Piraeus is at the left center. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is 45 kilometers by 45 kilometers (28 miles by 28 miles) and is centered at 37.9 degrees north latitude, 23.7 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies and polarizations are as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 2, 1994 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01802&hterms=role+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Drole%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01802&hterms=role+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Drole%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Weddell Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Two <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> are shown in this composite to compare the size of a standard spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> (small inset) to the <span class="hlt">image</span> that is created when the <span class="hlt">radar</span> instrument is used in the ScanSAR mode (large <span class="hlt">image</span>). The predominant <span class="hlt">image</span> shows two large ocean circulation features, called eddies, at the northernmost edge of the sea ice pack in the Weddell Sea, off Antarctica. The eddy processes in this region play an important role in the circulation of the global ocean and the transportation of heat toward the pole. The large <span class="hlt">image</span> is the first wide-swath, multi-frequency, multi-polarization <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> ever processed. To date, no other spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> sensors have obtained swaths exceeding 100 kilometers (62 miles) in width. This developmental <span class="hlt">image</span> was produced at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory by the Alaska SAR Facility's ScanSAR processor system, using <span class="hlt">radar</span> data obtained on October 5, 1994, during the second flight of the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is oriented approximately east-west, with a center location of around 56.6 degrees south latitude and 6.5 degrees west longitude. <span class="hlt">Image</span> dimensions are 240 km by 350 km (149 miles by 218 miles). The smaller <span class="hlt">image</span> inset (upper right edge) was obtained by SIR-C/X-SAR on October 6, 1994, and covers a portion of the same ice features that are shown in the large <span class="hlt">image</span>. The inset <span class="hlt">image</span> dimensions are 18 km by 50 km (11 miles by 31 miles). The ocean eddies have a clockwise (or cyclonic) rotation and are roughly 40 km to 60 km (25 miles to 37 miles) in diameter. The dark areas are new ice and the lighter green areas are small sea-ice floes that are swept along by surface currents; both of these areas are shown within the eddies and to the south of the eddies. First year seasonal ice, typically 0.5 meter to 0.8 meter (1.5 feet to 2.5 feet) thick, is shown in the darker green area in the lower right corner. The open ocean to the north</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830028854&hterms=Lafayette&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DLafayette','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830028854&hterms=Lafayette&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DLafayette"><span>Wetland mapping with <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Waite, W. P.; Macdonald, H. C.; Kaupp, V. H.; Demarcke, J. S.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>An analysis of Seasat <span class="hlt">radar</span> imagery is presented to identify the <span class="hlt">radar</span> signature of vegetation-covered water surfaces. Imagery taken on Aug. 21, 1978 displayed anomalously high returns over swamp lands near Lafayette, LA. Landsat scans of the area two days later revealed uniform vegetation cover in the area, and ground examination found the area to be filled with cypress trees in swamps. Similar results were obtained during an overflight above a region of southeast Arkansas. Mechanisms producing the high degree of reflectance are explored, and the possibility that the strong return is due to an interaction of the vegetation cover and the specular water surface underneath is mentioned. Further studies to identify the exact mechanisms producing the anomalous returns are recommended, as well as optimization of the viewing angle for general classes of vegetation density.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01778.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01778.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Patagonian Ice Fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>This pair of <span class="hlt">images</span> illustrates the ability of multi-parameter <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> sensors such as the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">radar</span> to detect climate-related changes on the Patagonian ice fields in the Andes Mountains of Chile and Argentina. The <span class="hlt">images</span> show nearly the same area of the south Patagonian ice field as it was <span class="hlt">imaged</span> during two space shuttle flights in 1994 that were conducted five-and-a-half months apart. The <span class="hlt">images</span>, centered at 49.0 degrees south latitude and 73.5degrees west longitude, include several large outlet glaciers. The <span class="hlt">images</span> were acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR on board the space shuttle Endeavour during April and October 1994. The top <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired on April 14, 1994, at 10:46 p.m. local time, while the bottom <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired on October 5,1994, at 10:57 p.m. local time. Both were acquired during the 77th orbit of the space shuttle. The area shown is approximately 100 kilometers by 58 kilometers (62 miles by 36 miles) with north toward the upper right. The colors in the <span class="hlt">images</span> were obtained using the following <span class="hlt">radar</span> channels: red represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); blue represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). The overall dark tone of the colors in the central portion of the April <span class="hlt">image</span> indicates that the interior of the ice field is covered with thick wet snow. The outlet glaciers, consisting of rough bare ice, are the brightly colored yellow and purple lobes which terminate at calving fronts into the dark waters of lakes and fiords. During the second mission the temperatures were colder and the corresponding change in snow and ice conditions is readily apparent by comparing the <span class="hlt">images</span>. The interior of the ice field is brighter because of increased <span class="hlt">radar</span> return from the dryer snow. The distinct green/orange boundary on the ice field indicates an abrupt change in the structure of the snowcap</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01842&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01842&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the city of Honolulu, Hawaii and adjacent areas on the island of Oahu. Honolulu lies on the south shore of the island, along the bottom of this <span class="hlt">image</span>. Diamond Head, an extinct volcanic crater, is seen in the lower right. The bright white strip left of Diamond Head is the Waikiki Beach area. Further west are the downtown area and harbor. Runways of the airport can be seen in the lower left. The Koolau mountain range runs through the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The steep cliffs on the north side of the range are thought to be remnants of massive landslides that ripped apart the volcanic mountains that built the island thousands of years ago. On the north shore of the island are the Mokapu peninsula and Kaneohe Bay. Densely vegetated areas appear green in this <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>, while urban areas generally appear orange, red or white. <span class="hlt">Images</span> such as this can be used by land use planners to monitor urban development and its effect on the tropical environment. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttleEndeavour on October 6, 1994.The <span class="hlt">image</span> is 20.6 kilometers by 31.0kilometers (12.8 miles by 19.2 miles) and is centered at 21.4degrees North latitude, 157.8 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radarfrequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR,a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01300&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01300&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace"><span>Space <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of New Orleans, Louisiana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">image</span> of the area surrounding the city of New Orleans, Louisiana in the southeastern United States demonstrates the ability of multi-frequency <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> to distinguish different types of land cover. The dark area in the center is Lake Pontchartrain. The thin line running across the lake is a causeway connecting New Orleans to the city of Mandeville. Lake Borgne is the dark area in the lower right of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Mississippi River appears as a dark, wavy line in the lower left. The white dots on the Mississippi are ships. The French Quarter is the brownish square near the left center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Lakefront Airport, a field used mostly for general aviation, is the bright spot near the center, jutting out into Lake Pontchartrain. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) during orbit 39 of space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1994. The area is located at 30.10 degrees north latitude and 89.1 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 100 kilometers (60 miles) by 50 kilometers (30 miles). The colors in this <span class="hlt">image</span> were obtained using the following <span class="hlt">radar</span> channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received); blue represents the L-band (vertically transmitted and received). The green areas are primarily vegetation consisting of swamp land and swamp forest (bayou) growing on sandy soil, while the pink areas are associated with reflections from buildings in urban and suburban areas. Different tones and colors in the vegetation areas will be studied by scientists to see how effective <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> data is in discriminating between different types of wetlands. Accurate maps of coastal wetland areas are important to ecologists studying wild fowl and the coastal environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01779&hterms=agricultural+age&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dagricultural%2Bage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01779&hterms=agricultural+age&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dagricultural%2Bage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Teide Volcano</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the Teide volcano on the island of Tenerife in the Canary Islands. The Canary Islands, part of Spain, are located in the eastern Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Morocco. Teide has erupted only once in the 20th Century, in 1909, but is considered a potentially threatening volcano due to its proximity to the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, shown in this <span class="hlt">image</span> as the purple and white area on the lower right edge of the island. The summit crater of Teide, clearly visible in the left center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, contains lava flows of various ages and roughnesses that appear in shades of green and brown. Different vegetation zones, both natural and agricultural, are detected by the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as areas of purple, green and yellow on the volcano's flanks. Scientists are using <span class="hlt">images</span> such as this to understand the evolution of the structure of Teide, especially the formation of the summit caldera and the potential for collapse of the flanks. The volcano is one of 15 identified by scientists as potentially hazardous to local populations, as part of the international The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 11, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 28.3 degrees North latitude and 16.6 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper right. The area shown measures 90 kilometers by 54.5 kilometers (55.8 miles by 33.8 miles). The colors in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01300&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01300&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of New Orleans, Louisiana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">image</span> of the area surrounding the city of New Orleans, Louisiana in the southeastern United States demonstrates the ability of multi-frequency <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> to distinguish different types of land cover. The dark area in the center is Lake Pontchartrain. The thin line running across the lake is a causeway connecting New Orleans to the city of Mandeville. Lake Borgne is the dark area in the lower right of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Mississippi River appears as a dark, wavy line in the lower left. The white dots on the Mississippi are ships. The French Quarter is the brownish square near the left center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Lakefront Airport, a field used mostly for general aviation, is the bright spot near the center, jutting out into Lake Pontchartrain. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) during orbit 39 of space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1994. The area is located at 30.10 degrees north latitude and 89.1 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 100 kilometers (60 miles) by 50 kilometers (30 miles). The colors in this <span class="hlt">image</span> were obtained using the following <span class="hlt">radar</span> channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received); blue represents the L-band (vertically transmitted and received). The green areas are primarily vegetation consisting of swamp land and swamp forest (bayou) growing on sandy soil, while the pink areas are associated with reflections from buildings in urban and suburban areas. Different tones and colors in the vegetation areas will be studied by scientists to see how effective <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> data is in discriminating between different types of wetlands. Accurate maps of coastal wetland areas are important to ecologists studying wild fowl and the coastal environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01779&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01779&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Teide Volcano</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the Teide volcano on the island of Tenerife in the Canary Islands. The Canary Islands, part of Spain, are located in the eastern Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Morocco. Teide has erupted only once in the 20th Century, in 1909, but is considered a potentially threatening volcano due to its proximity to the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, shown in this <span class="hlt">image</span> as the purple and white area on the lower right edge of the island. The summit crater of Teide, clearly visible in the left center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, contains lava flows of various ages and roughnesses that appear in shades of green and brown. Different vegetation zones, both natural and agricultural, are detected by the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as areas of purple, green and yellow on the volcano's flanks. Scientists are using <span class="hlt">images</span> such as this to understand the evolution of the structure of Teide, especially the formation of the summit caldera and the potential for collapse of the flanks. The volcano is one of 15 identified by scientists as potentially hazardous to local populations, as part of the international The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 11, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 28.3 degrees North latitude and 16.6 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper right. The area shown measures 90 kilometers by 54.5 kilometers (55.8 miles by 33.8 miles). The colors in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01842&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01842&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the city of Honolulu, Hawaii and adjacent areas on the island of Oahu. Honolulu lies on the south shore of the island, along the bottom of this <span class="hlt">image</span>. Diamond Head, an extinct volcanic crater, is seen in the lower right. The bright white strip left of Diamond Head is the Waikiki Beach area. Further west are the downtown area and harbor. Runways of the airport can be seen in the lower left. The Koolau mountain range runs through the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The steep cliffs on the north side of the range are thought to be remnants of massive landslides that ripped apart the volcanic mountains that built the island thousands of years ago. On the north shore of the island are the Mokapu peninsula and Kaneohe Bay. Densely vegetated areas appear green in this <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>, while urban areas generally appear orange, red or white. <span class="hlt">Images</span> such as this can be used by land use planners to monitor urban development and its effect on the tropical environment. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttleEndeavour on October 6, 1994.The <span class="hlt">image</span> is 20.6 kilometers by 31.0kilometers (12.8 miles by 19.2 miles) and is centered at 21.4degrees North latitude, 157.8 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radarfrequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR,a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01300.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01300.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of New Orleans, Louisiana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-04-14</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">image</span> of the area surrounding the city of New Orleans, Louisiana in the southeastern United States demonstrates the ability of multi-frequency <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> to distinguish different types of land cover. The dark area in the center is Lake Pontchartrain. The thin line running across the lake is a causeway connecting New Orleans to the city of Mandeville. Lake Borgne is the dark area in the lower right of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Mississippi River appears as a dark, wavy line in the lower left. The white dots on the Mississippi are ships. The French Quarter is the brownish square near the left center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Lakefront Airport, a field used mostly for general aviation, is the bright spot near the center, jutting out into Lake Pontchartrain. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) during orbit 39 of space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1994. The area is located at 30.10 degrees north latitude and 89.1 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 100 kilometers (60 miles) by 50 kilometers (30 miles). The colors in this <span class="hlt">image</span> were obtained using the following <span class="hlt">radar</span> channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received); blue represents the L-band (vertically transmitted and received). The green areas are primarily vegetation consisting of swamp land and swamp forest (bayou) growing on sandy soil, while the pink areas are associated with reflections from buildings in urban and suburban areas. Different tones and colors in the vegetation areas will be studied by scientists to see how effective <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> data is in discriminating between different types of wetlands. Accurate maps of coastal wetland areas are important to ecologists studying wild fowl and the coastal environment. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01300</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01840&hterms=vertical+farm&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dvertical%2Bfarm','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01840&hterms=vertical+farm&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dvertical%2Bfarm"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Rocky Mountains, Montana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is a three-dimensional perspective of the eastern front range of the Rocky Mountains, about 120 kilometers (75 miles) west of Great Falls, Montana. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was created by combining two spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this are useful to scientists because they show the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. This technique helps to clarify the relationships of the different types of materials on the surface detected by the <span class="hlt">radar</span>. The view is looking south-southeast. Along the right edge of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the valley of the north fork of the Sun River. The western edge of the Great Plains appears on the left side. The valleys in the lower center, running off into the plains on the left, are branches of the Teton River. The highest mountains are at elevations of 2,860 meters (9,390 feet), and the plains are about 1,400 meters (4,500 feet) above sea level. The dark brown areas are grasslands, bright green areas are farms, light brown, orange and purple areas are scrub and forest, and bright white and blue areas are steep rocky slopes. The two <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> were taken on successive days by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttle Endeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was produced using <span class="hlt">radar</span> interferometry, a process in which <span class="hlt">radar</span> data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; and blue are the differences seen in the L-band data between the two days. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered near 47.7 degrees north latitude and 112.7 degrees west longitude. No vertical exaggeration factor has been applied to the data. SIR-C/X-SAR, a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8021E..17D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8021E..17D"><span>Super-resolution techniques for <span class="hlt">velocity</span> estimation using UWB random noise <span class="hlt">radar</span> signals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dawood, Muhammad; Quraishi, Nafish; Alejos, Ana V.</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>The Doppler spread pertaining to the ultrawideband (UWB) <span class="hlt">radar</span> signals from moving target is directly proportional to the bandwidth of the transmitted signal and the target <span class="hlt">velocity</span>. Using typical FFT-based methods, the estimation of true <span class="hlt">velocities</span> pertaining to two targets moving with relatively close <span class="hlt">velocities</span> within a <span class="hlt">radar</span> range bin is problematic. In this paper, we extend the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm to resolve targets moving <span class="hlt">velocities</span> closer to each other within a given range bin for UWB random noise <span class="hlt">radar</span> waveforms. Simulated and experimental results are compared for various target <span class="hlt">velocities</span> using both narrowband (200MHz) and wideband (1GHz) noise <span class="hlt">radar</span> signals, clearly establishing the unbiased and unambiguous <span class="hlt">velocity</span> estimations using the MUSIC algorithm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01718.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01718.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Mammoth, California in 3-D</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-27</p> <p>This is a three-dimensional perspective of Mammoth Mountain, California. This view was constructed by overlaying a NASA Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C SIR-C <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> on a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation map.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997RaSc...32.2309H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997RaSc...32.2309H"><span><span class="hlt">Imaging</span> coherent backscatter <span class="hlt">radar</span> observations of topside equatorial spread F</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hysell, D. L.; Woodman, R. F.</p> <p>1997-11-01</p> <p>Multiple baseline interferometric <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of a large-scale topside spread F depletion has been performed at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory near Lima, Perú. A new <span class="hlt">imaging</span> technique makes it possible to examine the detailed structure of the scatter from field-aligned irregularities in and around the depletion, A new antenna at Jicamarca, physically separated from the main antenna array, provided very long interferometry baselines up to ˜94 λ long for the observations. High-resolution <span class="hlt">images</span> of coherent backscatter from the <span class="hlt">radar</span> plume were computed from the interferometry data using the maximum entropy method. These <span class="hlt">images</span> show that scattering regions with small Doppler <span class="hlt">velocities</span> lay mainly along the boundary of the depleted region. Meanwhile, regions with high Doppler <span class="hlt">velocities</span> were located within the depletion itself and could be seen convecting upward through the depleted channel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870009264','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870009264"><span>Shuttle <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span>-C science plan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The Shuttle <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C (SIR-C) mission will yield new and advanced scientific studies of the Earth. SIR-C will be the first instrument to simultaneously acquire <span class="hlt">images</span> at L-band and C-band with HH, VV, HV, or VH polarizations, as well as <span class="hlt">images</span> of the phase difference between HH and VV polarizations. These data will be digitally encoded and recorded using onboard high-density digital tape recorders and will later be digitally processed into <span class="hlt">images</span> using the JPL Advanced Digital SAR Processor. SIR-C geologic studies include cold-region geomorphology, fluvial geomorphology, rock weathering and erosional processes, tectonics and geologic boundaries, geobotany, and <span class="hlt">radar</span> stereogrammetry. Hydrology investigations cover arid, humid, wetland, snow-covered, and high-latitude regions. Additionally, SIR-C will provide the data to identify and map vegetation types, interpret landscape patterns and processes, assess the biophysical properties of plant canopies, and determine the degree of <span class="hlt">radar</span> penetration of plant canopies. In oceanography, SIR-C will provide the information necessary to: forecast ocean directional wave spectra; better understand internal wave-current interactions; study the relationship of ocean-bottom features to surface expressions and the correlation of wind signatures to <span class="hlt">radar</span> backscatter; and detect current-system boundaries, oceanic fronts, and mesoscale eddies. And, as the first spaceborne SAR with multi-frequency, multipolarization <span class="hlt">imaging</span> capabilities, whole new areas of glaciology will be opened for study when SIR-C is flown in a polar orbit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01813&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01813&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of La Paz, Bolivia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is an <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Bolivian capital city of La Paz that was created using three <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies. La Paz sits at the edge of the Altiplano, the high inland plateau between the Cordillera Occidental and Cordillera Oriental belts of the Andes Mountains in South America. Part of the Cordillera Oriental mountains are seen on the right side (northeast) of this <span class="hlt">image</span>. The bright areas at the top of the mountains are most likely the result of year-round snow cover. Glacier-carved valleys drain the mountain areas. The dark lines left of center are Kennedy Airport near the northwestern part of the city. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 18, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 16.25 degrees south latitude, 68.1 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 35 kilometers by 16 kilometers (22 miles by 10 miles). North is toward the upper right. Colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is X-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's program called Mission to Planet Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01776&hterms=italy+history&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ditaly%2Bhistory','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01776&hterms=italy+history&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ditaly%2Bhistory"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Mt. Etna, Italy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The summit of the Mount Etna volcano on the island of Sicily, Italy, one of the most active volcanoes in the world, is shown near the center of this <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>. Lava flows of different ages and surface roughness appear in shades of purple, green, yellow and pink surrounding the four small craters at the summit. Etna is one of the best-studied volcanoes in the world and scientists are using this <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> to identify and distinguish a variety of volcanic features. Etna has erupted hundreds of times in recorded history, with the most recent significant eruption in 1991-1993. Scientists are studying Etna as part of the international 'Decade Volcanoes' project, because of its high level of activity and potential threat to local populations. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired on October 11, 1994 by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 37.8 degrees North latitude and 15.1 degrees East longitude and covers an area of 51.2 kilometers by 22.6 kilometers (31.7 miles by 14.0 miles).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01776.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01776.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Mt. Etna, Italy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>The summit of the Mount Etna volcano on the island of Sicily, Italy, one of the most active volcanoes in the world, is shown near the center of this <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>. Lava flows of different ages and surface roughness appear in shades of purple, green, yellow and pink surrounding the four small craters at the summit. Etna is one of the best-studied volcanoes in the world and scientists are using this <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> to identify and distinguish a variety of volcanic features. Etna has erupted hundreds of times in recorded history, with the most recent significant eruption in 1991-1993. Scientists are studying Etna as part of the international "Decade Volcanoes" project, because of its high level of activity and potential threat to local populations. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired on October 11, 1994 by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 37.8 degrees North latitude and 15.1 degrees East longitude and covers an area of 51.2 kilometers by 22.6 kilometers (31.7 miles by 14.0 miles). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01776</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01803&hterms=Italy+formed&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DItaly%2Bformed','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01803&hterms=Italy+formed&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DItaly%2Bformed"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Oil Slicks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of an offshore drilling field about 150 km (93 miles) west of Bombay, India, in the Arabian Sea. The dark streaks are extensive oil slicks surrounding many of the drilling platforms, which appear as bright white spots. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> are useful for detecting and measuring the extent of oil seepages on the ocean surface, from both natural and industrial sources. The long, thin streaks extending from many of the platforms are spreading across the sea surface, pushed by local winds. The larger dark patches are dispersed slicks that were likely discharged earlier than the longer streaks, when the winds were probably from a different direction. The dispersed oil will eventually spread out over the more dense water and become a layer which is a single molecule thick. Many forms of oil, both from biological and from petroleum sources, smooth out the ocean surface, causing the area to appear dark in <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span>. There are also two forms of ocean waves shown in this <span class="hlt">image</span>. The dominant group of large waves (upper center) are called internal waves. These waves are formed below the ocean surface at the boundary between layers of warm and cold water and they appear in the <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> because of the way they change the ocean surface. Ocean swells, which are waves generated by winds, are shown throughout the <span class="hlt">image</span> but are most distinct in the blue area adjacent to the internal waves. Identification of waves provide oceanographers with information about the smaller scale dynamic processes of the ocean. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 9, 1994. The colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: Red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is the average of L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received and C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; blue is C</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01712&hterms=company+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcompany%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01712&hterms=company+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcompany%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Manaus, Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>These two <span class="hlt">images</span> were created using data from the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR). On the left is a false-color <span class="hlt">image</span> of Manaus, Brazil acquired April 12, 1994, onboard space shuttle Endeavour. In the center of this <span class="hlt">image</span> is the Solimoes River just west of Manaus before it combines with the Rio Negro to form the Amazon River. The scene is around 8 by 8 kilometers (5 by 5 miles) with north toward the top. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> was produced in L-band where red areas correspond to high backscatter at HH polarization, while green areas exhibit high backscatter at HV polarization. Blue areas show low backscatter at VV polarization. The <span class="hlt">image</span> on the right is a classification map showing the extent of flooding beneath the forest canopy. The classification map was developed by SIR-C/X-SAR science team members at the University of California,Santa Barbara. The map uses the L-HH, L-HV, and L-VV <span class="hlt">images</span> to classify the <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> into six categories: Red flooded forest Green unflooded tropical rain forest Blue open water, Amazon river Yellow unflooded fields, some floating grasses Gray flooded shrubs Black floating and flooded grasses Data like these help scientists evaluate flood damage on a global scale. Floods are highly episodic and much of the area inundated is often tree-covered. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01803&hterms=Offshore+drilling&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DOffshore%2Bdrilling','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01803&hterms=Offshore+drilling&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DOffshore%2Bdrilling"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Oil Slicks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of an offshore drilling field about 150 km (93 miles) west of Bombay, India, in the Arabian Sea. The dark streaks are extensive oil slicks surrounding many of the drilling platforms, which appear as bright white spots. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> are useful for detecting and measuring the extent of oil seepages on the ocean surface, from both natural and industrial sources. The long, thin streaks extending from many of the platforms are spreading across the sea surface, pushed by local winds. The larger dark patches are dispersed slicks that were likely discharged earlier than the longer streaks, when the winds were probably from a different direction. The dispersed oil will eventually spread out over the more dense water and become a layer which is a single molecule thick. Many forms of oil, both from biological and from petroleum sources, smooth out the ocean surface, causing the area to appear dark in <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span>. There are also two forms of ocean waves shown in this <span class="hlt">image</span>. The dominant group of large waves (upper center) are called internal waves. These waves are formed below the ocean surface at the boundary between layers of warm and cold water and they appear in the <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> because of the way they change the ocean surface. Ocean swells, which are waves generated by winds, are shown throughout the <span class="hlt">image</span> but are most distinct in the blue area adjacent to the internal waves. Identification of waves provide oceanographers with information about the smaller scale dynamic processes of the ocean. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 9, 1994. The colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: Red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is the average of L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received and C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; blue is C</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/871970','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/871970"><span>Ultra wideband ground penetrating <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of heterogeneous solids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Warhus, John P.; Mast, Jeffrey E.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>A non-invasive <span class="hlt">imaging</span> system for analyzing engineered structures comprises pairs of ultra wideband <span class="hlt">radar</span> transmitters and receivers in a linear array that are connected to a timing mechanism that allows a <span class="hlt">radar</span> echo sample to be taken at a variety of delay times for each <span class="hlt">radar</span> pulse transmission. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> transmitters and receivers are coupled to a position determining system that provides the x,y position on a surface for each group of samples measured for a volume from the surface. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> transmitter and receivers are moved about the surface, e.g., attached to the bumper of a truck, to collect such groups of measurements from a variety of x,y positions. Return signal amplitudes represent the relative reflectivity of objects within the volume and the delay in receiving each signal echo represents the depth at which the object lays in the volume and the propagation speeds of the intervening material layers. Successively deeper z-planes are backward propagated from one layer to the next with an adjustment for variations in the expected propagation <span class="hlt">velocities</span> of the material layers that lie between adjacent z-planes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/675784','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/675784"><span>Ultra wideband ground penetrating <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of heterogeneous solids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Warhus, J.P.; Mast, J.E.</p> <p>1998-11-10</p> <p>A non-invasive <span class="hlt">imaging</span> system for analyzing engineered structures comprises pairs of ultra wideband <span class="hlt">radar</span> transmitters and receivers in a linear array that are connected to a timing mechanism that allows a <span class="hlt">radar</span> echo sample to be taken at a variety of delay times for each <span class="hlt">radar</span> pulse transmission. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> transmitters and receivers are coupled to a position determining system that provides the x,y position on a surface for each group of samples measured for a volume from the surface. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> transmitter and receivers are moved about the surface, e.g., attached to the bumper of a truck, to collect such groups of measurements from a variety of x,y positions. Return signal amplitudes represent the relative reflectivity of objects within the volume and the delay in receiving each signal echo represents the depth at which the object lays in the volume and the propagation speeds of the intervening material layers. Successively deeper z-planes are backward propagated from one layer to the next with an adjustment for variations in the expected propagation <span class="hlt">velocities</span> of the material layers that lie between adjacent z-planes. 11 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01846&hterms=Feynman+Richard&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DFeynman%252C%2BRichard','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01846&hterms=Feynman+Richard&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DFeynman%252C%2BRichard"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Tuva, Central Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows part of the remote central Asian region of Tuva, an autonomous republic of the Russian Federation. Tuva is a mostly mountainous region that lies between western Mongolia and southern Siberia. This <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the area just south of the republic's capital of Kyzyl. Most of the red, pink and blue areas in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are agricultural fields of a large collective farming complex that was developed during the era of the Soviet Union. Traditional agricultural activity in the region, still active in remote areas, revolves around practices of nomadic livestock herding. White areas on the <span class="hlt">image</span> are north-facing hillsides, which develop denser forests than south-facing slopes. The river in the upper right is one of the two major branches of the Yenesey River. Tuva has received some notoriety in recent years due to the intense interest of the celebrated Caltech physicist Dr. Richard Feynman, chronicled in the book 'Tuva or Bust' by Ralph Leighton. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band SyntheticAperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour onOctober 1, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is 56 kilometers by 74 kilometers (35 miles by 46 miles) and is centered at 51.5 degrees north latitude, 95.1 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> fequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted andreceived; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and verticallyreceived. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to PlanetEarth program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01796&hterms=Lavenders&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DLavenders','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01796&hterms=Lavenders&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DLavenders"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Pishan, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered near the small town of Pishan in northwest China, about 280 km (174 miles) southeast of the city of Kashgar along the ancient Silk Route in the Taklamakan desert of the Xinjiang Province. Geologists are using this <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> as a map to study past climate changes and tectonics of the area. The irregular lavender branching patterns in the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> are the remains of ancient alluvial fans, gravel deposits that have accumulated at the base of the mountains during times of wetter climate. The subtle striped pattern cutting across the ancient fans are caused by thrusting of the Kun Lun Mountains north. This motion is caused by the continuing plate-tectonic collision of India with Asia. Modern fans show up as large lavender triangles above the ancient fan deposits. Yellow areas on the modern fans are vegetated oases. The gridded pattern results from the alignment of poplar trees that have been planted as wind breaks. The reservoir at the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is part of a sophisticated irrigation system that supplies water to the oases. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour in April 1994. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 37.4 degrees north latitude, 78.3 degrees east longitude and shows an area approximately 50 km by 100 km (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: Red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01796.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01796.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Pishan, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered near the small town of Pishan in northwest China, about 280 km (174 miles) southeast of the city of Kashgar along the ancient Silk Route in the Taklamakan desert of the Xinjiang Province. Geologists are using this <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> as a map to study past climate changes and tectonics of the area. The irregular lavender branching patterns in the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> are the remains of ancient alluvial fans, gravel deposits that have accumulated at the base of the mountains during times of wetter climate. The subtle striped pattern cutting across the ancient fans are caused by thrusting of the Kun Lun Mountains north. This motion is caused by the continuing plate-tectonic collision of India with Asia. Modern fans show up as large lavender triangles above the ancient fan deposits. Yellow areas on the modern fans are vegetated oases. The gridded pattern results from the alignment of poplar trees that have been planted as wind breaks. The reservoir at the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is part of a sophisticated irrigation system that supplies water to the oases. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour in April 1994. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 37.4 degrees north latitude, 78.3 degrees east longitude and shows an area approximately 50 km by 100 km (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: Red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01796</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01846&hterms=central+asia&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dcentral%2Basia','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01846&hterms=central+asia&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dcentral%2Basia"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Tuva, Central Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows part of the remote central Asian region of Tuva, an autonomous republic of the Russian Federation. Tuva is a mostly mountainous region that lies between western Mongolia and southern Siberia. This <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the area just south of the republic's capital of Kyzyl. Most of the red, pink and blue areas in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are agricultural fields of a large collective farming complex that was developed during the era of the Soviet Union. Traditional agricultural activity in the region, still active in remote areas, revolves around practices of nomadic livestock herding. White areas on the <span class="hlt">image</span> are north-facing hillsides, which develop denser forests than south-facing slopes. The river in the upper right is one of the two major branches of the Yenesey River. Tuva has received some notoriety in recent years due to the intense interest of the celebrated Caltech physicist Dr. Richard Feynman, chronicled in the book 'Tuva or Bust' by Ralph Leighton. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band SyntheticAperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour onOctober 1, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is 56 kilometers by 74 kilometers (35 miles by 46 miles) and is centered at 51.5 degrees north latitude, 95.1 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> fequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted andreceived; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and verticallyreceived. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to PlanetEarth program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02725&hterms=speckle+tracking&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dspeckle%2Btracking','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02725&hterms=speckle+tracking&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dspeckle%2Btracking"><span><span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span>, Color as Height , Salalah, Oman</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p><p/> This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> includes the city of Salalah, the second largest city in Oman. It illustrates how topography determines local climate and, in turn, where people live. This area on the southern coast of the Arabian Peninsula is characterized by a narrow coastal plain (bottom) facing southward into the Arabian Sea, backed by the steep escarpment of the Qara Mountains. The backslope of the Qara Mountains slopes gently into the vast desert of the Empty Quarter (at top). This area is subject to strong monsoonal storms from the Arabian Sea during the summer, when the mountains are enveloped in a sort of perpetual fog. The moisture from the monsoon enables agriculture on the Salalah plain, and also provides moisture for Frankincense trees growing on the desert (north) side of the mountains. In ancient times, incense derived from the sap of the Frankincense tree was the basis for an extremely lucrative trade. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> and topographic data are used by historians and archaeologists to discover ancient trade routes and other significant ruins.<p/>This <span class="hlt">image</span> combines two types of data from the Shuttle <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Topography Mission. The <span class="hlt">image</span> brightness corresponds to the strength of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to brown at the highest elevations. This <span class="hlt">image</span> contains about 1070 meters (3500 feet) of total relief. White speckles on the face of some of the mountains are holes in the data caused by steep terrain. These will be filled using coverage from an intersecting pass.<p/>The Shuttle <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same <span class="hlt">radar</span> instrument that comprised the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02725&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02725&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage"><span><span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span>, Color as Height , Salalah, Oman</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p><p/> This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> includes the city of Salalah, the second largest city in Oman. It illustrates how topography determines local climate and, in turn, where people live. This area on the southern coast of the Arabian Peninsula is characterized by a narrow coastal plain (bottom) facing southward into the Arabian Sea, backed by the steep escarpment of the Qara Mountains. The backslope of the Qara Mountains slopes gently into the vast desert of the Empty Quarter (at top). This area is subject to strong monsoonal storms from the Arabian Sea during the summer, when the mountains are enveloped in a sort of perpetual fog. The moisture from the monsoon enables agriculture on the Salalah plain, and also provides moisture for Frankincense trees growing on the desert (north) side of the mountains. In ancient times, incense derived from the sap of the Frankincense tree was the basis for an extremely lucrative trade. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> and topographic data are used by historians and archaeologists to discover ancient trade routes and other significant ruins.<p/>This <span class="hlt">image</span> combines two types of data from the Shuttle <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Topography Mission. The <span class="hlt">image</span> brightness corresponds to the strength of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to brown at the highest elevations. This <span class="hlt">image</span> contains about 1070 meters (3500 feet) of total relief. White speckles on the face of some of the mountains are holes in the data caused by steep terrain. These will be filled using coverage from an intersecting pass.<p/>The Shuttle <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same <span class="hlt">radar</span> instrument that comprised the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02730&hterms=California+missions&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DCalifornia%2Bmissions','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02730&hterms=California+missions&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DCalifornia%2Bmissions"><span><span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> San Francisco Bay Area, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p><p/> The San Francisco Bay Area in California and its surroundings are shown in this <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> from the Shuttle <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Topography Mission (SRTM). On this <span class="hlt">image</span>, smooth areas, such as the bay, lakes, roads and airport runways appear dark, while areas with buildings and trees appear bright. Downtown San Francisco is at the center and the city of Oakland is at the right across the San Francisco Bay. Some city areas, such as the South of Market district in San Francisco, appear bright due to the alignment of streets and buildings with respect to the incoming <span class="hlt">radar</span> beam. Three of the bridges spanning the Bay are seen in this <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Bay Bridge is in the center and extends from the city of San Francisco to Yerba Buena and Treasure Islands, and from there to Oakland. The Golden Gate Bridge is to the left and extends from San Francisco to Sausalito. The Richmond-San Rafael Bridge is in the upper right and extends from San Rafael to Richmond. Angel Island is the large island east of the Golden Gate Bridge, and lies north of the much smaller Alcatraz Island. The Alameda Naval Air Station is seen just below the Bay Bridge at the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Two major faults bounding the San Francisco-Oakland urban areas are visible on this <span class="hlt">image</span>. The San Andreas fault, on the San Francisco peninsula, is seen on the left side of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The fault trace is the straight feature filled with linear reservoirs, which appear dark. The Hayward fault is the straight feature on the right side of the <span class="hlt">image</span> between the urban areas and the hillier terrain to the east.<p/>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas and, consequently, does not show topographic data, but only the strength of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as <span class="hlt">radar</span> backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover and urbanization. The overall faint striping pattern in the <span class="hlt">images</span> is a data processing artifact due to the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02730&hterms=Urbanization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DUrbanization','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02730&hterms=Urbanization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DUrbanization"><span><span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> San Francisco Bay Area, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p><p/> The San Francisco Bay Area in California and its surroundings are shown in this <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> from the Shuttle <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Topography Mission (SRTM). On this <span class="hlt">image</span>, smooth areas, such as the bay, lakes, roads and airport runways appear dark, while areas with buildings and trees appear bright. Downtown San Francisco is at the center and the city of Oakland is at the right across the San Francisco Bay. Some city areas, such as the South of Market district in San Francisco, appear bright due to the alignment of streets and buildings with respect to the incoming <span class="hlt">radar</span> beam. Three of the bridges spanning the Bay are seen in this <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Bay Bridge is in the center and extends from the city of San Francisco to Yerba Buena and Treasure Islands, and from there to Oakland. The Golden Gate Bridge is to the left and extends from San Francisco to Sausalito. The Richmond-San Rafael Bridge is in the upper right and extends from San Rafael to Richmond. Angel Island is the large island east of the Golden Gate Bridge, and lies north of the much smaller Alcatraz Island. The Alameda Naval Air Station is seen just below the Bay Bridge at the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Two major faults bounding the San Francisco-Oakland urban areas are visible on this <span class="hlt">image</span>. The San Andreas fault, on the San Francisco peninsula, is seen on the left side of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The fault trace is the straight feature filled with linear reservoirs, which appear dark. The Hayward fault is the straight feature on the right side of the <span class="hlt">image</span> between the urban areas and the hillier terrain to the east.<p/>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas and, consequently, does not show topographic data, but only the strength of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as <span class="hlt">radar</span> backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover and urbanization. The overall faint striping pattern in the <span class="hlt">images</span> is a data processing artifact due to the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01795&hterms=cities+Italian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcities%2BItalian','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01795&hterms=cities+Italian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcities%2BItalian"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Florence, Italy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows land use patterns in and around the city of Florence, Italy, shown here in the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Florence is situated on a plain in the Chianti Hill region of Central Italy. The Arno River flows through town and is visible as the dark line running from the upper right to the bottom center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The city is home to some of the world's most famous art museums. The bridges seen crossing the Arno, shown as faint red lines in the upper right portion of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, were all sacked during World War II with the exception of the Ponte Vecchio, which remains as Florence's only covered bridge. The large, black V-shaped feature near the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the Florence Railroad Station. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 43.7 degrees north latitude and 11.15 degrees east longitude with North toward the upper left of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The area shown measures 20 kilometers by 17 kilometers (12.4 miles by 10.6 miles). The colors in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01795&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01795&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Florence, Italy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows land use patterns in and around the city of Florence, Italy, shown here in the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Florence is situated on a plain in the Chianti Hill region of Central Italy. The Arno River flows through town and is visible as the dark line running from the upper right to the bottom center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The city is home to some of the world's most famous art museums. The bridges seen crossing the Arno, shown as faint red lines in the upper right portion of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, were all sacked during World War II with the exception of the Ponte Vecchio, which remains as Florence's only covered bridge. The large, black V-shaped feature near the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the Florence Railroad Station. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 43.7 degrees north latitude and 11.15 degrees east longitude with North toward the upper left of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The area shown measures 20 kilometers by 17 kilometers (12.4 miles by 10.6 miles). The colors in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01795.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01795.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Florence, Italy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows land use patterns in and around the city of Florence, Italy, shown here in the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Florence is situated on a plain in the Chianti Hill region of Central Italy. The Arno River flows through town and is visible as the dark line running from the upper right to the bottom center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The city is home to some of the world's most famous art museums. The bridges seen crossing the Arno, shown as faint red lines in the upper right portion of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, were all sacked during World War II with the exception of the Ponte Vecchio, which remains as Florence's only covered bridge. The large, black V-shaped feature near the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the Florence Railroad Station. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 43.7 degrees north latitude and 11.15 degrees east longitude with North toward the upper left of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The area shown measures 20 kilometers by 17 kilometers (12.4 miles by 10.6 miles). The colors in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01795</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-sts068-s-053.