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Sample records for radial nerve cord

  1. The First Experience of Triple Nerve Transfer in Proximal Radial Nerve Palsy.

    PubMed

    Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Andalib, Sasan

    2018-01-01

    Injury to distal portion of posterior cord of brachial plexus leads to palsy of radial and axillary nerves. Symptoms are usually motor deficits of the deltoid muscle; triceps brachii muscle; and extensor muscles of the wrist, thumb, and fingers. Tendon transfers, nerve grafts, and nerve transfers are options for surgical treatment of proximal radial nerve palsy to restore some motor functions. Tendon transfer is painful, requires a long immobilization, and decreases donor muscle strength; nevertheless, nerve transfer produces promising outcomes. We present a patient with proximal radial nerve palsy following a blunt injury undergoing triple nerve transfer. The patient was involved in a motorcycle accident with complete palsy of the radial and axillary nerves. After 6 months, on admission, he showed spontaneous recovery of axillary nerve palsy, but radial nerve palsy remained. We performed triple nerve transfer, fascicle of ulnar nerve to long head of the triceps branch of radial nerve, flexor digitorum superficialis branch of median nerve to extensor carpi radialis brevis branch of radial nerve, and flexor carpi radialis branch of median nerve to posterior interosseous nerve, for restoration of elbow, wrist, and finger extensions, respectively. Our experience confirmed functional elbow, wrist, and finger extensions in the patient. Triple nerve transfer restores functions of the upper limb in patients with debilitating radial nerve palsy after blunt injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Radial nerve palsy

    PubMed Central

    Bumbasirevic, Marko; Palibrk, Tomislav; Lesic, Aleksandar; Atkinson, Henry DE

    2016-01-01

    As a result of its proximity to the humeral shaft, as well as its long and tortuous course, the radial nerve is the most frequently injured major nerve in the upper limb, with its close proximity to the bone making it vulnerable when fractures occur. Injury is most frequently sustained during humeral fracture and gunshot injuries, but iatrogenic injuries are not unusual following surgical treatment of various other pathologies. Treatment is usually non-operative, but surgery is sometimes necessary, using a variety of often imaginative procedures. Because radial nerve injuries are the least debilitating of the upper limb nerve injuries, results are usually satisfactory. Conservative treatment certainly has a role, and one of the most important aspects of this treatment is to maintain a full passive range of motion in all the affected joints. Surgical treatment is indicated in cases when nerve transection is obvious, as in open injuries or when there is no clinical improvement after a period of conservative treatment. Different techniques are used including direct suture or nerve grafting, vascularised nerve grafts, direct nerve transfer, tendon transfer, functional muscle transfer or the promising, newer treatment of biological therapy. Cite this article: Bumbasirevic M, Palibrk T, Lesic A, Atkinson HDE. Radial nerve palsy. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:286-294. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000028. PMID:28461960

  3. Interlimb Reflexes Induced by Electrical Stimulation of Cutaneous Nerves after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Jane E.; Godfrey, Sharlene; Thomas, Christine K.

    2016-01-01

    Whether interlimb reflexes emerge only after a severe insult to the human spinal cord is controversial. Here the aim was to examine interlimb reflexes at rest in participants with chronic (>1 year) spinal cord injury (SCI, n = 17) and able-bodied control participants (n = 5). Cutaneous reflexes were evoked by delivering up to 30 trains of stimuli to either the superficial peroneal nerve on the dorsum of the foot or the radial nerve at the wrist (5 pulses, 300 Hz, approximately every 30 s). Participants were instructed to relax the test muscles prior to the delivery of the stimuli. Electromyographic activity was recorded bilaterally in proximal and distal arm and leg muscles. Superficial peroneal nerve stimulation evoked interlimb reflexes in ipsilateral and contralateral arm and contralateral leg muscles of SCI and control participants. Radial nerve stimulation evoked interlimb reflexes in the ipsilateral leg and contralateral arm muscles of control and SCI participants but only contralateral leg muscles of control participants. Interlimb reflexes evoked by superficial peroneal nerve stimulation were longer in latency and duration, and larger in magnitude in SCI participants. Interlimb reflex properties were similar for both SCI and control groups for radial nerve stimulation. Ascending interlimb reflexes tended to occur with a higher incidence in participants with SCI, while descending interlimb reflexes occurred with a higher incidence in able-bodied participants. However, the overall incidence of interlimb reflexes in SCI and neurologically intact participants was similar which suggests that the neural circuitry underlying these reflexes does not necessarily develop after central nervous system injury. PMID:27049521

  4. Radial nerve dysfunction (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The radial nerve travels down the arm and supplies movement to the triceps muscle at the back of the upper arm. ... the wrist and hand. The usual causes of nerve dysfunction are direct trauma, prolonged pressure on the ...

  5. Acute closed radial nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Tuncel, Umut; Turan, Aydin; Kostakoglu, Naci

    2011-01-01

    We present a 45-year-old patient who had acute radial nerve palsy following a blunt trauma without any fracture or dislocation. He was injured by strucking in a combat three months ago. The patient has been followed by application of a long-arm plaster cast before referred to our clinic. Preoperative electromyoneurography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicated that there was a radial nerve injury on humeral groove. The British Medical Research Council (MRC) grade was 2/5 on his wrist preoperatively. The patient underwent an operation under general anesthesia. It was seen to be a second-degree nerve injury. The patient has subsequently regained full movement on his wrist and finger extension in six months. We suggest that a detailed clinical and electrodiagnostical evaluation is necessary in patients who have radial nerve injury when deciding the treatment, conservative or surgical. PMID:22347334

  6. Spinal cord projections of the rat main forelimb nerves, studied by transganglionic transport of WGA-HRP and by the disappearance of acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Castro-Lopes, J M; Coimbra, A

    1991-03-01

    The spinal cord projections of the 3 main forelimb nerves-median, radial and ulnar, were studied in the rat dorsal horn with transganglionic transport of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP), or using the disappearance of fluoride resistant acid phosphatase (FRAP) after nerve section. The projection patterns in lamina II were similar following the two procedures. The median and the radial nerve fibers projected to the medial and the intermediate thirds, respectively, of the dorsal horn lamina II in spinal cord segments C4-C8. The ulnar nerve projected to segments C6-C8 between the areas occupied by the other two nerves. The FRAP method also showed that the lateral part of lamina II, which was not filled by radial nerve fibers, received the projections from the dorsal cutaneous branches of cervical spinal nerves. In addition, FRAP disappeared from the medial end of segment T1 after skin incisions extending from the medial brachium to the axilla, which seemed due to severance of the cutaneous branchlets of the lateral anterior thoracic nerve. The FRAP procedure is thus sensitive enough to detect fibers in lamina II arising from small peripheral nerves, and may be used as an alternative to the anterograde tracing methods whenever there are no overlapping projections.

  7. Anterior transposition of the radial nerve--a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Yakkanti, Madhusudhan R; Roberts, Craig S; Murphy, Joshua; Acland, Robert D

    2008-01-01

    The radial nerve is at risk during the posterior plating of the humerus. The purpose of this anatomic study was to assess the extent of radial nerve dissection required for anterior transposition through the fracture site (transfracture anterior transposition). A cadaver study was conducted approaching the humerus by a posterior midline incision. The extent of dissection of the nerve necessary for plate fixation of the humerus fracture was measured. An osteotomy was created to model a humeral shaft fracture at the spiral groove (OTA classification 12-A2, 12-A3). The radial nerve was then transposed anterior to the humeral shaft through the fracture site. The additional dissection of the radial nerve and the extent of release of soft tissue from the humerus shaft to achieve the transposition were measured. Plating required a dissection of the radial nerve 1.78 cm proximal and 2.13 cm distal to the spiral groove. Transfracture anterior transposition of the radial nerve required an average dissection of 2.24 cm proximal and 2.68 cm distal to the spiral groove. The lateral intermuscular septum had to be released for 2.21 cm on the distal fragment to maintain laxity of the transposed nerve. Transfracture anterior transposition of the radial nerve before plating is feasible with dissection proximal and distal to the spiral groove and elevation of the lateral intermuscular septum. Potential clinical advantages of this technique include enhanced fracture site visualization, application of broader plates, and protection of the radial nerve during the internal fixation.

  8. Right-sided vagus nerve stimulation inhibits induced spinal cord seizures.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, R Shane; Salter, E George; Killingsworth, Cheryl; Rollins, Dennis L; Smith, William M; Ideker, Raymond E; Wellons, John C; Blount, Jeffrey P; Oakes, W Jerry

    2007-01-01

    We have previously shown that left-sided vagus nerve stimulation results in cessation of induced spinal cord seizures. To test our hypothesis that right-sided vagus nerve stimulation will also abort seizure activity, we have initiated seizures in the spinal cord and then performed right-sided vagus nerve stimulation in an animal model. Four pigs were anesthetized and placed in the lateral position and a small laminectomy performed in the lumbar region. Topical penicillin, a known epileptogenic drug to the cerebral cortex and spinal cord, was next applied to the dorsal surface of the exposed cord. With the exception of the control animal, once seizure activity was discernible via motor convulsion or increased electrical activity, the right vagus nerve previously isolated in the neck was stimulated. Following multiple stimulations of the vagus nerve and with seizure activity confirmed, the cord was transected in the midthoracic region and vagus nerve stimulation performed. Right-sided vagus nerve stimulation resulted in cessation of spinal cord seizure activity in all animals. Transection of the spinal cord superior to the site of seizure induction resulted in the ineffectiveness of vagus nerve stimulation in causing cessation of seizure activity in all study animals. As with left-sided vagus nerve stimulation, right-sided vagus nerve stimulation results in cessation of induced spinal cord seizures. Additionally, the effects of right-sided vagus nerve stimulation on induced spinal cord seizures involve descending spinal pathways. These data may aid in the development of alternative mechanisms for electrical stimulation for patients with medically intractable seizures and add to our knowledge regarding the mechanism for seizure cessation following peripheral nerve stimulation.

  9. Clinical Outcomes following median to radial nerve transfers

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Wilson Z.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose In this study the authors evaluate the clinical outcomes in patients with radial nerve palsy who underwent nerve transfers utilizing redundant fascicles of median nerve (innervating the flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor carpi radialis muscles) to the posterior interosseous nerve and the nerve to the extensor carpi radialis brevis. Methods A retrospective review of the clinical records of 19 patients with radial nerve injuries who underwent nerve transfer procedures using the median nerve as a donor nerve were included. All patients were evaluated using the Medical Research Council (MRC) grading system. Results The mean age of patients was 41 years (range 17 – 78 years). All patients received at least 12 months of follow-up (20.3 ± 5.8 months). Surgery was performed at a mean of 5.7 ± 1.9 months post-injury. Post-operative functional evaluation was graded according to the following scale: grades MRC 0/5 - MRC 2/5 were considered poor outcomes, while MRC of 3/5 was a fair result, MRC grade 4/5 was a good result, and grade 4+/5 was considered an excellent outcome. Seventeen patients (89%) had a complete radial nerve palsy while two patients (11%) had intact wrist extension but no finger or thumb extension. Post-operatively all patients except one had good to excellent recovery of wrist extension. Twelve patients recovered good to excellent finger and thumb extension, two patients had fair recovery, five patients had a poor recovery. Conclusions The radial nerve is a commonly injured nerve, causing significant morbidity in affected patients. The median nerve provides a reliable source of donor nerve fascicles for radial nerve reinnervation. This transfer was first performed in 1999 and evolved over the subsequent decade. The important nuances of both surgical technique and motor re-education critical for to the success of this transfer have been identified and are discussed. PMID:21168979

  10. Vocal cord collapse during phrenic nerve-paced respiration in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Domanski, Mark C; Preciado, Diego A

    2012-01-01

    Phrenic nerve pacing can be used to treat congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS). We report how the lack of normal vocal cord tone during phrenic paced respiration can result in passive vocal cord collapse and produce obstructive symptoms. We describe a case of passive vocal cord collapse during phrenic nerve paced respiration in a patient with CCHS. As far as we know, this is the first report of this etiology of airway obstruction. The patient, a 7-year-old with CCHS and normal waking vocal cord movement, continued to require nightly continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) despite successful utilization of phrenic nerve pacers. On direct laryngoscopy, the patient's larynx was observed while the diaphragmatic pacers were sequentially engaged. No abnormal vocal cord stimulation was witnessed during engaging of either phrenic nerve stimulator. However, the lack of normal inspiratory vocal cord abduction during phrenic nerve-paced respiration resulted in vocal cord collapse and partial obstruction due to passive adduction of the vocal cords through the Bernoulli effect. Bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation resulted in more vocal cord collapse than unilateral stimulation. The lack of vocal cord abduction on inspiration presents a limit to phrenic nerve pacers.

  11. Interactive modeling and simulation of peripheral nerve cords in virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, Sebastian; Frommen, Thorsten; Eckert, Jan; Schütz, Astrid; Liao, Wei; Deserno, Thomas M.; Ntouba, Alexandre; Rossaint, Rolf; Prescher, Andreas; Kuhlen, Torsten

    2008-03-01

    This paper contributes to modeling, simulation and visualization of peripheral nerve cords. Until now, only sparse datasets of nerve cords can be found. In addition, this data has not yet been used in simulators, because it is only static. To build up a more flexible anatomical structure of peripheral nerve cords, we propose a hierarchical tree data structure where each node represents a nerve branch. The shape of the nerve segments itself is approximated by spline curves. Interactive modeling allows for the creation and editing of control points which are used for branching nerve sections, calculating spline curves and editing spline representations via cross sections. Furthermore, the control points can be attached to different anatomic structures. Through this approach, nerve cords deform in accordance to the movement of the connected structures, e.g., muscles or bones. As a result, we have developed an intuitive modeling system that runs on desktop computers and in immersive environments. It allows anatomical experts to create movable peripheral nerve cords for articulated virtual humanoids. Direct feedback of changes induced by movement or deformation is achieved by visualization in real-time. The techniques and the resulting data are already used for medical simulators.

  12. Radial nerve palsy in mid/distal humeral fractures: is early exploration effective?

    PubMed

    Keighley, Geffrey; Hermans, Deborah; Lawton, Vidya; Duckworth, David

    2018-03-01

    Radial nerve palsies are a common complication with displaced distal humeral fractures. This case series examines the outcomes of early operative exploration and decompression of the nerve with fracture fixation with the view that this provides a solid construct for optimisation of nerve recovery. A total of 10 consecutive patients with a displaced distal humeral fracture and an acute radial nerve palsy were treated by the senior author by open reduction and internal fixation of the distal humerus and exploration and decompression of the radial nerve. Motor function and sensation of the radial nerve was assessed in the post-operative period every 2 months or until full recovery of the radial nerve function had occurred. All patients (100%) had recovery of motor and sensation function of their upper limb in the radial nerve distribution over a 12-month period. Recovery times ranged between 4 and 32 weeks, with the median time to recovery occurring at 26 weeks and the average time to full recovery being 22.9 weeks. Wrist extension recovered by an average of 3 months (range 2-26 weeks) and then finger extension started to recover 2-6 weeks after this. Disability of the arm, shoulder and hand scores ranged from 0 to 11.8 at greater than 1 year post-operatively. Our study demonstrated that early operative exploration of the radial nerve when performing an open stabilization of displaced distal humeral fractures resulted in a 100% recovery of the radial nerve. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  13. Spontaneous radial nerve palsy subsequent to non-traumatic neuroma.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimpour, Adel; Nazerani, Shahram; Tavakoli Darestani, Reza; Khani, Salim

    2013-09-01

    Spontaneous radial palsy is a not rare finding in hand clinics. The anatomy of the radial nerve renders it prone to pressure paralysis as often called "Saturday night palsy". This problem is a transient nerve lesion and an acute one but the case presented here is very unusual in that it seems this entity can also occur as an acute on chronic situation with neuroma formation. A 61 year-old man presented with the chief complaint of inability to extend the wrist and the fingers of the left hand which began suddenly the night before admission, following a three-week history of pain, numbness and tingling sensation of the affected extremity. He had no history of trauma to the extremity. Electromyography revealed a severe conductive defect of the left radial nerve with significant axonal loss at the upper arm. Surgical exploration identified a neuroma of the radial nerve measuring 1.5 cm in length as the cause of the paralysis. The neuroma was removed and an end-to-end nerve coaption was performed. Complete recovery of the hand and finger extension was achieved in nine months.

  14. Interfacing peripheral nerve with macro-sieve electrodes following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Birenbaum, Nathan K; MacEwan, Matthew R; Ray, Wilson Z

    2017-06-01

    Macro-sieve electrodes were implanted in the sciatic nerve of five adult male Lewis rats following spinal cord injury to assess the ability of the macro-sieve electrode to interface regenerated peripheral nerve fibers post-spinal cord injury. Each spinal cord injury was performed via right lateral hemisection of the cord at the T 9-10 site. Five months post-implantation, the ability of the macro-sieve electrode to interface the regenerated nerve was assessed by stimulating through the macro-sieve electrode and recording both electromyography signals and evoked muscle force from distal musculature. Electromyography measurements were recorded from the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles, while evoked muscle force measurements were recorded from the tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, and gastrocnemius muscles. The macro-sieve electrode and regenerated sciatic nerve were then explanted for histological evaluation. Successful sciatic nerve regeneration across the macro-sieve electrode interface following spinal cord injury was seen in all five animals. Recorded electromyography signals and muscle force recordings obtained through macro-sieve electrode stimulation confirm the ability of the macro-sieve electrode to successfully recruit distal musculature in this injury model. Taken together, these results demonstrate the macro-sieve electrode as a viable interface for peripheral nerve stimulation in the context of spinal cord injury.

  15. Topographical anatomy of the radial nerve and its muscular branches related to surface landmarks.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyejin; Lee, Hye-Yeon; Gil, Young-Chun; Choi, Yun-Rak; Yang, Hee-Jun

    2013-10-01

    Understanding of the anatomy of the radial nerve and its branches is vital to the treatment of humeral fracture or the restoration of upper extremity function. In this study, we dissected 40 upper extremities from adult cadavers to locate the course of the radial nerve and the origins and insertions of the branches of the radial nerve using surface landmarks. The radial nerve reached and left the radial groove and pierced the lateral intermuscular septum, at the levels of 46.7, 60.5, and 66.8% from the acromion to the transepicondylar line, respectively. Branches to the long head of the triceps brachii originated in the axilla, and branches to the medial and lateral heads originated in the axilla or in the arm. The muscular attachments to the long, medial, and lateral heads were on average 34.0 mm proximal, 16.4 mm distal, and 19.3 mm proximal to the level of inferior end of the deltoid muscle, respectively. The radial nerve innervated 65.0% of the brachialis muscles. Branches to the brachioradialis and those to the extensor carpi radialis longus arose from the radial nerve above the transepicondylar line. Branches to the extensor carpi radialis brevis usually arose from the deep branch of radial nerve (67.5%); however, in some cases, branches to the extensor carpi radialis brevis arose from either the radial nerve (20.0%) or the superficial branch of the radial nerve (12.5%). Using these data, the course of the radial nerve can be estimated by observing the surface of the arm. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Customized dynamic splinting: orthoses that promote optimal function and recovery after radial nerve injury: a case report.

    PubMed

    McKee, Pat; Nguyen, Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    Radial nerve injury is a relatively common occurrence and recovery depends on the level of injury and extent of connective tissue damage. Orthoses (splints) are often provided to compensate for lost motor power. This article chronicles the recovery, over 27 months, of a 76-year-old woman who sustained a high radial nerve injury of her dominant arm during surgery for total shoulder replacement (Delta Reverse). Customized, low-profile dynamic splints, unlike any previously published design, were developed to address her goals for functional independence and the biological needs of the tissues. Dynamic power was provided to the wrist, fingers, and thumb by elastic cords and thin, flexible thermoplastic, without the need of an outrigger, thus avoiding the need for wire bending and cutting. At the outset, the splint was forearm-based and when wrist extension power was recovered, a hand-based splint was designed. Eventually, a circumferential hand-based thumb-stabilizing splint fulfilled most of the remaining orthotic requirements.

  17. Electrophysiological examination and high frequency ultrasonography for diagnosis of radial nerve torsion and compression

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Miao; Qi, Hengtao; Ding, Hongyu; Chen, Feng; Xin, Zhaoqin; Zhao, Qinghua; Guan, Shibing; Shi, Hao

    2018-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to evaluate the value of electrophysiological examination and high frequency ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis of radial nerve torsion and radial nerve compression. Patients with radial nerve torsion (n = 14) and radial nerve compression (n = 14) were enrolled. The results of neurophysiological and high frequency ultrasonography were compared. Electrophysiological examination and high-frequency ultrasonography had a high diagnostic rate for both diseases with consistent results. Of the 28 patients, 23 were positive for electrophysiological examination, showing decreased amplitude and decreased conduction velocity of radial nerve; however, electrophysiological examination cannot distinguish torsion from compression. A total of 27 cases showed positive in ultrasound examinations among all 28 cases. On ultrasound images, the nerve was thinned at torsion site whereas thickened at the distal ends of torsion. The diameter and cross-sectional area of torsion or compression determined the nerve damage, and ultrasound could locate the nerve injury site and measure the length of the nerve. Electrophysiological examination and high-frequency ultrasonography can diagnose radial neuropathy, with electrophysiological examination reflecting the neurological function, and high-frequency ultrasound differentiating nerve torsion from compression. PMID:29480857

  18. Review of literature of radial nerve injuries associated with humeral fractures-an integrated management strategy.

    PubMed

    Li, YuLin; Ning, GuangZhi; Wu, Qiang; Wu, QiuLi; Li, Yan; Feng, ShiQing

    2013-01-01

    Radial nerve palsy associated with fractures of the shaft of the humerus is the most common nerve lesion complicating fractures of long bones. However, the management of radial nerve injuries associated with humeral fractures is debatable. There was no consensus between observation and early exploration. The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Google Scholar, CINAHL, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, and Social Sciences Citation Index were searched. Two authors independently searched for relevant studies in any language from 1966 to Jan 2013. Thirty studies with 2952 humeral fractures participants were identified. Thirteen studies favored conservative strategy. No significant difference between early exploration and no exploration groups (OR, 1.03, 95% CI 0.61, 1.72; I(2) = 0.0%, p = 0.918 n.s.). Three studies recommend early radial nerve exploration in patients with open fractures of humerus with radial nerve injury. Five studies proposed early exploration was performed in high-energy humeral shaft fractures with radial nerve injury. The conservative strategy was a good choice for patients with low-energy closed fractures of humerus with radial nerve injury. We recommend early radial nerve exploration (within the first 2 weeks) in patients with open fractures or high-energy closed fractures of humerus with radial nerve injury.

  19. Patterns of motor activity in the isolated nerve cord of the octopus arm.

    PubMed

    Gutfreund, Yoram; Matzner, Henry; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2006-12-01

    The extremely flexible octopus arm provides a unique opportunity for studying movement control in a highly redundant motor system. We describe a novel preparation that allows analysis of the peripheral nervous system of the octopus arm and its interaction with the muscular and mechanosensory elements of the arm's intrinsic muscular system. First we examined the synaptic responses in muscle fibers to identify the motor pathways from the axial nerve cord of the arm to the surrounding musculature. We show that the motor axons project to the muscles via nerve roots originating laterally from the arm nerve cord. The motor field of each nerve is limited to the region where the nerve enters the arm musculature. The same roots also carry afferent mechanosensory information from the intrinsic muscle to the axial nerve cord. Next, we characterized the pattern of activity generated in the dorsal roots by electrically stimulating the axial nerve cord. The evoked activity, although far reaching and long lasting, cannot alone account for the arm extension movements generated by similar electrical stimulation. The mismatch between patterns of activity in the isolated cord and in an intact arm may stem from the involvement of mechanosensory feedback in natural arm extension.

  20. Surgical anatomy of the radial nerve at the elbow.

    PubMed

    Artico, M; Telera, S; Tiengo, C; Stecco, C; Macchi, V; Porzionato, A; Vigato, E; Parenti, A; De Caro, R

    2009-02-01

    An anatomical study of the brachial portion of the radial nerve with surgical implications is proposed. Thirty specimens of arm from 20 fresh cadavers (11 male, 9 female) were used to examine the topographical relations of the radial nerve with reference to the following anatomical landmarks: acromion angle, medial and lateral epicondyles, point of division between the lateral and long heads of the triceps brachii, lateral intermuscular septum, site of division of the radial nerve into its superficial and posterior interosseous branches and entry and exit point of the posterior interosseous branch into the supinator muscle. The mean distances between the acromion angle and the medial and lateral levels of crossing the posterior aspect of the humerus were 109 (+/-11) and 157 (+/-11) mm, respectively. The mean length and calibre of the nerve in the groove were 59 (+/-4) and 6 (+/-1) mm, respectively. The division of the lateral and long heads of the triceps was found at a mean distance of 126 (+/-13) mm from the acromion angle. The mean distances between the lateral point of crossing the posterior aspect of the humerus and the medial and lateral epicondyles were 125 (+/-13) and 121 (+/-13) mm, respectively. The mean distance between the lateral point of crossing the posterior aspect of the humerus and the entry point in the lateral intermuscular septum (LIS) was 29 (+/-6) mm. The mean distances between the entry point of the nerve in the LIS and the medial and lateral epicondyles were 133 (+/-14) and 110 (+/-23) mm, respectively. Our study provides reliable and objective data of surgical anatomy of the radial nerve which should be always kept in mind by surgeons approaching to the surgery of the arm, in order to avoid iatrogenic injuries.

  1. Interfascicular suture with nerve autografts for median, ulnar and radial nerve lesions.

    PubMed

    Pluchino, F; Luccarelli, G

    1981-05-01

    Interfascicular nerve suture with autografts is the operation of choice for repairing peripheral nerve injuries because it ensures more precise alignment of the fasciculi and so better chances of reinnervation of the sectioned nerve. The procedure as described by Millesi et al has been used at the Istituto Neurologico di Milano in 30 patients with traumatic lesions of the median, ulnar and radial nerves. All have been followed up for 2 to 7 years since operation. The results obtained are compared with those of other series obtained with interfascicular suture and with epineural suture. Microsurgery is essential. The best time to operate is discussed.

  2. Regulation of dorso‐ventral polarity by the nerve cord during annelid regeneration: A review of experimental evidence

    PubMed Central

    Boilly‐Marer, Yolande; Bely, Alexandra E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract An important goal for understanding regeneration is determining how polarity is conferred to the regenerate. Here we review findings in two groups of polychaete annelids that implicate the ventral nerve cord in assigning dorso‐ventral polarity, and specifically ventral identity, to the regenerate. In nereids, surgical manipulations indicate that parapodia develop where dorsal and ventral body wall territories contact. Without a nerve cord at the wound site, the regenerate differentiates no evident polarity (with no parapodia) and only dorsal identity, while with two nerve cords the regenerate develops a twinned dorso‐ventral axis (with four parapodia per segment instead of the normal two). In sabellids, a striking natural dorso‐ventral inversion in parapodial morphology occurs along the body axis and this inversion is morphologically correlated with the position of the nerve cord. Parapodial inversion also occurs in segments in which the nerve cord has been removed, even without any segment amputation. Together, these data strongly support a role for the nerve cord in annelid dorso‐ventral pattern regulation, with the nerve cord conferring ventral identity. PMID:28616245

  3. Multiple schwannomas of the digital nerves and superficial radial nerve: two unusual cases of segmental schwannomatosis.

    PubMed

    Gosk, Jerzy; Gutkowska, Olga; Kuliński, Sebastian; Urban, Maciej; Hałoń, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Two cases of segmental sporadic schwannomatosis characterized by unusual location of multiple schwannomas in digital nerves (case 1) and the superficial radial nerve (case 2) are described in this paper. In the first of the described cases, 6 tumours located at the base of the middle finger and in its distal portion were excised from both digital nerves. In the second case, 3 tumours located in the proximal 1/3 and halfway down the forearm were removed from the superficial radial nerve. In both cases, symptoms such as palpable tumour mass, pain, paraesthesias, and positive Tinel-Hoffman sign resolved after operative treatment. Final diagnoses were made based on histopathological examination results. In the second of the described cases, the largest of the excised lesions had features enabling diagnosis of a rare tumour type - ancient schwannoma.

  4. A method to locate the radial digital nerve of the index finger.

    PubMed

    Lourie, G M; Rudolph, H P; Lundy, D W

    1998-08-01

    The radial digital nerve of the index finger is susceptible to injury during penetrating trauma or elective release of the A1 pulley. The intersection of a line drawn down the midline of the index finger and the proximal palmar crease identifies the location of the radial digital nerve. This method of identifying the topography of the nerve should assist the surgeon in determining the likelihood of injury after penetrating trauma, and preventing injury during elective procedures.

  5. The sensory-motor bridge neurorraphy: an anatomic study of feasibility between sensory branch of the musculocutaneous nerve and deep branch of the radial nerve.

    PubMed

    Goubier, Jean-Noel; Teboul, Frédéric

    2011-05-01

    Restoring elbow flexion remains the first step in the management of total palsy of the brachial plexus. Non avulsed upper roots may be grafted on the musculocutaneous nerve. When this nerve is entirely grafted, some motor fibres regenerate within the sensory fibres quota. Aiming potential utilization of these lost motor fibres, we attempted suturing the sensory branch of the musculocutaneous nerve onto the deep branch of the radial nerve. The objective of our study was to assess the anatomic feasibility of such direct suturing of the terminal sensory branch of the musculocutaneous nerve onto the deep branch of the radial nerve. The study was carried out with 10 upper limbs from fresh cadavers. The sensory branch of the musculocutaneous muscle was dissected right to its division. The motor branch of the radial nerve was identified and dissected as proximally as possible into the radial nerve. Then, the distance separating the two nerves was measured so as to assess whether direct neurorraphy of the two branches was feasible. The excessive distance between the two branches averaged 6 mm (1-13 mm). Thus, direct neurorraphy of the sensory branch of the musculocutaneous nerve and the deep branch of the radial nerve was possible. When the whole musculocutaneous nerve is grafted, some of its motor fibres are lost amongst the sensory fibres (cutaneous lateral antebrachial nerve). By suturing this sensory branch onto the deep branch of the radial nerve, "lost" fibres may be retrieved, resulting in restoration of digital extension. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Intraneural Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections for the Treatment of Radial Nerve Section: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    García de Cortázar, Unai; Padilla, Sabino; Lobato, Enrique; Delgado, Diego; Sánchez, Mikel

    2018-01-01

    The radial nerve is the most frequently injured nerve in the upper extremity. Numerous options in treatment have been described for radial nerve injury, such as neurolysis, nerve grafts, or tendon transfers. Currently, new treatment options are arising, such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP), an autologous product with proved therapeutic effect for various musculoskeletal disorders. We hypothesized that this treatment is a promising alternative for this type of nerve pathology. The patient was a healthy 27-year-old man who suffered a deep and long cut in the distal anterolateral region of the right arm. Forty-eight hours after injury, an end-to-end suture was performed without a microscope. Three months after the surgery, an electromyogram (EMG) showed right radial nerve neurotmesis with no tendency to reinnervation. Four months after the trauma, serial intraneural infiltrations of PRP were conducted using ultrasound guidance. The therapeutic effect was assessed by manual muscle testing and by EMG. Fourteen months after the injury and 11 months after the first PRP injection, functional recovery was achieved. The EMG showed a complete reinnervation of the musculature of the radial nerve dependent. The patient remains satisfied with the result and he is able to practice his profession. Conclusions: PRP infiltrations have the potential to enhance the healing process of radial nerve palsy. This case report demonstrates the therapeutic potential of this technology for traumatic peripheral nerve palsy, as well as the apt utility of US-guided PRP injections. PMID:29382110

  7. Unique Asymmetric Protrusion of Nerve Cord in the Amphioxus, Branchiostoma belcheri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaki, Masumi; Terakado, Kiyoshi; Kubokawa, Kaoru

    The amphioxus is the only surviving prevertebrate segmented chordate. In this animal Hatschek's pit has long been regarded as a putative homologue of the adenohypophysis because of the presence of secretory granules and immunoreactive cells to vertebrate gonadotrophic hormone in this organ. We found that the nerve cord extends a protrusion to the pit along the right side of the notochord. Furthermore, secretory granules were found not only in the pit but also in the protrusion of the nerve cord. These results suggest that Hatschek's pit and the nerve protrusion are homologous to the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis, respectively. We believe that this is an evidence for the presence of the neuroendocrine link between the central nervous system and Hatschek's pit in the amphioxus.

  8. Relationship of vocal cord paralysis to the coil diameter of vagus nerve stimulator leads.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Leslie C; Winston, Ken R

    2015-03-01

    This investigation was done to examine, following implantation of vagus nerve stimulators, the relationship of vocal cord paralysis to the inner diameter of the coils used to attach the stimulator lead to the nerve. All data in this investigation were collected, as mandated by the FDA, by the manufacturer of vagus nerve stimulators and were made available without restrictions for analysis by the authors. The data reflect all initial device implantations in the United States for the period from 1997 through 2012. Vocal cord paralysis was reported in 193 of 51,882 implantations. In patients aged 18 years and older, the incidence of paralysis was 0.26% when the stimulator leads had coil diameters of 3 mm and 0.51% when the leads had 2-mm-diameter coils (p < 0.05). Across all age groups, the incidence of vocal cord paralysis increased with age at implantation for leads having 2-mm-diameter coils. In patients aged 18 years and older, vocal cord paralysis occurred at almost twice the rate with the implantation of vagus nerve stimulator leads having 2-mm-diameter coils than with leads having 3-mm-diameter coils. The incidence of vocal cord paralysis increases with patient age at implantation.

  9. Pulsed radiofrequency on radial nerve under ultrasound guidance for treatment of intractable lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Oh, Dae Seok; Kang, Tae Hyung; Kim, Hyae Jin

    2016-06-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a painful and functionally limiting disorder. Although lateral elbow pain is generally self-limiting, in a minority of people symptoms persist for a long time. When various conservative treatments fail, surgical approach is recommended. Surgical denervation of several nerves that innervate the lateral humeral epicondyle could be considered in patients with refractory pain because it denervates the region of pain. Pulsed radiofrequency is a minimally invasive procedure that improves chronic pain when applied to various neural tissues without causing any significant destruction and painful complication. This procedure is safe, minimally invasive, and has less risk of complications relatively compared to the surgical approach. The radial nerve can be identified as a target for pulsed radiofrequency lesioning in lateral epicondylitis. This innovative method of pulsed radiofrequency applied to the radial nerve has not been reported before. We reported on two patients with intractable lateral epicondylitis suffering from elbow pain who did not respond to nonoperative treatments, but in whom the ultrasound-guided pulsed radiofrequency neuromodulation of the radial nerve induced symptom improvement. After a successful diagnostic nerve block, radiofrequency probe adjustment around the radial nerve was performed on the lateral aspect of the distal upper arm under ultrasound guidance and multiple pulsed treatments were applied. A significant reduction in pain was reported over the follow-up period of 12 weeks.

  10. Early changes in muscle atrophy and muscle fiber type conversion after spinal cord transection and peripheral nerve transection in rats.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Kosaku; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Suganuma, Katsuyoshi; Yukata, Kiminori; Nishisho, Toshihiko; Yasui, Natsuo

    2013-05-20

    Spinal cord transection and peripheral nerve transection cause muscle atrophy and muscle fiber type conversion. It is still unknown how spinal cord transection and peripheral nerve transection each affect the differentiation of muscle fiber type conversion mechanism and muscle atrophy. The aim of our study was to evaluate the difference of muscle weight change, muscle fiber type conversion, and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivatior-1α (PGC-1α) expression brought about by spinal cord transection and by peripheral nerve transection. Twenty-four Wistar rats underwent surgery, the control rats underwent a laminectomy; the spinal cord injury group underwent a spinal cord transection; the denervation group underwent a sciatic nerve transection. The rats were harvested of the soleus muscle and the TA muscle at 0 week, 1 week and 2 weeks after surgery. Histological examination was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunofluorescent staing. Western blot was performed with 3 groups. Both sciatic nerve transection and spinal cord transection caused muscle atrophy with the effect being more severe after sciatic nerve transection. Spinal cord transection caused a reduction in the expression of both sMHC protein and PGC-1α protein in the soleus muscle. On the other hand, sciatic nerve transection produced an increase in expression of sMHC protein and PGC-1α protein in the soleus muscle. The results of the expression of PGC-1α were expected in other words muscle atrophy after sciatic nerve transection is less than after spinal cord transection, however muscle atrophy after sciatic nerve transection was more severe than after spinal cord transection. In the conclusion, spinal cord transection diminished the expression of sMHC protein and PGC-1α protein in the soleus muscle. On the other hand, sciatic nerve transection enhanced the expression of sMHC protein and PGC-1α protein in the soleus muscle.

  11. The humeral origin of the brachioradialis muscle: an unusual site of high radial nerve compression.

    PubMed

    Cherchel, A; Zirak, C; De Mey, A

    2013-11-01

    Radial nerve compression is seldom encountered in the upper arm, and most commonly described compression syndromes have their anatomical cause in the forearm. The teres major, the triceps muscle, the intermuscular septum region and the space between the brachialis and brachioradialis muscles have all been identified as radial nerve compression sites above the elbow. We describe the case of a 38-year-old male patient who presented with dorso-lateral forearm pain and paraesthesias without neurological deficit. Surgical exploration revealed radial nerve compression at the humeral origin of the brachioradialis muscle. Liberation of the nerve at this site was successful at relieving the symptoms. To our knowledge, this compression site has not been described in the literature. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Successful Reinnervation of the Diaphragm After Intercostal to Phrenic Nerve Neurotization in Patients With High Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Nandra, Kulvir S; Harari, Martin; Price, Thea P; Greaney, Patrick J; Weinstein, Michael S

    2017-08-01

    Our objective in this study was to extend diaphragmatic pacing therapy to include paraplegic patients with high cervical spinal cord injuries between C3 and C5. Diaphragmatic pacing has been used in patients experiencing ventilator-dependent respiratory failure due to spinal cord injury as a means to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical ventilation. However, this technique relies on intact phrenic nerve function. Recently, phrenic nerve reconstruction with intercostal nerve grafting has expanded the indications for diaphragmatic pacing. Our study aimed to evaluate early outcomes and efficacy of intercostal nerve transfer in diaphragmatic pacing. Four ventilator-dependent patients with high cervical spinal cord injuries were selected for this study. Each patient demonstrated absence of phrenic nerve function via external neck stimulation and laparoscopic diaphragm mapping. Each patient underwent intercostal to phrenic nerve grafting with implantation of a phrenic nerve pacer. The patients were followed, and ventilator dependence was reassessed at 1 year postoperatively. Our primary outcome was measured by the amount of time our patients tolerated off the ventilator per day. We found that all 4 patients have tolerated paced breathing independent of mechanical ventilation, with 1 patient achieving 24 hours of tracheostomy collar. From this study, intercostal to phrenic nerve transfer seems to be a promising approach in reducing or eliminating ventilator support in patients with C3 to C5 high spinal cord injury.

  13. Relationship between the Ulnar Nerve and the Branches of the Radial Nerve to the Medial Head of the Triceps Brachii Muscle.

    PubMed

    Sh, Cho; Ih, Chung; Uy, Lee

    2018-05-17

    One branch of the radial nerve to the medial head of the triceps brachii muscle (MHN) has been described as accompanying or joining the ulnar nerve. Mostly two MHN branches have been reported, with some reports of one; however, the topographical anatomy is not well documented. We dissected 52 upper limbs from adult cadavers and found one, two, and three MHN branches in 9.6%, 80.8%, and 9.6% of cases, respectively. The MHN accompanying the ulnar nerve was always the superior MHN. The relationship between the ulnar nerve and the MHN was classified into four types according to whether the MHN was enveloped along with the ulnar nerve in the connective tissue sheath and whether it was in contact with the ulnar nerve. It contacted the ulnar nerve in 75.0% of cases and accompanied it over a mean distance of 73.6 mm (range 36-116 mm). In all cases in which the connective tissue sheath enveloped the branch of the MHN and the ulnar nerve, removing the sheath confirmed that the MHN branch originated from the radial nerve. The detailed findings and anatomical measurements of the MHN in this study will help in identifying its branches during surgical procedures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Spinal Cord Stimulation Modulates Gene Expression in the Spinal Cord of an Animal Model of Peripheral Nerve Injury.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Dana M; Cedeño, David L; Kelley, Courtney A; Benyamin, Ramsin; Vallejo, Ricardo

    Previously, we found that application of pulsed radiofrequency to a peripheral nerve injury induces changes in key genes regulating nociception concurrent with alleviation of paw sensitivity in an animal model. In the current study, we evaluated such genes after applying spinal cord stimulation (SCS) therapy. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 per group) were randomized into test and control groups. The spared nerve injury model was used to simulate a neuropathic pain state. A 4-contact microelectrode was implanted at the L1 vertebral level and SCS was applied continuously for 72 hours. Mechanical hyperalgesia was tested. Spinal cord tissues were collected and analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction to quantify levels of IL1β, GABAbr1, subP, Na/K ATPase, cFos, 5HT3ra, TNFα, Gal, VIP, NpY, IL6, GFAP, ITGAM, and BDNF. Paw withdrawal thresholds significantly decreased in spared nerve injury animals and stimulation attenuated sensitivity within 24 hours (P = 0.049), remaining significant through 72 hours (P = 0.003). Nerve injury caused up-regulation of TNFα, GFAP, ITGAM, and cFOS as well as down-regulation of Na/K ATPase. Spinal cord stimulation therapy modulated the expression of 5HT3ra, cFOS, and GABAbr1. Strong inverse relationships in gene expression relative to the amount of applied current were observed for GABAbr1 (R = -0.65) and Na/K ATPase (R = -0.58), and a positive linear correlations between 5HT3r (R = 0.80) and VIP (R = 0.50) were observed. Continuously applied SCS modulates expression of key genes involved in the regulation of neuronal membrane potential.

  15. Neurotization of the phrenic nerve with accessory nerve for high cervical spinal cord injury with respiratory distress: an anatomic study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ce; Zhang, Ying; Nicholas, Tsai; Wu, Guoxin; Shi, Sheng; Bo, Yin; Wang, Xinwei; Zhou, Xuhui; Yuan, Wen

    2014-01-01

    High cervical spinal cord injury is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Traditional treatments carry various complications such as infection, pacemaker failure and undesirable movement. Thus, a secure surgical strategy with fewer complications analogous to physiological ventilation is still required. We hope to offer one potential method to decrease the complications and improve survival qualities of patients from the aspect of anatomy. The purpose of the study is to provide anatomic details on the accessory nerve and phrenic nerve for neurotization in patients with high spinal cord injuries. 38 cadavers (76 accessory and 76 phrenic nerves) were dissected in the study. The width, length and thickness of each accessory nerve and phrenic nerve above clavicle were measured. The distances from several landmarks on accessory nerve to the origin and the end of the phrenic nerve above clavicle were measured too. Then, the number of motor nerve fibers on different sections of the nerves was calculated using the technique of immunohistochemistry. The accessory nerves distal to its sternocleidomastoid muscular branches were 1.52 ± 0.32 mm ~1.54 ± 0.29 mm in width, 0.52 ± 0.18 mm ~ 0.56 ± 0.20mm in thickness and 9.52 ± 0.98 cm in length. And the phrenic nerves above clavicle were 1.44 ± 0.23 mm ~ 1.45 ± 0.24 mm in width, 0.47 ± 0.15 mm ~ 0.56 ± 0.25 mm in thickness and 6.48 ± 0.78 cm in length. The distance between the starting point of accessory nerve and phrenic nerve were 3.24 ± 1.17 cm, and the distance between the starting point of accessory nerve and the end of the phrenic nerve above clavicle were 8.72 ± 0.84 cm. The numbers of motor nerve fibers in accessory nerve were 1,038 ± 320~1,102 ± 216, before giving out the sternocleidomastoid muscular branches. The number of motor nerve fibers in the phrenic nerve was 911 ± 321~1,338 ± 467. The accessory nerve and the phrenic were similar in width, thickness and the number of motor nerve fibers. And

  16. Transplantation of Embryonic Spinal Cord Derived Cells Helps to Prevent Muscle Atrophy after Peripheral Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ruven, Carolin; Li, Wen; Li, Heng; Wong, Wai-Man; Wu, Wutian

    2017-01-01

    Injuries to peripheral nerves are frequent in serious traumas and spinal cord injuries. In addition to surgical approaches, other interventions, such as cell transplantation, should be considered to keep the muscles in good condition until the axons regenerate. In this study, E14.5 rat embryonic spinal cord fetal cells and cultured neural progenitor cells from different spinal cord segments were injected into transected musculocutaneous nerve of 200–300 g female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, and atrophy in biceps brachii was assessed. Both kinds of cells were able to survive, extend their axons towards the muscle and form neuromuscular junctions that were functional in electromyographic studies. As a result, muscle endplates were preserved and atrophy was reduced. Furthermore, we observed that the fetal cells had a better effect in reducing the muscle atrophy compared to the pure neural progenitor cells, whereas lumbar cells were more beneficial compared to thoracic and cervical cells. In addition, fetal lumbar cells were used to supplement six weeks delayed surgical repair after the nerve transection. Cell transplantation helped to preserve the muscle endplates, which in turn lead to earlier functional recovery seen in behavioral test and electromyography. In conclusion, we were able to show that embryonic spinal cord derived cells, especially the lumbar fetal cells, are beneficial in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries due to their ability to prevent the muscle atrophy. PMID:28264437

  17. The management of humeral shaft fractures with associated radial nerve palsy: a review of 117 cases.

    PubMed

    Bumbasirević, Marko; Lesić, Aleksandar; Bumbasirević, Vesna; Cobeljić, Goran; Milosević, Ivan; Atkinson, Henry Dushan E

    2010-04-01

    This single center retrospective study reviews the management and outcomes of 117 consecutive patients with humeral shaft fractures and associated radial nerve palsy (RNP) treated over a 20-year period (1986-2006). A total of 101 fractures were managed conservatively and 16 fractures underwent external fixation for poor bony alignment. Sixteen grade 1 and 2 open fractures underwent wound toileting alone. No patients underwent initial radial nerve exploration or opening of the fracture sites. All patients achieved clinical and radiological bony union at a mean of 8 weeks (range 7-12 weeks). There were no complications or pin tract infections in the operated patients. A total of 111 cases had initial spontaneous RNP recovery at a mean of 6 weeks (range 3-24 weeks) with full RNP recovery at a mean of 17 weeks (range 3-70 weeks) post-injury. Fourteen patients had no clinical/EMG signs of nerve activity at 12 weeks and 6 subsequently failed to regain any radial nerve recovery; 2 had late explorations and the lacerated nerves underwent sural nerve cable neurorraphy; and 4 patients underwent delayed tendon transposition 2-3 years after initial injury, with good/excellent functional outcomes. Humeral fractures with associated RNP may be treated expectantly. With low rates of humeral nonunion, 95% spontaneous nerve recovery in closed fractures and 94% in grade 1 and 2 open fractures, one has the opportunity of waiting. If at 10-12 weeks there are no clinical/EMG signs of recovery, then nerve exploration/secondary reconstruction is indicated. Late tendon transfers may also give good/excellent functional results.

  18. Humerus shaft fracture associated with traumatic radial nerve palsy: An international survey among orthopedic trauma surgeons from Latin America and Asia/Pacific.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Vincenzo; Belangero, William; Pires, Robinson Esteves; Labronici, Pedro José

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the real-life practice of clinical management of humeral shaft fracture associated with traumatic radial nerve palsy among orthopedic trauma surgeons. Two hundred seventy-nine orthopedic surgeons worldwide reviewed 10 real cases of a humeral shaft fracture associated with traumatic radial nerve palsy answering two questions: (1) What treatment would you choose/recommend: nonoperative or operative? (2) What are the reasons for your decision-making? The survey was developed in an online survey tool. All participants were active members from AOTrauma International. Two hundred sixty-six (95.3%) participants were from Latin America and Asia/Pacific. One hundred sixty-two participants (58.1%) had more than 10 years in practice and 178 (63.8%) of them did trauma as the main area of interest. One hundred fifty-one (54.1%) participants treated less than three humeral shaft fractures a month. Traumatic radial nerve palsy was the main reason (88.4%) for surgeons to recommend surgical treatment. Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) or percutaneous fixation of the fracture associated with acutely explore of radial nerve was the first option in 62.0% of the cases. A combination of morphology and level of the fracture and the presence of the radial nerve palsy was the most suggested reason to surgically treat the humerus fracture. The main isolated factor was the morphology of the fracture. Our survey highlight the tendency for a more aggressive management of any humeral shaft fracture associated with a traumatic radial nerve palsy, with surgeons preferring to use ORIF with acute exploration of the radial nerve. Nonsurgical management was the less chosen option among the 279 respondents. Fracture morphology, level of the fracture, and the presence of the radial nerve palsy were most influential for guiding their treatment.

  19. Surgical anatomy of the radial nerve in the deltopectoral approach for revision shoulder arthroplasty and periprosthetic fracture fixation: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Fu, Michael C; Hendel, Michael D; Chen, Xiang; Warren, Russell F; Dines, David M; Gulotta, Lawrence V

    2017-12-01

    Radial nerve injury is a rare but clinically significant complication of revision shoulder arthroplasty and fixation of native and periprosthetic proximal humeral fractures. Understanding of the anatomic relationship between the radial nerve as it enters the humeral spiral groove and anterior shoulder landmarks in a deltopectoral approach is necessary to avoid iatrogenic radial nerve injury. Eight forequarter cadaveric specimens were dissected through a deltopectoral approach. Distances between the radial nerve entry into the proximal spiral groove and the coracoid process, distal lesser tuberosity/inferior subscapularis insertion, superior latissimus insertion, and inferior latissimus insertion were measured. Means, standard deviations, and ranges were determined for each distance. The radial nerve entry into the proximal spiral groove averaged 133.1 mm (range, 110.3-153.0 mm) from the coracoid process, 101.9 mm (range, 76.5-124.3 mm) from the distal lesser tuberosity/inferior subscapularis insertion, 81.0 mm (range, 63.4-101.5 mm) from the superior latissimus insertion, and 39.6 mm (range, 25.5-55.4 mm) from the inferior latissimus insertion. The proximal spiral groove was distal to the inferior latissimus insertion in all specimens. The risk of iatrogenic injury to the radial nerve at the spiral groove may be minimized through proper identification and protection or avoidance of circumferential fixation. However, if encircling fixation with cerclage cables is necessary, instrumentation proximal to the inferior edge of the latissimus dorsi insertion may reduce the risk of radial nerve injury. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of clinical infrared laser on superficial radial nerve conduction

    SciTech Connect

    Greathouse, D.G.; Currier, D.P.; Gilmore, R.L.