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-sts068-s-053.html"><span>STS-68 <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>: Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-10-07</p> <p>STS068-S-053 (7 October 1994) --- These are color composite <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> showing the area around Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines. The <span class="hlt">images</span> were acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994 (left <span class="hlt">image</span>) and October 5, 1994 (right <span class="hlt">image</span>). The <span class="hlt">images</span> are centered at about 15 degrees north latitude and 120.5 degrees east longitude. Both <span class="hlt">images</span> were obtained with the same viewing geometry. The color composites were made by displaying the L-Band (horizontally transmitted and received) in red; the L-Band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) in green; and the C-Band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) in blue. The area shown is approximately 40 by 65 kilometers (25 by 40 miles). The main volcanic crater on Mount Pinatubo produced by the June 1991 eruptions and the steep slopes on the upper flanks of the volcano are easily seen in these <span class="hlt">images</span>. Red on the high slopes shows the distribution of the ash deposited during the 1991 eruption, which appears red because of the low cross-polarized <span class="hlt">radar</span> returns at C and L Bands. The dark drainage's radiating away from the summit are smooth mud flows, which even three years after the eruption continue to flood the river valleys after heavy rain. Comparing the two <span class="hlt">images</span> shows that significant changes have occurred in the intervening five months along the Pasig-Potero rivers (the dark area in the lower right of the <span class="hlt">images</span>). Mud flows, called "lahars", that occurred during the 1994 monsoon season filled the river valleys, allowing the lahars to spread over the surrounding countryside. Three weeks before the second <span class="hlt">image</span> was obtained, devastating lahars more than doubled the area affected in the Pasig-Potero rivers, which is clearly visible as the increase in dark area on the lower right of the <span class="hlt">images</span>. Migration of deposition to the east (right) has affected many communities. Newly affected areas included the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04175&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04175&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage"><span>Mississippi Delta, <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> with Colored Height</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the <span class="hlt">image</span> for the animation <p/> <i>About the animation</i>: This simulated view of the potential effects of storm surge flooding on Lake Pontchartrain and the New Orleans area was generated with data from the Shuttle <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Topography Mission. Although it is protected by levees and sea walls against storm surges of 18 to 20 feet, much of the city is below sea level, and flooding due to storm surges caused by major hurricanes is a concern. The animation shows regions that, if unprotected, would be inundated with water. The animation depicts flooding in one-meter increments. <p/> <i>About the <span class="hlt">image</span></i>: The geography of the New Orleans and Mississippi delta region is well shown in this <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> from the Shuttle <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Topography Mission. In this <span class="hlt">image</span>, bright areas show regions of high <span class="hlt">radar</span> reflectivity, such as from urban areas, and elevations have been coded in color using height data also from the mission. Dark green colors indicate low elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. <p/> New Orleans is situated along the southern shore of Lake Pontchartrain, the large, roughly circular lake near the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The line spanning the lake is the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, the world's longest over water highway bridge. Major portions of the city of New Orleans are below sea level, and although it is protected by levees and sea walls, flooding during storm surges associated with major hurricanes is a significant concern. <p/> Data used in this <span class="hlt">image</span> were acquired by the Shuttle <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. The mission used the same <span class="hlt">radar</span> instrument that comprised the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Topography Mission was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04175&hterms=hurricanes+rising+sea+levels&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dhurricanes%2Brising%2Bsea%2Blevels','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04175&hterms=hurricanes+rising+sea+levels&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dhurricanes%2Brising%2Bsea%2Blevels"><span>Mississippi Delta, <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> with Colored Height</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the <span class="hlt">image</span> for the animation <p/> <i>About the animation</i>: This simulated view of the potential effects of storm surge flooding on Lake Pontchartrain and the New Orleans area was generated with data from the Shuttle <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Topography Mission. Although it is protected by levees and sea walls against storm surges of 18 to 20 feet, much of the city is below sea level, and flooding due to storm surges caused by major hurricanes is a concern. The animation shows regions that, if unprotected, would be inundated with water. The animation depicts flooding in one-meter increments. <p/> <i>About the <span class="hlt">image</span></i>: The geography of the New Orleans and Mississippi delta region is well shown in this <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> from the Shuttle <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Topography Mission. In this <span class="hlt">image</span>, bright areas show regions of high <span class="hlt">radar</span> reflectivity, such as from urban areas, and elevations have been coded in color using height data also from the mission. Dark green colors indicate low elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. <p/> New Orleans is situated along the southern shore of Lake Pontchartrain, the large, roughly circular lake near the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The line spanning the lake is the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, the world's longest over water highway bridge. Major portions of the city of New Orleans are below sea level, and although it is protected by levees and sea walls, flooding during storm surges associated with major hurricanes is a significant concern. <p/> Data used in this <span class="hlt">image</span> were acquired by the Shuttle <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. The mission used the same <span class="hlt">radar</span> instrument that comprised the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Topography Mission was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1014878','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1014878"><span>Through-Wall <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>receiver dynamic range to be applied to the target scene behind the wall. A time-division multiplexed ( TDM ), multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO...by the data-acquisition computer. The TDM MIMO <span class="hlt">radar</span> system sequences through each of the 44 bistatic combinations, acquiring one range profile at...96 5. 75 5. 75 2 FiGurE 5. In this cartoon of the time-division multiplexed ( TDM ), multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) array lay- out [compare to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01810&hterms=Italy+formed&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DItaly%2Bformed','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01810&hterms=Italy+formed&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DItaly%2Bformed"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of North Ecuador</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A family of dormant volcanoes dominates the landscape in this <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Andes Mountains in northern Ecuador. The city of Otavalo, shown in pink, and Lake Otavalo lie within the triangle formed by three volcanoes in the upper part of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. These volcanoes are, clockwise from upper left, Mojanda, Imabura and Cusin. A lake partially fills the summit crater of Mojanda and a group of lava domes can be seen on the north flank. Geologists believe the most recent eruption of Mojanda was about 3,400 years ago. Much more recent activity has occurred at Cayambe, the large volcano at the bottom of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Massive mudflow deposits can be seen filling the valleys on the east (right) side of Cayambe. Cayambe last erupted about 600 years ago. Geologists are using <span class="hlt">radar</span> to study volcanoes in the Andes to determine the history of eruptions and to identify potential threats the volcanoes pose to local communities. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 0.1 degrees north latitude, 78.1 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 50 km by 50 km (31 miles by 31 miles). North is toward the upper right. Colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01843&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01843&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Hong Kong</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows part of the British territory of Hong Kong, adjacent to mainland China. The South China Sea is shown in dark blue and red on the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Land surfaces are seen in shades of lighter blue and gold, including Hong Kong Island in the lower center, the Kowloon Peninsula in the upper right and many other small islands. The brightest yellow areas are the densely developed areas of Hong Kong's business and residential districts. The small yellow dots in the water are the many ships that make Hong Kong one of the busiest seaports in the Far East. <span class="hlt">Images</span> such as this can be used by land-use planners to monitor urban development and its effect on the tropical environment. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 10, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is 23 kilometers by 31 kilometers (14 miles by 19 miles) and is centered at 22.3 degreesnorth latitude, 114.1 degrees east longitude. North is toward theupper right. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequenciesand polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band, verticallytransmitted and received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and received; and blue is C-band minus L-band, both vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of theGerman, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01848&hterms=refraction+space&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Drefraction%2Bspace','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01848&hterms=refraction+space&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Drefraction%2Bspace"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of County Kerry, Ireland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The Iveragh Peninsula, one of the four peninsulas in southwestern Ireland, is shown in this spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>. The lakes of Killarney National Park are the green patches on the left side of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The mountains to the right of the lakes include the highest peaks (1,036 meters or 3,400 feet) in Ireland. The patchwork patterns between the mountains are areas of farming and grazing. The delicate patterns in the water are caused by refraction of ocean waves around the peninsula edges and islands, including Skellig Rocks at the right edge of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Skelligs are home to a 15th century monastery and flocks of puffins. The region is part of County Kerry and includes a road called the 'Ring of Kerry' that is one of the most famous tourist routes in Ireland. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on April 12, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is 82 kilometers by 42 kilometers (51 miles by 26 miles) and is centered at 52.0 degrees north latitude, 9.9 degrees west longitude. North is toward the lower left. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, vertically transmitted and received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01848&hterms=farming+grazing&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dfarming%2Bgrazing','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01848&hterms=farming+grazing&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dfarming%2Bgrazing"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of County Kerry, Ireland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The Iveragh Peninsula, one of the four peninsulas in southwestern Ireland, is shown in this spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>. The lakes of Killarney National Park are the green patches on the left side of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The mountains to the right of the lakes include the highest peaks (1,036 meters or 3,400 feet) in Ireland. The patchwork patterns between the mountains are areas of farming and grazing. The delicate patterns in the water are caused by refraction of ocean waves around the peninsula edges and islands, including Skellig Rocks at the right edge of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Skelligs are home to a 15th century monastery and flocks of puffins. The region is part of County Kerry and includes a road called the 'Ring of Kerry' that is one of the most famous tourist routes in Ireland. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on April 12, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is 82 kilometers by 42 kilometers (51 miles by 26 miles) and is centered at 52.0 degrees north latitude, 9.9 degrees west longitude. North is toward the lower left. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, vertically transmitted and received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01843&hterms=parts+space+ship&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dparts%2Bspace%2Bship','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01843&hterms=parts+space+ship&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dparts%2Bspace%2Bship"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Hong Kong</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows part of the British territory of Hong Kong, adjacent to mainland China. The South China Sea is shown in dark blue and red on the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Land surfaces are seen in shades of lighter blue and gold, including Hong Kong Island in the lower center, the Kowloon Peninsula in the upper right and many other small islands. The brightest yellow areas are the densely developed areas of Hong Kong's business and residential districts. The small yellow dots in the water are the many ships that make Hong Kong one of the busiest seaports in the Far East. <span class="hlt">Images</span> such as this can be used by land-use planners to monitor urban development and its effect on the tropical environment. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 10, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is 23 kilometers by 31 kilometers (14 miles by 19 miles) and is centered at 22.3 degreesnorth latitude, 114.1 degrees east longitude. North is toward theupper right. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequenciesand polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band, verticallytransmitted and received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and received; and blue is C-band minus L-band, both vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of theGerman, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01811&hterms=reunion+island&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dreunion%2Bisland','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01811&hterms=reunion+island&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dreunion%2Bisland"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Reunion Island</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the volcanic island of Reunion, about 700 km (434 miles) east of Madagascar in the southwest Indian Ocean. The southern half of the island is dominated by the active volcano, Piton de la Fournaise. This is one of the world's most active volcanoes, with more than 100 eruptions in the last 300 years. The most recent activity occurred in the vicinity of Dolomieu Crater, shown in the lower center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> within a horseshoe-shaped collapse zone. Recent lava flows appear in shades of red, purple and orange. Light green areas are heavily vegetated forest, while much of the purple area near the coast is farmland. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> illumination is from the left side of the <span class="hlt">image</span> and dramatically emphasizes the precipitous cliffs at the edges of the central canyons of the island. These canyons are remnants from the collapse of formerly active parts of the volcanoes that built the island. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 5, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 21.2 degrees south latitude, 55.6 degrees east longitude. The area shown is approximately 50 km by 80 km (31 miles by 50 miles). North is toward the upper right. Colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01858&hterms=white+cane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dwhite%2Bcane','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01858&hterms=white+cane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dwhite%2Bcane"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Maui, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the 'Valley Island' of Maui, Hawaii. The cloud-penetrating capabilities of <span class="hlt">radar</span> provide a rare view of many parts of the island, since the higher elevations are frequently shrouded in clouds. The light blue and yellow areas in the lowlands near the center are sugar cane fields. The three major population centers, Lahaina on the left at the western tip of island, Wailuku left of center, and Kihei in the lower center appear as small yellow, white or purple mottled areas. West Maui volcano, in the lower left, is 1800 meters high (5900 feet) and is considered extinct. The entire eastern half of the island consists of East Maui volcano, which rises to an elevation of 3200 meters (10,500 feet) and features a spectacular crater called Haleakala at its summit. Haleakala Crater was produced by erosion during previous ice ages rather than by volcanic activity, although relatively recent small eruptions have produced the numerous volcanic cones and lava flows that can be seen on the floor of the crater. The most recent eruption took place near the coast at the southwestern end of East Maui volcano in the late 1700s. Such a time frame indicates that East Maui should be considered a dormant, rather than an extinct volcano. A new eruption is therefore possible in the next few hundred years. The multi-wavelength capability of the SIR-C <span class="hlt">radar</span> also permits differences in the vegetation cover on the middle flanks of East Maui to be identified. Rain forests appear in yellow, while grassland is shown in dark green, pink and blue. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> such as this one are being used by scientists to understand volcanic processes and to assess potential threats that future activity may pose to local populations. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 16, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is 73.7 kilometers by 48.7 kilometers (45.7 miles by 30.2 miles) and is centered at 20</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790020654','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790020654"><span>Bibliography of geologic studies using <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bryan, M. L.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Articles concerning <span class="hlt">imaging</span> studies on the geomorphology, mineralogy, and topology of various landforms are reported. One hundred and ninety citations are listed and an index by National Technical Information service citation number is included. Several illustrations of L-band <span class="hlt">radar</span> imagery are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01803.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01803.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Oil Slicks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>This is a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of an offshore drilling field about 150 km 93 miles west of Bombay, India, in the Arabian Sea. The dark streaks are extensive oil slicks surrounding many of the drilling platforms, which appear as bright white spots.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920000228&hterms=kasischke&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dkasischke','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920000228&hterms=kasischke&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dkasischke"><span>Phase Calibration Of Polarimetric <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Images</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Freeman, Anthony; Sheen, Dan R.; Kasischke, Erik S.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Report addresses problem of calibration of differences between phases (relative to transmitted signals) of signals received in two polarization channels of polarimetric <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> system. Causes of various types of errors discussed. Calibration necessary to deduce information about target area - type of terrain, presence of vegetation, and land/water boundaries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01860.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01860.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Ventura County, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of Ventura County, California, shows the Santa Clara River valley and the surrounding mountains. The river valley is the linear feature that extends from the lower right to the upper left, where it empties into the Pacific Ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990Sci...248.1523O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990Sci...248.1523O"><span><span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> of asteroid 1989 PB</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ostro, S. J.; Chandler, J. F.; Hine, A. A.; Rosema, K. D.; Shapiro, I. I.; Yeomans, D. K.</p> <p>1990-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Radar</span> observations of the near-earth asteroid 1989 PB, made shortly after its optical discovery, yield a sequence of delay-Doppler <span class="hlt">images</span> that reveal it to consist of two distinct lobes that appear to be in contact. It seems likely that the two lobes once were separate and that they collided to produce the current 'contact-binary' configuration.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750052393&hterms=coastal+resources&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dcoastal%2Bresources','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750052393&hterms=coastal+resources&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dcoastal%2Bresources"><span><span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> potentials for earth resources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brown, W. E., Jr.; Elachi, C.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The potentials of airborne and spacecraft borne <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radars</span> in earth resources applications are reviewed and discussed. The areas specifically addressed are: oceanography, coastal regions studies, glaciology, polar ice studies, geology, geomorphology and agriculture. The paper also addresses the main areas of emphasis for the next ten years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA16895.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA16895.html"><span>Goldstone <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Images</span> of Asteroid 2013 ET</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-03-18</p> <p>This sequence of <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> of asteroid 2013 ET was obtained on Mar. 10, 2013, by NASA scientists using the 230-foot 70-meter DSN antenna at Goldstone, CA, when the asteroid was about 693,000 mi 1.1 million km from Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986STIN...8714573M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986STIN...8714573M"><span>Derivation of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> range equation for a pulse-Doppler <span class="hlt">radar</span> with range and <span class="hlt">velocity</span> gating and coherent and noncoherent pulse integration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Masters, G.</p> <p>1986-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">radar</span> range equation is employed in test planning to predict the probability of target detection for a given set of test conditions (target parameters, range, <span class="hlt">velocity</span>, aspect angle, <span class="hlt">radar</span> parameters, etc.). This technical memorandum documents the detailed development of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> range equation including the effects of range gating, <span class="hlt">velocity</span> gating, and both predetection and postdetection pulse integration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01789.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01789.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Los Angeles, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the massive urbanization of Los Angeles, California. The <span class="hlt">image</span> extends from the Santa Monica Bay at the left to the San Gabriel Mountains at the right. Downtown Los Angeles is in the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The runways of the Los Angeles International Airport appear as black strips at the left center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The waterways of Marina del Rey are seen just above the airport. The San Gabriel Mountains and the city of Pasadena are at the right center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Black areas on the mountains on the right are fire scars from the 1993 Altadena fire. The Rose Bowl is shown as a small circle near the right center. The complex freeway system is visible as dark lines throughout the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Some city areas, such as Santa Monica in the upper left, appear red due to the alignment of streets and buildings to the incoming <span class="hlt">radar</span> beam. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 3, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 34.04 degrees North latitude and 118.2 degrees West longitude with North pointing toward the upper right. The area shown measures 40 kilometers by 50 kilometers (25 miles by 31 miles). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01789</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01791&hterms=Dark+market&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DDark%2Bmarket','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01791&hterms=Dark+market&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DDark%2Bmarket"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of San Francisco, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">image</span> of San Francisco, California shows how the <span class="hlt">radar</span> distinguishes between densely populated urban areas and nearby areas that are relatively unsettled. Downtown San Francisco is at the center and the city of Oakland is at the right across the San Francisco Bay. Some city areas, such as the South of Market, called the SOMA district in San Francisco, appear bright red due to the alignment of streets and buildings to the incoming <span class="hlt">radar</span> beam. Various bridges in the area are also visible including the Golden Gate Bridge (left center) at the opening of San Francisco Bay, the Bay Bridge (right center) connecting San Francisco and Oakland, and the San Mateo Bridge (bottom center). All the dark areas on the <span class="hlt">image</span> are relatively smooth water: the Pacific Ocean to the left, San Francisco Bay in the center, and various reservoirs. Two major faults bounding the San Francisco-Oakland urban areas are visible on this <span class="hlt">image</span>. The San Andreas fault, on the San Francisco peninsula, is seen in the lower left of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The fault trace is the straight feature filled with linear reservoirs which appear dark. The Hayward fault is the straight feature on the right side of the <span class="hlt">image</span> between the urban areas and the hillier terrain to the east. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is about 42 kilometers by 58 kilometers (26 miles by 36 miles) with north toward the upper right. This area is centered at 37.83 degrees north latitude, 122.38 degrees east longitude. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 3, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01304&hterms=19+degrees+north+latitude&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D19.5%2Bdegrees%2Bnorth%2Blatitude','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01304&hterms=19+degrees+north+latitude&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D19.5%2Bdegrees%2Bnorth%2Blatitude"><span>Space <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of Mauna Loa, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Mauna Loa volcano on the Big Island of Hawaii shows the capability of <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> to map lava flows and other volcanic structures. Mauna Loa has erupted more than 35 times since the island was first visited by westerners in the early 1800s. The large summit crater, called Mokuaweoweo Caldera, is clearly visible near the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Leading away from the caldera (towards top right and lower center) are the two main rift zones shown here in orange. Rift zones are areas of weakness within the upper part of the volcano that are often ripped open as new magma (molten rock) approaches the surface at the start of an eruption. The most recent eruption of Mauna Loa was in March and April 1984, when segments of the northeast rift zones were active. If the height of the volcano was measured from its base on the ocean floor instead of from sea level, Mauna Loa would be the tallest mountain on Earth. Its peak (center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>) rises more than 8 kilometers (5 miles) above the ocean floor. The South Kona District, known for cultivation of macadamia nuts and coffee, can be seen in the lower left as white and blue areas along the coast. North is toward the upper left. The area shown is 41.5 by 75 kilometers (25.7 by 46.5 miles), centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude and 155.6 degrees west longitude. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/ X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 36th orbit on October 2, 1994. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> illumination is from the left of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The colors in this <span class="hlt">image</span> were obtained using the following <span class="hlt">radar</span> channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received). The resulting color combinations in this <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> are caused by differences in surface roughness of the lava flows. Smoother flows</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01304&hterms=Coffee&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DCoffee','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01304&hterms=Coffee&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DCoffee"><span>Space <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of Mauna Loa, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Mauna Loa volcano on the Big Island of Hawaii shows the capability of <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> to map lava flows and other volcanic structures. Mauna Loa has erupted more than 35 times since the island was first visited by westerners in the early 1800s. The large summit crater, called Mokuaweoweo Caldera, is clearly visible near the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Leading away from the caldera (towards top right and lower center) are the two main rift zones shown here in orange. Rift zones are areas of weakness within the upper part of the volcano that are often ripped open as new magma (molten rock) approaches the surface at the start of an eruption. The most recent eruption of Mauna Loa was in March and April 1984, when segments of the northeast rift zones were active. If the height of the volcano was measured from its base on the ocean floor instead of from sea level, Mauna Loa would be the tallest mountain on Earth. Its peak (center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>) rises more than 8 kilometers (5 miles) above the ocean floor. The South Kona District, known for cultivation of macadamia nuts and coffee, can be seen in the lower left as white and blue areas along the coast. North is toward the upper left. The area shown is 41.5 by 75 kilometers (25.7 by 46.5 miles), centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude and 155.6 degrees west longitude. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/ X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 36th orbit on October 2, 1994. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> illumination is from the left of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The colors in this <span class="hlt">image</span> were obtained using the following <span class="hlt">radar</span> channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received). The resulting color combinations in this <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> are caused by differences in surface roughness of the lava flows. Smoother flows</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.8821Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.8821Y"><span><span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of shallow water bathymetry: A case study in the Yangtze Estuary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Peng; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Kudryavtsev, Vladimir; Zhong, Xiaojing; Zhou, Yunxuan</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>This study focuses on 2-dimensional (2-D) <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of bathymetric features in the shallow water of the Yangtze Estuary using synthetic aperture <span class="hlt">radar</span> (SAR) observations and model simulations. A validated 2-D shallow water numerical model simulates the barotropic current <span class="hlt">velocity</span>, and the simulated current fields together with the relevant parameters of <span class="hlt">radar</span> observations are then invoked in the <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> model as the input. The results show that variations in the simulated <span class="hlt">image</span> intensity are mainly dominated by distinct <span class="hlt">radar</span> backscatter anomalies caused by wave-current interactions in the vicinity of rapidly changing underwater topographies. The comparison between the simulated and observed SAR <span class="hlt">images</span> shows a reasonable agreement, demonstrating that our approach may be implemented to monitor changes in the shallow water bathymetry of the Yangtze Estuary in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860048827&hterms=Deciduous+forest&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DDeciduous%2Bforest','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860048827&hterms=Deciduous+forest&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DDeciduous%2Bforest"><span>Forest discrimination with multipolarization <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ford, J. P.; Wickland, D. E.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The use of <span class="hlt">radar</span> polarization diversity for discriminating forest canopy variables on airborne synthetic-aperture <span class="hlt">radar</span> (SAR) <span class="hlt">images</span> is evaluated. SAR <span class="hlt">images</span> were acquired at L-Band (24.6 cm) simultaneously in four linear polarization states (HH, HV, VH, and VV) in South Carolina on March 1, 1984. In order to relate the polarization signatures to biophysical properties, false-color composite <span class="hlt">images</span> were compared to maps of forest stands in the timber compartment. In decreasing order, the most useful correlative forest data are stand basal area, forest age, site condition index, and forest management type. It is found that multipolarization <span class="hlt">images</span> discriminate variation in tree density and difference in the amount of understory, but do not discriminate between evergreen and deciduous forest types.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01861&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01861&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Sacramento, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is a spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the city of Sacramento, the capital of California. Urban areas appear pink and the surrounding agricultural areas are green and blue. The Sacramento River is the curving dark line running from the left side of the <span class="hlt">image</span> (northwest) to the bottom right. The American River is the dark curving line in the center. Sacramento is built at the junction of these two rivers and the state Capitol building is in the bright pink-white area southeast of the junction. The straighter dark line (lower center) is the Sacramento River Deep Water Ship Channel which allows ship access from San Francisco. The black areas in the center are the runways of the Sacramento Executive airport. The city of Davis, California is seen as a pink area in lower left. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is 27.0 kilometers by 38.4 kilometers (17 miles by 24 miles) and is centered at 38.6 degrees North latitude, 125.1 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01861&hterms=parts+space+ship&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dparts%2Bspace%2Bship','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01861&hterms=parts+space+ship&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dparts%2Bspace%2Bship"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Sacramento, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is a spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the city of Sacramento, the capital of California. Urban areas appear pink and the surrounding agricultural areas are green and blue. The Sacramento River is the curving dark line running from the left side of the <span class="hlt">image</span> (northwest) to the bottom right. The American River is the dark curving line in the center. Sacramento is built at the junction of these two rivers and the state Capitol building is in the bright pink-white area southeast of the junction. The straighter dark line (lower center) is the Sacramento River Deep Water Ship Channel which allows ship access from San Francisco. The black areas in the center are the runways of the Sacramento Executive airport. The city of Davis, California is seen as a pink area in lower left. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is 27.0 kilometers by 38.4 kilometers (17 miles by 24 miles) and is centered at 38.6 degrees North latitude, 125.1 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01797.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01797.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Central Sumatra, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>This is a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the central part of the island of Sumatra in Indonesia that shows how the tropical rainforest typical of this country is being impacted by human activity. Native forest appears in green in this <span class="hlt">image</span>, while prominent pink areas represent places where the native forest has been cleared. The large rectangular areas have been cleared for palm oil plantations. The bright pink zones are areas that have been cleared since 1989, while the dark pink zones are areas that were cleared before 1989. These <span class="hlt">radar</span> data were processed as part of an effort to assist oil and gas companies working in the area to assess the environmental impact of both their drilling operations and the activities of the local population. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> are useful in these areas because heavy cloud cover and the persistent smoke and haze associated with deforestation have prevented usable visible-light imagery from being acquired since 1989. The dark shapes in the upper right (northeast) corner of the <span class="hlt">image</span> are a chain of lakes in flat coastal marshes. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired in October 1994 by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Environmental changes can be easily documented by comparing this <span class="hlt">image</span> with visible-light data that were acquired in previous years by the Landsat satellite. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 0.9 degrees north latitude and 101.3 degrees east longitude. The area shown is 50 kilometers by 100 kilometers (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program. http</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01788&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01788&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Harvard Forest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This is a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the area surrounding the Harvard Forest in north-central Massachusetts that has been operated as a ecological research facility by Harvard University since 1907. At the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the Quabbin Reservoir, and the Connecticut River is at the lower left of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Harvard Forest itself is just above the reservoir. Researchers are comparing the naturally occurring physical disturbances in the forest and the recent and projected chemical disturbances and their effects on the forest ecosystem. Agricultural land appears dark blue/purple, along with low shrub vegetation and some wetlands. Urban development is bright pink; the yellow to green tints are conifer-dominated vegetation with the pitch pine sand plain at the middle left edge of the <span class="hlt">image</span> appearing very distinctive. The green tint may indicate pure pine plantation stands, and deciduous broadleaf trees appear gray/pink with perhaps wetter sites being pinker. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 42.50 degrees North latitude and 72.33 degrees West longitude and covers an area of 53 kilometers 63 by kilometers (33 miles by 39 miles). The colors in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01788&hterms=Deciduous+forest&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DDeciduous%2Bforest','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01788&hterms=Deciduous+forest&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DDeciduous%2Bforest"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Harvard Forest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This is a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the area surrounding the Harvard Forest in north-central Massachusetts that has been operated as a ecological research facility by Harvard University since 1907. At the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the Quabbin Reservoir, and the Connecticut River is at the lower left of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Harvard Forest itself is just above the reservoir. Researchers are comparing the naturally occurring physical disturbances in the forest and the recent and projected chemical disturbances and their effects on the forest ecosystem. Agricultural land appears dark blue/purple, along with low shrub vegetation and some wetlands. Urban development is bright pink; the yellow to green tints are conifer-dominated vegetation with the pitch pine sand plain at the middle left edge of the <span class="hlt">image</span> appearing very distinctive. The green tint may indicate pure pine plantation stands, and deciduous broadleaf trees appear gray/pink with perhaps wetter sites being pinker. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 42.50 degrees North latitude and 72.33 degrees West longitude and covers an area of 53 kilometers 63 by kilometers (33 miles by 39 miles). The colors in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01788.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01788.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Harvard Forest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>This is a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the area surrounding the Harvard Forest in north-central Massachusetts that has been operated as a ecological research facility by Harvard University since 1907. At the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the Quabbin Reservoir, and the Connecticut River is at the lower left of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Harvard Forest itself is just above the reservoir. Researchers are comparing the naturally occurring physical disturbances in the forest and the recent and projected chemical disturbances and their effects on the forest ecosystem. Agricultural land appears dark blue/purple, along with low shrub vegetation and some wetlands. Urban development is bright pink; the yellow to green tints are conifer-dominated vegetation with the pitch pine sand plain at the middle left edge of the <span class="hlt">image</span> appearing very distinctive. The green tint may indicate pure pine plantation stands, and deciduous broadleaf trees appear gray/pink with perhaps wetter sites being pinker. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 42.50 degrees North latitude and 72.33 degrees West longitude and covers an area of 53 kilometers 63 by kilometers (33 miles by 39 miles). The colors in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01788</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900030798&hterms=kasischke&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dkasischke','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900030798&hterms=kasischke&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dkasischke"><span>Phase calibration of polarimetric <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sheen, Dan R.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Freeman, Anthony</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The problem of phase calibration between polarization channels of an <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> is studied. The causes of various types of phase errors due to the <span class="hlt">radar</span> system architecture and system imperfections are examined. A simple model is introduced to explain the spatial variation in phase error as being due to a displacement between the phase centers of the vertical and horizontal antennas. It is also shown that channel leakage can cause a spatial variation in phase error. Phase calibration using both point and distributed ground targets is discussed and a method for calibrating phase using only distributed target is verified, subject to certain constraints. Experimental measurements using the NADC/ERIM P-3 synthetic-aperture <span class="hlt">radar</span> (SAR) system and NASA/JPL DC-8 SAR, which operates at C-, L-, and P-bands, are presented. Both of these systems are multifrequency, polarimetric, airborne, SAR systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17748898','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17748898"><span>Mercury <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span>: evidence for polar ice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Slade, M A; Butler, B J; Muhleman, D O</p> <p>1992-10-23</p> <p>The first unambiguous full-disk <span class="hlt">radar</span> mapping of Mercury at 3.5-centimeter wavelength, with the Goldstone 70-meter antenna transmitting and 26 antennas of the Very Large Array receiving, has provided evidence for the presence of polar ice. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> experiments, conducted on 8 and 23 August 1991, were designed to <span class="hlt">image</span> the half of Mercury not photographed by Mariner 10. The orbital geometry allowed viewing beyond the north pole of Mercury; a highly reflective region was clearly visible on the north pole during both experiments. This polar region has areas in which the circular polarization ratio (pt) was 1.0 to 1.4; values < approximately 0.1 are typical for terrestrial planets. Such high values of have hitherto been observed in <span class="hlt">radar</span> observations only from icy regions of Mars and icy outer planet satellites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA473815','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA473815"><span><span class="hlt">RADAR</span> <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> Transformation for Heads Up Display Utility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>an instrument only landing using <span class="hlt">RADAR</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> as the main source of information. <span class="hlt">RADAR</span> can be used in most types of weather and during night...AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2007-0108 <span class="hlt">RADAR</span> <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> Transformation for Heads Up Display Utility Brian Wilson Nikola Subotic Altarum...August 2006 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-05-C-6635 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE <span class="hlt">RADAR</span> <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> Transformation for Heads Up Display</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01714&hterms=organizational+climate&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dorganizational%2Bclimate','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01714&hterms=organizational+climate&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dorganizational%2Bclimate"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Raco Biomass Map</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This biomass map of the Raco, Michigan, area was produced from data acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour. Biomass is the amount of plant material on an area of Earth's surface. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> can directly sense the quantity and organizational structure of the woody biomass in the forest. Science team members at the University of Michigan used the <span class="hlt">radar</span> data to estimate the standing biomass for this Raco site in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Detailed surveys of 70 forest stands will be used to assess the accuracy of these techniques. The seasonal growth of terrestrial plants, and forests in particular, leads to the temporary storage of large amounts of carbon, which could directly affect changes in global climate. In order to accurately predict future global change, scientists need detailed information about current distribution of vegetation types and the amount of biomass present around the globe. Optical techniques to determine net biomass are frustrated by chronic cloud-cover. <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> can penetrate through cloud-cover with negligible signal losses. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01714&hterms=organizational+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26Nf%3DPublication-Date%257CGT%2B19980101%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dorganizational%2Bchange','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01714&hterms=organizational+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26Nf%3DPublication-Date%257CGT%2B19980101%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dorganizational%2Bchange"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Raco Biomass Map</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This biomass map of the Raco, Michigan, area was produced from data acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour. Biomass is the amount of plant material on an area of Earth's surface. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> can directly sense the quantity and organizational structure of the woody biomass in the forest. Science team members at the University of Michigan used the <span class="hlt">radar</span> data to estimate the standing biomass for this Raco site in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Detailed surveys of 70 forest stands will be used to assess the accuracy of these techniques. The seasonal growth of terrestrial plants, and forests in particular, leads to the temporary storage of large amounts of carbon, which could directly affect changes in global climate. In order to accurately predict future global change, scientists need detailed information about current distribution of vegetation types and the amount of biomass present around the globe. Optical techniques to determine net biomass are frustrated by chronic cloud-cover. <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> can penetrate through cloud-cover with negligible signal losses. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01830&hterms=trading&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtrading','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01830&hterms=trading&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtrading"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Victoria, Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This three-frequency spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the southern end of Vancouver Island on the west coast of Canada. The white area in the lower right is the city of Victoria, the capital of the province of British Columbia. The three <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies help to distinguish different land use patterns. The bright pink areas are suburban regions, the brownish areas are forested regions, and blue areas are agricultural fields or forest clear-cuts. Founded in 1843 as a fur trading post, Victoria has grown to become one of western Canada's largest commercial centers. In the upper right is San Juan Island, in the state of Washington. The Canada/U.S. border runs through Haro Strait, on the right side of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, between San Juan Island and Vancouver Island. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 6, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is 37 kilometers by 42 kilometers (23 miles by 26 miles) and is centered at 48.5 degrees north latitude, 123.3 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01830&hterms=Trading&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DTrading','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01830&hterms=Trading&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DTrading"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Victoria, Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This three-frequency spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the southern end of Vancouver Island on the west coast of Canada. The white area in the lower right is the city of Victoria, the capital of the province of British Columbia. The three <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies help to distinguish different land use patterns. The bright pink areas are suburban regions, the brownish areas are forested regions, and blue areas are agricultural fields or forest clear-cuts. Founded in 1843 as a fur trading post, Victoria has grown to become one of western Canada's largest commercial centers. In the upper right is San Juan Island, in the state of Washington. The Canada/U.S. border runs through Haro Strait, on the right side of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, between San Juan Island and Vancouver Island. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 6, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is 37 kilometers by 42 kilometers (23 miles by 26 miles) and is centered at 48.5 degrees north latitude, 123.3 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01829&hterms=architects&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Darchitects','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01829&hterms=architects&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Darchitects"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Canberra, Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Australia's capital city, Canberra, is shown in the center of this spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>. <span class="hlt">Images</span> like this can help urban planners assess land use patterns. Heavily developed areas appear in bright patchwork patterns of orange, yellow and blue. Dense vegetation appears bright green, while cleared areas appear in dark blue or black. Located in southeastern Australia, the site of Canberra was selected as the capital in 1901 as a geographic compromise between Sydney and Melbourne. Design and construction of the city began in 1908 under the supervision of American architect Walter Burley-Griffin. Lake Burley-Griffin is located above and to the left of the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The bright pink area is the Parliament House. The city streets, lined with government buildings, radiate like spokes from the Parliament House. The bright purple cross in the lower left corner of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is a reflection from one of the large dish-shaped radio antennas at the Tidbinbilla, Canberra Deep Space Network Communication Complex, operated jointly by NASA and the Australian Space Office. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 10, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is 28 kilometers by 25 kilometers (17 miles by 15 miles) and is centered at 35.35 degrees south latitude, 149.17 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Office of Mission to Planet Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01829&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01829&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Canberra, Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Australia's capital city, Canberra, is shown in the center of this spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>. <span class="hlt">Images</span> like this can help urban planners assess land use patterns. Heavily developed areas appear in bright patchwork patterns of orange, yellow and blue. Dense vegetation appears bright green, while cleared areas appear in dark blue or black. Located in southeastern Australia, the site of Canberra was selected as the capital in 1901 as a geographic compromise between Sydney and Melbourne. Design and construction of the city began in 1908 under the supervision of American architect Walter Burley-Griffin. Lake Burley-Griffin is located above and to the left of the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The bright pink area is the Parliament House. The city streets, lined with government buildings, radiate like spokes from the Parliament House. The bright purple cross in the lower left corner of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is a reflection from one of the large dish-shaped radio antennas at the Tidbinbilla, Canberra Deep Space Network Communication Complex, operated jointly by NASA and the Australian Space Office. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 10, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is 28 kilometers by 25 kilometers (17 miles by 15 miles) and is centered at 35.35 degrees south latitude, 149.17 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Office of Mission to Planet Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01762&hterms=company+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcompany%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01762&hterms=company+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcompany%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Kilauea, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Data acquired on April 13, 1994 and on October 4, 1994 from the X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> on board the space shuttle Endeavour were used to generate interferometric fringes, which were overlaid on the X-SAR <span class="hlt">image</span> of Kilauea. The volcano is centered in this <span class="hlt">image</span> at 19.58 degrees north latitude and 155.55 degrees west longitude. The <span class="hlt">image</span> covers about 9 kilometers by 13 kilometers (5.6 miles by 8 miles). The X-band fringes correspond clearly to the expected topographic <span class="hlt">image</span>. The yellow line indicates the area below which was used for the three-dimensional <span class="hlt">image</span> using altitude lines. The yellow rectangular frame fences the area for the final topographic <span class="hlt">image</span>. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR. The Instituto Ricerca Elettromagnetismo Componenti Elettronici (IRECE) at the University of Naples was a partner in interferometry analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01758.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01758.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>This is a deformation map of the south flank of Kilauea volcano on the big island of Hawaii, centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude and 155.25 degrees west longitude. The map was created by combining interferometric <span class="hlt">radar</span> data -- that is data acquired on different passes of the space shuttle which are then overlayed to obtain elevation information -- acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> during its first flight in April 1994 and its second flight in October 1994. The area shown is approximately 40 kilometers by 80 kilometers (25 miles by 50 miles). North is toward the upper left of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The colors indicate the displacement of the surface in the direction that the <span class="hlt">radar</span> instrument was pointed (toward the right of the <span class="hlt">image</span>) in the six months between <span class="hlt">images</span>. The analysis of ground movement is preliminary, but appears consistent with the motions detected by the Global Positioning System ground receivers that have been used over the past five years. The south flank of the Kilauea volcano is among the most rapidly deforming terrains on Earth. Several regions show motions over the six-month time period. Most obvious is at the base of Hilina Pali, where 10 centimeters (4 inches) or more of crustal deformation can be seen in a concentrated area near the coastline. On a more localized scale, the currently active Pu'u O'o summit also shows about 10 centimeters (4 inches) of change near the vent area. Finally, there are indications of additional movement along the upper southwest rift zone, just below the Kilauea caldera in the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Deformation of the south flank is believed to be the result of movements along faults deep beneath the surface of the volcano, as well as injections of magma, or molten rock, into the volcano's "plumbing" system. Detection of ground motions from space has proven to be a unique capability of <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> technology. Scientists hope to use deformation data acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR and future <span class="hlt">imaging</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870007725','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870007725"><span><span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> polarimetry from wave synthesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zebker, Howard A.; Vanzyl, Jacob J.; Held, Daniel N.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>It was shown that it is possible to measure the complete scattering matrix of an object using data acquired on a single aircraft pass, and can combine the signals later in the data processor to generate <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> corresponding to any desired combination of transmit and receive polarization. Various scattering models predict different dependence on polarization state of received power from an object. The <span class="hlt">imaging</span> polarimeter permits determination of this dependence, which is called the polarization signature, of each point in a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>. Comparison of the theoretical predictions and observational data yield identification of possible scattering mechanisms for each area of interest. It was found that backscatter from the ocean is highly polarized and well-modeled by Bragg scattering, while scattering from trees in a city park possesses a considerable unpolarized component. Urban regions exhibit the characteristics expected from dihedral corner reflectors and their polarization signatures are quite different from the one-bounce Bragg model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01806&hterms=silt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsilt','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01806&hterms=silt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsilt"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Missouri River - TOPSAR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This is a combined <span class="hlt">radar</span> and topography <span class="hlt">image</span> of an area along the Missouri River that experienced severe flooding and levee failure in the summer of 1993. The meandering course of the Missouri River is seen as the dark curving band on the left side of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The predominantly blue area on the left half of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the river's floodplain, which was completely inundated during the flood of 1993. The colors in the <span class="hlt">image</span> represent elevations, with the low areas shown in purple, intermediate areas in blue, green and yellow, and the highest areas shown in orange. The total elevation range is 85 meters (279 feet). The higher yellow and orange area on the right side of the <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the topography and drainage patterns typical of this part of the midwestern United States. Dark streaks and bands in the floodplain are agricultural areas that were severely damaged by levee failures during the flooding. The region enclosed by the C-shaped bend in the river in the upper part of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is Lisbon Bottoms. A powerful outburst of water from a failed levee on the north side of Lisbon Bottoms scoured a deep channel across the fields, which shows up as purple band. As the flood waters receded, deposits of sand and silt were left behind, which now appear as dark, smooth streaks in the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The yellow areas within the blue, near the river, are clumps of trees sitting on slightly higher ground within the floodplain. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> 'sees' the treetops, and that is why they are so much higher (yellow) than the fields. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the NASA/JPL Topographic Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> system (TOPSAR) that flew over the area aboard a DC-8 aircraft in August 1994. The elevations are obtained by a technique known as <span class="hlt">radar</span> interferometry, in which the <span class="hlt">radar</span> signals are transmitted by one antenna, and echoes are received by two antennas aboard the aircraft. The two sets of received signals are combined using computer processing to produce a topographic map. Similar techniques</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/909480','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/909480"><span>Biometric Identification Using Holographic <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> Techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; Kennedy, Mike O.; Foote, Harlan P.</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers have been at the forefront of developing innovative screening systems to enhance security and a novel <span class="hlt">imaging</span> system to provide custom-fit clothing using holographic <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> techniques. First-of-a-kind cylindrical holographic <span class="hlt">imaging</span> systems have been developed to screen people at security checkpoints for the detection of concealed, body worn, non-metallic threats such as plastic and liquid explosives, knifes and contraband. Another embodiment of this technology is capable of obtaining full sized body measurements in near real time without the person under surveillance removing their outer garments. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> signals readily penetrate clothing and reflect off the water in skin. This full body measurement system is commercially available for best fitting ready to wear clothing, which was the first “biometric” application for this technology. One compelling feature of this technology for security biometric applications is that it can see effectively through disguises, appliances and body hair.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6538E..0CM','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6538E..0CM"><span>Biometric identification using holographic <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; Kennedy, Mike O.; Foote, Harlen P.</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers have been at the forefront of developing innovative screening systems to enhance security and a novel <span class="hlt">imaging</span> system to provide custom-fit clothing using holographic <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> techniques. First-of-a-kind cylindrical holographic <span class="hlt">imaging</span> systems have been developed to screen people at security checkpoints for the detection of concealed, body worn, non-metallic threats such as plastic and liquid explosives, knifes and contraband. Another embodiment of this technology is capable of obtaining full sized body measurements in near real time without the person under surveillance removing their outer garments. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> signals readily penetrate clothing and reflect off the water in skin. This full body measurement system is commercially available for best fitting ready to wear clothing, which was the first "biometric" application for this technology. One compelling feature of this technology for security biometric applications is that it can see effectively through disguises, appliances and body hair.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-sts068-s-052.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-sts068-s-052.html"><span>STS-68 <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>: Mt. Rainier, Washington</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-10-01</p> <p>STS068-S-052 (3 October 1994) --- This is a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of Mount Rainier in Washington state. The volcano last erupted about 150 years ago and numerous large floods and debris flows have originated on its slopes during the last century. Today the volcano is heavily mantled with glaciers and snow fields. More than 100,000 people live on young volcanic mud flows less than 10,000 years old and, are within the range of future, devastating mud slides. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on its 20th orbit on October 1, 1994. The area shown in the <span class="hlt">image</span> is approximately 59 by 60 kilometers (36.5 by 37 miles). North is toward the top left of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, which was composed by assigning red and green colors to the L-Band, horizontally transmitted and vertically, and the L-Band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. Blue indicates the C-Band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. In addition to highlighting topographic slopes facing the Space Shuttle, SIR-C records rugged areas as brighter and smooth areas as darker. The scene was illuminated by the Shuttle's <span class="hlt">radar</span> from the northwest so that northwest-facing slopes are brighter and southeast-facing slopes are dark. Forested regions are pale green in color, clear cuts and bare ground are bluish or purple; ice is dark green and white. The round cone at the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the 14,435 feet (4,399 meters) active volcano, Mount Rainier. On the lower slopes is a zone of rock ridges and rubble (purple to reddish) above coniferous forests (in yellow/green). The western boundary of Mount Rainier National Park is seen as a transition from protected, old-growth forest to heavily logged private land, a mosaic of recent clear cuts (bright purple/blue) and partially re-grown timber plantations (pale blue). The prominent river seen curving away from the mountain at the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span> (to the northwest) is the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01801&hterms=19+degrees+north+latitude&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D19.5%2Bdegrees%2Bnorth%2Blatitude','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01801&hterms=19+degrees+north+latitude&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D19.5%2Bdegrees%2Bnorth%2Blatitude"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Sudan Collision Zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of a region in northern Sudan called the Keraf Suture that reveals newly discovered geologic features buried beneath layers of sand. This discovery is being used to guide field studies of the region and has opened up new perspectives on old problems, such as what controls the course of the Nile, a question that has perplexed geologists for centuries. The Nile is the yellowish/green line that runs from the top to the bottom of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. A small town, Abu Dis, can be seen as the bright, white area on the east (right) bank of the Nile (about a third of the way down from the top) at the mouth of a dry stream valley or 'wadi' that drains into the river. Wadis flowing into the Nile from both east and west stand out as dark, reddish branch-like drainage patterns. The bright pink area on the west (left) side of the Nile is a region where rocks are exposed, but the area east (right) of the Nile is obscured by layers of sand, a few inches to several feet thick. Virtually everything visible on the right side of this <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> is invisible when standing on the ground or when viewing photographs or satellite <span class="hlt">images</span> such as the United States' Landsat or the French SPOT satellite. A sharp, straight fault cuts diagonally across the <span class="hlt">image</span>, to the right of the Nile river. The area between the fault and the Nile is part of the collision zone where the ancient continents of East and West Gondwana crashed into each other to form the supercontinent Greater Gondwana more than 600 million years ago. On this <span class="hlt">image</span>, the Nile approaches but never crosses the fault, indicating that this fault seems to be controlling the course of the Nile in this part of Sudan. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude, 33.35 degrees east longitude, and shows an area approximately 18 km by 20 km (10 miles by 12 miles). The colors in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: Red is L-band, vertically transmitted and vertically</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01784.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01784.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Mississippi Delta</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>This is a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Mississippi River Delta where the river enters into the Gulf of Mexico along the coast of Louisiana. This multi-frequency <span class="hlt">image</span> demonstrates the capability of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> to distinguish different types of wetlands surfaces in river deltas. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1995. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered on latitude 29.3 degrees North latitude and 89.28 degrees West longitude. The area shown is approximately 63 kilometers by 43 kilometers (39 miles by 26 miles). North is towards the upper right of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. As the river enters the Gulf of Mexico, it loses energy and dumps its load of sediment that it has carried on its journey through the mid-continent. This pile of sediment, or mud, accumulates over the years building up the delta front. As one part of the delta becomes clogged with sediment, the delta front will migrate in search of new areas to grow. The area shown on this <span class="hlt">image</span> is the currently active delta front of the Mississippi. The migratory nature of the delta forms natural traps for oil and the numerous bright spots along the outside of the delta are drilling platforms. Most of the land in the <span class="hlt">image</span> consists of mud flats and marsh lands. There is little human settlement in this area due to the instability of the sediments. The main shipping channel of the Mississippi River is the broad red stripe running northwest to southeast down the left side of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The bright spots within the channel are ships. The colors in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; blue is X-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01784</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01745&hterms=Italy+formed&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DItaly%2Bformed','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01745&hterms=Italy+formed&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DItaly%2Bformed"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Glascow, Missouri</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is a false-color L-band <span class="hlt">image</span> of an area near Glasgow, Missouri, centered at about 39.2 degrees north latitude and 92.8 degrees west longitude. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired using the L-band <span class="hlt">radar</span> channel (horizontally transmitted and received and horizontally transmitted/vertically received) polarizations combined. The data were acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 50 on October 3,1994. The area shown is approximately 37 kilometers by 25 kilometers (23 miles by 16 miles). The <span class="hlt">radar</span> data, coupled with pre-flood aerial photography and satellite data and post-flood topographic and field data, are being used to evaluate changes associated with levee breaks in landforms, where deposits formed during the widespread flooding in 1993 along the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. The distinct <span class="hlt">radar</span> scattering properties of farmland, sand fields and scoured areas will be used to inventory floodplains along the Missouri River and determine the processes by which these areas return to preflood conditions. The <span class="hlt">image</span> shows one such levee break near Glasgow, Missouri. In the upper center of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>, below the bend of the river, is a region covered by several meters of sand, shown as dark regions. West (left) of the dark areas, a gap in the levee tree canopy shows the area where the levee failed. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> data such as these can help scientists more accurately assess the potential for future flooding in this region and how that might impact surrounding communities. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-sts068-s-055.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-sts068-s-055.html"><span>STS-68 <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>: Glasgow, Missouri</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-10-07</p> <p>STS068-S-055 (7 October 1994) --- This is a false-color L-Band <span class="hlt">image</span> of an area near Glasgow, Missouri, centered at about 39.2 degrees north latitude and 92.8 degrees west longitude. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired using the L-Band <span class="hlt">radar</span> channel (horizontally transmitted and received and horizontally transmitted and vertically received) polarization's combined. The data were acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on orbit 50 on October 3, 1994. The area shown is approximately 37 by 25 kilometers (23 by 16 miles). The <span class="hlt">radar</span> data, coupled with pre-flood aerial photography and satellite data and post-flood topographic and field data, are being used to evaluate changes associated with levee breaks in land forms, where deposits formed during the widespread flooding in 1993 along the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. The distinct <span class="hlt">radar</span> scattering properties of farmland, sand fields and scoured areas will be used to inventory flood plains along the Missouri River and determine the processes by which these areas return to preflood conditions. The <span class="hlt">image</span> shows one such levee break near Glasgow, Missouri. In the upper center of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>, below the bend of the river, is a region covered by several meters of sand, shown as dark regions. West (left) of the dark areas, a gap in the levee tree canopy shows the area where the levee failed. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> data such as these can help scientists more accurately assess the potential for future flooding in this region and how that might impact surrounding communities. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses the three microwave wavelengths: the L-Band (24 centimeters), C-Band (6 centimeters) and X-Band (3 centimeters). The multi</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01745&hterms=Floodplains&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DFloodplains','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01745&hterms=Floodplains&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DFloodplains"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Glascow, Missouri</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is a false-color L-band <span class="hlt">image</span> of an area near Glasgow, Missouri, centered at about 39.2 degrees north latitude and 92.8 degrees west longitude. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired using the L-band <span class="hlt">radar</span> channel (horizontally transmitted and received and horizontally transmitted/vertically received) polarizations combined. The data were acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 50 on October 3,1994. The area shown is approximately 37 kilometers by 25 kilometers (23 miles by 16 miles). The <span class="hlt">radar</span> data, coupled with pre-flood aerial photography and satellite data and post-flood topographic and field data, are being used to evaluate changes associated with levee breaks in landforms, where deposits formed during the widespread flooding in 1993 along the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. The distinct <span class="hlt">radar</span> scattering properties of farmland, sand fields and scoured areas will be used to inventory floodplains along the Missouri River and determine the processes by which these areas return to preflood conditions. The <span class="hlt">image</span> shows one such levee break near Glasgow, Missouri. In the upper center of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>, below the bend of the river, is a region covered by several meters of sand, shown as dark regions. West (left) of the dark areas, a gap in the levee tree canopy shows the area where the levee failed. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> data such as these can help scientists more accurately assess the potential for future flooding in this region and how that might impact surrounding communities. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01828&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01828&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Sydney, Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> is dominated by the metropolitan area of Australia's largest city, Sydney. Sydney Harbour, with numerous coves and inlets, is seen in the upper center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, and the roughly circular Botany Bay is shown in the lower right. The downtown business district of Sydney appears as a bright white area just above the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a white line adjacent to the downtown district. The well-known Sydney Opera House is the small, white dot to the right of the bridge. Urban areas appear yellow, blue and brown. The purple areas are undeveloped areas and park lands. Manly, the famous surfing beach, is shown in yellow at the top center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Runways from the Sydney Airport are the dark features that extend into Botany Bay in the lower right. Botany Bay is the site where Captain James Cook first landed his ship, Endeavour, in 1770. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 20, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is 33 kilometers by 38kilometers (20 miles by 23 miles) and is centered at 33.9 degrees south latitude, 151.2 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequenciesand polarizations as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmittedand horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmittedand received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italianand United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. #####</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01782&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01782&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Central Java, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The summits of two large volcanoes in Central Java, Indonesia are shown in the center of this <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>. Lava flows of different ages and surface roughness appear in shades of green and yellow surrounding the summit of Mt. Merbabu (mid-center) and Mt. Merapi (lower center). Mt. Merapi erupted on November 28, 1994 about six weeks after this <span class="hlt">image</span> was taken. The eruption killed more than 60 people and forced the evacuation of more than 6,000 others. Thousands of other residents were put on alert due to the possibility of volcanic debris mudflows, called lahars, that threatened nearby towns. Mt. Merapi is located approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) north of Yogyakarta, the capital of Central Java. The older volcano at the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is unnamed. Lake Rawapening is the dark blue feature in the upper right. The light blue area southeast of the lake is the city of Salatiga. Directly south of Salatiga and southeast of Mt. Merapi is the city of Boyolali. Scientists are studying Mt. Merapi as part of the international 'Decade Volcanoes' project, because of its recent activity and potential threat to local populations. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> data are being used to identify and distinguish a variety of volcanic features. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired on October 10, 1994 by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 7.5 degrees South latitude and 110.5 degrees East longitude and covers an area of 33 kilometers by 65 kilometers (20 miles by 40 miles).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01746.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01746.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Mammoth Mountain, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>This false-color composite <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Mammoth Mountain area in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 67th orbit on October 3, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 37.6 degrees north latitude and 119.0 degrees west longitude. The area is about 39 kilometers by 51 kilometers (24 miles by 31 miles). North is toward the bottom, about 45 degrees to the right. In this <span class="hlt">image</span>, red was created using L-band (horizontally transmitted/vertically received) polarization data; green was created using C-band (horizontally transmitted/vertically received) polarization data; and blue was created using C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization data. Crawley Lake appears dark at the center left of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, just above or south of Long Valley. The Mammoth Mountain ski area is visible at the top right of the scene. The red areas correspond to forests, the dark blue areas are bare surfaces and the green areas are short vegetation, mainly brush. The purple areas at the higher elevations in the upper part of the scene are discontinuous patches of snow cover from a September 28 storm. New, very thin snow was falling before and during the second space shuttle pass. In parallel with the operational SIR-C data processing, an experimental effort is being conducted to test SAR data processing using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's massively parallel supercomputing facility, centered around the Cray Research T3D. These experiments will assess the abilities of large supercomputers to produce high throughput Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> processing in preparation for upcoming data-intensive SAR missions. The <span class="hlt">image</span> released here was produced as part of this experimental effort. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01746</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01828&hterms=parts+space+ship&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dparts%2Bspace%2Bship','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01828&hterms=parts+space+ship&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dparts%2Bspace%2Bship"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Sydney, Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> is dominated by the metropolitan area of Australia's largest city, Sydney. Sydney Harbour, with numerous coves and inlets, is seen in the upper center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, and the roughly circular Botany Bay is shown in the lower right. The downtown business district of Sydney appears as a bright white area just above the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a white line adjacent to the downtown district. The well-known Sydney Opera House is the small, white dot to the right of the bridge. Urban areas appear yellow, blue and brown. The purple areas are undeveloped areas and park lands. Manly, the famous surfing beach, is shown in yellow at the top center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Runways from the Sydney Airport are the dark features that extend into Botany Bay in the lower right. Botany Bay is the site where Captain James Cook first landed his ship, Endeavour, in 1770. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 20, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is 33 kilometers by 38kilometers (20 miles by 23 miles) and is centered at 33.9 degrees south latitude, 151.2 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequenciesand polarizations as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmittedand horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmittedand received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italianand United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. #####</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01782&hterms=features+Central&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dfeatures%2BCentral','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01782&hterms=features+Central&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dfeatures%2BCentral"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Central Java, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The summits of two large volcanoes in Central Java, Indonesia are shown in the center of this <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>. Lava flows of different ages and surface roughness appear in shades of green and yellow surrounding the summit of Mt. Merbabu (mid-center) and Mt. Merapi (lower center). Mt. Merapi erupted on November 28, 1994 about six weeks after this <span class="hlt">image</span> was taken. The eruption killed more than 60 people and forced the evacuation of more than 6,000 others. Thousands of other residents were put on alert due to the possibility of volcanic debris mudflows, called lahars, that threatened nearby towns. Mt. Merapi is located approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) north of Yogyakarta, the capital of Central Java. The older volcano at the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is unnamed. Lake Rawapening is the dark blue feature in the upper right. The light blue area southeast of the lake is the city of Salatiga. Directly south of Salatiga and southeast of Mt. Merapi is the city of Boyolali. Scientists are studying Mt. Merapi as part of the international 'Decade Volcanoes' project, because of its recent activity and potential threat to local populations. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> data are being used to identify and distinguish a variety of volcanic features. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired on October 10, 1994 by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 7.5 degrees South latitude and 110.5 degrees East longitude and covers an area of 33 kilometers by 65 kilometers (20 miles by 40 miles).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01731.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01731.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Kliuchevskoi Volcano, Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>This is an <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, which began to erupt on September 30, 1994. Kliuchevskoi is the bright white peak surrounded by red slopes in the lower left portion of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 25th orbit on October 1, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> shows an area approximately 30 kilometers by 60 kilometers (18.5 miles by 37 miles) that is centered at 56.18 degrees north latitude and 160.78 degrees east longitude. North is toward the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Kamchatka volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcanic zone sits above a tectonic plate boundary, where the Pacific plate is sinking beneath the northeast edge of the Eurasian plate. The Endeavour crew obtained dramatic video and photographic <span class="hlt">images</span> of this region during the eruption, which will assist scientists in analyzing the dynamics of the current activity. The colors in this <span class="hlt">image</span> were obtained using the following <span class="hlt">radar</span> channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). The Kamchatka River runs from left to right across the <span class="hlt">image</span>. An older, dormant volcanic region appears in green on the north side of the river. The current eruption included massive ejections of gas, vapor and ash, which reached altitudes of 20,000 meters (65,000 feet). New lava flows are visible on the flanks of Kliuchevskoi, appearing yellow/green in the <span class="hlt">image</span>, superimposed on the red surfaces in the lower center. Melting snow triggered mudflows on the north flank of the volcano, which may threaten agricultural zones and other settlements in the valley to the north. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01731</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01784&hterms=red+mud&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dred%2Bmud','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01784&hterms=red+mud&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dred%2Bmud"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Mississippi Delta</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This is a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Mississippi River Delta where the river enters into the Gulf of Mexico along the coast of Louisiana. This multi-frequency <span class="hlt">image</span> demonstrates the capability of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> to distinguish different types of wetlands surfaces in river deltas. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1995. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered on latitude 29.3 degrees North latitude and 89.28 degrees West longitude. The area shown is approximately 63 kilometers by 43 kilometers (39 miles by 26 miles). North is towards the upper right of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. As the river enters the Gulf of Mexico, it loses energy and dumps its load of sediment that it has carried on its journey through the mid-continent. This pile of sediment, or mud, accumulates over the years building up the delta front. As one part of the delta becomes clogged with sediment, the delta front will migrate in search of new areas to grow. The area shown on this <span class="hlt">image</span> is the currently active delta front of the Mississippi. The migratory nature of the delta forms natural traps for oil and the numerous bright spots along the outside of the delta are drilling platforms. Most of the land in the <span class="hlt">image</span> consists of mud flats and marsh lands. There is little human settlement in this area due to the instability of the sediments. The main shipping channel of the Mississippi River is the broad red stripe running northwest to southeast down the left side of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The bright spots within the channel are ships. The colors in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; blue is X-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01784&hterms=parts+space+ship&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dparts%2Bspace%2Bship','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01784&hterms=parts+space+ship&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dparts%2Bspace%2Bship"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Mississippi Delta</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This is a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Mississippi River Delta where the river enters into the Gulf of Mexico along the coast of Louisiana. This multi-frequency <span class="hlt">image</span> demonstrates the capability of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> to distinguish different types of wetlands surfaces in river deltas. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1995. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered on latitude 29.3 degrees North latitude and 89.28 degrees West longitude. The area shown is approximately 63 kilometers by 43 kilometers (39 miles by 26 miles). North is towards the upper right of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. As the river enters the Gulf of Mexico, it loses energy and dumps its load of sediment that it has carried on its journey through the mid-continent. This pile of sediment, or mud, accumulates over the years building up the delta front. As one part of the delta becomes clogged with sediment, the delta front will migrate in search of new areas to grow. The area shown on this <span class="hlt">image</span> is the currently active delta front of the Mississippi. The migratory nature of the delta forms natural traps for oil and the numerous bright spots along the outside of the delta are drilling platforms. Most of the land in the <span class="hlt">image</span> consists of mud flats and marsh lands. There is little human settlement in this area due to the instability of the sediments. The main shipping channel of the Mississippi River is the broad red stripe running northwest to southeast down the left side of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The bright spots within the channel are ships. The colors in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; blue is X-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01758&hterms=19+degrees+north+latitude&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D19.5%2Bdegrees%2Bnorth%2Blatitude','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01758&hterms=19+degrees+north+latitude&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D19.5%2Bdegrees%2Bnorth%2Blatitude"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is a deformation map of the south flank of Kilauea volcano on the big island of Hawaii, centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude and 155.25 degrees west longitude. The map was created by combining interferometric <span class="hlt">radar</span> data -- that is data acquired on different passes of the space shuttle which are then overlayed to obtain elevation information -- acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> during its first flight in April 1994 and its second flight in October 1994. The area shown is approximately 40 kilometers by 80 kilometers (25 miles by 50 miles). North is toward the upper left of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The colors indicate the displacement of the surface in the direction that the <span class="hlt">radar</span> instrument was pointed (toward the right of the <span class="hlt">image</span>) in the six months between <span class="hlt">images</span>. The analysis of ground movement is preliminary, but appears consistent with the motions detected by the Global Positioning System ground receivers that have been used over the past five years. The south flank of the Kilauea volcano is among the most rapidly deforming terrains on Earth. Several regions show motions over the six-month time period. Most obvious is at the base of Hilina Pali, where 10 centimeters (4 inches) or more of crustal deformation can be seen in a concentrated area near the coastline. On a more localized scale, the currently active Pu'u O'o summit also shows about 10 centimeters (4 inches) of change near the vent area. Finally, there are indications of additional movement along the upper southwest rift zone, just below the Kilauea caldera in the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Deformation of the south flank is believed to be the result of movements along faults deep beneath the surface of the volcano, as well as injections of magma, or molten rock, into the volcano's 'plumbing' system. Detection of ground motions from space has proven to be a unique capability of <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> technology. Scientists hope to use deformation data acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR and future <span class="hlt">imaging</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01758&hterms=detection+earthquakes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Ddetection%2Bearthquakes','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01758&hterms=detection+earthquakes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Ddetection%2Bearthquakes"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is a deformation map of the south flank of Kilauea volcano on the big island of Hawaii, centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude and 155.25 degrees west longitude. The map was created by combining interferometric <span class="hlt">radar</span> data -- that is data acquired on different passes of the space shuttle which are then overlayed to obtain elevation information -- acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> during its first flight in April 1994 and its second flight in October 1994. The area shown is approximately 40 kilometers by 80 kilometers (25 miles by 50 miles). North is toward the upper left of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The colors indicate the displacement of the surface in the direction that the <span class="hlt">radar</span> instrument was pointed (toward the right of the <span class="hlt">image</span>) in the six months between <span class="hlt">images</span>. The analysis of ground movement is preliminary, but appears consistent with the motions detected by the Global Positioning System ground receivers that have been used over the past five years. The south flank of the Kilauea volcano is among the most rapidly deforming terrains on Earth. Several regions show motions over the six-month time period. Most obvious is at the base of Hilina Pali, where 10 centimeters (4 inches) or more of crustal deformation can be seen in a concentrated area near the coastline. On a more localized scale, the currently active Pu'u O'o summit also shows about 10 centimeters (4 inches) of change near the vent area. Finally, there are indications of additional movement along the upper southwest rift zone, just below the Kilauea caldera in the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Deformation of the south flank is believed to be the result of movements along faults deep beneath the surface of the volcano, as well as injections of magma, or molten rock, into the volcano's 'plumbing' system. Detection of ground motions from space has proven to be a unique capability of <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> technology. Scientists hope to use deformation data acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR and future <span class="hlt">imaging</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012995','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012995"><span>Digital <span class="hlt">image</span> transformation and rectification of spacecraft and <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wu, S.S.C.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Digital <span class="hlt">image</span> transformation and rectification can be described in three categories: (1) digital rectification of spacecraft pictures on workable stereoplotters; (2) digital correction of <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> geometry; and (3) digital reconstruction of shaded relief maps and perspective views including stereograms. Digital rectification can make high-oblique pictures workable on stereoplotters that would otherwise not accommodate such extreme tilt angles. It also enables panoramic line-scan geometry to be used to compile contour maps with photogrammetric plotters. Rectifications were digitally processed on both Viking Orbiter and Lander pictures of Mars as well as <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> taken by various <span class="hlt">radar</span> systems. By merging digital terrain data with <span class="hlt">image</span> data, perspective and three-dimensional views of Olympus Mons and Tithonium Chasma, also of Mars, are reconstructed through digital <span class="hlt">image</span> processing. ?? 1985.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H51I1332Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H51I1332Z"><span>A systematic test of surface <span class="hlt">velocity</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> (SVR) to improve flood discharge prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zolezzi, G.; Zamler, D.; Laronne, J. B.; Salvaro, M.; Piazza, F.; Le Coz, J.; Welber, M.; Dramais, G.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Measurement of streamflow at flood stage is normally prohibitive and is therefore not a standard task performed by hydrographic offices. Streamflow estimation at high stages is commonly achieved through transformation of gauged water levels to discharge through rating curves. These stage-discharge relationships often suffer from large errors especially above the highest gauged discharge values corresponding to morphologically formative conditions. Non-contact methods based on <span class="hlt">radar</span> Doppler technology have recently emerged as promising options because they can remotely measure the surface water <span class="hlt">velocity</span> without requiring contact of instruments with the stream. They have been used for more than a decade, notably in Japan, but they are expensive and are fixed with the <span class="hlt">radar</span> beam directed to a small portion of the free surface width. The aim of our study is to test a portable, cheap, easy-to-apply <span class="hlt">radar</span>-based technique (SVR: Surface <span class="hlt">Velocity</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>). We illustrate the outcomes of a systematic series of field campaigns performed in Israel, Italy and France with concomitant standard (mechanical and electromagnetic current meter) and modern (ADCP, LSPIV <span class="hlt">image</span> analysis) techniques with cooperating regional authorities. The SVR has been deployed from bridges and/or channel banks on 5 different streams: the single-thread Adige and the braided Tagliamento rivers (NE Italy) the single-thread Arc-en-Maurienne River during reservoir flushing (French Alps) and the ephemeral, flashflood Wadi Eshtemoa and a small perennial stream at Ein-Fesh'ha springs (Israel). This has allowed to span a relatively broad range of discharge (1 to ~ 600 m3/s), flow <span class="hlt">velocity</span> (0.5 to ~ 3.5 m/s) and ratio between bed roughness height to flow depth (~ 0.01 to ~ 0.5) while measuring both under steady and rapidly varying flow conditions. The key outcomes of the field campaigns are: (i) wherever a bridge is available and cross-sectional topography can be measured before and/or after a flood, comparable</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01857&hterms=famous+scientists&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dfamous%2Bscientists','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01857&hterms=famous+scientists&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dfamous%2Bscientists"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Cape Cod, Massachusetts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the famous 'hook' of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The Cape, which juts out into the Atlantic Ocean about 100 kilometers (62 miles) southeast of Boston, actually consists of sandy debris left behind by the great continental ice sheets when they last retreated from southern New England about 20,000 years ago. Today's landscape consists of sandy forests, fields of scrub oak and other bushes and grasses, salt marshes, freshwater ponds, as well as the famous beaches and sand dunes. In this <span class="hlt">image</span>, thickly forested areas appear green, marshes are dark blue, ponds and sandy areas are black, and developed areas are mostly pink. The dark L-shape in the lower center is the airport runways in Hyannis, the Cape's largest town. The dark X-shape left of the center is Otis Air Force Base. The Cape Cod Canal, above and left of center, connects Buzzards Bay on the left with Cape Cod Bay on the right. The northern tip of the island of Martha's Vineyard is seen in the lower left. The tip of the Cape, in the upper right, includes the community of Provincetown, which appears pink, and the protected National Seashore areas of sand dunes that parallel the Atlantic coast east of Provincetown. Scientists are using <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> like this one to study delicate coastal environments and the effects of human activities on the ecosystem and landscape. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 15, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is 81.7 kilometers by 43.1 kilometers (50.7 miles by 26.7 miles) and is centered at 41.8 degrees north latitude, 70.3 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received. SIR</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01759&hterms=company+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcompany%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01759&hterms=company+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcompany%2Bimage"><span>SPace <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Fort Irwin, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">image</span> of Fort Irwin in California's Mojave Desert compares interferometric <span class="hlt">radar</span> signatures topography -- data that were obtained by multiple <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of the same region to produce three-dimensional elevation maps -- as it was obtained on October 7-8, 1994 by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Data were acquired using the L-band (24 centimeter wavelength) and C-band (6 centimeter wavelength). The <span class="hlt">image</span> covers an area about 25 kilometers by 70 kilometers (15.5 miles by 43 miles). North is to the lower right of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The color contours shown are proportional to the topographic elevation. With a wavelength one-fourth that of the L-band, the results from the C-band cycle through the color contours four times faster for a given elevation change. Detailed comparisons of these multiple frequency data over different terrain types will provide insights in the future into wavelength-dependent effects of penetration and scattering on the topography measurement accuracy. Fort Irwin is an ideal site for such detailed digital elevation model comparisons because a number of high precision digital models of the area already exist from conventional measurements as well as from airborne interferometric SAR data. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01713&hterms=company+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcompany%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01713&hterms=company+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcompany%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Raco Vegetation Map</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This is a vegetation map of the Raco, Michigan area produced from data acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>, taken on April 9, 1994, has been used by science team members at the University of Michigan to produce detailed map of land cover. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 46.4 degrees north latitude and 84.9 degrees west longitude. The <span class="hlt">imaged</span> area is approximately 24 by 32 kilometers (15 by 20 miles). The Raco airport, which is a decommissioned military base, is easily identified by its triangular runway structure. An edge of Lake Superior, approximately 44 kilometers (27 miles) west of Sault Sainte Marie, appears in the top right of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. In this land cover map each 30- by 30-meter (98- by 98-foot) spot is identified as either a water surface, bare ground, short vegetation, deciduous forest, lowland conifers or upland conifers. Different types of ground cover have different effects on Earth's chemical, water and energy cycles. By cataloguing ground cover in an area, scientists expect to better understand the processes of these cycles in a specific area. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20051343','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20051343"><span>Multistatic synthetic aperture <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> formation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krishnan, V; Swoboda, J; Yarman, C E; Yazici, B</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>In this paper, we consider a multistatic synthetic aperture <span class="hlt">radar</span> (SAR) <span class="hlt">imaging</span> scenario where a swarm of airborne antennas, some of which are transmitting, receiving or both, are traversing arbitrary flight trajectories and transmitting arbitrary waveforms without any form of multiplexing. The received signal at each receiving antenna may be interfered by the scattered signal due to multiple transmitters and additive thermal noise at the receiver. In this scenario, standard bistatic SAR <span class="hlt">image</span> reconstruction algorithms result in artifacts in reconstructed <span class="hlt">images</span> due to these interferences. In this paper, we use microlocal analysis in a statistical setting to develop a filtered-backprojection (FBP) type analytic <span class="hlt">image</span> formation method that suppresses artifacts due to interference while preserving the location and orientation of edges of the scene in the reconstructed <span class="hlt">image</span>. Our FBP-type algorithm exploits the second-order statistics of the target and noise to suppress the artifacts due to interference in a mean-square sense. We present numerical simulations to demonstrate the performance of our multistatic SAR <span class="hlt">image</span> formation algorithm with the FBP-type bistatic SAR <span class="hlt">image</span> reconstruction algorithm. While we mainly focus on <span class="hlt">radar</span> applications, our <span class="hlt">image</span> formation method is also applicable to other problems arising in fields such as acoustic, geophysical and medical <span class="hlt">imaging</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01775.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01775.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Star City, Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the Star City cosmonaut training center, east of Moscow, Russia. Four American astronauts are training here for future long-duration flights aboard the Russian Mir space station. These joint flights are giving NASA and the Russian Space Agency experience necessary for the construction of the international Alpha space station, beginning in late 1997. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR), on its 62nd orbit on October 3, 1994. This Star City <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 55.55 degrees north latitude and 38.0 degrees east longitude. The area shown is approximately 32 kilometers by 49 kilometers (20 miles by 30 miles). North is to the top in this <span class="hlt">image</span>. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> illumination is from the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was produced using three channels of SIR-C <span class="hlt">radar</span> data: red indicates L-band (23 cm wavelength, horizontally transmitted and received); green indicates L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue indicates C-band (6 cm wavelength, horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In general, dark pink areas are agricultural; pink and light blue areas are urban communities; black areas represent lakes and rivers; dark blue areas are cleared forest; and light green areas are forested. The prominent black runways just right of center are Shchelkovo Airfield, about 4 km long. The textured pale blue-green area east and southeast of Shchelkovo Airfield is forest. Just east of the runways is a thin railroad line running southeast; the Star City compound lies just east of the small bend in the rail line. Star City contains the living quarters and training facilities for Russian cosmonauts and their families. Moscow's inner loop road is visible at the lower left edge of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Kremlin is just off the left edge, on the banks of the meandering Moskva River. The Klyazma River snakes to the southeast from the reservoir in the upper left (shown in bright red</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01783&hterms=texas+water+data&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtexas%2Bwater%2Bdata','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01783&hterms=texas+water+data&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtexas%2Bwater%2Bdata"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Houston, Texas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">image</span> of Houston, Texas, shows the amount of detail that is possible to obtain using spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span>. <span class="hlt">Images</span> such as this -- obtained by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying aboard the space shuttle Endeavor last fall -- can become an effective tool for urban planners who map and monitor land use patterns in urban, agricultural and wetland areas. Central Houston appears pink and white in the upper portion of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, outlined and crisscrossed by freeways. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was obtained on October 10, 1994, during the space shuttle's 167th orbit. The area shown is 100 kilometers by 60 kilometers (62 miles by 38 miles) and is centered at 29.38 degrees north latitude, 95.1 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper left. The pink areas designate urban development while the green-and blue-patterned areas are agricultural fields. Black areas are bodies of water, including Galveston Bay along the right edge and the Gulf of Mexico at the bottom of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Interstate 45 runs from top to bottom through the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The narrow island at the bottom of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is Galveston Island, with the city of Galveston at its northeast (right) end. The dark cross in the upper center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is Hobby Airport. Ellington Air Force Base is visible below Hobby on the other side of Interstate 45. Clear Lake is the dark body of water in the middle right of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The green square just north of Clear Lake is Johnson Space Center, home of Mission Control and the astronaut training facilities. The black rectangle with a white center that appears to the left of the city center is the Houston Astrodome. The colors in this <span class="hlt">image</span> were obtained using the follow <span class="hlt">radar</span> channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); green represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received). Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01783&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01783&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Houston, Texas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">image</span> of Houston, Texas, shows the amount of detail that is possible to obtain using spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span>. <span class="hlt">Images</span> such as this -- obtained by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying aboard the space shuttle Endeavor last fall -- can become an effective tool for urban planners who map and monitor land use patterns in urban, agricultural and wetland areas. Central Houston appears pink and white in the upper portion of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, outlined and crisscrossed by freeways. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was obtained on October 10, 1994, during the space shuttle's 167th orbit. The area shown is 100 kilometers by 60 kilometers (62 miles by 38 miles) and is centered at 29.38 degrees north latitude, 95.1 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper left. The pink areas designate urban development while the green-and blue-patterned areas are agricultural fields. Black areas are bodies of water, including Galveston Bay along the right edge and the Gulf of Mexico at the bottom of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Interstate 45 runs from top to bottom through the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The narrow island at the bottom of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is Galveston Island, with the city of Galveston at its northeast (right) end. The dark cross in the upper center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is Hobby Airport. Ellington Air Force Base is visible below Hobby on the other side of Interstate 45. Clear Lake is the dark body of water in the middle right of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The green square just north of Clear Lake is Johnson Space Center, home of Mission Control and the astronaut training facilities. The black rectangle with a white center that appears to the left of the city center is the Houston Astrodome. The colors in this <span class="hlt">image</span> were obtained using the follow <span class="hlt">radar</span> channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); green represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received). Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01765&hterms=red+mud&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dred%2Bmud','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01765&hterms=red+mud&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dred%2Bmud"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Kiluchevskoi, Volcano, Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is an <span class="hlt">image</span> of the area of Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, which began to erupt on September 30, 1994. Kliuchevskoi is the blue triangular peak in the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, towards the left edge of the bright red area that delineates bare snow cover. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 88th orbit on October 5, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> shows an area approximately 75 kilometers by 100 kilometers (46 miles by 62 miles) that is centered at 56.07 degrees north latitude and 160.84 degrees east longitude. North is toward the bottom of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> illumination is from the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Kamchatka volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcanic zone sits above a tectonic plate boundary, where the Pacific plate is sinking beneath the northeast edge of the Eurasian plate. The Endeavour crew obtained dramatic video and photographic <span class="hlt">images</span> of this region during the eruption, which will assist scientists in analyzing the dynamics of the recent activity. The colors in this <span class="hlt">image</span> were obtained using the following <span class="hlt">radar</span> channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In addition to Kliuchevskoi, two other active volcanoes are visible in the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Bezymianny, the circular crater above and to the right of Kliuchevskoi, contains a slowly growing lava dome. Tolbachik is the large volcano with a dark summit crater near the upper right edge of the red snow covered area. The Kamchatka River runs from right to left across the bottom of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The current eruption of Kliuchevskoi included massive ejections of gas, vapor and ash, which reached altitudes of 15,000 meters (50,000 feet). Melting snow mixed with volcanic ash triggered mud flows on the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01765&hterms=company+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcompany%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01765&hterms=company+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcompany%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Kiluchevskoi, Volcano, Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is an <span class="hlt">image</span> of the area of Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, which began to erupt on September 30, 1994. Kliuchevskoi is the blue triangular peak in the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, towards the left edge of the bright red area that delineates bare snow cover. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 88th orbit on October 5, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> shows an area approximately 75 kilometers by 100 kilometers (46 miles by 62 miles) that is centered at 56.07 degrees north latitude and 160.84 degrees east longitude. North is toward the bottom of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> illumination is from the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Kamchatka volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcanic zone sits above a tectonic plate boundary, where the Pacific plate is sinking beneath the northeast edge of the Eurasian plate. The Endeavour crew obtained dramatic video and photographic <span class="hlt">images</span> of this region during the eruption, which will assist scientists in analyzing the dynamics of the recent activity. The colors in this <span class="hlt">image</span> were obtained using the following <span class="hlt">radar</span> channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In addition to Kliuchevskoi, two other active volcanoes are visible in the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Bezymianny, the circular crater above and to the right of Kliuchevskoi, contains a slowly growing lava dome. Tolbachik is the large volcano with a dark summit crater near the upper right edge of the red snow covered area. The Kamchatka River runs from right to left across the bottom of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The current eruption of Kliuchevskoi included massive ejections of gas, vapor and ash, which reached altitudes of 15,000 meters (50,000 feet). Melting snow mixed with volcanic ash triggered mud flows on the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840008332&hterms=monocular+radar&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmonocular%2Bradar','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840008332&hterms=monocular+radar&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmonocular%2Bradar"><span>Stereo <span class="hlt">imaging</span> with spaceborne <span class="hlt">radars</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Leberl, F.; Kobrick, M.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Stereo viewing is a valuable tool in photointerpretation and is used for the quantitative reconstruction of the three dimensional shape of a topographical surface. Stereo viewing refers to a visual perception of space by presenting an overlapping <span class="hlt">image</span> pair to an observer so that a three dimensional model is formed in the brain. Some of the observer's function is performed by machine correlation of the overlapping <span class="hlt">images</span> - so called automated stereo correlation. The direct perception of space with two eyes is often called natural binocular vision; techniques of generating three dimensional models of the surface from two sets of monocular <span class="hlt">image</span> measurements is the topic of stereology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983sbir.symp...53L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983sbir.symp...53L"><span>Stereo <span class="hlt">imaging</span> with spaceborne <span class="hlt">radars</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leberl, F.; Kobrick, M.