    The purposes of this study were to demonstrate the effects of infrared laser radiation on the sensory nerve conduction of a specified peripheral nerve in man and determine temperature changes in the tissue surrounding the treated nerve. Twenty healthy adults were divided into three groups: control (n = 5); experimental (n = 10), infrared laser radiation at 20 sec/cm2; and experimental (n = 5), infrared laser radiation treatment at 120 sec/cm2. Antidromic sensory nerve conduction studies were performed on the superficial radial nerve of each subject's right forearm. The infrared laser radiation was applied at a fixed intensity for fivemore » 1-cm2 segments. Latency, amplitude, and temperature measurements were recorded pretest; posttest; and posttest intervals of 1, 3, 5, 10, and 15 minutes. An analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to examine the data. No significant change was noted in the distal sensory latency or amplitude of the evoked sensory potential in either experimental or control groups as a result of the applications of the infrared laser radiation treatment. This study demonstrates that infrared laser used at clinically applied intensities does not alter conduction of sensory nerves nor does it elevate the subcutaneous temperature.« less

  1. [Treatment of bilateral vocal cord paralysis by hemi-phrenic nerve transfer].

    PubMed

    Song, W; Li, M; Zheng, H L; Sun, L; Chen, S C; Chen, D H; Liu, F; Zhu, M H; Zhang, C Y; Wang, W

    2017-04-07

    Objective: To investigate the surgical effect of reinnervation of bilateral posterior cricoarytenoid muscles(PCA) with left hemi-phrenic nerve and endoscopic laser arytenoid resection in bilateral vocal cord fold paralysis(BVFP) and to analyze the pros and cons of the two methods. Methods: One hundred and seventeen BVFP patients who underwent reinnervation of bilateral PCA using the left hemi-phrenic nerve approach (nerve group, n =52) or laser arytenoidectomy(laser group, n =65) were enrolled in this study from Jan.2009 to Dec.2015.Vocal perception evaluation, video stroboscopy, pulmonary function test and laryngeal electromyography were preformed in all patients both preoperatively and postoperative1y.Extubution rate was calculated postoperative1y. Results: Most of the vocal function parameters in nerve group were improved postoperatively compared with preoperative parameters, albeit without a significant difference( P >0.05), while laser group showed a significant deterioration in voice quality postoperative1y( P <0.05). The two groups showed significant difference in voice quality postoperative1y( P <0.05). Videostroboscopy showed that vocal fold on the operated side in both groups could abduct to various extent postoperatively, which showed significant difference when compared with preoperative abductive movements ( P <0.05). But the amplitude in nerve group was larger than that in laser group ( P <0.05). 89% of the patients in nerve group were inhale physiological vocal cord abductions. Postoperative glottal closure showed no significant difference in nerve group ( P >0.05), while showed various increment in laser group( P <0.05). Differences between the two groups were statistically significant( P <0.05). The pulmonary function in both groups was better after operation, reaching the reference value. Postoperative laryngeal electromyography confirmed successful reinnervation of the bilateral PCA muscles. The decannulation rate were 88.5% and 81.5% in nerve

  2. Burkholderia pseudomallei Rapidly Infects the Brain Stem and Spinal Cord via the Trigeminal Nerve after Intranasal Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    St. John, James A.; Walkden, Heidi; Nazareth, Lynn; Beagley, Kenneth W.; Batzloff, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis, a disease with a high mortality rate (20% in Australia and 40% in Southeast Asia). Neurological melioidosis is particularly prevalent in northern Australian patients and involves brain stem infection, which can progress to the spinal cord; however, the route by which the bacteria invade the central nervous system (CNS) is unknown. We have previously demonstrated that B. pseudomallei can infect the olfactory and trigeminal nerves within the nasal cavity following intranasal inoculation. As the trigeminal nerve projects into the brain stem, we investigated whether the bacteria could continue along this nerve to penetrate the CNS. After intranasal inoculation of mice, B. pseudomallei caused low-level localized infection within the nasal cavity epithelium, prior to invasion of the trigeminal nerve in small numbers. B. pseudomallei rapidly invaded the trigeminal nerve and crossed the astrocytic barrier to enter the brain stem within 24 h and then rapidly progressed over 2,000 μm into the spinal cord. To rule out that the bacteria used a hematogenous route, we used a capsule-deficient mutant of B. pseudomallei that does not survive in the blood and found that it also entered the CNS via the trigeminal nerve. This suggests that the primary route of entry is via the nerves that innervate the nasal cavity. We found that actin-mediated motility could facilitate initial infection of the olfactory epithelium. Thus, we have demonstrated that B. pseudomallei can rapidly infect the brain and spinal cord via the trigeminal nerve branches that innervate the nasal cavity. PMID:27382023

  3. Radial nerve injury following elbow external fixator: report of three cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Luis; Sarasquete, Juan; Noguera, Laura; Proubasta, Ignacio; Lamas, Claudia

    2017-07-01

    Radial nerve palsy is a rare but serious complication following elbow external fixation. Only 11 cases have been reported in the literature to date, but the incidence may be underreported. We present three new cases of this complication. We analyzed the three cases of radial palsy seen in our center following the application of an external fixator as treatment for complex elbow injuries. Mean patient age at surgery was 50 years. Two patients were female and one was male. In the three cases, the initial lesion was a posterior elbow dislocation, associated with a fracture of the radial shaft in one and a radial head fracture and coronoid fracture, respectively, in the other two. Due to persistent elbow instability, an external fixator was applied in all three cases. The fixator pins were introduced percutaneously in two cases and under direct vision in an open manner in the third case. Radial palsy was noted immediately postoperatively in all cases. It was permanent in two cases and temporary in the third. Radial nerve palsy after placement of an external elbow fixator was resolved in only 1 of our 3 cases and in 6 of the 11 cases in the literature to date. Although the event is rare, these alarming results highlight the need for recommendations to avoid this complication.

  4. [Isolated traumatic injuries of the axillary nerve. Radial nerve transfer in four cases and literatura review].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Páez, Miguel; Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Arráez-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel

    2012-11-01

    To analyze the results of an initial series of four cases of traumatic injuries of the axillary nerve, treated by a nerve transfer from the triceps long branch of the radial nerve. An extensive analysis of the literature has also been made. Four patients aged between 21 and 42 years old presenting an isolated traumatic palsy of the axillary nerve were operated between January 2007 and June 2010. All cases were treated by nerve transfer six to eight months after the trauma. The results of these cases are analyzed, the same as the axillary nerve injuries series presented in the literature from 1982. One year after the surgery, all patients improved their abduction a mean of 70° (range 30 to 120°), showing a M4 in the British Medical Council Scale. No patient complained of triceps weakness after the procedure. These results are similar to those published employing primary grafting for the axillary nerve. Isolated injuries of the axillary nerve should be treated with surgery when spontaneous recovery is not verified 6 months after the trauma. Primary repair with grafts is the most popular surgical technique, with a rate of success of approximately 90%. The preliminary results of a nerve transfer employing the long triceps branch are similar, and a definite comparison of both techniques with a bigger number of cases should be done in the future. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Burkholderia pseudomallei Rapidly Infects the Brain Stem and Spinal Cord via the Trigeminal Nerve after Intranasal Inoculation.

    PubMed

    St John, James A; Walkden, Heidi; Nazareth, Lynn; Beagley, Kenneth W; Ulett, Glen C; Batzloff, Michael R; Beacham, Ifor R; Ekberg, Jenny A K

    2016-09-01

    Infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis, a disease with a high mortality rate (20% in Australia and 40% in Southeast Asia). Neurological melioidosis is particularly prevalent in northern Australian patients and involves brain stem infection, which can progress to the spinal cord; however, the route by which the bacteria invade the central nervous system (CNS) is unknown. We have previously demonstrated that B. pseudomallei can infect the olfactory and trigeminal nerves within the nasal cavity following intranasal inoculation. As the trigeminal nerve projects into the brain stem, we investigated whether the bacteria could continue along this nerve to penetrate the CNS. After intranasal inoculation of mice, B. pseudomallei caused low-level localized infection within the nasal cavity epithelium, prior to invasion of the trigeminal nerve in small numbers. B. pseudomallei rapidly invaded the trigeminal nerve and crossed the astrocytic barrier to enter the brain stem within 24 h and then rapidly progressed over 2,000 μm into the spinal cord. To rule out that the bacteria used a hematogenous route, we used a capsule-deficient mutant of B. pseudomallei that does not survive in the blood and found that it also entered the CNS via the trigeminal nerve. This suggests that the primary route of entry is via the nerves that innervate the nasal cavity. We found that actin-mediated motility could facilitate initial infection of the olfactory epithelium. Thus, we have demonstrated that B. pseudomallei can rapidly infect the brain and spinal cord via the trigeminal nerve branches that innervate the nasal cavity. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells transplantation on nerve fibers of a rat model of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Li, Dong; Zhang, Zhe; Takushige, Natsuko; Kong, Bei-Hua; Wang, Guo-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common, benign, oestrogen-dependent, chronic gynaecological disorder associated with pelvic pain and infertility. Some researchers have identified nerve fibers in endometriotic lesions in women with endometriosis. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted interest for their possible use for both cell and gene therapies because of their capacity for self-renewal and multipotentiality of differentiation. We investigated how human umbilical cord-MSCs (hUC-MSCs) could affect nerve fibers density in endometriosis. In this experimental study, hUC-MSCs were isolated from fresh human umbilical cord, characterized by flow cytometry, and then transplanted into surgically induced endometriosis in a rat model. Ectopic endometrial implants were collected four weeks later. The specimens were sectioned and stained immunohistochemically with antibodies against neurofilament (NF), nerve growth factor (NGF), NGF receptor p75 (NGFRp75), tyrosine kinase receptor-A (Trk-A), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) to compare the presence of different types of nerve fibers between the treatment group with the transplantation of hUC-MSCs and the control group without the transplantation of hUC-MSCs. There were significantly less nerve fibers stained with specific markers we used in the treatment group than in the control group (p<0.05). MSC from human umbilical cord reduced nerve fiber density in the treatment group with the transplantation of hUC-MSCs.

  7. Differential gene expression in notochord and nerve cord fate segregation in the Ciona intestinalis embryo.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kenji; Yamada, Lixy; Satou, Yutaka; Satoh, Nori

    2013-09-01

    During early embryogenesis, embryonic cells gradually restrict their developmental potential and are eventually destined to give rise to one type of cells. Molecular mechanisms underlying developmental fate restriction are one of the major research subjects within developmental biology. In this article, this subject was addressed by combining blastomere isolation with microarray analysis. During the 6th cleavage of the Ciona intestinalis embryo, from the 32-cell to the 64-cell stage, four mother cells divide into daughter cells with two distinct fates, one giving rise to notochord precursor cells and the other to nerve cord precursors. Approximately 2,200 each of notochord and nerve cord precursor cells were isolated, and their mRNA expression profiles were compared by microarray. This analysis identified 106 and 68 genes, respectively, that are differentially expressed in notochord and nerve cord precursor cells. These included not only genes for transcription factors and signaling molecules but also those with generalized functions observed in many types of cells. In addition, whole-mount in situ hybridization showed dynamic spatial expression profiles of these genes during segregation of the two fates: partitioning of transcripts present in the mother cells into either type of daughter cells, and initiation of preferential gene expression in either type of cells. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Genetic control of Drosophila nerve cord development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skeath, James B.; Thor, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    The Drosophila ventral nerve cord has been a central model system for studying the molecular genetic mechanisms that control CNS development. Studies show that the generation of neural diversity is a multistep process initiated by the patterning and segmentation of the neuroectoderm. These events act together with the process of lateral inhibition to generate precursor cells (neuroblasts) with specific identities, distinguished by the expression of unique combinations of regulatory genes. The expression of these genes in a given neuroblast restricts the fate of its progeny, by activating specific combinations of downstream genes. These genes in turn specify the identity of any given postmitotic cell, which is evident by its cellular morphology and choice of neurotransmitter.

  9. Diaphragmatic reinnervation in ventilator-dependent patients with cervical spinal cord injury and concomitant phrenic nerve lesions using simultaneous nerve transfers and implantable neurostimulators.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Matthew R; Elkwood, Andrew I; Aboharb, Farid; Cece, John; Brown, David; Rezzadeh, Kameron; Jarrahy, Reza

    2015-06-01

    Patients who are ventilator dependent as a result of combined cervical spinal cord injury and phrenic nerve lesions are generally considered to be unsuitable candidates for diaphragmatic pacing due to loss of phrenic nerve integrity and denervation of the diaphragm. There is limited data regarding efficacy of simultaneous nerve transfers and diaphragmatic pacemakers in the treatment of this patient population. A retrospective review was conducted of 14 consecutive patients with combined lesions of the cervical spinal cord and phrenic nerves, and with complete ventilator dependence, who were treated with simultaneous microsurgical nerve transfer and implantation of diaphragmatic pacemakers. Parameters of interest included time to recovery of diaphragm electromyographic activity, average time pacing without the ventilator, and percent reduction in ventilator dependence. Recovery of diaphragm electromyographic activity was demonstrated in 13 of 14 (93%) patients. Eight of these 13 (62%) patients achieved sustainable periods (> 1 h/d) of ventilator weaning (mean = 10 h/d [n = 8]). Two patients recovered voluntary control of diaphragmatic activity and regained the capacity for spontaneous respiration. The one patient who did not exhibit diaphragmatic reinnervation remains within 12 months of initial treatment. Surgical intervention resulted in a 25% reduction (p < 0.05) in ventilator dependency. We have demonstrated that simultaneous nerve transfers and pacemaker implantation can result in reinnervation of the diaphragm and lead to successful ventilator weaning. Our favorable outcomes support consideration of this surgical method for appropriate patients who would otherwise have no alternative therapy to achieve sustained periods of ventilator independence. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. NADPH oxidase 2-derived reactive oxygen species in spinal cord microglia contribute to peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Donghoon; You, Byunghyun; Jo, Eun-Kyeong; Han, Sang-Kyou; Simon, Melvin I.; Lee, Sung Joong

    2010-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports the notion that spinal cord microglia activation plays a causal role in the development of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury; yet the mechanisms for microglia activation remain elusive. Here, we provide evidence that NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2)-derived ROS production plays a critical role in nerve injury-induced spinal cord microglia activation and subsequent pain hypersensitivity. Nox2 expression was induced in dorsal horn microglia immediately after L5 spinal nerve transection (SNT). Studies using Nox2-deficient mice show that Nox2 is required for SNT-induced ROS generation, microglia activation, and proinflammatory cytokine expression in the spinal cord. SNT-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were similarly attenuated in Nox2-deficient mice. In addition, reducing microglial ROS level via intrathecal sulforaphane administration attenuated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in SNT-injured mice. Sulforaphane also inhibited SNT-induced proinflammatory gene expression in microglia, and studies using primary microglia indicate that ROS generation is required for proinflammatory gene expression in microglia. These studies delineate a pathway involving nerve damage leading to microglial Nox2-generated ROS, resulting in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines that are involved in the initiation of neuropathic pain. PMID:20679217

  11. Peripheral ionotropic glutamate receptors contribute to Fos expression increase in the spinal cord through antidromic electrical stimulation of sensory nerves.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Heng; He, Pei-Yao; Fan, Dan-Ni; Alemujiang, Dilinapa; Huo, Fu-Quan; Zhao, Yan; Cao, Dong-Yuan

    2018-06-21

    Previous studies have shown that peripheral ionotropic glutamate receptors are involved in the increase in sensitivity of a cutaneous branch of spinal dorsal ramus (CBDR) through antidromic electrical stimulation (ADES) of another CBDR in the adjacent segment. CBDR in the thoracic segments run parallel to each other and no synaptic contact at the periphery is reported. The present study investigated whether the increased sensitivity of peripheral sensory nerves via ADES of a CBDR induced Fos expression changes in the adjacent segments of the spinal cord. Fos expression increased in the T8 - T12 segments of the spinal cord evoked by ADES of the T10 CBDR in rats. The increased Fos expression in the T11 and T12, but not T8 - T10 spinal cord segments, was significantly blocked by local application of either N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist dizocilpine maleate (MK-801) or non-NMDA receptor antagonist 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) into the receptive field of T11 CBDR. The results suggest that endogenous glutamate released by ADES of sensory nerve may bind to peripheral ionotropic glutamate receptors and activate adjacent sensory nerve endings to increase the sensitivity of the spinal cord. These data reveal the potential mechanisms of neuron activation in the spinal cord evoked by peripheral sensitization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of immediate recurrent laryngeal nerve reconstruction in surgery for thyroid cancers with fixed vocal cords.

    PubMed

    Iwaki, Shinobu; Maeda, Tatsuyoshi; Saito, Miki; Otsuki, Naoki; Takahashi, Miki; Wakui, Emi; Shinomiya, Hirotaka; Morimoto, Koichi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Masuoka, Hiroo; Miyauchi, Akira; Nibu, Ken-Ichi

    2017-03-01

    Quality of voice after immediate recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) reconstruction in thyroid cancers has not been thoroughly studied. Thirteen patients with fixed vocal cords (fixed vocal cord group) and 8 patients with intact or impaired mobile vocal cords (mobile vocal cord group) who had immediate RLN reconstruction simultaneously with total thyroidectomy, and patients who had arytenoid adduction and thyroplasty for vocal cord paralysis caused by previous surgery (arytenoid adduction thyroplasty group) were enrolled in this study. Preoperative phonation efficiency index was significantly lower (p = .008) in the fixed vocal cord group than in the mobile vocal cord group. One year after surgery, all voice parameters of the patients in the fixed vocal cord group had improved, compared with their preoperative data. The fixed vocal cord group had attained satisfactory voice qualities equivalent to those of the mobile vocal cord group in terms of various voice parameters. The present results support the idea that immediate RLN reconstruction at the time of surgery for thyroid cancers may spare the need for subsequent arytenoid adduction thyroplasty even in the patients with preoperatively fixed vocal cords. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 427-431, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Spinal cord stimulation suppresses bradycardias and atrial tachyarrhythmias induced by mediastinal nerve stimulation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, René; Pagé, Pierre; Vermeulen, Michel; Bouchard, Caroline; Ardell, Jeffrey L; Foreman, Robert D; Armour, J Andrew

    2006-11-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) applied to the dorsal aspect of the cranial thoracic cord imparts cardioprotection under conditions of neuronally dependent cardiac stress. This study investigated whether neuronally induced atrial arrhythmias can be modulated by SCS. In 16 anesthetized dogs with intact stellate ganglia and in five with bilateral stellectomy, trains of five electrical stimuli were delivered during the atrial refractory period to right- or left-sided mediastinal nerves for up to 20 s before and after SCS (20 min). Recordings were obtained from 191 biatrial epicardial sites. Before SCS (11 animals), mediastinal nerve stimulation initiated bradycardia alone (12 nerve sites), bradycardia followed by tachyarrhythmia/fibrillation (50 sites), as well as tachyarrhythmia/fibrillation without a preceding bradycardia (21 sites). After SCS, the number of responsive sites inducing bradycardia was reduced by 25% (62 to 47 sites), and the cycle length prolongation in residual bradycardias was reduced. The number of responsive sites inducing tachyarrhythmia was reduced by 60% (71 to 29 sites). Once elicited, residual tachyarrhythmias arose from similar epicardial foci, displaying similar dynamics (cycle length) as in control states. In the absence of SCS, bradycardias and tachyarrhythmias induced by repeat nerve stimulation were reproducible (five additional animals). After bilateral stellectomy, SCS no longer influenced neuronal induction of bradycardia and atrial tachyarrhythmias. These data indicate that SCS obtunds the induction of atrial arrhythmias resulting from excessive activation of intrinsic cardiac neurons and that such protective effects depend on the integrity of nerves coursing via the subclavian ansae and stellate ganglia.

  14. The association between preoperative spinal cord rotation and postoperative C5 nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Eskander, Mark S; Balsis, Steve M; Balinger, Chris; Howard, Caitlin M; Lewing, Nicholas W; Eskander, Jonathan P; Aubin, Michelle E; Lange, Jeffrey; Eck, Jason; Connolly, Patrick J; Jenis, Louis G

    2012-09-05

    C5 nerve palsy is a known complication of cervical spine surgery. The development and etiology of this complication are not completely understood. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether rotation of the cervical spinal cord predicts the development of a C5 palsy. We performed a retrospective review of prospectively collected spine registry data as well as magnetic resonance images. We reviewed the records for 176 patients with degenerative disorders of the cervical spine who underwent anterior cervical decompression or corpectomy within the C4 to C6 levels. Our measurements included area for the spinal cord, space available for the cord, and rotation of the cord with respect to the vertebral body. There was a 6.8% prevalence of postoperative C5 nerve palsy as defined by deltoid motor strength of ≤ 3 of 5. The average rotation of the spinal cord (and standard deviation) was 2.8° ± 3.0°. A significant association was detected between the degree of rotation (0° to 5° versus 6° to 10° versus ≥ 11°) and palsy (point-biserial correlation = 0.94; p < 0.001). A diagnostic criterion of 6° of rotation could identify patients who had a C5 palsy (sensitivity = 1.00 [95% confidence interval, 0.70 to 1.00], specificity = 0.97 [95% confidence interval, 0.93 to 0.99], positive predictive value = 0.71 [95% confidence interval, 0.44 to 0.89], negative predictive value = 1.00 [95% confidence interval, 0.97 to 1.00]). Our evidence suggests that spinal cord rotation is a strong and significant predictor of C5 palsy postoperatively. Patients can be classified into three types, with Type 1 representing mild rotation (0° to 5°), Type 2 representing moderate rotation (6° to 10°), and Type 3 representing severe rotation (≥ 11°). The rate of C5 palsy was zero of 159 in the Type-1 group, eight of thirteen in the Type-2 group, and four of four in the Type-3 group. This information may be valuable for surgeons and patients considering anterior surgery in

  15. Fuxianhuiid ventral nerve cord and early nervous system evolution in Panarthropoda.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Ortega-Hernández, Javier; Butterfield, Nicholas J; Liu, Yu; Boyan, George S; Hou, Jin-Bo; Lan, Tian; Zhang, Xi-Guang

    2016-03-15

    Panarthropods are typified by disparate grades of neurological organization reflecting a complex evolutionary history. The fossil record offers a unique opportunity to reconstruct early character evolution of the nervous system via exceptional preservation in extinct representatives. Here we describe the neurological architecture of the ventral nerve cord (VNC) in the upper-stem group euarthropod Chengjiangocaris kunmingensis from the early Cambrian Xiaoshiba Lagerstätte (South China). The VNC of C. kunmingensis comprises a homonymous series of condensed ganglia that extend throughout the body, each associated with a pair of biramous limbs. Submillimetric preservation reveals numerous segmental and intersegmental nerve roots emerging from both sides of the VNC, which correspond topologically to the peripheral nerves of extant Priapulida and Onychophora. The fuxianhuiid VNC indicates that ancestral neurological features of Ecdysozoa persisted into derived members of stem-group Euarthropoda but were later lost in crown-group representatives. These findings illuminate the VNC ground pattern in Panarthropoda and suggest the independent secondary loss of cycloneuralian-like neurological characters in Tardigrada and Euarthropoda.

  16. Fuxianhuiid ventral nerve cord and early nervous system evolution in Panarthropoda

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie; Ortega-Hernández, Javier; Butterfield, Nicholas J.; Liu, Yu; Boyan, George S.; Hou, Jin-bo; Lan, Tian; Zhang, Xi-guang

    2016-01-01

    Panarthropods are typified by disparate grades of neurological organization reflecting a complex evolutionary history. The fossil record offers a unique opportunity to reconstruct early character evolution of the nervous system via exceptional preservation in extinct representatives. Here we describe the neurological architecture of the ventral nerve cord (VNC) in the upper-stem group euarthropod Chengjiangocaris kunmingensis from the early Cambrian Xiaoshiba Lagerstätte (South China). The VNC of C. kunmingensis comprises a homonymous series of condensed ganglia that extend throughout the body, each associated with a pair of biramous limbs. Submillimetric preservation reveals numerous segmental and intersegmental nerve roots emerging from both sides of the VNC, which correspond topologically to the peripheral nerves of extant Priapulida and Onychophora. The fuxianhuiid VNC indicates that ancestral neurological features of Ecdysozoa persisted into derived members of stem-group Euarthropoda but were later lost in crown-group representatives. These findings illuminate the VNC ground pattern in Panarthropoda and suggest the independent secondary loss of cycloneuralian-like neurological characters in Tardigrada and Euarthropoda. PMID:26933218

  17. Utility of nerve conduction studies for diagnosis of injury to the medial branch of the superficial radial nerve.

    PubMed

    Kon, Tomoya; Suzuki, Chieko; Hotta, Ryotaro; Funamizu, Yukihisa; Haga, Rie; Ueno, Tatsuya; Nishijima, Haruo; Arai, Akira; Nunomura, Jinichi; Nukada, Hitoshi; Tomiyama, Masahiko; Baba, Masayuki

    2017-09-01

    The clinical utility of nerve conduction study (NCS) for the distal medial branch of the superficial radial nerve (SRN) has not yet been clarified. Therefore, we investigated the clinical utility of NCS in patients with suspected SRN injury and compared the results with those in healthy control subjects. Bilateral NCS of the medial branch of the SRN was performed in two patients with suspected injury of the medial branch of the SRN, and in 20 healthy control subjects. A surface recording electrode was placed at the medial side of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb. The SRN was then stimulated at a location 12 cm proximal from the recording electrode. The mean sensory nerve action potential in the two patients was significantly lower than that of the controls (6.75 ± 0.92 vs. 23.8 ± 8.2 μV, P  < 0.05). The side-to-side differences in sensory nerve action potential in the two patients were significantly higher than in the controls (55 ± 7.1 vs. 11 ± 7.8%, P  < 0.05). NCS may be useful for diagnosing injury of the medial branch of the SRN.

  18. Secondary Radial Nerve Palsy after Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis of a Distal Humeral Shaft Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Bichsel, Ursina; Nyffeler, Richard Walter

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis is a widely used procedure for the treatment of fractures of the femur and the tibia. For a short time it is also used for the treatment of humeral shaft fractures. Among other advantages, the ambassadors of this technique emphasize the lower risk of nerve injuries when compared to open reduction and internal fixation. We report the case of secondary radial nerve palsy caused by percutaneous fixation of a plate above the antecubital fold. The nerve did not recover and the patient needed a tendon transfer to regain active extension of the fingers. This case points to the importance of adequate exposure of the bone and plate if a humeral shaft fracture extends far distally. PMID:26558125

  19. Radial nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 107. Shy ME. Peripheral neuropathies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ... Read more Hand Injuries and Disorders Read more Peripheral Nerve Disorders Read more A.D.A.M., Inc. is ...

  20. The distribution of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) in the medulla oblongata, spinal cord, cranial and spinal nerves of frog, Microhyla ornata.

    PubMed

    Jadhao, Arun G; Biswas, Saikat P; Bhoyar, Rahul C; Pinelli, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) enzymatic activity has been reported in few amphibian species. In this study, we report its unusual localization in the medulla oblongata, spinal cord, cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and ganglions of the frog, Microhyla ornata. In the rhombencephalon, at the level of facial and vagus nerves, the NADPH-d labeling was noted in the nucleus of the abducent and facial nerves, dorsal nucleus of the vestibulocochlear nerve, the nucleus of hypoglossus nerve, dorsal and lateral column nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the dorsal field of spinal grey, the lateral and medial motor fields of spinal grey and radix ventralis and dorsalis (2-10). Many ependymal cells around the lining of the fourth ventricle, both facial and vagus nerves and dorsal root ganglion, were intensely labeled with NADPH-d. Most strikingly the NADPH-d activity was seen in small and large sized motoneurons in both medial and lateral motor neuron columns on the right and left sides of the brain. This is the largest stained group observed from the caudal rhombencephalon up to the level of radix dorsalis 10 in the spinal cord. The neurons were either oval or elongated in shape with long processes and showed significant variation in the nuclear and cellular diameter. A massive NADPH-d activity in the medulla oblongata, spinal cord, and spinal nerves implied an important role of this enzyme in the neuronal signaling as well as in the modulation of motor functions in the peripheral nervous systems of the amphibians. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Using nerve transfer to restore prehension and grasp 12 years following spinal cord injury: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fox, Ida K; Novak, Christine B; Kahn, Lorna C; Mackinnon, Susan E; Ruvinskaya, Rimma; Juknis, Neringa

    2018-01-01

    Nerve transfers are used routinely for reconstruction of hand function following lower motor neuron lesions. In people with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI), this novel and alternate reconstruction option may be useful to restore prehension and grasp, and improve hand function. A 34-year-old male presented 12 years post-mid-cervical SCI. Pre-operative electrodiagnostic studies revealed intact lower motor neurons below the SCI level. He elected to undergo nerve transfer surgery to restore hand function. Intraoperative evaluation led to the transfer of a brachialis nerve to several median nerve recipient branches. Post surgery, he was discharged home and resumed activities of daily living. He achieved independent thumb and finger flexion function and continued to exhibit functional improvement at 4 years post surgery. These results should prompt referral for consideration of nerve transfer surgery-an exciting alternative to tendon transfer and neuroprostheses.

  2. Relationship between median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials and spinal cord injury levels in patients with quadriplegia.

    PubMed

    de Arruda Serra Gaspar, M I F; Cliquet, A; Fernandes Lima, V M; de Abreu, D C C

    2009-05-01

    Cross-sectional study. To observe if there is a relationship between the level of injury by the American Spinal Cord Injury Association (ASIA) and cortical somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) recordings of the median nerve in patients with quadriplegia. Rehabilitation Outpatient Clinic at the university hospital in Brazil. Fourteen individuals with quadriplegia and 8 healthy individuals were evaluated. Electrophysiological assessment of the median nerve was performed by evoked potential equipment. The injury level was obtained by ASIA. N(9), N(13) and N(20) were analyzed based on the presence or absence of responses. The parameters used for analyzing these responses were the latency and the amplitude. Data were analyzed using mixed-effect models. N(9) responses were found in all patients with quadriplegia with a similar latency and amplitude observed in healthy individuals; N(13) responses were not found in any patients with quadriplegia. N(20) responses were not found in C5 patients with quadriplegia but it was present in C6 and C7 patients. Their latencies were similar to healthy individuals (P>0.05) but the amplitudes were decreased (P<0.05). This study suggests that the SSEP responses depend on the injury level, considering that the individuals with C6 and C7 injury levels, both complete and incomplete, presented SSEP recordings in the cortical area. It also showed a relationship between the level of spinal cord injury assessed by ASIA and the median nerve SSEP responses, through the latency and amplitude recordings.

  3. Drug Distribution into Peripheral Nerve.

    PubMed

    Liu, Houfu; Chen, Yan; Huang, Liang; Sun, Xueying; Fu, Tingting; Wu, Shengqian; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Zhen, Wei; Liu, Jihong; Lu, Gang; Cai, Wei; Yang, Ting; Zhang, Wandong; Yu, Xiaohong; Wan, Zehong; Wang, Jianfei; Summerfield, Scott G; Dong, Kelly; Terstappen, Georg C

    2018-05-01

    Little is known about the impact of the blood-nerve barrier (BNB) on drug distribution into peripheral nerves. In this study, we examined the peripheral nerve penetration in rats of 11 small-molecule drugs possessing diverse physicochemical and transport properties and ProTx-II, a tarantula venom peptide with molecular mass of 3826 Daltons. Each drug was administered as constant rate intravenous infusion for 6 hours (small molecules) or 24 hours (ProTx-II). Blood and tissues including brain, spinal cord, sciatic nerve, and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) were collected for drug concentration measurements. Unbound fractions of a set of compounds were determined by equilibrium dialysis method in rat blood, brains, spinal cords, sciatic nerves, and DRG. We also investigated the influence of N -[4-[2-(6,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydro-1 H -isoquinolin-2-yl)ethyl]phenyl]-5-methoxy-9-oxo-10 H -acridine-4-carboxamide (GF120918), a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) inhibitor, on the peripheral nerve and central nervous system (CNS) tissue penetration of imatinib. We found that: 1) the unbound fraction in brain tissue homogenate highly correlates with that in the spinal cord, sciatic nerve, and DRG for a set of compounds and thus provides a good surrogate for spinal cord and peripheral nerve tissues, 2) small-molecule drugs investigated can penetrate the DRG and sciatic nerve, 3) P-gp and BCRP have a limited impact on the distribution of small-molecule drugs into peripheral nerves, and 4) DRG is permeable to ProTx-II, but its distribution into sciatic nerve and CNS tissues is restricted. These results demonstrate that small-molecule drugs investigated can penetrate peripheral nerve tissues, and P-gp/BCRP may not be a limiting factor at the BNB. Biologics as large as ProTx-II can access the DRG but not sciatic nerve and CNS tissues. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  4. Neuropeptide Y in human spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Allen, J M; Gibson, S J; Adrian, T E; Polak, J M; Bloom, S R

    1984-08-06

    The distribution of a newly described peptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY) within the human spinal cord has been determined using radioimmunoassay and immunocytochemistry. Higher concentrations were found in the lumbar (49.9 +/- 6.8 pmol/g) and sacral (47.0 +/- 10.6 pmol/g) regions than in the cervical (27.6 +/- 2.7 pmol/g) and thoracic spinal cord (33.8 +/- 5.3 pmol/g). Immunocytochemistry revealed numerous nerve fibers containing NPY in the spinal cord; these were particularly concentrated in the substantia gelatinosa of the dorsal horn. In the ventral spinal cord NPY-containing nerves were sparse becoming more abundant in lumbosacral segments.

  5. Assessment of recurrent laryngeal nerve function during thyroid surgery.

    PubMed

    Smith, J; Douglas, J; Smith, B; Dougherty, T; Ayshford, C

    2014-03-01

    There is disparity in the reported incidence of temporary and permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) palsy following thyroidectomy. Much of the disparity is due to the method of assessing vocal cord function. We sought to identify the incidence and natural history of temporary and permanent vocal cord palsy following thyroid surgery. The authors wanted to establish whether intraoperative nerve monitoring and stimulation aids in prognosis when managing vocal cord palsy. Prospective data on consecutive thyroid operations were collected. Intraoperative nerve monitoring and stimulation, using an endotracheal tube mounted device, was performed in all cases. Endoscopic examination of the larynx was performed on the first postoperative day and at three weeks. Data on 102 patients and 123 nerves were collated. Temporary and permanent RLN palsy rates were 6.1% and 1.7%. Most RLN palsies were identified on the first postoperative day with all recognised at the three-week review. No preoperative clinical risk factors were identified. Although dysphonia at the three-week follow-up visit was the only significant predictor of vocal cord palsy, only two-thirds of patients with cord palsies were dysphonic. Intraoperative nerve monitoring and stimulation did not predict outcome in terms of vocal cord function. Temporary nerve palsy rates were consistent with other series where direct laryngoscopy is used to assess laryngeal function. Direct laryngoscopy is the only reliable measure of cord function, with intraoperative monitoring being neither a reliable predictor of cord function nor a predictor of eventual laryngeal function. The fact that all temporary palsies recovered within four months has implications for staged procedures.

  6. Lentiviral-mediated targeted NF-kappaB blockade in dorsal spinal cord glia attenuates sciatic nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain in the rat.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Alice; Latrémolière, Alban; Dominguez, Elisa; Mauborgne, Annie; Philippe, Stéphanie; Hamon, Michel; Mallet, Jacques; Benoliel, Jean-Jacques; Pohl, Michel

    2007-04-01

    Neuropathic pain developing after peripheral nerve injury is associated with altered neuronal and glial cell functions in the spinal cord. Activated glia produces algogenic mediators, exacerbating pain. Among the different intracellular pathways possibly involved in the modified glial function, the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) system is of particular interest, as numerous genes encoding inflammation- and pain-related molecules are controlled by this transcription factor. NF-kappaB is a pleiotropic factor also involved in central nervous system homeostasy. To study its role in chronic pain, it is thus essential to inhibit the NF-kappaB pathway selectively in activated spinal glial cells. Here, we show that when restricted to spinal cord and targeted to glial cells, lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of NF-kappaB super- repressor IkappaBalpha resulted in an inhibition of the NF-kappaB pathway activated in the rat spinal cord after sciatic nerve injury (chronic constriction injury, CCI). Concomitantly, IkappaBalpha overproduction prevented the enhanced expression of interleukin-6 and of inducible nitric oxide synthase associated with chronic constriction injury and resulted in prolonged antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effects. These data show that targeted blockade of NF-kappaB activity in spinal glia efficiently alleviates pain behavior in CCI rats, demonstrating the active participation of the glial NF-kappaB pathway in the development of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury.

  7. Assessment of recurrent laryngeal nerve function during thyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, J; Smith, B; Dougherty, T; Ayshford, C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There is disparity in the reported incidence of temporary and permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) palsy following thyroidectomy. Much of the disparity is due to the method of assessing vocal cord function. We sought to identify the incidence and natural history of temporary and permanent vocal cord palsy following thyroid surgery. The authors wanted to establish whether intraoperative nerve monitoring and stimulation aids in prognosis when managing vocal cord palsy. Methods Prospective data on consecutive thyroid operations were collected. Intraoperative nerve monitoring and stimulation, using an endotracheal tube mounted device, was performed in all cases. Endoscopic examination of the larynx was performed on the first postoperative day and at three weeks. Results Data on 102 patients and 123 nerves were collated. Temporary and permanent RLN palsy rates were 6.1% and 1.7%. Most RLN palsies were identified on the first postoperative day with all recognised at the three-week review. No preoperative clinical risk factors were identified. Although dysphonia at the three-week follow-up visit was the only significant predictor of vocal cord palsy, only two-thirds of patients with cord palsies were dysphonic. Intraoperative nerve monitoring and stimulation did not predict outcome in terms of vocal cord function. Conclusions Temporary nerve palsy rates were consistent with other series where direct laryngoscopy is used to assess laryngeal function. Direct laryngoscopy is the only reliable measure of cord function, with intraoperative monitoring being neither a reliable predictor of cord function nor a predictor of eventual laryngeal function. The fact that all temporary palsies recovered within four months has implications for staged procedures. PMID:24780671

  8. Electrical peripheral nerve stimulation relieves bone cancer pain by inducing Arc protein expression in the spinal cord dorsal horn

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ke-fu; Feng, Wan-wen; Liu, Yue-peng; Dong, Yan-bin; Gao, Li; Yang, Hui-lin

    2018-01-01

    Objective The analgesic effect on chronic pain of peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) has been proven, but its underlying mechanism remains unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the analgesic effect of PNS on bone cancer pain in a rat model and to explore the underlying mechanism. Materials and methods PNS on sciatic nerves with bipolar electrode was performed in both naïve and bone cancer pain model rats. Then, the protein levels of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid–type glutamate receptor 1 (GluA1), and phosphate N-methyl-d-aspartic acid-type glutamate receptor subunit 2B (pGluNR2B) in spinal cord were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Thermal paw withdraw latency and mechanical paw withdraw threshold were used to estimate the analgesic effect of PNS on bone cancer pain. Intrathecal administration of Arc shRNA was used to inhibit Arc expression in the spinal cord. Results PNS at 60 and 120 Hz for 20 min overtly induced Arc expression in the spinal cord, increased thermal pain thresholds in naïve rats, and relieved bone cancer pain; meanwhile, 10 Hz PNS did not achieve those results. In addition, PNS at 60 and 120 Hz also reduced the expression of GluA1, but not pGluNR2B, in the spinal cord. Finally, the anti-nociceptive effect and GluA1 downregulation induced by PNS were inhibited by intrathecal administration of Arc shRNA. Conclusion PNS (60 Hz, 0.3 mA) can relieve bone-cancer-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia by upregulating Arc protein expression and then by decreasing GluA1 transcription in the spinal cord dorsal horn. PMID:29606887

  9. Evaluating the evidence: is phrenic nerve stimulation a safe and effective tool for decreasing ventilator dependence in patients with high cervical spinal cord injuries and central hypoventilation?

    PubMed

    Sieg, Emily P; Payne, Russell A; Hazard, Sprague; Rizk, Elias

    2016-06-01

    Case reports, case series and case control studies have looked at the use of phrenic nerve stimulators in the setting of high spinal cord injuries and central hypoventilation syndromes dating back to the 1980s. We evaluated the evidence related to this topic by performing a systematic review of the published literature. Search terms "phrenic nerve stimulation," "phrenic nerve and spinal cord injury," and "phrenic nerve and central hypoventilation" were entered into standard search engines in a systematic fashion. Articles were reviewed by two study authors and graded independently for class of evidence according to published guidelines. The published evidence was reviewed, and the overall body of evidence was evaluated using the grading of recommendations, assesment, development and evaluations (GRADE) criteria Balshem et al. (J Clin Epidemiol 64:401-406, 2011). Our initial search yielded 420 articles. There were no class I, II, or III studies. There were 18 relevant class IV articles. There were no discrepancies among article ratings (i.e., kappa = 1). A meta-analysis could not be performed due to the low quality of the available evidence. The overall quality of the body of evidence was evaluated using GRADE criteria and fell within the "very poor" category. The quality of the published literature for phrenic nerve stimulation is poor. Our review of the literature suggests that phrenic nerve stimulation is a safe and effective option for decreasing ventilator dependence in high spinal cord injuries and central hypoventilation; however, we are left with critical questions that provide crucial directions for future studies.

  10. [REACTIVE CHANGES IN SPINAL CORD MOTONEURONS AFTER SCIATIC NERVE INJURY AFTER HIGH-FREQUENCY ELECTROSURGICAL INSTRUMENT APPLICATION].

    PubMed

    Korsak, A; Chaikovsky, Yu; Sokurenko, L; Likhodiievskyi, V; Neverovskyi, A

    2016-02-01

    A new experimental model for tissues connection at peripheral nerve injury site in form of tissues welding was designed. In current study we investigated motoneuron state 1, 3, 6 and 12 weeks after peripheral nerve injury and surgical repair with high-frequency electrosurgical technology. Spinal cord sections was stained by Nissl method and observed with light microscopy. We found that postoperative period in animals from experimental groups characterized by qualitative changes in neurons from spinal motor centers that can be interpreted as compensatory processes as response to alteration. In animals from group with high-frequency electrosurgical technology usage stabilization processes passes more quickly comparatively to animals with epineural sutures. High-frequency electrosurgical technology usage provides less harmful effects on motoneurons than epineural suturing.

  11. Lentiviral-mediated Targeted NF-κB Blockade in Dorsal Spinal Cord Glia Attenuates Sciatic Nerve Injury-induced Neuropathic Pain in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Alice; Latrémolière, Alban; Dominguez, Elisa; Mauborgne, Annie; Philippe, Stéphanie; Hamon, Michel; Mallet, Jacques; Benoliel, Jean-Jacques; Pohl, Michel

    2007-04-01

    Neuropathic pain developing after peripheral nerve injury is associated with altered neuronal and glial cell functions in the spinal cord. Activated glia produces algogenic mediators, exacerbating pain. Among the different intracellular pathways possibly involved in the modified glial function, the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) system is of particular interest, as numerous genes encoding inflammation- and pain-related molecules are controlled by this transcription factor. NF-κB is a pleiotropic factor also involved in central nervous system homeostasy. To study its role in chronic pain, it is thus essential to inhibit the NF-κB pathway selectively in activated spinal glial cells. Here, we show that when restricted to spinal cord and targeted to glial cells, lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of NF-κB super- repressor IκBα resulted in an inhibition of the NF-κB pathway activated in the rat spinal cord after sciatic nerve injury (chronic constriction injury, CCI). Concomitantly, IκBα overproduction prevented the enhanced expression of interleukin-6 and of inducible nitric oxide synthase associated with chronic constriction injury and resulted in prolonged antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effects. These data show that targeted blockade of NF-κB activity in spinal glia efficiently alleviates pain behavior in CCI rats, demonstrating the active participation of the glial NF-κB pathway in the development of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. Copyright © 2007 The American Society of Gene Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intraoperative nerve monitoring in laryngotracheal surgery.

    PubMed

    Bolufer, Sergio; Coves, María Dolores; Gálvez, Carlos; Villalona, Gustavo Adolfo

    Laryngotracheal surgery has an inherent risk of injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerves (RLN). These complications go from minor dysphonia to even bilateral vocal cord paralysis. The intraoperative neuromonitoring of the RLN was developed in the field of thyroid surgery, in order to preserve nerve and vocal cord function. However, tracheal surgery requires in-field intubation of the distal trachea, which limits the use of nerve monitoring using conventional endotracheal tube with surface electrodes. Given these challenges, we present an alternative method for nerve monitoring during laryngotracheal surgery through the insertion of electrodes within the endolaryngeal musculature by bilateral puncture. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Modulates Spinal Cord Neuronal Degeneration by Enhancing Growth-Associated Protein 43, B-Cell Lymphoma 2, and Decreasing B-Cell Lymphoma 2-Associated X Protein Expression after Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury

    PubMed Central

    Al-Maghrebi, May; Rao, Muddanna S.; Khraishah, Haitham

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Our previous studies have established that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has both neuroprotective and -regenerative capacity after sciatic nerve injury. Moreover, this improvement was evident on the behavioral level. The aim of this study was to investigate the central effects of ECGC on spinal cord motor neurons after sciatic nerve injury. Our study showed that administering 50 mg/kg intraperitoneally i.p. of EGCG to sciatic nerve-injured rats improved their performance on different motor functions and mechanical hyperesthesia neurobehavioral tests. Histological analysis of spinal cords of EGCG-treated sciatic nerve-injured (CRUSH+ECGC) animals showed an increase in the number of neurons in the anterior horn, when compared to the naïve, sham, and saline-treated sciatic nerve-injured (CRUSH) control groups. Additionally, immunohistochemical study of spinal cord sections revealed that EGCG reduced the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and increased the expression of growth-associated protein 43, a marker of regenerating axons. Finally, EGCG reduced the ratio of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein/Bcl-2 and increased the expression of survivin gene. This study may shed some light on the future clinical use of EGCG and its constituents in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. PMID:25025489

  14. Nerve growth factor delivery by ultrasound-mediated nanobubble destruction as a treatment for acute spinal cord injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhaojun; Wang, Zhigang; Shen, Jieliang; Xu, Shengxi; Hu, Zhenming

    2017-01-01

    Background Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) can cause severe disability or death. Treatment options include surgical intervention, drug therapy, and stem cell transplantation. However, the efficacy of these methods for functional recovery remains unsatisfactory. Purpose This study was conducted to explore the effect of ultrasound (US)-mediated destruction of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanobubbles (NBs) expressing nerve growth factor (NGF) (NGF/PLGA NBs) on nerve regeneration in rats following SCI. Materials and methods Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups after Allen hit models of SCI were established. The groups were normal saline (NS) group, NGF and NBs group, NGF and US group, and NGF/PLGA NBs and US group. Histological changes after SCI were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Neuron viability was determined by Nissl staining. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling staining was used to examine cell apoptosis. NGF gene and protein expressions were detected by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Green fluorescent protein expression in the spinal cord was examined using an inverted fluorescence microscope. The recovery of neural function was determined using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan test. Results NGF therapy using US-mediated NGF/PLGA NBs destruction significantly increased NGF expression, attenuated histological injury, decreased neuron loss, inhibited neuronal apoptosis in injured spinal cords, and increased BBB scores in rats with SCI. Conclusion US-mediated NGF/PLGA NBs destruction effectively transfects the NGF gene into target tissues and has a significant effect on the injured spinal cord. The combination of US irradiation and gene therapy through NGF/PLGA NBs holds great promise for the future of nanomedicine and the development of noninvasive treatment options for SCI and other diseases. PMID:28280337

  15. Electrophysiologic monitoring characteristics of the recurrent laryngeal nerve preoperatively paralyzed or invaded with malignancy.

    PubMed

    Kamani, Dipti; Darr, E Ashlie; Randolph, Gregory W

    2013-11-01

    To elucidate electrophysiologic responses of the recurrent laryngeal nerves that were preoperatively paralyzed or invaded by malignancy and to use this information as an added functional parameter for intraoperative management of recurrent laryngeal nerves with malignant invasion. Case series with chart review. Academic, tertiary care center. All consecutive neck surgeries with nerve monitoring performed by senior author (GWR) between December 1995 and January 2007 were reviewed after obtaining Institutional Review Board approval from Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Human Subjects Committee and the Partners Human Research Committee. Electrophysiologic parameters in all cases with preoperative vocal cord paralysis/paresis, and the recurrent laryngeal nerve invasion by cancer, were studied. Of the 1138 surgeries performed, 25 patients (2.1%) had preoperative vocal cord dysfunction. In patients with preoperative vocal cord dysfunction, recognizable recurrent laryngeal nerve electrophysiologic activity was preserved in over 50% of cases. Malignant invasion of the recurrent laryngeal nerve was found in 22 patients (1.9%). Neural invasion of the recurrent laryngeal nerve was associated with preoperative vocal cord paralysis in only 50% of these patients. In nerves invaded by malignancy, 60% maintained recognizable electrophysiologic activity, which was more commonly present and robust when vocal cord function was preserved. Knowledge of electrophysiologic intraoperative neural monitoring provides additional functional information and, along with preoperative vocal cord function information, aids in constructing decision algorithms regarding intraoperative management of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, in prognosticating postoperative outcomes, and in patient counseling regarding postoperative expectations.