</p> <p>1983-07-01</p> <p>Stereo viewing is a valuable tool in photointerpretation and is used for the quantitative reconstruction of the three dimensional shape of a topographical surface. Stereo viewing refers to a visual perception of space by presenting an overlapping <span class="hlt">image</span> pair to an observer so that a three dimensional model is formed in the brain. Some of the observer's function is performed by machine correlation of the overlapping <span class="hlt">images</span> - so called automated stereo correlation. The direct perception of space with two eyes is often called natural binocular vision; techniques of generating three dimensional models of the surface from two sets of monocular <span class="hlt">image</span> measurements is the topic of stereology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA02720.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA02720.html"><span>Honolulu, Hawaii <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span>, Wrapped Color as Height</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-02-18</p> <p>This topographic <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> acquired by NASA Shuttle <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Topography Mission SRTM in Feb. 2000 shows the city of Honolulu, Hawaii and adjacent areas on the island of Oahu. Honolulu lies on the south shore of the island.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA02713.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA02713.html"><span>Los Angeles, California, <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span>, Wrapped Color as Height</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-02-17</p> <p>This topographic <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> acquired by NASA Shuttle <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Topography Mission SRTM in Feb. 2000 shows the relationships of the dense urban development of Los Angeles, Calif. and the natural contours of the land.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA02715.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA02715.html"><span>San Gabriel Mountains, California, <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span>, Color as Height</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-02-17</p> <p>This topographic <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> acquired by NASA Shuttle <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Topography Mission SRTM from data collected on February 16, 2000 shows the relationship of the urban area of Pasadena, California to the natural contours of the land.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01818&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01818&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Colorado River</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This space <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> illustrates the recent rapid urban development occurring along the lower Colorado River at the Nevada/Arizona state line. Lake Mojave is the dark feature that occupies the river valley in the upper half of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The lake is actually a reservoir created behind Davis Dam, the bright white line spanning the river near the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The dam, completed in 1953, is used both for generating electric power and regulating the river's flow downstream. Straddling the river south of Davis Dam, shown in white and bright green, are the cities of Laughlin, Nevada (west of the river) and Bullhead City, Arizona (east of the river). The runway of the Laughlin, Bullhead City Airport is visible as a dark strip just east of Bullhead City. The area has experienced rapid growth associated with the gambling industry in Laughlin and on the Fort Mojave Indian Reservation to the south. The community of Riviera is the bright green area in a large bend of the river in the lower left part of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Complex drainage patterns and canyons are the dark lines seen throughout the <span class="hlt">image</span>. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> is a useful tool for studying these patterns because of the instrument's sensitivity to roughness, vegetation and subtle topographic differences. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is 50 kilometers by 35 kilometers (31 miles by 22 miles) and is centered at 35.25 degrees north latitude, 114.67 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 13, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Office of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01779.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01779.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Teide Volcano</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the Teide volcano on the island of Tenerife in the Canary Islands. The Canary Islands, part of Spain, are located in the eastern Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Morocco. Teide has erupted only once in the 20th Century, in 1909, but is considered a potentially threatening volcano due to its proximity to the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, shown in this <span class="hlt">image</span> as the purple and white area on the lower right edge of the island. The summit crater of Teide, clearly visible in the left center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, contains lava flows of various ages and roughnesses that appear in shades of green and brown. Different vegetation zones, both natural and agricultural, are detected by the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as areas of purple, green and yellow on the volcano's flanks. Scientists are using <span class="hlt">images</span> such as this to understand the evolution of the structure of Teide, especially the formation of the summit caldera and the potential for collapse of the flanks. The volcano is one of 15 identified by scientists as potentially hazardous to local populations, as part of the international The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 11, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 28.3 degrees North latitude and 16.6 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper right. The area shown measures 90 kilometers by 54.5 kilometers (55.8 miles by 33.8 miles). The colors in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01779</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01760.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01760.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Oetzal, Austria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>This is a digital elevation model that was geometrically coded directly onto an X-band seasonal change <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Oetztal supersite in Austria. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 46.82 degrees north latitude and 10.79 degrees east longitude. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is located in the Central Alps at the border between Switzerland, Italy and Austria, 50 kilometers (31 miles) southwest of Innsbruck. It was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994 and on October 5, 1994. It was produced by combining data from these two different data sets. Data obtained in April is green; data obtained in October appears in red and blue, and was used as an enhancement based on the ratio of the two data sets. Areas with a decrease in backscatter from April to October appear in light blue (cyan), such as the large Gepatschferner glacier seen at the left of the <span class="hlt">image</span> center, and most of the other glaciers in this view. A light blue hue is also visible at the east border of the dark blue Lake Reschensee at the upper left side. This shows a significant rise in the water level. Magenta represents areas with an increase of backscatter from April 10 to October 5. Yellow indicates areas with high <span class="hlt">radar</span> signal response during both passes, such as the mountain slopes facing the <span class="hlt">radar</span>. Low <span class="hlt">radar</span> backscatter signals refer to smooth surface (lakes) or <span class="hlt">radar</span> grazing areas to <span class="hlt">radar</span> shadow areas, seen in the southeast slopes. The area is approximately 29 kilometers by 21 kilometers (18 miles by 13.5 miles). The summit of the main peaks reaches elevations of 3,500 to 3,768 meters (xx feet to xx feet) above sea level. The test site's core area is the glacier region of Venter Valley, which is one of the most intensively studied areas for glacier research in the world. Research in Venter Valley (below center) includes studies of glacier dynamics, glacier-climate regions, snowpack conditions and glacier hydrology. About 25 percent of the core test</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01765.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01765.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Kiluchevskoi, Volcano, Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>This is an <span class="hlt">image</span> of the area of Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, which began to erupt on September 30, 1994. Kliuchevskoi is the blue triangular peak in the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, towards the left edge of the bright red area that delineates bare snow cover. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 88th orbit on October 5, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> shows an area approximately 75 kilometers by 100 kilometers (46 miles by 62 miles) that is centered at 56.07 degrees north latitude and 160.84 degrees east longitude. North is toward the bottom of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> illumination is from the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Kamchatka volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcanic zone sits above a tectonic plate boundary, where the Pacific plate is sinking beneath the northeast edge of the Eurasian plate. The Endeavour crew obtained dramatic video and photographic <span class="hlt">images</span> of this region during the eruption, which will assist scientists in analyzing the dynamics of the recent activity. The colors in this <span class="hlt">image</span> were obtained using the following <span class="hlt">radar</span> channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In addition to Kliuchevskoi, two other active volcanoes are visible in the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Bezymianny, the circular crater above and to the right of Kliuchevskoi, contains a slowly growing lava dome. Tolbachik is the large volcano with a dark summit crater near the upper right edge of the red snow covered area. The Kamchatka River runs from right to left across the bottom of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The current eruption of Kliuchevskoi included massive ejections of gas, vapor and ash, which reached altitudes of 15,000 meters (50,000 feet). Melting snow mixed with volcanic ash triggered mud flows on the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01783.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01783.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Houston, Texas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">image</span> of Houston, Texas, shows the amount of detail that is possible to obtain using spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span>. <span class="hlt">Images</span> such as this -- obtained by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying aboard the space shuttle Endeavor last fall -- can become an effective tool for urban planners who map and monitor land use patterns in urban, agricultural and wetland areas. Central Houston appears pink and white in the upper portion of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, outlined and crisscrossed by freeways. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was obtained on October 10, 1994, during the space shuttle's 167th orbit. The area shown is 100 kilometers by 60 kilometers (62 miles by 38 miles) and is centered at 29.38 degrees north latitude, 95.1 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper left. The pink areas designate urban development while the green-and blue-patterned areas are agricultural fields. Black areas are bodies of water, including Galveston Bay along the right edge and the Gulf of Mexico at the bottom of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Interstate 45 runs from top to bottom through the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The narrow island at the bottom of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is Galveston Island, with the city of Galveston at its northeast (right) end. The dark cross in the upper center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is Hobby Airport. Ellington Air Force Base is visible below Hobby on the other side of Interstate 45. Clear Lake is the dark body of water in the middle right of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The green square just north of Clear Lake is Johnson Space Center, home of Mission Control and the astronaut training facilities. The black rectangle with a white center that appears to the left of the city center is the Houston Astrodome. The colors in this <span class="hlt">image</span> were obtained using the follow <span class="hlt">radar</span> channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); green represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received). http</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/231298','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/231298"><span>Lossless compression of synthetic aperture <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ives, R.W.; Magotra, N.; Mandyam, G.D.</p> <p>1996-02-01</p> <p>Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SAR) has been proven an effective sensor in a wide variety of applications. Many of these uses require transmission and/or processing of the <span class="hlt">image</span> data in a lossless manner. With the current state of SAR technology, the amount of data contained in a single <span class="hlt">image</span> may be massive, whether the application requires the entire complex <span class="hlt">image</span> or magnitude data only. In either case, some type of compression may be required to losslessly transmit this data in a given bandwidth or store it in a reasonable volume. This paper provides the results of applying several lossless compression schemes to SAR imagery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01760&hterms=Digital+image+enhancement&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DDigital%2Bimage%2Benhancement','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01760&hterms=Digital+image+enhancement&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DDigital%2Bimage%2Benhancement"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Oetzal, Austria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is a digital elevation model that was geometrically coded directly onto an X-band seasonal change <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Oetztal supersite in Austria. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 46.82 degrees north latitude and 10.79 degrees east longitude. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is located in the Central Alps at the border between Switzerland, Italy and Austria, 50 kilometers (31 miles) southwest of Innsbruck. It was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994 and on October 5, 1994. It was produced by combining data from these two different data sets. Data obtained in April is green; data obtained in October appears in red and blue, and was used as an enhancement based on the ratio of the two data sets. Areas with a decrease in backscatter from April to October appear in light blue (cyan), such as the large Gepatschferner glacier seen at the left of the <span class="hlt">image</span> center, and most of the other glaciers in this view. A light blue hue is also visible at the east border of the dark blue Lake Reschensee at the upper left side. This shows a significant rise in the water level. Magenta represents areas with an increase of backscatter from April 10 to October 5. Yellow indicates areas with high <span class="hlt">radar</span> signal response during both passes, such as the mountain slopes facing the <span class="hlt">radar</span>. Low <span class="hlt">radar</span> backscatter signals refer to smooth surface (lakes) or <span class="hlt">radar</span> grazing areas to <span class="hlt">radar</span> shadow areas, seen in the southeast slopes. The area is approximately 29 kilometers by 21 kilometers (18 miles by 13.5 miles). The summit of the main peaks reaches elevations of 3,500 to 3,768 meters (xx feet to xx feet)above sea level. The test site's core area is the glacier region of Venter Valley, which is one of the most intensively studied areas for glacier research in the world. Research in Venter Valley (below center)includes studies of glacier dynamics, glacier-climate regions, snowpack conditions and glacier hydrology. About 25 percent of the core test</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994P%26SS...42..135T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994P%26SS...42..135T"><span><span class="hlt">Radar</span> measurements of very high <span class="hlt">velocity</span> meteors with AMOR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taylor, A. D.; Baggaley, W. J.; Bennett, R. G. T.; Steel, D. I.</p> <p>1994-02-01</p> <p>The Christchurch (New Zealand) meteor <span class="hlt">radar</span> AMOR (Advanced Meteor Orbit <span class="hlt">Radar</span>) has yielded about 1% of meteoroids having an atmospheric speed in excess of 100 km/s. This indicates an influx of particles that is well above the heliocentric parabolic limit for closed orbits. The evidence for these extremely high Earth-encounter speeds comes from meteor echo timing and ionization height characteristics. It is shown that aliasing association with a finite <span class="hlt">radar</span> sampling rate imposes an upper limit on the atmospheric speeds avaliable from echo diffraction characteristics. The possibility of an interstellar source as evidenced by the heliocentric radiant distribution is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6957E..0LP','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6957E..0LP"><span>Simulation of <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> using graphics hardware acceleration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peinecke, Niklas; Döhler, Hans-Ullrich; Korn, Bernd R.</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>Extending previous works by Doehler and Bollmeyer we describe a new implementation of an <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> simulator. Our approach is based on using modern computer graphics hardware making heavy use of recent technologies like vertex and fragment shaders. Furthermore, to allow for a nearly realistic <span class="hlt">image</span> we generate <span class="hlt">radar</span> shadows implementing shadow map techniques in the programmable graphics hardware. The particular implementation is tailored to imitate millimeter wave (MMW) <span class="hlt">radar</span> but could be extended for other types of <span class="hlt">radar</span> systems easily.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940021001','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940021001"><span>The 94 GHz MMW <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Alon, Yair; Ulmer, Lon</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The 94 GHz MMW airborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> system that provides a runway <span class="hlt">image</span> in adverse weather conditions is now undergoing tests at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB). This system, which consists of a solid state FMCW transceiver, antenna, and digital signal processor, has an update rate of 10 times per second, 0.35x azimuth resolution and up to 3.5 meter range resolution. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> B scope (range versus azimuth) <span class="hlt">image</span>, once converted to C scope (elevation versus azimuth), is compatible with the standard TV presentation and can be displayed on the Head Up Display (HUD) or Head Down Display (HDD) to aid the pilot during landing and takeoff in limited visibility conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01748&hterms=parts+space+ship&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dparts%2Bspace%2Bship','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01748&hterms=parts+space+ship&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dparts%2Bspace%2Bship"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of North Sea, Germany</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is an X-band <span class="hlt">image</span> of an oil slick experiment conducted in the North Sea, Germany. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 54.58 degrees north latitude and 7.48 degrees east longitude. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 6, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span>. The experiment was designed to differentiate between petroleum oil spills and natural slicks floating on the sea surface. Two types of petroleum oil and six types of oils resembling natural sea surface slicks were poured on the sea surface from ships and a helicopter just before the space shuttle flew over the region. At the bottom of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the Sylt peninsula, a famous holiday resort. Twenty-six gallons (100 liters) of diesel oil was dissipated due to wave action before the shuttle reached the site. The oil spill seen at the uppermost part of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is about 105 gallons (400 liters) of heavy heating oil and the largest spill is about 58 gallons (220 liters) of oleyl alcohol, resembling a 'natural oil' like the remaining five spills used to imitate natural slicks that have occurred offshore from various states. The volume of these other oils spilled on the ocean surface during the five experimental spills varied from 16 gallons to 21 gallons (60 liters to 80 liters). The distance between neighboring spills was about half a mile (800 meters) at the most. The largest slick later thinned out to monomolecular sheets of about 10 microns, which is the dimension of a molecule. Oceanographers found that SIR-C/X-SAR was able to clearly distinguish the oil slicks from algae products dumped nearby. Preliminary indications are that various types of slicks may be distinguished, especially when other <span class="hlt">radar</span> wavelengths are included in the analysis. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of the world's oceans on a continuing basis may allow oceanographers in the future to detect and clean up oil spills much more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01748&hterms=oil+spill&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Doil%2Bspill','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01748&hterms=oil+spill&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Doil%2Bspill"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of North Sea, Germany</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is an X-band <span class="hlt">image</span> of an oil slick experiment conducted in the North Sea, Germany. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 54.58 degrees north latitude and 7.48 degrees east longitude. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 6, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span>. The experiment was designed to differentiate between petroleum oil spills and natural slicks floating on the sea surface. Two types of petroleum oil and six types of oils resembling natural sea surface slicks were poured on the sea surface from ships and a helicopter just before the space shuttle flew over the region. At the bottom of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the Sylt peninsula, a famous holiday resort. Twenty-six gallons (100 liters) of diesel oil was dissipated due to wave action before the shuttle reached the site. The oil spill seen at the uppermost part of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is about 105 gallons (400 liters) of heavy heating oil and the largest spill is about 58 gallons (220 liters) of oleyl alcohol, resembling a 'natural oil' like the remaining five spills used to imitate natural slicks that have occurred offshore from various states. The volume of these other oils spilled on the ocean surface during the five experimental spills varied from 16 gallons to 21 gallons (60 liters to 80 liters). The distance between neighboring spills was about half a mile (800 meters) at the most. The largest slick later thinned out to monomolecular sheets of about 10 microns, which is the dimension of a molecule. Oceanographers found that SIR-C/X-SAR was able to clearly distinguish the oil slicks from algae products dumped nearby. Preliminary indications are that various types of slicks may be distinguished, especially when other <span class="hlt">radar</span> wavelengths are included in the analysis. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of the world's oceans on a continuing basis may allow oceanographers in the future to detect and clean up oil spills much more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01748.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01748.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of North Sea, Germany</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>This is an X-band <span class="hlt">image</span> of an oil slick experiment conducted in the North Sea, Germany. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 54.58 degrees north latitude and 7.48 degrees east longitude. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 6, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span>. The experiment was designed to differentiate between petroleum oil spills and natural slicks floating on the sea surface. Two types of petroleum oil and six types of oils resembling natural sea surface slicks were poured on the sea surface from ships and a helicopter just before the space shuttle flew over the region. At the bottom of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the Sylt peninsula, a famous holiday resort. Twenty-six gallons (100 liters) of diesel oil was dissipated due to wave action before the shuttle reached the site. The oil spill seen at the uppermost part of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is about 105 gallons (400 liters) of heavy heating oil and the largest spill is about 58 gallons (220 liters) of oleyl alcohol, resembling a "natural oil" like the remaining five spills used to imitate natural slicks that have occurred offshore from various states. The volume of these other oils spilled on the ocean surface during the five experimental spills varied from 16 gallons to 21 gallons (60 liters to 80 liters). The distance between neighboring spills was about half a mile (800 meters) at the most. The largest slick later thinned out to monomolecular sheets of about 10 microns, which is the dimension of a molecule. Oceanographers found that SIR-C/X-SAR was able to clearly distinguish the oil slicks from algae products dumped nearby. Preliminary indications are that various types of slicks may be distinguished, especially when other <span class="hlt">radar</span> wavelengths are included in the analysis. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of the world's oceans on a continuing basis may allow oceanographers in the future to detect and clean up oil spills much more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01735&hterms=flying+fish&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dflying%2Bfish','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01735&hterms=flying+fish&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dflying%2Bfish"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Manaus, Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>These two false-color <span class="hlt">images</span> of the Manaus region of Brazil in South America were acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The <span class="hlt">image</span> at left was acquired on April 12, 1994, and the <span class="hlt">image</span> at right was acquired on October 3, 1994. The area shown is approximately 8 kilometers by 40 kilometers (5 miles by 25 miles). The two large rivers in this <span class="hlt">image</span>, the Rio Negro (at top) and the Rio Solimoes (at bottom), combine at Manaus (west of the <span class="hlt">image</span>) to form the Amazon River. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at about 3 degrees south latitude and 61 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top left of the <span class="hlt">images</span>. The false colors were created by displaying three L-band polarization channels: red areas correspond to high backscatter, horizontally transmitted and received, while green areas correspond to high backscatter, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. Blue areas show low returns at vertical transmit/receive polarization; hence the bright blue colors of the smooth river surfaces can be seen. Using this color scheme, green areas in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are heavily forested, while blue areas are either cleared forest or open water. The yellow and red areas are flooded forest or floating meadows. The extent of the flooding is much greater in the April <span class="hlt">image</span> than in the October <span class="hlt">image</span> and appears to follow the 10-meter (33-foot) annual rise and fall of the Amazon River. The flooded forest is a vital habitat for fish, and floating meadows are an important source of atmospheric methane. These <span class="hlt">images</span> demonstrate the capability of SIR-C/X-SAR to study important environmental changes that are impossible to see with optical sensors over regions such as the Amazon, where frequent cloud cover and dense forest canopies block monitoring of flooding. Field studies by boat, on foot and in low-flying aircraft by the University of California at Santa Barbara, in collaboration with Brazil's Instituto Nacional de Pesguisas</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01762.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01762.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Kilauea, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>Data acquired on April 13, 1994 and on October 4, 1994 from the X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> on board the space shuttle Endeavour were used to generate interferometric fringes, which were overlaid on the X-SAR <span class="hlt">image</span> of Kilauea. The volcano is centered in this <span class="hlt">image</span> at 19.58 degrees north latitude and 155.55 degrees west longitude. The <span class="hlt">image</span> covers about 9 kilometers by 13 kilometers (5.6 miles by 8 miles). The X-band fringes correspond clearly to the expected topographic <span class="hlt">image</span>. The yellow line indicates the area below which was used for the three-dimensional <span class="hlt">image</span> using altitude lines. The yellow rectangular frame fences the area for the final topographic <span class="hlt">image</span>. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01762</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01820&hterms=Italy+formed&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DItaly%2Bformed','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01820&hterms=Italy+formed&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DItaly%2Bformed"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Central Plain, Oman</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Bright, arc-shaped limestone hills and complex, branching drainage patterns dominate this three-frequency space <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of a desert area in the north central plain of Oman. The hill along the left side of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, called Jabal Fuhud, lies just south of the town of Fuhud, which appears as small bright rectangular features. The thin red lines that can be seen radiating out from this town are roads. The 'u'-shaped hill in the right center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is called Jabal Natih. Layers in the limestone appear as stripes which parallel the crest of the hill. This region is an active area of petroleum production because these geological structures form natural traps for oil and gas. The branching patterns on the <span class="hlt">image</span> are ancient drainage channels that formed when the climate in this area was much wetter. Two large dry river channels, called wadis, appear on the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Wadi Umayri is the yellow stripe at the lower right corner of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. A second orange-colored wadi runs from right to left below the two sets of hills. The bright yellow patterns between the wadis are areas of bedrock covered with a thin layer of sand. These rocks would not be visible in conventional satellite <span class="hlt">images</span> or photographs. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 22.25 degrees north latitude, 56.58 degrees east longitude. The area shown is approximately 42 kilometers by 78 kilometers (26 miles by 48 miles). North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 10, 1994, on board the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01820&hterms=town+gas&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtown%2Bgas','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01820&hterms=town+gas&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtown%2Bgas"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Central Plain, Oman</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Bright, arc-shaped limestone hills and complex, branching drainage patterns dominate this three-frequency space <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of a desert area in the north central plain of Oman. The hill along the left side of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, called Jabal Fuhud, lies just south of the town of Fuhud, which appears as small bright rectangular features. The thin red lines that can be seen radiating out from this town are roads. The 'u'-shaped hill in the right center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is called Jabal Natih. Layers in the limestone appear as stripes which parallel the crest of the hill. This region is an active area of petroleum production because these geological structures form natural traps for oil and gas. The branching patterns on the <span class="hlt">image</span> are ancient drainage channels that formed when the climate in this area was much wetter. Two large dry river channels, called wadis, appear on the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Wadi Umayri is the yellow stripe at the lower right corner of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. A second orange-colored wadi runs from right to left below the two sets of hills. The bright yellow patterns between the wadis are areas of bedrock covered with a thin layer of sand. These rocks would not be visible in conventional satellite <span class="hlt">images</span> or photographs. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 22.25 degrees north latitude, 56.58 degrees east longitude. The area shown is approximately 42 kilometers by 78 kilometers (26 miles by 48 miles). North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different <span class="hlt">radar</span> frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 10, 1994, on board the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01780&hterms=cities+Italian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcities%2BItalian','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01780&hterms=cities+Italian&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcities%2BItalian"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Vesuvius, Italy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Mt. Vesuvius, one of the best known volcanoes in the world primarily for the eruption that buried the Roman city of Pompeii, is shown in the center of this <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>. The central cone of Vesuvius is the dark purple feature in the center of the volcano. This cone is surrounded on the northern and eastern sides by the old crater rim, called Mt. Somma. Recent lava flows are the pale yellow areas on the southern and western sides of the cone. Vesuvius is part of a large volcanic zone which includes the Phalagrean Fields, the cluster of craters seen along the left side of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Bay of Naples, on the left side of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, is separated from the Gulf of Salerno, in the lower left, by the Sorrento Peninsula. Dense urban settlement can be seen around the volcano. The city of Naples is above and to the left of Vesuvius; the seaport of the city can be seen in the top of the bay. Pompeii is located just below the volcano on this <span class="hlt">image</span>. The rapid eruption in 79 A.D. buried the victims and buildings of Pompeii under several meters of debris and killed more than 2,000 people. Due to the violent eruptive style and proximity to populated areas, Vesuvius has been named by the international scientific community as one of fifteen Decade Volcanoes which are being intensively studied during the 1990s. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 40.83 degrees North latitude, 14.53 degrees East longitude. It shows an area 100 kilometers by 55 kilometers (62 miles by 34 miles.) This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired on April 15, 1994 by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01780&hterms=Pompeii&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DPompeii','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01780&hterms=Pompeii&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DPompeii"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Vesuvius, Italy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Mt. Vesuvius, one of the best known volcanoes in the world primarily for the eruption that buried the Roman city of Pompeii, is shown in the center of this <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>. The central cone of Vesuvius is the dark purple feature in the center of the volcano. This cone is surrounded on the northern and eastern sides by the old crater rim, called Mt. Somma. Recent lava flows are the pale yellow areas on the southern and western sides of the cone. Vesuvius is part of a large volcanic zone which includes the Phalagrean Fields, the cluster of craters seen along the left side of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Bay of Naples, on the left side of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, is separated from the Gulf of Salerno, in the lower left, by the Sorrento Peninsula. Dense urban settlement can be seen around the volcano. The city of Naples is above and to the left of Vesuvius; the seaport of the city can be seen in the top of the bay. Pompeii is located just below the volcano on this <span class="hlt">image</span>. The rapid eruption in 79 A.D. buried the victims and buildings of Pompeii under several meters of debris and killed more than 2,000 people. Due to the violent eruptive style and proximity to populated areas, Vesuvius has been named by the international scientific community as one of fifteen Decade Volcanoes which are being intensively studied during the 1990s. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 40.83 degrees North latitude, 14.53 degrees East longitude. It shows an area 100 kilometers by 55 kilometers (62 miles by 34 miles.) This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired on April 15, 1994 by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01768.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01768.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Taal Volcano, Philippines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>This is an <span class="hlt">image</span> of Taal volcano, near Manila on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The black area in the center is Taal Lake, which nearly fills the 30-kilometer-diameter (18-mile) caldera. The caldera rim consists of deeply eroded hills and cliffs. The large island in Taal Lake, which itself contains a crater lake, is known as Volcano Island. The bright yellow patch on the southwest side of the island marks the site of an explosion crater that formed during a deadly eruption of Taal in 1965. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 78th orbit on October 5, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> shows an area approximately 56 kilometers by 112 kilometers (34 miles by 68 miles) that is centered at 14.0 degrees north latitude and 121.0 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The colors in this <span class="hlt">image</span> were obtained using the following <span class="hlt">radar</span> channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). Since 1572, Taal has erupted at least 34 times. Since early 1991, the volcano has been restless, with swarms of earthquakes, new steaming areas, ground fracturing, and increases in water temperature of the lake. Volcanologists and other local authorities are carefully monitoring Taal to understand if the current activity may foretell an eruption. Taal is one of 15 "Decade Volcanoes" that have been identified by the volcanology community as presenting large potential hazards to population centers. The bright area in the upper right of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the densely populated city of Manila, only 50 kilometers (30 miles) north of the central crater. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01768</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01706&hterms=coloring&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcoloring','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01706&hterms=coloring&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcoloring"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Manaus, Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This false-color L-band <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Manaus region of Brazil was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 46 of the mission. The area shown is approximately 8 kilometers by 40 kilometers (5 by 25 miles). At the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span> are the Solimoes and Rio Negro rivers just before they combine at Manaus to form the Amazon River. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at about 3 degrees south latitude, and 61 degrees west longitude. The false colors are created by displaying three L-band polarization channels; red areas correspond to high backscatter at HH polarization, while green areas exhibit high backscatter at HV polarization. Blue areas show low returns at VV polarization; hence the bright blue colors of the smooth river surfaces. Using this coloring scheme, green areas in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are heavily forested, while blue areas are either cleared forest or open water. The yellow and red areas are flooded forest. Between Rio Solimoes and Rio Negro a road can be seen running from some cleared areas (visible as blue rectangles north of Rio Solimoes) north towards a tributary of Rio Negro. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01706&hterms=company+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcompany%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01706&hterms=company+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcompany%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Manaus, Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This false-color L-band <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Manaus region of Brazil was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 46 of the mission. The area shown is approximately 8 kilometers by 40 kilometers (5 by 25 miles). At the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span> are the Solimoes and Rio Negro rivers just before they combine at Manaus to form the Amazon River. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at about 3 degrees south latitude, and 61 degrees west longitude. The false colors are created by displaying three L-band polarization channels; red areas correspond to high backscatter at HH polarization, while green areas exhibit high backscatter at HV polarization. Blue areas show low returns at VV polarization; hence the bright blue colors of the smooth river surfaces. Using this coloring scheme, green areas in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are heavily forested, while blue areas are either cleared forest or open water. The yellow and red areas are flooded forest. Between Rio Solimoes and Rio Negro a road can be seen running from some cleared areas (visible as blue rectangles north of Rio Solimoes) north towards a tributary of Rio Negro. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01719&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01719&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Flevoland, Netherlands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p><p/> This is a three-frequency false color <span class="hlt">image</span> of Flevoland, The Netherlands, centered at 52.4 degrees north latitude, 5.4 degrees east longitude. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. It was produced by combining data from the X-band, C-band and L-band <span class="hlt">radars</span>. The area shown is approximately 25 kilometers by 28 kilometers (15-1/2 by 17-1/2 miles). Flevoland, which fills the lower two-thirds of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, is a very flat area that is made up of reclaimed land that is used for agriculture and forestry. At the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, across the canal from Flevoland, is an older forest shown in red; the city of Harderwijk is shown in white on the shore of the canal. At this time of the year, the agricultural fields are bare soil, and they show up in this <span class="hlt">image</span> in blue. The changes in the brightness of the blue areas are equal to the changes in roughness. The dark blue areas are water and the small dots in the canal are boats. This SIR-C/X-SAR supersite is being used for both calibration and agricultural studies. Several soil and crop ground-truth studies will be conducted during the shuttle flight. In addition, about 10calibration devices and 10 corner reflectors have been deployed to calibrate and monitor the <span class="hlt">radar</span> signal. One of these transponders can be seen as a bright star in the lower right quadrant of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. This false-color <span class="hlt">image</span> was made using L-band total power in the red channel, C-band total power in the green channel, and X-band VV polarization in the blue channel. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01719&hterms=space+agriculture&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dspace%2Bagriculture','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01719&hterms=space+agriculture&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dspace%2Bagriculture"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Flevoland, Netherlands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p><p/> This is a three-frequency false color <span class="hlt">image</span> of Flevoland, The Netherlands, centered at 52.4 degrees north latitude, 5.4 degrees east longitude. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. It was produced by combining data from the X-band, C-band and L-band <span class="hlt">radars</span>. The area shown is approximately 25 kilometers by 28 kilometers (15-1/2 by 17-1/2 miles). Flevoland, which fills the lower two-thirds of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, is a very flat area that is made up of reclaimed land that is used for agriculture and forestry. At the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, across the canal from Flevoland, is an older forest shown in red; the city of Harderwijk is shown in white on the shore of the canal. At this time of the year, the agricultural fields are bare soil, and they show up in this <span class="hlt">image</span> in blue. The changes in the brightness of the blue areas are equal to the changes in roughness. The dark blue areas are water and the small dots in the canal are boats. This SIR-C/X-SAR supersite is being used for both calibration and agricultural studies. Several soil and crop ground-truth studies will be conducted during the shuttle flight. In addition, about 10calibration devices and 10 corner reflectors have been deployed to calibrate and monitor the <span class="hlt">radar</span> signal. One of these transponders can be seen as a bright star in the lower right quadrant of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. This false-color <span class="hlt">image</span> was made using L-band total power in the red channel, C-band total power in the green channel, and X-band VV polarization in the blue channel. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01728&hterms=taiga&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtaiga','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01728&hterms=taiga&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtaiga"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Kliuchevskoi, Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is an X-band seasonal <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Maly Semlyachik volcano, which is part of the Karymsky volcano group on Kamchatka peninsula, Russia. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 54.2 degrees north latitude and 159.6 degrees east longitude. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 9, 1994, during the first flight of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> system, and on September 30, 1994, during the second flight. The <span class="hlt">image</span> channels have been assigned the following colors: red corresponds to data acquired on April 9; green corresponds to data acquired on September 30; and blue corresponds to the ratio between data from April 9 and September 30, 1994. Kamchatka is twice as large as England, Scotland and Wales combined and is home to approximately 470,000 residents. The region is characterized by a chain of volcanoes stretching 800 kilometers (500 miles) across the countryside. Many of the volcanoes, including the active Maly Semlyachik volcano in this <span class="hlt">image</span>, have erupted during this century. But the most active period in creating the three characteristic craters of this volcano goes back 20,000, 12,000 and 2,000 years ago. The highest summit of the oldest crater reaches about 1,560 meters (1,650 feet). The <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> reveal the geological structures of craters and lava flows in order to improve scientists' knowledge of these sometimes vigorously active volcanoes. This seasonal composite also highlights the ecological differences that have occurred between April and October 1994. In April the whole area was snow-covered and, at the coast, an ice sheet extended approximately 5 kilometers (3 miles) into the sea. The area shown surrounding the volcano is covered by low vegetation much like scrub. Kamchatka also has extensive forests, which belong to the northern frontier of Taiga, the boreal forest ecosystem. This region plays an important role in the world's carbon cycle. Trees require 60 years to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01781&hterms=glacier+velocity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dglacier%2Bvelocity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01781&hterms=glacier+velocity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dglacier%2Bvelocity"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of San Rafael Glacier, Chile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A NASA <span class="hlt">radar</span> instrument has been successfully used to measure some of the fastest moving and most inaccessible glaciers in the world -- in Chile's huge, remote Patagonia ice fields -- demonstrating a technique that could produce more accurate predictions of glacial response to climate change and corresponding sea level changes. This <span class="hlt">image</span>, produced with interferometric measurements made by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) flown on the Space Shuttle last fall, has provided the first detailed measurements of the mass and motion of the San Rafael Glacier. Very few measurements have been made of the Patagonian ice fields, which are the world's largest mid-latitude ice masses and account for more than 60 percent of the Southern Hemisphere's glacial area outside of Antarctica. These features make the area essential for climatologists attempting to understand the response of glaciers on a global scale to changes in climate, but the region's inaccessibility and inhospitable climate have made it nearly impossible for scientists to study its glacial topography, meteorology and changes over time. Currently, topographic data exist for only a few glaciers while no data exist for the vast interior of the ice fields. <span class="hlt">Velocity</span> has been measured on only five of the more than 100 glaciers, and the data consist of only a few single-point measurements. The interferometry performed by the SIR-C/X-SAR was used to generate both a digital elevation model of the glaciers and a map of their ice motion on a pixel-per-pixel basis at very high resolution for the first time. The data were acquired from nearly the same position in space on October 9, 10 and 11, 1994, at L-band frequency (24-cm wavelength), vertically transmitted and received polarization, as the Space Shuttle Endeavor flew over several Patagonian outlet glaciers of the San Rafael Laguna. The area shown in these two <span class="hlt">images</span> is 50 kilometers by 30 kilometers (30 miles by 18 miles) in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01781&hterms=company+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcompany%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01781&hterms=company+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcompany%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of San Rafael Glacier, Chile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A NASA <span class="hlt">radar</span> instrument has been successfully used to measure some of the fastest moving and most inaccessible glaciers in the world -- in Chile's huge, remote Patagonia ice fields -- demonstrating a technique that could produce more accurate predictions of glacial response to climate change and corresponding sea level changes. This <span class="hlt">image</span>, produced with interferometric measurements made by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) flown on the Space Shuttle last fall, has provided the first detailed measurements of the mass and motion of the San Rafael Glacier. Very few measurements have been made of the Patagonian ice fields, which are the world's largest mid-latitude ice masses and account for more than 60 percent of the Southern Hemisphere's glacial area outside of Antarctica. These features make the area essential for climatologists attempting to understand the response of glaciers on a global scale to changes in climate, but the region's inaccessibility and inhospitable climate have made it nearly impossible for scientists to study its glacial topography, meteorology and changes over time. Currently, topographic data exist for only a few glaciers while no data exist for the vast interior of the ice fields. <span class="hlt">Velocity</span> has been measured on only five of the more than 100 glaciers, and the data consist of only a few single-point measurements. The interferometry performed by the SIR-C/X-SAR was used to generate both a digital elevation model of the glaciers and a map of their ice motion on a pixel-per-pixel basis at very high resolution for the first time. The data were acquired from nearly the same position in space on October 9, 10 and 11, 1994, at L-band frequency (24-cm wavelength), vertically transmitted and received polarization, as the Space Shuttle Endeavor flew over several Patagonian outlet glaciers of the San Rafael Laguna. The area shown in these two <span class="hlt">images</span> is 50 kilometers by 30 kilometers (30 miles by 18 miles) in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01742&hterms=Barley&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DBarley','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01742&hterms=Barley&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DBarley"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Altona, Manitoba, Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is an X-band seasonal <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Altona test site in Manitoba, Canada, about 80 kilometers (50 miles) south of Winnipeg. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at approximately 49 degrees north latitude and 97.5 degrees west longitude. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 11, 1994, during the first flight of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> system, and on October 2, 1994, during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The <span class="hlt">image</span> channels have the following color assignments: red represents data acquired on April 11, 1994; green represents data acquired on October 2, 1994; blue represents the ratio of the two data sets. The test site is located in the Red River Basin and is characterized by rich farmland where a variety of crops are grown, including wheat, barley, canola, corn, sunflowers and sugar beets. This SIR-C/X-SAR research site is applying <span class="hlt">radar</span> remote sensing to study the characteristics of vegetation and soil moisture. The seasonal comparison between the April and October 1994 data show the dramatic differences between surface conditions on the two dates. At the time of the April acquisition, almost all agricultural fields were bare and soil moisture levels were high. In October, however, soils were drier and while most crops had been harvested, some standing vegetation was still present. The areas which are cyan in color are dark in April and bright in October. These represent fields of standing biomass (amount of vegetation in a specified area) and the differences in brightness within these cyan fields represent differences in vegetation type. The very bright fields in October represent standing broadleaf crops such as corn, which had not yet been harvested. Other standing vegetation which has less biomass, such as hay and grain fields, are less bright. The magenta indicates bare soil surfaces which were wetter (brighter) in April than in October. The variations in brightness of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01716&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01716&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This is a false-color, three-frequency <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Oberpfaffenhofen supersite, southwest of Munich in southern Germany, which shows the differences in what the three <span class="hlt">radar</span> bands can see on the ground. The <span class="hlt">image</span> covers a 27- by 36-kilometer (17- by 22-mile) area. The center of the site is 48.09 degrees north and 11.29 degrees east. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 13, 1994, just after a heavy storm which covered the all area with 20 centimeters (8 inches) of snow. The dark area in the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is Lake Ammersee. The two smaller lakes above the Ammersee are the Worthsee and the Pilsensee. On the right of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the tip of the Starnbergersee. The outskirt of the city of Munich can be seen at the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Oberpfaffenhofen supersite is the major test site for X-SAR calibration and scientific experiments such as ecology, hydrology and geology. This color composite <span class="hlt">image</span> is a three-frequency overlay. L-band total power was assigned red, the C-band total power is shown in green and the X-band VV polarization appears blue. The colors on the <span class="hlt">image</span> stress the differences between the L-band, C-band and X-band <span class="hlt">images</span>. If the three frequencies were seeing the same thing, the <span class="hlt">image</span> will appear in black and white. For example, the blue areas corresponds to area for which the X-band backscatter is relatively higher than the backscatter at L-and C-band; this behavior is characteristic of clear cuts or shorter vegetation. Similarly, the forested areas have a reddish tint. Finally, the green areas seen at the southern tip of both the Ammersee and the Pilsensee lakes indicate a marshy area. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01716&hterms=stress+images&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dstress%2Bimages','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01716&hterms=stress+images&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dstress%2Bimages"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This is a false-color, three-frequency <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Oberpfaffenhofen supersite, southwest of Munich in southern Germany, which shows the differences in what the three <span class="hlt">radar</span> bands can see on the ground. The <span class="hlt">image</span> covers a 27- by 36-kilometer (17- by 22-mile) area. The center of the site is 48.09 degrees north and 11.29 degrees east. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 13, 1994, just after a heavy storm which covered the all area with 20 centimeters (8 inches) of snow. The dark area in the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is Lake Ammersee. The two smaller lakes above the Ammersee are the Worthsee and the Pilsensee. On the right of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the tip of the Starnbergersee. The outskirt of the city of Munich can be seen at the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Oberpfaffenhofen supersite is the major test site for X-SAR calibration and scientific experiments such as ecology, hydrology and geology. This color composite <span class="hlt">image</span> is a three-frequency overlay. L-band total power was assigned red, the C-band total power is shown in green and the X-band VV polarization appears blue. The colors on the <span class="hlt">image</span> stress the differences between the L-band, C-band and X-band <span class="hlt">images</span>. If the three frequencies were seeing the same thing, the <span class="hlt">image</span> will appear in black and white. For example, the blue areas corresponds to area for which the X-band backscatter is relatively higher than the backscatter at L-and C-band; this behavior is characteristic of clear cuts or shorter vegetation. Similarly, the forested areas have a reddish tint. Finally, the green areas seen at the southern tip of both the Ammersee and the Pilsensee lakes indicate a marshy area. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT.........9H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT.........9H"><span><span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of solar system ices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harcke, Leif J.</p> <p></p> <p>We map the planet Mercury and Jupiter's moons Ganymede and Callisto using Earth-based <span class="hlt">radar</span> telescopes and find that all of these have regions exhibiting high, depolarized <span class="hlt">radar</span> backscatter and polarization inversion (m c > 1). Both characteristics suggest significant volume scattering from water ice or similar cold-trapped volatiles. Synthetic aperture <span class="hlt">radar</span> mapping of Mercury's north and south polar regions at fine (6 km) resolution at 3.5 cm wavelength corroborates the results of previous 13 cm investigations of enhanced backscatter and polarization inversion (0.9 <= m c <= 1.3) from areas on the floors of craters at high latitudes, where Mercury's near-zero obliquity results in permanent Sun shadows. Co-registration with Mariner 10 optical <span class="hlt">images</span> shows that this enhanced scattering cannot be caused by simple double-bounce geometries, since the bright, reflective regions do not appear on the <span class="hlt">radar</span>-facing wall but, instead, in shadowed regions not directly aligned with the <span class="hlt">radar</span> look direction. Thermal models require the existence of such a layer to preserve ice deposits in craters at other than high polar latitudes. The additional attenuation (factor 1.64 +/- 15%) of the 3.5 cm wavelength data from these experiments over previous 13 cm <span class="hlt">radar</span> observations is consistent with a range of layer thickness from 0 +/- 11 to 35 +/- 15 cm, depending on the assumed scattering law exponent n. Our 3.5 cm wavelength bistatic aperture synthesis observations of the two outermost Galilean satellites of Jupiter, Ganymede and Callisto, resolve the north-south ambiguity of previous <span class="hlt">images</span>, and confirm the disk-integrated enhanced backscatter and polarization inversion noted in prior investigations. The direct <span class="hlt">imaging</span> technique more clearly shows that higher backscatter are as are associated with the terrain that has undergone recent resurfacing, such as the sulci and the impact crater basins. The leading hemispheres of both moons have somewhat higher (20% +/- 5%) depolarized echoes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA452124','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA452124"><span><span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> and Target Identification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-08-24</p> <p>fast ISAR <span class="hlt">imaging</span> algorithm, related to my work with Brett Borden, based on a suggestion from Emmanuel Cand~s. 4 Chapter 2 Current Status of Effort...were Lee Potter (Ohio State) , Miijdat 4ýetin (MIT), bf Alan Willsky (MIT), Todd Hale (AFIT), Brian Rigling (Wright State U., a for- mer student of...met Todd Hale and Marshall Greenspan (Norden Systems, Northrup Grum- man); the latter turned out to be on the same departing flight out of Huntsville</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01761&hterms=kilauea+volcano&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dkilauea%2Bvolcano','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01761&hterms=kilauea+volcano&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dkilauea%2Bvolcano"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This three-dimensional <span class="hlt">image</span> of the volcano Kilauea was generated based on interferometric fringes derived from two X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> data takes on April 13, 1994 and October 4, 1994. The altitude lines are based on quantitative interpolation of the topographic fringes. The level difference between neighboring altitude lines is 20 meters (66 feet). The ground area covers 12 kilometers by 4 kilometers (7.5 miles by 2.5 miles). The altitude difference in the <span class="hlt">image</span> is about 500 meters (1,640 feet). The volcano is located around 19.58 degrees north latitude and 155.55 degrees west longitude. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR. The Instituto Ricerca Elettromagnetismo Componenti Elettronici (IRECE) at the University of Naples was a partner in the interferometry analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.7881M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.7881M"><span><span class="hlt">Velocity</span> profiles inside volcanic clouds from three-dimensional scanning microwave dual-polarization Doppler <span class="hlt">radars</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Montopoli, Mario</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>In this work, <span class="hlt">velocity</span> profiles within a volcanic tephra cloud obtained by dual-polarization Doppler <span class="hlt">radar</span> acquisitions with three-dimensional (3-D) mechanical scanning capability are analyzed. A method for segmenting the <span class="hlt">radar</span> volumes into three <span class="hlt">velocity</span> regimes: vertical updraft, vertical fallout, and horizontal wind advection within a volcanic tephra cloud using dual-polarization Doppler <span class="hlt">radar</span> moments is proposed. The horizontal and vertical <span class="hlt">velocity</span> components within the regimes are retrieved using a novel procedure that makes assumptions concerning the characteristics of the winds inside these regimes. The vertical <span class="hlt">velocities</span> retrieved are combined with 1-D simulations to derive additional parameters including particle fallout, mass flux, and particle sizes. The explosive event occurred on 23 November 2013 at the Mount Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy), is considered a demonstrative case in which to analyze the <span class="hlt">radar</span> Doppler signal inside the tephra column. The X-band <span class="hlt">radar</span> (3 cm wavelength) in the Catania, Italy, airport observed the 3-D scenes of the Etna tephra cloud ~32 km from the volcano vent every 10 min. From the <span class="hlt">radar</span>-derived vertical <span class="hlt">velocity</span> profiles of updraft, particle fallout, and horizontal transportation, an exit <span class="hlt">velocity</span> of 150 m/s, mass flux rate of 1.37 • 107 kg/s, particle fallout <span class="hlt">velocity</span> of 18 m/s, and diameters of precipitating tephra particles equal to 0.8 cm are estimated on average. These numbers are shown to be consistent with theoretical 1-D simulations of plume dynamics and local reports at the ground, respectively. A thickness of 3 ± 0.36 km for the downwind ash cloud is also inferred by differentiating the <span class="hlt">radar</span>-derived cloud top and the height of transition between the convective and buoyancy regions, the latter being inferred by the estimated vertical updraft <span class="hlt">velocity</span> profile. The unique nature of the case study as well as the novelty of the segmentation and retrieval methods presented potentially give new insights into the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023316','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023316"><span>Nonlinear inversion of borehole-<span class="hlt">radar</span> tomography data to reconstruct <span class="hlt">velocity</span> and attenuation distribution in earth materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Zhou, C.; Liu, L.; Lane, J.W.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A nonlinear tomographic inversion method that uses first-arrival travel-time and amplitude-spectra information from cross-hole <span class="hlt">radar</span> measurements was developed to simultaneously reconstruct electromagnetic <span class="hlt">velocity</span> and attenuation distribution in earth materials. Inversion methods were developed to analyze single cross-hole tomography surveys and differential tomography surveys. Assuming the earth behaves as a linear system, the inversion methods do not require estimation of source radiation pattern, receiver coupling, or geometrical spreading. The data analysis and tomographic inversion algorithm were applied to synthetic test data and to cross-hole <span class="hlt">radar</span> field data provided by the US Geological Survey (USGS). The cross-hole <span class="hlt">radar</span> field data were acquired at the USGS fractured-rock field research site at Mirror Lake near Thornton, New Hampshire, before and after injection of a saline tracer, to monitor the transport of electrically conductive fluids in the <span class="hlt">image</span> plane. Results from the synthetic data test demonstrate the algorithm computational efficiency and indicate that the method robustly can reconstruct electromagnetic (EM) wave <span class="hlt">velocity</span> and attenuation distribution in earth materials. The field test results outline zones of <span class="hlt">velocity</span> and attenuation anomalies consistent with the finding of previous investigators; however, the tomograms appear to be quite smooth. Further work is needed to effectively find the optimal smoothness criterion in applying the Tikhonov regularization in the nonlinear inversion algorithms for cross-hole <span class="hlt">radar</span> tomography. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RaSc...51.1792K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RaSc...51.1792K"><span>On the consistency of the SuperDARN <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">velocity</span> and E × B plasma drift</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koustov, A. V.; Lavoie, D. B.; Varney, R. H.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Joint observations of the Rankin Inlet (RKN) and Inuvik Super Dual Auroral <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Network (SuperDARN) HF <span class="hlt">radars</span> and Resolute Bay incoherent scatter <span class="hlt">radar</span> (RISR) are used to assess consistency in their plasma flow <span class="hlt">velocity</span> measurements. The analysis covers more than 500 h of successful concurrent measurements. We demonstrate that, overall, the <span class="hlt">radars</span> show close <span class="hlt">velocities</span>, although there were minor differences including SuperDARN <span class="hlt">velocity</span> underestimation, in line with previous publications, and the persistent occurrence of measurements with a SuperDARN <span class="hlt">velocity</span> magnitude above the RISR <span class="hlt">velocity</span> magnitude. We argue that, for one event, the <span class="hlt">velocity</span> overestimation occurs owing to echo detection from a laterally refracted RKN beam while, generally, the effect should be fairly wide-spread in SuperDARN data because of microstructures with enhanced electron density in the scattering volume that might have either weak irregularities or increased local electric fields. We estimate that the correction of RKN <span class="hlt">velocity</span> data by considering the effect of the index of refraction improves RKN-RISR <span class="hlt">velocity</span> agreement but only for 63% of points. This implies that care should be exercised when attempting to correct raw SuperDARN <span class="hlt">velocity</span> data by the index of refraction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01722.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01722.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Colombian Volcano</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-27</p> <p>This is a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of a little known volcano in northern Colombia. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired on orbit 80 of space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994, by NASA Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> SIR-C/X-SAR. The volcano near the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is located at 5.6 degrees north latitude, 75.0 degrees west longitude, about 100 kilometers (65 miles) southeast of Medellin, Colombia. The conspicuous dark spot is a lake at the bottom of an approximately 3-kilometer-wide (1.9-mile) volcanic collapse depression or caldera. A cone-shaped peak on the bottom left (northeast rim) of the caldera appears to have been the source for a flow of material into the caldera. This is the northern-most known volcano in South America and because of its youthful appearance, should be considered dormant rather than extinct. The volcano's existence confirms a fracture zone proposed in 1985 as the northern boundary of volcanism in the Andes. The SIR-C/X-SAR <span class="hlt">image</span> reveals another, older caldera further south in Colombia, along another proposed fracture zone. Although relatively conspicuous, these volcanoes have escaped widespread recognition because of frequent cloud cover that hinders remote sensing <span class="hlt">imaging</span> in visible wavelengths. Four separate volcanoes in the Northern Andes nations of Colombia and Ecuador have been active during the last 10 years, killing more than 25,000 people, including scientists who were monitoring the volcanic activity. Detection and monitoring of volcanoes from space provides a safe way to investigate volcanism. The recognition of previously unknown volcanoes is important for hazard evaluations because a number of major eruptions this century have occurred at mountains that were not previously recognized as volcanoes. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01722</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01742.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01742.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Altona, Manitoba, Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>This is an X-band seasonal <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Altona test site in Manitoba, Canada, about 80 kilometers (50 miles) south of Winnipeg. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at approximately 49 degrees north latitude and 97.5 degrees west longitude. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 11, 1994, during the first flight of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> system, and on October 2, 1994, during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The <span class="hlt">image</span> channels have the following color assignments: red represents data acquired on April 11, 1994; green represents data acquired on October 2, 1994; blue represents the ratio of the two data sets. The test site is located in the Red River Basin and is characterized by rich farmland where a variety of crops are grown, including wheat, barley, canola, corn, sunflowers and sugar beets. This SIR-C/X-SAR research site is applying <span class="hlt">radar</span> remote sensing to study the characteristics of vegetation and soil moisture. The seasonal comparison between the April and October 1994 data show the dramatic differences between surface conditions on the two dates. At the time of the April acquisition, almost all agricultural fields were bare and soil moisture levels were high. In October, however, soils were drier and while most crops had been harvested, some standing vegetation was still present. The areas which are cyan in color are dark in April and bright in October. These represent fields of standing biomass (amount of vegetation in a specified area) and the differences in brightness within these cyan fields represent differences in vegetation type. The very bright fields in October represent standing broadleaf crops such as corn, which had not yet been harvested. Other standing vegetation which has less biomass, such as hay and grain fields, are less bright. The magenta indicates bare soil surfaces which were wetter (brighter) in April than in October. The variations in brightness of</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01731&hterms=weather+radar+new&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dweather%2Bradar%2Bnew','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01731&hterms=weather+radar+new&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dweather%2Bradar%2Bnew"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Kliuchevskoi Volcano, Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is an <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, which began to erupt on September 30, 1994. Kliuchevskoi is the bright white peak surrounded by red slopes in the lower left portion of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 25th orbit on October 1, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> shows an area approximately 30 kilometers by 60 kilometers (18.5 miles by 37 miles) that is centered at 56.18 degrees north latitude and 160.78 degrees east longitude. North is toward the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Kamchatka volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcanic zone sits above a tectonic plate boundary, where the Pacific plate is sinking beneath the northeast edge of the Eurasian plate. The Endeavour crew obtained dramatic video and photographic <span class="hlt">images</span> of this region during the eruption, which will assist scientists in analyzing the dynamics of the current activity. The colors in this <span class="hlt">image</span> were obtained using the following <span class="hlt">radar</span> channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). The Kamchatka River runs from left to right across the <span class="hlt">image</span>. An older, dormant volcanic region appears in green on the north side of the river. The current eruption included massive ejections of gas, vapor and ash, which reached altitudes of 20,000 meters (65,000 feet). New lava flows are visible on the flanks of Kliuchevskoi, appearing yellow/green in the <span class="hlt">image</span>, superimposed on the red surfaces in the lower center. Melting snow triggered mudflows on the north flank of the volcano, which may threaten agricultural zones and other settlements in the valley to the north. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01731&hterms=volcanoes+videos&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dvolcanoes%2Bvideos','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01731&hterms=volcanoes+videos&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dvolcanoes%2Bvideos"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Kliuchevskoi Volcano, Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is an <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, which began to erupt on September 30, 1994. Kliuchevskoi is the bright white peak surrounded by red slopes in the lower left portion of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 25th orbit on October 1, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> shows an area approximately 30 kilometers by 60 kilometers (18.5 miles by 37 miles) that is centered at 56.18 degrees north latitude and 160.78 degrees east longitude. North is toward the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Kamchatka volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcanic zone sits above a tectonic plate boundary, where the Pacific plate is sinking beneath the northeast edge of the Eurasian plate. The Endeavour crew obtained dramatic video and photographic <span class="hlt">images</span> of this region during the eruption, which will assist scientists in analyzing the dynamics of the current activity. The colors in this <span class="hlt">image</span> were obtained using the following <span class="hlt">radar</span> channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). The Kamchatka River runs from left to right across the <span class="hlt">image</span>. An older, dormant volcanic region appears in green on the north side of the river. The current eruption included massive ejections of gas, vapor and ash, which reached altitudes of 20,000 meters (65,000 feet). New lava flows are visible on the flanks of Kliuchevskoi, appearing yellow/green in the <span class="hlt">image</span>, superimposed on the red surfaces in the lower center. Melting snow triggered mudflows on the north flank of the volcano, which may threaten agricultural zones and other settlements in the valley to the north. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01727.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01727.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Mt. Rainer, Washington</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>This is a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of Mount Rainier in Washington state. The volcano last erupted about 150 years ago and numerous large floods and debris flows have originated on its slopes during the last century. Today the volcano is heavily mantled with glaciers and snowfields. More than 100,000 people live on young volcanic mudflows less than 10,000 years old and, consequently, are within the range of future, devastating mudslides. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 20th orbit on October 1, 1994. The area shown in the <span class="hlt">image</span> is approximately 59 kilometers by 60 kilometers (36.5 miles by 37 miles). North is toward the top left of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, which was composed by assigning red and green colors to the L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically, and the L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. Blue indicates the C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. In addition to highlighting topographic slopes facing the space shuttle, SIR-C records rugged areas as brighter and smooth areas as darker. The scene was illuminated by the shuttle's <span class="hlt">radar</span> from the northwest so that northwest-facing slopes are brighter and southeast-facing slopes are dark. Forested regions are pale green in color; clear cuts and bare ground are bluish or purple; ice is dark green and white. The round cone at the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the 14,435-foot (4,399-meter) active volcano, Mount Rainier. On the lower slopes is a zone of rock ridges and rubble (purple to reddish) above coniferous forests (in yellow/green). The western boundary of Mount Rainier National Park is seen as a transition from protected, old-growth forest to heavily logged private land, a mosaic of recent clear cuts (bright purple/blue) and partially regrown timber plantations (pale blue). The prominent river seen curving away from the mountain at the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span> (to the northwest) is the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01735.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01735.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Manaus, Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>These two false-color <span class="hlt">images</span> of the Manaus region of Brazil in South America were acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The <span class="hlt">image</span> at left was acquired on April 12, 1994, and the <span class="hlt">image</span> at right was acquired on October 3, 1994. The area shown is approximately 8 kilometers by 40 kilometers (5 miles by 25 miles). The two large rivers in this <span class="hlt">image</span>, the Rio Negro (at top) and the Rio Solimoes (at bottom), combine at Manaus (west of the <span class="hlt">image</span>) to form the Amazon River. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at about 3 degrees south latitude and 61 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top left of the <span class="hlt">images</span>. The false colors were created by displaying three L-band polarization channels: red areas correspond to high backscatter, horizontally transmitted and received, while green areas correspond to high backscatter, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. Blue areas show low returns at vertical transmit/receive polarization; hence the bright blue colors of the smooth river surfaces can be seen. Using this color scheme, green areas in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are heavily forested, while blue areas are either cleared forest or open water. The yellow and red areas are flooded forest or floating meadows. The extent of the flooding is much greater in the April <span class="hlt">image</span> than in the October <span class="hlt">image</span> and appears to follow the 10-meter (33-foot) annual rise and fall of the Amazon River. The flooded forest is a vital habitat for fish, and floating meadows are an important source of atmospheric methane. These <span class="hlt">images</span> demonstrate the capability of SIR-C/X-SAR to study important environmental changes that are impossible to see with optical sensors over regions such as the Amazon, where frequent cloud cover and dense forest canopies block monitoring of flooding. Field studies by boat, on foot and in low-flying aircraft by the University of California at Santa Barbara, in collaboration with Brazil's Instituto Nacional de Pesguisas</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770028738&hterms=limnology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dlimnology','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770028738&hterms=limnology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dlimnology"><span><span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> observations of frozen Arctic lakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Elachi, C.; Bryan, M. L.; Weeks, W. F.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>A synthetic aperture <span class="hlt">imaging</span> L-band <span class="hlt">radar</span> flown aboard the NASA CV-990 remotely sensed a number of ice-covered lakes about 48 km northwest of Bethel, Alaska. The <span class="hlt">image</span> obtained is a high resolution, two-dimensional representation of the surface backscatter cross section, and large differences in backscatter returns are observed: homogeneous low returns, homogeneous high returns and/or low returns near lake borders, and high returns from central areas. It is suggested that a low return indicates that the lake is frozen completely to the bottom, while a high return indicates the presence of fresh water between the ice cover and the lake bed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01728.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01728.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Kliuchevskoi, Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>This is an X-band seasonal <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Maly Semlyachik volcano, which is part of the Karymsky volcano group on Kamchatka peninsula, Russia. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 54.2 degrees north latitude and 159.6 degrees east longitude. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 9, 1994, during the first flight of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> system, and on September 30, 1994, during the second flight. The <span class="hlt">image</span> channels have been assigned the following colors: red corresponds to data acquired on April 9; green corresponds to data acquired on September 30; and blue corresponds to the ratio between data from April 9 and September 30, 1994. Kamchatka is twice as large as England, Scotland and Wales combined and is home to approximately 470,000 residents. The region is characterized by a chain of volcanoes stretching 800 kilometers (500 miles) across the countryside. Many of the volcanoes, including the active Maly Semlyachik volcano in this <span class="hlt">image</span>, have erupted during this century. But the most active period in creating the three characteristic craters of this volcano goes back 20,000, 12,000 and 2,000 years ago. The highest summit of the oldest crater reaches about 1,560 meters (1,650 feet). The <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> reveal the geological structures of craters and lava flows in order to improve scientists' knowledge of these sometimes vigorously active volcanoes. This seasonal composite also highlights the ecological differences that have occurred between April and October 1994. In April the whole area was snow-covered and, at the coast, an ice sheet extended approximately 5 kilometers (3 miles) into the sea. The area shown surrounding the volcano is covered by low vegetation much like scrub. Kamchatka also has extensive forests, which belong to the northern frontier of Taiga, the boreal forest ecosystem. This region plays an important role in the world's carbon cycle. Trees require 60 years to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01746&hterms=weather+radar+new&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dweather%2Bradar%2Bnew','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01746&hterms=weather+radar+new&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dweather%2Bradar%2Bnew"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Mammoth Mountain, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This false-color composite <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Mammoth Mountain area in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 67th orbit on October 3, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 37.6 degrees north latitude and 119.0 degrees west longitude. The area is about 39 kilometers by 51 kilometers (24 miles by 31 miles). North is toward the bottom, about 45 degrees to the right. In this <span class="hlt">image</span>, red was created using L-band (horizontally transmitted/vertically received) polarization data; green was created using C-band (horizontally transmitted/vertically received) polarization data; and blue was created using C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization data. Crawley Lake appears dark at the center left of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, just above or south of Long Valley. The Mammoth Mountain ski area is visible at the top right of the scene. The red areas correspond to forests, the dark blue areas are bare surfaces and the green areas are short vegetation, mainly brush. The purple areas at the higher elevations in the upper part of the scene are discontinuous patches of snow cover from a September 28 storm. New, very thin snow was falling before and during the second space shuttle pass. In parallel with the operational SIR-C data processing, an experimental effort is being conducted to test SAR data processing using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's massively parallel supercomputing facility, centered around the Cray Research T3D. These experiments will assess the abilities of large supercomputers to produce high throughput Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> processing in preparation for upcoming data-intensive SAR missions. The <span class="hlt">image</span> released here was produced as part of this experimental effort. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR)are part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01786&hterms=weather+radar+new&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dweather%2Bradar%2Bnew','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01786&hterms=weather+radar+new&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dweather%2Bradar%2Bnew"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Weddell Sea Ice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is the first calibrated, multi-frequency, multi-polarization spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the seasonal sea-ice cover in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. The multi-channel data provide scientists with details about the ice pack they cannot see any other way and indicates that the large expanse of sea-ice is, in fact, comprised of many smaller rounded ice floes, shown in blue-gray. These data are particularly useful in helping scientists estimate the thickness of the ice cover which is often extremely difficult to measure with other remote sensing systems. The extent, and especially thickness, of the polar ocean's sea-ice cover together have important implications for global climate by regulating the loss of heat from the ocean to the cold polar atmosphere. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired on October 3, 1994, by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is produced by overlaying three channels of <span class="hlt">radar</span> data in the following colors: red (C-band, HH-polarization), green (L-band HV-polarization), and blue (L-band, HH-polarization). The <span class="hlt">image</span> is oriented almost east-west with a center location of 58.2 degrees South and 21.6 degrees East. <span class="hlt">Image</span> dimensions are 45 kilometers by 18 kilometers (28 miles by 11 miles). Most of the ice cover is composed of rounded, undeformed blue-gray floes, about 0.7 meters (2 feet) thick, which are surrounded by a jumble of red-tinged deformed ice pieces which are up to 2 meters (7 feet) thick. The winter cycle of ice growth and deformation often causes this ice cover to split apart, exposing open water or 'leads'. Ice growth within these openings is rapid due to the cold, brisk Antarctic atmosphere. Different stages of new-ice growth can be seen within the linear leads, resulting from continuous opening and closing. The blue lines within the leads are open water areas in new fractures which are roughened by wind. The bright red lines are an intermediate stage of new</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01807&hterms=Monsanto&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DMonsanto','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01807&hterms=Monsanto&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DMonsanto"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Lisbon, Portugal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of Lisbon, Portugal illustrates the different land use patterns that are present in coastal Portugal. Lisbon, the national capital, lies on the north bank of the Rio Tejo where the river enters the Atlantic Ocean. The city center appears as the bright area in the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The green area west of the city center is a large city park called the Parque Florestal de Monsanto. The Lisbon Airport is visible east of the city. The Rio Tejo forms a large bay just east of the city. Many agricultural fields are visible as a patchwork pattern east of the bay. Suburban housing can be seen on the southern bank of the river. Spanning the river is the Ponte 25 de Abril, a large suspension bridge similar in architecture to San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired on April 19, 1994 and is centered at 38.8 degrees north latitude, 9.2 degrees west longitude. North is towards the upper right. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is 50 kilometers by 30 kilometers (31 miles by 19 miles). The colors in this <span class="hlt">image</span> represent the following <span class="hlt">radar</span> channels and polarizations: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01807&hterms=monsanto&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmonsanto','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01807&hterms=monsanto&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmonsanto"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Lisbon, Portugal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of Lisbon, Portugal illustrates the different land use patterns that are present in coastal Portugal. Lisbon, the national capital, lies on the north bank of the Rio Tejo where the river enters the Atlantic Ocean. The city center appears as the bright area in the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The green area west of the city center is a large city park called the Parque Florestal de Monsanto. The Lisbon Airport is visible east of the city. The Rio Tejo forms a large bay just east of the city. Many agricultural fields are visible as a patchwork pattern east of the bay. Suburban housing can be seen on the southern bank of the river. Spanning the river is the Ponte 25 de Abril, a large suspension bridge similar in architecture to San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired on April 19, 1994 and is centered at 38.8 degrees north latitude, 9.2 degrees west longitude. North is towards the upper right. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is 50 kilometers by 30 kilometers (31 miles by 19 miles). The colors in this <span class="hlt">image</span> represent the following <span class="hlt">radar</span> channels and polarizations: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01700.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01700.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Raco, Michigan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-27</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">image</span> is a false-color composite of Raco, Michigan, centered at 46.39 degrees north latitude, 84.88 degrees west longitude. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its sixth orbit and during the first full-capability test of the instrument on April 9, 1994. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was produced using both L-band and C-band data. The area shown is approximately 20 kilometers by 50 kilometers (12 by 30 miles). Raco is located at the eastern end of Michigan's upper peninsula, west of Sault Ste. Marie and south of Whitefish Bay on Lake Superior. The site is located at the boundary between the boreal forests and the northern temperate forests, a transitional zone that is expected to be ecologically sensitive to anticipated global changes resulting from climatic warming. On any given day, there is a 60 percent chance that this area will be obscured to some extent by cloud clover which makes it difficult to <span class="hlt">image</span> using optical sensors. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01700</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01711&hterms=Italy+formed&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DItaly%2Bformed','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01711&hterms=Italy+formed&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DItaly%2Bformed"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Safsaf, North Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p><p/> This is a false-color <span class="hlt">image</span> of the uninhabited Safsaf Oasis in southern Egypt near the Egypt/Sudan border. It was produced from data obtained from the L-band and C-band <span class="hlt">radars</span> that are part of the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 9, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 22 degree north latitude, 29 degrees east longitude. It shows detailed structures of bedrock; the dark blue sinuous lines are braided channels that occupy part of an old broad river valley. On the ground and in optical photographs, this big valley and the channels in it are invisible because they are entirely covered by windblown sand. Some of these same channels were observed in SIR-A <span class="hlt">images</span> in 1981. It is hypothesized that the large valley was carved by one of several ancient predecessor rivers that crossed this part of North Africa, flowing westward, tens of millions of years before the Nile River existed. The Nile flows north about 300 kilometers (200 miles) to the east. The small channels are younger, and probably formed during relatively wet climatic periods within the past few hundred thousand years. This <span class="hlt">image</span> shows that the channels are in a river valley located in an area where U.S. Geological Survey geologists and archeologists discovered an unusual concentration of hand axes (stone tools) used by Early Man (Homo erectus) hundreds of thousands of years ago. The <span class="hlt">image</span> clearly shows that in wetter times, the valley would have supported game animals and vegetation. Today, as a result of climate change, the area in uninhabited and lacks water except fora few scattered oases. This color composite <span class="hlt">image</span> was produced from C-band and L-band horizontal polarization <span class="hlt">images</span>. The C-band <span class="hlt">image</span> was assigned red, the L-band (HH) polarization <span class="hlt">image</span> is shown in green, and the ratio of these two <span class="hlt">images</span> (LHH/CHH) appears in blue. The primary and composite colors on the <span class="hlt">image</span> indicate the degree to which the C-band, H-band, their</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01711&hterms=ancient+egypt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dancient%2Begypt','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01711&hterms=ancient+egypt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dancient%2Begypt"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Safsaf, North Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p><p/> This is a false-color <span class="hlt">image</span> of the uninhabited Safsaf Oasis in southern Egypt near the Egypt/Sudan border. It was produced from data obtained from the L-band and C-band <span class="hlt">radars</span> that are part of the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 9, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 22 degree north latitude, 29 degrees east longitude. It shows detailed structures of bedrock; the dark blue sinuous lines are braided channels that occupy part of an old broad river valley. On the ground and in optical photographs, this big valley and the channels in it are invisible because they are entirely covered by windblown sand. Some of these same channels were observed in SIR-A <span class="hlt">images</span> in 1981. It is hypothesized that the large valley was carved by one of several ancient predecessor rivers that crossed this part of North Africa, flowing westward, tens of millions of years before the Nile River existed. The Nile flows north about 300 kilometers (200 miles) to the east. The small channels are younger, and probably formed during relatively wet climatic periods within the past few hundred thousand years. This <span class="hlt">image</span> shows that the channels are in a river valley located in an area where U.S. Geological Survey geologists and archeologists discovered an unusual concentration of hand axes (stone tools) used by Early Man (Homo erectus) hundreds of thousands of years ago. The <span class="hlt">image</span> clearly shows that in wetter times, the valley would have supported game animals and vegetation. Today, as a result of climate change, the area in uninhabited and lacks water except fora few scattered oases. This color composite <span class="hlt">image</span> was produced from C-band and L-band horizontal polarization <span class="hlt">images</span>. The C-band <span class="hlt">image</span> was assigned red, the L-band (HH) polarization <span class="hlt">image</span> is shown in green, and the ratio of these two <span class="hlt">images</span> (LHH/CHH) appears in blue. The primary and composite colors on the <span class="hlt">image</span> indicate the degree to which the C-band, H-band, their</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01804&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01804&hterms=urban+green+space&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Durban%2Bgreen%2Bspace"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Dublin, Ireland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of Dublin, Ireland, shows how the <span class="hlt">radar</span> distinguishes between densely populated urban areas and nearby areas that are relatively unsettled. In the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the city's natural harbor along the Irish Sea. The pinkish areas in the center are the densely populated parts of the city and the blue/green areas are the suburbs. The two ends of the Dublin Bay are Howth Point, the circular peninsula near the upper right side of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, and Dun Laoghaire, the point to the south. The small island just north of Howth is called 'Ireland's Eye,' and the larger island, near the upper right corner of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is Lambay Island. The yellow/green mountains in the lower left of the <span class="hlt">image</span> (south) are the Wicklow Mountains. The large lake in the lower left, nestled within these mountains, is the Poulaphouca Reservoir along River Liffey. The River Liffey, the River Dodden and the Tolka River are the three rivers that flow into Dublin. The straight features west of the city are the Grand Canal and the three rivers are the faint lines above and below these structures. The dark X-shaped feature just to the north of the city is the Dublin International Airport. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 11, 1994. This area is centered at 53.3 degrees north latitude, 6.2 degrees west longitude. The area shown is approximately 55 kilometers by 42 kilometers (34 miles by 26 miles). The colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: Red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01736&hterms=bamboo&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dbamboo','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01736&hterms=bamboo&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dbamboo"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Karisoke & Virunga Volcanoes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is a false-color composite of Central Africa, showing the Virunga volcano chain along the borders of Rwanda, Zaire and Uganda. This area is home to the endangered mountain gorillas. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired on October 3, 1994, on orbit 58 of the space shuttle Endeavour by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR). In this <span class="hlt">image</span> red is the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received) polarization; green is the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization; and blue is the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization. The area is centered at about 2.4 degrees south latitude and 30.8 degrees east longitude. The <span class="hlt">image</span> covers an area 56 kilometers by 70 kilometers (35 miles by 43 miles). The dark area at the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is Lake Kivu, which forms the border between Zaire (to the right) and Rwanda (to the left). In the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the steep cone of Nyiragongo volcano, rising 3,465 meters (11,369 feet) high, with its central crater now occupied by a lava lake. To the left are three volcanoes, Mount Karisimbi, rising 4,500 meters (14,800 feet) high; Mount Sabinyo, rising 3,600 meters (12,000 feet) high; and Mount Muhavura, rising 4,100 meters (13,500 feet) high. To their right is Nyamuragira volcano, which is 3,053 meters (10,017 feet) tall, with radiating lava flows dating from the 1950s to the late 1980s. These active volcanoes constitute a hazard to the towns of Goma, Zaire and the nearby Rwandan refugee camps, located on the shore of Lake Kivu at the top left. This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> highlights subtle differences in the vegetation of the region. The green patch to the center left of the <span class="hlt">image</span> in the foothills of Karisimbi is a bamboo forest where the mountain gorillas live. The vegetation types in this area are an important factor in the habitat of mountain gorillas. Researchers at Rutgers University in New Jersey and the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund in London will use this data to produce</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01736&hterms=gorilla&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dgorilla','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01736&hterms=gorilla&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dgorilla"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Karisoke & Virunga Volcanoes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is a false-color composite of Central Africa, showing the Virunga volcano chain along the borders of Rwanda, Zaire and Uganda. This area is home to the endangered mountain gorillas. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired on October 3, 1994, on orbit 58 of the space shuttle Endeavour by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR). In this <span class="hlt">image</span> red is the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received) polarization; green is the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization; and blue is the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization. The area is centered at about 2.4 degrees south latitude and 30.8 degrees east longitude. The <span class="hlt">image</span> covers an area 56 kilometers by 70 kilometers (35 miles by 43 miles). The dark area at the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is Lake Kivu, which forms the border between Zaire (to the right) and Rwanda (to the left). In the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the steep cone of Nyiragongo volcano, rising 3,465 meters (11,369 feet) high, with its central crater now occupied by a lava lake. To the left are three volcanoes, Mount Karisimbi, rising 4,500 meters (14,800 feet) high; Mount Sabinyo, rising 3,600 meters (12,000 feet) high; and Mount Muhavura, rising 4,100 meters (13,500 feet) high. To their right is Nyamuragira volcano, which is 3,053 meters (10,017 feet) tall, with radiating lava flows dating from the 1950s to the late 1980s. These active volcanoes constitute a hazard to the towns of Goma, Zaire and the nearby Rwandan refugee camps, located on the shore of Lake Kivu at the top left. This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> highlights subtle differences in the vegetation of the region. The green patch to the center left of the <span class="hlt">image</span> in the foothills of Karisimbi is a bamboo forest where the mountain gorillas live. The vegetation types in this area are an important factor in the habitat of mountain gorillas. Researchers at Rutgers University in New Jersey and the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund in London will use this data to produce</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1806c0001C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1806c0001C"><span>Local wavefield <span class="hlt">velocity</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> for damage evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chia, Chen Ciang; Gan, Chia Sheng; Mustapha, F.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Ultrasonic Propagation <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> or Acoustic Wavefield <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> has been widely used to evaluate structural damages and internal features. Inspecting complete wavefield time history for damage identification is tedious and error-prone. A more effective way is by extracting damage-related information into a single <span class="hlt">image</span>. A wavefield <span class="hlt">velocity</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> method that maps the local estimates of group or phase <span class="hlt">velocity</span> is proposed. Actual <span class="hlt">velocity</span> values rather than arbitrarily-scaled intensities are mapped, enabling damage sizing without the need of supervised training or inspecting wavefield propagation video. Performance of the proposed method was tested by inspecting a 100 mm by 100 mm area of a 2 mm thick stainless steel specimen. Local phase <span class="hlt">velocity</span> maps of A0 mode showed a half-thickness hole of 2 mm diameter as significant change in local phase <span class="hlt">velocity</span> from the nominal 2 m/ms. Full width at half maximum of relevant <span class="hlt">velocity</span> profiles proved the accuracy and consistency of the damage sizing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01704&hterms=Italy+formed&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DItaly%2Bformed','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01704&hterms=Italy+formed&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DItaly%2Bformed"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Oetzal, Austria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">image</span> is a false-color composite of Oetzal, Austria located in the Central Alps centered at 46.8 degrees north latitude, 10.70 degrees east longitude, at the border between Switzerland (top), Italy (left) and Austria (right and bottom). The area shown is 50 kilometers (30 miles) south of Innsbruck, Austria. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 14th orbit. Oetztal is a SIR-C/X-SAR hydrology supersite. Approximately one quarter of this <span class="hlt">image</span> is covered by glaciers, the largest of which, Gepatschferner, is visible as a triangular yellow patch in the center of the scene. The summits of the main peaks reach elevations between 3,500 and 3,768 meters (11,500 and 12,362 feet) above sea level. The tongues of the glaciers are descending from elevated plateaus down into narrow valleys which were formed during the last ice age. This color <span class="hlt">image</span> was produced in C-band using multi-polarization information (red=CHV, green=CVV,blue=CVV/CHV). The blue areas are lakes (Gepatsch dam at center right; Lake Muta at top right) and glacier ice. The yellow areas are slopes facing the <span class="hlt">radar</span> and areas of dry snow. Purple corresponds to slopes facing away from the <span class="hlt">radar</span>. Yellow in the valley bottom corresponds to tree covered areas. There is 30 to 50 centimeters (12 to 20 inches) of dry, fresh snow on the glaciers, and about 10 centimeters (4 inches) in the valley at the city of Vent, Austria (center). At these data were taken, the weather was cold, with snow and thick fog. The entire area would appear white to an optical sensor because it is all covered under a winter snowpack. Researchers are interested in Oetztal because knowing how glaciers shrink and grow over time is an important indication of climatic change. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE). The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01704&hterms=grow+largest&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dgrow%2Blargest','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01704&hterms=grow+largest&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dgrow%2Blargest"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Oetzal, Austria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">image</span> is a false-color composite of Oetzal, Austria located in the Central Alps centered at 46.8 degrees north latitude, 10.70 degrees east longitude, at the border between Switzerland (top), Italy (left) and Austria (right and bottom). The area shown is 50 kilometers (30 miles) south of Innsbruck, Austria. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 14th orbit. Oetztal is a SIR-C/X-SAR hydrology supersite. Approximately one quarter of this <span class="hlt">image</span> is covered by glaciers, the largest of which, Gepatschferner, is visible as a triangular yellow patch in the center of the scene. The summits of the main peaks reach elevations between 3,500 and 3,768 meters (11,500 and 12,362 feet) above sea level. The tongues of the glaciers are descending from elevated plateaus down into narrow valleys which were formed during the last ice age. This color <span class="hlt">image</span> was produced in C-band using multi-polarization information (red=CHV, green=CVV,blue=CVV/CHV). The blue areas are lakes (Gepatsch dam at center right; Lake Muta at top right) and glacier ice. The yellow areas are slopes facing the <span class="hlt">radar</span> and areas of dry snow. Purple corresponds to slopes facing away from the <span class="hlt">radar</span>. Yellow in the valley bottom corresponds to tree covered areas. There is 30 to 50 centimeters (12 to 20 inches) of dry, fresh snow on the glaciers, and about 10 centimeters (4 inches) in the valley at the city of Vent, Austria (center). At these data were taken, the weather was cold, with snow and thick fog. The entire area would appear white to an optical sensor because it is all covered under a winter snowpack. Researchers are interested in Oetztal because knowing how glaciers shrink and grow over time is an important indication of climatic change. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE). The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMSM23A2468G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMSM23A2468G"><span>Measurement of Polar Cap Ionospheric <span class="hlt">Velocities</span> Using the RISR-C and SuperDARN <span class="hlt">Radars</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gillies, R. G.; Spanswick, E.; Varney, R. H.; Perry, G. W.; Koustov, A. V.; Donovan, E.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The Canadian face of the Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (RISR-C) began operations in 2015 and since then has been making highly detailed measurements of the polar ionosphere. The operations of RISR-C are often complemented by measurements from the co-located northward facing RISR-N <span class="hlt">radar</span> which is operated by SRI International. RISR-C (and RISR-N), like other Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter (AMISR) <span class="hlt">radars</span>, are able to sample multiple look directions effectively simultaneously using electronic beam steering. Measurements of electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, and line-of-sight (LOS) <span class="hlt">velocity</span> are made along each of these beams in (typically) 1- or 5-minute intervals. Analysis of LOS <span class="hlt">velocity</span> measurements in multiple directions allows estimation of full 3-D flow vectors assuming a mostly uniform <span class="hlt">velocity</span> field exists in the field-of-view of the <span class="hlt">radar</span>. In this study, these RISR <span class="hlt">velocity</span> vectors are compared to conjugate measurements of ionospheric <span class="hlt">velocity</span> from overlapping Super Dual Auroral <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Network (SuperDARN) measurements at Rankin Inlet, Inuvik, and Clyde River. Accurate measurement of ionospheric <span class="hlt">velocities</span> by the RISR and SuperDARN <span class="hlt">radars</span> require several assumptions be made in analyzing both datasets. For example, measurement challenges for the SuperDARN <span class="hlt">radars</span> include; E-region and groundscatter contamination, the non-unity refractive index in the scattering volume, and wave propagation effects. The overall goal of this study is to identify and solve possible issues in using the different techniques/instruments in order to produce the most accurate measurements of polar cap ionospheric <span class="hlt">velocities</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01768&hterms=Italy+formed&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DItaly%2Bformed','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01768&hterms=Italy+formed&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DItaly%2Bformed"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Taal Volcano, Philippines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is an <span class="hlt">image</span> of Taal volcano, near Manila on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The black area in the center is Taal Lake, which nearly fills the 30-kilometer-diameter (18-mile) caldera. The caldera rim consists of deeply eroded hills and cliffs. The large island in Taal Lake, which itself contains a crater lake, is known as Volcano Island. The bright yellow patch on the southwest side of the island marks the site of an explosion crater that formed during a deadly eruption of Taal in 1965. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 78th orbit on October 5, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> shows an area approximately 56 kilometers by 112 kilometers (34 miles by 68 miles) that is centered at 14.0 degrees north latitude and 121.0 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The colors in this <span class="hlt">image</span> were obtained using the following <span class="hlt">radar</span> channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). Since 1572, Taal has erupted at least 34 times. Since early 1991, the volcano has been restless, with swarms of earthquakes, new steaming areas, ground fracturing, and increases in water temperature of the lake. Volcanologists and other local authorities are carefully monitoring Taal to understand if the current activity may foretell an eruption. Taal is one of 15 'Decade Volcanoes' that have been identified by the volcanology community as presenting large potential hazards to population centers. The bright area in the upper right of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the densely populated city of Manila, only 50 kilometers (30 miles) north of the central crater. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01768&hterms=weather+radar+new&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dweather%2Bradar%2Bnew','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01768&hterms=weather+radar+new&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dweather%2Bradar%2Bnew"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Taal Volcano, Philippines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is an <span class="hlt">image</span> of Taal volcano, near Manila on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The black area in the center is Taal Lake, which nearly fills the 30-kilometer-diameter (18-mile) caldera. The caldera rim consists of deeply eroded hills and cliffs. The large island in Taal Lake, which itself contains a crater lake, is known as Volcano Island. The bright yellow patch on the southwest side of the island marks the site of an explosion crater that formed during a deadly eruption of Taal in 1965. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 78th orbit on October 5, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> shows an area approximately 56 kilometers by 112 kilometers (34 miles by 68 miles) that is centered at 14.0 degrees north latitude and 121.0 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The colors in this <span class="hlt">image</span> were obtained using the following <span class="hlt">radar</span> channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). Since 1572, Taal has erupted at least 34 times. Since early 1991, the volcano has been restless, with swarms of earthquakes, new steaming areas, ground fracturing, and increases in water temperature of the lake. Volcanologists and other local authorities are carefully monitoring Taal to understand if the current activity may foretell an eruption. Taal is one of 15 'Decade Volcanoes' that have been identified by the volcanology community as presenting large potential hazards to population centers. The bright area in the upper right of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the densely populated city of Manila, only 50 kilometers (30 miles) north of the central crater. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01710&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01710&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Kilauea, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This color composite C-band and L-band <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Kilauea volcano on the Big Island of Hawaii was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying on space shuttle Endeavour. The city of Hilo can be seen at the top. The <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the different types of lava flows around the crater Pu'u O'o. Ash deposits which erupted in 1790 from the summit of Kilauea volcano show up as dark in this <span class="hlt">image</span>, and fine details associated with lava flows which erupted in 1919 and 1974 can be seen to the south of the summit in an area called the Ka'u Desert. In addition, the other historic lava flows created in 1881 and 1984 from Mauna Loa volcano (out of view to the left of this <span class="hlt">image</span>) can be easily seen despite the fact that the surrounding area is covered by forest. Such information will be used to map the extent of such flows, which can pose a hazard to the subdivisions of Hilo. Highway 11 is the linear feature running from Hilo to the Kilauea volcano. The Kilauea volcano has been almost continuously active for more than the last 11 years. Field teams that were on the ground specifically to support these <span class="hlt">radar</span> observations report that there was vigorous surface activity about 400 meters (one-quarter mile) inland from the coast. A moving lava flow about 200 meters (660 feet) in length was observed at the time of the shuttle overflight, raising the possibility that subsequent <span class="hlt">images</span> taken during this mission will show changes in the landscape. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 19.2 degrees north latitude and 155.2 degrees west longitude. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01786.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01786.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Weddell Sea Ice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>This is the first calibrated, multi-frequency, multi-polarization spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the seasonal sea-ice cover in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. The multi-channel data provide scientists with details about the ice pack they cannot see any other way and indicates that the large expanse of sea-ice is, in fact, comprised of many smaller rounded ice floes, shown in blue-gray. These data are particularly useful in helping scientists estimate the thickness of the ice cover which is often extremely difficult to measure with other remote sensing systems. The extent, and especially thickness, of the polar ocean's sea-ice cover together have important implications for global climate by regulating the loss of heat from the ocean to the cold polar atmosphere. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired on October 3, 1994, by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. This <span class="hlt">image</span> is produced by overlaying three channels of <span class="hlt">radar</span> data in the following colors: red (C-band, HH-polarization), green (L-band HV-polarization), and blue (L-band, HH-polarization). The <span class="hlt">image</span> is oriented almost east-west with a center location of 58.2 degrees South and 21.6 degrees East. <span class="hlt">Image</span> dimensions are 45 kilometers by 18 kilometers (28 miles by 11 miles). Most of the ice cover is composed of rounded, undeformed blue-gray floes, about 0.7 meters (2 feet) thick, which are surrounded by a jumble of red-tinged deformed ice pieces which are up to 2 meters (7 feet) thick. The winter cycle of ice growth and deformation often causes this ice cover to split apart, exposing open water or "leads." Ice growth within these openings is rapid due to the cold, brisk Antarctic atmosphere. Different stages of new-ice growth can be seen within the linear leads, resulting from continuous opening and closing. The blue lines within the leads are open water areas in new fractures which are roughened by wind. The bright red lines are an intermediate stage of new</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA495580','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA495580"><span>Frequency Diversity for Improving Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Imaging</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>Frequency Diversity for Improving Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> DISSERTATION Jawad Farooq, Major, USAF AFIT/DEE/ENG/09-04 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR...Department of Defense, or the United States Government. AFIT/DEE/ENG/09-04 Frequency Diversity for Improving Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> DISSERTATION...aperture <span class="hlt">radar</span> (SAR) is a critical battlefield enabler as it provides imagery during day or night and in all-weather conditions. SAR <span class="hlt">image</span> resolution</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8192E..4AD','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8192E..4AD"><span>Probability of acquisition of three-dimensional <span class="hlt">imaging</span> laser <span class="hlt">radar</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dong, Li-jun; Zhu, Shao-lan; Sun, Chuan-dong; Gao, Cun-xiao; Song, Zhi-yuan</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional <span class="hlt">imaging</span> laser <span class="hlt">radar</span> (3-D ladar) is widely used in area of modern military, scientific research, agriculture and industry. Because of its many features such as angle-angle-range capturing, high resolution, anti-jamming ability and no multipath effect ,but it has to scan for target searching, acquiring and tracking. This paper presents a novel probability model of target acquiring which provides a theoretical basis for optimizing the scanning mechanism. The model combines space and time, target moving <span class="hlt">velocity</span> and ladar scanning <span class="hlt">velocity</span> together. Then the optimum scanning mechanism to obtain the maximum probability of acquisition and associated with different targets can be gained. The result shows that this model provides a method to optimize parameter for designing of the scanner.