  16. Transplantation of canine umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in experimentally induced spinal cord injured dogs.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ji Hey; Byeon, Ye Eun; Ryu, Hak Hyun; Jeong, Yun Hyeok; Lee, Young Won; Kim, Wan Hee; Kang, Kyung Sun; Kweon, Oh Kyeong

    2007-09-01

    This study was to determine the effects of allogenic umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and recombinant methionyl human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rmhGCSF) on a canine spinal cord injury model after balloon compression at the first lumbar vertebra. Twenty-five adult mongrel dogs were assigned to five groups according to treatment after a spinal cord injury: no treatment (CN); saline treatment (CP); rmhGCSF treatment (G); UCB-MSCs treatment (UCB-MSC); co-treatment (UCBG). The UCBMSCs isolated from cord blood of canine fetuses were prepared as 10(6) cells/150 microl saline. The UCB-MSCs were directly injected into the injured site of the spinal cord and rmhGCSF was administered subcutaneously 1 week after the induction of spinal cord injury. The Olby score, magnetic resonance imaging, somatosensory evoked potentials and histopathological examinations were used to evaluate the functional recovery after transplantation. The Olby scores of all groups were zero at the 0-week evaluation. At 2 week after the transplantation, the Olby scores in the groups with the UCB-MSC and UCBG were significantly higher than in the CN and CP groups. However, there were no significant differences between the UCB-MSC and UCBG groups, and between the CN and CP groups. These comparisons remained stable at 4 and 8 week after transplantation. There was significant improvement in the nerve conduction velocity based on the somatosensory evoked potentials. In addition, a distinct structural consistency of the nerve cell bodies was noted in the lesion of the spinal cord of the UCB-MSC and UCBG groups. These results suggest that transplantation of the UCB-MSCs resulted in recovery of nerve function in dogs with a spinal cord injury and may be considered as a therapeutic modality for spinal cord injury.

  17. Transplantation of canine umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in experimentally induced spinal cord injured dogs

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ji-Hey; Byeon, Ye-Eun; Ryu, Hak-Hyun; Jeong, Yun-Hyeok; Lee, Young-Won; Kim, Wan Hee

    2007-01-01

    This study was to determine the effects of allogenic umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and recombinant methionyl human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rmhGCSF) on a canine spinal cord injury model after balloon compression at the first lumbar vertebra. Twenty-five adult mongrel dogs were assigned to five groups according to treatment after a spinal cord injury: no treatment (CN); saline treatment (CP); rmhGCSF treatment (G); UCB-MSCs treatment (UCB-MSC); co-treatment (UCBG). The UCB-MSCs isolated from cord blood of canine fetuses were prepared as 106 cells/150 µl saline. The UCB-MSCs were directly injected into the injured site of the spinal cord and rmhGCSF was administered subcutaneously 1 week after the induction of spinal cord injury. The Olby score, magnetic resonance imaging, somatosensory evoked potentials and histopathological examinations were used to evaluate the functional recovery after transplantation. The Olby scores of all groups were zero at the 0-week evaluation. At 2 week after the transplantation, the Olby scores in the groups with the UCB-MSC and UCBG were significantly higher than in the CN and CP groups. However, there were no significant differences between the UCB-MSC and UCBG groups, and between the CN and CP groups. These comparisons remained stable at 4 and 8 week after transplantation. There was significant improvement in the nerve conduction velocity based on the somatosensory evoked potentials. In addition, a distinct structural consistency of the nerve cell bodies was noted in the lesion of the spinal cord of the UCB-MSC and UCBG groups. These results suggest that transplantation of the UCB-MSCs resulted in recovery of nerve function in dogs with a spinal cord injury and may be considered as a therapeutic modality for spinal cord injury. PMID:17679775

  18. Effect of peripheral nerve injury on receptive fields of cells in the cat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Devor, M; Wall, P D

    1981-06-20

    When the sciatic and saphenous nerves are cut and ligated in adult cats, the immediate effect is the production of a completely anesthetic foot and a region in medial lumbar dorsal horn where almost all cells have lost their natural receptive fields (RFs). Beginning at about 1 week and maturing by 4 weeks, some 40% of cells in the medial dorsal horn gain a novel RF on proximal skin, that is, upper and lower leg, thigh, lower back, or perineum. This new RF is supplied by intact proximal nerves and not by sciatic and saphenous nerve fibers that sprouted in the periphery. During the period of switching of RFs from distal to proximal skin there was no gross atrophy of dorsal horn grey matter and no Fink-Heimer stainable degeneration of central arbors and terminals of peripherally axotomized afferents. In intact animals medial dorsal horn cells showed no sign of response to mechanical stimulation of proximal skin. RFs of some of the cells had spontaneous variations in size and sensitivity, but these were not nearly sufficient to explain the large shifts observed after chronic nerve section. Tetanic electrical stimulation of skin or peripheral nerves often caused RFs to shrink, but never to expand. Although natural stimuli of proximal skin would not excite medial dorsal horn cells in intact or acutely deafferented animals, it was found that electrical stimulation of proximal nerves did excite many of these cells, often at short latencies. In the discussion we justify our working hypothesis that the appearance of novel RFs is due to the strengthening or unmasking of normally present but ineffective afferent terminals, rather than to long-distance sprouting of new afferent arbors within the spinal cord.

  19. Fast-Scan Cyclic Voltammetry (FSCV) Detection of Endogenous Octopamine in Drosophila melanogaster Ventral Nerve Cord.

    PubMed

    Pyakurel, Poojan; Privman Champaloux, Eve; Venton, B Jill

    2016-08-17

    Octopamine is an endogenous biogenic amine neurotransmitter, neurohormone, and neuromodulator in invertebrates and has functional analogy with norepinephrine in vertebrates. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) can detect rapid changes in neurotransmitters, but FSCV has not been optimized for octopamine detection in situ. The goal of this study was to characterize octopamine release in the ventral nerve cord of Drosophila larvae for the first time. A FSCV waveform was optimized so that the potential for octopamine oxidation would not be near the switching potential where interferences can occur. Endogenous octopamine release was stimulated by genetically inserting either the ATP sensitive channel, P2X2, or the red-light sensitive channelrhodopsin, CsChrimson, into cells expressing tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC), an octopamine synthesis enzyme. To ensure that release is due to octopamine and not the precursor tyramine, the octopamine synthesis inhibitor disulfiram was applied, and the signal decreased by 80%. Stimulated release was vesicular, and a 2 s continuous light stimulation of CsChrimson evoked 0.22 ± 0.03 μM of octopamine release in the larval ventral nerve cord. Repeated stimulations were stable with 2 or 5 min interstimulation times. With pulsed stimulations, the release was dependent on the frequency of applied light pulse. An octopamine transporter has not been identified, and blockers of the dopamine transporter and serotonin transporter had no significant effect on the clearance time of octopamine, suggesting that they do not take up octopamine. This study shows that octopamine can be monitored in Drosophila, facilitating future studies of how octopamine release functions in the insect brain.

  20. Photodynamic damage of glial cells in crayfish ventral nerve cord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolosov, M. S.; Duz, E.; Uzdensky, A. B.

    2011-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising method for treatment of brain tumors, the most of which are of glial origin. In the present work we studied PDT-mediated injury of glial cells in nerve tissue, specifically, in abdominal connectives in the crayfish ventral nerve cord. The preparation was photosensitized with alumophthalocyanine Photosens and irradiated 30 min with the diode laser (670 nm, 0.1 or 0.15 W/cm2). After following incubation in the darkness during 1- 10 hours it was fluorochromed with Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide to reveal nuclei of living, necrotic and apoptotic cells. The chain-like location of the glial nuclei allowed visualization of those enveloping giant axons and blood vessels. The level of glial necrosis in control preparations was about 2-5 %. Apoptosis was not observed in control preparations. PDT significantly increased necrosis of glial cells to 52 or 67 % just after irradiation with 0.1 or 0.15 W/cm2, respectively. Apoptosis of glial cells was observed only at 10 hours after light exposure. Upper layers of the glial envelope of the connectives were injured stronger comparing to deep ones: the level of glial necrosis decreased from 100 to 30 % upon moving from the connective surface to the plane of the giant axon inside the connective. Survival of glial cells was also high in the vicinity of blood vessels. One can suggest that giant axons and blood vessels protect neighboring glial cells from photodynamic damage. The mechanism of such protective action remains to be elucidated.

  1. Nerve growth factor pretreatment inhibits lidocaine-induced myelin damage via increasing BDNF expression and inhibiting p38 mitogen activation in the rat spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guangyi; Li, Dan; Ding, Xudong; Li, Lu

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of exogenous nerve growth factor (NGF) pretreatment on demyelination in the spinal cord of lidocaine-treated rats, and explored the potential neuroprotective mechanisms of NGF. A total of 36 rats were randomly assigned to three groups (n=12 per group): Sham group; Lido group, received intrathecal injection of lidocaine; NGF group, received intrathecal injection of NGF followed by intrathecal injection of lidocaine. Tail-flick tests were used to evaluate neurobehavioral function. Ultrastructural alternations were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Immunofluorescence was used to examine the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). ELISA was used to determine serum levels of MBP and proteolipid protein (PLP). Western blotting was used to detect the expression of phosphorylated mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). NGF pretreatment reduced lidocaine-induced neurobehavioral damage, nerve fiber demyelination, accompanied by a decrease in MBP expression in the spinal cord and an increase in MBP and PLP in serum. In addition, NGF pretreatment increased BDNF expression in the spinal cord of lidocaine-treated rats. Furthermore, NGF pretreatment reduced p38 MAPK phosphorylation in the spinal cord of lidocaine-treated rats. NGF treatment reduces lidocaine-induced neurotoxicity via the upregulation of BDNF and inhibition of p38 MAPK. NGF therapy may improve the clinical use of lidocaine in intravertebral anesthesia. PMID:28849178

  2. Axotomy of tributaries of the pelvic and pudendal nerves induces changes in the neurochemistry of mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons and the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Carly J; Tomasella, Eugenia; Malet, Mariana; Seroogy, Kim B; Hökfelt, Tomas; Villar, Marcelo J; Gebhart, G F; Brumovsky, Pablo R

    2016-05-01

    Using immunohistochemical techniques, we characterized changes in the expression of several neurochemical markers in lumbar 4-sacral 2 (L4-S2) dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron profiles (NPs) and the spinal cord of BALB/c mice after axotomy of the L6 and S1 spinal nerves, major tributaries of the pelvic (targeting pelvic visceral organs) and pudendal (targeting perineum and genitalia) nerves. Sham animals were included. Expression of cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor 3 (ATF3), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT) types 1 and -2 was analysed seven days after injury. L6-S1 axotomy induced dramatic de novo expression of ATF3 in many L6-S1 DRG NPs, and parallel significant downregulations in the percentage of CGRP-, TRPV1-, TH- and VGLUT2-immunoreactive (IR) DRG NPs, as compared to their expression in uninjured DRGs (contralateral L6-S1-AXO; sham mice); VGLUT1 expression remained unaltered. Sham L6-S1 DRGs only showed a small ipsilateral increase in ATF3-IR NPs (other markers were unchanged). L6-S1-AXO induced de novo expression of ATF3 in several lumbosacral spinal cord motoneurons and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons; in sham mice the effect was limited to a few motoneurons. Finally, a moderate decrease in CGRP- and TRPV1-like-immunoreactivities was observed in the ipsilateral superficial dorsal horn neuropil. In conclusion, injury of a mixed visceral/non-visceral nerve leads to considerable neurochemical alterations in DRGs matched, to some extent, in the spinal cord. Changes in these and potentially other nociception-related molecules could contribute to pain due to injury of nerves in the abdominopelvic cavity.

  3. Reinnervation of Urethral and Anal Sphincters With Femoral Motor Nerve to Pudendal Nerve Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Ruggieri, Michael R.; Braverman, Alan S.; Bernal, Raymond M.; Lamarre, Neil S.; Brown, Justin M.; Barbe, Mary F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Lower motor neuron damage to sacral roots or nerves can result in incontinence and a flaccid urinary bladder. We showed bladder reinnervation after transfer of coccygeal to sacral ventral roots, and genitofemoral nerves (L1, 2 origin) to pelvic nerves. This study assesses the feasibility of urethral and anal sphincter reinnervation using transfer of motor branches of the femoral nerve (L2–4 origin) to pudendal nerves (S1, 2 origin) that innervate the urethral and anal sphincters in a canine model. Methods Sacral ventral roots were selected by their ability to stimulate bladder, urethral sphincter, and anal sphincter contraction and transected. Bilaterally, branches of the femoral nerve, specifically, nervus saphenous pars muscularis [Evans HE. Miller’s anatomy of the dog. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1993], were transferred and end-to-end anastomosed to transected pudendal nerve branches in the perineum, then enclosed in unipolar nerve cuff electrodes with leads to implanted RF micro-stimulators. Results Nerve stimulation induced increased anal and urethral sphincter pressures in five of six transferred nerves. Retrograde neurotracing from the bladder, urethral sphincter, and anal sphincter using fluorogold, fast blue, and fluororuby, demonstrated urethral and anal sphincter labeled neurons in L2–4 cord segments (but not S1–3) in nerve transfer canines, consistent with rein-nervation by the transferred femoral nerve motor branches. Controls had labeled neurons only in S1–3 segments. Postmortem DiI and DiO labeling confirmed axonal regrowth across the nerve repair site. Conclusions These results show spinal cord reinnervation of urethral and anal sphincter targets after sacral ventral root transection and femoral nerve transfer (NT) to the denervated pudendal nerve. These surgical procedures may allow patients to regain continence. PMID:21953679

  4. Comparative survival study of glial cells and cells composing walls of blood vessels in crustacean ventral nerve cord after photodynamic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolosov, Mikhail S.; Shubina, Elena

    2015-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a prospective treatment modality of brain cancers. It is of importance to have information about relative survival rate of different cell types in nerve tissue during photodynamic treatment. Particularly, for development of sparing strategy of the photodynamic therapy of brain tumors, which pursuits both total elimination of malignant cells, which are usually of glial origin, and, at the same time, preservation of normal blood circulation as well as normal glial cells in the brain. The aim of this work was to carry out comparative survival study of glial cells and cells composing walls of blood vessels after photodynamic treatment, using simple model object - ventral nerve cord of crustacean.

  5. Symmetry of priapulids (Priapulida). 2. Symmetry of larvae.

    PubMed

    Adrianov, A V; Malakhov, V V

    2001-02-01

    Larvae of priapulids are characterized by radial symmetry evident from both external and internal characters of the introvert and lorica. The bilaterality appears as a result of a combination of several radial symmetries: pentaradial symmetry of the teeth, octaradial symmetry of the primary scalids, 25-radial symmetry of scalids, biradial symmetry of the neck, and biradial and decaradial symmetry of the trunk. Internal radiality is exhibited by musculature and the circumpharyngeal nerve ring. Internal bilaterality is evident from the position of the ventral nerve cord and excretory elements. Externally, the bilaterality is determined by the position of the anal tubulus and two shortened midventral rows of scalids bordering the ventral nerve cord. The lorical elements define the biradial symmetry that is missing in adult priapulids. The radial symmetry of larvae is a secondary appearance considered an evolutionary adaptation to a lifestyle within the three-dimensional environment of the benthic sediment. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Morphology of the caudal spinal cord in Rana (Ranidae) and Xenopus (Pipidae) tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, K; Wassersug, R

    1988-03-08

    Using a variety of neuroanatomical and histological techniques, we compare the spinal cord and peripheral nerve distribution in the tails of larvae from Xenopus laevis and three species of Rana. The relatively large, postsacral spinal cord of Xenopus contains abundant motoneurons and their axons. Spinal nerves exit from the spinal cord in a regular array, one nerve per myotome, from the cervical region to near the end of the tail. Somata of motoneurons innervating caudal myotomes are found along the entire length of the tail. In contrast, the caudal cord of Rana is reduced to a filum terminale consisting of little more than an ependymal tube; spinal nerves to all caudal myotomes leave the cord in the sacral region and reach their motor targets via a cauda equina and caudal plexus. Motoneuron cell bodies innervating caudal myotomes are found only in the sacral region. The Rana larval pattern is similar to that of adult frogs and mammals, whereas the Xenopus larval pattern is more like that of salamanders and reptiles. These gross neuroanatomical differences are not due to differences in the size or developmental stage of the tadpoles, but instead are associated with differences in the swimming behavior of the larvae. The presence of motoneurons in the caudal spinal cord of Xenopus may provide local intermyotomal control within the tail; the elongated topography of the cord appears to permit finer, rostral-to-caudal regulation of neuromuscular activity. The Rana spinal cord, on the other hand--with motoneurons clustered anteriorly--may produce concurrent firing of adjacent ipsilateral myotomes, but at the expense of fine intermyotomal regulation. The fact that nerves in the tail of Xenopus enter and exit from the spinal cord locally, as opposed to far anteriorly as in Rana, means that for tadpoles of the same size, reflex arc lengths are many times shorter in Xenopus.

  7. Novel Model of Somatosensory Nerve Transfer in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Paskal, Adriana M; Paskal, Wiktor; Pelka, Kacper; Podobinska, Martyna; Andrychowski, Jaroslaw; Wlodarski, Pawel K

    2018-05-09

    Nerve transfer (neurotization) is a reconstructive procedure in which the distal denervated nerve is joined with a proximal healthy nerve of a less significant function. Neurotization models described to date are limited to avulsed roots or pure motor nerve transfers, neglecting the clinically significant mixed nerve transfer. Our aim was to determine whether femoral-to-sciatic nerve transfer could be a feasible model of mixed nerve transfer. Three Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral femoral-to-sciatic nerve transfer. After 50 days, functional recovery was evaluated with a prick test. At the same time, axonal tracers were injected into each sciatic nerve distally to the lesion site, to determine nerve fibers' regeneration. In the prick test, the rats retracted their hind limbs after stimulation, although the reaction was moderately weaker on the operated side. Seven days after injection of axonal tracers, dyes were visualized by confocal microscopy in the spinal cord. Innervation of the recipient nerve originated from higher segments of the spinal cord than that on the untreated side. The results imply that the femoral nerve axons, ingrown into the damaged sciatic nerve, reinnervate distal targets with a functional outcome.

  8. End-to-side neurorrhaphy repairs peripheral nerve injury: sensory nerve induces motor nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qing; Zhang, She-Hong; Wang, Tao; Peng, Feng; Han, Dong; Gu, Yu-Dong

    2017-10-01

    End-to-side neurorrhaphy is an option in the treatment of the long segment defects of a nerve. It involves suturing the distal stump of the disconnected nerve (recipient nerve) to the side of the intimate adjacent nerve (donor nerve). However, the motor-sensory specificity after end-to-side neurorrhaphy remains unclear. This study sought to evaluate whether cutaneous sensory nerve regeneration induces motor nerves after end-to-side neurorrhaphy. Thirty rats were randomized into three groups: (1) end-to-side neurorrhaphy using the ulnar nerve (mixed sensory and motor) as the donor nerve and the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve as the recipient nerve; (2) the sham group: ulnar nerve and cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve were just exposed; and (3) the transected nerve group: cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve was transected and the stumps were turned over and tied. At 5 months, acetylcholinesterase staining results showed that 34% ± 16% of the myelinated axons were stained in the end-to-side group, and none of the myelinated axons were stained in either the sham or transected nerve groups. Retrograde fluorescent tracing of spinal motor neurons and dorsal root ganglion showed the proportion of motor neurons from the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve of the end-to-side group was 21% ± 5%. In contrast, no motor neurons from the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve of the sham group and transected nerve group were found in the spinal cord segment. These results confirmed that motor neuron regeneration occurred after cutaneous nerve end-to-side neurorrhaphy.

  9. End-to-side neurorrhaphy repairs peripheral nerve injury: sensory nerve induces motor nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qing; Zhang, She-hong; Wang, Tao; Peng, Feng; Han, Dong; Gu, Yu-dong

    2017-01-01

    End-to-side neurorrhaphy is an option in the treatment of the long segment defects of a nerve. It involves suturing the distal stump of the disconnected nerve (recipient nerve) to the side of the intimate adjacent nerve (donor nerve). However, the motor-sensory specificity after end-to-side neurorrhaphy remains unclear. This study sought to evaluate whether cutaneous sensory nerve regeneration induces motor nerves after end-to-side neurorrhaphy. Thirty rats were randomized into three groups: (1) end-to-side neurorrhaphy using the ulnar nerve (mixed sensory and motor) as the donor nerve and the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve as the recipient nerve; (2) the sham group: ulnar nerve and cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve were just exposed; and (3) the transected nerve group: cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve was transected and the stumps were turned over and tied. At 5 months, acetylcholinesterase staining results showed that 34% ± 16% of the myelinated axons were stained in the end-to-side group, and none of the myelinated axons were stained in either the sham or transected nerve groups. Retrograde fluorescent tracing of spinal motor neurons and dorsal root ganglion showed the proportion of motor neurons from the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve of the end-to-side group was 21% ± 5%. In contrast, no motor neurons from the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve of the sham group and transected nerve group were found in the spinal cord segment. These results confirmed that motor neuron regeneration occurred after cutaneous nerve end-to-side neurorrhaphy. PMID:29171436

  10. Spinal cord injury arising in anaesthesia practice.

    PubMed

    Hewson, D W; Bedforth, N M; Hardman, J G

    2018-01-01

    Spinal cord injury arising during anaesthetic practice is a rare event, but one that carries a significant burden in terms of morbidity and mortality. In this article, we will review the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury. We will then discuss injuries relating to patient position, spinal cord hypoperfusion and neuraxial techniques. The most serious causes of spinal cord injury - vertebral canal haematoma, spinal epidural abscess, meningitis and adhesive arachnoiditis - will be discussed in turn. For each condition, we draw attention to practical, evidence-based measures clinicians can undertake to reduce their incidence, or mitigate their severity. Finally, we will discuss transient neurological symptoms. Some cases of spinal cord injury during anaesthesia can be ascribed to anaesthesia itself, arising as a direct consequence of its conduct. The injury to a spinal nerve root by inaccurate and/or incautious needling during spinal anaesthesia is an obvious example. But in many cases, spinal cord injury during anaesthesia is not caused by, related to, or even associated with, the conduct of the anaesthetic. Surgical factors, whether direct (e.g. spinal nerve root damage due to incorrect pedicle screw placement) or indirect (e.g. cord ischaemia following aortic surgery) are responsible for a significant proportion of spinal cord injuries that occur concurrently with the delivery of regional or general anaesthesia. © 2018 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  11. The ventral nerve cord in Cephalocarida (Crustacea): new insights into the ground pattern of Tetraconata.

    PubMed

    Stegner, Martin E J; Brenneis, Georg; Richter, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Cephalocarida are Crustacea with many anatomical features that have been interpreted as plesiomorphic with respect to crustaceans or Tetraconata. While the ventral nerve cord (VNC) has been investigated in many other arthropods to address phylogenetic and evolutionary questions, the few studies that exist on the cephalocarid VNC date back 20 years, and data pertaining to neuroactive substances in particular are too sparse for comparison. We reinvestigated the VNC of adult Hutchinsoniella macracantha in detail, combining immunolabeling (tubulin, serotonin, RFamide, histamine) and nuclear stains with confocal laser microscopy, complemented by 3D-reconstructions based on serial semithin sections. The subesophageal ganglion in Cephalocarida comprises three segmental neuromeres (Md, Mx1, Mx2), while a separate ganglion occurs in all thoracic segments and abdominal segments 1-8. Abdominal segments 9 and 10 and the telson are free of ganglia. The maxillar neuromere and the thoracic ganglia correspond closely in their limb innervation pattern, their pattern of mostly four segmental commissures and in displaying up to six individually identified serotonin-like immunoreactive neurons per body side, which exceeds the number found in most other tetraconates. Only two commissures and two serotonin-like immunoreactive neurons per side are present in abdominal ganglia. The stomatogastric nervous system in H. macracantha corresponds to that in other crustaceans and includes, among other structures, a pair of lateral neurite bundles. These innervate the gut as well as various trunk muscles and are, uniquely, linked to the unpaired median neurite bundle. We propose that most features of the cephalocarid ventral nerve cord (VNC) are plesiomorphic with respect to the tetraconate ground pattern. Further, we suggest that this ground pattern includes more serotonin-like neurons than hitherto assumed, and argue that a sister-group relationship between Cephalocarida and Remipedia, as

  12. [Immediate recurrent laryngeal nerve reconstruction in the treatment of thyroid cancer invading the recurrent laryngeal nerve].

    PubMed

    Feng, Yun; Yang, Dazhang; Liu, Dandan; Chen, Jian; Bi, Qingling; Luo, Keqiang

    2014-08-01

    To explore the application of immediate recurrent laryngeal nerve reconstruction in the treatment of thyroid cancer invading the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Ten patients with thyroid cancer invading unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve underwent radical surgery and immediate recurrent laryngeal nerve reconstruction. The reconstructive surgical approach included recurrent laryngeal nerve decompression surgery, end-to-end anastomosis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, anastomosis of ansa cervicalis nerve to the recurrent laryngeal nerve, and nerve-muscle pedicle (NMP) technique. Among the ten patients, one underwent nerve decompression, one underwent end-to-end anastomosis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, seven had anastomosis of ansa cervicalis to recurrent laryngeal nerve, and one case had anastomosis of ansa cervicalis to recurrent laryngeal nerve combined with nerve-muscle pedicle (NMP) technique. The effect of surgery was evaluated by videolaryngoscopy, maximum phonation time (MPT), phonation efficiency index (PEI) and voice assessment. T-test was used in the statistical analysis. All of the 10 patients had no complications including tumor recurrence and hypoparathyroidism after the surgery. Their hoarseness symptoms were improved, and the patients returned to normal or near-normal voice. Postoperative videolaryngoscopy showed that paralyzed vocal cord returned to normal muscle tone and volume, and the vocal cord vibration and mucosal wave were symmetric and the patients got good glottal closure. The pre- and post-operative maximum phone times of the patients were (4.52 ± 0.89) s and (11.91 ± 1.87) s, respectively (P < 0.01). The pre- and post-operative phonation efficiency indices were (1.37 ± 0.43) s/L and (4.02 ± 1.33) s/L, respectively (P < 0.05). In patients with thyroid cancer invading unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve, immediate recurrent laryngeal nerve reconstruction following radical surgery of thyroid cancer can effectively achieve recovery in

  13. Changes in VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 expression in rat dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord following spared nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Sheng; Yu, Gang; Wang, Zhi-Tong; Yi, Shou-Pu; Su, Rui-Bin; Gong, Ze-Hui

    2016-10-01

    Disturbance of glutamate homeostasis is a well-characterized mechanism of neuropathic pain. Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) determine glutamate accumulation in synaptic vesicles and their roles in neuropathic pain have been suggested by gene-knockout studies. Here, we investigated the spatio-temporal changes in VGLUT expression during the development of neuropathic pain in wild-type rats. Spared nerve injury (SNI) induced mechanical allodynia from postoperative day 1 to at least day 14. Expression of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord was examined by western blot analyses on different postoperative days. We observed that VGLUT2 were selectively upregulated in crude vesicle fractions from the ipsilateral lumbar enlargement on postoperative days 7 and 14, while VGLUT1 was transiently downregulated in ipsilateral DRG (day 4) and contralateral lumbar enlargement (day 1). Upregulation of VGLUT2 was not accompanied by alterations in vesicular expression of synaptotagmin or glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Thus, VGLUTs expression, especially VGLUT2, is regulated following peripheral nerve injury. Temporal regulation of VGLUT2 expression in spinal cord may represent a novel presynaptic mechanism contributing to injury-induced glutamate imbalance and associated neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Non-recurrent laryngeal nerve with a coexisting contralateral nerve demonstrating extralaryngeal branching.

    PubMed

    Constable, James D; Bathala, Srinivasalu; Ahmed, Jacob J; McGlashan, Julian A

    2017-03-17

    Non-recurrence and extralaryngeal branching are 2 of the more frequently encountered anomalies of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. If not anticipated intraoperatively, these abnormalities can put the nerve at risk, with subsequent vocal cord palsy. It is therefore important to report on and understand these abnormalities. We present a unique case of a non-recurrent laryngeal nerve with a coexisting contralateral nerve demonstrating extralaryngeal branching. This case allows us to demonstrate the importance of arteria lusoria in head and neck surgery, and to conclude that non-recurrence and extralaryngeal branching can occur separately within individual nerves in the same patient. The case also highlights the importance of a systematic intraoperative approach to the identification of every recurrent laryngeal nerve, especially in bilateral procedures having already exposed an anomalous nerve on one side. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Selection of muscle and nerve-cuff electrodes for neuroprostheses using customizable musculoskeletal model.

    PubMed

    Blana, Dimitra; Hincapie, Juan G; Chadwick, Edward K; Kirsch, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    Neuroprosthetic systems based on functional electrical stimulation aim to restore motor function to individuals with paralysis following spinal cord injury. Identifying the optimal electrode set for the neuroprosthesis is complicated because it depends on the characteristics of the individual (such as injury level), the force capacities of the muscles, the movements the system aims to restore, and the hardware limitations (number and type of electrodes available). An electrode-selection method has been developed that uses a customized musculoskeletal model. Candidate electrode sets are created based on desired functional outcomes and the hard ware limitations of the proposed system. Inverse-dynamic simulations are performed to determine the proportion of target movements that can be accomplished with each set; the set that allows the most movements to be performed is chosen as the optimal set. The technique is demonstrated here for a system recently developed by our research group to restore whole-arm movement to individuals with high-level tetraplegia. The optimal set included selective nerve-cuff electrodes for the radial and musculocutaneous nerves; single-channel cuffs for the axillary, suprascapular, upper subscapular, and long-thoracic nerves; and muscle-based electrodes for the remaining channels. The importance of functional goals, hardware limitations, muscle and nerve anatomy, and surgical feasibility are highlighted.

  16. [Does intraoperative nerve monitoring reduce the rate of recurrent nerve palsies during thyroid surgery?].

    PubMed

    Timmermann, W; Dralle, H; Hamelmann, W; Thomusch, O; Sekulla, C; Meyer, Th; Timm, S; Thiede, A

    2002-05-01

    Two different aspects of the influence of neuromonitoring on the possible reduction of post-operative recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies require critical examination: the nerve identification and the monitoring of it's functions. Due to the additional information from the EMG signals, neuromonitoring is the best method for identifying the nerves as compared to visual identification alone. There are still no randomized studies available that compare the visual and electrophysiological recurrent laryngeal nerve detection in thyroid operations with respect to the postoperative nerve palsies. Nevertheless, comparisons with historical collectives show that a constant low nerve-palsy-rate was achieved with electrophysiological detection in comparison to visual detection. The rate of nerve identification is normally very high and amounts to 99 % in our own patients. The data obtained during the "Quality assurance of benign and malignant Goiter" study show that in hemithyreoidectomy and subtotal resection, lower nerve-palsy-rates are achieved with neuromonitoring as compared to solely visual detection. Following subtotal resection, this discrepancy becomes even statistically significant. While monitoring the nerve functions with the presently used neuromonitoring technique, it is possible to observe the EMG-signal remaining constant or decreasing in volume. Assuming that a constant neuromonitoring signal represents a normal vocal cord, our evaluation shows that there is a small percentage of false negative and positive results. Looking at the permanent recurrent nerve palsy rates, this method has a specificity of 98 %, a sensitivity of 100 %, a positive prognostic value of 10 %, and a negative prognostic value of 100 %. Although an altered neuromonitoring signal can be taken as a clear indication of eventual nerve damage, an absolutely reliable statement about the postoperative vocal cord function is presently not possible with intraoperative neuromonitoring.

  17. Transposition of branches of radial nerve innervating supinator to posterior interosseous nerve for functional reconstruction of finger and thumb extension in 4 patients with middle and lower trunk root avulsion injuries of brachial plexus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Cong, Xiao-Bing; Huang, Qi-Shun; Ai, Fang-Xin; Liu, Yu-Tian; Lu, Xiao-Cheng; Li, Jin; Weng, Yu-Xiong; Chen, Zhen-Bing

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the reconstruction of the thumb and finger extension function in patients with middle and lower trunk root avulsion injuries of the brachial plexus. From April 2010 to January 2015, we enrolled in this study 4 patients diagnosed with middle and lower trunk root avulsion injuries of the brachial plexus via imaging tests, electrophysiological examinations, and clinical confirmation. Muscular branches of the radial nerve, which innervate the supinator in the forearm, were transposed to the posterior interosseous nerve to reconstruct the thumb and finger extension function. Electrophysiological findings and muscle strength of the extensor pollicis longus and extensor digitorum communis, as well as the distance between the thumb tip and index finger tip, were monitored. All patients were followed up for 24 to 30 months, with an average of 27.5 months. Motor unit potentials (MUP) of the extensor digitorum communis appeared at an average of 3.8 months, while MUP of the extensor pollicis longus appeared at an average of 7 months. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) appeared at an average of 9 months in the extensor digitorum communis, and 12 months in the extensor pollicis longus. Furthermore, the muscle strength of the extensor pollicis longus and extensor digitorum communis both reached grade III at 21 months. Lastly, the average distance between the thumb tip and index finger tip was 8.8 cm at 21 months. In conclusion, for patients with middle and lower trunk injuries of the brachial plexus, transposition of the muscular branches of the radial nerve innervating the supinator to the posterior interosseous nerve for the reconstruction of thumb and finger extension function is practicable and feasible.

  18. In-vivo spinal nerve sensing in MISS using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Xu, Weiliang; Broderick, Neil

    2016-04-01

    In modern Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery (MISS), lack of visualization and haptic feedback information are the main obstacles. The spinal cord is a part of the central nervous system (CNS). It is a continuation of the brain stem, carries motor and sensory messages between CNS and the rest of body, and mediates numerous spinal reflexes. Spinal cord and spinal nerves are of great importance but vulnerable, once injured it may result in severe consequences to patients, e.g. paralysis. Raman Spectroscopy has been proved to be an effective and powerful tool in biological and biomedical applications as it works in a rapid, non-invasive and label-free way. It can provide molecular vibrational features of tissue samples and reflect content and proportion of protein, nucleic acids lipids etc. Due to the distinct chemical compositions spinal nerves have, we proposed that spinal nerves can be identified from other types of tissues by using Raman spectroscopy. Ex vivo experiments were first done on samples taken from swine backbones. Comparative spectral data of swine spinal cord, spinal nerves and adjacent tissues (i.e. membrane layer of the spinal cord, muscle, bone and fatty tissue) are obtained by a Raman micro-spectroscopic system and the peak assignment is done. Then the average spectra of all categories of samples are averaged and normalized to the same scale to see the difference against each other. The results verified the feasibility of spinal cord and spinal nerves identification by using Raman spectroscopy. Besides, a fiber-optic Raman sensing system including a miniature Raman sensor for future study is also introduced. This Raman sensor can be embedded into surgical tools for MISS.

  19. Revisiting the segmental organization of the human spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Leijnse, J N; D'Herde, K

    2016-09-01

    In classic anatomic atlases, the spinal cord is standardly represented in its anatomical form with symmetrically emerging anterior and posterior roots, which at the level of the intervertebral foramen combine into the spinal nerves. The parts of the cord delimited by the boundaries of the roots are called segments or myelomeres. Associated with their regular repetitive appearance is the notion that the cord is segmentally organized. This segmental view is reinforced by clinical practice. Spinal cord roots innervate specific body parts. The level of cord trauma is diagnosed by the de-innervation symptoms of these parts. However, systemically, the case for a segmentally organized cord is not so clear. To date, developmental and genetic research points to a regionally rather than a segmentally organized cord. In the present study, to what degree the fila radicularia are segmentally implanted along the cord was investigated. The research hypothesis was that if the fila radicularia were non-segmentally implanted at the cord surface, it would be unlikely that the internal neuron stratum would be segmented. The visual segmented aspect of the myelomeres would then be the consequence of the necessary bundling of axons towards the vertebral foramen as the only exits of the vertebral canal, rather than of an underlying segment organization of the cord itself. To investigate the research hypothesis, the fila radicularia in the cervical-upper thoracic part of five spinal cords were detached from their spinal nerves and dissected in detail. The principal research question was if the fila radicularia are separated from their spinal nerves and dissected from their connective tissues up to the cord, would it be possible to reconstruct the original spinal segments from the morphology and interspaces of the fila? The dissections revealed that the anterior fila radicularia emerge from the cord at regular regionally modulated interspaces without systematic segmental delineations. The

  20. Resveratrol Promotes Nerve Regeneration via Activation of p300 Acetyltransferase-Mediated VEGF Signaling in a Rat Model of Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhuofeng; Cao, Jiawei; Shen, Yu; Zou, Yu; Yang, Xin; Zhou, Wen; Guo, Qulian; Huang, Changsheng

    2018-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries are generally associated with incomplete restoration of motor function. The slow rate of nerve regeneration after injury may account for this. Although many benefits of resveratrol have been shown in the nervous system, it is not clear whether resveratrol could promote fast nerve regeneration and motor repair after peripheral nerve injury. This study showed that the motor deficits caused by sciatic nerve crush injury were alleviated by daily systematic resveratrol treatment within 10 days. Resveratrol increased the number of axons in the distal part of the injured nerve, indicating enhanced nerve regeneration. In the affected ventral spinal cord, resveratrol enhanced the expression of several vascular endothelial growth factor family proteins (VEGFs) and increased the phosphorylation of p300 through Akt signaling, indicating activation of p300 acetyltransferase. Inactivation of p300 acetyltransferase reversed the resveratrol-induced expression of VEGFs and motor repair in rats that had undergone sciatic nerve crush injury. The above results indicated that daily systematic resveratrol treatment promoted nerve regeneration and led to rapid motor repair. Resveratrol activated p300 acetyltransferase-mediated VEGF signaling in the affected ventral spinal cord, which may have thus contributed to the acceleration of nerve regeneration and motor repair.

  1. Intractable Pruritus After Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Deborah A; Jaffee, Kenneth M; Kundu, Anjana

    2009-01-01

    Background: This report describes a young woman with incomplete traumatic cervical spinal cord injury and intractable pruritus involving her dorsal forearm. Method: Case report. Findings: Anatomic distribution of the pruritus corresponded to the dermatomal distribution of her level of spinal cord injury and vertebral fusion. Symptoms were attributed to the spinal cord injury and possible cervical root injury. Pruritus was refractory to all treatments, including topical lidocaine, gabapentin, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, intravenous Bier block, stellate ganglion block, and acupuncture. Conclusions: Further understanding of neuropathic pruritus is needed. Diagnostic workup of intractable pruritus should include advanced imaging to detect ongoing nerve root compression. If diagnostic studies suggest radiculopathy, epidural steroid injection should be considered. Because the autonomic nervous system may be involved in complex chronic pain or pruritic syndromes, sympatholysis via such techniques as stellate ganglion block might be effective. PMID:19777867

  2. ULNAR NERVE COMPONENT TO INNERVATION OF THUMB CARPOMETACARPAL JOINT

    PubMed Central

    Miki, Roberto Augusto; Kam, Check C; Gennis, Elisabeth R; Barkin, Jodie A; Riel, Ryan U; Robinson, Philip G; Owens, Patrick W

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint arthritis is one of the most common problems addressed by hand surgeons. The gold standard of treatment for thumb CMC joint arthritis is trapeziectomy, ligament reconstruction and tendon interposition. Denervation of the thumb CMC joint is not currently used to treat arthritis in this joint due to the failure of the procedure to yield significant symptomatic relief. The failure of denervation is puzzling, given that past anatomic studies show the radial nerve is the major innervation of the thumb CMC joint with the lateral antebrachial nerve and the median nerve also innervating this joint. Although no anatomic study has ever shown that the ulnar nerve innervates the CMC joint, due to both the failure of denervation and the success of arthroscopic thermal ablation, we suspect that previous anatomic studies may have overlooked innervation of the thumb CMC joint via the ulnar nerve. Methods We dissected 19 formalin-preserved cadaveric hand-to-mid-forearm specimens. The radial, median and ulnar nerves were identified in the proximal forearm and then followed distally. Any branch heading toward the radial side of the hand were followed to see if they innervated the thumb CMC joint. Results Eleven specimens (58%) had superficial radial nerve innervation to the thumb CMC joint. Nine specimens (47%) had median nerve innervation from the motor branch. Nine specimens (47%) had ulnar nerve innervation from the motor branch. Conclusions We believe this is the first study to demonstrate that the ulnar nerve innervates the thumb CMC joint This finding may explain the poor results seen in earlier attempts at denervation of the thumb CMC, but the more favorable results with techniques such as arthroscopy with thermal ablation. PMID:22096446

  3. Nerve transfer to relieve pain in upper brachial plexus injuries: Does it work?

    PubMed

    Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Andalib, Sasan

    2017-12-01

    Patients with C5 and C6 nerve root avulsion may complain from pain. For these patients, end-to-side nerve transfer of the superficial radial nerve into the median nerve is suggested to relieve pain. Eleven patients (with a primary brachial plexus reconstruction) undergoing end-to-side nerve transfer of the superficial radial nerve into the ulnovolar part of the median nerve were assessed. Pain before surgery was compared to that at 6-month follow-up using visual analog scale (VAS) scores. A significant difference was seen between the mean VAS before (8.5) and after surgery (0.7) (P=0.0). After the six-month follow-up, 6 patients felt no pain according to VAS, notwithstanding 5 patients with a mild pain. The evidence from the present study suggests that end-to-side nerve transfer of the superficial radial nerve into the ulnovolar part of the median nerve is an effective technique in reducing pain in patients with C5 and C6 nerve root avulsion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [RECONSTRUCTION OF LOWER EXTREMITY FUNCTION OF COMPLETE SPINAL CORD INJURY RATS BY FIRST NEURON CONNECTION].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fangyong; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Jianjun

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of the first neuron connection for the reconstruction of lower extremity function of complete spinal cord injury rats. Forty adult female Sprague Dawley rats of 300-350 g in weight were selected to prepare the models of L₁ transverse spinal cord injury. After 2 weeks of establishing model, the rats were randomly divided into control group (n = 20) and experimental group (n = 20). In the experimental group, the right hind limb function was reconstructed directly by the first neuron; in the control group, the other treatments were the same to the experimental group except that the distal tibial nerve and the proximal femoral nerve were not sutured. The recovery of motor function of lower extremity was observed by the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) scoring system on bilateral hind limbs at 7, 30, 50, and 70 days after operation. The changes of the spinal cord were observed by HE staining, neurofilament 200 immunohistochemistry staining, and the technique of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tracing. After establishing models, 6 rats died. The right hind limb had no obvious recovery of the motor function, with the BBB score of 0 in 2 groups; the left hind limb motor function was recovered in different degrees, and there was no significant difference in BBB score between 2 groups (P > 0.05). In the experimental group, HE staining showed that the spinal cord was reconstructed with the sciatic nerve, which was embedded in the spinal cord, and the sciatic nerve membrane was clearly identified, and there was no obvious atrophy in the connecting part of the spinal cord. In the experimental group, the expression of nerve fiber was stained with immunohistochemistry, and the axons of the spinal cord were positively by stained and the peripheral nerve was connected with the spinal cord. HRP labelled synapses were detected by HRP retrograde tracing in the experimental group, while there was no HRP labelled synapse in the control group. Direct reconstruction

  5. Monitoring of recurrent and superior laryngeal nerve function using an Airwayscope™ during thyroid surgery.

    PubMed

    Ijichi, Kei; Sasano, Hiroshi; Harima, Megumi; Murakami, Shingo

    2017-10-01

    In thyroid surgery, intraoperative identification and preservation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and superior laryngeal nerve external branch (SLNEB) are crucial. Several reports have proposed that electromyography (EMG) monitoring is an acceptable adjunct for identification and preservation of the RLN. However, a limited number of hospitals have access to an EMG monitoring system. Therefore, the development of another viable monitoring method is required. The aim of the present study was to design a new RLN and SLNEB monitoring method combining an Airwayscope™ (AWS) and a facial nerve stimulator. The facial nerve-stimulating electrode stimulates the RLN or SLNEB, so that the movement of the vocal cord may be observed with an AWS. This monitoring method was performed on 10 patients with a thyroid tumor. In all the cases, RLN and SLNEB were identified and vocal cord function was preserved. All the patients exhibited normal vocal cord function following surgery. Thus, the new RLN and SLNEB monitoring method using an AWS and a facial nerve stimulator is useful in thyroid surgery, and this method may be used as a reliable and available alternative to EMG monitoring to ensure the normal function of the vocal cord.

  6. Dynamic Imaging of the Eye, Optic Nerve, and Extraocular Muscles With Golden Angle Radial MRI

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David S.; Smith, Alex K.; Welch, E. Brian; Smith, Seth A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The eye and its accessory structures, the optic nerve and the extraocular muscles, form a complex dynamic system. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of this system in motion can have substantial benefits in understanding oculomotor functioning in health and disease, but has been restricted to date to imaging of static gazes only. The purpose of this work was to develop a technique to image the eye and its accessory visual structures in motion. Methods Dynamic imaging of the eye was developed on a 3-Tesla MRI scanner, based on a golden angle radial sequence that allows freely selectable frame-rate and temporal-span image reconstructions from the same acquired data set. Retrospective image reconstructions at a chosen frame rate of 57 ms per image yielded high-quality in vivo movies of various eye motion tasks performed in the scanner. Motion analysis was performed for a left–right version task where motion paths, lengths, and strains/globe angle of the medial and lateral extraocular muscles and the optic nerves were estimated. Results Offline image reconstructions resulted in dynamic images of bilateral visual structures of healthy adults in only ∼15-s imaging time. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the motion enabled estimation of trajectories, lengths, and strains on the optic nerves and extraocular muscles at very high frame rates of ∼18 frames/s. Conclusions This work presents an MRI technique that enables high-frame-rate dynamic imaging of the eyes and orbital structures. The presented sequence has the potential to be used in furthering the understanding of oculomotor mechanics in vivo, both in health and disease. PMID:28813574

  7. Intraoperative Mapping and Monitoring for Rootlets of the Lower Cranial Nerves Related to Vocal Cord Movement.

    PubMed

    Wanibuchi, Masahiko; Akiyama, Yukinori; Mikami, Takeshi; Komatsu, Katsuya; Sugino, Toshiya; Suzuki, Kengo; Kanno, Aya; Ohtaki, Shunya; Noshiro, Shouhei; Mikuni, Nobuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Damage to the motor division of the lower cranial nerves that run into the jugular foramen leads to hoarseness, dysphagia, and the risk of aspiration pneumonia; therefore, its functional preservation during surgical procedures is important. Intraoperative mapping and monitoring of the motor rootlets at the cerebellomedullary cistern using endotracheal tube electrodes is a safe and effective procedure to prevent its injury. To study the location of the somatic and autonomic motor fibers of the lower cranial nerves related to vocal cord movement. Twenty-four patients with pathologies at the cerebellopontine lesion were studied. General anesthesia was maintained with fentanyl and propofol. A monopolar stimulator was used at amplitudes of 0.05 to 0.1 mA. Both acoustic and visual signals were displayed as vocalis muscle electromyographic activity using endotracheal tube surface electrodes. The average number of rootlets was 7.4 (range, 5-10); 75% of patients had 7 or 8 rootlets. As many as 6 rootlets (2-4 in most cases) were responsive in each patient. In 23 of the 24 patients, the responding rootlets congregated on the caudal side. The maximum electromyographic response was predominantly in the most caudal or second most caudal rootlet in 79%. The majority of motor fibers of the lower cranial nerves run through the caudal part of the rootlets at the cerebellomedullary cistern, and the maximal electromyographic response was elicited at the most caudal or second most caudal rootlet. EMG, electromyographic.

  8. [Repair of spinal cord injury with rats' umbilical cord MSCs].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuhai; Feng, Shiqing; Wang, Xue

    2009-12-01

    To study the growth characteristics of umbilical cord MSCs (UCMSCs) in vitro and its effect on the nerve regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). UCMSCs isolated from pregnant rats umbilical cord were cultured and purified in vitro. Sixty female Wistar rats weighing (300 +/- 10) g were randomized into three groups (n=20 per group). UCMSCs group (group A) in which UCMSCs suspension injection was conducted; DMEM control group (group B) in which 10% DMEM injection was conducted; sham group (group C) in which the animal received laminectomy only. Establish acute SCI model (T10) by Impactor model-II device in group A and group B. The recovery of the lower extremity was observed using BBB locomotor scoring system, neurofilament 200 (NF-200) immunofluorescence staining was performed to detect the neural regeneration, and then the corticospinal tract (CST) was observed using the biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) tracing. Cultured UCMSCs were spindle-shaped fibrocyte-like adherent growth, swirling or parallelly. The USMSCs expressed CD29, but not CD31, CD45, and HLA-DR. The BBB score was higher in group A than group B 4, 5, and 6 weeks after operation, and there was a significant difference between two groups (P < 0.05). The BBB scores at different time points were significantly lower in groups A and B than that in group C (P < 0.05). UCMSCs was proved to survive and assemble around the injured place by frozen section of the cords 6 weeks after injury. NF-200 positive response area in groups A, B, and C was (11,943 +/- 856), (7,986 +/- 627), and (13,117 +/- 945) pixels, respectively, suggesting there was a significant difference between groups A, C and group B (P < 0.05), and no significant difference was evident between group A and group C (P > 0.05). BDA anterograde tracing 10 weeks after operation demonstrated that more regenerated nerve fibers went through injured area in group A, but just quite few nerve fibers in group B went through the injuried cavity. The ratios

  9. Clinical and imaging features of spinal cord type of neuro Behçet disease: A case report and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui-Miao; Dong, Ci; Zhang, Yong-Zhi; Tian, Ya-Yun; Chen, Hong-Xu; Zhang, Sai; Li, Na; Gu, Ping

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the clinical and MRI characteristics of spinal cord nerve Behçet's disease. One patient with spinal cord nerve Behçet's disease was admitted to our hospital at October 20, 2015. Spinal cord nerve Behçet's disease. Retrospective analysis was performed on such case as well as 16 cases of spinal cord nerve Behçet's disease reported in China or abroad. Seventeen cases of spinal cord type of neuro Behçet's disease include 13 men and 4 women, with an average age of onset of 34.8 years old. The mean time from Behçet's disease symptoms to spinal cord involvement were 10.8 years. The initial symptom in one case was spinal cord injury, and another 4 cases had a recurrence course. The most common performance of spinal cord injury was sensory disturbance (82.4%), following by weakness (76.5%), sphincter or sexual dysfunction (58.8%), and pain in back, backside of neck or lower chest (29.4%). The number of cells was slightly increased or the protein level was increased in cerebrospinal fluid test. And the water channel protein antibody and oligoclonal band of serum levels were all negative. The spinal cord injury involved more than 3 vertebral bodies in 10 cases, and involved more than half of spinal cord in sagittal plane in 8 cases. In acute stage, shock therapy with large dose of glucocorticoid was generally applied both in China and abroad. The clinical features of spinal cord nerve Behçet's disease were various, making it easily misdiagnosed. Longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis performs as a characteristic manifestation.