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA564301','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA564301"><span>Distributed MIMO <span class="hlt">Radar</span> for <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> and High Resolution Target Localization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-02-02</p> <p>28-2012 Final Report 04/15/2009 - 11/30/2011 Distributed MIMO <span class="hlt">Radar</span> for <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> and High Resolution Target Localization FA9550-09-1-0303 Alexander M...randomly placed sensors. MIMO <span class="hlt">radar</span>, High-Resolution <span class="hlt">radar</span> 19 Distributed MIMO <span class="hlt">Radar</span> for <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> and High Resolution Target Localization Air Force Office...configured with its antennas collocated [6] or distributed over an area [7, 8]. We refer to radio elements of a MIMO <span class="hlt">radar</span> as nodes. Nodes may be equipped</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01709&hterms=weather+radar+new&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dweather%2Bradar%2Bnew','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01709&hterms=weather+radar+new&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dweather%2Bradar%2Bnew"><span>SPace <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This is a false color L-band and C-band <span class="hlt">image</span> of the area around Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, centered at about 15 degrees north latitude, 120.5 degrees east longitude. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 78 on April 13, 1994. The false-color composite is made by displaying the L-band HH return in red, the L-band HV return in green and the C-band HV return in blue. The area shown is approximately 45 by 68 kilometers (28 by 42 miles). The main volcanic crater on Mount Pinatubo produced by the June 1991 eruptions, and the steep slopes on the upper flanks of the volcano, are easily seen in this <span class="hlt">image</span>. The red color on the high slopes show the rougher ash deposited during the 1991 eruption. The dark drainages are the smooth mudflows which continue to flood the river valleys after heavy rain. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> such as this one can be used to identify the areas flooded by mudflows, which are difficult to distinguish visually, and to assess the rate at which the erosion and deposition continues. A key aspect of the second SIR-C/X-SAR mission in August 1994 will be to collect a second <span class="hlt">image</span> of Pinatubo during the summer monsoon season -- new mudflows will have occurred -- and to evaluate the short-term changes. The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines is well known for its near-global effects on the atmosphere and climate due to the large amount of sulfur dioxide that was injected into the upper atmosphere. What is less widely known is that even today the volcano continues to be a major hazard to the people who have returned to the area around the volcano. Dangerous mudflows (called 'lahars') are often generated by heavy rains, and these can still sweep down river valleys and wash out roads and villages, or bury low lying areas in several meters of mud and volcanic debris. These mudflows will continue to be a severe hazard around Pinatubo for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01709&hterms=red+mud&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dred%2Bmud','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01709&hterms=red+mud&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dred%2Bmud"><span>SPace <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This is a false color L-band and C-band <span class="hlt">image</span> of the area around Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, centered at about 15 degrees north latitude, 120.5 degrees east longitude. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 78 on April 13, 1994. The false-color composite is made by displaying the L-band HH return in red, the L-band HV return in green and the C-band HV return in blue. The area shown is approximately 45 by 68 kilometers (28 by 42 miles). The main volcanic crater on Mount Pinatubo produced by the June 1991 eruptions, and the steep slopes on the upper flanks of the volcano, are easily seen in this <span class="hlt">image</span>. The red color on the high slopes show the rougher ash deposited during the 1991 eruption. The dark drainages are the smooth mudflows which continue to flood the river valleys after heavy rain. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> such as this one can be used to identify the areas flooded by mudflows, which are difficult to distinguish visually, and to assess the rate at which the erosion and deposition continues. A key aspect of the second SIR-C/X-SAR mission in August 1994 will be to collect a second <span class="hlt">image</span> of Pinatubo during the summer monsoon season -- new mudflows will have occurred -- and to evaluate the short-term changes. The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines is well known for its near-global effects on the atmosphere and climate due to the large amount of sulfur dioxide that was injected into the upper atmosphere. What is less widely known is that even today the volcano continues to be a major hazard to the people who have returned to the area around the volcano. Dangerous mudflows (called 'lahars') are often generated by heavy rains, and these can still sweep down river valleys and wash out roads and villages, or bury low lying areas in several meters of mud and volcanic debris. These mudflows will continue to be a severe hazard around Pinatubo for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01722&hterms=depression+images&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddepression%2Bimages','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01722&hterms=depression+images&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddepression%2Bimages"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Colombian Volcano</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This is a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of a little known volcano in northern Colombia. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired on orbit 80 of space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994, by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR). The volcano near the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is located at 5.6 degrees north latitude, 75.0 degrees west longitude, about 100 kilometers (65 miles) southeast of Medellin, Colombia. The conspicuous dark spot is a lake at the bottom of an approximately 3-kilometer-wide (1.9-mile) volcanic collapse depression or caldera. A cone-shaped peak on the bottom left (northeast rim) of the caldera appears to have been the source for a flow of material into the caldera. This is the northern-most known volcano in South America and because of its youthful appearance, should be considered dormant rather than extinct. The volcano's existence confirms a fracture zone proposed in 1985 as the northern boundary of volcanism in the Andes. The SIR-C/X-SAR <span class="hlt">image</span> reveals another, older caldera further south in Colombia, along another proposed fracture zone. Although relatively conspicuous, these volcanoes have escaped widespread recognition because of frequent cloud cover that hinders remote sensing <span class="hlt">imaging</span> in visible wavelengths. Four separate volcanoes in the Northern Andes nations ofColombia and Ecuador have been active during the last 10 years, killing more than 25,000 people, including scientists who were monitoring the volcanic activity. Detection and monitoring of volcanoes from space provides a safe way to investigate volcanism. The recognition of previously unknown volcanoes is important for hazard evaluations because a number of major eruptions this century have occurred at mountains that were not previously recognized as volcanoes. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01722&hterms=Major+depression&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DMajor%2Bdepression','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01722&hterms=Major+depression&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DMajor%2Bdepression"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Colombian Volcano</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This is a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of a little known volcano in northern Colombia. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired on orbit 80 of space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994, by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR). The volcano near the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is located at 5.6 degrees north latitude, 75.0 degrees west longitude, about 100 kilometers (65 miles) southeast of Medellin, Colombia. The conspicuous dark spot is a lake at the bottom of an approximately 3-kilometer-wide (1.9-mile) volcanic collapse depression or caldera. A cone-shaped peak on the bottom left (northeast rim) of the caldera appears to have been the source for a flow of material into the caldera. This is the northern-most known volcano in South America and because of its youthful appearance, should be considered dormant rather than extinct. The volcano's existence confirms a fracture zone proposed in 1985 as the northern boundary of volcanism in the Andes. The SIR-C/X-SAR <span class="hlt">image</span> reveals another, older caldera further south in Colombia, along another proposed fracture zone. Although relatively conspicuous, these volcanoes have escaped widespread recognition because of frequent cloud cover that hinders remote sensing <span class="hlt">imaging</span> in visible wavelengths. Four separate volcanoes in the Northern Andes nations ofColombia and Ecuador have been active during the last 10 years, killing more than 25,000 people, including scientists who were monitoring the volcanic activity. Detection and monitoring of volcanoes from space provides a safe way to investigate volcanism. The recognition of previously unknown volcanoes is important for hazard evaluations because a number of major eruptions this century have occurred at mountains that were not previously recognized as volcanoes. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01730.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01730.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Raco, Michigan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>These are two false-color composites of Raco, Michigan, located at the eastern end of Michigan upper peninsula, west of Sault Ste. Marie and south of Whitefish Bay on Lake Superior. The two <span class="hlt">images</span> (centered at 46.39 degrees north latitude, 84.88 degrees west longitude) show significant seasonal changes in the mid-latitude region of mixed deciduous and coniferous forests. The <span class="hlt">images</span> were acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the shuttle Endeavour on the sixth orbit of each mission. In these <span class="hlt">images</span>, red is L-band (23 cm) with horizontal/vertical polarization; green is C-band (6 cm) with horizontal/vertical polarization; blue is C-band with horizontal/horizontal polarization. The region shown is largely forested and includes a large portion of Hiawatha National Forest, as well as an agricultural region near the bottom of each <span class="hlt">image</span>. In early April, the area was snow-covered with up to 50 centimeters (19.5 inches) of snow in forest clearings and agricultural fields. Buds had not yet broken on deciduous trees, but the trees were not frozen and sap was generally flowing. Lake Superior, in the upper right, and the small inland lakes were frozen and snow-covered on April 9, 1994. By the end of September, deciduous trees were just beginning to change color after a relatively wet period. Leaf loss was estimated at about 30 percent, depending on the species, and the soil was moist to wet after a heavy rainfall on September 28, 1994. Most agricultural fields were covered with grasses of up to 60 centimeters (23 inches) in height. In the two <span class="hlt">images</span> the colors are related to the types of land cover (i.e. vegetation type) and the brightness is related to the amount of plant material and its relative moisture content. Significant seasonal changes between early spring and early fall are illustrated by this pair of <span class="hlt">images</span>. For the agricultural region near the bottom of the <span class="hlt">images</span>, the change from snow-cover to moist soil</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01727&hterms=coniferous&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dconiferous','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01727&hterms=coniferous&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dconiferous"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Mt. Rainer, Washington</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of Mount Rainier in Washington state. The volcano last erupted about 150 years ago and numerous large floods and debris flows have originated on its slopes during the last century. Today the volcano is heavily mantled with glaciers and snowfields. More than 100,000 people live on young volcanic mudflows less than 10,000 years old and, consequently, are within the range of future, devastating mudslides. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 20th orbit on October 1, 1994. The area shown in the <span class="hlt">image</span> is approximately 59 kilometers by 60 kilometers (36.5 miles by 37 miles). North is toward the top left of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, which was composed by assigning red and green colors to the L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically, and the L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. Blue indicates the C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. In addition to highlighting topographic slopes facing the space shuttle, SIR-C records rugged areas as brighter and smooth areas as darker. The scene was illuminated by the shuttle's <span class="hlt">radar</span> from the northwest so that northwest-facing slopes are brighter and southeast-facing slopes are dark. Forested regions are pale green in color; clear cuts and bare ground are bluish or purple; ice is dark green and white. The round cone at the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the 14,435-foot (4,399-meter) active volcano, Mount Rainier. On the lower slopes is a zone of rock ridges and rubble (purple to reddish) above coniferous forests (in yellow/green). The western boundary of Mount Rainier National Park is seen as a transition from protected, old-growth forest to heavily logged private land, a mosaic of recent clear cuts (bright purple/blue) and partially regrown timber plantations (pale blue). The prominent river seen curving away from the mountain at the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span> (to the northwest) is the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01727&hterms=space+program+cut&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dspace%2Bprogram%2Bcut','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01727&hterms=space+program+cut&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dspace%2Bprogram%2Bcut"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Mt. Rainer, Washington</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of Mount Rainier in Washington state. The volcano last erupted about 150 years ago and numerous large floods and debris flows have originated on its slopes during the last century. Today the volcano is heavily mantled with glaciers and snowfields. More than 100,000 people live on young volcanic mudflows less than 10,000 years old and, consequently, are within the range of future, devastating mudslides. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 20th orbit on October 1, 1994. The area shown in the <span class="hlt">image</span> is approximately 59 kilometers by 60 kilometers (36.5 miles by 37 miles). North is toward the top left of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, which was composed by assigning red and green colors to the L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically, and the L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. Blue indicates the C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. In addition to highlighting topographic slopes facing the space shuttle, SIR-C records rugged areas as brighter and smooth areas as darker. The scene was illuminated by the shuttle's <span class="hlt">radar</span> from the northwest so that northwest-facing slopes are brighter and southeast-facing slopes are dark. Forested regions are pale green in color; clear cuts and bare ground are bluish or purple; ice is dark green and white. The round cone at the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the 14,435-foot (4,399-meter) active volcano, Mount Rainier. On the lower slopes is a zone of rock ridges and rubble (purple to reddish) above coniferous forests (in yellow/green). The western boundary of Mount Rainier National Park is seen as a transition from protected, old-growth forest to heavily logged private land, a mosaic of recent clear cuts (bright purple/blue) and partially regrown timber plantations (pale blue). The prominent river seen curving away from the mountain at the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span> (to the northwest) is the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01750&hterms=weather+radar+new&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dweather%2Bradar%2Bnew','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01750&hterms=weather+radar+new&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dweather%2Bradar%2Bnew"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Hong Kong, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is an X-SAR <span class="hlt">image</span> spanning an area of approximately 20 kilometers by 40 kilometers (12 miles by 25 miles) of the island of Hong Kong, the Kowloon Peninsula and the new territories in southern China, taken by the <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> on board the space shuttle Endeavour on October 4, 1994. North is toward the top left corner of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Kaitak Airport runway on Kowloon Peninsula (center right of <span class="hlt">image</span>) was built on reclaimed land and extends almost 3 kilometers (nearly 2 miles) into Victoria Harbor. To the south of the harbor lies the island of Hong Kong. The bright areas around the harbor are the major residential and business districts. Housing more than six million residents, Hong Kong is the most densely populated area in the world. The large number of objects visible in the harbor and surrounding waters are a variety of sea-going vessels, anchored in one of the busiest seaports in the Far East. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01750&hterms=southern+resident&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsouthern%2Bresident','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01750&hterms=southern+resident&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsouthern%2Bresident"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Hong Kong, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is an X-SAR <span class="hlt">image</span> spanning an area of approximately 20 kilometers by 40 kilometers (12 miles by 25 miles) of the island of Hong Kong, the Kowloon Peninsula and the new territories in southern China, taken by the <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> on board the space shuttle Endeavour on October 4, 1994. North is toward the top left corner of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Kaitak Airport runway on Kowloon Peninsula (center right of <span class="hlt">image</span>) was built on reclaimed land and extends almost 3 kilometers (nearly 2 miles) into Victoria Harbor. To the south of the harbor lies the island of Hong Kong. The bright areas around the harbor are the major residential and business districts. Housing more than six million residents, Hong Kong is the most densely populated area in the world. The large number of objects visible in the harbor and surrounding waters are a variety of sea-going vessels, anchored in one of the busiest seaports in the Far East. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5492825','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5492825"><span>3D <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> Millimeter Wave Circular Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Renyuan; Cao, Siyang</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, a new millimeter wave 3D <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> is proposed. The user just needs to move the <span class="hlt">radar</span> along a circular track, and high resolution 3D <span class="hlt">imaging</span> can be generated. The proposed <span class="hlt">radar</span> uses the movement of itself to synthesize a large aperture in both the azimuth and elevation directions. It can utilize inverse Radon transform to resolve 3D <span class="hlt">imaging</span>. To improve the sensing result, the compressed sensing approach is further investigated. The simulation and experimental result further illustrated the design. Because a single transceiver circuit is needed, a light, affordable and high resolution 3D mmWave <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> is illustrated in the paper. PMID:28629140</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100023364','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100023364"><span>Integrating <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> Data with Google Maps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chapman, Bruce D.; Gibas, Sarah</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A public Web site has been developed as a method for displaying the multitude of <span class="hlt">radar</span> imagery collected by NASA s Airborne Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (AIRSAR) instrument during its 16-year mission. Utilizing NASA s internal AIRSAR site, the new Web site features more sophisticated visualization tools that enable the general public to have access to these <span class="hlt">images</span>. The site was originally maintained at NASA on six computers: one that held the Oracle database, two that took care of the software for the interactive map, and three that were for the Web site itself. Several tasks were involved in moving this complicated setup to just one computer. First, the AIRSAR database was migrated from Oracle to MySQL. Then the back-end of the AIRSAR Web site was updated in order to access the MySQL database. To do this, a few of the scripts needed to be modified; specifically three Perl scripts that query that database. The database connections were then updated from Oracle to MySQL, numerous syntax errors were corrected, and a query was implemented that replaced one of the stored Oracle procedures. Lastly, the interactive map was designed, implemented, and tested so that users could easily browse and access the <span class="hlt">radar</span> imagery through the Google Maps interface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850028024&hterms=terrain+analysis&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dterrain%2Banalysis','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850028024&hterms=terrain+analysis&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dterrain%2Banalysis"><span>Analysis of <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> by means of digital terrain models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Domik, G.; Leberl, F.; Kobrick, M.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>It is pointed out that the importance of digital terrain models in the processing, analysis, and interpretation of remote sensing data is increasing. In investigations related to the study of <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span>, digital terrain models can have a particular significance, because <span class="hlt">radar</span> reflection is a function of the terrain characteristics. A procedure for the analysis and interpretation of <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> is discussed. The procedure is based on a utilization of computer simulation which makes it possible to produce simulated <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> on the basis of a digital terrain model. The simulated <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> are used for the geometric and radiometric rectification of real <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span>. A description of the employed procedures is provided, and the obtained results are discussed, taking into account a test area in Northern California.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850028024&hterms=digital+northern&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddigital%2Bnorthern','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850028024&hterms=digital+northern&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddigital%2Bnorthern"><span>Analysis of <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> by means of digital terrain models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Domik, G.; Leberl, F.; Kobrick, M.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>It is pointed out that the importance of digital terrain models in the processing, analysis, and interpretation of remote sensing data is increasing. In investigations related to the study of <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span>, digital terrain models can have a particular significance, because <span class="hlt">radar</span> reflection is a function of the terrain characteristics. A procedure for the analysis and interpretation of <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> is discussed. The procedure is based on a utilization of computer simulation which makes it possible to produce simulated <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> on the basis of a digital terrain model. The simulated <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> are used for the geometric and radiometric rectification of real <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span>. A description of the employed procedures is provided, and the obtained results are discussed, taking into account a test area in Northern California.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01741.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01741.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Yellowstone Park, Wyoming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>These two <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> show the majestic Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, the oldest national park in the United States and home to the world's most spectacular geysers and hot springs. The region supports large populations of grizzly bears, elk and bison. In 1988, the park was burned by one of the most widespread fires to occur in the northern Rocky Mountains in the last 50 years. Surveys indicated that 793,880 acres of land burned. Of that, 41 percent was burned forest, with tree canopies totally consumed by the fire; 35 percent was a combination of unburned, scorched and blackened trees; 13 percent was surface burn under an unburned canopy; 6 percent was non-forest burn; and 5 percent was undifferentiated burn. Six years later, the burned areas are still clearly visible in these false-color <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> obtained by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The <span class="hlt">image</span> at the left was obtained using the L-band <span class="hlt">radar</span> channel, horizontally received and vertically transmitted, on the shuttle's 39th orbit on October 2, 1994. The area shown is 45 kilometers by 71 kilometers (28 miles by 44 miles) in size and centered at 44.6 degrees north latitude, 110.7 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span> (to the right). Most trees in this area are lodge pole pines at different stages of fire succession. Yellowstone Lake appears as a large dark feature at the bottom of the scene. At right is a map of the forest crown, showing its biomass, or amount of vegetation, which includes foliage and branches. The map was created by inverting SIR-C data and using in situ estimates of crown biomass gathered by the Yellowstone National Biological Survey. The map is displayed on a color scale from blue (rivers and lakes with no biomass) to brown (non-forest areas with crown biomass of less than 4 tons per hectare) to light brown (areas of canopy burn with biomass of between 4 and 12 tons per hectare). Yellow</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01715&hterms=company+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcompany%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01715&hterms=company+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcompany%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Mammoth, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>These two <span class="hlt">images</span> were created using data from the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR). The <span class="hlt">image</span> on the left is a false-color composite of the Mammoth Mountain area in California's Sierra Nevada Mountains centered at 37.6 degrees north, 119.0 degrees west. It was acquired on-board the space shuttle Endeavour on its 67th orbit on April 13, 1994. In the <span class="hlt">image</span> on the left, red is C-band HV-polarization, green is C-band HH-polarization and blue is the ratio of C-band VV-polarization to C-band HV-polarization. On the right is a classification map of the surface features which was developed by SIR-C/X-SAR science team members at the University of California, Santa Barbara. The area is about 23 by 46 kilometers (14 by 29 miles). In the classification <span class="hlt">image</span>, the colors represent the following surfaces: White snow Red frozen lake, covered by snow Brown bare ground Blue lake (open water) Yellow short vegetation (mainly brush) Green sparse forest Dark green dense forest Maps like this one are helpful to scientists studying snow wetness and snow water equivalent in the snow pack. Across the globe, over major portions of the middle and high latitudes, and at high elevations in the tropical latitudes, snow and alpine glaciers are the largest contributors to run-off in rivers and to ground-water recharge. Snow hydrologists are using <span class="hlt">radar</span> in an attempt to estimate both the quantity of water held by seasonal snow packs and the timing of snow melt. Snow and ice also play important roles in regional climates; understanding the processes in seasonal snow cover is also important for studies of the chemical balance of alpine drainage basins. SIR-C/X-SAR is a powerful tool because it is sensitive to most snow pack conditions and is less influenced by weather conditions than other remote sensing instruments, such as the Landsat satellite. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01733&hterms=Floodplains&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DFloodplains','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01733&hterms=Floodplains&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DFloodplains"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Bebedauro, Brazil, seasonal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is an X-band <span class="hlt">image</span> showing seasonal changes at the hydrological test site of Bebedouro in Brazil. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 9 degrees south latitude and 40.2 degrees west longitude. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10, 1994, during the first flight of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> system, and on October 1, 1994, during the second mission. The swath width is approximately 16.5 kilometers (10.5 miles) wide. The <span class="hlt">image</span> channels have the following color assignments: red represents data acquired on April 10; green represents data acquired on October 1; blue corresponds to the ratio of the two data sets. Agriculture plays an important economic and social role in Brazil. One of the major problems related to Brazilian agriculture is estimating the size of planting areas and their productivity. Due to cloud cover and the rainy season, which occurs from November through April, optical and infrared Earth observations are seldom used to survey the region. An additional goal of monitoring this region is to watch the floodplains of rivers like Rio Sao Francisco in order to determine suitable locations for additional agricultural fields. This area belongs to the semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil, where estimates have suggested that about 10 times more land could be used for agriculture, including some locations which could be used for irrigation projects. Monitoring of soil moisture during the important summer crop season is of high priority for the future development and productivity of this region. In April the area was covered with vegetation because of the moisture of the soil and only small differences could be seen in X-band data. In October the run-off channels of this hilly region stand out quite clearly because the greenish areas indicated much less soil moisture and water content in plants. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA13314.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA13314.html"><span>NASA <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Images</span> Show Continued Deformation from Mexico Quake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-08-04</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">image</span> shows a UAVSAR interferogram swath overlaid atop a Google Earth <span class="hlt">image</span>. New NASA airborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> show the continuing deformation in Earth surface resulting from the magnitude 7.2 temblor in Baja California on April 4, 2010.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA567414','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA567414"><span>Artifacts in <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> of Moving Targets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>coherent summing of random scatterers contributes to bright points on the imagery, which is known as speckle noise [3]. Figure 2. <span class="hlt">Radar</span>...illustrate two commonly described schemes. A strip-map or scan mode of SAR <span class="hlt">imaging</span> continually sweeps along a track and produces a strip of imagery. Here... track . Hence, the resolution for a broadside target is given by ([5], p. 22) 2 2( / ) 2 Stripmap D CR D         (3) where  is the carrier</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.9810L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.9810L"><span><span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of intense nonlinear Ekman divergence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Guoqiang; Perrie, William; Kudryavtsev, Vladimir; He, Yijun; Shen, Hui; Zhang, Biao; Hu, Haibo</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>In general, given an oceanic thermal front, there is a strong positive correlation between sea surface temperature (SST) gradients and surface winds, and the marine atmospheric boundary layer is unstable over the warm side of the oceanic thermal front. The Gulf Stream is a notable example of an oceanic thermal front, and its warm side is often detected as enhanced backscatter in synthetic aperture <span class="hlt">radar</span> (SAR) <span class="hlt">images</span>. However, in some "anomalous" SAR <span class="hlt">images</span>, low backscatter is sometimes observed on the warm side of the front, which seems inconsistent. Therefore, we propose a mechanism to interpret the generation of the low backscatter, based on interactions between ocean surface wind waves and intense nonlinear Ekman divergence. This mechanism is verified by showing that patterns in an observed anomalous SAR <span class="hlt">image</span> are in good agreement with those in the simulated <span class="hlt">radar</span> signature. In addition, this methodology and analysis demonstrate that SAR is potentially important for detecting and diagnosing small scale air-sea interactions and upper ocean dynamics with strong vertical transports induced by submesoscale processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01782.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01782.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Central Java, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>The summits of two large volcanoes in Central Java, Indonesia are shown in the center of this <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>. Lava flows of different ages and surface roughness appear in shades of green and yellow surrounding the summit of Mt. Merbabu (mid-center) and Mt. Merapi (lower center). Mt. Merapi erupted on November 28, 1994 about six weeks after this <span class="hlt">image</span> was taken. The eruption killed more than 60 people and forced the evacuation of more than 6,000 others. Thousands of other residents were put on alert due to the possibility of volcanic debris mudflows, called lahars, that threatened nearby towns. Mt. Merapi is located approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) north of Yogyakarta, the capital of Central Java. The older volcano at the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is unnamed. Lake Rawapening is the dark blue feature in the upper right. The light blue area southeast of the lake is the city of Salatiga. Directly south of Salatiga and southeast of Mt. Merapi is the city of Boyolali. Scientists are studying Mt. Merapi as part of the international "Decade Volcanoes" project, because of its recent activity and potential threat to local populations. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> data are being used to identify and distinguish a variety of volcanic features. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01782</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01306.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01306.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Sunbury, Pennsylvania</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-04-14</p> <p>Scientists are using this <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the area surrounding Sunbury, Pennsylvania to study the geologic structure and land use patterns in the Appalachian Valley and Ridge province. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was collected on October 6, 1994 by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/ X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) on orbit 102 of the space shuttle Endeavour. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered on latitude 40.85 degrees North latitude and 76.79 degrees West longitude. The area shown is approximately 30.5 km by 38 km. (19 miles by 24 miles). North is towards the upper right of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Valley and Ridge province occurs in the north-central Appalachians, primarily in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia. It is an area of adjacent valleys and ridges that formed when the Appalachian mountain were created some 370 to 390 million years ago. During the continental collision that formed the Appalachians, the rocks in this area were pushed from the side and buckled much like a rug when pushed from one end. Subsequent erosion has produced the landscape we see in this <span class="hlt">image</span>. The more resistant rocks, such as sandstone, form the tops of the ridges which appear as forested greenish areas on this <span class="hlt">image</span>. The less resistant rocks, such as limestone, form the lower valleys which are cleared land and farm fields and are purple in this <span class="hlt">image</span>. Smaller rivers and streams in the area flow along the valleys and in places cut across the ridges in "water gaps." In addition to defining the geography of this region, the Valley and Ridge province also provides this area with natural resources. The valleys provide fertile farmland and the folded mountains form natural traps for oil and gas accumulation; coal deposits are also found in the mountains. The colors in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the SIR-C <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01306&hterms=Appalachian+Region&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DAppalachian%2BRegion','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01306&hterms=Appalachian+Region&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DAppalachian%2BRegion"><span>Space <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of Sunbury, Pennsylvania</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Scientists are using this <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the area surrounding Sunbury, Pennsylvania to study the geologic structure and land use patterns in the Appalachian Valley and Ridge province. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was collected on October 6, 1994 by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/ X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) on orbit 102 of the space shuttle Endeavour. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered on latitude 40.85 degrees North latitude and 76.79 degrees West longitude. The area shown is approximately 30.5 km by 38 km.(19 miles by 24 miles). North is towards the upper right of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Valley and Ridge province occurs in the north-central Appalachians, primarily in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia. It is an area of adjacent valleys and ridges that formed when the Appalachian mountain were created some 370 to 390 million years ago. During the continental collision that formed the Appalachians, the rocks in this area were pushed from the side and buckled much like a rug when pushed from one end. Subsequent erosion has produced the landscape we see in this <span class="hlt">image</span>. The more resistant rocks, such as sandstone, form the tops of the ridges which appear as forested greenish areas on this <span class="hlt">image</span>. The less resistant rocks, such as limestone, form the lower valleys which are cleared land and farm fields and are purple in this <span class="hlt">image</span>. Smaller rivers and streams in the area flow along the valleys and in places cut across the ridges in 'water gaps.' In addition to defining the geography of this region, the Valley and Ridge province also provides this area with natural resources. The valleys provide fertile farmland and the folded mountains form natural traps for oil and gas accumulation; coal deposits are also found in the mountains. The colors in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the SIR-C <span class="hlt">radar</span> as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C13C0831K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C13C0831K"><span>Measuring short term <span class="hlt">velocity</span> changes of Kangilerngata Sermia, west Greenland using a Gamma Portable <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Interferometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kane, E.; Rignot, E. J.; Mouginot, J.; Li, X.; Millan, R.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Nakayama, Y.; Scheuchl, B.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Kangilerngata Sermia, west Greenland, is a 4 km wide marine terminating glacier that experienced rapid retreat from 2005-2010, withdrawing from a stabilizing sill at 150 m depth to its current state, grounded 350 m below sea level. The ice front retreated 2.3 km over a 5 year period with ice speeds increasing to 3x the average rate as the front retreated into deeper water. With a bed that is continuously 200-450 m below sea level for 30 km upstream, this glacier might continue to retreat rapidly for decades to come. We conducted a 16-day field campaign in July 2016 aimed to increase the temporal resolution of ice flow <span class="hlt">velocity</span> measurements during the peak calving season by using a Gamma Portable <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Interferometer (GPRI) deployed at 100m elevation about 3 km from the glacier front, scanning the glacier every 3 minutes. In addition we conducted an hydrography survey, collecting a set of 11 CTDs (conductivity, temperature, depth plus dissolved oxygen) about 1 km from the calving front, to estimate the amount of ice melted by the ocean. We compare these results to simulations of ice melt of a calving face using the MITgcm ocean model to help evaluate the model results on one glacier. With the GPRI we form a time series of <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> that show the dynamics of the ocean surface in front of the glacier as a result of wind, sub-glacial water discharge and calving events. We form time series of <span class="hlt">radar</span> interferograms to analyze the time evolution of glacier speed, especially in relation to calving events, both small and large. <span class="hlt">Velocity</span> records are used to detect changes in speed, prior, during and post-calving and to determine how long these changes persisted. These results are then analyzed in relation to bed topography (mapped with multi-beam) and tidal cycle. We also compare our results with TerraSAR-X ice <span class="hlt">velocity</span> maps. We conclude on the impacts of calving events on short-term ice dynamics and implications for the future of this glacier. This work was preformed at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01780.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01780.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Vesuvius, Italy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>Mt. Vesuvius, one of the best known volcanoes in the world primarily for the eruption that buried the Roman city of Pompeii, is shown in the center of this <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span>. The central cone of Vesuvius is the dark purple feature in the center of the volcano. This cone is surrounded on the northern and eastern sides by the old crater rim, called Mt. Somma. Recent lava flows are the pale yellow areas on the southern and western sides of the cone. Vesuvius is part of a large volcanic zone which includes the Phalagrean Fields, the cluster of craters seen along the left side of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Bay of Naples, on the left side of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, is separated from the Gulf of Salerno, in the lower left, by the Sorrento Peninsula. Dense urban settlement can be seen around the volcano. The city of Naples is above and to the left of Vesuvius; the seaport of the city can be seen in the top of the bay. Pompeii is located just below the volcano on this <span class="hlt">image</span>. The rapid eruption in 79 A.D. buried the victims and buildings of Pompeii under several meters of debris and killed more than 2,000 people. Due to the violent eruptive style and proximity to populated areas, Vesuvius has been named by the international scientific community as one of fifteen Decade Volcanoes which are being intensively studied during the 1990s. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 40.83 degrees North latitude, 14.53 degrees East longitude. It shows an area 100 kilometers by 55 kilometers (62 miles by 34 miles.) This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired on April 15, 1994 by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01780</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01752.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01752.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Moscow, Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>This is a vertically polarized L-band <span class="hlt">image</span> of the southern half of Moscow, an area which has been inhabited for 2,000 years. The <span class="hlt">image</span> covers a diameter of approximately 50 kilometers (31 miles) and was taken on September 30, 1994 by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The city of Moscow was founded about 750 years ago and today is home to about 8 million residents. The southern half of the circular highway (a road that looks like a ring) can easily be identified as well as the roads and railways radiating out from the center of the city. The city was named after the Moskwa River and replaced Russia's former capital, St. Petersburg, after the Russian Revolution in 1917. The river winding through Moscow shows up in various gray shades. The circular structure of many city roads can easily be identified, although subway connections covering several hundred kilometers are not visible in this <span class="hlt">image</span>. The white areas within the ring road and outside of it are buildings of the city itself and it suburban towns. Two of many airports are located in the west and southeast of Moscow, near the corners of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Kremlin is located north just outside of the <span class="hlt">imaged</span> city center. It was actually built in the 16th century, when Ivan III was czar, and is famous for its various churches. In the surrounding area, light gray indicates forests, while the dark patches are agricultural areas. The various shades from middle gray to dark gray indicate different stages of harvesting, ploughing and grassland. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01752</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01791.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01791.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of San Francisco, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">image</span> of San Francisco, California shows how the <span class="hlt">radar</span> distinguishes between densely populated urban areas and nearby areas that are relatively unsettled. Downtown San Francisco is at the center and the city of Oakland is at the right across the San Francisco Bay. Some city areas, such as the South of Market, called the SOMA district in San Francisco, appear bright red due to the alignment of streets and buildings to the incoming <span class="hlt">radar</span> beam. Various bridges in the area are also visible including the Golden Gate Bridge (left center) at the opening of San Francisco Bay, the Bay Bridge (right center) connecting San Francisco and Oakland, and the San Mateo Bridge (bottom center). All the dark areas on the <span class="hlt">image</span> are relatively smooth water: the Pacific Ocean to the left, San Francisco Bay in the center, and various reservoirs. Two major faults bounding the San Francisco-Oakland urban areas are visible on this <span class="hlt">image</span>. The San Andreas fault, on the San Francisco peninsula, is seen in the lower left of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The fault trace is the straight feature filled with linear reservoirs which appear dark. The Hayward fault is the straight feature on the right side of the <span class="hlt">image</span> between the urban areas and the hillier terrain to the east. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is about 42 kilometers by 58 kilometers (26 miles by 36 miles) with north toward the upper right. This area is centered at 37.83 degrees north latitude, 122.38 degrees east longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01791</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01702&hterms=company+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcompany%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01702&hterms=company+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcompany%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Prince Albert, Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This is a false-color composite of Prince Albert, Canada, centered at 53.91 north latitude and 104.69 west longitude. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span>(SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard space shuttle Endeavour on its 20th orbit. The area is located 40 kilometers (25 miles) north and 30 kilometers (20 miles) east of the town of Prince Albert in the Saskatchewan province of Canada. The <span class="hlt">image</span> covers the area east of the Candle lake, between gravel surface highways 120 and 106 and west of 106. The area in the middle of the <span class="hlt">image</span> covers the entire Nipawin (Narrow Hills) provincial park. The look angle of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> is 30 degrees and the size of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is approximately 20 kilometers by 50 kilometers (12 by 30 miles). The <span class="hlt">image</span> was produced by using only the L-band. The three polarization channels HH, HV and VV are illustrated by red, green and blue respectively. The changes in the intensity of each color are related to various surface conditions such as variations in forest stands, frozen or thawed condition of the surface, disturbances (fire and deforestation), and areas of regrowth. Most of the dark areas in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are the ice-covered lakes in the region. The dark area on the top right corner of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the white Gull Lake north of the intersection of highway 120 and 913. The right middle part of the <span class="hlt">image</span> shows Lake Ispuchaw and Lower Fishing Lake. The deforested areas are also shown by dark areas in the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Since most of the logging practice at the Prince Albert area is around the major highways, the deforested areas can be easily detected as small geometrically shaped dark regions along the roads. At the time of the SIR-C/X-SAR overpass a major part of the forest is either frozen or undergoing the spring thaw. The L-band HH shows a high return in the jack pine forest. The reddish areas in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are old jack pine forest, 12 to 17 meters (40to 55 feet) in height and 60 to 75 years old. The orange</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01702&hterms=Fishing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DFishing','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01702&hterms=Fishing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DFishing"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Prince Albert, Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This is a false-color composite of Prince Albert, Canada, centered at 53.91 north latitude and 104.69 west longitude. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span>(SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard space shuttle Endeavour on its 20th orbit. The area is located 40 kilometers (25 miles) north and 30 kilometers (20 miles) east of the town of Prince Albert in the Saskatchewan province of Canada. The <span class="hlt">image</span> covers the area east of the Candle lake, between gravel surface highways 120 and 106 and west of 106. The area in the middle of the <span class="hlt">image</span> covers the entire Nipawin (Narrow Hills) provincial park. The look angle of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> is 30 degrees and the size of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is approximately 20 kilometers by 50 kilometers (12 by 30 miles). The <span class="hlt">image</span> was produced by using only the L-band. The three polarization channels HH, HV and VV are illustrated by red, green and blue respectively. The changes in the intensity of each color are related to various surface conditions such as variations in forest stands, frozen or thawed condition of the surface, disturbances (fire and deforestation), and areas of regrowth. Most of the dark areas in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are the ice-covered lakes in the region. The dark area on the top right corner of the <span class="hlt">image</span> is the white Gull Lake north of the intersection of highway 120 and 913. The right middle part of the <span class="hlt">image</span> shows Lake Ispuchaw and Lower Fishing Lake. The deforested areas are also shown by dark areas in the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Since most of the logging practice at the Prince Albert area is around the major highways, the deforested areas can be easily detected as small geometrically shaped dark regions along the roads. At the time of the SIR-C/X-SAR overpass a major part of the forest is either frozen or undergoing the spring thaw. The L-band HH shows a high return in the jack pine forest. The reddish areas in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are old jack pine forest, 12 to 17 meters (40to 55 feet) in height and 60 to 75 years old. The orange</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01752&hterms=Human+capital&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DHuman%2Bcapital','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01752&hterms=Human+capital&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DHuman%2Bcapital"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Moscow, Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is a vertically polarized L-band <span class="hlt">image</span> of the southern half of Moscow, an area which has been inhabited for 2,000 years. The <span class="hlt">image</span> covers a diameter of approximately 50 kilometers (31 miles) and was taken on September 30, 1994 by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The city of Moscow was founded about 750 years ago and today is home to about 8 million residents. The southern half of the circular highway (a road that looks like a ring) can easily be identified as well as the roads and railways radiating out from the center of the city. The city was named after the Moskwa River and replaced Russia's former capital, St. Petersburg, after the Russian Revolution in 1917. The river winding through Moscow shows up in various gray shades. The circular structure of many city roads can easily be identified, although subway connections covering several hundred kilometers are not visible in this <span class="hlt">image</span>. The white areas within the ring road and outside of it are buildings of the city itself and it suburban towns. Two of many airports are located in the west and southeast of Moscow, near the corners of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Kremlin is located north just outside of the <span class="hlt">imaged</span> city center. It was actually built in the 16th century, when Ivan III was czar, and is famous for its various churches. In the surrounding area, light gray indicates forests, while the dark patches are agricultural areas. The various shades from middle gray to dark gray indicate different stages of harvesting, ploughing and grassland. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01752&hterms=southern+resident&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsouthern%2Bresident','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01752&hterms=southern+resident&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsouthern%2Bresident"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Moscow, Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is a vertically polarized L-band <span class="hlt">image</span> of the southern half of Moscow, an area which has been inhabited for 2,000 years. The <span class="hlt">image</span> covers a diameter of approximately 50 kilometers (31 miles) and was taken on September 30, 1994 by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The city of Moscow was founded about 750 years ago and today is home to about 8 million residents. The southern half of the circular highway (a road that looks like a ring) can easily be identified as well as the roads and railways radiating out from the center of the city. The city was named after the Moskwa River and replaced Russia's former capital, St. Petersburg, after the Russian Revolution in 1917. The river winding through Moscow shows up in various gray shades. The circular structure of many city roads can easily be identified, although subway connections covering several hundred kilometers are not visible in this <span class="hlt">image</span>. The white areas within the ring road and outside of it are buildings of the city itself and it suburban towns. Two of many airports are located in the west and southeast of Moscow, near the corners of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Kremlin is located north just outside of the <span class="hlt">imaged</span> city center. It was actually built in the 16th century, when Ivan III was czar, and is famous for its various churches. In the surrounding area, light gray indicates forests, while the dark patches are agricultural areas. The various shades from middle gray to dark gray indicate different stages of harvesting, ploughing and grassland. Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830010709','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830010709"><span>A study of <span class="hlt">image</span> quality for <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> processing. [synthetic aperture <span class="hlt">radar</span> imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>King, R. W.; Kaupp, V. H.; Waite, W. P.; Macdonald, H. C.