  10. The distribution and origin of a novel brain peptide, neuropeptide Y, in the spinal cord of several mammals.

    PubMed

    Gibson, S J; Polak, J M; Allen, J M; Adrian, T E; Kelly, J S; Bloom, S R

    1984-07-20

    The distribution of neuropeptide Y [NPY]-immunoreactive material was examined in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia of rat, guinea-pig, cat, marmoset, and horse. Considerable concentrations of NPY and similar distribution patterns of immunoreactive nerve fibres were found in the spinal cord of all species investigated. The dorsal root ganglia of the cat and the horse contained numerous immunoreactive nerve fibres, but in these species, as in the other three studied [rat, guinea-pig, marmoset], no positively stained cell bodies were found. Neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive nerves were observed at all levels of the spinal cord, being most concentrated in the dorsal horn. In the rat, guinea-pig, and marmoset, there was a marked increase of NPY-immunoreactive fibres in the lumbosacral regions of the spinal cord, and this was reflected by a considerable increase of extractable NPY. Estimations of NPY-immunoreactive material in the various regions of the rat spinal cord were as follows: cervical, 13.8 +/- 1.0; thoracic, 21.1 +/- 2.5; lumbar, 16.3 +/- 2.9; sacral, 92.4 +/- 8.5 pmol/gm wet weight of tissue +/- SEM. In the ventral portion of the guinea-pig spinal cord they were as follows: cervical, 7.1 +/- 1.2; thoracic, 8.2 +/- 3.6; lumbar, 22.6 +/- 7.0; sacral, 36.7 +/- 9.5 pmol/gm wet weight of tissue +/- SEM. Analysis of spinal cord extracts by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] demonstrated that NPY-immunoreactive material elutes in the position of pure NPY standard. No changes in the concentration and distribution of the NPY-like material in the rat spinal cord were observed following a variety of surgical and pharmacological manipulations, including cervical rhizotomy, sciatic nerve section and ligation, and local application of capsaicin [50 mM] to one sciatic nerve. It is therefore suggested that most of the NPY-immunoreactive material in the spinal cord is derived either from intrinsic nerve cell bodies or from supraspinal tracts.

  11. The retinoic acid signaling pathway regulates anterior/posterior patterning in the nerve cord and pharynx of amphioxus, a chordate lacking neural crest.

    PubMed

    Escriva, Hector; Holland, Nicholas D; Gronemeyer, Hinrich; Laudet, Vincent; Holland, Linda Z

    2002-06-01

    Amphioxus, the closest living invertebrate relative of the vertebrates, has a notochord, segmental axial musculature, pharyngeal gill slits and dorsal hollow nerve cord, but lacks neural crest. In amphioxus, as in vertebrates, exogenous retinoic acid (RA) posteriorizes the embryo. The mouth and gill slits never form, AmphiPax1, which is normally downregulated where gill slits form, remains upregulated and AmphiHox1 expression shifts anteriorly in the nerve cord. To dissect the role of RA signaling in patterning chordate embryos, we have cloned the single retinoic acid receptor (AmphiRAR), retinoid X receptor (AmphiRXR) and an orphan receptor (AmphiTR2/4) from amphioxus. AmphiTR2/4 inhibits AmphiRAR-AmphiRXR-mediated transactivation in the presence of RA by competing for DR5 or IR7 retinoic acid response elements (RAREs). The 5' untranslated region of AmphiTR2/4 contains an IR7 element, suggesting possible auto- and RA-regulation. The patterns of AmphiTR2/4 and AmphiRAR expression during embryogenesis are largely complementary: AmphiTR2/4 is strongly expressed in the cerebral vesicle (homologous to the diencephalon plus anterior midbrain), while AmphiRAR expression is high in the equivalent of the hindbrain and spinal cord. Similarly, while AmphiTR2/4 is expressed most strongly in the anterior and posterior thirds of the endoderm, the highest AmphiRAR expression is in the middle third. Expression of AmphiRAR is upregulated by exogenous RA and completely downregulated by the RA antagonist BMS009. Moreover, BMS009 expands the pharynx posteriorly; the first three gill slit primordia are elongated and shifted posteriorly, but do not penetrate, and additional, non-penetrating gill slit primordia are induced. Thus, in an organism without neural crest, initiation and penetration of gill slits appear to be separate events mediated by distinct levels of RA signaling in the pharyngeal endoderm. Although these compounds have little effect on levels of AmphiTR2/4 expression, RA

  12. The retinoic acid signaling pathway regulates anterior/posterior patterning in the nerve cord and pharynx of amphioxus, a chordate lacking neural crest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escriva, Hector; Holland, Nicholas D.; Gronemeyer, Hinrich; Laudet, Vincent; Holland, Linda Z.

    2002-01-01

    Amphioxus, the closest living invertebrate relative of the vertebrates, has a notochord, segmental axial musculature, pharyngeal gill slits and dorsal hollow nerve cord, but lacks neural crest. In amphioxus, as in vertebrates, exogenous retinoic acid (RA) posteriorizes the embryo. The mouth and gill slits never form, AmphiPax1, which is normally downregulated where gill slits form, remains upregulated and AmphiHox1 expression shifts anteriorly in the nerve cord. To dissect the role of RA signaling in patterning chordate embryos, we have cloned the single retinoic acid receptor (AmphiRAR), retinoid X receptor (AmphiRXR) and an orphan receptor (AmphiTR2/4) from amphioxus. AmphiTR2/4 inhibits AmphiRAR-AmphiRXR-mediated transactivation in the presence of RA by competing for DR5 or IR7 retinoic acid response elements (RAREs). The 5' untranslated region of AmphiTR2/4 contains an IR7 element, suggesting possible auto- and RA-regulation. The patterns of AmphiTR2/4 and AmphiRAR expression during embryogenesis are largely complementary: AmphiTR2/4 is strongly expressed in the cerebral vesicle (homologous to the diencephalon plus anterior midbrain), while AmphiRAR expression is high in the equivalent of the hindbrain and spinal cord. Similarly, while AmphiTR2/4 is expressed most strongly in the anterior and posterior thirds of the endoderm, the highest AmphiRAR expression is in the middle third. Expression of AmphiRAR is upregulated by exogenous RA and completely downregulated by the RA antagonist BMS009. Moreover, BMS009 expands the pharynx posteriorly; the first three gill slit primordia are elongated and shifted posteriorly, but do not penetrate, and additional, non-penetrating gill slit primordia are induced. Thus, in an organism without neural crest, initiation and penetration of gill slits appear to be separate events mediated by distinct levels of RA signaling in the pharyngeal endoderm. Although these compounds have little effect on levels of AmphiTR2/4 expression, RA

  13. Acute electroacupuncture inhibits nitric oxide synthase expression in the spinal cord of neuropathic rats.

    PubMed

    Cha, Myeoung Hoon; Bai, Sun Joon; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Zang Hee; Kim, Young-Bo; Lee, Hye-Jung; Lee, Bae Hwan

    2010-02-01

    To examine the effects of electroacupuncture stimulation on behavioral changes and neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in the rat spinal cord after nerve injury. Under pentobarbital anesthesia, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to neuropathic surgery by tightly ligating and cutting the left tibial and sural nerves. Behavioral responses to mechanical stimulation were tested for 2 weeks post-operatively. At the end of behavioral testing, electroacupuncture stimulation was applied to ST36 (Choksamni) and SP9 (Eumleungcheon) acupoints. Immunocytochemical staining was performed to investigate changes in the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive neurons in the L4-5 spinal cord. Mechanical allodynia was observed by nerve injury. The mechanical allodynia was decreased after electroacupuncture stimulation. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression was also decreased in L4-5 spinal cord by electroacupuncture treatment. These results suggest that electroacupuncture relieves mechanical allodynia in the neuropathic rats possibly by the inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in the spinal cord.

  14. [APPLICATION OF THREE DIMENSIONAL PRINTING ON MANUFACTURING BIONIC SCAFFOLDS OF SPINAL CORD IN RATS].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yisheng; Wang, Jingjing; Chen, Xuyi; Chen, Chong; Tu, Yue; Zhang, Sai; Li, Xiaohong

    2015-03-01

    To fabricate the bionic scaffolds of rat spinal cord by combining three dimensional (3D) printer and 3D software, so as to lay the foundation of theory and technology for the manufacture of scaffolds by using biomaterials. Three female Sprague Dawley rats were scanned by 7.0T MRI to obtain the shape and position data of the cross section and gray matter of T8 to T10 spinal cord. Combined with data of position and shape of nerve conduction beam, the relevant data were obtained via Getdata software. Then the 3D graphics were made and converted to stereolithography (STL) format by using SolidWorks software. Photosensitive resin was used as the materials of spinal cord scaffolds. The bionic scaffolds were fabricated by 3D printer. MRI showed that the section shape of T8 to T10 segments of the spinal cord were approximately oval with a relatively long sagittal diameter of (2.20 ± 0.52) mm and short transverse diameter of (2.05 ± 0.24) mm, and the data of nerve conduction bundle were featured in the STL format. The spinal cord bionic scaffolds of the target segments made by 3D printer were similar to the spinal cord of rat in the morphology and size, and the position of pores simulated normal nerve conduction of rat spinal cord. Spinal cord scaffolds produced by 3D printer which have similar shape and size of normal rat spinal cord are more bionic, and the procedure is simple. This technology combined with biomaterials is also promising in spinal cord repairing after spinal cord injury.

  15. New Method of Injured Nerve Repair.

    PubMed

    Korsak, Alina; Likhodiievskyi, Volodymyr; Sokurenko, Liudmyla; Chaikovsky, Yuri

    2018-07-01

     Innovative surgical techniques form the basis of therapeutic approaches to address the negative consequences of nerve damage. This study evaluated the effectiveness of nerve trunk regeneration after the use of an electrosurgical instrument by looking at the patterns of morphological changes in the injured nerve and the structural elements of the segment motor center.  The study was performed on male Wistar rats divided into four groups: group 1, control; group 2, rats with simulated sciatic nerve injury with epineural sutures; 3, rats subjected to an experimental surgical procedure using high-frequency electric welding technology; and 4, rats with simulated sciatic nerve injury without posttransection repair. To study changes in the peripheral stump of the transected nerves and L5 segments of the spinal cord, we used histologic, immunohistochemical, and morphometric methods.  At week 12 after the surgery, there were more S-100+ Schwann cells, increased expression of neurofilaments (NFs), and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the peripheral stump in group 3 than in groups 2 and 4, which indicates enhanced neurotization and myelination. Group 3 animals demonstrated reduced expression of S-100 and NFs in the motor center of the spinal cord compared with group 2 that suggests less pronounced reactive changes caused by electric welding technology.  The study showed a novel surgical method using an electrosurgical instrument in a welding mode to stimulate regeneration of the injured nerve and to cause less prominent reactive changes in its segment motor center. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Causes and imaging manifestations of paralysis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

    PubMed

    Méndez Garrido, S; Ocete Pérez, R F

    2016-01-01

    The vocal cords play a key role in the functions of the larynx. Their motor innervation depends on the recurrent laryngeal nerve (a branch of the tenth cranial nerve), which follows a long trajectory comprising intracranial, cervical, and mediastinal segments. Vocal cord paralysis usually manifests as dysphonia, the main symptom calling for CT study, the first-line imaging test to investigate the cause of the lesion. Patients are asymptomatic in a third of cases, so the incidental detection of signs of vocal cord paralysis in a CT study done for other reasons should prompt a search for a potentially severe occult lesion. This article aims to familiarize readers with the anatomy of the motor innervation of the glottis, the radiological presentation and most common causes of vocal cord paralysis, and conditions that can simulate vocal cord paralysis. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Hierarchical structural health monitoring system combining a fiber optic spinal cord network and distributed nerve cell devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakuchi, Shu; Tsukamoto, Haruka; Takeda, Nobuo

    2009-03-01

    This study proposes novel hierarchical sensing concept for detecting damages in composite structures. In the hierarchical system, numerous three-dimensionally structured sensor devices are distributed throughout the whole structural area and connected with the optical fiber network through transducing mechanisms. The distributed "sensory nerve cell" devices detect the damage, and the fiber optic "spinal cord" network gathers damage signals and transmits the information to a measuring instrument. This study began by discussing the basic concept of the hierarchical sensing system thorough comparison with existing fiber optic based systems and nerve systems in the animal kingdom. Then, in order to validate the proposed sensing concept, impact damage detection system for the composite structure was proposed. The sensor devices were developed based on Comparative Vacuum Monitoring (CVM) system and the Brillouin based distributed strain sensing was utilized to gather the damage signals from the distributed devices. Finally a verification test was conducted using prototype devices. Occurrence of barely visible impact damage was successfully detected and it was clearly indicated that the hierarchical system has better repairability, higher robustness, and wider monitorable area compared to existing systems utilizing embedded optical fiber sensors.

  18. A novel variation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gaosong; Wang, Kun

    2017-06-02

    Injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve is one of the most severe complications of thyroid surgery. Several anatomic variations of the nerve increase the likelihood of iatrogenic damage. A 50-year-old woman was presented to our department with a nodule in the right thyroid lobe, and she reported no voice changes. She had no history of surgery or radiation to the head or neck. Fine-needle aspiration was recorded as papillary thyroid carcinoma. The preoperative laryngoscopy revealed left vocal cord paralysis. Right thyroid lobectomy was performed. A scarce course of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve was found during the operation that ascended along the medial edge of the superior thyroid pole and finally disappeared beneath the superior cornu of the thyroid cartilage without any tracheal, esophageal, or laryngeal branches. The patient was discharged on the third postoperative day with the diagnoses of papillary thyroid carcinoma and congenital left vocal cord paralysis. The novel variation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve may challenge the current concept of the anatomy of the nerve. The vocal folds mobility should be examined routinely before surgery in patients undergoing thyroid operation.

  19. Different phase delays of peripheral input to primate motor cortex and spinal cord promote cancellation at physiological tremor frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Koželj, Saša

    2014-01-01

    Neurons in the spinal cord and motor cortex (M1) are partially phase-locked to cycles of physiological tremor, but with opposite phases. Convergence of spinal and cortical activity onto motoneurons may thus produce phase cancellation and a reduction in tremor amplitude. The mechanisms underlying this phase difference are unknown. We investigated coherence between spinal and M1 activity with sensory input. In two anesthetized monkeys, we electrically stimulated the medial, ulnar, deep radial, and superficial radial nerves; stimuli were timed as independent Poisson processes (rate 10 Hz). Single units were recorded from M1 (147 cells) or cervical spinal cord (61 cells). Ninety M1 cells were antidromically identified as pyramidal tract neurons (PTNs); M1 neurons were additionally classified according to M1 subdivision (rostral/caudal, M1r/c). Spike-stimulus coherence analysis revealed significant coupling over a broad range of frequencies, with the strongest coherence at <50 Hz. Delays implied by the slope of the coherence phase-frequency relationship were greater than the response onset latency, reflecting the importance of late response components for the transmission of oscillatory inputs. The spike-stimulus coherence phase over the 6–13 Hz physiological tremor band differed significantly between M1 and spinal cells (phase differences relative to the cord of 2.72 ± 0.29 and 1.72 ± 0.37 radians for PTNs from M1c and M1r, respectively). We conclude that different phases of the response to peripheral input could partially underlie antiphase M1 and spinal cord activity during motor behavior. The coordinated action of spinal and cortical feedback will act to reduce tremulous oscillations, possibly improving the overall stability and precision of motor control. PMID:24572094

  20. Different phase delays of peripheral input to primate motor cortex and spinal cord promote cancellation at physiological tremor frequencies.

    PubMed

    Koželj, Saša; Baker, Stuart N

    2014-05-01

    Neurons in the spinal cord and motor cortex (M1) are partially phase-locked to cycles of physiological tremor, but with opposite phases. Convergence of spinal and cortical activity onto motoneurons may thus produce phase cancellation and a reduction in tremor amplitude. The mechanisms underlying this phase difference are unknown. We investigated coherence between spinal and M1 activity with sensory input. In two anesthetized monkeys, we electrically stimulated the medial, ulnar, deep radial, and superficial radial nerves; stimuli were timed as independent Poisson processes (rate 10 Hz). Single units were recorded from M1 (147 cells) or cervical spinal cord (61 cells). Ninety M1 cells were antidromically identified as pyramidal tract neurons (PTNs); M1 neurons were additionally classified according to M1 subdivision (rostral/caudal, M1r/c). Spike-stimulus coherence analysis revealed significant coupling over a broad range of frequencies, with the strongest coherence at <50 Hz. Delays implied by the slope of the coherence phase-frequency relationship were greater than the response onset latency, reflecting the importance of late response components for the transmission of oscillatory inputs. The spike-stimulus coherence phase over the 6-13 Hz physiological tremor band differed significantly between M1 and spinal cells (phase differences relative to the cord of 2.72 ± 0.29 and 1.72 ± 0.37 radians for PTNs from M1c and M1r, respectively). We conclude that different phases of the response to peripheral input could partially underlie antiphase M1 and spinal cord activity during motor behavior. The coordinated action of spinal and cortical feedback will act to reduce tremulous oscillations, possibly improving the overall stability and precision of motor control. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  1. The role of neural precursor cells and self assembling peptides in nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao; Yao, Gordon S; Liu, Yang; Wang, Jian; Satkunendrarajah, Kajana; Fehlings, Michael

    2013-12-19

    Cranial nerve injury involves loss of central neural cells in the brain stem and surrounding support matrix, leading to severe functional impairment. Therapeutically targeting cellular replacement and enhancing structural support may promote neural regeneration. We examined the combinatorial effect of neural precursor cells (NPC) and self assembling peptide (SAP) administration on nerve regeneration. Nerve injury was induced by clip compression of the rodent spinal cord. SAPs were injected immediately into the injured cord and NPCs at 2 weeks post-injury. Behavioral analysis was done weekly and rats were sacrificed at 11 weeks post injury. LFB-H&E staining was done on cord tissue to assess cavitation volume. Motor evoked potentials (MEP) were measured at week 11 to assess nerve conduction and Kaplan Meier curves were created to compare survival estimates. NPCs and SAPs were distributed both caudal and rostral to the injury site. Behavioral analysis showed that SAP + NPC transplantation significantly improved locomotor score p <0.03) and enhanced survival (log rank test, p = 0.008) compared to control. SAP + NPC treatment also improved nerve conduction velocity (p = 0.008) but did not affect cavitation volume (p = 0.73). Combinatorial NPC and SAP injection into injured nerve tissue may enhance neural repair and regeneration.

  2. Measuring of the compensation of a nerve root in a cervical schwannoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Saiki, Masahiko; Taguchi, Toshihiko; Kaneko, Kazuo; Toyota, Kouichiro; Kato, Yoshihiko; Li, Zhenglin; Kawai, Shinya

    2003-01-01

    A 64-year-old woman experienced numbness and hypesthesia of the right C6 dermatome a year ago. Enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine revealed an enhanced tumor continuing into the foramen from the spinal cord at the C5/6 intervertebral level. It was thought to be an Eden type 2 schwannoma. Right unilateral laminectomy was performed on C5. The tumor was present in the intradural area and arose from the right C6 anterior root. Compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) from the deltoid, biceps, and extensor carpi radial (ECR) muscles were recorded following electric cervical nerve root stimulation (0.2 ms duration, and 7 mA intensity). CMAPs of large amplitude were obtained from the deltoid, biceps, and ECR muscles following C5 root stimulation, but those following C6 root stimulation were small. As a result it was determined that the right C6 root was not associated with the nerve distribution for these muscles, so it was resected en bloc with the tumor. No apparent loss of motor function was observed. Standard needle electromyography showed no denervation potentials or decrease in motor unit potentials in either the deltoid or biceps muscles. Intraoperative investigation for compensation of nerve root is clinically useful for determining whether resection of a nerve root results in muscle weakness after surgery for a cervical schwannoma.

  3. Brachial plexus injury mimicking a spinal-cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Macyszyn, Luke J.; Gonzalez-Giraldo, Ernesto; Aversano, Michael; Heuer, Gregory G.; Zager, Eric L.; Schuster, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: High-energy impact to the head, neck, and shoulder can result in cervical spine as well as brachial plexus injuries. Because cervical spine injuries are more common, this tends to be the initial focus for management. We present a case in which the initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was somewhat misleading and a detailed neurological exam lead to the correct diagnosis. Clinical presentation: A 19-year-old man presented to the hospital following a shoulder injury during football practice. The patient immediately complained of significant pain in his neck, shoulder, and right arm and the inability to move his right arm. He was stabilized in the field for a presumed cervical-spine injury and transported to the emergency department. Intervention: Initial radiographic assessment (C-spine CT, right shoulder x-ray) showed no bony abnormality. MRI of the cervical-spine showed T2 signal change and cord swelling thought to be consistent with a cord contusion. With adequate pain control, a detailed neurological examination was possible and was consistent with an upper brachial plexus avulsion injury that was confirmed by CT myelogram. The patient failed to make significant neurological recovery and he underwent spinal accessory nerve grafting to the suprascapular nerve to restore shoulder abduction and external rotation, while the phrenic nerve was grafted to the musculocutaneous nerve to restore elbow flexion. Conclusion: Cervical spinal-cord injuries and brachial plexus injuries can occur by the same high energy mechanisms and can occur simultaneously. As in this case, MRI findings can be misleading and a detailed physical examination is the key to diagnosis. However, this can be difficult in polytrauma patients with upper extremity injuries, head injuries or concomitant spinal-cord injury. Finally, prompt diagnosis and early surgical renerveration have been associated with better long-term recovery with certain types of injury. PMID:22956928

  4. Studies on the cellular localization of spinal cord substance P receptors.

    PubMed

    Helke, C J; Charlton, C G; Wiley, R G

    1986-10-01

    Substance P-immunoreactivity and specific substance P binding sites are present in the spinal cord. Receptor autoradiography showed the discrete localization of substance P binding sites in both sensory and motor regions of the spinal cord and functional studies suggested an important role for substance P receptor activation in autonomic outflow, nociception, respiration and somatic motor function. In the current studies, we investigated the cellular localization of substance P binding sites in rat spinal cord using light microscopic autoradiography combined with several lesioning techniques. Unilateral injections of the suicide transport agent, ricin, into the superior cervical ganglion reduced substance P binding and cholinesterase-stained preganglionic sympathetic neurons in the intermediolateral cell column. However, unilateral electrolytic lesions of ventral medullary substance P neurons which project to the intermediolateral cell column did not alter the density of substance P binding in the intermediolateral cell column. Likewise, 6-hydroxydopamine and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, which destroy noradrenergic and serotonergic nerve terminals, did not reduce the substance P binding in the intermediolateral cell column. It appears, therefore, that the substance P binding sites are located postsynaptically on preganglionic sympathetic neurons rather than presynaptically on substance P-immunoreactive processes (i.e. as autoreceptors) or on monoamine nerve terminals. Unilateral injections of ricin into the phrenic nerve resulted in the unilateral destruction of phrenic motor neurons in the cervical spinal cord and caused a marked reduction in the substance P binding in the nucleus. Likewise, sciatic nerve injections of ricin caused a loss of associated motor neurons in the lateral portion of the ventral horn of the lumbar spinal cord and a reduction in the substance P binding. Sciatic nerve injections of ricin also destroyed afferent nerves of the associated dorsal

  5. Early application of tail nerve electrical stimulation-induced walking training promotes locomotor recovery in rats with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S-X; Huang, F; Gates, M; Shen, X; Holmberg, E G

    2016-11-01

    This is a randomized controlled prospective trial with two parallel groups. The objective of this study was to determine whether early application of tail nerve electrical stimulation (TANES)-induced walking training can improve the locomotor function. This study was conducted in SCS Research Center in Colorado, USA. A contusion injury to spinal cord T10 was produced using the New York University impactor device with a 25 -mm height setting in female, adult Long-Evans rats. Injured rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=12 per group). One group was subjected to TANES-induced walking training 2 weeks post injury, and the other group, as control, received no TANES-induced walking training. Restorations of behavior and conduction were assessed using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan open-field rating scale, horizontal ladder rung walking test and electrophysiological test (Hoffmann reflex). Early application of TANES-induced walking training significantly improved the recovery of locomotor function and benefited the restoration of Hoffmann reflex. TANES-induced walking training is a useful method to promote locomotor recovery in rats with spinal cord injury.

  6. The radial approach to the wrist with styloidectomy: A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Lecoq, F-A; Sébilo, A; Bellemère, P

    2017-09-01

    The radial approach to the wrist is already used in several surgical techniques such as radial styloidectomy and Zaidemberg's vascularized radial graft. The aim of our work was to describe the surgical anatomy of that approach and to determine the acceptable limits of radial oblique styloidectomy that does not damage the anterior and posterior radiocarpal ligaments. This radial approach was performed on 11 cadaver specimens. The superficial branches of the radial nerve and the antebrachial cephalic vein were carefully located in the superficial plane. The radiocarpal articular capsule was opened longitudinally between the first and second compartments of the extensor tendons. We drew the oblique radial styloidectomy line at 3, 6 and 9mm from the apex of radial styloid process on the articular surface and then measured the width of ligaments theoretically taken away by the styloidectomy. An oblique radial styloidectomy of less than 6mm preserved the anterior and posterior radiocarpal ligaments. There was one case of radial artery damage while opening the joint capsule. The radial approach to the wrist as described in this work provided good access to the radial styloid process, the radioscaphoid joint and the proximal pole of the scaphoid, if the approach is done carefully to preserve the superficial branches of the radial nerve, the antebrachial cephalic vein and the radial artery. Radial styloidectomy can be performed up to 6mm from the apex without significantly damaging the radiocarpal ligaments, particularly the volar ones. Copyright © 2017 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Serotonin-immunoreactive neurons in the ventral nerve cord of Remipedia (Crustacea): support for a sister group relationship of Remipedia and Hexapoda?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Remipedia were initially seen as a primitive taxon within Pancrustacea based on characters considered ancestral, such as the homonomously segmented trunk. Meanwhile, several morphological and molecular studies proposed a more derived position of Remipedia within Pancrustacea, including a sister group relationship to Hexapoda. Because of these conflicting hypotheses, fresh data are crucial to contribute new insights into euarthropod phylogeny. The architecture of individually identifiable serotonin-immunoreactive neurons has successfully been used for phylogenetic considerations in Euarthropoda. Here, we identified neurons in three species of Remipedia with an antiserum against serotonin and compared our findings to reconstructed ground patterns in other euarthropod taxa. Additionally, we traced neurite connectivity and neuropil outlines using antisera against acetylated α-tubulin and synapsin. Results The ventral nerve cord of Remipedia displays a typical rope-ladder-like arrangement of separate metameric ganglia linked by paired longitudinally projecting connectives. The peripheral projections comprise an intersegmental nerve, consisting of two branches that fuse shortly after exiting the connectives, and the segmental anterior and posterior nerve. The distribution and morphology of serotonin-immunoreactive interneurons in the trunk segments is highly conserved within the remipede species we analyzed, which allows for the reconstruction of a ground pattern: two posterior and one anterior pair of serotonin-immunoreactive neurons that possess a single contralateral projection. Additionally, three pairs of immunoreactive neurons are found in the medial part of each hemiganglion. In one species (Cryptocorynetes haptodiscus), the anterior pair of immunoreactive neurons is missing. Conclusions The anatomy of the remipede ventral nerve cord with its separate metameric ganglia mirrors the external morphology of the animal’s trunk. The rope

  8. Efficacy of chitosan and sodium alginate scaffolds for repair of spinal cord injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zi-ang; Chen, Feng-jia; Cui, Hong-li; Lin, Tong; Guo, Na; Wu, Hai-ge

    2018-01-01

    Spinal cord injury results in the loss of motor and sensory pathways and spontaneous regeneration of adult mammalian spinal cord neurons is limited. Chitosan and sodium alginate have good biocompatibility, biodegradability, and are suitable to assist the recovery of damaged tissues, such as skin, bone and nerve. Chitosan scaffolds, sodium alginate scaffolds and chitosan-sodium alginate scaffolds were separately transplanted into rats with spinal cord hemisection. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor rating scale scores and electrophysiological results showed that chitosan scaffolds promoted recovery of locomotor capacity and nerve transduction of the experimental rats. Sixty days after surgery, chitosan scaffolds retained the original shape of the spinal cord. Compared with sodium alginate scaffolds- and chitosan-sodium alginate scaffolds-transplanted rats, more neurofilament-H-immunoreactive cells (regenerating nerve fibers) and less glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunoreactive cells (astrocytic scar tissue) were observed at the injury site of experimental rats in chitosan scaffold-transplanted rats. Due to the fast degradation rate of sodium alginate, sodium alginate scaffolds and composite material scaffolds did not have a supporting and bridging effect on the damaged tissue. Above all, compared with sodium alginate and composite material scaffolds, chitosan had better biocompatibility, could promote the regeneration of nerve fibers and prevent the formation of scar tissue, and as such, is more suitable to help the repair of spinal cord injury. PMID:29623937

  9. Effect of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on motor cortical excitability and sensory nerve conduction velocity in subacute-stage incomplete spinal cord injury patients.

    PubMed

    Cha, Hyun Gyu; Ji, Sang-Goo; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to determine whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can improve sensory recovery of the lower extremities in subacute-stage spinal cord injury patients. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted on 20 subjects with diagnosed paraplegia due to spinal cord injury. These 20 subjects were allocated to an experimental group of 10 subjects that underwent active repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation or to a control group of 10 subjects that underwent sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. The SCI patients in the experimental group underwent active repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and conventional rehabilitation therapy, whereas the spinal cord injury patients in the control group underwent sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and conventional rehabilitation therapy. Participants in both groups received therapy five days per week for six-weeks. Latency, amplitude, and sensory nerve conduction velocity were assessed before and after the six week therapy period. [Results] A significant intergroup difference was observed for posttreatment velocity gains, but no significant intergroup difference was observed for amplitude or latency. [Conclusion] repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation may be improve sensory recovery of the lower extremities in subacute-stage spinal cord injury patients.

  10. Nerve ultrasound reliability of upper limbs: Effects of examiner training.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Santibanez, Rocio; Dietz, Alexander R; Bucelli, Robert C; Zaidman, Craig M

    2018-02-01

    Duration of training to reliably measure nerve cross-sectional area with ultrasound is unknown. A retrospective review was performed of ultrasound data, acquired and recorded by 2 examiners-an expert and either a trainee with 2 months (novice) or a trainee with 12 months (experienced) of experience. Data on median, ulnar, and radial nerves were reviewed for 42 patients. Interrater reliability was good and varied most with nerve site but little with experience. Coefficient of variation (CoV) range was 9.33%-22.5%. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was good to excellent (0.65-95) except ulnar nerve-wrist/forearm and radial nerve-humerus (ICC = 0.39-0.59). Interrater differences did not vary with nerve size or body mass index. Expert-novice and expert-experienced interrater differences and CoV were similar. The ulnar nerve-wrist expert-novice interrater difference decreased with time (r s  = -0.68, P = 0.001). A trainee with at least 2 months of experience can reliably measure upper limb nerves. Reliability varies by nerve and location and slightly improves with time. Muscle Nerve 57: 189-192, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Recurrent largngeal nerve paralysis: a laryngographic and computed tomographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Agha, F.P.

    Vocal cord paralysis is a relatively common entity, usually resulting from a pathologic process of the vagus nerve or its recurrent larynegeal branch. It is rarely caused by intralargngeal lesions. Four teen patients with recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis (RLNP) were evaluated by laryngography, computed tomography (CT), or both. In the evaluation of the paramedian cord, CT was limited in its ability to differentiate between tumor or RLNP as the cause of the fixed cord, but it yielded more information than laryngography on the structural abnormalities of the larynx and pre-epiglottic and paralaryngeal spaces. Laryngography revealed distinct features of RLNP andmore » is the procedure of choice for evaluation of functional abnormalities of the larynx until further experience with faster CT scanners and dynamic scanning of the larynx is gained.« less

  12. DRG Spinal Cord Stimulation as Solution for Patients With Severe Pain Due to Anterior Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Mol, Frédérique Mathilde Ulrike; Roumen, Rudi M H

    2018-04-01

    Anterior Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome (ACNES) is a debilitating neuropathic pain condition. A small portion of patients do not respond to any currently available treatment modalities. These patients, often young women, might benefit from targeted spinal cord stimulation of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). This retrospective case series describes five ACNES patients who were referred from a Dutch dedicated tertiary referral center to collaborating sites with extensive experience in DRG stimulation to be implanted with a DRG Axium System (St. Jude/Abbott, IL, USA) in the period of 2013-2016. Numeric pain rating scores at routine 6- and 12-month follow-up visits were analyzed. Three patients experienced >50% pain reduction at 12 months follow-up. Four patients experienced device-related complications, such as lead dislocation, lead breakage, pain at the battery site, and overstimulation. This case series suggests DRG spinal cord stimulation can be safe and effective for some patients with persistent pain due to ACNES. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  13. Bilateral vocal cord paralysis secondary to head and neck surgery.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Muhammet; Acar, Gul Ozbilen; Kaytaz, Asim; Savrun, Feray Karaali; Çelik, Melek; Cam, Osman Halit

    2012-01-01

    Even endotracheal intubation could be considered safe in operations under general anesthesia; rarely, it could cause recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis as a complication. As mentioned in the literature, as a possible reason for this, anterior branches of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in the larynx could suffer from compression between the posteromedial part of the thyroid cartilage and the cuff of the tube. In the literature, unilateral vocal cord paralysis due to endotracheal intubation occurs more frequently in comparison to bilateral vocal cord paralysis. These types of palsies usually totally improve in approximately 6 months. A patient who experienced bilateral vocal cord paralysis in the early postoperative period after undergoing an endotracheal intubation process for general anesthesia and primary partial lip resection and supraomohyoid neck dissection due to lower lip carcinoma is presented in our article. Although vocal cord paralysis occurring after head and neck surgery is first thought as a complication of the surgery, endotracheal intubation should be considered as a possible cause of this paralysis. In relation with this patient, causes, clinical symptoms, and treatment procedures of vocal cord paralysis due to endotracheal intubation are discussed under guidance of the literature.

  14. Endoscopic versus open radial artery harvest and mammario-radial versus aorto-radial grafting in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery: protocol for the 2 × 2 factorial designed randomised NEO trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Coronary artery bypass grafting using the radial artery has, since the 1990s, gone through a revival. Observational studies have indicated better long-term patency when using radial arteries. Therefore, radial artery might be preferred especially in younger patients where long time patency is important. During the last 10 years different endoscopic techniques to harvest the radial artery have evolved. Endoscopic radial artery harvest only requires a small incision near the wrist in contrast to open harvest, which requires an incision from the elbow to the wrist. However, it is unknown whether the endoscopic technique results in fewer complications or a graft patency comparable to open harvest. When the radial artery has been harvested, there are two ways to use the radial artery as a graft. One way is sewing it onto the aorta and another is sewing it onto the mammary artery. It is unknown which technique is the superior revascularisation technique. Methods/Design The NEO Trial is a randomised clinical trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design. We plan to randomise 300 participants into four intervention groups: (1) mammario-radial endoscopic group; (2) aorto-radial endoscopic group; (3) mammario-radial open surgery group; and (4) aorto-radial open surgery group. The hand function will be assessed by a questionnaire, a clinical examination, the change in cutaneous sensibility, and the measurement of both sensory and motor nerve conduction velocity at 3 months postoperatively. All the postoperative complications will be registered, and we will evaluate muscular function, scar appearance, vascular supply to the hand, and the graft patency including the patency of the central radial artery anastomosis. A patency evaluation by multi-slice computer tomography will be done at one year postoperatively. We expect the nerve conduction studies and the standardised neurological examinations to be able to discriminate differences in hand function comparing

  15. Balance and coordination training, but not endurance training, enhances synaptophysin and neurotrophin-3 immunoreactivity in the lumbar spinal cord after sciatic nerve crush.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Leandro Viçosa; Ilha, Jocemar; Schneider, Ana Paula Krauthein; Barbosa, Silvia; Faccioni-Heuser, Maria Cristina

    2016-04-01

    Numerous rehabilitation treatments have been shown to be useful for peripheral and central restoration after (PNI). After sciatic nerve crush, we investigated 4 weeks of endurance training (ET) and balance and coordination training (BCT) with sciatic function index, hind-paw stride length, and spinal cord dorsal horn synaptophysin and neurotrophin-3 immunoreactivity. Our results demonstrated no significant differences between the non-trained (NT), ET, and BCT groups in sciatic functional index, and in stride-length analysis, but the ET showed higher values compared with the NT group. Synaptophysin immunoreactivity was higher in the BCT group compared with the NT group, and neurotrophin-3 immunoreactivity in the BCT group was greater compared with the other groups. BCT can positively affect spinal cord plasticity after a (PNI), and these modifications are important in the rehabilitation process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The role of neural precursor cells and self assembling peptides in nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cranial nerve injury involves loss of central neural cells in the brain stem and surrounding support matrix, leading to severe functional impairment. Therapeutically targeting cellular replacement and enhancing structural support may promote neural regeneration. We examined the combinatorial effect of neural precursor cells (NPC) and self assembling peptide (SAP) administration on nerve regeneration. Methods Nerve injury was induced by clip compression of the rodent spinal cord. SAPs were injected immediately into the injured cord and NPCs at 2 weeks post-injury. Behavioral analysis was done weekly and rats were sacrificed at 11 weeks post injury. LFB-H&E staining was done on cord tissue to assess cavitation volume. Motor evoked potentials (MEP) were measured at week 11 to assess nerve conduction and Kaplan meier curves were created to compare survival estimates. Results NPCs and SAPs were distributed both caudal and rostral to the injury site. Behavioral analysis showed that SAP + NPC transplantation significantly improved locomotor score p <0.03) and enhanced survival (log rank test, p = 0.008) compared to control. SAP + NPC treatment also improved nerve conduction velocity (p = 0.008) but did not affect cavitation volume (p = 0.73). Conclusion Combinatorial NPC and SAP injection into injured nerve tissue may enhance neural repair and regeneration. PMID:24351041

  17. Sonographic identification of peripheral nerves in the forearm

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Saundra A.; Derr, Charlotte; De Lucia, Anthony; Harris, Marvin; Closser, Zuheily; Miladinovic, Branko; Mhaskar, Rahul; Jorgensen, Theresa; Green, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Background: With the growing utilization of ultrasonography in emergency medicine combined with the concern over adequate pain management in the emergency department (ED), ultrasound guidance for peripheral nerve blockade in ED is an area of increasing interest. The medical literature has multiple reports supporting the use of ultrasound guidance in peripheral nerve blocks. However, to perform a peripheral nerve block, one must first be able to reliably identify the specific nerve before the procedure. Objective: The primary purpose of this study is to describe the number of supervised peripheral nerve examinations that are necessary for an emergency medicine physician to gain proficiency in accurately locating and identifying the median, radial, and ulnar nerves of the forearm via ultrasound. Methods: The proficiency outcome was defined as the number of attempts before a resident is able to correctly locate and identify the nerves on ten consecutive examinations. Didactic education was provided via a 1 h lecture on forearm anatomy, sonographic technique, and identification of the nerves. Participants also received two supervised hands-on examinations for each nerve. Count data are summarized using percentages or medians and range. Random effects negative binomial regression was used for modeling panel count data. Results: Complete data for the number of attempts, gender, and postgraduate year (PGY) training year were available for 38 residents. Nineteen males and 19 females performed examinations. The median PGY year in practice was 3 (range 1–3), with 10 (27%) in year 1, 8 (22%) in year 2, and 19 (51%) in year 3 or beyond. The median number (range) of required supervised attempts for radial, median, and ulnar nerves was 1 (0–12), 0 (0–10), and 0 (0–17), respectively. Conclusion: We can conclude that the maximum number of supervised attempts to achieve accurate nerve identification was 17 (ulnar), 12 (radial), and 10 (median) in our study. The only

  18. Exogenous BDNF enhances the integration of chronically injured axons that regenerate through a peripheral nerve grafted into a chondroitinase-treated spinal cord injury site

    PubMed Central

    Tom, Veronica J.; Sandrow-Feinberg, Harra R.; Miller, Kassi; Domitrovich, Cheryl; Bouyer, Julien; Zhukareva, Victoria; Klaw, Michelle C.; Lemay, Michel A.; Houlé, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Although axons lose some of their intrinsic capacity for growth after their developmental period, some axons retain the potential for regrowth after injury. When provided with a growth-promoting substrate such as a peripheral nerve graft (PNG), severed axons regenerate into and through the graft; however, they stop when they reach the glial scar at the distal graft-host interface that is rich with inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. We previously showed that treatment of a spinal cord injury site with chondroitinase (ChABC) allows axons within the graft to traverse the scar and reinnervate spinal cord, where they form functional synapses. While this improvement in outgrowth was significant, it still represented only a small percentage (<20%) of axons compared to the total number of axons that regenerated into the PNG. Here we tested whether providing exogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) via lentivirus in tissue distal to the PNG would augment regeneration beyond a ChABC-treated glial interface. We found that ChABC treatment alone promoted axonal regeneration but combining ChABC with BDNF-lentivirus did not increase the number of axons that regenerated back into spinal cord. Combining BDNF with ChABC did increase the number of spinal cord neurons that were trans-synaptically activated during electrical stimulation of the graft, as indicated by c-Fos expression, suggesting that BDNF overexpression improved the functional significance of axons that did reinnervate distal spinal cord tissue. PMID:23022460

  19. Glycinergic dysfunction in a subpopulation of dorsal horn interneurons in a rat model of neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Imlach, Wendy L.; Bhola, Rebecca F.; Mohammadi, Sarasa A.; Christie, Macdonald J.

    2016-01-01

    The development of neuropathic pain involves persistent changes in signalling within pain pathways. Reduced inhibitory signalling in the spinal cord following nerve-injury has been used to explain sensory signs of neuropathic pain but specific circuits that lose inhibitory input have not been identified. This study shows a specific population of spinal cord interneurons, radial neurons, lose glycinergic inhibitory input in a rat partial sciatic nerve ligation (PNL) model of neuropathic pain. Radial neurons are excitatory neurons located in lamina II of the dorsal horn, and are readily identified by their morphology. The amplitude of electrically-evoked glycinergic inhibitory post-synaptic currents (eIPSCs) was greatly reduced in radial neurons following nerve-injury associated with increased paired-pulse ratio. There was also a reduction in frequency of spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) and miniature IPSCs (mIPSC) in radial neurons without significantly affecting mIPSC amplitude. A subtype selective receptor antagonist and western blots established reversion to expression of the immature glycine receptor subunit GlyRα2 in radial neurons after PNL, consistent with slowed decay times of IPSCs. This study has important implications as it identifies a glycinergic synaptic connection in a specific population of dorsal horn neurons where loss of inhibitory signalling may contribute to signs of neuropathic pain. PMID:27841371

  20. Quantification of human upper extremity nerves and fascicular anatomy.

    PubMed

    Brill, Natalie A; Tyler, Dustin J

    2017-09-01

    In this study we provide detailed quantification of upper extremity nerve and fascicular anatomy. The purpose is to provide values and trends in neural features useful for clinical applications and neural interface device design. Nerve cross-sections were taken from 4 ulnar, 4 median, and 3 radial nerves from 5 arms of 3 human cadavers. Quantified nerve features included cross-sectional area, minor diameter, and major diameter. Fascicular features analyzed included count, perimeter, area, and position. Mean fascicular diameters were 0.57 ± 0.39, 0.6 ± 0.3, 0.5 ± 0.26 mm in the upper arm and 0.38 ± 0.18, 0.47 ± 0.18, 0.4 ± 0.27 mm in the forearm of ulnar, median, and radial nerves, respectively. Mean fascicular diameters were inversely proportional to fascicle count. Detailed quantitative anatomy of upper extremity nerves is a resource for design of neural electrodes, guidance in extraneural procedures, and improved neurosurgical planning. Muscle Nerve 56: 463-471, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Comparison of mesenchymal stem cells derived from fat, bone marrow, Wharton's jelly, and umbilical cord blood for treating spinal cord injuries in dogs.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hak-Hyun; Kang, Byung-Jae; Park, Sung-Su; Kim, Yongsun; Sung, Gyu-Jin; Woo, Heung-Myong; Kim, Wan Hee; Kweon, Oh-Kyeong

    2012-12-01

    Previous animal studies have shown that transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into spinal cord lesions enhances axonal regeneration and promotes functional recovery. We isolated the MSCs derived from fat, bone marrow, Wharton's jelly and umbilical cord blood (UCB) positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic cell markers. Their effects on the regeneration of injured canine spinal cords were compared. Spinal cord injury was induced by balloon catheter compression. Dogs with injured spinal cords were treated with only matrigel or matrigel mixed with each type of MSCs. Olby and modified Tarlov scores, immunohistochemistry, ELISA and Western blot analysis were used to evaluate the therapeutic effects. The different MSC groups showed significant improvements in locomotion at 8 weeks after transplantation (P<0.05). This recovery was accompanied by increased numbers of surviving neuron and neurofilament-positive fibers in the lesion site. Compared to the control, the lesion sizes were smaller, and fewer microglia and reactive astrocytes were found in the spinal cord epicenter of all MSC groups. Although there were no significant differences in functional recovery among the MSCs groups, UCB-derived MSCs (UCSCs) induced more nerve regeneration and anti-inflammation activity (P<0.05). Transplanted MSCs survived for 8 weeks and reduced IL-6 and COX-2 levels, which may have promoted neuronal regeneration in the spinal cord. Our data suggest that transplantation of MSCs promotes functional recovery after SCI. Furthermore, application of UCSCs led to more nerve regeneration, neuroprotection and less inflammation compared to other MSCs.

  2. Tail Nerve Electrical Stimulation and Electro-Acupuncture Can Protect Spinal Motor Neurons and Alleviate Muscle Atrophy after Spinal Cord Transection in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Ting; Jin, Hui; Wang, Jun-Hua; Wen, Lan-Yu; Yang, Yang; Ruan, Jing-Wen; Zhang, Shu-Xin; Ling, Eng-Ang

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) often results in death of spinal neurons and atrophy of muscles which they govern. Thus, following SCI, reorganizing the lumbar spinal sensorimotor pathways is crucial to alleviate muscle atrophy. Tail nerve electrical stimulation (TANES) has been shown to activate the central pattern generator (CPG) and improve the locomotion recovery of spinal contused rats. Electroacupuncture (EA) is a traditional Chinese medical practice which has been proven to have a neural protective effect. Here, we examined the effects of TANES and EA on lumbar motor neurons and hindlimb muscle in spinal transected rats, respectively. From the third day postsurgery, rats in the TANES group were treated 5 times a week and those in the EA group were treated once every other day. Four weeks later, both TANES and EA showed a significant impact in promoting survival of lumbar motor neurons and expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and ameliorating atrophy of hindlimb muscle after SCI. Meanwhile, the expression of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in the same spinal cord segment was significantly increased. These findings suggest that TANES and EA can augment the expression of NT-3 in the lumbar spinal cord that appears to protect the motor neurons as well as alleviate muscle atrophy. PMID:28744378

  3. Axon-Sorting Multifunctional Nerve Guides: Accelerating Restoration of Nerve Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    factor (singly & in selected combinations) in the organotypic model system for preferential sensory or motor axon extension. Use confocal microscopy to...track axon extension of labeled sensory or motor neurons from spinal cord slices (motor) or dorsal root ganglia ( DRG ) (sensory). 20 Thy1-YFP mice...RESEARCH ACCOMPLISHMENTS: • Established a system of color-coded mixed nerve tracking using GFP and RFP expressing motor and sensory neurons (Figure 1

  4. Spinal accessory nerve to triceps muscle transfer using long autologous nerve grafts for recovery of elbow extension in traumatic brachial plexus injuries.

    PubMed

    Bulstra, Liselotte F; Rbia, Nadia; Kircher, Michelle F; Spinner, Robert J; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y

    2017-12-08

    OBJECTIVE Reconstructive options for brachial plexus lesions continue to expand and improve. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and quality of restored elbow extension in patients with brachial plexus injuries who underwent transfer of the spinal accessory nerve to the motor branch of the radial nerve to the long head of the triceps muscle with an intervening autologous nerve graft and to identify patient and injury factors that influence functional triceps outcome. METHODS A total of 42 patients were included in this retrospective review. All patients underwent transfer of the spinal accessory nerve to the motor branch of the radial nerve to the long head of the triceps muscle as part of their reconstruction plan after brachial plexus injury. The primary outcome was elbow extension strength according to the modified Medical Research Council muscle grading scale, and signs of triceps muscle recovery were recorded using electromyography. RESULTS When evaluating the entire study population (follow-up range 12-45 months, mean 24.3 months), 52.4% of patients achieved meaningful recovery. More specifically, 45.2% reached Grade 0 or 1 recovery, 19.1% obtained Grade 2, and 35.7% improved to Grade 3 or better. The presence of a vascular injury impaired functional outcome. In the subgroup with a minimum follow-up of 20 months (n = 26), meaningful recovery was obtained by 69.5%. In this subgroup, 7.7% had no recovery (Grade 0), 19.2% had recovery to Grade 1, and 23.1% had recovery to Grade 2. Grade 3 or better was reached by 50% of patients, of whom 34.5% obtained Grade 4 elbow extension. CONCLUSIONS Transfer of the spinal accessory nerve to the radial nerve branch to the long head of the triceps muscle with an interposition nerve graft is an adequate option for restoration of elbow extension, despite the relatively long time required for reinnervation. The presence of vascular injury impairs functional recovery of the triceps muscle, and the use of

  5. Wireless peripheral nerve stimulation for complex regional pain syndrome type I of the upper extremity: a case illustration introducing a novel technology.

    PubMed

    Herschkowitz, Daniel; Kubias, Jana

    2018-04-13

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a debilitating painful disorder, cryptic in its pathophysiology and refractory condition with limited therapeutic options. Type I CRPS with its variable relationship to trauma has often no discernible fractures or nerve injuries and remains enigmatic in its response to conservative treatment as well as the other limited interventional therapies. Neuromodulation in the form of spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion stimulation (SCS, DRGS) has shown encouraging results, especially of causalgia or CRPS I of lower extremities. Upper extremity CRPS I is far more difficult. To report a case of upper extremity CRPS I treated by wireless peripheral nerve stimulation (WPNS) for its unique features and minimally invasive technique. The system does not involve implantation of battery or its connections. A 47 year old female patient presented with refractory CRPS I following a blunt trauma to her right forearm. As interventional treatment in the form of local anesthetics (Anesthesia of peripheral branches of radial nerve) and combined infusions of ketamine/lidocaine failed to provide any significant relief she opted for WPNS treatment. Based on the topographic distribution, two electrodes (Stimwave Leads: FR4A-RCV-A0 with tines, Generation 1 and FR4A-RCV-B0 with tines, Generation 1), were placed along the course of radial and median nerves under ultrasonography monitoring and guided by intraoperative stimulation. This procedure did not involve implantation of extension cables or the power source. At a frequency of 60 Hz and 300 μs the stimulation induced paresthesia along the distribution of the nerves. Therapeutic relief was observed with high frequency (HF) stimulation (HF 10 kHz/32 μs, 2.0 mA) reducing her pain from a visual analogue scale (VAS) score of 7-4 postoperatively. Three HF stimulations programs were provided at the time of discharge, as she improved in her sensory impairment to touch, pressure and temperature at her first

  6. Enzymatic inactivation of tachykinin neurotransmitters in the isolated spinal cord of the newborn rat.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, M; Yoshioka, K; Kurihara, T; Saito, K; Seno, N; Suzuki, H; Hosoki, R; Otsuka, M

    1992-12-01

    A mixture of peptidase inhibitors increased the magnitude of the saphenous nerve-evoked slow depolarization of a lumbar ventral root and prolonged the similarly evoked inhibition of monosynaptic reflex (MSR) in the isolated spinal cord of the newborn rat in the presence of naloxone. The saphenous nerve-evoked MSR inhibition was curtailed by a tachykinin antagonist, GR71251, and after the treatment with GR71251, the peptidase inhibitor mixture no more prolonged the MSR inhibition. The present results suggest that enzymatic degradation plays a role in the termination of action of tachykinins released from primary afferents in the newborn rat spinal cord. The results provide a further support for the notion that tachykinins serve as neurotransmitters in the spinal cord of the newborn rat.

  7. Trauma-induced schwannoma of the recurrent laryngeal nerve after thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, William P; Brody, Robert M; LiVolsi, Virginia A; Wang, Amber R; Mirza, Natasha A

    2016-06-01

    Laryngeal schwannomas are rare, benign tumors, most often arising from the superior laryngeal nerve. We describe a case of a 68-year-old female with a laryngeal schwannoma of the recurrent laryngeal nerve after traumatic injury. We postulate that trauma to the recurrent laryngeal nerve during thyroidectomy or thyroplasty incited growth of a nerve sheath tumor. This is the first reported case of a trauma-induced schwannoma of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and second case of a recurrent laryngeal nerve schwannoma. Although rare, this case demonstrates that these tumors should be considered during workup of vocal cord paresis after surgery or failed thyroplasty. Laryngoscope, 126:1408-1410, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Increased Release of Serotonin in the Spinal Cord During Low, But Not High, Frequency Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation in Rats With Joint Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sluka, Kathleen A.; Lisi, Tammy L.; Westlund, Karin N.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the release pattern of serotonin and noradrenaline in the spinal cord in response to transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) delivered at low or high frequency. Design Prospective randomized allocation of 3 treatments. Setting Research laboratory. Animals Male Sprague-Dawley rats (weight range, 250–350g). Intervention Knee joints of rats were inflamed with a mixture of 3% carrageenan and 3% kaolin for 24 hours prior to placement of push-pull cannulae into the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Push-pull samples were collected in 10-minute intervals before, during, and after treatment with low-frequency TENS (4Hz), high-frequency TENS (100Hz), or sham TENS. TENS was applied to the inflamed knee joint for 20 minutes at sensory intensity and 100-μs pulse duration. Push-pull samples were analyzed for serotonin and noradrenaline by high performance liquid chromatography with coulemetric detection. Main Outcome Measures Spinal concentrations of serotonin and noradrenaline. Results Low-frequency TENS significantly increased serotonin concentrations during and immediately after treatment. There was no change in serotonin with high-frequency TENS, nor was there a change in noradrenaline with low- or high-frequency TENS. Conclusions Low-frequency TENS releases serotonin in the spinal cord to produce antihyperalgesia by activation of serotonin receptors. PMID:16876561

  9. A 3D subject-specific model of the spinal subarachnoid space with anatomically realistic ventral and dorsal spinal cord nerve rootlets.

    PubMed

    Sass, Lucas R; Khani, Mohammadreza; Natividad, Gabryel Connely; Tubbs, R Shane; Baledent, Olivier; Martin, Bryn A

    2017-12-19

    The spinal subarachnoid space (SSS) has a complex 3D fluid-filled geometry with multiple levels of anatomic complexity, the most salient features being the spinal cord and dorsal and ventral nerve rootlets. An accurate anthropomorphic representation of these features is needed for development of in vitro and numerical models of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics that can be used to inform and optimize CSF-based therapeutics. A subject-specific 3D model of the SSS was constructed based on high-resolution anatomic MRI. An expert operator completed manual segmentation of the CSF space with detailed consideration of the anatomy. 31 pairs of semi-idealized dorsal and ventral nerve rootlets (NR) were added to the model based on anatomic reference to the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and cadaveric measurements in the literature. Key design criteria for each NR pair included the radicular line, descending angle, number of NR, attachment location along the spinal cord and exit through the dura mater. Model simplification and smoothing was performed to produce a final model with minimum vertices while maintaining minimum error between the original segmentation and final design. Final model geometry and hydrodynamics were characterized in terms of axial distribution of Reynolds number, Womersley number, hydraulic diameter, cross-sectional area and perimeter. The final model had a total of 139,901 vertices with a total CSF volume within the SSS of 97.3 cm 3 . Volume of the dura mater, spinal cord and NR was 123.1, 19.9 and 5.8 cm 3 . Surface area of these features was 318.52, 112.2 and 232.1 cm 2 respectively. Maximum Reynolds number was 174.9 and average Womersley number was 9.6, likely indicating presence of a laminar inertia-dominated oscillatory CSF flow field. This study details an anatomically realistic anthropomorphic 3D model of the SSS based on high-resolution MR imaging of a healthy human adult female. The model is provided for re-use under the Creative Commons

  10. Nerve lesioning with direct current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravid, E. Natalie; Shi Gan, Liu; Todd, Kathryn; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-02-01

    Spastic hypertonus (muscle over-activity due to exaggerated stretch reflexes) often develops in people with stroke, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Lesioning of nerves, e.g. with phenol or botulinum toxin is widely performed to reduce spastic hypertonus. We have explored the use of direct electrical current (DC) to lesion peripheral nerves. In a series of animal experiments, DC reduced muscle force by controlled amounts and the reduction could last several months. We conclude that in some cases controlled DC lesioning may provide an effective alternative to the less controllable molecular treatments available today.

  11. Novel Insights into the Echinoderm Nervous System from Histaminergic and FMRFaminergic-Like Cells in the Sea Cucumber Leptosynapta clarki

    PubMed Central

    Hoekstra, Luke A.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Heyland, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the echinoderm nervous system is limited due to its distinct organization in comparison to other animal phyla and by the difficulty in accessing it. The transparent and accessible, apodid sea cucumber Leptosynapta clarki provides novel opportunities for detailed characterization of echinoderm neural systems. The present study used immunohistochemistry against FMRFamide and histamine to describe the neural organization in juvenile and adult sea cucumbers. Histaminergic- and FMRFaminergic-like immunoreactivity is reported in several distinct cell types throughout the body of L. clarki. FMRFamide-like immunoreactive cell bodies were found in the buccal tentacles, esophageal region and in proximity to the radial nerve cords. Sensory-like cells in the tentacles send processes toward the circumoral nerve ring, while unipolar and bipolar cells close to the radial nerve cords display extensive processes in close association with muscle and other cells of the body wall. Histamine-like immunoreactivity was identified in neuronal somatas located in the buccal tentacles, circumoral nerve ring and in papillae distributed across the body. The tentacular cells send processes into the nerve ring, while the processes of cells in the body wall papillae extend to the surface epithelium and radial nerve cords. Pharmacological application of histamine produced a strong coordinated, peristaltic response of the body wall suggesting the role of histamine in the feeding behavior. Our immunohistochemical data provide evidence for extensive connections between the hyponeural and ectoneural nervous system in the sea cucumber, challenging previously held views on a clear functional separation of the sub-components of the nervous system. Furthermore, our data indicate a potential function of histamine in coordinated, peristaltic movements; consistent with feeding patterns in this species. This study on L. clarki illustrates how using a broader range of neurotransmitter systems

  12. Migration of luque rods through a laminectomy defect causing spinal cord compression.

    PubMed

    Quint, D J; Salton, G

    1993-01-01

    Internal fixation of traumatic spinal injuries has been associated with spinal canal stenosis, spinal cord compression, and nerve root impingement. We present a case of spinal cord/cauda equina compression due to migration of intact, anchored thoracolumbar Luque rods into the spinal canal through a laminectomy defect, leading to neurologic complications 10 years after the original operation.

  13. Intraoperative Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Monitoring in a Patient with Contralateral Vocal Fold Palsy.

    PubMed

    Na, Bub-Se; Choi, Jin-Ho; Park, In Kyu; Kim, Young Tae; Kang, Chang Hyun

    2017-10-01

    Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury can develop following cervical or thoracic surgery; however, few reports have described intraoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring. Consensus regarding the use of this technique during thoracic surgery is lacking. We used intraoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring in a patient with contralateral vocal cord paralysis who was scheduled for completion pneumonectomy. This case serves as an example of intraoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring during thoracic surgery and supports this indication for its use.

  14. Extralaryngeal division of the recurrent laryngeal nerve: A common and asymmetric anatomical variant.

    PubMed

    Uludağ, Mehmet; Yetkin, Gürkan; Oran, Ebru Şen; Aygün, Nurcihan; Celayir, Fevzi; İşgör, Adnan

    2017-01-01

    Recognition of extralaryngeal branching of the recurrent laryngeal nerve is crucial because prevention of vocal cord paralysis requires preservation of all branches of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. We assessed the prevalence of extralaryngeal branching of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the median branching distance from the point of bifurcation to the entry point of the nerve into the larynx. Prospective operative data on recurrent laryngeal nerve branching were collected from 94 patients who underwent thyroid or parathyroid surgery between September 2011 and May 2012. A total of 161 recurrent laryngeal nerves were examined (82 right, 79 left). Overall, 77 (47.8%) of 161 recurrent laryngeal nerves were bifurcated before entering the larynx. There were 36 (43.9%) branching nerves on the right and 41 (51.9%) branching nerves on the left, and there was no significant difference between the sides in terms of branching (p=0.471). Among 67 patients who underwent bilateral exploration, 28.4% were found to have bilateral branching, 40.3% had unilateral branching, and the remaining 31.3% had no branching. The median branching distance was 15 mm (5-60mm). Extralaryngeal division of recurrent laryngeal nerve is a common and asymmetric anatomical variant. These variations can be easily recognized if the recurrent laryngeal nerve is identified at the level of the inferior thyroid artery and then dissected totally to the entry point of the larynx. Inadvertent division of a branch may lead to vocal cord palsy postoperatively, even when the surgeon believes the integrity of the nerve has been preserved.

  15. Electrophysiological neural monitoring of the laryngeal nerves in thyroid surgery: review of the current literature

    PubMed Central

    Deniwar, Ahmed; Randolph, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury is one of the most common complications of thyroid surgery. RLN injury can cause vocal cord paralysis, affecting the patient’s voice and the quality of life. Injury of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) can cause cricothyroid muscle denervation affecting high vocal tones. Thus, securing the laryngeal nerves in these surgeries is of utmost importance. Visual identification of the nerves has long been the standard method for this precaution. Intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) has been introduced as a novel technology to improve the protection of the laryngeal nerves and reduce the rate of RLN injury. The aim of this article is to provide a brief description of the technique and review the literature to illustrate the value of IONM. IONM can provide early identification of anatomical variations and unusual nerve routes, which carry a higher risk of injury if not detected. IONM helps in prognosticating postoperative nerve function. Moreover, by detecting nerve injury intraoperatively, it aids in staging bilateral surgeries to avoid bilateral vocal cord paralysis and tracheostomy. The article will discuss the value of continuous IONM (C-IOMN) that may prevent nerve injury by detecting EMG waveform changes indicating impending nerve injury. Herein, we are also discussing anatomy of laryngeal nerves and aspects of its injury. PMID:26425449

  16. Nerve stress during reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, Hubert; Dagneaux, Louis; Canovas, François; Waitzenegger, Thomas; Pham, Thuy Trang; Chammas, Michel

    2017-02-01

    Neurologic lesions are relatively common after total shoulder arthroplasty. These injuries are mostly due to traction. We aimed to identify the arm manipulations and steps during reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) that affect nerve stress. Stress was measured in 10 shoulders of 5 cadavers by use of a tensiometer on each nerve from the brachial plexus, with shoulders in different arm positions and during different surgical steps of RTSA. When we studied shoulder position without prostheses, relative to the neutral position, internal rotation increased stress on the radial and axillary nerves and external rotation increased stress on the musculocutaneous, median, and ulnar nerves. Extension was correlated with increase in stress on all nerves. Abduction was correlated with increase in stress for the radial nerve. We identified 2 high-risk steps during RTSA: humeral exposition, particularly when the shoulder was in a position of more extension, and glenoid exposition. The thickness of polyethylene humeral cups used was associated with increased nerve stress in all but the ulnar nerve. During humeral preparation, the surgeon must be careful to limit shoulder extension. Care must be taken during exposure of the glenoid. Extreme rotation and oversized implants should be avoided to minimize stretch-induced neuropathies. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells and chorionic plate-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote axon survival in a rat model of optic nerve crush injury

    PubMed Central

    CHUNG, SOKJOONG; RHO, SEUNGSOO; KIM, GIJIN; KIM, SO-RA; BAEK, KWANG-HYUN; KANG, MYUNGSEO; LEW, HELEN

    2016-01-01

    The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in cell therapy in regenerative medicine has great potential, particularly in the treatment of nerve injury. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) reportedly contains stem cells, which have been widely used as a hematopoietic source and may have therapeutic potential for neurological impairment. Although ongoing research is dedicated to the management of traumatic optic nerve injury using various measures, novel therapeutic strategies based on the complex underlying mechanisms responsible for optic nerve injury, such as inflammation and/or ischemia, are required. In the present study, a rat model of optic nerve crush (ONC) injury was established in order to examine the effects of transplanting human chorionic plate-derived MSCs (CP-MSCs) isolated from the placenta, as well as human UCB mononuclear cells (CB-MNCs) on compressed rat optic nerves. Expression markers for inflammation, apoptosis, and optic nerve regeneration were analyzed, as well as the axon survival rate by direct counting. Increased axon survival rates were observed following the injection of CB-MNCs at at 1 week post-transplantation compared with the controls. The levels of growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) were increased after the injection of CB-MNCs or CP-MSCs compared with the controls, and the expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) were also significantly increased following the injection of CB-MNCs or CP-MSCs. ERM-like protein (ERMN) and SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 2 (SRGAP2) were found to be expressed in the optic nerves of the CP-MSC-injected rats with ONC injury. The findings of our study suggest that the administration of CB-MNCs or CP-MSCs may promote axon survival through systemic concomitant mechanisms involving GAP-43 and HIF-1α. Taken together, these findings provide further understanding of the mechanisms repsonsible for optic nerve injury and may aid in the development of novel cell-based therapeutic strategies with

  18. Release of substance P from the cat spinal cord.

    PubMed Central

    Go, V L; Yaksh, T L

    1987-01-01

    1. The present experiments examine the physiology and pharmacology of the release of substance P-like immunoreactivity (SP-l.i.), from the spinal cord in the halothane-anaesthetized, artificially ventilated cat. 2. Resting release of SP-l.i. was 36 +/- 4 fmol/30 min (mean +/- S.E.; n = 106). Bilateral stimulation of the sciatic nerves at intensities which evoked activity in fibres conducting at A beta conduction velocities (greater than 40 m/s), resulted in no change in blood pressure, pupil diameter or release of SP-l.i. Stimulation intensities which activate fibres conducting at velocities less than 2 m/s resulted in increased blood pressure, miosis and elevated release of SP-l.i. (278 +/- 16% of control). 3. The relationship between nerve-stimulation frequency and release was monotonic up to approximately 20 Hz. Higher stimulation frequencies did not increase the amounts of SP-l.i. released. At 200 Hz there was a reduction. 4. Capsaicin (0.1 mM) increased the release of SP-l.i. from the spinal cord and resulted in an acute desensitization to subsequent nerve stimulation. This acute effect was not accompanied by a reduction in spinal levels of SP-l.i. measured 2 h after stimulation. 5. Cold block of the cervical spinal cord resulted in an increase in the amounts of SP-l.i. released by nerve stimulation. 6. Pre-treatment with intrathecal 5,6-dihydroxytryptamine (300 micrograms) 7 days prior to the experiment caused a reduction in the dorsal and ventral horn stores of SP-l.i., but had no effect on the release of SP-l.i. evoked by nerve stimulation. Similar pre-treatment with intrathecal capsaicin (300 micrograms) resulted in depletion of SP-l.i. in the dorsal but not in the ventral horn of the spinal cord and diminished the release of SP-l.i. evoked by nerve stimulation. 7. Intense thermal stimulation of the flank resulted in small (20-35%), but reliable increases in the release of SP-l.i. above control. 8. Putative agonists for the opioid mu-receptor (morphine, 10

  19. Spinal Cord Excitability and Sprint Performance Are Enhanced by Sensory Stimulation During Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Pearcey, Gregory E. P.; Noble, Steven A.; Munro, Bridget; Zehr, E. Paul

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord excitability, as assessed by modulation of Hoffmann (H-) reflexes, is reduced with fatiguing isometric contractions. Furthermore, spinal cord excitability is reduced during non-fatiguing arm and leg cycling. Presynaptic inhibition of Ia terminals is believed to contribute to this suppression of spinal cord excitability. Electrical stimulation to cutaneous nerves reduces Ia presynaptic inhibition, which facilitates spinal cord excitability, and this facilitation is present during arm cycling. Although it has been suggested that reducing presynaptic inhibition may prolong fatiguing contractions, it is unknown whether sensory stimulation can alter the effects of fatiguing exercise on performance or spinal cord excitability. Thus, the aim of this experiment was to determine if sensory stimulation can interfere with fatigue-related suppression of spinal cord excitability, and alter fatigue rates during cycling sprints. Thirteen participants randomly performed three experimental sessions that included: unloaded cycling with sensory stimulation (CONTROL + STIM), sprints with sensory stimulation (SPRINT + STIM) and sprints without stimulation (SPRINT). Seven participants also performed a fourth session (CONTROL), which consisted of unloaded cycling. During SPRINT and SPRINT + STIM, participants performed seven, 10 s cycling sprints interleaved with 3 min rest. For CONTROL and CONTROL + STIM, participants performed unloaded cycling for ~30 min. During SPRINT + STIM and CONTROL + STIM, participants received patterned sensory stimulation to nerves of the right foot. H-reflexes and M-waves of the right soleus were evoked by stimulation of the tibial nerve at multiple time points throughout exercise. Sensory stimulation facilitated soleus H-reflexes during unloaded cycling, whereas sprints suppressed soleus H-reflexes. While receiving sensory stimulation, there was less suppression of soleus H-reflexes and slowed reduction in average power output, compared to

  20. Spinal Cord Excitability and Sprint Performance Are Enhanced by Sensory Stimulation During Cycling.

    PubMed

    Pearcey, Gregory E P; Noble, Steven A; Munro, Bridget; Zehr, E Paul

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord excitability, as assessed by modulation of Hoffmann (H-) reflexes, is reduced with fatiguing isometric contractions. Furthermore, spinal cord excitability is reduced during non-fatiguing arm and leg cycling. Presynaptic inhibition of Ia terminals is believed to contribute to this suppression of spinal cord excitability. Electrical stimulation to cutaneous nerves reduces Ia presynaptic inhibition, which facilitates spinal cord excitability, and this facilitation is present during arm cycling. Although it has been suggested that reducing presynaptic inhibition may prolong fatiguing contractions, it is unknown whether sensory stimulation can alter the effects of fatiguing exercise on performance or spinal cord excitability. Thus, the aim of this experiment was to determine if sensory stimulation can interfere with fatigue-related suppression of spinal cord excitability, and alter fatigue rates during cycling sprints. Thirteen participants randomly performed three experimental sessions that included: unloaded cycling with sensory stimulation ( CONTROL + STIM ), sprints with sensory stimulation ( SPRINT + STIM ) and sprints without stimulation ( SPRINT ). Seven participants also performed a fourth session ( CONTROL ), which consisted of unloaded cycling. During SPRINT and SPRINT + STIM, participants performed seven, 10 s cycling sprints interleaved with 3 min rest. For CONTROL and CONTROL + STIM , participants performed unloaded cycling for ~30 min. During SPRINT + STIM and CONTROL + STIM , participants received patterned sensory stimulation to nerves of the right foot. H-reflexes and M-waves of the right soleus were evoked by stimulation of the tibial nerve at multiple time points throughout exercise. Sensory stimulation facilitated soleus H-reflexes during unloaded cycling, whereas sprints suppressed soleus H-reflexes. While receiving sensory stimulation, there was less suppression of soleus H-reflexes and slowed reduction in average power output, compared

  1. Label-free imaging of rat spinal cords based on multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chenxi; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Linquan; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Liu, Wenge; Chen, Jianxin

    2016-10-01

    As an integral part of the central nervous system, the spinal cord is a communication cable between the body and the brain. It mainly contains neurons, glial cells, nerve fibers and fiber tracts. The recent development of the optical imaging technique allows high-resolution imaging of biological tissues with the great potential for non-invasively looking inside the body. In this work, we evaluate the imaging capacity of multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) for the cells and extracellular matrix in the spinal cord at molecular level. Rat spinal cord tissues were sectioned and imaged by MPM to demonstrate that MPM is able to show the microstructure including white matter, gray matter, ventral horns, dorsal horns, and axons based on the distinct intrinsic sources in each region of spinal cord. In the high-resolution and high-contrast MPM images, the cell profile can be clearly identified as dark shadows caused by nuclei and encircled by cytoplasm. The nerve fibers in white matter region emitted both SHG and TPEF signals. The multiphoton microscopic imaging technique proves to be a fast and effective tool for label-free imaging spinal cord tissues, based on endogenous signals in biological tissue. It has the potential to extend this optical technique to clinical study, where the rapid and damage-free imaging is needed.

  2. Combination of edaravone and neural stem cell transplantation repairs injured spinal cord in rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Y Y; Peng, C G; Ye, X B

    2015-12-29

    This study sought to observe the effect of the combination of edaravone and neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation on the repair of complete spinal cord transection in rats. Eighty adult female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used to establish the injury model of complete spinal cord transection at T9. Animals were divided randomly into four groups (N = 20 each): control, edaravone, transplantation, and edaravone + transplantation. The recovery of spinal function was evaluated with the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) rating scale on days 1, 3, and 7 each week after the surgery. After 8 weeks, the BBB scores of the control, edaravone, transplantation, and combination groups were 4.21 ± 0.11, 8.46 ± 0.1, 8.54 ± 0.13, and 11.21 ± 0.14, respectively. At 8 weeks after surgery, the spinal cord was collected; the survival and transportation of transplanted cells were observed with PKH-26 labeling, and the regeneration and distribution of spinal nerve fibers with fluorescent-gold (FG) retrograde tracing. Five rats died due to the injury. PKH-26-labeled NSCs had migrated into the spinal cord. A few intact nerve fibers and pyramidal neurons passed the injured area in the transplantation and combination groups. The numbers of PKH-26-labeled cells and FG-labeled nerve fibers were in the order: combination group > edaravone group and transplantation group > control group (P < 0.05 for each). Thus, edaravone can enhance the survival and differentiation of NSCs in injured areas; edaravone with NSC transplantation can improve the effectiveness of spinal cord injury repair in rats.

  3. Echogenicity and ultrasound visibility of peripheral nerves of the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Stolz, Lori A; Acuna, Josie Galarza; Gaskin, Kevin; Murphy, Amanda M; Friedman, Lucas; Stears-Ellis, Summer; Javedani, Parisa; Stolz, Uwe; Adhikari, Srikar

    2018-05-02

    Regional anesthesia with ultrasound-guidance is an excellent option for pain control if nerves are adequately visualized. Gender, body mass index (BMI), history of diabetes, neck and forearm circumference may affect echotexture and visualization. This study evaluates patient characteristics for their ability to predict the echogenicity or visibility of upper extremity peripheral nerves. This is a prospective observational study. A convenience sample of adult emergency department patients were enrolled. Gender, BMI, history of diabetes, neck circumference and arm circumference were recorded. Sonographic images of the brachial plexus at interscalene and supraclavicular levels, the median, the radial and ulnar nerves were recorded. Three reviewers independently graded the echogenicity and visibility using subjective scales. 395 peripheral nerves were included. Nerves of the forearm (median, ulnar, radial nerves) were found to be more echogenic (OR=9.3; 95% CI: 5.7, 15.3) and visible (OR=10.0; 6.3, 16.0) than more proximal nerves (brachial plexus at interscalene and supraclavicular levels). Gender, BMI, and history of diabetes mellitus were not significantly related to nerve visibility (p=0.9, 0.2, 0.2, respectively) or echogenicity (p=0.3, 0.8, 0.3). Neck circumference was not related to visibility or echogenicity of proximal nerves. Increased forearm circumference improved echogenicity (OR=1.25; 1.09, 1.43) but not visibility of forearm nerves. Gender, BMI and presence of diabetes were not related to echogenicity or visibility of upper extremity nerves. Increasing forearm circumference was associated with increased echogenicity of the adjacent nerves, but not visibility. Neck circumference was not associated with either nerve visibility or echogenicity of brachial plexus nerve bundles.

  4. Extralaryngeal division of the recurrent laryngeal nerve: A common and asymmetric anatomical variant

    PubMed Central

    Uludağ, Mehmet; Yetkin, Gürkan; Oran, Ebru Şen; Aygün, Nurcihan; Celayir, Fevzi; İşgör, Adnan

    2017-01-01

    Objective Recognition of extralaryngeal branching of the recurrent laryngeal nerve is crucial because prevention of vocal cord paralysis requires preservation of all branches of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. We assessed the prevalence of extralaryngeal branching of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the median branching distance from the point of bifurcation to the entry point of the nerve into the larynx. Material and Methods Prospective operative data on recurrent laryngeal nerve branching were collected from 94 patients who underwent thyroid or parathyroid surgery between September 2011 and May 2012. Results A total of 161 recurrent laryngeal nerves were examined (82 right, 79 left). Overall, 77 (47.8%) of 161 recurrent laryngeal nerves were bifurcated before entering the larynx. There were 36 (43.9%) branching nerves on the right and 41 (51.9%) branching nerves on the left, and there was no significant difference between the sides in terms of branching (p=0.471). Among 67 patients who underwent bilateral exploration, 28.4% were found to have bilateral branching, 40.3% had unilateral branching, and the remaining 31.3% had no branching. The median branching distance was 15 mm (5–60mm). Conclusion Extralaryngeal division of recurrent laryngeal nerve is a common and asymmetric anatomical variant. These variations can be easily recognized if the recurrent laryngeal nerve is identified at the level of the inferior thyroid artery and then dissected totally to the entry point of the larynx. Inadvertent division of a branch may lead to vocal cord palsy postoperatively, even when the surgeon believes the integrity of the nerve has been preserved. PMID:28944327

  5. Challenges for Nerve Repair Using Chitosan-Siloxane Hybrid Porous Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Shirosaki, Yuki; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Osaka, Akiyoshi; Lopes, Maria A.; Santos, José D.; Geuna, Stefano; Mauricio, Ana C.

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of peripheral nerve injuries remains one of the greatest challenges of neurosurgery, as functional recover is rarely satisfactory in these patients. Recently, biodegradable nerve guides have shown great potential for enhancing nerve regeneration. A major advantage of these nerve guides is that no foreign material remains after the device has fulfilled its task, which spares a second surgical intervention. Recently, we studied peripheral nerve regeneration using chitosan-γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (chitosan-GPTMS) porous hybrid membranes. In our studies, these porous membranes significantly improved nerve fiber regeneration and functional recovery in rat models of axonotmetic and neurotmetic sciatic nerve injuries. In particular, the number of regenerated myelinated nerve fibers and myelin thickness were significantly higher in rat treated with chitosan porous hybrid membranes, whether or not they were used in combination with mesenchymal stem cells isolated from the Wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord. In this review, we describe our findings on the use of chitosan-GPTMS hybrids for nerve regeneration. PMID:25054129

  6. Bridging defects in chronic spinal cord injury using peripheral nerve grafts combined with a chitosan-laminin scaffold and enhancing regeneration through them by co-transplantation with bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells: Case series of 14 patients

    PubMed Central

    Amr, Sherif M.; Gouda, Ashraf; Koptan, Wael T.; Galal, Ahmad A.; Abdel-Fattah, Dina Sabry; Rashed, Laila A.; Atta, Hazem M.; Abdel-Aziz, Mohammad T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of bridging defects in chronic spinal cord injury using peripheral nerve grafts combined with a chitosan-laminin scaffold and enhancing regeneration through them by co-transplantation with bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Methods In 14 patients with chronic paraplegia caused by spinal cord injury, cord defects were grafted and stem cells injected into the whole construct and contained using a chitosan-laminin paste. Patients were evaluated using the International Standards for Classification of Spinal Cord Injuries. Results Chitosan disintegration leading to post-operative seroma formation was a complication. Motor level improved four levels in 2 cases and two levels in 12 cases. Sensory-level improved six levels in two cases, five levels in five cases, four levels in three cases, and three levels in four cases. A four-level neurological improvement was recorded in 2 cases and a two-level neurological improvement occurred in 12 cases. The American Spinal Impairment Association (ASIA) impairment scale improved from A to C in 12 cases and from A to B in 2 cases. Although motor power improvement was recorded in the abdominal muscles (2 grades), hip flexors (3 grades), hip adductors (3 grades), knee extensors (2–3 grades), ankle dorsiflexors (1–2 grades), long toe extensors (1–2 grades), and plantar flexors (0–2 grades), this improvement was too low to enable them to stand erect and hold their knees extended while walking unaided. Conclusion Mesenchymal stem cell-derived neural stem cell-like cell transplantation enhances recovery in chronic spinal cord injuries with defects bridged by sural nerve grafts combined with a chitosan-laminin scaffold. PMID:24090088

  7. Effects of umbilical cord tissue mesenchymal stem cells (UCX®) on rat sciatic nerve regeneration after neurotmesis injuries.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, A; Pereira, T; Armada-da-Silva, Pas; Amado, S; Veloso, Ap; Amorim, I; Ribeiro, J; Santos, Jd; Bárcia, Rn; Cruz, P; Cruz, H; Luís, Al; Santos, Jm; Geuna, S; Maurício, Ac

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerves have the intrinsic capacity of self-regeneration after traumatic injury but the extent of the regeneration is often very poor. Increasing evidence demonstrates that mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) may play an important role in tissue regeneration through the secretion of soluble trophic factors that enhance and assist in repair by paracrine activation of surrounding cells. In the present study, the therapeutic value of a population of umbilical cord tissue-derived MSCs, obtained by a proprietary method (UCX(®)), was evaluated on end-to-end rat sciatic nerve repair. Furthermore, in order to promote both, end-to-end nerve fiber contacts and MSC cell-cell interaction, as well as reduce the flush away effect of the cells after administration, a commercially available haemostatic sealant, Floseal(®), was used as vehicle. Both, functional and morphologic recoveries were evaluated along the healing period using extensor postural thrust (EPT), withdrawal reflex latency (WRL), ankle kinematics analysis, and either histological analysis or stereology, in the hyper-acute, acute and chronic phases of healing. The histological analysis of the hyper-acute and acute phase studies revealed that in the group treated with UCX(®) alone the Wallerian degeneration was improved for the subsequent process of regeneration, the fiber organization was higher, and the extent of fibrosis was lower. The chronic phase experimental groups revealed that treatment with UCX(®) induced an increased number of regenerated fibers and thickening of the myelin sheet. Kinematics analysis showed that the ankle joint angle determined for untreated animals was significantly different from any of the treated groups at the instant of initial contact (IC). At opposite toe off (OT) and heel rise (HR), differences were found between untreated animals and the groups treated with either uCx(®) alone or UCX(®) administered with Floseal(®). Overall, the UCX(®) application presented

  8. Effects of umbilical cord tissue mesenchymal stem cells (UCX®) on rat sciatic nerve regeneration after neurotmesis injuries

    PubMed Central

    Gärtner, A; Pereira, T; Armada-da-Silva, PAS; Amado, S; Veloso, AP; Amorim, I; Ribeiro, J; Santos, JD; Bárcia, RN; Cruz, P; Cruz, H; Luís, AL; Santos, JM; Geuna, S; Maurício, AC

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerves have the intrinsic capacity of self-regeneration after traumatic injury but the extent of the regeneration is often very poor. Increasing evidence demonstrates that mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) may play an important role in tissue regeneration through the secretion of soluble trophic factors that enhance and assist in repair by paracrine activation of surrounding cells. In the present study, the therapeutic value of a population of umbilical cord tissue-derived MSCs, obtained by a proprietary method (UCX®), was evaluated on end-to-end rat sciatic nerve repair. Furthermore, in order to promote both, end-to-end nerve fiber contacts and MSC cell-cell interaction, as well as reduce the flush away effect of the cells after administration, a commercially available haemostatic sealant, Floseal®, was used as vehicle. Both, functional and morphologic recoveries were evaluated along the healing period using extensor postural thrust (EPT), withdrawal reflex latency (WRL), ankle kinematics analysis, and either histological analysis or stereology, in the hyper-acute, acute and chronic phases of healing. The histological analysis of the hyper-acute and acute phase studies revealed that in the group treated with UCX® alone the Wallerian degeneration was improved for the subsequent process of regeneration, the fiber organization was higher, and the extent of fibrosis was lower. The chronic phase experimental groups revealed that treatment with UCX® induced an increased number of regenerated fibers and thickening of the myelin sheet. Kinematics analysis showed that the ankle joint angle determined for untreated animals was significantly different from any of the treated groups at the instant of initial contact (IC). At opposite toe off (OT) and heel rise (HR), differences were found between untreated animals and the groups treated with either uCx® alone or UCX® administered with Floseal®. Overall, the UCX® application presented positive effects in

  9. Evolution of identified arthropod neurons: the serotonergic system in relation to engrailed-expressing cells in the embryonic ventral nerve cord of the american lobster homarus americanus milne edwards, 1873 (malacostraca, pleocyemata, homarida).

    PubMed

    Harzsch, Steffen

    2003-06-01

    One of the long-standing questions in zoology is that on the phylogenetic relationships within the Arthropoda. Comparative studies on structure and development of the nervous system can contribute important arguments to this discussion. In the present report, the arrangement of serotonin- and engrailed-expressing cells was examined in the embryonic ventral nerve cord of the American lobster Homarus americanus Milne Edwards, 1873 (Malacostraca, Pleocyemata, Homarida), and the spatial relationship of these two cell classes was explored by a double-labelling approach. The goal of this study was to determine whether the lobster serotonergic neurons are homologous to similar cells present in representatives of the Hexapoda and other Arthropoda. The results indicate that, in fact, these neurons in the lobster ventral nerve cord have corresponding counterparts in many other mandibulate taxa. Based on the finding of these homologies, the arrangement of serotonergic neurons in a model trunk ganglion of the mandibulate ground pattern was reconstructed as comprising an anterior and a posterior pair of serotonergic neurons per hemiganglion, each cell with both an ipsilateral and a contralateral neurite. Starting from this ground pattern, the evolutionary diversification of this class of neurons within the Mandibulata is discussed.

  10. Can We Perform Distal Nerve Block Instead of Brachial Plexus Nerve Block Under Ultrasound Guidance for Hand Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Ince, Ilker; Aksoy, Mehmet; Celik, Mine

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Distal nerve blocks are used in the event of unsuccessful blocks as rescue techniques. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the sufficiency for anesthesia of distal nerve block without the need for deep sedation or general anesthesia. The secondary purpose was to compare block performance times, block onset times, and patient and surgeon satisfaction. Materials and Methods: Patients who underwent hand surgery associated with the innervation area of the radial and median nerves were included in the study. Thirty-four patients who were 18–65 years old and American Society of Anesthesiologists grade I–III and who were scheduled for elective hand surgery under conscious nerve block anesthesia were randomly included in an infraclavicular block group (Group I, n=17) or a radial plus median block group (Group RM, n=17). The block performance time, block onset time, satisfaction of the patient and surgeon, and number of fentanyl administrations were recorded. Results: The numbers of patients who needed fentanyl administration and conversion to general anesthesia were the same in Group I and Group RM and there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). The demographics, surgery times, tourniquet times, block perfomance times, and patient and surgeon satisfaction of the groups were similar and there were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in block onset times between the groups (p<0.05). Conclusions: Conscious hand surgery can be performed under distal nerve block anesthesia safely and successfully. PMID:28149139

  11. C2 root nerve sheath tumors management.

    PubMed

    El-Sissy, Mohamed H; Mahmoud, Mostafa

    2013-05-01

    Upper cervical nerve sheath tumors (NST) arising mainly from C2 root and to lesser extent from C1 root are not uncommon, they constitute approximately 5-12% of spinal nerve sheath tumors and 18-30% of all cervical nerve sheath tumors, unique in presentation and their relationship to neighbouring structures owing to the discrete anatomy at the upper cervical-craniovertebral region, and have atendency for growth reaching large-sized tumors before manifesting clinically due to the capacious spinal canal at this region; accordingly the surgical approaches to such tumors are modified. The aim of this paper is to discuss the surgical strategies for upper cervical nerve sheath tumors. Eleven patients (8 male and 3 females), age range 28-63 years, with C2 root nerve sheath tumors were operated upon based on their anatomical relations to the spinal cord. The magnetic resonance imaging findings were utilized to determine the surgical approach. The tumors had extra- and intradural components in 10 patients, while in one the tumor was purely intradural. The operative approaches included varied from extreme lateral transcondylar approach(n = 1) to laminectomy, whether complete(n = 3) a or hemilaminectomy(n = 7), with partial facetectomy(n = 7), and with suboccipital craniectomy(n = 2). The clinical picture ranged from spasticity (n = 8, 72,72 %), tingling and numbness below neck (n = 6, 54,54 %), weakness (n = 6, 54,54 %), posterior column involvement (n = 4, 26,36 %), and neck pain (n = 4, 36,36 %). The duration of symptoms ranged from 1 to 54 months, total excision was performed in 7 patients; while in 3 patients an extraspinal component, and in 1 patient a small intradural component, were left in situ. Eight patients showed improvement of myelopathy; 2 patients maintained their grades. One poor-grade patient was deteriorated. The surgical approaches for the C2 root nerve sheath tumors should be tailored according to the relationship to the spinal cord, determined by magnetic

  12. Functional regeneration of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury during thyroid surgery using an asymmetrically porous nerve guide conduit in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Seok; Oh, Se Heang; An, Hye-Young; Kim, Young-Mo; Lee, Jin Ho; Lim, Jae-Yol

    2014-01-01

    Vocal cord paralysis (VCP) caused by recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) damage during thyroidectomy commonly results in serious medico-legal problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of an asymmetrically porous polycaprolactone (PCL)/Pluronic F127 nerve guide conduit (NGC) for functional regeneration in a RLN injury animal model. A biodegradable, asymmetrically porous PCL/F127 NGC with selective permeability was fabricated for use in this study. A 10-mm segment of left RLN was resected in 28 New Zealand white rabbits, and then an asymmetrically porous NGC or a nonporous silicone tube was interposed between both stumps and securely fixed. Vocal cord mobility was endoscopically evaluated at one, four, and eight weeks postoperatively. Nerve growth through NGCs was assessed by toluidine blue staining, and thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle atrophy was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Immunohistochemical stainings for acetylcholinesterase (AchE), anti-neurofilament (NF), and anti-S100 protein were also conducted, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to evaluate functional nerve regeneration. At eight weeks postoperatively, endoscopic evaluations showed significantly better recovery from VCP in the asymmetrically porous PCL/F127 NGC group (6 of 10 rabbits) than in the silicone tube group (1 of 10 rabbits). Continued nerve growth on the damaged nerve endings was observed with time in the asymmetrically porous PCL/F127 NGC-interposed RLNs. TA muscle dimensions and AchE expressions in TA muscle were significantly greater in the asymmetrically porous PCL/F127 NGC group than in the silicone tube group. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining revealed the expression of NF and S100 protein in the regenerated nerves in the asymmetrically porous PCL/F127 NGC group at eight weeks postoperatively, and at this time, TEM imaging showed myelinated axons in the regenerated RLNs. The study shows that asymmetrically porous PCL/F127 NGC provides

  13. Functional Regeneration of Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injury During Thyroid Surgery Using an Asymmetrically Porous Nerve Guide Conduit in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong-Seok; Oh, Se Heang; An, Hye-Young; Kim, Young-Mo; Lee, Jin Ho

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vocal cord paralysis (VCP) caused by recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) damage during thyroidectomy commonly results in serious medico-legal problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of an asymmetrically porous polycaprolactone (PCL)/Pluronic F127 nerve guide conduit (NGC) for functional regeneration in a RLN injury animal model. Methods: A biodegradable, asymmetrically porous PCL/F127 NGC with selective permeability was fabricated for use in this study. A 10-mm segment of left RLN was resected in 28 New Zealand white rabbits, and then an asymmetrically porous NGC or a nonporous silicone tube was interposed between both stumps and securely fixed. Vocal cord mobility was endoscopically evaluated at one, four, and eight weeks postoperatively. Nerve growth through NGCs was assessed by toluidine blue staining, and thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle atrophy was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Immunohistochemical stainings for acetylcholinesterase (AchE), anti-neurofilament (NF), and anti-S100 protein were also conducted, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to evaluate functional nerve regeneration. Results: At eight weeks postoperatively, endoscopic evaluations showed significantly better recovery from VCP in the asymmetrically porous PCL/F127 NGC group (6 of 10 rabbits) than in the silicone tube group (1 of 10 rabbits). Continued nerve growth on the damaged nerve endings was observed with time in the asymmetrically porous PCL/F127 NGC-interposed RLNs. TA muscle dimensions and AchE expressions in TA muscle were significantly greater in the asymmetrically porous PCL/F127 NGC group than in the silicone tube group. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining revealed the expression of NF and S100 protein in the regenerated nerves in the asymmetrically porous PCL/F127 NGC group at eight weeks postoperatively, and at this time, TEM imaging showed myelinated axons in the regenerated RLNs. Conclusion: The study shows that

  14. Spontaneous recovery of locomotion induced by remaining fibers after spinal cord transection in adult rats.

    PubMed

    You, Si-Wei; Chen, Bing-Yao; Liu, Hui-Ling; Lang, Bing; Xia, Jie-Lai; Jiao, Xi-Ying; Ju, Gong

    2003-01-01

    A major issue in analysis of experimental results after spinal cord injury is spontaneous functional recovery induced by remaining nerve fibers. The authors investigated the relationship between the degree of locomotor recovery and the percentage and location of the fibers that spared spinal cord transection. The spinal cords of 12 adult rats were transected at T9 with a razor blade, which often resulted in sparing of nerve fibers in the ventral spinal cord. The incompletely-transected animals were used to study the degree of spontaneous recovery of hindlimb locomotion, evaluated with the BBB rating scale, in correlation to the extent and location of the remaining fibers. Incomplete transection was found in the ventral spinal cord in 42% of the animals. The degree of locomotor recovery was highly correlated with the percentage of the remaining fibers in the ventral and ventrolateral funiculi. In one of the rats, 4.82% of remaining fibers in unilateral ventrolateral funiculus were able to sustain a certain recovery of locomotion. Less than 5% of remaining ventrolateral white matter is sufficient for an unequivocal motor recovery after incomplete spinal cord injury. Therefore, for studies with spinal cord transection, the completeness of sectioning should be carefully checked before any conclusion can be reached. The fact that the degree of locomotor recovery is correlated with the percentage of remaining fibers in the ventrolateral spinal cord, exclusive of most of the descending motor tracts, may imply an essential role of propriospinal connections in the initiation of spontaneous locomotor recovery.

  15. Nerve injury following shoulder dislocation: the emergency physician's perspective.

    PubMed

    Ameh, Victor; Crane, Steve

    2006-08-01

    We describe the case of a 57-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department with a right anterior shoulder dislocation following a fall onto the right shoulder and right upper arm. She also complained of numbness in the right forearm and dorsum of the right hand. The examination revealed a bruise to the upper aspect of the right arm resulting from the impact following the fall. The patient also had a right wrist drop and loss of sensation in the lateral border of the right forearm and on the dorsum of the right hand, suggesting a radial nerve injury. She also had altered sensation in the ulnar distribution of her right hand, suspicious of concomitant ulnar nerve injury. No loss of sensation in the distribution of the axillary nerve (regimental patch) was observed. These findings were carefully documented and the patient subsequently had the shoulder reduced under entonox and morphine. The neurological deficits remained unchanged. The patient was sent home from the emergency room with arrangements for orthopaedic and physiotherapy follow-up. After a 3-month period, she had clinical and electromyography evidence of persistent radial and ulnar nerve deficit. She continues to have physiotherapy. This case highlights the need for awareness of the potential for nerve damage following shoulder dislocation and also to ensure that appropriate follow-up plan is instituted on discharge from the emergency department.

  16. High-Frequency Transcutaneous Peripheral Nerve Stimulation Induces a Higher Increase of Heat Pain Threshold in the Cutaneous Area of the Stimulated Nerve When Confronted to the Neighbouring Areas

    PubMed Central

    Buonocore, M.; Camuzzini, N.; Cecini, M.; Dalla Toffola, E.

    2013-01-01

    Background. TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation) is probably the most diffused physical therapy used for antalgic purposes. Although it continues to be used by trial and error, correct targeting of paresthesias evoked by the electrical stimulation on the painful area is diffusely considered very important for pain relief. Aim. To investigate if TENS antalgic effect is higher in the cutaneous area of the stimulated nerve when confronted to neighbouring areas. Methods. 10 volunteers (4 males, 6 females) underwent three different sessions: in two, heat pain thresholds (HPTs) were measured on the dorsal hand skin before, during and after electrical stimulation (100 Hz, 0.1 msec) of superficial radial nerve; in the third session HPTs, were measured without any stimulation. Results. Radial nerve stimulation induced an increase of HPT significantly higher in its cutaneous territory when confronted to the neighbouring ulnar nerve territory, and antalgic effect persisted beyond the stimulation time. Conclusions. The location of TENS electrodes is crucial for obtaining the strongest pain relief, and peripheral nerve trunk stimulation is advised whenever possible. Moreover, the present study indicates that continuous stimulation could be unnecessary, suggesting a strategy for avoiding the well-known tolerance-like effect of prolonged TENS application. PMID:24027756

  17. Autonomic neuropathy resulting in recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy in an HIV patient with Hodgkin lymphoma receiving vinblastine and antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Cherif, S; Danino, S; Yoganathan, K

    2015-03-01

    Hoarseness of voice due to vocal cord paresis as a result of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy has been well recognised. Recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy is commonly caused by compression due to tumour or lymph nodes or by surgical damage. Vinca alkaloids are well known to cause peripheral neuropathy. However, vinca alkaloids causing recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy has been reported rarely in children. We report a case of an adult patient with HIV who developed hoarseness of voice due to vocal cord paralysis during vinblastine treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma. Mediastinal and hilar lymph node enlargement in such patients may distract clinicians from considering alternative causes of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, with potential ensuing severe or even life-threatening stridor. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. [Nerve impulse in the 19th century: it's nature and the method of research].

    PubMed

    Ueda, Risa; Sugiyama, Shigeo

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate in this paper how scientists in the 19th century did researches on the nervous system; some scientists tried to make the nature of "nerve impulse" clear only to fail, while others chose to investigate how the nervous system works, leaving the nature of the impulse unknown. A. Mosso and H. D. Rolleston, for example, attempted to detect heat produced in nerves with a view to elucidating the nature of the impulse. The heat, they believed, would suggest that "nerve impulse" was nothing but "a wave of chemical reaction" or "a wave of molecular vibration." On the other hand, C. S. Sherrington who introduced the term synapsis in 1897 to refer to the special connection between nerve cells--special in the sense it offers an opportunity for "nerve impulse" to change in its nature--refrained from examining the nature of the impulse. He believed that it was impossible for science at the time to elucidate the nature. He, therefore, focused his attention to reactions of muscles in an animal caused when various stimulations were applied on animal's skin in a remote area from the muscles. He did not probe into the working of the nerves running between the part where stimulation was given and the part where corresponding reaction occurred. He pursued his studies by using phenomenalistic approach. We call his approach "phenomenalistic" because his research focused only on contradictions of muscles easily seen without probing into minute arrangement in a body. Gotch and Horsley, like Sherrington, did not argue about the nature of "nerve impulse." But unlike Sherrington, they made experiments with electrical changes produced in nerves or a spinal cord, based on the idea that "nerve impulse" should accompany certain electrical changes. Making use of their electrical method effectively, they obtained a series of quantitative data as to the electrical changes. The data they collected allowed them to explore distribution of nerves deep in a body and even led them to

  19. Study of tibial nerve regeneration in Wistar rats in primary neurorrhaphy with and without gap, wrapped in vein segments.