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Methods developed for <span class="hlt">image</span> quality metrics are reviewed with focus on basic interpretation or recognition elements including: tone or color; shape; pattern; size; shadow; texture; site; association or context; and resolution. Seven metrics are believed to show promise as a way of characterizing the quality of an <span class="hlt">image</span>: (1) the dynamic range of intensities in the displayed <span class="hlt">image</span>; (2) the system signal-to-noise ratio; (3) the system spatial bandwidth or bandpass; (4) the system resolution or acutance; (5) the normalized-mean-square-error as a measure of geometric fidelity; (6) the perceptual mean square error; and (7) the <span class="hlt">radar</span> threshold quality factor. Selective levels of degradation are being applied to simulated synthetic <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> to test the validity of these metrics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01741&hterms=BISON&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBISON','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01741&hterms=BISON&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBISON"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Yellowstone Park, Wyoming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>These two <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> show the majestic Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, the oldest national park in the United States and home to the world's most spectacular geysers and hot springs. The region supports large populations of grizzly bears, elk and bison. In 1988, the park was burned by one of the most widespread fires to occur in the northern Rocky Mountains in the last 50 years. Surveys indicated that 793,880 acres of land burned. Of that, 41 percent was burned forest, with tree canopies totally consumed by the fire; 35 percent was a combination of unburned, scorched and blackened trees; 13 percent was surface burn under an unburned canopy; 6 percent was non-forest burn; and 5 percent was undifferentiated burn. Six years later, the burned areas are still clearly visible in these false-color <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> obtained by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The <span class="hlt">image</span> at the left was obtained using the L-band <span class="hlt">radar</span> channel, horizontally received and vertically transmitted, on the shuttle's 39th orbit on October 2, 1994. The area shown is 45 kilometers by 71 kilometers (28 miles by 44 miles) in size and centered at 44.6 degrees north latitude, 110.7 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span> (to the right). Most trees in this area are lodge pole pines at different stages of fire succession. Yellowstone Lake appears as a large dark feature at the bottom of the scene. At right is a map of the forest crown, showing its biomass, or amount of vegetation, which includes foliage and branches. The map was created by inverting SIR-C data and using in situ estimates of crown biomass gathered by the Yellowstone National Biological Survey. The map is displayed on a color scale from blue (rivers and lakes with no biomass) to brown (non-forest areas with crown biomass of less than 4 tons per hectare) to light brown (areas of canopy burn with biomass of between 4 and 12 tons per hectare). Yellow</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01741&hterms=elk&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Delk','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01741&hterms=elk&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Delk"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Yellowstone Park, Wyoming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>These two <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> show the majestic Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, the oldest national park in the United States and home to the world's most spectacular geysers and hot springs. The region supports large populations of grizzly bears, elk and bison. In 1988, the park was burned by one of the most widespread fires to occur in the northern Rocky Mountains in the last 50 years. Surveys indicated that 793,880 acres of land burned. Of that, 41 percent was burned forest, with tree canopies totally consumed by the fire; 35 percent was a combination of unburned, scorched and blackened trees; 13 percent was surface burn under an unburned canopy; 6 percent was non-forest burn; and 5 percent was undifferentiated burn. Six years later, the burned areas are still clearly visible in these false-color <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> obtained by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The <span class="hlt">image</span> at the left was obtained using the L-band <span class="hlt">radar</span> channel, horizontally received and vertically transmitted, on the shuttle's 39th orbit on October 2, 1994. The area shown is 45 kilometers by 71 kilometers (28 miles by 44 miles) in size and centered at 44.6 degrees north latitude, 110.7 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span> (to the right). Most trees in this area are lodge pole pines at different stages of fire succession. Yellowstone Lake appears as a large dark feature at the bottom of the scene. At right is a map of the forest crown, showing its biomass, or amount of vegetation, which includes foliage and branches. The map was created by inverting SIR-C data and using in situ estimates of crown biomass gathered by the Yellowstone National Biological Survey. The map is displayed on a color scale from blue (rivers and lakes with no biomass) to brown (non-forest areas with crown biomass of less than 4 tons per hectare) to light brown (areas of canopy burn with biomass of between 4 and 12 tons per hectare). Yellow</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01741&hterms=bison+bison&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbison%2Bbison','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01741&hterms=bison+bison&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbison%2Bbison"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Yellowstone Park, Wyoming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>These two <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> show the majestic Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, the oldest national park in the United States and home to the world's most spectacular geysers and hot springs. The region supports large populations of grizzly bears, elk and bison. In 1988, the park was burned by one of the most widespread fires to occur in the northern Rocky Mountains in the last 50 years. Surveys indicated that 793,880 acres of land burned. Of that, 41 percent was burned forest, with tree canopies totally consumed by the fire; 35 percent was a combination of unburned, scorched and blackened trees; 13 percent was surface burn under an unburned canopy; 6 percent was non-forest burn; and 5 percent was undifferentiated burn. Six years later, the burned areas are still clearly visible in these false-color <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> obtained by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The <span class="hlt">image</span> at the left was obtained using the L-band <span class="hlt">radar</span> channel, horizontally received and vertically transmitted, on the shuttle's 39th orbit on October 2, 1994. The area shown is 45 kilometers by 71 kilometers (28 miles by 44 miles) in size and centered at 44.6 degrees north latitude, 110.7 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span> (to the right). Most trees in this area are lodge pole pines at different stages of fire succession. Yellowstone Lake appears as a large dark feature at the bottom of the scene. At right is a map of the forest crown, showing its biomass, or amount of vegetation, which includes foliage and branches. The map was created by inverting SIR-C data and using in situ estimates of crown biomass gathered by the Yellowstone National Biological Survey. The map is displayed on a color scale from blue (rivers and lakes with no biomass) to brown (non-forest areas with crown biomass of less than 4 tons per hectare) to light brown (areas of canopy burn with biomass of between 4 and 12 tons per hectare). Yellow</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512060N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512060N"><span>Vertical <span class="hlt">Velocity</span> Retrievals using the ARM Heterogeneous <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Network at SGP</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>North, Kirk; Collis, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The representation of convective clouds in numerical models underlines one of the most challenging problems to date faced by the modeling community. Since the dynamical, thermodynamical, and microphysical processes of convective systems occur at spatial and temporal scales not resolved by large-scale models, parameterization schemes must be implemented in order to represent these processes. A key component in these parameterizations is vertical <span class="hlt">velocity</span>, since many of these schemes rely on mass-flux closure: a model grid cell is decomposed into an updraft region within the cloud layer, compensated by both a downdraft which is part of the convective system as well as slow subsidence of the environment. Despite this, observations of vertical <span class="hlt">velocity</span> are sparse, either from aircraft studies or vertically-pointing <span class="hlt">radars</span>, both of which cover a limited area. As a result, evaluation of large-scale models is primarily done with other, small-scale models, not observations. Scanning Doppler <span class="hlt">radars</span>, though unable to directly measure vertical <span class="hlt">velocity</span>, are able to observe mesoscale convective systems at high spatial resolution. Utilizing the unprecedented observing infrastructure at ARM's Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, we retrieve vertical <span class="hlt">velocity</span> from multiple Doppler <span class="hlt">radars</span> using a 3D-VAR technique. Multiple convective events observed during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) provides an appropriate dataset to study the statistical properties of vertical <span class="hlt">velocity</span> as well as draft morphology in convective clouds. Furthermore, these retrievals are evaluated by comparing them with independent vertical <span class="hlt">velocity</span> retrievals from vertically-pointing UHF <span class="hlt">radars</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060036558&hterms=Abstract&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DAbstract','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060036558&hterms=Abstract&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DAbstract"><span>(abstract) Three Dimensional Ice-Flow <span class="hlt">Velocity</span> Estimation Using Satellite <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Interferometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Joughin, I.; Kwok, R.; Fahnestock, M.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>An understanding of the flow dynamics of an ice sheet's outlet glaciers and ice streams requires knowledge of their flow <span class="hlt">velocity</span> and strain rates (i.e., <span class="hlt">velocity</span> gradients). Prior to the recent advent of satellite <span class="hlt">radar</span> interferometry, it was not possible to measure detailed ice-flow <span class="hlt">velocity</span> over the vast featureless areas that comprise most of the ice sheets. Since the launch of ERS-1, the use of satellite <span class="hlt">radar</span> interferometry data for making densly sampled ice-flow <span class="hlt">velocity</span> measurements has been firmly established by several studies. We have combined data from nonparallel orbits with surface slope information to make vector ice-flow measurements for the Ryder Glacier, Greenland. Our results for the Ryder are promising and indicate that repeat-pass interferometric data can be used to make vector measurements of ice <span class="hlt">velocity</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26ES...17a2237D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26ES...17a2237D"><span>Application of <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> technology to uranium exploration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ding, Wu; Jie-lin, Zhang; Yanju, Huang; Chuan, Zhang; Donghui, Zhang</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The history of <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> technology development, technical advantages, current technology research status of lithologic identification with remote sensing have been comprehensively evaluated on this thesis. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> technology applied in structure recognition, rock identification, and uranium exploration research are discussed in this paper. Examples of microwave-optical fusion technology have been given in part 3, and the results demonstrate that <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> technology, as one of the most frontier observation techniques, has extensive application prospect in uranium exploration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000004213&hterms=4179&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D4179','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000004213&hterms=4179&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D4179"><span><span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Images</span> of Asteroid 4179 Toutatis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ostro, Steven J.; Hudson, R. Scott; Jurgens, Raymond F.; Rosema, Keith D.; Campbell, Donald B.; Yeomans, Donald K.; Chandler, John F.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Winkler, Ron; Rose, Randy</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Delay-Doppler <span class="hlt">images</span> of the Earth-crossing asteroid 4179 Toutatis achieve resolutions as fine as 125 nanoseconds (19 meters in range) and 8.3 millihertz (0.15 millimeter per second in radial <span class="hlt">velocity</span>) and place hundreds to thousands of pixels on the asteroid, which appears to be several kilometers long, topographically bifurcated, and heavily cratered. The <span class="hlt">image</span> sequence reveals Toutatis to be in an extremely slow, non-principal axis rotation state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01781.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01781.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of San Rafael Glacier, Chile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>A NASA <span class="hlt">radar</span> instrument has been successfully used to measure some of the fastest moving and most inaccessible glaciers in the world -- in Chile's huge, remote Patagonia ice fields -- demonstrating a technique that could produce more accurate predictions of glacial response to climate change and corresponding sea level changes. This <span class="hlt">image</span>, produced with interferometric measurements made by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) flown on the Space Shuttle last fall, has provided the first detailed measurements of the mass and motion of the San Rafael Glacier. Very few measurements have been made of the Patagonian ice fields, which are the world's largest mid-latitude ice masses and account for more than 60 percent of the Southern Hemisphere's glacial area outside of Antarctica. These features make the area essential for climatologists attempting to understand the response of glaciers on a global scale to changes in climate, but the region's inaccessibility and inhospitable climate have made it nearly impossible for scientists to study its glacial topography, meteorology and changes over time. Currently, topographic data exist for only a few glaciers while no data exist for the vast interior of the ice fields. <span class="hlt">Velocity</span> has been measured on only five of the more than 100 glaciers, and the data consist of only a few single-point measurements. The interferometry performed by the SIR-C/X-SAR was used to generate both a digital elevation model of the glaciers and a map of their ice motion on a pixel-per-pixel basis at very high resolution for the first time. The data were acquired from nearly the same position in space on October 9, 10 and 11, 1994, at L-band frequency (24-cm wavelength), vertically transmitted and received polarization, as the Space Shuttle Endeavor flew over several Patagonian outlet glaciers of the San Rafael Laguna. The area shown in these two <span class="hlt">images</span> is 50 kilometers by 30 kilometers (30 miles by 18 miles) in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MARD20003K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MARD20003K"><span>Advanced methods in synthetic aperture <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kragh, Thomas</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>For over 50 years our world has been mapped and measured with synthetic aperture <span class="hlt">radar</span> (SAR). A SAR system operates by transmitting a series of wideband radio-frequency pulses towards the ground and recording the resulting backscattered electromagnetic waves as the system travels along some one-dimensional trajectory. By coherently processing the recorded backscatter over this extended aperture, one can form a high-resolution 2D intensity map of the ground reflectivity, which we call a SAR <span class="hlt">image</span>. The trajectory, or synthetic aperture, is achieved by mounting the <span class="hlt">radar</span> on an aircraft, spacecraft, or even on the roof of a car traveling down the road, and allows for a diverse set of applications and measurement techniques for remote sensing applications. It is quite remarkable that the sub-centimeter positioning precision and sub-nanosecond timing precision required to make this work properly can in fact be achieved under such real-world, often turbulent, vibrationally intensive conditions. Although the basic principles behind SAR <span class="hlt">imaging</span> and interferometry have been known for decades, in recent years an explosion of data exploitation techniques enabled by ever-faster computational horsepower have enabled some remarkable advances. Although SAR <span class="hlt">images</span> are often viewed as simple intensity maps of ground reflectivity, SAR is also an exquisitely sensitive coherent <span class="hlt">imaging</span> modality with a wealth of information buried within the phase information in the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Some of the examples featured in this presentation will include: (1) Interferometric SAR, where by comparing the difference in phase between two SAR <span class="hlt">images</span> one can measure subtle changes in ground topography at the wavelength scale. (2) Change detection, in which carefully geolocated <span class="hlt">images</span> formed from two different passes are compared. (3) Multi-pass 3D SAR tomography, where multiple trajectories can be used to form 3D <span class="hlt">images</span>. (4) Moving Target Indication (MTI), in which Doppler effects allow one to detect and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01763.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01763.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Kilauea, Hawaii - Interferometry 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>This X-band <span class="hlt">image</span> of the volcano Kilauea was taken on October 4, 1994, by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span>. The area shown is about 9 kilometers by 13 kilometers (5.5 miles by 8 miles) and is centered at about 19.58 degrees north latitude and 155.55 degrees west longitude. This <span class="hlt">image</span> and a similar <span class="hlt">image</span> taken during the first flight of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> instrument on April 13, 1994 were combined to produce the topographic information by means of an interferometric process. This is a process by which <span class="hlt">radar</span> data acquired on different passes of the space shuttle is overlaid to obtain elevation information. Three additional <span class="hlt">images</span> are provided showing an overlay of <span class="hlt">radar</span> data with interferometric fringes; a three-dimensional <span class="hlt">image</span> based on altitude lines; and, finally, a topographic view of the region. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01763</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01733.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01733.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Bebedauro, Brazil, Seasonal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>This is an X-band <span class="hlt">image</span> showing seasonal changes at the hydrological test site of Bebedouro in Brazil. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 9 degrees south latitude and 40.2 degrees west longitude. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10, 1994, during the first flight of the <span class="hlt">radar</span> system, and on October 1, 1994, during the second mission. The swath width is approximately 16.5 kilometers (10.5 miles) wide. The <span class="hlt">image</span> channels have the following color assignments: red represents data acquired on April 10; green represents data acquired on October 1; blue corresponds to the ratio of the two data sets. Agriculture plays an important economic and social role in Brazil. One of the major problems related to Brazilian agriculture is estimating the size of planting areas and their productivity. Due to cloud cover and the rainy season, which occurs from November through April, optical and infrared Earth observations are seldom used to survey the region. An additional goal of monitoring this region is to watch the floodplains of rivers like Rio Sao Francisco in order to determine suitable locations for additional agricultural fields. This area belongs to the semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil, where estimates have suggested that about 10 times more land could be used for agriculture, including some locations which could be used for irrigation projects. Monitoring of soil moisture during the important summer crop season is of high priority for the future development and productivity of this region. In April the area was covered with vegetation because of the moisture of the soil and only small differences could be seen in X-band data. In October the run-off channels of this hilly region stand out quite clearly because the greenish areas indicated much less soil moisture and water content in plants. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01733</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/49319','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/49319"><span>Directional ocean wave measurements in a coastal setting using a focused array <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Frasier, S.J.; Liu, Y.; Moller, D.; McIntosh, R.E.; Long, C.</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p>A unique focused array <span class="hlt">imaging</span> Doppler <span class="hlt">radar</span> was used to measure directional spectra of ocean surface waves in a nearshore experiment performed on the North Carolina Outer Banks. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> of the ocean surface`s Doppler <span class="hlt">velocity</span> were used to generate two dimensional spectra of the radial component of the ocean surface <span class="hlt">velocity</span> field. These are compared to simultaneous in-situ measurements made by a nearby array of submerged pressure sensors. Analysis of the resulting two-dimensional spectra include comparisons of dominant wave lengths, wave directions, and wave energy accounting for relative differences in water depth at the measurement locations. Limited estimates of the two-dimensional surface displacement spectrum are derived from the <span class="hlt">radar</span> data. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> measurements are analogous to those of interferometric synthetic aperture <span class="hlt">radars</span> (INSAR), and the equivalent INSAR parameters are shown. The agreement between the remote and in-situ measurements suggests that an <span class="hlt">imaging</span> Doppler <span class="hlt">radar</span> is effective for these wave measurements at near grazing incidence angles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01817&hterms=Floodplains&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DFloodplains','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01817&hterms=Floodplains&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DFloodplains"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of St. Louis, Missouri</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This is a spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the area surrounding St. Louis, Missouri, where the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers come together. The city of St. Louis is the bright gold area within a bend in the Mississippi River at the lower center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The rivers show up as dark blue sinuous lines. Urbanized areas appear bright gold and forested areas are shown as a brownish color. Several bridges can be seen spanning the river near downtown St. Louis. The Missouri River flows east, from left to right, across the center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, and meets the Mississippi River, which flows from top to bottom of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. A small stretch of the Illinois River is shown at the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span> where it merges with the Mississippi. The Mississippi forms the state boundary between Illinois (to the right) and Missouri (to the left). Flat farmland areas within the river floodplains appear blue on the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The major roadways that pass through the area can be seen radiating out from, and encircling, the city of St. Louis. These highways, the rivers and the bridges help maintain St. Louis' reputation as the 'Gateway to the West.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/871791','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/871791"><span>Automatic position calculating <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> with low-cost synthetic aperture sensor for <span class="hlt">imaging</span> layered media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Mast, Jeffrey E.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">imaging</span> system for analyzing structures comprises a <span class="hlt">radar</span> transmitter and receiver connected to a timing mechanism that allows a <span class="hlt">radar</span> echo sample to be taken at a variety of delay times for each <span class="hlt">radar</span> pulse transmission. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> transmitter and receiver are coupled to a position determining system that provides the x,y position on a surface for each group of samples measured for a volume from the surface. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> transmitter and receiver are moved about the surface to collect such groups of measurements from a variety of x,y positions. Return signal amplitudes represent the relative reflectivity of objects within the volume and the delay in receiving each signal echo represents the depth at which the object lays in the volume and the propagation speeds of the intervening material layers. Successively deeper z-planes are backward propagated from one layer to the next with an adjustment for variations in the expected propagation <span class="hlt">velocities</span> of the material layers that lie between adjacent z-planes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/672716','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/672716"><span>Automatic position calculating <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> with low-cost synthetic aperture sensor for <span class="hlt">imaging</span> layered media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Mast, J.E.</p> <p>1998-08-18</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">imaging</span> system for analyzing structures comprises a <span class="hlt">radar</span> transmitter and receiver connected to a timing mechanism that allows a <span class="hlt">radar</span> echo sample to be taken at a variety of delay times for each <span class="hlt">radar</span> pulse transmission. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> transmitter and receiver are coupled to a position determining system that provides the x,y position on a surface for each group of samples measured for a volume from the surface. The <span class="hlt">radar</span> transmitter and receiver are moved about the surface to collect such groups of measurements from a variety of x,y positions. Return signal amplitudes represent the relative reflectivity of objects within the volume and the delay in receiving each signal echo represents the depth at which the object lays in the volume and the propagation speeds of the intervening material layers. Successively deeper z-planes are backward propagated from one layer to the next with an adjustment for variations in the expected propagation <span class="hlt">velocities</span> of the material layers that lie between adjacent z-planes. 10 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRD..119.7556Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRD..119.7556Y"><span>Mixed-phase cloud phase partitioning using millimeter wavelength cloud <span class="hlt">radar</span> Doppler <span class="hlt">velocity</span> spectra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, G.; Verlinde, J.; Clothiaux, E. E.; Chen, Y.-S.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Retrieving and quantifying cloud liquid drop contributions to <span class="hlt">radar</span> returns from mixed-phase clouds remains a challenge because the <span class="hlt">radar</span> signal is frequently dominated by the returns from the ice particles within the <span class="hlt">radar</span> sample volume. We present a technique that extracts the weak cloud liquid drop contributions from the total <span class="hlt">radar</span> returns in profiling cloud <span class="hlt">radar</span> Doppler <span class="hlt">velocity</span> spectra. Individual spectra are first decomposed using a continuous wavelet transform, the resulting coefficients of which are used to identify the region in the spectra where cloud liquid drops contribute. By assuming that the liquid contribution to each Doppler spectrum is Gaussian shaped and centered on an appropriate peak in the wavelet coefficients, the cloud liquid drop contribution may be estimated by fitting a Gaussian distribution centered on the <span class="hlt">velocity</span> of this peak to the original Doppler spectrum. The cloud liquid drop contribution to reflectivity, the volume mean vertical air motion, subvolume vertical <span class="hlt">velocity</span> variance, and ice particle mean fall speed can be estimated based on the separation of the liquid contribution to the <span class="hlt">radar</span> Doppler spectrum. The algorithm is evaluated using synthetic spectra produced from output of a state-of-the-art large eddy simulation model study of an Arctic mixed-phase cloud. The retrievals of cloud liquid drop mode reflectivities were generally consistent with the original model values with errors less than a factor of 2. The retrieved volume mean vertical air <span class="hlt">velocities</span> reproduced the updraft and downdraft structures, but with an overall bias of approximately -0.06 m s-1. Retrievals based on Ka-band Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Zenith <span class="hlt">Radar</span> observations from Barrow, Alaska, during October 2011 are also presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01705&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01705&hterms=city+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcity%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Mammoth, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">image</span> is a false-color composite of the Mammoth Mountain area in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 37.6 degrees north latitude and 119.0 degrees west longitude. The area is approximately 11.5 kilometers by 78.3 kilometers (7.2 by 48.7 miles) in size. The <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard space shuttle Endeavour on its 40th orbit, April 11, 1994. The city of Mammoth Lakes is visible in the bottom right portion of the scene. In this color representation, red is C-band HV-polarization, green is C-band VV-polarization and blue is the ratio of C-band VV to C-band HV. Blue areas are lakes or slopes facing away from the <span class="hlt">radar</span> illumination. Yellow represents areas of dry, old snow as well as slopes facing directly the <span class="hlt">radar</span> illumination. At the time of the SIR-C overflight, the sky conditions were partially cloudy, with low and cold air temperatures. Total snow depth is about 1 to 1.5 meters (3 to 5 feet). The current snow accumulation is only about 40 percent of the average for the season. The most recent snowfall in the area covered the entire area with about 30 centimeters (14 inches) of fresh dry snow. Above 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) elevation the snowpack is dry. Below that elevation, the snowpack has a layered structure. Snow hydrologists are using SIR-C/X-SAR data to determine both the quantity of water held by seasonal snowpack and the amount of snow melting. SIR-C/X-SAR <span class="hlt">radars</span> illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm)and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, in conjunction with aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01737.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01737.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Weddell Sea, Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>This Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> color composite shows a portion of the Weddell Sea, which is adjacent to the continent of Antarctica. The <span class="hlt">image</span> shows extensive coverage of first-year sea ice mixtures and patches of open water inside the ice margin. The <span class="hlt">image</span> covers a 100 kilometer by 30 kilometer (62 mile by 18.5 mile) region of the southern ocean, centered at approximately 57 degrees south latitude and 3 degrees east longitude, which was acquired on October 3, 1994. Data used to create this <span class="hlt">image</span> were obtained using the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) in red; the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) in green; and the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) in blue. The sea ice, which appears rust-brown in the <span class="hlt">image</span>, is composed of loosely packed floes from approximately 1 meter to 2 meters (3 feet to 6.5 feet) thick and ranging from 1 meter to 20 meters (3 feet to 65.5 feet) in diameter. Large patches of open water, shown as turquoise blue, are scattered throughout the area, which is typical for ice margins experiencing off-ice winds. The thin, well-organized lines clearly visible in the ice pack are caused by <span class="hlt">radar</span> energy reflected by floes riding the crest of ocean swells. The wispy, black features seen throughout the <span class="hlt">image</span> represent areas where new ice is forming. Sea ice, because it acts as an insulator, reduces the loss of heat between the relatively warm ocean and cold atmosphere. This interaction is an important component of the global climate system. Because of the unique combination of winds, currents and temperatures found in this region, ice can extend many hundreds of kilometers north of Antarctica each winter, which classifies the Weddell Sea as one of nature's greatest ice-making engines. During the formation of sea ice, great quantities of salt are expelled from the frozen water. The salt increases the density of the upper layer of sea water, which then sinks to great depths</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C11A0739N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C11A0739N"><span>Measuring melt and <span class="hlt">velocity</span> of Alaskan mountain glaciers using phase-sensitive <span class="hlt">radar</span> and differential GPS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Neuhaus, S.; Tulaczyk, S. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Alaskan glaciers show some of the highest rates of retreat worldwide, contributing to sea level rise. This retreat is due to both increased <span class="hlt">velocity</span> and increased melt. We seek to understand the role of glacial meltwater on <span class="hlt">velocity</span>. Matanuska glacier, a land terminating glacier in Alaska, has been well-studied using traditional glaciological techniques, but new technology has emerged that allows us to measure melt and <span class="hlt">velocity</span> more accurately. We employed high-resolution differential GPS to create surface <span class="hlt">velocity</span> profiles across flow in the ablation zone during the summer of 2015. We also measured surface ablation using stakes and measured basal melt using phase-sensitive <span class="hlt">radar</span> designed by the British Antarctic Survey. The positions acquired by differential GPS are obtained to a resolution of less than 0.5m, while feature tracking using time-lapse photography for the same time period yields positions with greater and more variable uncertainty. The phase-sensitive <span class="hlt">radar</span> provides ice thinning rates. Phase-sensitive <span class="hlt">radar</span> together with ground penetrating <span class="hlt">radar</span> provides us with an understanding of the internal structure of the glacier. This suite of data allows us to determine the relative importance of surface melt, basal melt, and internal deformation on ice <span class="hlt">velocity</span> in warm mountain glaciers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01737&hterms=Turquoise&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DTurquoise','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01737&hterms=Turquoise&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DTurquoise"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Weddell Sea, Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> color composite shows a portion of the Weddell Sea, which is adjacent to the continent of Antarctica. The <span class="hlt">image</span> shows extensive coverage of first-year sea ice mixtures and patches of open water inside the ice margin. The <span class="hlt">image</span> covers a 100 kilometer by 30 kilometer (62 mile by 18.5 mile) region of the southern ocean, centered at approximately 57 degrees south latitude and 3 degrees east longitude, which was acquired on October 3, 1994. Data used to create this <span class="hlt">image</span> were obtained using the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) in red; the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) in green; and the C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) in blue. The sea ice, which appears rust-brown in the <span class="hlt">image</span>, is composed of loosely packed floes from approximately 1 meter to 2 meters (3 feet to 6.5 feet) thick and ranging from 1 meter to 20 meters (3 feet to 65.5 feet) in diameter. Large patches of open water, shown as turquoise blue, are scattered throughout the area, which is typical for ice margins experiencing off-ice winds. The thin, well-organized lines clearly visible in the ice pack are caused by <span class="hlt">radar</span> energy reflected by floes riding the crest of ocean swells. The wispy, black features seen throughout the <span class="hlt">image</span> represent areas where new ice is forming. Sea ice, because it acts as an insulator, reduces the loss of heat between the relatively warm ocean and cold atmosphere. This interaction is an important component of the global climate system. Because of the unique combination of winds, currents and temperatures found in this region, ice can extend many hundreds of kilometers north of Antarctica each winter, which classifies the Weddell Sea as one of nature's greatest ice-making engines. During the formation of sea ice, great quantities of salt are expelled from the frozen water. The salt increases the density of the upper layer of sea water, which then sinks to great depths</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01700&hterms=birch&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dbirch','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01700&hterms=birch&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dbirch"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Raco, Michigan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">image</span> is a false-color composite of Raco, Michigan, centered at 46.39 degrees north latitude, 84.88 degrees west longitude. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its sixth orbit and during the first full-capability test of the instrument on April 9, 1994. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was produced using both L-band and C-band data. The area shown is approximately 20 kilometers by 50 kilometers (12 by 30 miles). Raco is located at the eastern end of Michigan's upper peninsula, west of Sault Ste. Marie and south of Whitefish Bay on Lake Superior. The site is located at the boundary between the boreal forests and the northern temperate forests, a transitional zone that is expected to be ecologically sensitive to anticipated global changes resulting from climatic warming. On any given day, there is a 60 percent chance that this area will be obscured to some extent by cloud clover which makes it difficult to <span class="hlt">image</span> using optical sensors. In this color representation (red=LHH,green=LHV, blue=CHH), darker areas in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are smooth surfaces such as frozen lakes and other non-forested areas. The colors are related to the types of trees and the brightness is related to the amount of plant material covering the surface, called forest biomass. The black area in the upper right corner is the ice-covered Lake Superior. The blue mosaic areas in the lower part of the <span class="hlt">image</span> are bare agricultural fields with hay stubble. The large blue area to the center left of the <span class="hlt">image</span> corresponds to a large frozen swamp with no trees and lots of grass tufts. The light greenish-yellow areas are red pine trees approximately 30 meters (100 feet) in height. The brownish yellow areas are jack pine trees of various ages. The dark patches are areas of recent clear cuts in the managed Hiawatha National Forest. The shore line of Lake Superior in the light greenish blue is a mixture of aspen and birch trees</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01730&hterms=19+degrees+north+latitude&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D19.5%2Bdegrees%2Bnorth%2Blatitude','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01730&hterms=19+degrees+north+latitude&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D19.5%2Bdegrees%2Bnorth%2Blatitude"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Raco, Michigan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>These are two false-color composites of Raco, Michigan, located at the eastern end of Michigan's upper peninsula, west of Sault Ste. Marie and south of Whitefish Bay on Lake Superior. The two <span class="hlt">images</span> (centered at 46.39 degrees north latitude, 84.88 degrees west longitude) show significant seasonal changes in the mid-latitude region of mixed deciduous and coniferous forests. The <span class="hlt">images</span> were acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the shuttle Endeavour on the sixth orbit of each mission. In these <span class="hlt">images</span>, red is L-band (23 cm) with horizontal/vertical polarization; green is C-band (6 cm) with horizontal/vertical polarization; blue is C-band with horizontal/horizontal polarization. The region shown is largely forested and includes a large portion of Hiawatha National Forest, as well as an agricultural region near the bottom of each <span class="hlt">image</span>. In early April, the area was snow-covered with up to 50 centimeters (19.5 inches) of snow in forest clearings and agricultural fields. Buds had not yet broken on deciduous trees, but the trees were not frozen and sap was generally flowing. Lake Superior, in the upper right, and the small inland lakes were frozen and snow-covered on April 9, 1994. By the end of September, deciduous trees were just beginning to change color after a relatively wet period. Leaf loss was estimated at about 30 percent, depending on the species, and the soil was moist to wet after a heavy rainfall on September 28, 1994. Most agricultural fields were covered with grasses of up to 60 centimeters (23 inches) in height. In the two <span class="hlt">images</span> the colors are related to the types of land cover (i.e. vegetation type) and the brightness is related to the amount of plant material and its relative moisture content. Significant seasonal changes between early spring and early fall are illustrated by this pair of <span class="hlt">images</span>. For the agricultural region near the bottom of the <span class="hlt">images</span>, the change from snow-cover to moist</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01730&hterms=coniferous&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dconiferous','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01730&hterms=coniferous&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dconiferous"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Raco, Michigan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>These are two false-color composites of Raco, Michigan, located at the eastern end of Michigan's upper peninsula, west of Sault Ste. Marie and south of Whitefish Bay on Lake Superior. The two <span class="hlt">images</span> (centered at 46.39 degrees north latitude, 84.88 degrees west longitude) show significant seasonal changes in the mid-latitude region of mixed deciduous and coniferous forests. The <span class="hlt">images</span> were acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the shuttle Endeavour on the sixth orbit of each mission. In these <span class="hlt">images</span>, red is L-band (23 cm) with horizontal/vertical polarization; green is C-band (6 cm) with horizontal/vertical polarization; blue is C-band with horizontal/horizontal polarization. The region shown is largely forested and includes a large portion of Hiawatha National Forest, as well as an agricultural region near the bottom of each <span class="hlt">image</span>. In early April, the area was snow-covered with up to 50 centimeters (19.5 inches) of snow in forest clearings and agricultural fields. Buds had not yet broken on deciduous trees, but the trees were not frozen and sap was generally flowing. Lake Superior, in the upper right, and the small inland lakes were frozen and snow-covered on April 9, 1994. By the end of September, deciduous trees were just beginning to change color after a relatively wet period. Leaf loss was estimated at about 30 percent, depending on the species, and the soil was moist to wet after a heavy rainfall on September 28, 1994. Most agricultural fields were covered with grasses of up to 60 centimeters (23 inches) in height. In the two <span class="hlt">images</span> the colors are related to the types of land cover (i.e. vegetation type) and the brightness is related to the amount of plant material and its relative moisture content. Significant seasonal changes between early spring and early fall are illustrated by this pair of <span class="hlt">images</span>. For the agricultural region near the bottom of the <span class="hlt">images</span>, the change from snow-cover to moist</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01852.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01852.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Pinacate Volcanic Field, Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>This spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows the Pinacate Volcanic Field in the state of Sonora, Mexico, about 150 kilometers 93 miles southeast of Yuma, Arizona. The United States/Mexico border runs across the upper right corner of the <span class="hlt">image</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900013510','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900013510"><span>Spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> observations: A guide for Magellan <span class="hlt">radar-image</span> analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ford, J. P.; Blom, R. G.; Crisp, J. A.; Elachi, Charles; Farr, T. G.; Saunders, R. Stephen; Theilig, E. E.; Wall, S. D.; Yewell, S. B.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Geologic analyses of spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> of Earth are reviewed and summarized with respect to detecting, mapping, and interpreting impact craters, volcanic landforms, eolian and subsurface features, and tectonic landforms. Interpretations are illustrated mostly with Seasat synthetic aperture <span class="hlt">radar</span> and shuttle-<span class="hlt">imaging-radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span>. Analogies are drawn for the potential interpretation of <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> of Venus, with emphasis on the effects of variation in Magellan look angle with Venusian latitude. In each landform category, differences in feature perception and interpretive capability are related to variations in <span class="hlt">imaging</span> geometry, spatial resolution, and wavelength of the <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> systems. Impact craters and other radially symmetrical features may show apparent bilateral symmetry parallel to the illumination vector at low look angles. The styles of eruption and the emplacement of major and minor volcanic constructs can be interpreted from morphological features observed in <span class="hlt">images</span>. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> responses that are governed by small-scale surface roughness may serve to distinguish flow types, but do not provide unambiguous information. <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> of sand dunes is rigorously constrained by specific angular relations between the illumination vector and the orientation and angle of repose of the dune faces, but is independent of <span class="hlt">radar</span> wavelength. With a single look angle, conditions that enable shallow subsurface <span class="hlt">imaging</span> to occur do not provide the information necessary to determine whether the <span class="hlt">radar</span> has recorded surface or subsurface features. The topographic linearity of many tectonic landforms is enhanced on <span class="hlt">images</span> at regional and local scales, but the detection of structural detail is a strong function of illumination direction. Nontopographic tectonic lineaments may appear in response to contrasts in small-surface roughness or dielectric constant. The breakpoint for rough surfaces will vary by about 25 percent through the Magellan viewing geometries from low to high</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4732158','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4732158"><span>Non-Cooperative Target <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> and Parameter Estimation with Narrowband <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Echoes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yeh, Chun-mao; Zhou, Wei; Lu, Yao-bing; Yang, Jian</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study focuses on the rotating target <span class="hlt">imaging</span> and parameter estimation with narrowband <span class="hlt">radar</span> echoes, which is essential for <span class="hlt">radar</span> target recognition. First, a two-dimensional (2D) <span class="hlt">imaging</span> model with narrowband echoes is established in this paper, and two <span class="hlt">images</span> of the target are formed on the <span class="hlt">velocity</span>-acceleration plane at two neighboring coherent processing intervals (CPIs). Then, the rotating <span class="hlt">velocity</span> (RV) is proposed to be estimated by utilizing the relationship between the positions of the scattering centers among two <span class="hlt">images</span>. Finally, the target <span class="hlt">image</span> is rescaled to the range-cross-range plane with the estimated rotational parameter. The validity of the proposed approach is confirmed using numerical simulations. PMID:26805836</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01753&hterms=company+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcompany%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01753&hterms=company+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcompany%2Bimage"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Mammoth Mountain, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>These two false-color composite <span class="hlt">images</span> of the Mammoth Mountain area in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, Calif., show significant seasonal changes in snow cover. The <span class="hlt">image</span> at left was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 67th orbit on April 13, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 37.6 degrees north latitude and 119 degrees west longitude. The area is about 36 kilometers by 48 kilometers (22 miles by 29 miles). In this <span class="hlt">image</span>, red is L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) polarization data; green is C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) polarization data; and blue is C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization data. The <span class="hlt">image</span> at right was acquired on October 3, 1994, on the space shuttle Endeavour's 67th orbit of the second <span class="hlt">radar</span> mission. Crowley Lake appears dark at the center left of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, just above or south of Long Valley. The Mammoth Mountain ski area is visible at the top right of the scene. The red areas correspond to forests, the dark blue areas are bare surfaces and the green areas are short vegetation, mainly brush. The changes in color tone at the higher elevations (e.g. the Mammoth Mountain ski area) from green-blue in April to purple in September reflect changes in snow cover between the two missions. The April mission occurred immediately following a moderate snow storm. During the mission the snow evolved from a dry, fine-grained snowpack with few distinct layers to a wet, coarse-grained pack with multiple ice inclusions. Since that mission, all snow in the area has melted except for small glaciers and permanent snowfields on the Silver Divide and near the headwaters of Rock Creek. On October 3, 1994, only discontinuous patches of snow cover were present at very high elevations following the first snow storm of the season on September 28, 1994. For investigations in hydrology and land-surface climatology, seasonal snow</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6786E..5KX','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6786E..5KX"><span>Monopulse <span class="hlt">radar</span> 3-D <span class="hlt">imaging</span> and application in terminal guidance <span class="hlt">radar</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Hui; Qin, Guodong; Zhang, Lina</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>Monopulse <span class="hlt">radar</span> 3-D <span class="hlt">imaging</span> integrates ISAR, monopulse angle measurement and 3-D <span class="hlt">imaging</span> processing to obtain the 3-D <span class="hlt">image</span> which can reflect the real size of a target, which means any two of the three measurement parameters, namely azimuth difference beam elevation difference beam and radial range, can be used to form 3-D <span class="hlt">image</span> of 3-D object. The basic principles of Monopulse <span class="hlt">radar</span> 3-D <span class="hlt">imaging</span> are briefly introduced, the effect of target carriage changes(including yaw, pitch, roll and movement of target itself) on 3-D <span class="hlt">imaging</span> and 3-D moving compensation based on the chirp rate μ and Doppler frequency f d are analyzed, and the application of monopulse <span class="hlt">radar</span> 3-D <span class="hlt">imaging</span> to terminal guidance <span class="hlt">radars</span> is forecasted. The computer simulation results show that monopulse <span class="hlt">radar</span> 3-D <span class="hlt">imaging</span> has apparent advantages in distinguishing a target from overside interference and precise assault on vital part of a target, and has great importance in terminal guidance <span class="hlt">radars</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01750.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01750.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Hong Kong, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>This is an X-SAR <span class="hlt">image</span> spanning an area of approximately 20 kilometers by 40 kilometers (12 miles by 25 miles) of the island of Hong Kong, the Kowloon Peninsula and the new territories in southern China, taken by the <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> on board the space shuttle Endeavour on October 4, 1994. North is toward the top left corner of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Kaitak Airport runway on Kowloon Peninsula (center right of <span class="hlt">image</span>) was built on reclaimed land and extends almost 3 kilometers (nearly 2 miles) into Victoria Harbor. To the south of the harbor lies the island of Hong Kong. The bright areas around the harbor are the major residential and business districts. Housing more than six million residents, Hong Kong is the most densely populated area in the world. The large number of objects visible in the harbor and surrounding waters are a variety of sea-going vessels, anchored in one of the busiest seaports in the Far East. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01750</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01759.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01759.html"><span>SPace <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Fort Irwin, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>This is an X-SAR <span class="hlt">image</span> spanning an area of approximately 20 kilometers by 40 kilometers (12 miles by 25 miles) of the island of Hong Kong, the Kowloon Peninsula and the new territories in southern China, taken by the <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> on board the space shuttle Endeavour on October 4, 1994. North is toward the top left corner of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The Kaitak Airport runway on Kowloon Peninsula (center right of <span class="hlt">image</span>) was built on reclaimed land and extends almost 3 kilometers (nearly 2 miles) into Victoria Harbor. To the south of the harbor lies the island of Hong Kong. The bright areas around the harbor are the major residential and business districts. Housing more than six million residents, Hong Kong is the most densely populated area in the world. The large number of objects visible in the harbor and surrounding waters are a variety of sea-going vessels, anchored in one of the busiest seaports in the Far East. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01750</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01753.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01753.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Mammoth Mountain, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>These two false-color composite <span class="hlt">images</span> of the Mammoth Mountain area in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, Calif., show significant seasonal changes in snow cover. The <span class="hlt">image</span> at left was acquired by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 67th orbit on April 13, 1994. The <span class="hlt">image</span> is centered at 37.6 degrees north latitude and 119 degrees west longitude. The area is about 36 kilometers by 48 kilometers (22 miles by 29 miles). In this <span class="hlt">image</span>, red is L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) polarization data; green is C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) polarization data; and blue is C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization data. The <span class="hlt">image</span> at right was acquired on October 3, 1994, on the space shuttle Endeavour's 67th orbit of the second <span class="hlt">radar</span> mission. Crowley Lake appears dark at the center left of the <span class="hlt">image</span>, just above or south of Long Valley. The Mammoth Mountain ski area is visible at the top right of the scene. The red areas correspond to forests, the dark blue areas are bare surfaces and the green areas are short vegetation, mainly brush. The changes in color tone at the higher elevations (e.g. the Mammoth Mountain ski area) from green-blue in April to purple in September reflect changes in snow cover between the two missions. The April mission occurred immediately following a moderate snow storm. During the mission the snow evolved from a dry, fine-grained snowpack with few distinct layers to a wet, coarse-grained pack with multiple ice inclusions. Since that mission, all snow in the area has melted except for small glaciers and permanent snowfields on the Silver Divide and near the headwaters of Rock Creek. On October 3, 1994, only discontinuous patches of snow cover were present at very high elevations following the first snow storm of the season on September 28, 1994. For investigations in hydrology and land-surface climatology, seasonal snow</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01701&hterms=Italy+formed&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DItaly%2Bformed','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01701&hterms=Italy+formed&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DItaly%2Bformed"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Death Valley, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">image</span> shows Death Valley, California, centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. The <span class="hlt">image</span> shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan and Furnace Creek Ranch at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. The dark fork-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. This SIR-C/X-SAR supersite is an area of extensive field investigations and has been visited by both Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Lab astronaut crews. Elevations in the valley range from 70 meters (230 feet) below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3,300 meters (10,800 feet) above sea level. Scientists are using SIR-C/X-SAR data from Death Valley to help answer a number of different questions about Earth's geology. One question concerns how alluvial fans are formed and change through time under the influence of climatic changes and earthquakes. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time. They are visible in the <span class="hlt">image</span> as circular, fan-shaped bright areas extending into the darker valley floor from the mountains. Information about the alluvial fans helps scientists study Earth's ancient climate. Scientists know the fans are built up through climatic and tectonic processes and they will use the SIR-C/X-SAR data to understand the nature and rates of weathering processes on the fans, soil formation and the transport of sand and dust by the wind. SIR-C/X-SAR's sensitivity to centimeter-scale (inch-scale) roughness provides detailed maps of surface texture. Such information can be used to study the occurrence and movement of dust storms and sand dunes. The goal of these studies is to gain a better understanding of the record of past climatic changes and the effects of those changes on a sensitive environment. This may lead to a better ability to predict future response of the land to different potential global climate-change scenarios. Death Valley is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01701&hterms=Death&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DDeath','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01701&hterms=Death&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DDeath"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Death Valley, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">image</span> shows Death Valley, California, centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. The <span class="hlt">image</span> shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan and Furnace Creek Ranch at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. The dark fork-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. This SIR-C/X-SAR supersite is an area of extensive field investigations and has been visited by both Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Lab astronaut crews. Elevations in the valley range from 70 meters (230 feet) below sea level, the lowest in the United States, to more than 3,300 meters (10,800 feet) above sea level. Scientists are using SIR-C/X-SAR data from Death Valley to help answer a number of different questions about Earth's geology. One question concerns how alluvial fans are formed and change through time under the influence of climatic changes and earthquakes. Alluvial fans are gravel deposits that wash down from the mountains over time. They are visible in the <span class="hlt">image</span> as circular, fan-shaped bright areas extending into the darker valley floor from the mountains. Information about the alluvial fans helps scientists study Earth's ancient climate. Scientists know the fans are built up through climatic and tectonic processes and they will use the SIR-C/X-SAR data to understand the nature and rates of weathering processes on the fans, soil formation and the transport of sand and dust by the wind. SIR-C/X-SAR's sensitivity to centimeter-scale (inch-scale) roughness provides detailed maps of surface texture. Such information can be used to study the occurrence and movement of dust storms and sand dunes. The goal of these studies is to gain a better understanding of the record of past climatic changes and the effects of those changes on a sensitive environment. This may lead to a better ability to predict future response of the land to different potential global climate-change scenarios. Death Valley is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6896753','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6896753"><span>Antarctica: measuring glacier <span class="hlt">velocity</span> from satellite <span class="hlt">images</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lucchitta, B.K.; Ferguson, H.M.</p> <p>1986-11-28</p> <p>Many Landsat <span class="hlt">images</span> of Antarctica show distinctive flow and crevasse features in the floating part of ice streams and outlet glaciers immediately below their grounding zones. Some of the features, which move with the glacier or ice stream, remain visible over many years and thus allow time-lapse measurements of ice <span class="hlt">velocities</span>. Measurements taken from Landsat <span class="hlt">images</span> of features on Byrd Glacier agree well with detailed ground and aerial observations. The satellite-<span class="hlt">image</span> technique thus offers a rapid and cost-effective method of obtaining average <span class="hlt">velocities</span>, to a first order of accuracy, of many ice streams and outlet glaciers near their termini.