    PubMed

    Bastos Dos Santos, Ewerton; Fernandes, Marcela; Gomes Dos Santos, João Baptista; Mattioli Leite, Vilnei; Valente, Sandra Gomes; Faloppa, Flávio

    2012-01-01

    This study compared nerve regeneration in Wistar rats, using epineural neurorrhaphy with a gap of 1.0 mm and without a gap, both wrapped with jugular vein tubes. Motor neurons in the spinal cord between L3 and S1 were used for the count, marked by exposure of the tibial nerve to Fluoro-Gold (FG). The tibial nerves on both sides were cut and sutured, with a gap on one side and no gap in the other. The sutures were wrapped with a jugular vein. Four months after surgery the tibial nerves were exposed to Fluoro-Gold and the motor neuron count performed in the spinal cord. The results were statistically analyzed by the paired Wilcoxon test. There was a statistical difference between the groups with and without gap in relation to the motor neuron count (p=0.013). The epineural neurorraphy without gap wrapped with jugular vein showed better results for nerve regeneration than the same procedure with gap. Experimental Study .

  20. Phrenic Nerve Stimulation: Technology and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Abdunnur, Shane V; Kim, Daniel H

    2015-01-01

    Phrenic nerve stimulation is a technique used to reanimate the diaphragm of patients with central nervous system etiologies of respiratory insufficiency. Current clinical indications include congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, spinal cord injury above C4, brain stem injury, and idiopathic severe sleep apnea. Presurgical evaluation ensures proper patient selection by validating the intact circuit from the phrenic nerve through alveolar oxygenation. The procedure involves placing leads around the phrenic nerves bilaterally and attaching these leads to radio receivers in a subcutaneous pocket. The rate and amplitude of the current is adjusted via an external radio transmitter. After implantation, each patient progresses through a conditioning phase that strengthens the diaphragm and progressively provides independence from the mechanical ventilator. Studies indicate that patients and families experience an improved quality of life and are satisfied with the results. Phrenic nerve stimulation provides a safe and effective means for reanimating the diaphragm for certain patients with respiratory insufficiency, providing independence from mechanical ventilation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Substance P immunoreactivity in the lumbar spinal cord of the turtle Trachemys dorbigni following peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Partata, W A; Krepsky, A M R; Xavier, L L; Marques, M; Achaval, M

    2003-04-01

    Immunoreactive substance P was investigated in turtle lumbar spinal cord after sciatic nerve transection. In control animals immunoreactive fibers were densest in synaptic field Ia, where the longest axons invaded synaptic field III. Positive neuronal bodies were identified in the lateral column of the dorsal horn and substance P immunoreactive varicosities were observed in the ventral horn, in close relationship with presumed motoneurons. Other varicosities appeared in the lateral and anterior funiculi. After axotomy, substance P immunoreactive fibers were reduced slightly on the side of the lesion, which was located in long fibers that invaded synaptic field III and in the varicosities of the lateral and anterior funiculus. The changes were observed at 7 days after axonal injury and persisted at 15, 30, 60 and 90 days after the lesion. These findings show that turtles should be considered as a model to study the role of substance P in peripheral axonal injury, since the distribution and temporal changes of substance P were similar to those found in mammals.

  2. "Low-intensity laser therapy effect on the recovery of traumatic spinal cord injury".

    PubMed

    Paula, Alecsandra Araujo; Nicolau, Renata Amadei; Lima, Mario de Oliveira; Salgado, Miguel Angel Castillo; Cogo, José Carlos

    2014-11-01

    Scientific advances have been made to optimize the healing process in spinal cord injury. Studies have been developed to obtain effective treatments in controlling the secondary injury that occurs after spinal cord injury, which substantially changes the prognosis. Low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) has been applied in neuroscience due to its anti-inflammatory effects on biological tissue in the repairing process. Few studies have been made associating LILT to the spinal cord injury. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the LILT (GaAlAs laser-780 nm) on the locomotor functional recovery, histomorphometric, and histopathological changes of the spinal cord after moderate traumatic injury in rats (spinal cord injury at T9 and T10). Thirty-one adult Wistar rats were used, which were divided into seven groups: control without surgery (n = 3), control surgery (n = 3), laser 6 h after surgery (n = 5), laser 48 h after surgery (n = 5), medullar lesion (n = 5) without phototherapy, medullar lesion + laser 6 h after surgery (n = 5), and medullar lesion + laser 48 h after surgery (n = 5). The assessment of the motor function was performed using Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scale and adapted Sciatic Functional Index (aSFI). The assessment of urinary dysfunction was clinically performed. After 21 days postoperative, the animals were euthanized for histological and histomorphometric analysis of the spinal cord. The results showed faster motor evolution in rats with spinal contusion treated with LILT, maintenance of the effectiveness of the urinary system, and preservation of nerve tissue in the lesion area, with a notorious inflammation control and increased number of nerve cells and connections. In conclusion, positive effects on spinal cord recovery after moderate traumatic spinal cord injury were shown after LILT.

  3. Distribution of TRPV1 and TRPV2 in the human stellate ganglion and spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Kokubun, Souichi; Sato, Tadasu; Ogawa, Chikara; Kudo, Kai; Goto, Koju; Fujii, Yuki; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Ichikawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-17

    Immunohistochemistry for the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) and 2 (TRPV2) was performed on the stellate ganglion and spinal cord in human cadavers. In the stellate ganglion, 25.3% and 16.2% of sympathetic neurons contained TRPV1- and TRPV2-immunoreactivity, respectively. The cell size analysis also demonstrated that proportion of TRPV1- or TRPV2-immunoreactive (-IR) neurons among large (>600 μm(2)) sympathetic neurons (TRPV1, 30.7%; TRPV2, 27.0%) was higher than among small (<600 μm(2)) sympathetic neurons (TRPV1, 22.0%; TRPV2, 13.6%). The present study also demonstrated that 10.0% of sympathetic neurons in the stellate ganglion had pericellular TRPV2-IR nerve fibers. Fourteen percent of large neurons and 7.8% of small neurons were surrounded by TRPV2-IR nerve fibers. TRPV2-immunoreactivity was also detected in about 40% of neuronal cell bodies with pericellular TRPV2-IR nerve fibers. In the lateral horn of the human thoracic spinal cord, TRPV2-immunoreactivity was expressed by some neurons and many varicose fibers surrounding TRPV2-immunonegative neurons. TRPV2-IR pericellular fibers in the stellate ganglion may originate from the lateral horn of the spinal cord. There appears to be TRPV1- or TRPV2-IR sympathetic pathway in the human stellate ganglion and spinal cord. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chronic stability and selectivity of four-contact spiral nerve-cuff electrodes in stimulating the human femoral nerve.

    PubMed

    Fisher, L E; Tyler, D J; Anderson, J S; Triolo, R J

    2009-08-01

    This study describes the stability and selectivity of four-contact spiral nerve-cuff electrodes implanted bilaterally on distal branches of the femoral nerves of a human volunteer with spinal cord injury as part of a neuroprosthesis for standing and transfers. Stimulation charge threshold, the minimum charge required to elicit a visible muscle contraction, was consistent and low (mean threshold charge at 63 weeks post-implantation: 23.3 +/- 8.5 nC) for all nerve-cuff electrode contacts over 63 weeks after implantation, indicating a stable interface with the peripheral nervous system. The ability of individual nerve-cuff electrode contacts to selectively stimulate separate components of the femoral nerve to activate individual heads of the quadriceps was assessed with fine-wire intramuscular electromyography while measuring isometric twitch knee extension moment. Six of eight electrode contacts could selectively activate one head of the quadriceps while selectively excluding others to produce maximum twitch responses of between 3.8 and 8.1 N m. The relationship between isometric twitch and tetanic knee extension moment was quantified, and selective twitch muscle responses scaled to between 15 and 35 N m in tetanic response to pulse trains with similar stimulation parameters. These results suggest that this nerve-cuff electrode can be an effective and chronically stable tool for selectively stimulating distal nerve branches in the lower extremities for neuroprosthetic applications.

  5. Chronic stability and selectivity of four-contact spiral nerve-cuff electrodes in stimulating the human femoral nerve

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, L E; Tyler, D J; Anderson, J S; Triolo, R J

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the stability and selectivity of four-contact spiral nerve-cuff electrodes implanted bilaterally on distal branches of the femoral nerves of a human volunteer with spinal cord injury as part of a neuroprosthesis for standing and transfers. Stimulation charge threshold, the minimum charge required to elicit a visible muscle contraction, was consistent and low (mean threshold charge at 63 weeks post-implantation: 23.3 ± 8.5 nC) for all nerve-cuff electrode contacts over 63 weeks after implantation, indicating a stable interface with the peripheral nervous system. The ability of individual nerve-cuff electrode contacts to selectively stimulate separate components of the femoral nerve to activate individual heads of the quadriceps was assessed with fine-wire intramuscular electromyography while measuring isometric twitch knee extension moment. Six of eight electrode contacts could selectively activate one head of the quadriceps while selectively excluding others to produce maximum twitch responses of between 3.8 and 8.1 Nm. The relationship between isometric twitch and tetanic knee extension moment was quantified, and selective twitch muscle responses scaled to between 15 and 35 Nm in tetanic response to pulse trains with similar stimulation parameters. These results suggest that this nerve-cuff electrode can be an effective and chronically stable tool for selectively stimulating distal nerve branches in the lower extremities for neuroprosthetic applications. PMID:19602729

  6. Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum with radial anomaly in child.

    PubMed

    Taksande, Amar; Vilhekar, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome is a wide spectrum of congenital anomalies that involves structures arising from the first and second branchial arches. It is characterized by a wide spectrum of symptoms and physical features. These abnormalities mainly involve the cheekbones, jaws, mouth, ears, eyes, or vertebrae. Other conditions with ear and/or radial involvement, such as, the Nager syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Radial-renal syndrome, facioauriculoradial dysplasia, Fanconi anemia, and Vertebral, Anal atresia, Cardiac, Trachea, Esophageal, Renal, and Limb (VACTERL) association should be considered for differential diagnosis. Here we report a child who had facial asymmetry, microsomia, microtia, congenital facial nerve palsy, conductive hearing loss, skin tags, iris coloboma, and preaxial polydactyly.

  7. Irreparable Radial Nerve Palsy Due to Delayed Diagnostic Management of a Giant Lipoma at the Proximal Forearm Resulting in a Triple Tendon Transfer Procedure: Case report and Brief Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Non-traumatic radial nerve palsy (RNP) caused by local tumors is a rare and uncommon entity. Methods: A 62-year-old female presented with a left non-traumatic RNP, initially starting with weakness only. It was caused by a benign giant lipoma at the proximal forearm that was misdiagnosed over a period of 2 years. The slowly growth of the tumor led to an irreparable overstretching-related partial nerve disruption. For functional recovery of the patient, a triple tendon transfer procedure had to be performed. Results: Four months after surgery, the patient was completely able to perform her activities of daily living again. At the 10-months follow-up, strength of wrist extension, thumb's extension and abduction, and long fingers II-V extension had all improved to grade 4 in Medical Research Council scale (0-5). In order to restore motion, the patient reported that she would undergo the same triple tendon transfer procedure a second time where necessary. Due to the initially misdiagnosed tumor, there was an overall delayed duration of time for functional recovery of the patient. Conclusion: The triple tendon transfer procedure offers a useful and reliable method to restore functionality for patients sustaining irreparable RNP. However, it must be noted critically with our patient that this procedure probably would have been avoided. Initially, there was weakness only by entrapment of the radial nerve. RNP caused by local tumors are uncommon but known from the literature, and so it should be considered generally in differential diagnosis of non-traumatic RNP. PMID:28979592

  8. Expression of the vesicular glutamate transporters-1 and -2 in adult mouse dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord and their regulation by nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Brumovsky, P; Watanabe, M; Hökfelt, T

    2007-06-29

    The expression of two vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs), VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, was studied with immunohistochemistry in lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), the lumbar spinal cord and the skin of the adult mouse. About 12% and 65% of the total number of DRG neuron profiles (NPs) expressed VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, respectively. VGLUT1-immunoreactive (IR) NPs were usually medium- to large-sized, in contrast to a majority of small- or medium-sized VGLUT2-IR NPs. Most VGLUT1-IR NPs did not coexpress calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or bound isolectin B4 (IB4). In contrast, approximately 31% and approximately 42% of the VGLUT2-IR DRG NPs were also CGRP-IR or bound IB4, respectively. Conversely, virtually all CGRP-IR and IB4-binding NPs coexpressed VGLUT2. Moderate colocalization between VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 was also observed. Sciatic nerve transection induced a decrease in the overall number of VGLUT1- and VGLUT2-IR NPs (both ipsi- and contralaterally) and, in addition, a parallel, unilateral increase of VGLUT2-like immunoreactivity (LI) in a subpopulation of mostly small NPs. In the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, strong VGLUT1-LI was detected, particularly in deep dorsal horn layers and in the ventral horns. VGLUT2-LI was abundant throughout the gray spinal matter, 'radiating' into/from the white matter. A unilateral dorsal rhizotomy reduced VGLUT1-LI, while apparently leaving unaffected the VGLUT2-LI. Transport through axons for both VGLUTs was confirmed by their accumulation after compression of the sciatic nerve or dorsal roots. In the hind paw skin, abundant VGLUT2-IR nerve fibers were observed, sometimes associated with Merkel cells. Lower numbers of VGLUT1-IR fibers were also detected in the skin. Some VGLUT1-IR and VGLUT2-IR fibers were associated with hair follicles. Based on these data and those by Morris et al. [Morris JL, Konig P, Shimizu T, Jobling P, Gibbins IL (2005) Most peptide-containing sensory neurons lack proteins for exocytotic release and

  9. Effects of Spinal Cord Stimulation on Cardiac Sympathetic Nerve Activity in Patients with Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Naar, Jan; Jaye, Deborah; Linde, Cecilia; Neužil, Petr; Doškář, Petr; Málek, Filip; Braunschweig, Frieder; Lund, Lars H; Mortensen, Lars; Linderoth, Bengt; Lind, Göran; Bone, Dianna; Scholte, Arthur J; Kueffer, Fred; Koehler, Jodi; Shahgaldi, Kambiz; Lang, Otto; Ståhlberg, Marcus

    2017-05-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) reduces sympathetic activity in animal models of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HF) but limited data exist of SCS in patients with HF. The aim of the present study was to test the primary hypothesis that SCS reduces cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in HF patients. Secondary hypotheses were that SCS improves left ventricular function and dimension, exercise capacity, and clinical variables relevant to HF. HF patients with a SCS device previously participating in the DEFEAT-HF trial were included in this crossover study with 6-week intervention periods (SCS-ON and SCS-OFF). SCS (50 Hz, 210-μs pulse duration, aiming at T2-T4 segments) was delivered for 12 hours daily. Indices of myocardial sympathetic neuronal function (heart-to-mediastinum ratio, HMR) and activity (washout rate, WR) were assessed using 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Echocardiography, exercise testing, and clinical data collection were also performed. We included 13 patients (65.3 ± 8.0 years, nine males) and MIBG scintigraphy data were available in 10. HMR was not different comparing SCS-ON (1.37 ± 0.16) and SCS-OFF (1.41 ± 0.21, P = 0.46). WR was also unchanged comparing SCS-ON (41.5 ± 5.3) and SCS-OFF (39.1 ± 5.8, P = 0.30). Similarly, average New York Heart Association class (2.4 ± 0.5 vs 2.3 ± 0.6, P = 0.34), quality of life score (24 ± 16 vs 24 ± 16, P = 0.94), and left ventricular dimension and function as well as exercise capacity were all unchanged comparing SCS-ON and SCS-OFF. In patients with HF, SCS (12 hours daily, targeting the T2-T4 segments of the spinal cord) does not appear to influence cardiac sympathetic neuronal activity or function as assessed by MIBG scintigraphy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Sympathetic preganglionic efferent and afferent neurons mediated by the greater splanchnic nerve in rabbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torigoe, Yasuhiro; Cernucan, Roxana D.; Nishimoto, Jo Ann S.; Blanks, Robert H. I.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the study of the vestibular-autonomic pathways involved in motion sickness, the location and the morphology of preganglionic sympathetic neurons (PSNs) projecting via the greater splanchnic nerve were examined. Retrograde labeling of neurons was obtained by application of horseradish peroxidase to the cut end of the greater splanchnic nerve. Labeled PSNs were found, ipsilaterally, within the T1 to T11 spinal cord segments, with the highest density of neurons in T6. Most PSNs were located within the intermediolateral column, but a significant portion also occurred within the lateral funiculus, the intercalated region, and the central autonomic area; the proportion of labeling between the four regions depended on the spinal cord segment.

  11. Changes in Afferent Activity After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    de Groat, William C.; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    Aims To summarize the changes that occur in the properties of bladder afferent neurons following spinal cord injury. Methods Literature review of anatomical, immunohistochemical, and pharmacologic studies of normal and dysfunctional bladder afferent pathways. Results Studies in animals indicate that the micturition reflex is mediated by a spinobulbospinal pathway passing through coordination centers (periaqueductal gray and pontine micturition center) located in the rostral brain stem. This reflex pathway, which is activated by small myelinated (Aδ) bladder afferent nerves, is in turn modulated by higher centers in the cerebral cortex involved in the voluntary control of micturition. Spinal cord injury at cervical or thoracic levels disrupts voluntary voiding, as well as the normal reflex pathways that coordinate bladder and sphincter function. Following spinal cord injury, the bladder is initially areflexic but then becomes hyperreflexic due to the emergence of a spinal micturition reflex pathway. The recovery of bladder function after spinal cord injury is dependent in part on the plasticity of bladder afferent pathways and the unmasking of reflexes triggered by unmyelinated, capsaicin-sensitive, C-fiber bladder afferent neurons. Plasticity is associated with morphologic, chemical, and electrical changes in bladder afferent neurons and appears to be mediated in part by neurotrophic factors released in the spinal cord and the peripheral target organs. Conclusions Spinal cord injury at sites remote from the lumbosacral spinal cord can indirectly influence properties of bladder afferent neurons by altering the function and chemical environment in the bladder or the spinal cord. PMID:20025033

  12. Nerve Transfers for Improved Hand Function Following Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    the cervical spine resulting in diminished or complete loss of arm and/or hand function. Cervical SCI patients consistently rank hand function as the...most desired function above bowel and bladder function, sexual function, standing, and pain control. The overall goal of the proposed study is to...evaluate the efficacy of nerve transfers to treat patients with cervical SCIs. Over the last decade, nerve transfers have been used with increasing

  13. Two-dimensional single-shot diffusion-weighted stimulated EPI with reduced FOV for ultrahigh-b radial diffusion-weighted imaging of spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Nabraj; Shi, Xianfeng; Shah, Lubdha M; Bisson, Erica F; Rose, John W; Jeong, Eun-Kee

    2017-06-01

    High-resolution diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the spinal cord (SC) is problematic because of the small cross-section of the SC and the large field inhomogeneity. Obtaining the ultrahigh-b DWI poses a further challenge. The purpose of the study was to design and validate two-dimensional (2D) single-shot diffusion-weighted stimulated echo planar imaging with reduced field of view (2D ss-DWSTEPI-rFOV) for ultrahigh-b radial DWI (UHB-rDWI) of the SC. A novel time-efficient 2D ss-DWSTEPI-rFOV sequence was developed based on the stimulated echo sequence. Reduced-phase field of view was obtained by using two slice-selective 90 ° radiofrequency pulses in the presence of the orthogonal slice selection gradients. The sequence was validated on a cylindrical phantom and demonstrated on SC imaging. Ultrahigh-b radial diffusion-weighted ( bmax = 7300 s/mm2) images of the SC with greatly reduced distortion were obtained. The exponential plus constant fitting of the diffusion-decay curve estimated the constant fraction (restricted water fraction) as 0.36 ± 0.05 in the SC white matter. A novel 2D ss-DWSTEPI-rFOV sequence has been designed and demonstrated for high-resolution UHB-rDWI of localized anatomic structures with significantly reduced distortion induced by nonlinear static field inhomogeneity. Magn Reson Med 77:2167-2173, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. "Long-term stability of stimulating spiral nerve cuff electrodes on human peripheral nerves".

    PubMed

    Christie, Breanne P; Freeberg, Max; Memberg, William D; Pinault, Gilles J C; Hoyen, Harry A; Tyler, Dustin J; Triolo, Ronald J

    2017-07-11

    Electrical stimulation of the peripheral nerves has been shown to be effective in restoring sensory and motor functions in the lower and upper extremities. This neural stimulation can be applied via non-penetrating spiral nerve cuff electrodes, though minimal information has been published regarding their long-term performance for multiple years after implantation. Since 2005, 14 human volunteers with cervical or thoracic spinal cord injuries, or upper limb amputation, were chronically implanted with a total of 50 spiral nerve cuff electrodes on 10 different nerves (mean time post-implant 6.7 ± 3.1 years). The primary outcome measures utilized in this study were muscle recruitment curves, charge thresholds, and percent overlap of recruited motor unit populations. In the eight recipients still actively involved in research studies, 44/45 of the spiral contacts were still functional. In four participants regularly studied over the course of 1 month to 10.4 years, the charge thresholds of the majority of individual contacts remained stable over time. The four participants with spiral cuffs on their femoral nerves were all able to generate sufficient moment to keep the knees locked during standing after 2-4.5 years. The dorsiflexion moment produced by all four fibular nerve cuffs in the active participants exceeded the value required to prevent foot drop, but no tibial nerve cuffs were able to meet the plantarflexion moment that occurs during push-off at a normal walking speed. The selectivity of two multi-contact spiral cuffs was examined and both were still highly selective for different motor unit populations for up to 6.3 years after implantation. The spiral nerve cuffs examined remain functional in motor and sensory neuroprostheses for 2-11 years after implantation. They exhibit stable charge thresholds, clinically relevant recruitment properties, and functional muscle selectivity. Non-penetrating spiral nerve cuff electrodes appear to be a suitable option

  15. The spinal cord and its roots according to Galen.

    PubMed

    Viale, Giuseppe L

    2004-06-01

    Galen's methodological approach to medicine anticipated modern rules. His experiments on the spinal cord contributed greatly to our knowledge of this structure by reporting the variegated pattern of neurological impairment after sectioning at different levels. His approach to injuries of the spinal roots and peripheral nerves documents both diagnostic skill and intellectual honesty.

  16. Functional restoration of the paralyzed diaphragm in high cervical quadriplegia via phrenic nerve neurotization utilizing the functional spinal accessory nerve.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-liang; Li, Jian-jun; Zhang, Shao-cheng; Du, Liang-jie; Gao, Feng; Li, Jun; Wang, Yu-ming; Gong, Hui-ming; Cheng, Liang

    2011-08-01

    The authors report a case of functional improvement of the paralyzed diaphragm in high cervical quadriplegia via phrenic nerve neurotization using a functional spinal accessory nerve. Complete spinal cord injury at the C-2 level was diagnosed in a 44-year-old man. Left diaphragm activity was decreased, and the right diaphragm was completely paralyzed. When the level of metabolism or activity (for example, fever, sitting, or speech) slightly increased, dyspnea occurred. The patient underwent neurotization of the right phrenic nerve with the trapezius branch of the right spinal accessory nerve at 11 months postinjury. Four weeks after surgery, training of the synchronous activities of the trapezius muscle and inspiration was conducted. Six months after surgery, motion was observed in the previously paralyzed right diaphragm. The lung function evaluation indicated improvements in vital capacity and tidal volume. This patient was able to sit in a wheelchair and conduct outdoor activities without assisted ventilation 12 months after surgery.

  17. Delayed bilateral vocal cord paresis after a continuous interscalene brachial plexus block and endotracheal intubation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee-Sun; Kim, Ha-Jung; Ro, Young-Jin; Yang, Hong-Seuk; Koh, Won-Uk

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Recurrent laryngeal nerve block is an uncommon complication that can occur after an interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB), which may lead to vocal cord palsy or paresis. However, if the recurrent laryngeal nerve is blocked in patients with a preexisting contralateral vocal cord palsy following neck surgery, this may lead to devastating acute respiratory failure. Thus, ISB is contraindicated in patients with contralateral vocal cord lesion. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of bilateral vocal cord paresis, which occurred after a continuous ISB and endotracheal intubation in a patient with no history of vocal cord injury or surgery of the neck. Patient concerns: A 59 year old woman was planned for open acromioplasty and rotator cuff repair under general anesthesia. General anesthesia was induced following an ISB using 0.2% ropivacaine and catheter insertion for postoperative pain control. Diagnoses: While recovering in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), however, the patient complained of a sore throat and hoarseness without respiratory insufficiency. On the morning of the first postoperative day, she still complained of mild dyspnea, dysphonia, and slight aspiration. She was subsequently diagnosed with bilateral vocal cord paresis following an endoscopic laryngoscopy examination. Interventions: The continuous ISB catheter was immediately removed and the dyspnea and hoarseness symptoms improved, although mild aspiration during drinking water was still present. Outcomes: On the 4th postoperative day, a laryngoscopy examination revealed that the right vocal cord movement had returned to normal but that the left vocal cord paresis still remained. Lessons: When ISB is planned, a detailed history-taking and examination of the airway are essential for patient safety and we recommend that any local anesthetics be carefully injected under ultrasound guidance. We also recommend the use of low concentration of local anesthetics to avoid

  18. Aberrant nerve fibres within the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Moffie, D

    1992-01-01

    Three cases of aberrant nerve fibres in the spinal cord and medulla oblongata are described. The literature on these fibres is discussed and their possible role in regeneration. Different views on the possibility of regeneration or functional recovery of the central nervous system are mentioned in the light of recent publications, which are more optimistic than before.

  19. Spinal cord stimulation for treatment of meralgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Barna, Steven A; Hu, M Melvin; Buxo, Carlos; Trella, Jason; Cosgrove, G Rees

    2005-07-01

    Meralgia paresthetica is a clinical syndrome of pain, dysesthesia or both, in the anterolateral thigh. It is associated with an entrapment mononeuropathy of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. Diagnosis of meralgia paresthetica is typically made clinically and is based on the characteristic location of pain or dysesthesia, sensory abnormality on exam, and absence of any other neurological abnormality in the leg. The majority of patients with meralgia paresthetica respond well to conservative treatment. To present a case of intractable meralgia paresthetica in which conservative treatment options failed but which was successfully treated with a spinal cord stimulator. A 44-year-old woman presented to the pain clinic with a one-year history of bilateral anterolateral thigh pain. History, physical exam, and diagnostic work-up were consistent with meralgia paresthetica. Multiple medications, physical therapy, and chiropractic therapy were not successful for this patient. In addition, local anesthetic/steroid injection of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve provided only short-term relief. Ultimately, a spinal cord stimulator was implanted after a successful temporary percutaneous trial. Two months after the implantation, she continued to have 100% pain relief, worked full-time, was physically active, and no longer required any pain medication including opioids. An implanted spinal cord stimulator may be an ideal treatment for intractable meralgia paresthetica after conservative treatments have failed because it is not destructive and can always be explanted without significant permanent adverse effects.

  20. Nerve injuries do occur in elbow arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hilgersom, Nick F J; van Deurzen, Derek F P; Gerritsma, Carina L E; van der Heide, Huub J L; Malessy, Martijn J A; Eygendaal, Denise; van den Bekerom, Michel P J

    2018-01-01

    The purpose is to create more awareness as well as emphasize the risk of permanent nerve injury as a complication of elbow arthroscopy. Patients who underwent elbow arthroscopy complicated by permanent nerve injury were retrospectively collected. Patients were collected using two strategies: (1) by word-of-mouth throughout the Dutch Society of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, and the Leiden University Nerve Centre, and (2) approaching two medical liability insurance companies. Medical records were reviewed to determine patient characteristics, disease history and postoperative course. Surgical records were reviewed to determine surgical details. A total of eight patients were collected, four men and four women, ageing 21-54 years. In five out of eight patients (62.5%), the ulnar nerve was affected; in the remaining three patients (37.5%), the radial nerve was involved. Possible causes for nerve injury varied among patients, such as portal placement and the use of motorized instruments. A case series on permanent nerve injury as a complication of elbow arthroscopy is presented. Reporting on this sequel in the literature is little, however, its risk is not to be underestimated. This study emphasizes that permanent nerve injury is a complication of elbow arthroscopy, concurrently increasing awareness and thereby possibly aiding to prevention. IV, case series.

  1. The mechanism of Naringin-enhanced remyelination after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Wei; Pan, Yong-wei; Cai, Xu; Song, Fei; Zhao, Zhe; Xiao, Song-hua; Zhang, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that intragastric administration of naringin improved remyelination in rats with spinal cord injury and promoted the recovery of neurological function of the injured spinal cord. This study sought to reveal the mechanisms by which naringin improves oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation and maturation, and promotes remyelination. Spinal cord injury was induced in rats by the weight-drop method. Naringin was intragastrically administered daily (20, 40 mg/kg) for 4 weeks after spinal cord injury induction. Behavioral assessment, histopathological staining, immunofluorescence spectroscopy, ultrastructural analysis and biochemical assays were employed. Naringin treatment remarkably mitigated demyelination in the white matter, increased the quality of myelinated nerve fibers and myelin sheath thickness, promoted oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation by upregulating the expression of NKx2.2 and 2′3′-cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase, and inhibited β-catenin expression and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) phosphorylation. These findings indicate that naringin treatment regulates oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation and promotes remyelination after spinal cord injury through the β-catenin/GSK-3β signaling pathway. PMID:28469664

  2. Spinal cord stimulation paresthesia and activity of primary afferents.

    PubMed

    North, Richard B; Streelman, Karen; Rowland, Lance; Foreman, P Jay

    2012-10-01

    A patient with failed back surgery syndrome reported paresthesia in his hands and arms during a spinal cord stimulation (SCS) screening trial with a low thoracic electrode. The patient's severe thoracic stenosis necessitated general anesthesia for simultaneous decompressive laminectomy and SCS implantation for chronic use. Use of general anesthesia gave the authors the opportunity to characterize the patient's unusual distribution of paresthesia. During SCS implantation, they recorded SCS-evoked antidromic potentials at physiologically relevant amplitudes in the legs to guide electrode placement and in the arms as controls. Stimulation of the dorsal columns at T-8 evoked potentials in the legs (common peroneal nerves) and at similar thresholds, consistent with the sensation of paresthesia in the arms, in the right ulnar nerve. The authors' electrophysiological observations support observations by neuroanatomical specialists that primary afferents can descend several (in this case, at least 8) vertebral segments in the spinal cord before synapsing or ascending. This report thus confirms a physiological basis for unusual paresthesia distribution associated with thoracic SCS.

  3. Study of tibial nerve regeneration in Wistar rats in primary neurorrhaphy with and without gap, wrapped in vein segments

    PubMed Central

    Bastos dos Santos, Ewerton; Fernandes, Marcela; Gomes dos Santos, João Baptista; Mattioli Leite, Vilnei; Valente, Sandra Gomes; Faloppa, Flávio

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study compared nerve regeneration in Wistar rats, using epineural neurorrhaphy with a gap of 1.0 mm and without a gap, both wrapped with jugular vein tubes. Motor neurons in the spinal cord between L3 and S1 were used for the count, marked by exposure of the tibial nerve to Fluoro-Gold (FG). Method The tibial nerves on both sides were cut and sutured, with a gap on one side and no gap in the other. The sutures were wrapped with a jugular vein. Four months after surgery the tibial nerves were exposed to Fluoro-Gold and the motor neuron count performed in the spinal cord. Results The results were statistically analyzed by the paired Wilcoxon test. There was a statistical difference between the groups with and without gap in relation to the motor neuron count (p=0.013). Conclusion The epineural neurorraphy without gap wrapped with jugular vein showed better results for nerve regeneration than the same procedure with gap. Level of Evidence: Experimental Study. PMID:24453597

  4. Analysis of the Istanbul Forensic Medicine Institute expert decisions on recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries due to thyroidectomy between 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Karakaya, M Arif; Koç, Okay; Ekiz, Feza; Ağaçhan, A Feran; Göret, Nuri Emrah

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the approach of Forensic Medicine Institution for recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries. In addition, parameters that were taken into consideration by Forensic Medicine Institution in the differentiation of complication and malpractice were evaluated. The files of 38 patients, with recurrent laryngeal nerve injury following thyroidectomy, that were referred to Istanbul Forensic Medicine Institute with request of expert opinion between 2008-2012 were retrospectively investigated. Data regarding expert decisions, age, gender, diagnosis, hospital type, preoperative vocal cord examination, intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM), identification of nerve injury during operation, repair of nerve during operation, and type of injury were assessed. Surgeons were found to be faulty in all files with bilateral nerve injury, however, one-sided injury files were considered as a medical complication. Twenty-one (55.2%) patients were female, and 17 (44.8%) were male, with a mean age of 35,8 in women, and 34,1 in men. None of these patients had undergone preoperative vocal cord assessment. The recurrent laryngeal nerve was intraoperatively identified in 21 (55.2%) patients, while it was not seen in 17 (44.8%) patients. IONM was not applied in any patients. There was no attempt for nerve repair during any operation. Nineteen patients had unilateral, and 19 patients had bilateral nerve damage. Bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries are considered as malpractice, when imaging or pathology reports fail to state a cause for difficulty in nerve identification.

  5. Downregulation of spinal glutamate transporter EAAC1 following nerve injury is regulated by central glucocorticoid receptors in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxing; Lim, Grewo; Yang, Liling; Sung, Backil; Mao, Jianren

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that glucocorticoid receptors (GR) were upregulated, whereas glutamate transporters were downregulated, within the spinal cord dorsal horn after peripheral nerve injury. However, the relationship between the expression of spinal GR and glutamate transporter after nerve injury remains unknown. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that central GR would regulate the expression of spinal glutamate transporter EAAC1 following chronic constriction nerve injury (CCI) in rats. CCI induced a significant downregulation of EAAC1 expression primarily within the ipsilateral spinal cord dorsal horn when examined on postoperative day 7 using both Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The downregulation of EAAC1 was significantly diminished after either the GR antagonist RU38486 (4 > 2 = 0.5 microg = vehicle) or a GR antisense oligonucleotide was administered intrathecally twice daily for postoperative day 1-6. Moreover, CCI induced a significant downregulation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) within the ipsilateral spinal cord dorsal horn, which also was attenuated by either RU38486 (4 > 2 = 0.5 microg = vehicle) or a GR antisense oligonucleotide. The immunohistochemical data indicated a pattern of colocalization between GR and EAAC1 as well as GR and NF-kappaB within the spinal cord dorsal horn. Since, NF-kappaB has been shown to regulate the expression of those cellular elements linked to inflammation and tissue injury and its activity can be negatively regulated by GR activation, these results suggest that spinal GR through NF-kappaB may play a significant role in the regulation of EAAC1 expression after peripheral nerve injury, a cellular pathway that may contribute to the development of neuropathic pain behaviors in rats.

  6. NO nerves in a tapeworm. NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry in adult Hymenolepis diminuta.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, M K; Lindholm, A M; Terenina, N B; Reuter, M

    1996-12-01

    The free radical nitric oxide (NO), which is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), has recently been discovered to function as a neuronal messenger. The presence of NOS was detected in the nervous system of adult Hymenolepis diminuta with NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry. The NADPH-d histochemical reaction is regarded as a selective marker for NOS in neuronal tissue. NADPH-d staining was observed in nerve fibres in the main and minor nerve cords and the transverse ring commissures, and in cell bodies in the brain commissure, along the main nerve cords, in the suckers and the rostellar sac. NADPH-d staining was also observed in the wall of the internal seminal vesicle and the genital atrium. The pattern of NADPH-d staining was compared with that of the 5-HT immunoreactive nervous elements. The NADPH-d staining reaction and the 5-HT immunoreactivity occur in separate sets of neurons. This is the first time the NADPH-d reaction has been demonstrated in the nervous system of a flatworm, indicating that NOS is present and that NO can be produced at this level of evolution.

  7. Effects of early nerve repair on experimental brachial plexus injury in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Gráinne; McGrath, Aleksandra M; Wiberg, Mikael; Novikov, Lev N

    2018-03-01

    Obstetrical brachial plexus injury refers to injury observed at the time of delivery, which may lead to major functional impairment in the upper limb. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of early nerve repair following complete brachial plexus injury in neonatal rats was examined. Brachial plexus injury induced 90% loss of spinal motoneurons and 70% decrease in biceps muscle weight at 28 days after injury. Retrograde degeneration in spinal cord was associated with decreased density of dendritic branches and presynaptic boutons and increased density of astrocytes and macrophages/microglial cells. Early repair of the injured brachial plexus significantly delayed retrograde degeneration of spinal motoneurons and reduced the degree of macrophage/microglial reaction but had no effect on muscle atrophy. The results demonstrate that early nerve repair of neonatal brachial plexus injury could promote survival of injured motoneurons and attenuate neuroinflammation in spinal cord.

  8. CMT2C with vocal cord paresis associated with short stature and mutations in the TRPV4 gene

    PubMed Central

    Chen, D.-H.; Sul, Y.; Weiss, M.; Hillel, A.; Lipe, H.; Wolff, J.; Matsushita, M.; Raskind, W.; Bird, T.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recently, mutations in the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 4 gene (TRPV4) have been reported in Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 2C (CMT2C) with vocal cord paresis. Other mutations in this same gene have been described in separate families with various skeletal dysplasias. Further clarification is needed of the different phenotypes associated with this gene. Methods: We performed clinical evaluation, electrophysiology, and genetic analysis of the TRPV4 gene in 2 families with CMT2C. Results: Two multigenerational families had a motor greater than sensory axonal neuropathy associated with variable vocal cord paresis. The vocal cord paresis varied from absent to severe, requiring permanent tracheotomy in 2 subjects. One family with mild neuropathy also manifested pronounced short stature, more than 2 SD below the average height for white Americans. There was one instance of dolichocephaly. A novel S542Y mutation in the TRPV4 gene was identified in this family. The other family had a more severe, progressive, motor neuropathy with sensory loss, but less remarkable short stature and an R315W mutation in TRPV4. Third cranial nerve involvement and sleep apnea occurred in one subject in each family. Conclusion: CMT2C with axonal neuropathy, vocal cord paresis, and short stature is a unique syndrome associated with mutations in the TRPV4 gene. Mutations in TRPV4 can cause abnormalities in bone, peripheral nerve, or both and may result in highly variable orthopedic and neurologic phenotypes. GLOSSARY CMAP = compound muscle action potential; CMT = Charcot-Marie-Tooth; CMT2C = Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 2C; HMSN = hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy; NCV = nerve conduction velocity; RFLP = restriction fragment length polymorphism; SMA = spinal muscular atrophy; SNAP = sensory nerve action potential; SPSMA = scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy. PMID:21115951

  9. Triazines facilitate neurotransmitter release of synaptic terminals located in hearts of frog (Rana ridibunda) and honeybee (Apis mellifera) and in the ventral nerve cord of a beetle (Tenebrio molitor).

    PubMed

    Papaefthimiou, Chrisovalantis; Zafeiridou, Georgia; Topoglidi, Aglaia; Chaleplis, George; Zografou, Stella; Theophilidis, George

    2003-07-01

    Three triazine herbicides, atrazine, simazine and metribuzine, and some of their major metabolites (cyanuric acid and 6-azauracil) were investigated for their action on synaptic terminals using three different isolated tissue preparations from the atria of the frog, Rana ridibunda, the heart of the honeybee, Apis mellifera macedonica, and the ventral nerve cord of the beetle, Tenebrio molitor. The results indicate that triazines facilitate the release of neurotransmitters from nerve terminals, as already reported for the mammalian central nervous system. The no observed effect concentration, the maximum concentration of the herbicide diluted in the saline that has no effect on the physiological properties of the isolated tissue, was estimated for each individual preparation. According to their relative potency, the three triazines tested can be ranked as follows: atrazine (cyanuric acid), simazine>metribuzine (6-azauracil). The action of these compounds on the cholinergic (amphibians, insects), adrenergic (amphibian) and octopaminergic (insects) synaptic terminals is discussed.

  10. Nerve compression and pain in human volunteers with narrow vs wide tourniquets

    PubMed Central

    Kovar, Florian M; Jaindl, Manuela; Oberleitner, Gerhard; Endler, Georg; Breitenseher, Julia; Prayer, Daniela; Kasprian, Gregor; Kutscha-Lissberg, Florian

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the clinical effects and the morphological grade of nerve compression. METHODS: In a prospective single-center randomized, open study we assessed the clinical effects and the morphological grade of nerve compression during 20 min of either a silicon ring (group A) or pneumatic tourniquet (group B) placement variantly on the upper non-dominant limb in 14 healthy human volunteers. Before and during compression, the median and radial nerves were visualized in both groups by 3 Tesla MR imaging, using high resolutional (2.5 mm slice thickness) axial T2-weighted sequences. RESULTS: In group A, Visual analog pain scale was 5.4 ± 2.2 compared to results of group B, 2.9 ± 2.5, showing a significant difference (P = 0.028). FPS levels in group A were 2.6 ± 0.9 compared to levels in group B 1.6 ± 1, showing a significant difference (P = 0.039). Results related to measureable effect on median and radial nerve function were equal in both groups. No undue pressure signs on the skin, redness or nerve damage occurred in either group. There was no significant difference in the diameters of the nerves without and under compression in either group on T2 weighted images. CONCLUSION: Based on our results, no differences between narrow and wide tourniquets were identified. Silicon ring tourniquets can be regarded as safe for short time application. PMID:25992317

  11. Phrenic nerve neurotization utilizing the spinal accessory nerve: technical note with potential application in patients with high cervical quadriplegia.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, R Shane; Pearson, Blake; Loukas, Marios; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Oakes, W Jerry

    2008-11-01

    High cervical quadriplegia is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Artificial respiration in these patients carries significant long-term risks such as infection, atelectasis, and respiratory failure. As phrenic nerve pacing has been proven to free many of these patients from ventilatory dependency, we hypothesized that neurotization of the phrenic nerve with the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) may offer one potential alternative to phrenic nerve stimulation via pacing and may be more efficacious and longer lasting without the complications of an implantable device. Ten cadavers (20 sides) underwent exposure of the cervical phrenic nerve and the SAN in the posterior cervical triangle. The SAN was split into anterior and posterior halves and the anterior half transposed to the ipsilateral phrenic nerve as it crossed the anterior scalene muscle. The mean distance between the cervical phrenic nerve and the SAN in the posterior cervical triangle was 2.5 cm proximally, 4 cm at a midpoint, and 6 cm distally. The range for these measurements was 2 to 4 cm, 3.5 to 5 cm, and 4 to 8.5 cm, respectively. The mean excess length of SAN available after transposition to the more anteromedially placed phrenic nerve was 5 cm (range 4 to 6.5 cm). The mean diameter of these regional parts of the spinal accessory and phrenic nerves was 2 and 2.5 mm, respectively. No statistically significant difference was found for measurements between sides. To our knowledge, using the SAN for neurotization to the phrenic nerve for potential use in patients with spinal cord injury has not been previously explored. Following clinical trials, these data may provide a mechanism for self stimulation of the diaphragm and obviate phrenic nerve pacing in patients with high cervical quadriplegia. Our study found that such a maneuver is technically feasible in the cadaver.

  12. Spinal cord herniation following cervical meningioma excision: a rare clinical entity and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Aiyer, Siddharth N; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad; Kanna, Rishi; Maheswaran, Anupama; Rajasekaran, S

    2016-05-01

    Spinal cord herniation following surgery is an extremely uncommon clinical condition with very few reports in published literature. This condition usually occurs as a spontaneous idiopathic phenomenon often in the thoracic spine or following a scenario of post traumatic spinal cord/nerve root injury. Rarely has it been reported following spinal cord tumor surgery. To document a case of cervical spinal cord herniation as a late onset complication following spinal cord tumor surgery with an atypical presentation of monoparesis. Case report. We describe the clinical presentation, operative procedure, post operative outcome and review of literature of this rare clinical condition. A 57-year-old man presented with right upper limb monoparesis due to a spinal cord herniation 6 years after a cervical intradural meningioma excision. The patients underwent surgery to reduce the herniation and duroplasty with subsequent complete resolution of symptoms. Spinal cord herniation must be considered as differential diagnosis in scenarios of spinal cord tumor excision presenting with late onset neurological deficit. These cases may present as paraparesis, Brown-sequard syndrome and rarely as in our case as monoparesis.

  13. Major Peripheral Nerve Injuries After Elbow Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Desai, Mihir J; Mithani, Suhail K; Lodha, Sameer J; Richard, Marc J; Leversedge, Fraser J; Ruch, David S

    2016-06-01

    To survey the American Society for Surgery of the Hand membership to determine the nature and distribution of nerve injuries treated after elbow arthroscopy. An online survey was sent to all members of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand under an institutional review board-approved protocol. Collected data included the number of nerve injuries observed over a 5-year period, the nature of treatment required for the injuries, and the outcomes observed after any intervention. Responses were anonymous, and results were securely compiled. We obtained 372 responses. A total of 222 nerve injuries were reported. The most injured nerves reported were ulnar, radial, and posterior interosseous (38%, 22%, and 19%, respectively). Nearly half of all patients with injuries required operative intervention, including nerve graft, tendon transfer, nerve repair, or nerve transfer. Of the patients who sustained major injuries, those requiring intervention, 77% had partial or no motor recovery. All minor injuries resolved completely. Our results suggest that major nerve injuries after elbow arthroscopy are not rare occurrences and the risk of these injuries is likely under-reported in the literature. Furthermore, patients should be counseled on this risk because most nerve injuries show only partial or no functional recovery. With the more widespread practice of elbow arthroscopy, understanding the nature and sequelae of significant complications is critically important in ensuring patient safety and improving outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Concepts of nerve regeneration and repair applied to brachial plexus reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bertelli, Jayme Augusto; Ghizoni, Marcos Flávio

    2006-01-01

    Brachial plexus injury is a serious condition that usually affects young adults. Progress in brachial plexus repair is intimately related to peripheral nerve surgery, and depends on clinical and experimental studies. We review the rat brachial plexus as an experimental model, together with its behavioral evaluation. Techniques to repair nerves, such as neurolysis, nerve coaptation, nerve grafting, nerve transfer, fascicular transfer, direct muscle neurotization, and end-to-side neurorraphy, are discussed in light of the authors' experimental studies. Intradural repair of the brachial plexus by graft implants into the spinal cord and motor rootlet transfer offer new possibilities in brachial plexus reconstruction. The clinical experience of intradural repair is presented. Surgical planning in root rupture or avulsion is proposed. In total avulsion, the authors are in favor of the reconstruction of thoraco-brachial and abdomino-antebrachial grasping, and on the transfer of the brachialis muscle to the wrist extensors if it is reinnervated. Surgical treatment of painful conditions and new drugs are also discussed.

  15. Involvement of enzymatic degradation in the inactivation of tachykinin neurotransmitters in neonatal rat spinal cord.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, H; Yoshioka, K; Yanagisawa, M; Urayama, O; Kurihara, T; Hosoki, R; Saito, K; Otsuka, M

    1994-01-01

    1. The possible involvement of enzymatic degradation in the inactivation of tachykinin neurotransmitters was examined in the spinal cord of the neonatal rat. 2. The magnitude of substance P (SP)- or neurokinin A (NKA)-evoked depolarization of a lumbar ventral root in the isolated spinal cord preparation was increased by a mixture of peptidase inhibitors, consisting of actinonin (6 microM), arphamenine B (6 microM), bestatin (10 microM), captopril (10 microM) and thiorphan (0.3 microM). The mixture augmented the response to NKA more markedly than that to SP. 3. In the isolated spinal cord-cutaneous nerve preparation, the saphenous nerve-evoked slow depolarization of the L3 ventral root was augmented by the mixture of peptidase inhibitors in the presence of naloxone (0.5 microM) but not in the presence of both naloxone and a tachykinin receptor antagonist, GR71251 (5 microM). 4. Application of capsaicin (0.5 microM) for 6 min to the spinal cord evoked an increase in the release of SP from the spinal cord. The amount of SP released was significantly augmented by the mixture of peptidase inhibitors. 5. Synaptic membrane fractions were prepared from neonatal rat spinal cords. These fractions showed degrading activities for SP and NKA and the activities were inhibited by the mixture of peptidase inhibitors. The degrading activity for NKA was higher than that for SP and the inhibitory effect of the mixture for NKA was more marked than that for SP. Although some other fractions obtained from homogenates of spinal cords showed higher degrading activities for SP, these activities were insensitive to the mixture of peptidase inhibitors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7529113

  16. Quantitative MRI of the spinal cord and brain in adrenomyeloneuropathy: in vivo assessment of structural changes.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Antonella; Papinutto, Nico; Cadioli, Marcello; Brugnara, Gianluca; Iadanza, Antonella; Scigliuolo, Graziana; Pareyson, Davide; Uziel, Graziella; Köhler, Wolfgang; Aubourg, Patrick; Falini, Andrea; Henry, Roland G; Politi, Letterio S; Salsano, Ettore

    2016-06-01

    Adrenomyeloneuropathy is the late-onset form of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, and is considered the most frequent metabolic hereditary spastic paraplegia. In adrenomyeloneuropathy the spinal cord is the main site of pathology. Differently from quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, little is known about the feasibility and utility of advanced neuroimaging in quantifying the spinal cord abnormalities in hereditary diseases. Moreover, little is known about the subtle pathological changes that can characterize the brain of adrenomyeloneuropathy subjects in the early stages of the disease. We performed a cross-sectional study on 13 patients with adrenomyeloneuropathy and 12 age-matched healthy control subjects who underwent quantitative magnetic resonance imaging to assess the structural changes of the upper spinal cord and brain. Total cord areas from C2-3 to T2-3 level were measured, and diffusion tensor imaging metrics, i.e. fractional anisotropy, mean, axial and radial diffusivity values were calculated in both grey and white matter of spinal cord. In the brain, grey matter regions were parcellated with Freesurfer and average volume and thickness, and mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy from co-registered diffusion maps were calculated in each region. Brain white matter diffusion tensor imaging metrics were assessed using whole-brain tract-based spatial statistics, and tractography-based analysis on corticospinal tracts. Correlations among clinical, structural and diffusion tensor imaging measures were calculated. In patients total cord area was reduced by 26.3% to 40.2% at all tested levels (P < 0.0001). A mean 16% reduction of spinal cord white matter fractional anisotropy (P ≤ 0.0003) with a concomitant 9.7% axial diffusivity reduction (P < 0.009) and 34.5% radial diffusivity increase (P < 0.009) was observed, suggesting co-presence of axonal degeneration and demyelination. Brain tract-based spatial statistics showed a marked reduction

  17. Spinal cord lesions of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Cano, F; Joseph, J T; Koralnik, I J

    2007-10-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a deadly demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which occurs in immunosuppressed individuals. This disease is caused by a reactivation of the polyomavirus JC (JCV). Clinical presentation can be variable from patient to patient as lesions can occur anywhere in the CNS white matter; however, they appear to spare the optic nerves and the spinal cord. The authors present a case of PML in the setting of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who developed PML lesions in the spinal cord, discovered during the postmortem examination. This finding is significant because PML has recently been diagnosed in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with the novel immunomodulatory medication natalizumab. Indeed, spinal cord lesions are frequent in MS. Therefore clinicians should be aware that in addition to the brain, PML may also affect the spinal cord white matter.

  18. Transplantation of embryonic stem cells improves nerve repair and functional recovery after severe sciatic nerve axotomy in rats.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lin; Jiang, Jun; Wei, Ling; Zhou, Xin; Fraser, Jamie L; Snider, B Joy; Yu, Shan Ping

    2008-05-01

    Extensive research has focused on transplantation of pluripotent stem cells for the treatment of central nervous system disorders, the therapeutic potential of stem cell therapy for injured peripheral nerves is largely unknown. We used a rat sciatic nerve transection model to test the ability of implanted embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived neural progenitor cells (ES-NPCs) in promoting repair of a severely injured peripheral nerve. Mouse ES cells were neurally induced in vitro; enhanced expression and/or secretion of growth factors were detected in differentiating ES cells. One hour after removal of a 1-cm segment of the left sciatic nerve, ES-NPCs were implanted into the gap between the nerve stumps with the surrounding epineurium as a natural conduit. The transplantation resulted in substantial axonal regrowth and nerve repair, which were not seen in culture medium controls. One to 3 months after axotomy, co-immunostaining with the mouse neural cell membrane specific antibody M2/M6 and the Schwann cell marker S100 suggested that transplanted ES-NPCs had survived and differentiated into myelinating cells. Regenerated axons were myelinated and showed a uniform connection between proximal and distal stumps. Nerve stumps had near normal diameter with longitudinally oriented, densely packed Schwann cell-like phenotype. Fluoro-Gold retrogradely labeled neurons were found in the spinal cord (T12-13) and DRG (L4-L6), suggesting reconnection of axons across the transection. Electrophysiological recordings showed functional activity recovered across the injury gap. These data suggest that transplanted neurally induced ES cells differentiate into myelin-forming cells and provide a potential therapy for severely injured peripheral nerves.

  19. Radial Head Prosthesis Removal: a Retrospective Case Series of 14 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, Valentin; Christoforou, Dimitrios C.; Kachooei, Amir Reza; Jupiter, Jesse B.; Ring, David C.; Mudgal, Chaitanya S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to report the preoperative complaints and postoperative outcome of patients after removal of the radial head prosthesis. Methods: This is a retrospective review of 14 adult patients (6 females and 8 males) from 2007 to 2011, who underwent radial head prosthesis removal by three surgeons. The average time between implantation and removal was 23 months (range from 2 weeks to 12 years, median 12 months). Results: The leading reported complaints before removal were restricted mobility of the elbow (active range of motion of less than 100 degrees) in 6, pain in 3, and pain together with restricted mobility in 4 patients. The objective findings before removal were restricted mobility of the elbow in 10 (71%), capitellar cartilage wear, loose implants, and heterotopic ossification each in 8 (57%), subluxation of the radio-capitellar joint or malpositioning of the stem in 5 (36%), and chronic infection in 2 (14%) patients. All patients with pain had wear of the capitellar cartilage on radiographs. The ulnar nerve was decompressed in four patients at the time of removal. Four patients underwent a subsequent operation for postoperative ulnar nerve symptoms 5 to 21 months after removal. Four patients were still complaining about persistent pain at the last follow-up visit. Except two patients, the total range of motion improved with a mean of 34 degrees (range 5 to 70) after a mean follow-up of 11 months. Conclusions: Removal of radial head prosthesis improved function and lessened pain in our case series. The reoperation rate was yet nearly 30% due to ulnar neuritis. Selective ulnar nerve decompression at the time of removal must be evaluated, especially in patients with expected large gain in range of motion after removal. PMID:26110173

  20. A STUDY OF THE SPINAL CORD BY NISSL'S METHOD IN TYPHOID FEVER AND IN EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION WITH THE TYPHOID BACILLUS.

    PubMed

    Nichols, J L

    1899-03-01

    (1) The application of the Nissl method to the study of the motor cells of the spinal cord, and the nerve cells of the dorsal root ganglia in typhoid fever, shows that these cells regularly suffer pathological changes in the course of the infection. (2) The alterations in the motor cells are more constant and of a severer grade than are those in the cells of the sensory ganglia. The more characteristic changes consist of disintegration, solution and destruction of the chromatic substance of the cell starting from the axone hillock and proceeding toward the nucleus. Coincidently the nuclei of the affected cells seek the periphery. Alterations are also suffered by the nucleus and nucleolus. (3) While this central form of ehromatolysis is the prevailing type of pathological change, disintegration, etc., of the Nissl bodies situated in the periphery of the cell and in the dendrites is also observed (peripheral chromatolysis). (4) In experimental infection with typhoid bacilli in rabbits a similar series of lesions in the corresponding nerve cells in the spinal cord and ganglia is encountered. (5) The main or central type of lesions discovered is identical with that found in man and animals after section, destruction, or even slight injury of the peripheral nerves. (6) The examination of the peripheral nerves arising from the lumbar segment of the cord (the site in man and rabbit of the most profound changes) in rabbits inoculated with typhoid bacilli showed well-marked evidences of parenchymatous degeneration. (7> It is probable that lesions of the peripheral nerves in typhoid fever in human beings are common and that the post-typhoid hyper sthesias and paralyses are due to this cause. (8) Restitution of the chromatic granules may take place in the affected nerve cells, the new formation beginning about the nucleus and extending through the protoplasm.

  1. A STUDY OF THE SPINAL CORD BY NISSL'S METHOD IN TYPHOID FEVER AND IN EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION WITH THE TYPHOID BACILLUS

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Joseph Longworth

    1899-01-01

    (1) The application of the Nissl method to the study of the motor cells of the spinal cord, and the nerve cells of the dorsal root ganglia in typhoid fever, shows that these cells regularly suffer pathological changes in the course of the infection. (2) The alterations in the motor cells are more constant and of a severer grade than are those in the cells of the sensory ganglia. The more characteristic changes consist of disintegration, solution and destruction of the chromatic substance of the cell starting from the axone hillock and proceeding toward the nucleus. Coincidently the nuclei of the affected cells seek the periphery. Alterations are also suffered by the nucleus and nucleolus. (3) While this central form of ehromatolysis is the prevailing type of pathological change, disintegration, etc., of the Nissl bodies situated in the periphery of the cell and in the dendrites is also observed (peripheral chromatolysis). (4) In experimental infection with typhoid bacilli in rabbits a similar series of lesions in the corresponding nerve cells in the spinal cord and ganglia is encountered. (5) The main or central type of lesions discovered is identical with that found in man and animals after section, destruction, or even slight injury of the peripheral nerves. (6) The examination of the peripheral nerves arising from the lumbar segment of the cord (the site in man and rabbit of the most profound changes) in rabbits inoculated with typhoid bacilli showed well-marked evidences of parenchymatous degeneration. (7> It is probable that lesions of the peripheral nerves in typhoid fever in human beings are common and that the post-typhoid hyper sthesias and paralyses are due to this cause. (8) Restitution of the chromatic granules may take place in the affected nerve cells, the new formation beginning about the nucleus and extending through the protoplasm. PMID:19866906

  2. Analysis of the Istanbul Forensic Medicine Institute expert decisions on recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries due to thyroidectomy between 2008–2012

    PubMed Central

    Karakaya, M. Arif; Koç, Okay; Ekiz, Feza; Ağaçhan, A. Feran; Göret, Nuri Emrah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the approach of Forensic Medicine Institution for recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries. In addition, parameters that were taken into consideration by Forensic Medicine Institution in the differentiation of complication and malpractice were evaluated. Material and Methods: The files of 38 patients, with recurrent laryngeal nerve injury following thyroidectomy, that were referred to Istanbul Forensic Medicine Institute with request of expert opinion between 2008–2012 were retrospectively investigated. Data regarding expert decisions, age, gender, diagnosis, hospital type, preoperative vocal cord examination, intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM), identification of nerve injury during operation, repair of nerve during operation, and type of injury were assessed. Results: Surgeons were found to be faulty in all files with bilateral nerve injury, however, one-sided injury files were considered as a medical complication. Twenty-one (55.2%) patients were female, and 17 (44.8%) were male, with a mean age of 35,8 in women, and 34,1 in men. None of these patients had undergone preoperative vocal cord assessment. The recurrent laryngeal nerve was intraoperatively identified in 21 (55.2%) patients, while it was not seen in 17 (44.8%) patients. IONM was not applied in any patients. There was no attempt for nerve repair during any operation. Nineteen patients had unilateral, and 19 patients had bilateral nerve damage. Conclusion: Bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries are considered as malpractice, when imaging or pathology reports fail to state a cause for difficulty in nerve identification. PMID:26985157

  3. Diaphragm-Sparing Nerve Blocks for Shoulder Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tran, De Q H; Elgueta, Maria Francisca; Aliste, Julian; Finlayson, Roderick J

    Shoulder surgery can result in significant postoperative pain. Interscalene brachial plexus blocks (ISBs) constitute the current criterion standard for analgesia but may be contraindicated in patients with pulmonary pathology due to the inherent risk of phrenic nerve block and symptomatic hemidiaphragmatic paralysis. Although ultrasound-guided ISB with small volumes (5 mL), dilute local anesthetic (LA) concentrations, and LA injection 4 mm lateral to the brachial plexus have been shown to reduce the risk of phrenic nerve block, no single intervention can decrease its incidence below 20%. Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular blocks with LA injection posterolateral to the brachial plexus may anesthetize the shoulder without incidental diaphragmatic dysfunction, but further confirmatory trials are required. Ultrasound-guided C7 root blocks also seem to offer an attractive, diaphragm-sparing alternative to ISB. However, additional large-scale studies are needed to confirm their efficacy and to quantify the risk of periforaminal vascular breach. Combined axillary-suprascapular nerve blocks may provide adequate postoperative analgesia for minor shoulder surgery but do not compare favorably to ISB for major surgical procedures. One intriguing solution lies in the combined use of infraclavicular brachial plexus blocks and suprascapular nerve blocks. Theoretically, the infraclavicular approach targets the posterior and lateral cords, thus anesthetizing the axillary nerve (which supplies the anterior and posterior shoulder joint), as well as the subscapular and lateral pectoral nerves (both of which supply the anterior shoulder joint), whereas the suprascapular nerve block anesthetizes the posterior shoulder. Future randomized trials are required to validate the efficacy of combined infraclavicular-suprascapular blocks for shoulder surgery.

  4. Nerve compression injuries due to traumatic false aneurysm.

    PubMed Central

    Robbs, J V; Naidoo, K S

    1984-01-01

    Experience with 17 patients with delayed onset of compression neuropraxia due to hemorrhage following nonoperative treatment of penetrating arterial injuries is presented. Fifteen cases involved the arteries of the neck shoulder girdle and upper extremity and two the gluteal vessels. This resulted in dysfunction of components of the brachial plexus, median ulnar, and sciatic nerves. Follow-up extended from 3 to 18 months. Of 10 brachial plexus lesions two recovered fully, five partially, and three not at all. Of seven peripheral nerve injuries, full recovery occurred in two patients and none in five. Adverse prognostic factors for neurological recovery are sepsis, involvement of intrinsic hand innervation and the sciatic nerve. An improved prognosis may be expected for upper trunk lesions of the brachial plexus and radial nerve lesions. The complication is essentially avoidable and a careful appraisal of the circulatory status must be made in all patients with penetrating trauma in the neck and shoulder girdle and buttock. PMID:6732331

  5. Characterizing Intraorbital Optic Nerve Changes on Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Thyroid Eye Disease Before Dysthyroid Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa; Lee, Young Hen; Suh, Sang-Il; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Baek, Sehyun; Seo, Hyung Suk

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the optic nerve is affected by thyroid eye disease (TED) before the development of dysthyroid optic neuropathy with diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI). Twenty TED patients and 20 controls were included. The mean, axial, and radial diffusivities and fractional anisotropy (FA) value were measured at the optic nerves in DTI. Extraocular muscle diameters were measured on computed tomography. The diffusivities and FA of the optic nerves were compared between TED and controls and between active and inactive stages of TED. The correlations between these DTI parameters and the clinical features were determined. The mean, axial, and radial diffusivities were lower in TED compared with the controls (P < 0.05). In contrast, FA was higher in TED (P = 0.001). Radial diffusivity was lower in the active stage of TED than the inactive stage (P = 0.035). The FA was higher in the TED group than in the control group (P = 0.021) and was positively correlated with clinical activity score (r = 0.364, P = 0.021), modified NOSPECS score (r = 0.469, P = 0.002), and extraocular muscle thickness (r = 0.325, P = 0.041) in the TED group. Radial diffusivity was negatively correlated with modified NOSPECS score (r = -0.384, P = 0.014), and axial diffusivity was positively correlated with exophthalmos degree (r = 0.363, P = 0.025). The diffusivities and FA reflected changes in the optic nerve before dysthyroid optic neuropathy in TED. The FA, in particular, reflected TED activity and severity.

  6. Ultrasonographic identification of nerve pathology in neuralgic amyotrophy: Enlargement, constriction, fascicular entwinement, and torsion.

    PubMed

    Arányi, Zsuzsanna; Csillik, Anita; Dévay, Katalin; Rosero, Maja; Barsi, Péter; Böhm, Josef; Schelle, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the ultrasonographic findings on nerves in neuralgic amyotrophy. Fourteen patients with neuralgic amyotrophy were examined using high-resolution ultrasound. Four types of abnormalities were found: (1) focal or diffuse nerve/fascicle enlargement (57%); (2) incomplete nerve constriction (36%); (3) complete nerve constriction with torsion (50%; hourglass-like appearance); and (4) fascicular entwinement (28%). Torsions were confirmed intraoperatively and were seen on the radial nerve in 85% of patients. A significant correlation was found between no spontaneous recovery of nerve function and constriction/torsion/fascicular entwinement (P = 0.007). Ultrasonographic nerve pathology in neuralgic amyotrophy varies in order of severity from nerve enlargement to constriction to nerve torsion, with treatment ranging from conservative to surgical. We postulate that the constriction caused by inflammation is the precursor of torsion and that development of nerve torsion is facilitated by the rotational movements of limbs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Evidence that spinal segmental nitric oxide mediates tachyphylaxis to peripheral local anesthetic nerve block.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Sholas, M G; Berde, C B; DiCanzio, J; Zurakowski, D; Wilder, R T

    2001-09-01

    Tachyphylaxis to sciatic nerve blockade in rats correlates with hyperalgesia. Spinal inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with N(G)nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) has been shown to prevent hyperalgesia. Given systemically, L-NAME also prevents tachyphylaxis. The action of L-NAME in preventing tachyphylaxis therefore may be mediated at spinal sites. We compared systemic versus intrathecal potency of L-NAME in modulating tachyphylaxis to sciatic nerve block. Rats were prepared with intrathecal catheters. Three sequential sciatic nerve blocks were placed. Duration of block of thermal nocifensive, proprioceptive and motor responses was recorded. We compared spinal versus systemic dose-response to L-NAME, and examined effects of intrathecal arginine on tachyphylaxis. An additional group of rats underwent testing after T10 spinal cord transection. In these rats duration of sciatic nerve block was assessed by determining the heat-induced flexion withdrawal reflex. L-NAME was 25-fold more potent in preventing tachyphylaxis given intrathecally than intraperitoneally. Intrathecal arginine augmented tachyphylaxis. Spinalized rats exhibited tachyphylaxis to sciatic block. The increased potency of intrathecal versus systemic L-NAME suggests a spinal site of action in inhibiting tachyphylaxis. Descending pathways are not necessary for the development of tachyphylaxis since it occurs even after T10 spinal cord transection. Thus tachyphylaxis, like hyperalgesia, is mediated at least in part by a spinal site of action.

  8. Cnidarian Nerve Nets and Neuromuscular Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Satterlie, Richard A

    2015-12-01

    Cnidarians are considered "nerve net animals" even though their nervous systems include various forms of condensation and centralization. Yet, their broad, two-dimensional muscle sheets are innervated by diffuse nerve nets. Do the motor nerve nets represent a primitive organization of multicellular nervous systems, do they represent a consequence of radial symmetry, or do they offer an efficient way to innervate a broad, two-dimensional muscle sheet, in which excitation of the muscle sheet can come from multiple sites of initiation? Regarding the primitive nature of cnidarian nervous systems, distinct neuronal systems exhibit some adaptations that are well known in higher animals, such as the use of oversized neurons with increased speed of conduction, and condensation of neurites into nerve-like tracts. A comparison of neural control of two-dimensional muscle sheets in a mollusc and jellyfish suggests that a possible primitive feature of cnidarian neurons may be a lack of regional specialization into conducting and transmitting regions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. BDNF-hypersecreting human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells promote erectile function in a rat model of cavernous nerve electrocautery injury.

    PubMed

    Song, Lujie; Zhu, Jianqiang; Zhang, Xiong; Cui, Zhiqiang; Fu, Qiang; Huang, Jianwen; Lu, Hongkai

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) continues to be a significant problem for men following radical prostatectomy. We hypothesize that intracavernous injection of BDNF-hypersecreting human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) can ameliorate ED in a rat model of cavernous nerve electrocautery injury (CNEI). Forty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham + PBS (n = 6), CNEI + PBS (n = 12), CNEI + hUCB-MSCs (n = 12) and CNEI + BDNF-hUCB-MSCs (n = 12). At day 28 post-surgery, erectile function was examined and specimens were harvested for histology. Immunofluorescence staining, Masson's trichrome staining and transmission electron microscopy were performed to determine the structural changes in corpus cavernosum. Cells that are injected into penis were labeled by BrdU and tracked by immunofluorescence staining. Three days post-surgery, the concentration of BDNF protein in penile tissues was measured by Western blotting. Rats intracavernosally injected with BDNF-hUCB-MSCs showed the most significant improvement in the ratio of maximal ICP to MAP (ICP/MAP). Histological examinations showed moderate recovery of nNOS-positive nerve fibers, ratio of smooth muscle to collagen and smooth muscle content in the CNEI + hUCB-MSCs group and remarkable recovery in the CNEI + BDNF-hUCB-MSCs group compared to the CNEI + PBS group. By TEM examination, atrophy of myelinated and non-myelinated nerve fibers was noted in CNEI + PBS group and significant recovery was observed in two treated groups. There were more BrdU-positive cells in the BDNF-hUCB-MSCs group than in the hUCB-MSCs group both in the penis and in the MPG. Three days post-surgery, the concentration of BDNF protein in penile tissues in BDNF-hUCB-MSCs group was much higher than in other groups. Intracavernous injection of BDNF-hypersecreting hUCB-MSCs can enhance the recovery of erectile function, promote the CNs regeneration and inhibit corpus cavernosum fibrosis after CNEI in a rat

  10. Variations in the nerves of the thumb and index finger.

    PubMed

    Wallace, W A; Coupland, R E

    1975-11-01

    The digital nerves to the thumb and index finger have been studied by dissecting twenty-five embalmed upper limbs. The palmar digital nerves to the thumb were constant in position and course, with a short lateral cutaneous branch from the radial palmar digital nerve in 30 per cent of cases. The palmar digital nerves to the index finger had a variable pattern, the commonest arrangement, well described in Gray's Anatomy, occurring in 74 per cent of cases. The variations and their frequency are described. By examining histological cross-sections of the index finger it was found that of about 5,000 endoneurial tubes entering the finger, 60 per cent passed beyond the distal digital crease to supply the pulp and nail bed. The depth of the palmar digital nerves was about 3 millimetres, but less at the digital creases, and their diameter lay between 1 and 1.5 millimetres as far as the distal digital crease. Clinical applications of the findings are discussed.

  11. Factors predicting sensory and motor recovery after the repair of upper limb peripheral nerve injuries

    PubMed Central

    He, Bo; Zhu, Zhaowei; Zhu, Qingtang; Zhou, Xiang; Zheng, Canbin; Li, Pengliang; Zhu, Shuang; Liu, Xiaolin; Zhu, Jiakai

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the factors associated with sensory and motor recovery after the repair of upper limb peripheral nerve injuries. DATA SOURCES: The online PubMed database was searched for English articles describing outcomes after the repair of median, ulnar, radial, and digital nerve injuries in humans with a publication date between 1 January 1990 and 16 February 2011. STUDY SELECTION: The following types of article were selected: (1) clinical trials describing the repair of median, ulnar, radial, and digital nerve injuries published in English; and (2) studies that reported sufficient patient information, including age, mechanism of injury, nerve injured, injury location, defect length, repair time, repair method, and repair materials. SPSS 13.0 software was used to perform univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses and to investigate the patient and intervention factors associated with outcomes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sensory function was assessed using the Mackinnon-Dellon scale and motor function was assessed using the manual muscle test. Satisfactory motor recovery was defined as grade M4 or M5, and satisfactory sensory recovery was defined as grade S3+ or S4. RESULTS: Seventy-one articles were included in this study. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that repair time, repair materials, and nerve injured were independent predictors of outcome after the repair of nerve injuries (P < 0.05), and that the nerve injured was the main factor affecting the rate of good to excellent recovery. CONCLUSION: Predictors of outcome after the repair of peripheral nerve injuries include age, gender, repair time, repair materials, nerve injured, defect length, and duration of follow-up. PMID:25206870

  12. Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord, roots and peripheral nerves: Basic principles and procedures for routine clinical and research application. An updated report from an I.F.C.N. Committee.

    PubMed

    Rossini, P M; Burke, D; Chen, R; Cohen, L G; Daskalakis, Z; Di Iorio, R; Di Lazzaro, V; Ferreri, F; Fitzgerald, P B; George, M S; Hallett, M; Lefaucheur, J P; Langguth, B; Matsumoto, H; Miniussi, C; Nitsche, M A; Pascual-Leone, A; Paulus, W; Rossi, S; Rothwell, J C; Siebner, H R; Ugawa, Y; Walsh, V; Ziemann, U

    2015-06-01

    These guidelines provide an up-date of previous IFCN report on "Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord and roots: basic principles and procedures for routine clinical application" (Rossini et al., 1994). A new Committee, composed of international experts, some of whom were in the panel of the 1994 "Report", was selected to produce a current state-of-the-art review of non-invasive stimulation both for clinical application and research in neuroscience. Since 1994, the international scientific community has seen a rapid increase in non-invasive brain stimulation in studying cognition, brain-behavior relationship and pathophysiology of various neurologic and psychiatric disorders. New paradigms of stimulation and new techniques have been developed. Furthermore, a large number of studies and clinical trials have demonstrated potential therapeutic applications of non-invasive brain stimulation, especially for TMS. Recent guidelines can be found in the literature covering specific aspects of non-invasive brain stimulation, such as safety (Rossi et al., 2009), methodology (Groppa et al., 2012) and therapeutic applications (Lefaucheur et al., 2014). This up-dated review covers theoretical, physiological and practical aspects of non-invasive stimulation of brain, spinal cord, nerve roots and peripheral nerves in the light of more updated knowledge, and include some recent extensions and developments. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Generalized mechanical pain sensitivity over nerve tissues in patients with strictly unilateral migraine.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Cuadrado, María Luz; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-06-01

    No study has previously analyzed pressure pain sensitivity of nerve trunks in migraine. This study aimed to examine the differences in mechanical pain sensitivity over specific nerves between patients with unilateral migraine and healthy controls. Blinded investigators assessed pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the supra-orbital nerves (V1) and peripheral nerve trunks of both upper extremities (median, radial, and ulnar nerves) in 20 patients with strictly unilateral migraine and 20 healthy matched controls. Pain intensity after palpation over both supra-orbital nerves was also assessed. A pressure algometer was used to quantify PPT, whereas a 10-point numerical pain rate scale was used to evaluate pain to palpation over the supra-orbital nerve. The analysis of covariance revealed that pain to palpation over the supra-orbital nerve was significantly higher (P<0.001) on the symptomatic side (mean: 3.4, SD: 1.5) as compared with the nonsymptomatic side (mean: 0.5, SD: 1.2) in patients with migraine and both the dominant (mean: 0.2, SD: 0.4) and nondominant (mean: 0.3, SD: 0.5) sides in healthy controls. PPT assessed over the supra-orbital nerve on the symptomatic side (mean: 1.05, SD: 0.2 kg/cm) was significantly lower (P<0.05) than PPT measurements on the nonsymptomatic side (mean: 1.35, SD: 0.3 kg/cm) and either the dominant (mean: 1.9, SD: 0.2 kg/cm) or nondominant (mean: 1.9, SD: 0.3 kg/cm) sides in controls (P<0.001). Finally, PPT assessed over the median, ulnar, and radial nerves were significantly lower in patients with migraine as compared with controls (P<0.001), without side-to-side differences (P>0.6). In patients with unilateral migraine, we found increased mechano-sensitivity of the supra-orbital nerve on the symptomatic side of the head. Outside the head, the same patients showed increased mechano-sensitivity of the main peripheral nerves of both upper limbs, without asymmetries. Such diffuse hypersensitivity of the peripheral nerves lends further

  14. Enrichment of spinal cord cell cultures with motoneurons

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Spinal cord cell cultures contain several types of neurons. Two methods are described for enriching such cultures with motoneurons (defined here simply as cholinergic cells that are capable of innervating muscle). In the first method, 7-day embryonic chick spinal cord neurons were separated according to size by 1 g velocity sedimentation. It is assumed that cholinergic motoneurons are among the largest cells present at this stage. The spinal cords were dissociated vigorously so that 95-98% of the cells in the initial suspension were isolated from one another. Cells in leading fractions (large cell fractions: LCFs) contain about seven times as much choline acetyltransferase (CAT) activity per unit cytoplasm as do cells in trailing fractions (small cell fractions: SCFs). Muscle cultures seeded with LCFs develop 10-70 times as much CAT as cultures seeded with SCFs and six times as much CAT as cultures seeded with control (unfractionated) spinal cord cells. More than 20% of the large neurons in LCF-muscle cultures innervate nearby myotubes. In the second method, neurons were gently dissociated from 4-day embryonic spinal cords and maintained in vitro. This approach is based on earlier observations that cholinergic neurons are among the first cells to withdraw form the mitotic cycle in the developing chick embryo (Hamburger, V. 1948. J. Comp. Neurol. 88:221- 283; and Levi-Montalcini, R. 1950. J. Morphol. 86:253-283). 4-Day spinal cord-muscle cultures develop three times as much CAT as do 7-day spinal cord-muscle plates, prepared in the same (gentle) manner. More than 50% of the relatively large 4-day neurons innervate nearby myotubes. Thus, both methods are useful first steps toward the complete isolation of motoneurons. Both methods should facilitate study of the development of cholinergic neurons and of nerve-muscle synapse formation. PMID:566275

  15. Potential Involvement of Draxin in the Axonal Projection of Cranial Nerves, Especially Cranial Nerve X, in the Chick Hindbrain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sanbing; Cui, Huixian; Wang, Lei; Kang, Lin; Huang, Guannan; Du, Juan; Li, Sha; Tanaka, Hideaki; Su, Yuhong

    2016-07-01

    The appropriate projection of axons within the nervous system is a crucial component of the establishment of neural circuitry. Draxin is a repulsive axon guidance protein. Draxin has important functions in the guidance of three commissures in the central nervous system and in the migration of neural crest cells and dI3 interneurons in the chick spinal cord. Here, we report that the distribution of the draxin protein and the location of 23C10-positive areas have a strong temporal and spatial correlation. The overexpression of draxin, especially transmembrane draxin, caused 23C10-positive axon bundles to misproject in the dorsal hindbrain. In addition, the overexpression of transmembrane draxin caused abnormal formation of the ganglion crest of the IX and X cranial nerves, misprojection of some anti-human natural killer-1 (HNK-1)-stained structures in the dorsal roof of the hindbrain, and a simultaneous reduction in the efferent nerves of some motoneuron axons inside the hindbrain. Our data reveal that draxin might be involved in the fascicular projection of cranial nerves in the hindbrain. © 2016 The Histochemical Society.

  16. Potential Involvement of Draxin in the Axonal Projection of Cranial Nerves, Especially Cranial Nerve X, in the Chick Hindbrain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sanbing; Cui, Huixian; Wang, Lei; Kang, Lin; Huang, Guannan; Du, Juan; Li, Sha; Tanaka, Hideaki; Su, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    The appropriate projection of axons within the nervous system is a crucial component of the establishment of neural circuitry. Draxin is a repulsive axon guidance protein. Draxin has important functions in the guidance of three commissures in the central nervous system and in the migration of neural crest cells and dI3 interneurons in the chick spinal cord. Here, we report that the distribution of the draxin protein and the location of 23C10-positive areas have a strong temporal and spatial correlation. The overexpression of draxin, especially transmembrane draxin, caused 23C10-positive axon bundles to misproject in the dorsal hindbrain. In addition, the overexpression of transmembrane draxin caused abnormal formation of the ganglion crest of the IX and X cranial nerves, misprojection of some anti-human natural killer-1 (HNK-1)-stained structures in the dorsal roof of the hindbrain, and a simultaneous reduction in the efferent nerves of some motoneuron axons inside the hindbrain. Our data reveal that draxin might be involved in the fascicular projection of cranial nerves in the hindbrain. PMID:27199282

  17. Modeling the functional repair of nervous tissue in spinal cord injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantila, Sara M.; Camp, Jon J.; Krych, Aaron J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2004-05-01

    Functional repair of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most challenging goals in modern medicine. The annual incidence of SCI in the United States is approximately 11,000 new cases. The prevalence of people in the U.S. currently living with SCI is approximately 200,000. Exploring and understanding nerve regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) is a critical first step in attempting to reverse the devastating consequences of SCI. At Mayo Clinic, a preliminary study of implants in the transected rat spinal cord model demonstrates potential for promoting axon regeneration. In collaborative research between neuroscientists and bioengineers, this procedure holds promise for solving two critical aspects of axon repair-providing a resorbable structural scaffold to direct focused axon repair, and delivery of relevant signaling molecules necessary to facilitate regeneration. In our preliminary study, regeneration in the rat's spinal cord was modeled in three dimensions utilizing an image processing software system developed in the Biomedical Imaging Resource at Mayo Clinic. Advanced methods for image registration, segmentation, and rendering were used. The raw images were collected at three different magnifications. After image processing the individual channels in the scaffold, axon bundles, and macrophages could be identified. Several axon bundles could be visualized and traced through the entire volume, suggesting axonal growth throughout the length of the scaffold. Such information could potentially allow researchers and physicians to better understand and improve the nerve regeneration process for individuals with SCI.

  18. Endotracheal Tube Electrodes to Assess Vocal Cord Motor Function During Surgery in the Cerebellopontine Angle.

    PubMed

    Romagna, Alexander; Rachinger, Walter; Schwartz, Christoph; Mehrkens, Jan-Hinnerk; Betz, Christian; Briegel, Josef; Schnell, Oliver; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Schichor, Christian; Thon, Niklas

    2015-09-01

    The 10th cranial nerve (CN X) is at risk during surgery in the lower cerebellopontine angle (CPA). To evaluate endotracheal surface electrodes for assessment of CN X motor function during CPA surgery. Twenty patients were enrolled. Electrophysiological recordings were analyzed and retrospectively correlated with clinical, imaging, and intraoperative data. Recordings from endotracheal surface electrodes were reliable and eligible for analyses in 17 patients; in 3 patients, no surface electrode compound motor action potentials (CMAPs) could be obtained. Those patients with sufficient recordings underwent surgery in the CPA for tumors in 14 patients and for nontumor pathologies in 3 patients. In 12 patients, bipolar stimulation of motor rootlets in the CPA resulted in simultaneous CMAPs recorded from both surface electrodes and needle electrodes placed in the soft palate. Coactivation was particularly seen in patients with an intricate relationship between lower cranial nerves and tumor formations (n = 9/10). Amplitudes and latencies of vocal cord CMAPs showed high interindividual but low intraindividual variability. Parameters were not well correlated with the type of surgery (tumor vs nontumor surgery) and lower CN anatomy (displaced vs undisplaced). In 2 patients, vocal cord CMAPs were lost during tumor surgery, which was associated with postoperative dysphagia and hoarseness in 1 patient. Endotracheal surface electrodes allow identification of vocal cord motor rootlets in the CPA. Worsening of CMAP parameters might indicate functional impairment. These aspects support the use of endotracheal surface electrodes in selected patients in whom the vagus nerve might be at risk during CPA surgery.

  19. Netrin1/DCC signaling promotes neuronal migration in the dorsal spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Junge, Harald J; Yung, Andrea R; Goodrich, Lisa V; Chen, Zhe

    2016-10-26

    Newborn neurons often migrate before undergoing final differentiation, extending neurites, and forming synaptic connections. Therefore, neuronal migration is crucial for establishing neural circuitry during development. In the developing spinal cord, neuroprogenitors first undergo radial migration within the ventricular zone. Differentiated neurons continue to migrate tangentially before reaching the final positions. The molecular pathways that regulate these migration processes remain largely unknown. Our previous study suggests that the DCC receptor is important for the migration of the dorsal spinal cord progenitors and interneurons. In this study, we determined the involvement of the Netrin1 ligand and the ROBO3 coreceptor in the migration. By pulse labeling neuroprogenitors with electroporation, we examined their radial migration in Netrin1 (Ntn1), Dcc, and Robo3 knockout mice. We found that all three mutants exhibit delayed migration. Furthermore, using immunohistochemistry of the BARHL2 interneuron marker, we found that the mediolateral and dorsoventral migration of differentiated dorsal interneurons is also delayed. Together, our results suggest that Netrin1/DCC signaling induce neuronal migration in the dorsal spinal cord. Netrin1, DCC, and ROBO3 have been extensively studied for their functions in regulating axon guidance in the spinal commissural interneurons. We reveal that during earlier development of dorsal interneurons including commissural neurons, these molecules play an important role in promoting cell migration.

  20. Nerve transfers for restoration of upper extremity motor function in a child with upper extremity motor deficits due to transverse myelitis: case report.

    PubMed

    Dorsi, Michael J; Belzberg, Allan J

    2012-01-01

    Transverse myelitis (TM) may result in permanent neurologic dysfunction. Nerve transfers have been developed to restore function after peripheral nerve injury. Here, we present a case report of a child with permanent right upper extremity weakness due to TM that underwent nerve transfers. The following procedures were performed: double fascicle transfer from median nerve and ulnar nerve to the brachialis and biceps branches of the musculocutaneous nerve, spinal accessory to suprascapular nerve, and medial cord to axillary nerve end-to-side neurorraphy. At 22 months, the patient demonstrated excellent recovery of elbow flexion with minimal improvement in shoulder abduction. We propose that the treatment of permanent deficits from TM represents a novel indication for nerve transfers in a subset of patients. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Radial-radial single rotor turbine

    DOEpatents

    Platts, David A [Los Alamos, NM

    2006-05-16

    A rotor for use in turbine applications has a radial compressor/pump having radially disposed spaced apart fins forming passages and a radial turbine having hollow turbine blades interleaved with the fins and through which fluid from the radial compressor/pump flows. The rotor can, in some applications, be used to produce electrical power.

  2. Controlled nerve growth factor release from multi-ply alginate/chitosan-based nerve conduits.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Lukas A; Alther, Eva; Papaloïzos, Michaël; Merkle, Hans P; Gander, Bruno

    2008-06-01

    The delivery kinetics of growth factors has been suggested to play an important role in the regeneration of peripheral nerves following axotomy. In this context, we designed a nerve conduit (NC) with adjustable release kinetics of nerve growth factor (NGF). A multi-ply system was designed where NC consisting of a polyelectrolyte alginate/chitosan complex was coated with layers of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) to control the release of embedded NGF. Prior to assessing the in vitro NGF release from NC, various release test media, with and without stabilizers for NGF, were evaluated to ensure adequate quantification of NGF by ELISA. Citrate (pH 5.0) and acetate (pH 5.5) buffered saline solutions containing 0.05% Tween 20 yielded the most reliable results for ELISA active NGF. The in vitro release experiments revealed that the best results in terms of reproducibility and release control were achieved when the NGF was embedded between two PLGA layers and the ends of the NC tightly sealed by the PLGA coatings. The release kinetics could be efficiently adjusted by accommodating NGF at different radial locations within the NC. A sustained release of bioactive NGF in the low nanogram per day range was obtained for at least 15days. In conclusion, the developed multi-ply NGF loaded NC is considered a suitable candidate for future implantation studies to gain insight into the relationship between local growth factor availability and nerve regeneration.

  3. 4.7-T diffusion tensor imaging of acute traumatic peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Richard B.; Kelm, Nathaniel D.; Riley, D. Colton; Sexton, Kevin W.; Pollins, Alonda C.; Shack, R. Bruce; Dortch, Richard D.; Nanney, Lillian B.; Does, Mark D.; Thayer, Wesley P.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and management of peripheral nerve injury is complicated by the inability to assess microstructural features of injured nerve fibers via clinical examination and electrophysiology. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been shown to accurately detect nerve injury and regeneration in crush models of peripheral nerve injury, but no prior studies have been conducted on nerve transection, a surgical emergency that can lead to permanent weakness or paralysis. Acute sciatic nerve injuries were performed microsurgically to produce multiple grades of nerve transection in rats that were harvested 1 hour after surgery. High-resolution diffusion tensor images from ex vivo sciatic nerves were obtained using diffusion-weighted spin-echo acquisitions at 4.7 T. Fractional anisotropy was significantly reduced at the injury sites of transected rats compared with sham rats. Additionally, minor eigenvalues and radial diffusivity were profoundly elevated at all injury sites and were negatively correlated to the degree of injury. Diffusion tensor tractography showed discontinuities at all injury sites and significantly reduced continuous tract counts. These findings demonstrate that high-resolution DTI is a promising tool for acute diagnosis and grading of traumatic peripheral nerve injuries. PMID:26323827

  4. Retrograde tracing and toe spreading after experimental autologous nerve transplantation and crush injury of the sciatic nerve: a descriptive methodological study.

    PubMed

    van Neerven, Sabien Ga; Bozkurt, Ahmet; O'Dey, Dan Mon; Scheffel, Juliane; Boecker, Arne H; Stromps, Jan-Philipp; Dunda, Sebastian; Brook, Gary A; Pallua, Norbert

    2012-04-30

    Evaluation of functional and structural recovery after peripheral nerve injury is crucial to determine the therapeutic effect of a nerve repair strategy. In the present study, we examined the relationship between the structural evaluation of regeneration by means of retrograde tracing and the functional analysis of toe spreading. Two standardized rat sciatic nerve injury models were used to address this relationship. As such, animals received either a 2 cm sciatic nerve defect (neurotmesis) followed by autologous nerve transplantation (ANT animals) or a crush injury with spontaneous recovery (axonotmesis; CI animals). Functional recovery of toe spreading was observed over an observation period of 84 days. In contrast to CI animals, ANT animals did not reach pre-surgical levels of toe spreading. After the observation period, the lipophilic dye DiI was applied to label sensory and motor neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG; sensory neurons) and spinal cord (motor neurons), respectively. No statistical difference in motor or sensory neuron counts could be detected between ANT and CI animals.In the present study we could indicate that there was no direct relationship between functional recovery (toe spreading) measured by SSI and the number of labelled (motor and sensory) neurons evaluated by retrograde tracing. The present findings demonstrate that a multimodal approach with a variety of independent evaluation tools is essential to understand and estimate the therapeutic benefit of a nerve repair strategy.

  5. [A Case of Left Vertebral Artery Aneurysm Showing Evoked Potentials on Bilateral Electrode by the Left Vagus Nerve Stimulation to Electromyographic Tracheal Tube].

    PubMed

    Kadoya, Tatsuo; Uehara, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Toshinori; Shiraishi, Munehiro; Kinoshita, Yuki; Joyashiki, Takeshi; Enokida, Kengo

    2016-02-01

    Previously, we reported a case of brainstem cavernous hemangioma showing false positive responses to electromyographic tracheal tube (EMG tube). We concluded that the cause was spontaneous respiration accompanied by vocal cord movement. We report a case of left vertebral artery aneurysm showing evoked potentials on bilateral electrodes by the left vagus nerve stimulation to EMG tube. An 82-year-old woman underwent clipping of a left unruptured vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm. General anesthesia was induced with remifentanil, propofol and suxamethonium, and was maintained with oxygen, air, remifentanil and propofol. We monitored somatosensory evoked potentials, motor evoked potentials, and electromyogram of the vocal cord. When the manipulation reached brainstem and the instrument touched the left vagus nerve, evoked potentials appeared on bilateral electrodes. EMG tube is equipped with two electrodes on both sides. We concluded that the left vagus nerve stimulation generated evoked potentials of the left laryngeal muscles, and they were simultaneously detected as potential difference between two electrodes on both sides. EMG tube is used to identify the vagus nerve. However, it is necessary to bear in mind that each vagus nerve stimulation inevitably generates evoked potentials on bilateral electrodes.

  6. Role of Netrin-1 Signaling in Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Dun, Xin-Peng; Parkinson, David B.

    2017-01-01

    Netrin-1 was the first axon guidance molecule to be discovered in vertebrates and has a strong chemotropic function for axonal guidance, cell migration, morphogenesis and angiogenesis. It is a secreted axon guidance cue that can trigger attraction by binding to its canonical receptors Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) and Neogenin or repulsion through binding the DCC/Uncoordinated (Unc5) A–D receptor complex. The crystal structures of Netrin-1/receptor complexes have recently been revealed. These studies have provided a structure based explanation of Netrin-1 bi-functionality. Netrin-1 and its receptor are continuously expressed in the adult nervous system and are differentially regulated after nerve injury. In the adult spinal cord and optic nerve, Netrin-1 has been considered as an inhibitor that contributes to axon regeneration failure after injury. In the peripheral nervous system, Netrin-1 receptors are expressed in Schwann cells, the cell bodies of sensory neurons and the axons of both motor and sensory neurons. Netrin-1 is expressed in Schwann cells and its expression is up-regulated after peripheral nerve transection injury. Recent studies indicated that Netrin-1 plays a positive role in promoting peripheral nerve regeneration, Schwann cell proliferation and migration. Targeting of the Netrin-1 signaling pathway could develop novel therapeutic strategies to promote peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery. PMID:28245592

  7. Measuring surgeons' treatment preferences and satisfaction with nerve reconstruction techniques for children with unique brachial plexus birth palsies.

    PubMed

    Shah, Amee K; Zurakowski, David; Jessel, Rebecca H; Kuo, Anne; Waters, Peter M

    2006-09-15

    This study surveyed microsurgeons on treatments chosen for infants with brachial plexus birth palsies who have had failure of antigravity biceps and/or triceps function due to nerve surgery or natural history. Questionnaires were sent to surgeons participating in a prospective multicenter brachial plexus birth palsy study. With a response rate of 82 percent, the sample comprised 22 surgeons with extensive experience in treating brachial plexus birth palsy. The survey gathered collective information on two unique clinical groups: (1) infants with no antigravity biceps function but intact antigravity deltoid and radial nerve function and (2) infants with no antigravity radial nerve function (wrist and digital extension, triceps) but intact antigravity biceps and deltoid function. Analysis of data and age-based trends was performed using the Fisher's exact test. With failure of biceps recovery, surgeons preferred microsurgery for children 6 to 18 months old and tendon transfers for children older than 18 months. Both procedures were preferred over observation alone (p < 0.001). With regard to microsurgery techniques, with increasing age, surgeons used nerve transfers more than resected neuroma and grafting. With tendon transfers, regional transfers were performed more than 90 percent of the time at all ages. For patients with no antigravity radial nerve function, most cases at all ages were managed by observation rather than microsurgery or tendon transfers (p < 0.001). The authors' data indicate a general consensus in treatment choices for the two cases of microsurgical failure in infants with brachial plexus birth palsies as well as in satisfaction among experienced surgeons in using these treatments.

  8. [Vocal cord paralysis associated with tracheal intubation: incidence, risk analysis, and classification of severity].

    PubMed

    Kikura, Mutsuhito; Suzuki, Yuji; Itagaki, Taiga; Sato, Tsunehisa; Nishino, Junko

    2015-01-01

    Vocal cord paralysis after tracheal intubation is rare. It causes severe hoarseness and aspiration, and delays recovery and discharge. Arytenoid cartilage dislocation and recurrent nerve paralysis are main causes of vocal cord paralysis. Physical stimulation of the tracheal tube as well as patient and surgical characteristics also contribute. Vocal cord paralysis occurs in 1 (0.07%) of 1,500 general surgery patients and on the left side in 70% of cases. It is associated with surgery/anesthesia time (two-fold, 3-6 hours; 15-fold, over 6 hours), age (three-fold, over 50 years), and diabetes mellitus or hypertension (two-fold). Symptoms resolve in 2-3 months. In adult cardiovascular surgery, vocal cord paralysis occurs in 1 (0.7-2%) of 50-100 cardiac surgery patients and 1 (8.6-32%) of 3-10 thoracic aortic surgery patients. In pediatric cardiac surgery, vocal cord paralysis occurs in 1 (0.1-0.5%) of 200-1,000 patients. We classified the severity of vocal cord paralysis as I, severe hoarseness; II, aspiration or dysphagia; and III, bilateral vocal cord paralysis, aspiration pneumonia, or the need for tracheal re-intubation or tracheotomy. We discuss the importance of informed consent for the patient and family.

  9. Changes in lumbosacral spinal nerve roots on diffusion tensor imaging in spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Zhong-Jun; Huang, Yong; Fan, Zi-Wen; Li, Xin-Chun; Cao, Bing-Yi

    2015-11-01

    Lumbosacral degenerative disc disease is a common cause of lower back and leg pain. Conventional T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) scans are commonly used to image spinal cord degeneration. However, these modalities are unable to image the entire lumbosacral spinal nerve roots. Thus, in the present study, we assessed the potential of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for quantitative assessment of compressed lumbosacral spinal nerve roots. Subjects were 20 young healthy volunteers and 31 patients with lumbosacral stenosis. T2WI showed that the residual dural sac area was less than two-thirds that of the corresponding normal area in patients from L3 to S1 stenosis. On T1WI and T2WI, 74 lumbosacral spinal nerve roots from 31 patients showed compression changes. DTI showed thinning and distortion in 36 lumbosacral spinal nerve roots (49%) and abruption in 17 lumbosacral spinal nerve roots (23%). Moreover, fractional anisotropy values were reduced in the lumbosacral spinal nerve roots of patients with lumbosacral stenosis. These findings suggest that DTI can objectively and quantitatively evaluate the severity of lumbosacral spinal nerve root compression.

  10. [Gradient-index (GRIN) endoscopic examinations from the inner structures of the optic nerve meninges].

    PubMed

    Sens, Frank Michael; Killer, Hanspeter Esriel; Meyer, Peter

    2003-03-01

    Due to the excellent image quality and the small outer diameter of the GRIN-(gradient index) endoscope tips we were able to examine the subdural and the subarachnoidal space of the optic nerve meninges by endoscopy. This examination was performed to obtain more information about the inner structure of the optic nerve meninges. In this post-mortem study 7 optic nerves were examined from the chiasm to the globe by GRIN endoscopy (Volpi, Schlieren, Switzerland), with an outer diameter of 0.89 mm, integrated optic of 0.5 mm diameter and an integrated fluid channel of 0.2 mm diameter. In all cases the endoscopic examination of the optic nerve meninges was technically easy to perform. It was possible to study the inner surface of the nerve sheaths and the nerve sheath spaces in close-up. We found horizontal and vertical cords on the inner surface of the dura mater, which could tighten by movements of the optic nerve. With a gradient-index (GRIN) endoscope we obtained new information about the inner structure of the optic nerve meninges. New theories about the changes of the optic nerve meninges during movements of the optic nerve may evolve from this study. Further studies with this new method should be encouraged.