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17778951','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17778951"><span>Antarctica: measuring glacier <span class="hlt">velocity</span> from satellite <span class="hlt">images</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lucchitta, B K; Ferguson, H M</p> <p>1986-11-28</p> <p>Many Landsat <span class="hlt">images</span> of Antarctica show distinctive flow and crevasse features in the floating part of ice streams and outlet glaciers immediately below their grounding zones. Some of the features, which move with the glacier or ice stream, remain visible over many years and thus allow time-lapse measurements of ice <span class="hlt">velocities</span>. Measurements taken from Landsat <span class="hlt">images</span> of features on Byrd Glacier agree well with detailed ground and aerial observations. The satellite-<span class="hlt">image</span> technique thus offers a rapid and cost-effective method of obtaining average <span class="hlt">velocities</span>, to a first order of accuracy, of many ice streams and outlet glaciers near their termini.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015314','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015314"><span>Antarctica: Measuring glacier <span class="hlt">velocity</span> from satellite <span class="hlt">images</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lucchitta, B.K.; Ferguson, H.M.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Many Landsat <span class="hlt">images</span> of Antarctica show distinctive flow and crevasse features in the floating part of ice streams and outlet glaciers immediately below their grounding zones. Some of the features, which move with the glacier or ice stream, remain visible over many years and thus allow time-lapse measurements of ice <span class="hlt">velocities</span>. Measurements taken from Landsat <span class="hlt">images</span> of features on Byrd Glacier agree well with detailed ground and aerial observations. The satellite-<span class="hlt">image</span> technique thus offers a rapid and cost-effective method of obtaining average <span class="hlt">velocities</span>, to a first order of accuracy, of many ice streams and outlet glaciers near their termini.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5908086','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5908086"><span>On the focusing issue of synthetic aperture <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of ocean waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bruning, C. ); Alpers, W.R. ); Schroter, J.G. )</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>It is now widely accepted that the <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of ocean surface waves by synthetic aperture <span class="hlt">radar</span> (SAR) can be adequately described by <span class="hlt">velocity</span> bunching theory in conjunction with the two-scale wave model. However, it has been conjectured that this theory is incapable of explaining why, under certain conditions, the <span class="hlt">image</span> contrast of airborne SAR imagery of ocean waves can be enhanced by defocusing the SAR processor. It this were true it would raise serious doubts about the validity of the <span class="hlt">velocity</span> bunching theory to describe the SAR <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of ocean waves. In this paper the <span class="hlt">velocity</span> bunching theory is defended. It is shown that <span class="hlt">image</span> contrast enhancement by defocusing can also be obtained by this theory, which does not require the introduction of the phase or group <span class="hlt">velocity</span> of the long ocean waves as a basic element of the SAR <span class="hlt">imaging</span> theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSMNS14A..04K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSMNS14A..04K"><span>Ground Penetrating <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> of Tephra Fallout and Surge Deposits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kruse, S.; Martin, K.; Connor, C.; Mora, R.; Ramirez, C.; Alvarado, G.</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>GPR profiles on Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua, and Poás, Irazú, and Arenal volcanoes, Costa Rica, show this method has utility for mapping tephra blanket and surge deposit thicknesses, as well as ballistics distributions. These data are useful for estimating eruption volumes, particularly close to vents where deposits may be thicker than trenching depths. In the dry, highly resistive tephra of the Cerro Negro basaltic cinder cone, distinct deposits are clearly <span class="hlt">imaged</span> between 2 and 20 m depth. The lowermost coherent reflection is presumed to be the contact with underlying pre-Cerro Negro lavas and weathered tephra deposits. Within the 2-20 m package, individual reflecting horizons are clearly resolved, and reflection attributes, particularly phase, may contain useful information on the nature of contacts, such as abrupt changes in granulometry. Because of the very high <span class="hlt">velocities</span> at Cerro Negro (0.14 m/ns), even with 200 MHz antennas strata shallower than 2 m are difficult to resolve. In contrast, wetter ash, pumice, paleosol, and surge deposits on Irazú and Poás volcanoes show <span class="hlt">velocities</span> as low as 0.045 m/ns. The corresponding shorter wavelengths permit strata as shallow as 40-70 cm to be <span class="hlt">imaged</span> with 200 MHz antennas, with depth penetration typically 5 to 8 m. Comparison of trench observations and <span class="hlt">radar</span> profiles indicates that strong <span class="hlt">radar</span> reflections are produced by iron-rich zones at the water table and soil-ash contacts. Other features visible in the profiles are small (tens of cm) sub-vertical offsets of nearly horizontal units, and diffractions or disruptions in horizontal units presumed to reflect >30 cm blocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870059983&hterms=repose+angle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Drepose%2Bangle','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870059983&hterms=repose+angle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Drepose%2Bangle"><span>Multifrequency and multipolarization <span class="hlt">radar</span> scatterometry of sand dunes and comparison with spaceborne and airborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blom, Ronald; Elachi, Charles</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Airborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> scatterometer data on sand dunes, acquired at multiple frequencies and polarizations, are reported. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> backscatter from sand dunes is very sensitive to the <span class="hlt">imaging</span> geometry. At small incidence angles the <span class="hlt">radar</span> return is mainly due to quasi-specular reflection from dune slopes favorably oriented toward the <span class="hlt">radar</span>. A peak return usually occurs at the incidence angle equal to the angle of repose for the dunes. The peak angle is the same at all frequencies as computed from specular reflection theory. At larger angles the return is significantly weaker. The scatterometer measurements verified observations made with airborne and spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> acquired over a number of dune fields in the U.S., central Africa, and the Arabian peninsula. The <span class="hlt">imaging</span> geometry constraints indicate that possible dunes on other planets, such as Venus, will probably not be detected in <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> unless the incidence angle is less than the angles of repose of such dunes and the <span class="hlt">radar</span> look direction is approximately orthogonal to the dune trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20777197','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20777197"><span>Ultrawideband <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> system for biomedical applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jafari, H.M.; Liu, W.; Hranilovic, S.; Deen, M.J.</p> <p>2006-05-15</p> <p>Ultrawideband (UWB) (3-10 GHz) <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> systems offer much promise for biomedical applications such as cancer detection because of their good penetration and resolution characteristics. The underlying principle of UWB cancer detection is a significant contrast in dielectric properties, which is estimated to be greater than 2:1 between normal and cancerous tissue, compared to a few-percent contrast in radiographic density exploited by x rays. This article presents a feasibility study of the UWB <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of liver cancer tumors, based on the frequency-dependent finite difference time domain method. The reflection, radiation, and scattering properties of UWB pulses as they propagate through the human body are studied. The reflected and back-scattered electromagnetic energies from cancer tumors inside the liver are also investigated. An optimized, ultrawideband antenna was designed for near field operation, allowing for the reduction of the air-skin interface. It will be placed on the fat-liver tissue phantom with a malignant tumor stimulant. By performing an incremental scan over the phantom and removing early time artifacts, including reflection from the antenna ends, <span class="hlt">images</span> based on the back-scattered signal from the tumor can be constructed. This research is part of our effort to develop a UWB cancer detection system with good detection and localization properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3707..470B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3707..470B"><span>Compact multichannel <span class="hlt">imaging</span> laser <span class="hlt">radar</span> receiver</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burns, Hoyt N.; Yun, Steven T.; Keltos, Michael L.; Kimmet, James S.</p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>Direct detection <span class="hlt">imaging</span> Laser <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (LADAR) produces 3-dimensional range imagery that can be processed to provide target acquisition and precision aimpoint definition in real time. This paper describes the current status of the Parallel Multichannel <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> LADAR Receiver (PMR), developed under an SBIR Phase II program by the Air Force Research Laboratory, Munitions Directorate (AFRL/MN). The heart of the PMR is the Multichannel Optical Receiver Photonic Hybrid (MORPH), a high performance 16-channel LADAR receiver card which includes fiber-coupled detectors, pulse discrimination, and range counting circuitry on a 3 X 5 inch circuit card. The MORPH provides high downrange resolution (3 inches), multiple-hit (8 per channel) range and reflectance data for each detector. Silicon (Si) and indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) pin diode or avalanche photodiode (APD) detectors are supported. The modular PMR uses an array of MORPH circuit cards to form a compact multichannel <span class="hlt">imaging</span> LADAR receiver with any multiple of 16 channels. A 32-channel system measures 3 X 5 X 1.4 inches and weighs 1 lb. A prototype PMR system is currently undergoing field-testing. This paper focuses on field test results and applications of the PMR technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830065004&hterms=GEOLOGICAL+MAPPING&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DGEOLOGICAL%2BMAPPING','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830065004&hterms=GEOLOGICAL+MAPPING&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DGEOLOGICAL%2BMAPPING"><span>Geological mapping from spaceborne <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radars</span> Kentucky-Virginia, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ford, J. P.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> (at wavelength 23.5 cm) of a 50-km-wide swath across Kentucky and Virginia obtained with the Shuttle <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> experiment (SIR-A) in 1981 and with the Seasat SAR in 1978 are compared. <span class="hlt">Image</span> tone and texture, lineament mapping, drainage mapping, and the effects of illumination geometry and incidence angle are considered, and sample Landsat <span class="hlt">images</span> are evaluated. The dominant backscatter effect in the SIR-A <span class="hlt">images</span> is found to facilitate the mapping of steeply sloping terranes and lineaments shorter than the Seasat length resolution limit of about 15 km. It is determined that optimum enhancement of topographic features is obtained when the <span class="hlt">radar</span> look angle exceeds the surface slope angle by a discrete amount, avoiding layover or relief displacement. A variable-look-angle <span class="hlt">radar</span> is needed to maintain low incidence angles in regions with widely varying slope angles, as illustrated by the Landsat MSS <span class="hlt">images</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840008334&hterms=role+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Drole%2Bimage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840008334&hterms=role+image&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Drole%2Bimage"><span>Use of <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> texture in geologic mapping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Farr, T. G.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Large slope angle <span class="hlt">radar</span> and small slope angle <span class="hlt">radar</span> techniques are discussed. The techniques are developed to aid in the geologic interpretation of synthetic aperture <span class="hlt">radar</span> (SAR) <span class="hlt">images</span>. The application presented is for heavy vegetation and where very little other data can be obtained directly from remote sensing <span class="hlt">images</span>. To understand the relationships between <span class="hlt">image</span> texture, topography, lithology, geomorphology, and climate improves, textural information from SAR <span class="hlt">images</span> are used for the identification of rock types to discriminate units. An active program is to integrate textural information from <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> directly with backscatter data from the same <span class="hlt">images</span>, and with compositional information derived from visible near infrared sensors such as LANDSAT is explored. The role of quantitative textural information in this type of multisensor analysis which promises to be significant is outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830032280&hterms=techniques+keep+attention&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dtechniques%2Bkeep%2Battention','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830032280&hterms=techniques+keep+attention&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dtechniques%2Bkeep%2Battention"><span>Spaceborne synthetic-aperture <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radars</span> - Applications, techniques, and technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Elachi, C.; Bicknell, T.; Jordan, R. L.; Wu, C.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>In June 1978, the Seasat satellite was placed into orbit around the earth with a synthetic-aperture <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> (SAR) as one of the payload sensors. The Seasat SAR provided, for the first time, synoptic <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> of the earth's surface with a resolution of 25 m. In November 1981, the second <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> was successfully operated from space on the Shuttle. The Shuttle <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-A acquired <span class="hlt">images</span> over a variety of regions around the world with an <span class="hlt">imaging</span> geometry different from the one used by the Seasat SAR. The spaceborne SAR principle is discussed, taking into account ambiguities, orbital and environmental factors, range curvature and range walk, surface interaction mechanisms, thermal and speckle noise, key tradeoff parameters, and nonconventional SAR systems. Attention is also given to spaceborne SAR sensors, the digital processing of spaceborne SAR data, the optical processing of spaceborne SAR data, postimage formation processing, data interpretation techniques and applications, and the next decade.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AMT....10..999M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AMT....10..999M"><span>A comparison of vertical <span class="hlt">velocity</span> variance measurements from wind profiling <span class="hlt">radars</span> and sonic anemometers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCaffrey, Katherine; Bianco, Laura; Johnston, Paul; Wilczak, James M.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Observations of turbulence in the planetary boundary layer are critical for developing and evaluating boundary layer parameterizations in mesoscale numerical weather prediction models. These observations, however, are expensive and rarely profile the entire boundary layer. Using optimized configurations for 449 and 915 MHz wind profiling <span class="hlt">radars</span> during the eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA), improvements have been made to the historical methods of measuring vertical <span class="hlt">velocity</span> variance through the time series of vertical <span class="hlt">velocity</span>, as well as the Doppler spectral width. Using six heights of sonic anemometers mounted on a 300 m tower, correlations of up to R2 = 0. 74 are seen in measurements of the large-scale variances from the <span class="hlt">radar</span> time series and R2 = 0. 79 in measurements of small-scale variance from <span class="hlt">radar</span> spectral widths. The total variance, measured as the sum of the small and large scales, agrees well with sonic anemometers, with R2 = 0. 79. Correlation is higher in daytime convective boundary layers than nighttime stable conditions when turbulence levels are smaller. With the good agreement with the in situ measurements, highly resolved profiles up to 2 km can be accurately observed from the 449 MHz <span class="hlt">radar</span> and 1 km from the 915 MHz <span class="hlt">radar</span>. This optimized configuration will provide unique observations for the verification and improvement to boundary layer parameterizations in mesoscale models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA141152','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA141152"><span>Theory of Digital <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> from Orbital Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1983-11-01</p> <p>FROM ORBITAL SYNTHETIC APERTURE <span class="hlt">RADAR</span> O by B. C. Barber SUMMARY Digital synthetic aperture <span class="hlt">radar</span> ( SAR ) <span class="hlt">imaging</span> techniques have pre- viously only been...reported in the literature in a fragmentary manner. This article presents a comprehensive review of the theory of digital SAR <span class="hlt">imaging</span> from Earth...orbiting satellites. The digital SAR <span class="hlt">imaging</span> process is explained, including a discussion of various aspects which are specific to satellite-borne SAR . A</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000056094','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000056094"><span><span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Applications in the Death Valley Region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Farr, Tom G.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Death Valley has had a long history as a testbed for remote sensing techniques (Gillespie, this conference). Along with visible-near infrared and thermal IR sensors, <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radars</span> have flown and orbited over the valley since the 1970's, yielding new insights into the geologic applications of that technology. More recently, <span class="hlt">radar</span> interferometry has been used to derive digital topographic maps of the area, supplementing the USGS 7.5' digital quadrangles currently available for nearly the entire area. As for their shorter-wavelength brethren, <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radars</span> were tested early in their civilian history in Death Valley because it has a variety of surface types in a small area without the confounding effects of vegetation. In one of the classic references of these early <span class="hlt">radar</span> studies, in a semi-quantitative way the response of an <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> to surface roughness near the <span class="hlt">radar</span> wavelength, which typically ranges from about 1 cm to 1 m was explained. This laid the groundwork for applications of airborne and spaceborne <span class="hlt">radars</span> to geologic problems in and regions. <span class="hlt">Radar</span>'s main advantages over other sensors stems from its active nature- supplying its own illumination makes it independent of solar illumination and it can also control the <span class="hlt">imaging</span> geometry more accurately. Finally, its long wavelength allows it to peer through clouds, eliminating some of the problems of optical sensors, especially in perennially cloudy and polar areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060041779&hterms=many+oceans+world&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dmany%2Boceans%2Bworld','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060041779&hterms=many+oceans+world&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dmany%2Boceans%2Bworld"><span><span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Images</span> of the Earth and the World Wide Web</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chapman, B.; Freeman, A.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A perspective of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a center of planetary exploration, and its involvement in studying the earth from space is given. Remote sensing, <span class="hlt">radar</span> maps, land topography, snow cover properties, vegetation type, biomass content, moisture levels, and ocean data are items discussed related to earth orbiting satellite <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span>. World Wide Web viewing of this content is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060041779&hterms=World+Wide+Web&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DWorld%2BWide%2BWeb','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060041779&hterms=World+Wide+Web&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DWorld%2BWide%2BWeb"><span><span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Images</span> of the Earth and the World Wide Web</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chapman, B.; Freeman, A.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A perspective of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a center of planetary exploration, and its involvement in studying the earth from space is given. Remote sensing, <span class="hlt">radar</span> maps, land topography, snow cover properties, vegetation type, biomass content, moisture levels, and ocean data are items discussed related to earth orbiting satellite <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span>. World Wide Web viewing of this content is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6694528','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6694528"><span>Submillimeter-wavelength space-based <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span>. Interim report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Manheimer, W.M.</p> <p>1988-05-31</p> <p>This report considers the use of a submillimeter wavelength space-based <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span>. The main application envisioned is midcourse decoy discrimination for strategic defense, for which it would have the capability of producing a series of <span class="hlt">images</span>, in real time, at strategic ranges, with less than meter-scale resolution and with modest power requirements. Undoubtedly, there are other applications. The requirements for a SAR and ISAR <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> at submillimeter wavelength are determined, and the prospect for the development of rf sources to power the <span class="hlt">radar</span> is examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011413','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011413"><span>Proceedings of the Third Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Symposium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>This publication contains summaries of the papers presented at the Third Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Symposium held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, in Pasadena, California, on 18-21 Jan. 1993. The purpose of the symposium was to present an overview of recent developments in the different scientific and technological fields related to spaceborne <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radars</span> and to present future international plans. This symposium is the third in a series of 'Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>' symposia held at JPL. The first symposium was held in Jan. 1983 and the second in 1986.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100042295','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100042295"><span>High-resolution three-dimensional <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cooper, Ken B. (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Siegel, Peter H. (Inventor); Dengler, Robert J. (Inventor); Schlecht, Erich T. (Inventor); Mehdi, Imran (Inventor); Skalare, Anders J. (Inventor)</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A three-dimensional <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> operating at high frequency e.g., 670 GHz, is disclosed. The active target illumination inherent in <span class="hlt">radar</span> solves the problem of low signal power and narrow-band detection by using submillimeter heterodyne mixer receivers. A submillimeter <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> may use low phase-noise synthesizers and a fast chirper to generate a frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) waveform. Three-dimensional <span class="hlt">images</span> are generated through range information derived for each pixel scanned over a target. A peak finding algorithm may be used in processing for each pixel to differentiate material layers of the target. Improved focusing is achieved through a compensation signal sampled from a point source calibration target and applied to received signals from active targets prior to FFT-based range compression to extract and display high-resolution target <span class="hlt">images</span>. Such an <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> has particular application in detecting concealed weapons or contraband.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/111843','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/111843"><span>Landmine detection and <span class="hlt">imaging</span> using Micropower Impulse <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (MIR)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Azevedo, S.G.; Gravel, D.T.; Mast, J.E.; Warhus, J.P.</p> <p>1995-08-07</p> <p>The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed <span class="hlt">radar</span> and <span class="hlt">imaging</span> technologies with potential applications in mine detection by the armed forces and other agencies involved in determining efforts. These new technologies use a patented ultra-wideband (impulse) <span class="hlt">radar</span> technology that is compact, low-cost, and low power. Designated as Micropower hnpulse <span class="hlt">Radar</span>, these compact, self-contained <span class="hlt">radars</span> can easily be assembled into arrays to form complete ground penetrating <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> systems. LLNL has also developed tomographic reconstruction and signal processing software capable of producing high-resolution 2-D and 3-D <span class="hlt">images</span> of objects buried in materials like soil or concrete from <span class="hlt">radar</span> data. Preliminary test results have shown that a <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> system using these technologies has the ability to <span class="hlt">image</span> both metallic and plastic land mine surrogate targets buried in 5 to 10 cm of moist soil. In dry soil, the system can detect buried objects to a depth of 30 cm and more. This report describes our initial test results and plans for future work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6226E..0AB','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6226E..0AB"><span>Flight simulator with IR and MMW <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> generation capabilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bonjean, Maxime E.; Lapierre, Fabian D.; Schiefele, Jens; Verly, Jacques G.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>In the future, modern airliners will use enhanced-synthesic vision systems (ESVS) to improve aeronautical operations in bad weather conditions. Before ESVS are effectively found aboard airliners, one must develop a multisensor flight simulator capable of synthetizing, in real time, <span class="hlt">images</span> corresponding to a variety of <span class="hlt">imaging</span> modalities. We present a real-time simulator called ARIS (Airborne <span class="hlt">Radar</span> and Infrared Simulator) which is capable of generating two such <span class="hlt">imaging</span> modalities: a forward-looking infrared (FLIR) and a millimeter-wave <span class="hlt">radar</span> (MMWR) <span class="hlt">imaging</span> system. The proposed simulator is modular sothat additional <span class="hlt">imaging</span> modalities can be added. Example of <span class="hlt">images</span> generated by the simulator are shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApPhL.110p4102L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApPhL.110p4102L"><span>Super-resolution <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> based on experimental OAM beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Kang; Cheng, Yongqiang; Gao, Yue; Li, Xiang; Qin, Yuliang; Wang, Hongqiang</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>A super-resolution <span class="hlt">imaging</span> technique based on the vortex electromagnetic (EM) wave, which carries orbital angular momentum (OAM), is reported in this paper. The proof-of-concept experiment for the EM vortex <span class="hlt">imaging</span> is conducted. An <span class="hlt">imaging</span> processing method based on the real-world OAM <span class="hlt">radar</span> data is proposed to obtain the target profile. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed <span class="hlt">imaging</span> method and demonstrate that the vortex EM wave can be exploited to <span class="hlt">image</span> targets with high-resolution beyond the limit of the array aperture. This breakthrough on the Rayleigh limit paves the way for innovative techniques in <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> and remote sensing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770003457','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770003457"><span>A SEASAT-A synthetic aperture <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jordan, R. L.; Rodgers, D. H.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The SEASAT, a synthetic aperture <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> system is the first <span class="hlt">radar</span> system of its kind designed for the study of ocean wave patterns from orbit. The basic requirement of this system is to generate continuous <span class="hlt">radar</span> imagery with a 100 km swath with 25m resolution from an orbital altitude of 800 km. These requirements impose unique system design problems. The end to end data system described including interactions of the spacecraft, antenna, sensor, telemetry link, and data processor. The synthetic aperture <span class="hlt">radar</span> system generates a large quantity of data requiring the use of an analog link with stable local oscillator encoding. The problems associated in telemetering the <span class="hlt">radar</span> information with sufficient fidelity to synthesize an <span class="hlt">image</span> on the ground is described as well as the selected solutions to the problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930000974','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930000974"><span><span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> investigations of the Sudbury structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lowman, P. D.; Singhroy, V. H.; Slaney, V. R.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports preliminary results of airborne <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> studies of the Sudbury structure carried out in preparation for a CCRS European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) investigation. The data used were synthetic aperture <span class="hlt">radar</span> (SAR) C-band (5.66 cm) <span class="hlt">images</span> acquired from about 6 km altitude in 1987. They cover the Sudbury area in both wide and narrow swath modes, with east-west flight paths and north-south illumination directions. Narrow swath resolution is 6 m in range and azimuth; wide swath resolution is 20 m in range and 10 m in azimuth. The STAR imagery has proven highly effective for field use, providing excellent rendition of topography and topographically expressed structure. Reasons for this include the illumination geometry, notably the look azimuth normal to the long axis of the Sudbury structure and Penokean fold axes, the good spatial resolution, and the short wavelength. Forested areas in the Sudbury area tend to be uniformly rough at C-band wavelength, with backscatter dominated by local incidence angle (i.e., topography). Field work using the SAR imagery has to date been concentrated in the North Range and Superior Province as far north as the Benny greenstone belt. This area was chosen for initial investigation of the original size and shape of the Sudbury structure because the effects of the Penokean Orogeny were minimal there. Field work using SAR indicates that there has been little postimpact deformation of the North Range or adjacent Superior Province rock. There appears to be no evidence for an outer ring concentric with the North Range as indicated by early Landsat imagery. The apparent ring shown by Landsat is visible on the SAR imagery as the intersection of two regional fracture patterns not related to the Sudbury structure. There is no outer ring visible southwest of the structure. This can reasonably be explained by Penokean deformation, but there is no outer ring to the northeast cutting the relatively undeformed Huronian</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080026181','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080026181"><span>Linear FMCW Laser <span class="hlt">Radar</span> for Precision Range and Vector <span class="hlt">Velocity</span> Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pierrottet, Diego; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Petway, Larry; Barnes, Bruce; Lockhard, George; Rubio, Manuel</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>An all fiber linear frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) coherent laser <span class="hlt">radar</span> system is under development with a goal to aide NASA s new Space Exploration initiative for manned and robotic missions to the Moon and Mars. By employing a combination of optical heterodyne and linear frequency modulation techniques and utilizing state-of-the-art fiber optic technologies, highly efficient, compact and reliable laser <span class="hlt">radar</span> suitable for operation in a space environment is being developed. Linear FMCW lidar has the capability of high-resolution range measurements, and when configured into a multi-channel receiver system it has the capability of obtaining high precision horizontal and vertical <span class="hlt">velocity</span> measurements. Precision range and vector <span class="hlt">velocity</span> data are beneficial to navigating planetary landing pods to the preselected site and achieving autonomous, safe soft-landing. The all-fiber coherent laser <span class="hlt">radar</span> has several important advantages over more conventional pulsed laser altimeters or range finders. One of the advantages of the coherent laser <span class="hlt">radar</span> is its ability to measure directly the platform <span class="hlt">velocity</span> by extracting the Doppler shift generated from the motion, as opposed to time of flight range finders where terrain features such as hills, cliffs, or slopes add error to the <span class="hlt">velocity</span> measurement. Doppler measurements are about two orders of magnitude more accurate than the <span class="hlt">velocity</span> estimates obtained by pulsed laser altimeters. In addition, most of the components of the device are efficient and reliable commercial off-the-shelf fiber optic telecommunication components. This paper discusses the design and performance of a second-generation brassboard system under development at NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance (ALHAT) project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01859.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01859.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Rhine River, France and Germany</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>This spaceborne <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> shows a segment of the Rhine River where it forms the border between the Alsace region of northeastern France on the left and the Black Forest region of Germany on the right.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760005139','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760005139"><span>The JPL <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> experiment in GATE: A preliminary report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Elachi, C.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The type of data that was taken with the JPL <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> during the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) mission is summarized. A representative sample of the data is given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA631101','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA631101"><span>Validation of the Electromagnetic Code FACETS for Numerical Simulation of <span class="hlt">Radar</span> Target <span class="hlt">Images</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">radar</span> cross - section (stealth) targets. <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> such as High Range Resolution profiles, and Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> / Inverse Synthetic Aperture...target is a precisely designed and machined engineering test target containing standard <span class="hlt">radar</span> reflector primitive shapes such as flat plates, dihedrals ...compute <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> of aircraft. The code was developed by Thales Defence Information Systems, UK. FACETS computes the <span class="hlt">radar</span> cross - section and SAR <span class="hlt">image</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA409751','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA409751"><span>A Robust Mine Detection Algorithm for Acoustic and <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Images</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-10-01</p> <p>Hough transforms as demonstrated on an NVL mine hunting SBIR and on SAR ground target detection. The fundamental detection technique will be...Williams, “IA-CHAMELEON: A SAR Wide Area <span class="hlt">Image</span> Analysis Aid,” Proc. ATRWG Workshop, Baltimore, MD, July 1996 The adaptive detection algorithm will...University, Mississippi 38677, September 15, 1998 Systems Incorporated (PSI) Ground Penetrating <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (GPR)9, and on synthetic aperture <span class="hlt">radar</span> ( SAR ) <span class="hlt">images</span></p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008451&hterms=Bomb&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DBomb','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008451&hterms=Bomb&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DBomb"><span>Beam Width Robustness of a 670 GHz <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cooper, K. B.; Llombart, N.; Dengler, R. J.; Siegel, P. H.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Detection of a replica bomb belt concealed on a mannequin at 4 m standoff range is achieved using a 670 GHz <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span>. At a somewhat larger standoff range of 4.6 m, the <span class="hlt">radar</span>'s beam width increases substantially, but the through-shirt <span class="hlt">image</span> quality remains good. This suggests that a relatively modest increase in aperture size over the current design will be sufficient to detect person-borne concealed weapons at ranges exceeding 25 meters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008451&hterms=weapon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dweapon','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008451&hterms=weapon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dweapon"><span>Beam Width Robustness of a 670 GHz <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cooper, K. B.; Llombart, N.; Dengler, R. J.; Siegel, P. H.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Detection of a replica bomb belt concealed on a mannequin at 4 m standoff range is achieved using a 670 GHz <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span>. At a somewhat larger standoff range of 4.6 m, the <span class="hlt">radar</span>'s beam width increases substantially, but the through-shirt <span class="hlt">image</span> quality remains good. This suggests that a relatively modest increase in aperture size over the current design will be sufficient to detect person-borne concealed weapons at ranges exceeding 25 meters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870001069','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870001069"><span>Determination of U, V, and W from single station Doppler <span class="hlt">radar</span> radial <span class="hlt">velocities</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clark, W. L.; Green, J. L.; Warnock, J. M.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The ST/MST (stratosphere troposphere/mesosphere stratosphere troposphere) clear air Doppler <span class="hlt">radar</span>, or wind profiler, is an important tool in observational meteorology because of its capability to remote observe dynamic parameters of the atmosphere. There are difficulties in transforming the observed radial <span class="hlt">velocities</span> into meteorological wind components. How this problem has been treated in the past is reviewed, and some of the analysis is recast to a form more suited to the high diagnostic abilities of a number of fixed beam configurations with reference to a linear wind field. The results, in conjunction with other works which treats problems such as the effects of finite sample volumes in the presence of nonhomogeneous atmospheric reflectivity, have implications important to the design of both individual MST/ST <span class="hlt">radars</span> and MST/ST <span class="hlt">radar</span> networks. The key parameters to uncoupling terms in the scaling equations are w sub x and w sub y. Whenever the stratiform condition, which states that these two parameters are negligible, is satisfied, a five beam ST <span class="hlt">radar</span> may determine unbiased values of u, v, and w for sample volumes directly above the <span class="hlt">radar</span>. The divergence and partial deformation of the flow may also be determined. Three beam systems can determine w and w sub z, but are unable to obtain u and v wind components uncontaminated by vertical sheer terms, even when the stratiform condition is satisfied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000EP%26S...52..137H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000EP%26S...52..137H"><span>Determination of turbulent energy dissipation rate directly from MF-<span class="hlt">radar</span> determined <span class="hlt">velocity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hall, C. M.; Nozawa, S.; Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.</p> <p>2000-02-01</p> <p>MF <span class="hlt">radar</span> systems are able to determine horizontal neutral winds in the mesosphere and, to some extent in the lower thermosphere by cross-correlations of signals received at spaced antennas. Essentially, by also computing auto-correlations, signal fading may be measured which in turn is thought to be largely attributable to turbulence. Hitherto, estimates of upper limits for the turbulent energy dissipation rate have been derived from the characteristic fading times. In this paper, we propose that power spectra of the <span class="hlt">velocity</span> components themselves may be used to yield estimates of turbulent energy dissipation rate. 2-minute resolution <span class="hlt">velocities</span> from the Universities of Saskatchewan, Tromsø and Nagoya joint MF <span class="hlt">radar</span> at 69°N, 19°E are used in a pilot analysis to illustrate and ratify the method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013aisi.conf..203Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013aisi.conf..203Y"><span><span class="hlt">Imaging</span> thermal ion mass and <span class="hlt">velocity</span> analyzer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yau, A. W.; King, E. P.; Amerl, P.; Berg, K.; Enno, G.; Howarth, A.; Wevers, I.; White, A.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>The aim of an <span class="hlt">imaging</span> thermal ion mass and <span class="hlt">velocity</span> analyzer is to apply <span class="hlt">imaging</span> techniques to measure in-situ the mass composition and detailed <span class="hlt">velocity</span> phase space distributions of a thermal plasma population in a planetary ionosphere or magnetosphere and use the measured distributions to derive the bulk plasma parameters and to detect the possible presence of non-thermal distributions. A hemispherical electrostatic analyzer (HEA) with a planar entrance aperture can sample simultaneously incident ions or electrons over an extended energy range and the full 360° range of incident azimuth, and disperse them by their energy-per-charge while retaining their incident azimuth, thus providing a means to <span class="hlt">image</span> the 2-dimensional (2D) ion or electron energy-per-charge and angular (azimuth) distribution. Therefore an ion mass and <span class="hlt">velocity</span> analyzer consisting of a HEA embedded with an ion-mass spectrometer is capable of <span class="hlt">imaging</span> the 2-D detailed ion <span class="hlt">velocity</span> distribution—and measuring the 3D distribution on a spinning spacecraft if the planar entrance aperture is aligned along the spacecraft spin axis. For 3D <span class="hlt">velocity</span> distribution measurements on a 3-axis stabilized spacecraft, an analyzer with electrostatic deflection capability will be required to deflect ions at arbitrary incident elevation angles into the planar entrance aperture for sampling. An <span class="hlt">imaging</span> thermal ion mass and <span class="hlt">velocity</span> analyzer is presented that combines a HEA, a time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer, and a pair of electrostatic deflectors, and is capable of sampling low-energy ions (˜1 to 100 eV/e) of all mass species (1 to > 40 AMU/e) from all incident directions on a non-spinning platform, at up to (10% energy resolution (ΔE/E) and ˜5° angular resolution. Using the HEA to measure the energy-percharge of each detected ion and the time-of-flight gate to measure the transit time of the ion inside the analyzer, this instrument can resolve all major ion species in the ionosphere including H+, He+ and O</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AMT.....7.1089L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AMT.....7.1089L"><span>Evaluation of gridded scanning ARM cloud <span class="hlt">radar</span> reflectivity observations and vertical doppler <span class="hlt">velocity</span> retrievals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lamer, K.; Tatarevic, A.; Jo, I.; Kollias, P.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The scanning Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) cloud <span class="hlt">radars</span> (SACRs) provide continuous atmospheric observations aspiring to capture the 3-D cloud-scale structure. Sampling clouds in 3-D is challenging due to their temporal-spatial scales, the need to sample the sky at high elevations and cloud <span class="hlt">radar</span> limitations. Thus, a suggested scan strategy is to repetitively slice the atmosphere from horizon to horizon as clouds advect over the <span class="hlt">radar</span> (Cross-Wind Range-Height Indicator - CW-RHI). Here, the processing and gridding of the SACR CW-RHI scans are presented. First, the SACR sample observations from the ARM Southern Great Plains and Cape Cod sites are post-processed (detection mask, gaseous attenuation correction, insect filtering and <span class="hlt">velocity</span> de-aliasing). The resulting radial Doppler moment fields are then mapped to Cartesian coordinates with time as one of the dimensions. Next the Cartesian-gridded Doppler <span class="hlt">velocity</span> fields are decomposed into the horizontal wind <span class="hlt">velocity</span> contribution and the vertical Doppler <span class="hlt">velocity</span> component. For validation purposes, all gridded and retrieved fields are compared to collocated zenith-pointing ARM cloud <span class="hlt">radar</span> measurements. We consider that the SACR sensitivity loss with range, the cloud type observed and the research purpose should be considered in determining the gridded domain size. Our results also demonstrate that the gridded SACR observations resolve the main features of low and high stratiform clouds. It is established that the CW-RHI observations complemented with processing techniques could lead to robust 3-D cloud dynamical representations up to 25-30 degrees off zenith. The proposed gridded products are expected to advance our understanding of 3-D cloud morphology, dynamics and anisotropy and lead to more realistic 3-D radiative transfer calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SPIE.3462...89B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SPIE.3462...89B"><span>FM-cw <span class="hlt">radar</span> for <span class="hlt">imaging</span> applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bjornholt, John E.; Wilson, Terry B.</p> <p>1998-10-01</p> <p>FM-CW <span class="hlt">radars</span> operating in the millimeter wave or upper microwave bands can provide low cost, low power solutions for many applications requiring the resolution of targets separated by one meter or less in range. Range resolution of this quality is obtained by sweeping the <span class="hlt">radar</span> output frequency over several hundred megahertz of bandwidth using modern techniques to achieve extremely good linearity. Because of the short wavelengths at millimeter bands, relatively good angular resolution is achievable with moderately sized antennas. Applications for FM-CW <span class="hlt">radar</span> sensors include automotive collision warning systems, traffic monitoring, height profiling, terrain profiling, autonomous vehicle navigation, surveillance and site security systems where high resolution is required.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TCD.....9.4067A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TCD.....9.4067A"><span>Observations of seasonal and diurnal glacier <span class="hlt">velocities</span> at Mount Rainier, Washington using terrestrial <span class="hlt">radar</span> interferometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allstadt, K. E.; Shean, D. E.; Campbell, A.; Fahnestock, M.; Malone, S. D.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>We present spatially continuous <span class="hlt">velocity</span> maps using repeat terrestrial <span class="hlt">radar</span> interferometry (TRI) measurements to examine seasonal and diurnal dynamics of alpine glaciers at Mount Rainier, Washington. We show that the Nisqually and Emmons glaciers have small slope-parallel <span class="hlt">velocities</span> near the summit (< 0.2 m day-1), high <span class="hlt">velocities</span> over their upper and central regions (1.0-1.5 m day-1), and stagnant debris-covered regions near the terminus (< 0.05 m day-1). <span class="hlt">Velocity</span> uncertainties are as low as ±0.02-0.08 m day-1. We document a large seasonal <span class="hlt">velocity</span> decrease of 0.2-0.7 m day-1 (-25 to -50 %) from July to November for most of the Nisqually glacier, excluding the icefall, suggesting significant seasonal subglacial water storage under most of the glacier. We did not detect diurnal variability above the noise level. Preliminary 2-D ice flow modeling using TRI <span class="hlt">velocities</span> suggests that sliding accounts for roughly 91 and 99 % of the July <span class="hlt">velocity</span> field for the Emmons and Nisqually glaciers, respectively. We validate our observations against recent in situ <span class="hlt">velocity</span> measurements and examine the long-term evolution of Nisqually glacier dynamics through comparisons with historical <span class="hlt">velocity</span> data. This study shows that repeat TRI measurements with > 10 km range can be used to investigate spatial and temporal variability of alpine glacier dynamics over large areas, including hazardous and inaccessible areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT.........2I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT.........2I"><span>Improving tomographic estimates of subsurface electromagnetic wave <span class="hlt">velocity</span> obtained from ground-penetrating <span class="hlt">radar</span> data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Irving, James D.</p> <p></p> <p>Crosshole ground-penetrating <span class="hlt">radar</span> (GPR) travel-time tomography is a popular geophysical technique for characterization of the shallow subsurface in environmental applications. With this technique, a critical factor determining the resolution of the <span class="hlt">velocity</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> obtained is the angular ray coverage of the subsurface region between the boreholes; when travel-time data representing a narrow range of ray angles are used for the tomography reconstruction, the resulting <span class="hlt">images</span> contain undesirable directional smearing. Here, I investigate the problem that, even when the crosshole GPR survey geometry offers the potential for high-resolution <span class="hlt">imaging</span> due to wide angular ray coverage of the inter-borehole region, two significant issues are commonly encountered when attempting to take advantage of this coverage. First, travel times corresponding to high-angle ray paths are often extremely difficult to pick because of low signal-to-noise ratios in the data. Secondly, even when high-angle travel-time data can be reliably determined, they often appear to be incompatible with the lower-angle data available, and tend to cause strong numerical artifacts when included in inversions. To address the high-angle picking problem noted above, I develop a method for determining first-break times in crosshole GPR data using cross-correlations. High-quality reference waveforms for this technique are obtained from the data through the stacking of common-ray-angle gathers. To address the incompatibility issue with high-angle data, I first develop finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical modeling codes that allow for the determination of realistic crosshole GPR antenna current distributions, and the modeling of transmitted and received waveforms in heterogeneous media. Using these codes, I then find that the high-angle incompatibility issue is likely the result of assuming that first-arriving energy always travels directly between the antenna centers; at high transmitter</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01787.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01787.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of West Texas - SAR Scan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-04-15</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> of the Midland/Odessa region of West Texas, demonstrates an experimental technique, called ScanSAR, that allows scientists to rapidly <span class="hlt">image</span> large areas of the Earth's surface. The large <span class="hlt">image</span> covers an area 245 kilometers by 225 kilometers (152 miles by 139 miles). It was obtained by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 5, 1994. The smaller inset <span class="hlt">image</span> is a standard SIR-C <span class="hlt">image</span> showing a portion of the same area, 100 kilometers by 57 kilometers (62 miles by 35 miles) and was taken during the first flight of SIR-C on April 14, 1994. The bright spots on the right side of the <span class="hlt">image</span> are the cities of Odessa (left) and Midland (right), Texas. The Pecos River runs from the top center to the bottom center of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. Along the left side of the <span class="hlt">image</span> are, from top to bottom, parts of the Guadalupe, Davis and Santiago Mountains. North is toward the upper right. Unlike conventional <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span>, in which a <span class="hlt">radar</span> continuously illuminates a single ground swath as the space shuttle passes over the terrain, a Scansar <span class="hlt">radar</span> illuminates several adjacent ground swaths almost simultaneously, by "scanning" the <span class="hlt">radar</span> beam across a large area in a rapid sequence. The adjacent swaths, typically about 50 km (31 miles) wide, are then merged during ground processing to produce a single large scene. Illumination for this L-band scene is from the top of the <span class="hlt">image</span>. The beams were scanned from the top of the scene to the bottom, as the shuttle flew from left to right. This scene was acquired in about 30 seconds. A normal SIR-C <span class="hlt">image</span> is acquired in about 13 seconds. The ScanSAR mode will likely be used on future <span class="hlt">radar</span> sensors to construct regional and possibly global <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> and topographic maps. The ScanSAR processor is being designed for 1996 implementation at NASA's Alaska SAR Facility, located at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and will produce digital <span class="hlt">images</span> from the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01757.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01757.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Long Valley, California - 3-D view</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Long Valley, California by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> on board the space shuttle Endeavour. This view was constructed by overlaying a color composite SIR-C <span class="hlt">image</span> on a digital elevation map. The digital elevation map was produced using <span class="hlt">radar</span> interferometry, a process by which <span class="hlt">radar</span> data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle and, which then, are compared to obtain elevation information. The data were acquired on April 13, 1994 and on October 3, 1994, during the first and second flights of the SIR-C/X-SAR <span class="hlt">radar</span> instrument. The color composite <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> was produced by assigning red to the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) polarization; green to the C-band (vertically transmitted and received) polarization; and blue to the ratio of the two data sets. Blue areas in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are smooth and yellow areas are rock outcrops with varying amounts of snow and vegetation. The view is looking north along the northeastern edge of the Long Valley caldera, a volcanic collapse feature created 750,000 years ago and the site of continued subsurface activity. Crowley Lake is off the <span class="hlt">image</span> to the left. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01757</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01769.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA01769.html"><span>Space <span class="hlt">Radar</span> <span class="hlt">Image</span> of Long Valley, California in 3-D</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>This three-dimensional perspective view of Long Valley, California was created from data taken by the Spaceborne <span class="hlt">Imaging</span> <span class="hlt">Radar</span>-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture <span class="hlt">Radar</span> on board the space shuttle Endeavour. This <span class="hlt">image</span> was constructed by overlaying a color composite SIR-C <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> on a digital elevation map. The digital elevation map was produced using <span class="hlt">radar</span> interferometry, a process by which <span class="hlt">radar</span> data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. The interferometry data were acquired on April 13,1994 and on October 3, 1994, during the first and second flights of the SIR-C/X-SAR instrument. The color composite <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">image</span> was taken in October and was produced by assigning red to the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) polarization; green to the C-band (vertically transmitted and received) polarization; and blue to the ratio of the two data sets. Blue areas in the <span class="hlt">image</span> are smooth and yellow areas are rock outcrops with varying amounts of snow and vegetation. The view is looking north along the northeastern edge of the Long Valley caldera, a volcanic collapse feature created 750,000 years ago and the site of continued subsurface activity. Crowley Lake is the large dark feature in the foreground. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01769</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750049809&hterms=microwave+imaging&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmicrowave%2Bimaging','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750049809&hterms=microwave+imaging&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmicrowave%2Bimaging"><span>Multispectral microwave <span class="hlt">imaging</span> <span class="hlt">radar</span> for remote sensing applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Larson, R. W.; Rawson, R.; Ausherman, D.; Bryan, L.; Porcello, L.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>A multispectral airborne microwave <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">imaging</span> system, capable of obtaining four <span class="hlt">images</span> simultaneously is described. The system has been successfully demonstrated in several experiments and one example of results obtained, fresh water ice, is given. Consideration of the digitization of the imagery is given and an <span class="hlt">image</span> digitizing system described briefly. Preliminary results of digitization experiments are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810037281&hterms=adaptive+filter&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dadaptive%2Bfilter','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810037281&hterms=adaptive+filter&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dadaptive%2Bfilter"><span>An adaptive filter for smoothing noisy <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Frost, V. S.; Stiles, J. A.; Shanmugam, K. S.; Holtzman, J. C.; Smith, S. A.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>A spatial domain adaptive Wiener filter for smoothing <span class="hlt">radar</span> <span class="hlt">images</span> corrupted by multiplicative noise is presented. The filter is optimum in a minimum mean squared error sense, computationally efficient, and preserves edges in the <span class="hlt">image</span> better than other filters. The proposed algorithm can also be used for processing optical <span class="hlt">images</span> with illumination variations that have a multiplicative effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24815619','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24815619"><span>Passive synthetic aperture hitchhiker <span class="hlt">imaging</span> of ground moving targets--Part 1: <span class="hlt">image</span> formation and <span class="hlt">velocity</span> estimation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wacks, Steven; Yazici, Birsen</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>In the Part 1 of this two-part study, we present a method of <span class="hlt">imaging</span> and <span class="hlt">velocity</span> estimation of ground moving targets using passive synthetic aperture <span class="hlt">radar</span>. Such a system uses a network of small, mobile receivers that collect scattered waves due to transmitters of opportunity, such as commercial television, radio, and cell phone towers. Therefore, passive <span