  11. Efficacy and safety of acute injection laryngoplasty for vocal cord paralysis following thoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Graboyes, Evan M; Bradley, Joseph P; Meyers, Bryan F; Nussenbaum, Brian

    2011-11-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of injection laryngoplasty using a temporary injectable agent in the acute setting for patients with unilateral vocal cord paralysis following thoracic surgical procedures. Retrospective consecutive case series in an academic institution. Inclusion criteria included patients acutely treated with injection laryngoplasty from January 1, 2006, to March 31, 2010, for a unilateral vocal cord paralysis that occurred after a thoracic surgical procedure (N = 20). All patients were injected with Radiesse Voice Gel using microlaryngoscopy technique. The mean time to vocal cord injection from the time of thoracic surgery was 4.5 days. There was one operative-related complication of intraoperative bile reflux that caused a pneumonitis. Ninety percent of patients were recommended for strict nothing by mouth prior to injection. Of these, 94% were allowed an oral diet following injection, and 67% tolerated a regular diet. None of the patients required subsequent procedures for aspiration or dysphagia, and 25% required further intervention after discharge for persistent dysphonia. Patients with a known nerve transection had a higher rate of dysphonia requiring further surgical procedures than those who did not have a known nerve transection. Acute treatment of thoracic surgery-related unilateral vocal cord paralysis with injection laryngoplasty appears safe and effective at preventing postoperative aspiration pneumonia and improves swallowing function to allow resumption of an oral diet. A single injection is often the only required treatment. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Involvement of enzymatic degradation in the inactivation of tachykinin neurotransmitters in neonatal rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, H; Yoshioka, K; Yanagisawa, M; Urayama, O; Kurihara, T; Hosoki, R; Saito, K; Otsuka, M

    1994-09-01

    1. The possible involvement of enzymatic degradation in the inactivation of tachykinin neurotransmitters was examined in the spinal cord of the neonatal rat. 2. The magnitude of substance P (SP)- or neurokinin A (NKA)-evoked depolarization of a lumbar ventral root in the isolated spinal cord preparation was increased by a mixture of peptidase inhibitors, consisting of actinonin (6 microM), arphamenine B (6 microM), bestatin (10 microM), captopril (10 microM) and thiorphan (0.3 microM). The mixture augmented the response to NKA more markedly than that to SP. 3. In the isolated spinal cord-cutaneous nerve preparation, the saphenous nerve-evoked slow depolarization of the L3 ventral root was augmented by the mixture of peptidase inhibitors in the presence of naloxone (0.5 microM) but not in the presence of both naloxone and a tachykinin receptor antagonist, GR71251 (5 microM). 4. Application of capsaicin (0.5 microM) for 6 min to the spinal cord evoked an increase in the release of SP from the spinal cord. The amount of SP released was significantly augmented by the mixture of peptidase inhibitors. 5. Synaptic membrane fractions were prepared from neonatal rat spinal cords. These fractions showed degrading activities for SP and NKA and the activities were inhibited by the mixture of peptidase inhibitors. The degrading activity for NKA was higher than that for SP and the inhibitory effect of the mixture for NKA was more marked than that for SP. Although some other fractions obtained from homogenates of spinal cords showed higher degrading activities for SP, these activities were insensitive to the mixture of peptidase inhibitors. 6. Effects of individual peptidase inhibitors on the enzymatic degradation of SP and NKA by synaptic membrane fractions were examined. Thiorphan, actinonin and captopril inhibited SP degradation, while thiorphan and actinonin, but not captopril, inhibited NKA degradation. The potency of the inhibition of each peptidase inhibitor was lower than

  13. Lost in the jungle: new hurdles for optic nerve axon regeneration.

    PubMed

    Pernet, Vincent; Schwab, Martin E

    2014-07-01

    The poor regenerative capacity of injured central nervous system (CNS) axons leads to permanent neurological deficits after brain, spinal cord, or optic nerve lesions. In the optic nerve, recent studies showed that stimulation of the cytokine or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways potently enhances sprouting and regeneration of injured retinal ganglion cell axons in adult mice, but does not allow the majority of axons to reach their main cerebral targets. New analyses have revealed axon navigation defects in the optic nerve and at the optic chiasm under conditions of strong growth stimulation. We propose that a balanced growth stimulatory treatment will have to be combined with guidance factors and suppression of local growth inhibitory factors to obtain the full regeneration of long CNS axonal tracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sensory nerve action potentials and sensory perception in women with arthritis of the hand.

    PubMed

    Calder, Kristina M; Martin, Alison; Lydiate, Jessica; MacDermid, Joy C; Galea, Victoria; MacIntyre, Norma J

    2012-05-10

    Arthritis of the hand can limit a person's ability to perform daily activities. Whether or not sensory deficits contribute to the disability in this population remains unknown. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if women with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the hand have sensory impairments. Sensory function in the dominant hand of women with hand OA or RA and healthy women was evaluated by measuring sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) from the median, ulnar and radial nerves, sensory mapping (SM), and vibratory and current perception thresholds (VPT and CPT, respectively) of the second and fifth digits. All SNAP amplitudes were significantly lower for the hand OA and hand RA groups compared with the healthy group (p < 0.05). No group differences were found for SNAP conduction velocities, SM, VPT, and CPT. We propose, based on these findings, that women with hand OA or RA may have axonal loss of sensory fibers in the median, ulnar and radial nerves. Less apparent were losses in conduction speed or sensory perception.

  15. Sensory nerve action potentials and sensory perception in women with arthritis of the hand

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arthritis of the hand can limit a person’s ability to perform daily activities. Whether or not sensory deficits contribute to the disability in this population remains unknown. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if women with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the hand have sensory impairments. Methods Sensory function in the dominant hand of women with hand OA or RA and healthy women was evaluated by measuring sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) from the median, ulnar and radial nerves, sensory mapping (SM), and vibratory and current perception thresholds (VPT and CPT, respectively) of the second and fifth digits. Results All SNAP amplitudes were significantly lower for the hand OA and hand RA groups compared with the healthy group (p < 0.05). No group differences were found for SNAP conduction velocities, SM, VPT, and CPT. Discussion We propose, based on these findings, that women with hand OA or RA may have axonal loss of sensory fibers in the median, ulnar and radial nerves. Less apparent were losses in conduction speed or sensory perception. PMID:22575001

  16. Complete segmental resection of the spine, including the spinal cord, for telangiectatic osteosarcoma: a report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Hideki; Tomita, Katsuro; Kawahara, Norio; Oda, Makoto; Yahata, Tetsutaro; Yamaguchi, Takehiko

    2006-02-15

    Two case reports of telangiectatic osteosarcoma treated with complete segmental resection of the spine, including the spinal cord. To report the en bloc tumor excision, including the spinal cord, for telangiectatic osteosarcoma, and discuss the indication of cord transection and influence after cutting the spinal cord. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports describing telangiectatic osteosarcoma of the spine and the subsequent en bloc excision of the spine, including the spinal cord. The clinical and radiographic presentations of 2 cases with telangiectatic osteosarcoma are presented. Because these 2 cases already had complete paralysis for at least 1 month, it was suspected that there was no possibility of recovering spinal cord function. Complete segmental spinal resection (total en bloc spondylectomy) was performed. At that level, the spinal cord was also cut and resected. En bloc excision of the tumor with a wide margin was achieved in both cases. In the resected specimen, the nerve cells in the spinal cord had lapsed into degenerative necrosis. The pathologic findings showed that there was no hope for recovery of spinal cord function. En bloc spinal resection, including the spinal cord, is an operation allowed when there is no hope for recovery of spinal cord function. This surgery should be accepted as an option in spine tumor surgeries.

  17. Debates to personal conclusion in peripheral nerve injury and reconstruction: A 30-year experience at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, David Chwei-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the science and management of peripheral nerve injuries over the past 40 years. Yet there are many questions and few answers. The author, with 30 years of experience in treating them at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, addresses debates on various issues with personal conclusions. These include: (1) Degree of peripheral nerve injury, (2) Timing of nerve repair, (3)Technique of nerve repair, (4) Level of brachial plexus injury,(5) Level of radial nerve injury,(6) Traction avulsion amputation of major limb, (7) Proximal Vs distal nerve transfers in brachial plexus injuries and (8) Post paralysis facial synkinesis. PMID:27833273

  18. MRI and MRA of spinal cord arteriovenous shunts.

    PubMed

    Condette-Auliac, Stéphanie; Boulin, Anne; Roccatagliata, Luca; Coskun, Oguzhan; Guieu, Stéphanie; Guedin, Pierre; Rodesch, Georges

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the diagnostic criteria for spinal cord arteriovenous shunts (SCAVSs) when using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and to discuss the extent to which the different MRI and MRA sequences and technical parameters provide the information that is required to diagnose these lesions properly. SCAVSs are divided into four groups according to location (paraspinal, epidural, dural, or intradural) and type (fistula or nidus); each type of lesion is described. SCAVSs are responsible for neurological symptoms due to spinal cord or nerve root involvement. MRI is usually the first examination performed when a spinal cord lesion is suspected. Recognition of the image characteristics of vascular lesions is mandatory if useful sequences are to be performed-especially MRA sequences. Because the treatment of SCAVSs relies mainly on endovascular therapies, MRI and MRA help with the planning of the angiographic procedure. We explain the choice of MRA sequences and parameters, the advantages and pitfalls to be aware of in order to obtain the best visualization, and the analysis of each lesion. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Effect of local hypothermia on H- and M-responses after spinal cord contusion in dogs].

    PubMed

    Iafarova, G G; Tumakaev, R F; Khazieva, A R; Baltina, T V

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated a motor-neuronal functional state based on H- and M-responses from m. quadratus plantae in dogs before and after experimental spinal cord contusion with and without following local intraoperative hypothermia. H- and M-responses from m. quadratus plantae were recorded during stimulation of the tibial nerve and results were compared between the groups. Our results demonstrate that local hypothermia applied after spinal cord contusion reduces amplitude of both M- and H-responses and also H(max)/M(max) ratio that may indicate depression of motorneurons excitability. After spinal cord contusion without following hypothermia the excitability of the spinal motorneurons during post-traumatic period, in opposite, was significantly increased. These results support a conclusion that intraoperative hypothermia after spinal cord contusion can delay development of functional excitability of the motoneurons and protect from further changes in H- and M-responses.

  20. Peripheral nerve field stimulation in chronic abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Paicius, Richard M; Bernstein, Clifford A; Lempert-Cohen, Cheryl

    2006-07-01

    Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) has become an accepted therapeutic modality for the treatment of intractable pain syndromes, primarily used today in the settings of failed back surgery syndrome, neuropathic back and limb pain. The use of spinal cord stimulators for peripheral nerve field electrostimulation is becoming increasingly recognized as a safe, effective alternative for chronic pain conditions that are refractory to medical management and do not respond to traditional dorsal column stimulation. Advances in technology have allowed for minimally invasive percutaneous placement of multipolar leads with complex programmable systems to provide patient- controlled relief of pain in precisely targeted regions. With these improvements in hardware, the use of Peripheral Nerve Field Stimulation (PNFS) appears to have an untapped potential for providing patients with pain relief for a wider range of underlying conditions than was previously believed possible. We present three cases, each with a different etiology of chronic abdominal pain: one with inguinal neuralgia, one with chronic pancreatitis, and one with pain following liver transplant. Each patient was refractory to conventional medical approaches. For all three patients, PNFS provided significant relief from pain, enabling patients to decrease or discontinue their opioid medications and to enjoy significant improvement in their quality of life. We conclude that PNFS is a safe, effective and minimally invasive treatment that may be used successfully for a wide variety of indications including chronic abdominal pain.

  1. Agmatine reverses pain induced by inflammation, neuropathy, and spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, C A; Schreiber, K L; Brewer, K L; Yu, C G; Stone, L S; Kitto, K F; Nguyen, H O; Grocholski, B M; Shoeman, D W; Kehl, L J; Regunathan, S; Reis, D J; Yezierski, R P; Wilcox, G L

    2000-09-12

    Antagonists of glutamate receptors of the N-methyl-d-aspartate subclass (NMDAR) or inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) prevent nervous system plasticity. Inflammatory and neuropathic pain rely on plasticity, presenting a clinical opportunity for the use of NMDAR antagonists and NOS inhibitors in chronic pain. Agmatine (AG), an endogenous neuromodulator present in brain and spinal cord, has both NMDAR antagonist and NOS inhibitor activities. We report here that AG, exogenously administered to rodents, decreased hyperalgesia accompanying inflammation, normalized the mechanical hypersensitivity (allodynia/hyperalgesia) produced by chemical or mechanical nerve injury, and reduced autotomy-like behavior and lesion size after excitotoxic spinal cord injury. AG produced these effects in the absence of antinociceptive effects in acute pain tests. Endogenous AG also was detected in rodent lumbosacral spinal cord in concentrations similar to those previously detected in brain. The evidence suggests a unique antiplasticity and neuroprotective role for AG in processes underlying persistent pain and neuronal injury.

  2. Agmatine reverses pain induced by inflammation, neuropathy, and spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Fairbanks, Carolyn A.; Schreiber, Kristin L.; Brewer, Kori L.; Yu, Chen-Guang; Stone, Laura S.; Kitto, Kelley F.; Nguyen, H. Oanh; Grocholski, Brent M.; Shoeman, Don W.; Kehl, Lois J.; Regunathan, Soundararajan; Reis, Donald J.; Yezierski, Robert P.; Wilcox, George L.

    2000-01-01

    Antagonists of glutamate receptors of the N-methyl-d-aspartate subclass (NMDAR) or inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) prevent nervous system plasticity. Inflammatory and neuropathic pain rely on plasticity, presenting a clinical opportunity for the use of NMDAR antagonists and NOS inhibitors in chronic pain. Agmatine (AG), an endogenous neuromodulator present in brain and spinal cord, has both NMDAR antagonist and NOS inhibitor activities. We report here that AG, exogenously administered to rodents, decreased hyperalgesia accompanying inflammation, normalized the mechanical hypersensitivity (allodynia/hyperalgesia) produced by chemical or mechanical nerve injury, and reduced autotomy-like behavior and lesion size after excitotoxic spinal cord injury. AG produced these effects in the absence of antinociceptive effects in acute pain tests. Endogenous AG also was detected in rodent lumbosacral spinal cord in concentrations similar to those previously detected in brain. The evidence suggests a unique antiplasticity and neuroprotective role for AG in processes underlying persistent pain and neuronal injury. PMID:10984543

  3. Is early cord clamping, delayed cord clamping or cord milking best?

    PubMed

    Vatansever, Binay; Demirel, Gamze; Ciler Eren, Elif; Erel, Ozcan; Neselioglu, Salim; Karavar, Hande Nur; Gundogdu, Semra; Ulfer, Gozde; Bahadir, Selcen; Tastekin, Ayhan

    2018-04-01

    To compare the antioxidant status of three cord clamping procedures (early clamping, delayed clamping and milking) by analyzing the thiol-disulfide balance. This randomized controlled study enrolled 189 term infants who were divided into three groups according to the cord clamping procedure: early clamping, delayed clamping and milking. Blood samples were collected from the umbilical arteries immediately after clamping, and the thiol/disulfide homeostasis was analyzed. The native and total thiol levels were significantly (p < .05) lower in the early cord clamping group compared with the other two groups. The disulfide/total thiol ratio was significantly (p = .026) lower in the delayed cord clamping and milking groups compared with the early clamping groups. Early cord clamping causes the production of more disulfide bonds and lower thiol levels, indicating that oxidation reactions are increased in the early cord clamping procedure compared with the delayed cord clamping and milking procedures. The oxidant capacity is greater with early cord clamping than with delayed clamping or cord milking. Delayed cord clamping or milking are beneficial in neonatal care, and we suggest that they be performed routinely in all deliveries.

  4. A novel rat model of brachial plexus injury with nerve root stumps.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jintao; Yang, Jiantao; Yang, Yi; Li, Liang; Qin, Bengang; He, Wenting; Yan, Liwei; Chen, Gang; Tu, Zhehui; Liu, Xiaolin; Gu, Liqiang

    2018-02-01

    The C5-C6 nerve roots are usually spared from avulsion after brachial plexus injury (BPI) and thus can be used as donors for nerve grafting. To date, there are no appropriate animal models to evaluate spared nerve root stumps. Hence, the aim of this study was to establish and evaluate a rat model with spared nerve root stumps in BPI. In rupture group, the proximal parts of C5-T1 nerve roots were held with the surrounding muscles and the distal parts were pulled by a sudden force after the brachial plexus was fully exposed, and the results were compared with those of sham group. To validate the model, the lengths of C5-T1 spared nerve root stumps were measured and the histologies of the shortest one and the corresponding spinal cord were evaluated. C5 nerve root stump was found to be the shortest. Histology findings demonstrated that the nerve fibers became more irregular and the continuity decreased; numbers and diameters of myelinated axons and thickness of myelin sheaths significantly decreased over time. The survival of motoneurons was reduced, and the death of motoneurons may be related to the apoptotic process. Our model could successfully create BPI model with nerve root stumps by traction, which could simulate injury mechanisms. While other models involve root avulsion or rupturing by distal nerve transection. This model would be suitable for evaluating nerve root stumps and testing new therapeutic strategies for neuroprotection through nerve root stumps in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Disability following combat-sustained nerve injury of the upper limb.

    PubMed

    Rivera, J C; Glebus, G P; Cho, M S

    2014-02-01

    Injuries to the limb are the most frequent cause of permanent disability following combat wounds. We reviewed the medical records of 450 soldiers to determine the type of upper limb nerve injuries sustained, the rate of remaining motor and sensory deficits at final follow-up, and the type of Army disability ratings granted. Of 189 soldiers with an injury of the upper limb, 70 had nerve-related trauma. There were 62 men and eight women with a mean age of 25 years (18 to 49). Disabilities due to nerve injuries were associated with loss of function, neuropathic pain or both. The mean nerve-related disability was 26% (0% to 70%), accounting for over one-half of this cohort's cumulative disability. Patients injured in an explosion had higher disability ratings than those injured by gunshot. The ulnar nerve was most commonly injured, but most disability was associated with radial nerve trauma. In terms of the final outcome, at military discharge 59 subjects (84%) experienced persistent weakness, 48 (69%) had a persistent sensory deficit and 17 (24%) experienced chronic pain from scar-related or neuropathic pain. Nerve injury was the cause of frequent and substantial disability in our cohort of wounded soldiers.

  6. Pattern analysis of nerve enlargement using ultrasonography in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jae Hong; Cho, Charles S; Yang, Kyung-Sook; Seok, Hung Youl; Kim, Byung-Jo

    2014-09-01

    Focal nerve enlargement is a characteristic finding in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). We performed this study to assess the distribution of nerve enlargement through ultrasonographic examination of peripheral nerves and to correlate the ultrasonographic findings with clinical features. To compare the ultrasonographic features of 10 subjects with CIDP with those of 18 healthy controls, we bilaterally measured the cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the vagus, brachial plexus, musculocutaneous, median, ulnar, radial, sciatic, tibial, common peroneal, and sural nerves. We also analyzed correlations between CSAs and various clinical and electrophysiological features. Mean CSAs were significantly larger in CIDP patients than controls, especially at proximal and non-entrapment sites. CSAs were significantly correlated with muscle strength at initial presentation, but not at the time of ultrasonography. The CSAs of the median and ulnar nerves at the mid-forearm, tibial nerve at 7 cm proximal to the medial malleolus, and sural nerve correlated with the nerve conduction velocity of the corresponding region. Ultrasonography revealed widely distributed nerve enlargement, especially in proximal regions and non-entrapment sites, in patients with CIDP compared with healthy controls. Nerve enlargement correlated well with the electrophysiologic function of the nerve, but not current clinical status. Pattern analysis of nerve enlargement using ultrasonography is a supportive tool in the diagnosis of CIDP. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of the synergic effect of immunomodulation on nerve repair using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chu-Shan; Zhang, Xiang; Chen, Yue-Yao; Zhang, Fang; Duan, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Mei-Wei; Lu, Lie-Jing; Shen, Jun

    2018-01-01

    The immune system plays a pivotal role in nerve injury. The aim of this study was to determine the role of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluation of the synergic effect of immunomodulation on nerve regeneration in neurotmesis. Rats with sciatic nerve neurotmesis and surgical repair underwent serial multiparametric MR examinations over an 8-week period after subepineurial microinjection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and subsequent subcutaneous injection of FK506 or subepineurial microinjection of LPS or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) alone. Nerves treated with immunomodulation showed more prominent regeneration than those treated with LPS or PBS alone and more rapid restoration toward normal T2, fractional anisotropy (FA), and radial diffusivity (RD) values than nerves injected with LPS or PBS. Nerves treated with immunomodulation exert synergic beneficial effects on nerve regeneration that can be predicted by T2 measurements and FA and RD values. Muscle Nerve 57: E38-E45, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Spinal cord potentials in traumatic paraplegia and quadriplegia.

    PubMed Central

    Sedgwick, E M; el-Negamy, E; Frankel, H

    1980-01-01

    Cortical, cervical and lumbar somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded following median and tibial nerve stimulation in patients with traumatic paraplegia and quadriplegia. The isolated cord was able to produce normal potentials even during spinal shock if the vertical extent of the lesion did not involve the generator mechanisms. The cervical potentials showed subtle changes in paraplegia at Th5 levels and below. In high cervical lesions the early cervical potentials may still be present but the later potentials were absent or, in partial lesions, delayed. PMID:7420105

  9. WE-AB-207B-10: On Spinal Nerve Toxicity from Single-Session SAbR in Pigs and the Translation of Small Animal NTCP Models

    SciTech Connect

    Hrycushko, B; Medin, P

    Purpose: The incidence of peripheral neuropathy has risen with increased utilization of SAbR. There is no consensus regarding the dose-tolerance of the peripheral nervous system. In 2015, we commenced an investigation to test the hypotheses that single-session irradiation to the pig spinal nerves exhibit a similar dose-tolerance as that of the spinal cord and that a dose-length effect exists. This work evaluates the direct application of small animal NTCP models to both large animal spinal cord and preliminary peripheral nerve data. Methods: To date, 16 of 25 Yucatan minipigs have received single-session SAbR to a 1.5cm length and 4 ofmore » 25 have received irradiation to a 0.5cm length of left-sided C6-C8 spinal nerves. Toxicity related gait change has been observed in 13 animals (9 from the long length group and 4 from the short). This preliminary data is overlaid on several dose-response models which have been fit to rodent spinal cord tolerance experiments. Model parameters define a toxicity profile between a completely serial or parallel behaving organ. Adequacy of model application, including how length effects are handled, to published minipig spinal cord dose-response data and to preliminary peripheral nerve response data was evaluated through residual analysis. Results: No rodent-derived dose-response models were directly applicable to all pig data for the different lengths irradiated. Several models fit the long-length irradiated spinal cord data well, with the more serial-like models fitting best. Preliminary data on the short-length irradiation suggests no length effect exists, disproving our hypothesis. Conclusion: Direct application of small-animal NTCP models to pig data suggests dose-length effect predictions from small animal data may not translate clinically. However, the small animal models used have not considered dose heterogeneity and it is expected that including the low-to-mid dose levels in the penumbral region will improve this match

  10. Ultrasonic scissors-assisted 'open-book' thyroidectomy in massive goiter compressing airway and causing unilateral vocal cord paralysis.

    PubMed

    M, Irfan; Yaroko, Ali Ango; S M, Najeb; Periasamy, Centilnathan

    2013-04-01

    A massive goiter may constrict the trachea resulting in shortness of breath. Recurrent laryngeal nerve compression may cause vocal cord paralysis. We highlight a case of a 62- year-old female with a 30 year history of an anterior neck swelling gradually increasing in size. She presented with acute symptoms of upper airway obstruction and voice changes. Emergency thyroidectomy was performed by dividing the middle part of the gland using ultrasonic scissors. The recovery was uneventful and the patient regained normal vocal cord function post operatively.

  11. Application for the Drosophila ventral nerve cord standard in neuronal circuit reconstruction and in-depth analysis of mutant morphology.

    PubMed

    Boerner, Jana; Godenschwege, Tanja Angela

    2010-09-01

    The Drosophila standard brain has been a useful tool that provides information about position and size of different brain structures within a wild-type brain and allows the comparison of imaging data that were collected from individual preparations. Therefore the standard can be used to reveal and visualize differences of brain regions between wild-type and mutant brains and can provide spatial description of single neurons within the nervous system. Recently the standard brain was complemented by the generation of a ventral nerve cord (VNC) standard. Here the authors have registered the major components of a simple neuronal circuit, the Giant Fiber System (GFS), into this standard. The authors show that they can also virtually reconstruct the well-characterized synaptic contact of the Giant Fiber with its motorneuronal target when they register the individual neurons from different preparations into the VNC standard. In addition to the potential application for the standard thorax in neuronal circuit reconstruction, the authors show that it is a useful tool for in-depth analysis of mutant morphology of single neurons. The authors find quantitative and qualitative differences when they compared the Giant Fibers of two different neuroglian alleles, nrg(849) and nrg(G00305), using the averaged wild-type GFS in the standard VNC as a reference.

  12. Application for the Drosophila ventral nerve cord standard in neuronal circuit reconstruction and in-depth analysis of mutant morphology

    PubMed Central

    Boerner, Jana; Godenschwege, Tanja Angela

    2010-01-01

    The Drosophila standard brain has been a useful tool that provides information about position and size of different brain structures within a wild-type brain and allows the comparison of imaging data that were collected from individual preparations. Therefore the standard can be used to reveal and visualize differences of brain regions between wild-type and mutant brains and can provide spatial description of single neurons within the nervous system. Recently the standard brain was complemented by the generation of a ventral nerve cord (VNC) standard. Here the authors have registered the major components of a simple neuronal circuit, the Giant Fiber System (GFS), into this standard. The authors show that they can also virtually reconstruct the well-characterized synaptic contact of the Giant Fiber with its motorneuronal target when they register the individual neurons from different preparations into the VNC standard. In addition to the potential application for the standard thorax in neuronal circuit reconstruction, the authors show that it is a useful tool for in-depth analysis of mutant morphology of single neurons. The authors find quantitative and qualitative differences when they compared the Giant Fibers of two different neuroglian alleles, nrg849 and nrgG00305, using the averaged wild-type GFS in the standard VNC as a reference. PMID:20615087

  13. Examination of and intervention for a patient with chronic lateral elbow pain with signs of nerve entrapment.

    PubMed

    Ekstrom, Richard A; Holden, Kari

    2002-11-01

    Lateral elbow pain has several causes, which can make diagnosis difficult. The purpose of this case report is to describe the examination of and the intervention for a patient with chronic lateral elbow pain who had signs of nerve entrapment. The patient was a 43-year-old woman who had right lateral elbow pain for about 4 months, which she attributed to extensive keyboard work on a computer. She had a reduction in joint passive range of motion during "neural tension testing," an examination procedure to detect nerve entrapment. This sign, in combination with other findings, suggested that the patient had a mild entrapment of the deep radial nerve (radial tunnel syndrome). The patient was treated 14 times over a 10-week period with "neural mobilization techniques," which are designed to free nerves for movement; ultrasound; strengthening exercises; and stretching. The patient had minimal symptoms at discharge, was pain-free, and had resumed all activities at a 4-month follow-up visit. Neural tension testing may be a useful examination procedure and mobilization may be useful for intervention for patients who have lateral elbow pain.

  14. Co-Ultramicronized Palmitoylethanolamide/Luteolin Promotes Neuronal Regeneration after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Crupi, Rosalia; Impellizzeri, Daniela; Bruschetta, Giuseppe; Cordaro, Marika; Paterniti, Irene; Siracusa, Rosalba; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Esposito, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) stimulates activation of astrocytes and infiltration of immune cells at the lesion site; however, the mechanism that promotes the birth of new neurons is still under debate. Neuronal regeneration is restricted after spinal cord injury, but can be stimulated by experimental intervention. Previously we demonstrated that treatment co-ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide and luteolin, namely co-ultraPEALut, reduced inflammation. The present study was designed to explore the neuroregenerative properties of co-ultraPEALut in an estabished murine model of SCI. A vascular clip was applied to the spinal cord dura at T5–T8 to provoke injury. Mice were treated with co-ultraPEALut (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) daily for 72 h after SCI. Co-ultraPEALut increased the numbers of both bromodeoxyuridine-positive nuclei and doublecortin-immunoreactive cells in the spinal cord of injured mice. To correlate neuronal development with synaptic plasticity a Golgi method was employed to analyze dendritic spine density. Co-ultraPEALut administration stimulated expression of the neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, and neurotrophin-3. These findings show a prominent effect of co-ultraPEALut administration in the management of survival and differentiation of new neurons and spine maturation, and may represent a therapeutic treatment for spinal cord and other traumatic diseases. PMID:27014061

  15. Minocycline attenuates the development of diabetic neuropathy by inhibiting spinal cord Notch signaling in rat.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng; Gao, Jie; Wu, Banglin; Yan, Nuo; Li, Hui; Ren, Yiqing; Kan, Yufei; Liang, Jiamin; Jiao, Yang; Yu, Yonghao

    2017-10-01

    We studied the effects of minocycline (an inhibitor of microglial activation) on the expression and activity of Notch-1 receptor, and explored the therapeutic efficacy of minocycline combined with Notch inhibitor DAPT in the treatment of diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP). Diabetic rat model was established by intraperitoneal injection (ip) of Streptozotocin (STZ). Expression and activity of Notch-1 and expression of macrophage/microglia marker Iba-1 were detected by WB. Diabetes induction significantly attenuated sciatic nerve conduction velocity, and dramatically augmented the expression and the activity of Notch-1 in the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord. Minocycline treatment, however, accelerated the decreased conduction velocity of sciatic nerve and suppressed Notch-1expression and activity in diabetic rats. Similar to DAPT treatment, minocycline administration also prolonged thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) and increase mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) in diabetic rats in response to heat or mechanical stimulation via inhibition the expression and the activity of Notch-1 in spinal cord. Combination of DAPT and minocycline further inhibited Notch-1 receptor signaling and reduce neuropathic pain exhibited as improved TWL and MWT. Our study revealed a novel mechanism of Notch-1 receptor inhibition in spinal cord induced by minocycline administration, and suggested that the combination of minocycline and DAPT has the potential to treat DNP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Cervical Spinal Cord Atrophy Profile in Adult SMN1-Linked SMA

    PubMed Central

    El Mendili, Mohamed-Mounir; Lenglet, Timothée; Stojkovic, Tanya; Behin, Anthony; Guimarães-Costa, Raquel; Salachas, François; Meininger, Vincent; Bruneteau, Gaelle; Le Forestier, Nadine; Laforêt, Pascal; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Benali, Habib; Pradat, Pierre-François

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The mechanisms underlying the topography of motor deficits in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) remain unknown. We investigated the profile of spinal cord atrophy (SCA) in SMN1-linked SMA, and its correlation with the topography of muscle weakness. Materials and Methods Eighteen SMN1-linked SMA patients type III/V and 18 age/gender-matched healthy volunteers were included. Patients were scored on manual muscle testing and functional scales. Spinal cord was imaged using 3T MRI system. Radial distance (RD) and cord cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements in SMA patients were compared to those in controls and correlated with strength and disability scores. Results CSA measurements revealed a significant cord atrophy gradient mainly located between C3 and C6 vertebral levels with a SCA rate ranging from 5.4% to 23% in SMA patients compared to controls. RD was significantly lower in SMA patients compared to controls in the anterior-posterior direction with a maximum along C4 and C5 vertebral levels (p-values < 10−5). There were no correlations between atrophy measurements, strength and disability scores. Conclusions Spinal cord atrophy in adult SMN1-linked SMA predominates in the segments innervating the proximal muscles. Additional factors such as neuromuscular junction or intrinsic skeletal muscle defects may play a role in more complex mechanisms underlying weakness in these patients. PMID:27089520

  17. Trigeminal nerve injury-induced thrombospondin-4 up-regulation contributes to orofacial neuropathic pain states in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Li, K-W; Kim, D-S; Zaucke, F; Luo, Z D

    2014-04-01

    Injury to the trigeminal nerve often results in the development of chronic pain states including tactile allodynia, or hypersensitivity to light touch, in orofacial area, but its underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Peripheral nerve injury has been shown to cause up-regulation of thrombospondin-4 (TSP4) in dorsal spinal cord that correlates with neuropathic pain development. In this study, we examined whether injury-induced TSP4 is critical in mediating orofacial pain development in a rat model of chronic constriction injury to the infraorbital nerve. Orofacial sensitivity to mechanical stimulation was examined in a unilateral infraorbital nerve ligation rat model. The levels of TSP4 in trigeminal ganglia and associated spinal subnucleus caudalis and C1/C2 spinal cord (Vc/C2) from injured rats were examined at time points correlating with the initiation and peak orofacial hypersensitivity. TSP4 antisense and mismatch oligodeoxynucleotides were intrathecally injected into injured rats to see if antisense oligodeoxynucleotide treatment could reverse injury-induced TSP4 up-regulation and orofacial behavioural hypersensitivity. Our data indicated that trigeminal nerve injury induced TSP4 up-regulation in Vc/C2 at a time point correlated with orofacial tactile allodynia. In addition, intrathecal treatment with TSP4 antisense, but not mismatch, oligodeoxynucleotides blocked both injury-induced TSP4 up-regulation in Vc/C2 and behavioural hypersensitivity. Our data support that infraorbital nerve injury leads to TSP4 up-regulation in trigeminal spinal complex that contributes to orofacial neuropathic pain states. Blocking this pathway may provide an alternative approach in management of orofacial neuropathic pain states. © 2013 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  18. Neuroprotective effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) against peripheral nerve transection-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kian, Kosar; Khalatbary, Ali Reza; Ahmadvand, Hassan; Karimpour Malekshah, Abbasali; Shams, Zahra

    2018-01-02

    Recent studies revealed the neuroprotective effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on a variety of neural injury models. The purpose of this study was to determine the neuroprotective effects of EGCG following sciatic nerve transection (SNT). Rats were randomly divided into four groups each as follows: Sham-operated group, SNT group, and Pre-EGCG (50-mg/kg, i.p., 30 minutes before nerve transection and followed for 3 days) and Post-EGCG (50-mg/kg, i.p., 1 hour after nerve transection and followed for 3 days) groups. Spinal cord segments of the sciatic nerve and related dorsal root ganglions were removed four weeks after nerve transection for the assessment of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, immunohistochemistry of caspase-3, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), S100beta (S100B), and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). MDA levels were significantly decreased, and SOD and CAT activities were significantly increased in EGCG-treated rats after nerve transection. Attenuated caspase-3 and COX-2 expression, and TUNEL reaction could be significantly detected in the EGCG-treated rats after nerve transection. Also, EGCG significantly increased S100B expression. We propose that EGCG may be effective in the protection of neuronal cells against retrograde apoptosis and may enhance neuronal survival time following nerve transection.

  19. Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: a surgical tool?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Claus-Peter; Teudt, Ingo Ulrik; Nevel, Adam E.; Izzo, Agnella D.; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

    2008-02-01

    One sequela of skull base surgery is the iatrogenic damage to cranial nerves. Devices that stimulate nerves with electric current can assist in the nerve identification. Contemporary devices have two main limitations: (1) the physical contact of the stimulating electrode and (2) the spread of the current through the tissue. In contrast to electrical stimulation, pulsed infrared optical radiation can be used to safely and selectively stimulate neural tissue. Stimulation and screening of the nerve is possible without making physical contact. The gerbil facial nerve was irradiated with 250-μs-long pulses of 2.12 μm radiation delivered via a 600-μm-diameter optical fiber at a repetition rate of 2 Hz. Muscle action potentials were recorded with intradermal electrodes. Nerve samples were examined for possible tissue damage. Eight facial nerves were stimulated with radiant exposures between 0.71-1.77 J/cm2, resulting in compound muscle action potentials (CmAPs) that were simultaneously measured at the m. orbicularis oculi, m. levator nasolabialis, and m. orbicularis oris. Resulting CmAP amplitudes were 0.3-0.4 mV, 0.15-1.4 mV and 0.3-2.3 mV, respectively, depending on the radial location of the optical fiber and the radiant exposure. Individual nerve branches were also stimulated, resulting in CmAP amplitudes between 0.2 and 1.6 mV. Histology revealed tissue damage at radiant exposures of 2.2 J/cm2, but no apparent damage at radiant exposures of 2.0 J/cm2.

  20. Lessons from Amphioxus Bauplan About Origin of Cranial Nerves of Vertebrates That Innervates Extrinsic Eye Muscles.

    PubMed

    Ferran, José Luis; Puelles, Luis

    2018-04-16

    Amphioxus is the living chordate closest to the ancestral form of vertebrates, and in a key position to reveal essential aspects of the evolution of the brain Bauplan of vertebrates. The dorsal neural cord of this species at the larval stage is characterized by a small cerebral vesicle at its anterior end and a large posterior region. The latter is comparable in some aspects to the hindbrain and spinal cord regions of vertebrates. The rostral end of the cerebral vesicle contains a median pigment spot and associated rows of photoreceptor and other nerve cells; this complex is known as "the frontal eye." However, this is not a complete eye in the sense that it has neither eye muscles nor lens (only a primitive retina-like tissue). Cranial nerves III, IV, and VI take part in the motor control of eye muscles in all vertebrates. Using a recent model that postulates distinct molecularly characterized hypothalamo-prethalamic and mesodiencephalic domains in the early cerebral vesicle of amphioxus, we analyze here possible scenarios for the origin from the common ancestor of cephalochordates and vertebrates of the cranial nerves related with extrinsic eye muscle innervations. Anat Rec, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Long-Term Extensive Ectopic Hair Growth on the Spinal Cord of Mice from Transplanted Whisker Follicles.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenluo; Li, Lingna; Mii, Sumiyuki; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Liu, Fang; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that hair follicles contain nestin-expressing pluripotent stem cells that can effect nerve and spinal cord repair upon transplantation. In the present study, isolated whisker follicles from nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP) mice were histocultured on Gelfoam for 3 weeks for the purpose of transplantation to the spinal cord to heal an induced injury. The hair shaft was cut off from Gelfoam-histocultured whisker follicles, and the remaining part of the whisker follicles containing GFP-nestin expressing pluripotent stem cells were transplanted into the injured spinal cord of nude mice, along with the Gelfoam. After 90 days, the mice were sacrificed and the spinal cord lesion was observed to have healed. ND-GFP expression was intense at the healed area of the spinal cord, as observed by fluorescence microscopy, demonstrating that the hair follicle stem cells were involved in healing the spinal cord. Unexpectedly, the transplanted whisker follicles sprouted out remarkably long hair shafts in the spinal cord during the 90 days after transplantation of Gelfoam whisker histocultures to the injured spine. The pigmented hair fibers, grown from the transplanted whisker histocultures, curved and enclosed the spinal cord. The unanticipated results demonstrate the great potential of hair growth after transplantation of Gelfoam hair follicle histocultures, even at an ectopic site.

  2. Effect of electrical stimulation on neural regeneration via the p38-RhoA and ERK1/2-Bcl-2 pathways in spinal cord-injured rats

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Min Cheol; Jang, Chul Hwan; Park, Jong Tae; Choi, Seung Won; Ro, Seungil; Kim, Min Seob; Lee, Moon Young

    2018-01-01

    Although electrical stimulation is therapeutically applied for neural regeneration in patients, it remains unclear how electrical stimulation exerts its effects at the molecular level on spinal cord injury (SCI). To identify the signaling pathway involved in electrical stimulation improving the function of injured spinal cord, 21 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: control (no surgical intervention, n = 6), SCI (SCI only, n = 5), and electrical simulation (ES; SCI induction followed by ES treatment, n = 10). A complete spinal cord transection was performed at the 10th thoracic level. Electrical stimulation of the injured spinal cord region was applied for 4 hours per day for 7 days. On days 2 and 7 post SCI, the Touch-Test Sensory Evaluators and the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor scale were used to evaluate rat sensory and motor function. Somatosensory-evoked potentials of the tibial nerve of a hind paw of the rat were measured to evaluate the electrophysiological function of injured spinal cord. Western blot analysis was performed to measure p38-RhoA and ERK1/2-Bcl-2 pathways related protein levels in the injured spinal cord. Rat sensory and motor functions were similar between SCI and ES groups. Compared with the SCI group, in the ES group, the latencies of the somatosensory-evoked potential of the tibial nerve of rats were significantly shortened, the amplitudes were significantly increased, RhoA protein level was significantly decreased, protein gene product 9.5 expression, ERK1/2, p38, and Bcl-2 protein levels in the spinal cord were significantly increased. These data suggest that ES can promote the recovery of electrophysiological function of the injured spinal cord through regulating p38-RhoA and ERK1/2-Bcl-2 pathway-related protein levels in the injured spinal cord. PMID:29557386

  3. [Effect of electroacupuncture on expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits and their genes in lumbar segments of spinal cord in rats with neuropathic pain].

    PubMed

    Ma, Cheng; Yu, Li; Yan, Li-ping

    2010-12-01

    To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) subunits and their mRNAs in the lumbar segments of spinal cord in rats with neuropathic pain, so as to explore its underlying mechanism in relieving spinal hyperalgesia. Thirty SD rats were randomly divided into control, model, and EA groups, with 10 rats in each. The spared nerve injury (SNI) model was established by ligature of the sural nerve after cutting off the common peroneal nerve and anterior tibial nerve. EA (2 Hz, 1 mA) was applied to "Huantiao" (GB 30) and "Weizhong" (BL 40) for 30 min, once daily for 7 days. Mechanical pain threshold was detected before and after modeling and before and after EA treatment. The expression levels of N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor subunits NR1 and NR 2 B,and AMPA receptor subunit GluR 1 of iGluR and their genes were assayed by Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) separately. In comparison with control group, the mechanical pain thresholds were decreased significantly on day 2, 7 and day 14 following modeling in the model group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). While compared with the model group, the pain threshold was increased considerably on day 14 in the EA group (P < 0.01). Compared with the control group, the expression levels of lumbar spinal cord NR 2 B and NR 2 B mRNA in the model group were increased significantly (P < 0.05), and those of lumbar spinal cord NR 1 and NR 1 mRNA, GluR 1 and GluR 1 mRNA in the model group increased slightly (P > 0.05). In comparison with the model group, the expression levels of lumbar spinal cord NR 2 B and NR 2 B mRNA in the EA group were downregulated remarkably (P < 0.05), and those of lumbar spinal cord NR 1 and NR 1 mRNA, GluR 1 and GluR 1 mRNA in the EA group down-regulated slightly (P > 0.05). EA can significantly suppress pain reaction in rats with neuropathic pain probably through down-regulating the expression of lumbar spinal cord

  4. Role of motor-evoked potential monitoring in conjunction with temporary clipping of spinal nerve roots in posterior thoracic spine tumor surgery.

    PubMed

    Eleraky, Mohammed A; Setzer, Matthias; Papanastassiou, Ioannis D; Baaj, Ali A; Tran, Nam D; Katsares, Kiesha M; Vrionis, Frank D

    2010-05-01

    The vascular supply of the thoracic spinal cord depends on the thoracolumbar segmental arteries. Because of the small size and ventral course of these arteries in relation to the dorsal root ganglion and ventral root, they cannot be reliably identified during surgery by anatomic or morphologic criteria. Sacrificing them will most likely result in paraplegia. The goal of this study was to evaluate a novel method of intraoperative testing of a nerve root's contribution to the blood supply of the thoracic spinal cord. This is a clinical retrospective study of 49 patients diagnosed with thoracic spine tumors. Temporary nerve root clipping combined with motor-evoked potential (MEP) and somatosensory-evoked potential (SSEP) monitoring was performed; additionally, postoperative clinical evaluation was done and reported in all cases. All cases were monitored by SSEP and MEPs. The nerve root to be sacrificed was temporarily clipped using standard aneurysm clips, and SSEP/MEP were assessed before and after clipping. Four nerve roots were sacrificed in four cases, three nerve roots in eight cases, and two nerve roots in 22 cases. Nerve roots were sacrificed bilaterally in 12 cases. Most patients (47/49) had no changes in MEP/SSEP and had no neurological deficit postoperatively. One case of a spinal sarcoma demonstrated changes in MEP after temporary clipping of the left T11 nerve root. The nerve was not sacrificed, and the patient was neurologically intact after surgery. In another case of a sarcoma, MEPs changed in the lower limbs after ligation of left T9 nerve root. It was felt that it was a global event because of anesthesia. Postoperatively, the patient had complete paraplegia but recovered almost completely after 6 months. Temporary nerve root clipping combined with MEP and SSEP monitoring may enhance the impact of neuromonitoring in the intraoperative management of patients with thoracic spine tumors and favorably influence neurological outcome. Copyright 2010 Elsevier

  5. Evaluation of electrical nerve stimulation for epidural catheter positioning in the dog.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Pereira, Fernando L; Sanders, Robert; Shih, Andre C; Sonea, Ioana M; Hauptman, Joseph G

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of epidural catheter placement at different levels of the spinal cord guided solely by electrical nerve stimulation and resultant segmental muscle contraction. Prospective, experiment. Six male and two female Beagles, age (1 ± 0.17 years) and weight (12.9 ± 1.1 kg). Animals were anesthetized with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. An insulated epidural needle was used to reach the lumbosacral epidural space. A Tsui epidural catheter was inserted and connected to a nerve stimulator (1.0 mA, 0.1 ms, 2 Hz) to assess positioning of the tip at specific spinal cord segments. The catheter was advanced to three different levels of the spinal cord: lumbar (L2-L5), thoracic (T5-T10) and cervical (C4-C6). Subcutaneous needles were previously placed at these spinal levels and the catheter was advanced to match the needle location, guided only by corresponding muscle contractions. Catheter position was verified by fluoroscopy. If catheter tip and needle were at the same vertebral body a score of zero was assigned. When catheter tip was cranial or caudal to the needle, positive or negative numbers, respectively, corresponding to the number of vertebrae between them, were assigned. The mean and standard deviation of the number of vertebrae between catheter tip and needle were calculated to assess accuracy. Results are given as mean ± SD. The catheter position in relation to the needle was within 0.3 ± 2.0 vertebral bodies. Positive predictive values (PPV) were 57%, 83% and 71% for lumbar, thoracic and cervical regions respectively. Overall PPV was 70%. No significant difference in PPV among regions was found. Placement of an epidural catheter at specific spinal levels using electrical nerve stimulation was feasible without radiographic assistance in dogs. Two vertebral bodies difference from the target site may be clinically acceptable when performing segmental epidural regional anesthesia. © 2013 Association of Veterinary

  6. Characterization of Proliferating Neural Progenitors after Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Subhra Prakash; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Ghosh, Sukla

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish can repair their injured brain and spinal cord after injury unlike adult mammalian central nervous system. Any injury to zebrafish spinal cord would lead to increased proliferation and neurogenesis. There are presences of proliferating progenitors from which both neuronal and glial loss can be reversed by appropriately generating new neurons and glia. We have demonstrated the presence of multiple progenitors, which are different types of proliferating populations like Sox2+ neural progenitor, A2B5+ astrocyte/ glial progenitor, NG2+ oligodendrocyte progenitor, radial glia and Schwann cell like progenitor. We analyzed the expression levels of two common markers of dedifferentiation like msx-b and vimentin during regeneration along with some of the pluripotency associated factors to explore the possible role of these two processes. Among the several key factors related to pluripotency, pou5f1 and sox2 are upregulated during regeneration and associated with activation of neural progenitor cells. Uncovering the molecular mechanism for endogenous regeneration of adult zebrafish spinal cord would give us more clues on important targets for future therapeutic approach in mammalian spinal cord repair and regeneration. PMID:26630262

  7. Raman spectroscopic investigation of spinal cord injury in a rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Tarun; Deng, Bin; Stelzner, Dennis; Hasenwinkel, Julie; Chaiken, Joseph

    2011-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to study temporal molecular changes associated with spinal cord injury (SCI) in a rat model. Raman spectra of saline-perfused, injured, and healthy rat spinal cords were obtained and compared. Two injury models, a lateral hemisection and a moderate contusion were investigated. The net fluorescence and the Raman spectra showed clear differences between the injured and healthy spinal cords. Based on extensive histological and biochemical characterization of SCI available in the literature, these differences were hypothesized to be due to cell death, demyelination, and changes in the extracellular matrix composition, such as increased expression of proteoglycans and hyaluronic acid, at the site of injury where the glial scar forms. Further, analysis of difference spectra indicated the presence of carbonyl containing compounds, hypothesized to be products of lipid peroxidation and acid catalyzed hydrolysis of glycosaminoglycan moieties. These results compared well with in vitro experiments conducted on chondroitin sulfate sugars. Since the glial scar is thought to be a potent biochemical barrier to nerve regeneration, this observation suggests the possibility of using near infrared Raman spectroscopy to study injury progression and explore potential treatments ex vivo, and ultimately monitor potential remedial treatments within the spinal cord in vivo.

  8. Pharmacologically inhibiting kinesin-5 activity with monastrol promotes axonal regeneration following spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chen; Klaw, Michelle C.; Lemay, Michel A.; Baas, Peter W.; Tom, Veronica J.

    2014-01-01

    While it is well established that the axons of adult neurons have a lower capacity for regrowth, some regeneration of certain CNS populations after spinal cord injury (SCI) is possible if their axons are provided with a permissive substrate, such as an injured peripheral nerve. While some axons readily regenerate into a peripheral nerve graft (PNG), these axons almost always stall at the distal interface and fail to re-innervate spinal cord tissue. Treatment of the glial scar at the distal graft interface with chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) can improve regeneration, but most regenerated axons need further stimulation to extend beyond the interface. Previous studies demonstrate that pharmacologically inhibiting kinesin-5, a motor protein best known for its essential role in mitosis but also expressed in neurons, with the pharmacological agent monastrol increases axon growth on inhibitory substrates in vitro. We sought to determine if monastrol treatment after a SCI improves functional axon regeneration. Animals received complete thoracic level 7 (T7) transections and PNGs and were treated intrathecally with ChABC and either monastrol or DMSO vehicle. We found that combining ChABC with monastrol significantly enhanced axon regeneration. However, there were no further improvements in function or enhanced c-Fos induction upon stimulation of spinal cord rostral to the transection. This indicates that monastrol improves ChABC-mediated axon regeneration but that further treatments are needed to enhance the integration of these regrown axons. PMID:25447935

  9. Iatrogenic Peripheral Nerve Injuries-Surgical Treatment and Outcome: 10 Years' Experience.

    PubMed

    Rasulić, Lukas; Savić, Andrija; Vitošević, Filip; Samardžić, Miroslav; Živković, Bojana; Mićović, Mirko; Baščarević, Vladimir; Puzović, Vladimir; Joksimović, Boban; Novakovic, Nenad; Lepić, Milan; Mandić-Rajčević, Stefan

    2017-07-01

    Iatrogenic nerve injuries are nerve injuries caused by medical interventions or inflicted accidentally by a treating physician. We describe and analyze iatrogenic nerve injuries in a total of 122 consecutive patients who received surgical treatment at our Institution during a period of 10 years, from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2013. The final outcome evaluation was performed 2 years after surgical treatment. The most common causes of iatrogenic nerve injuries among patients in the study were the operations of bone fractures (23.9%), lymph node biopsy (19.7%), and carpal tunnel release (18%). The most affected nerves were median nerve (21.3%), accessory nerve (18%), radial nerve (15.6%), and peroneal nerve (11.5%). In 74 (60.7%) patients, surgery was performed 6 months after the injury, and in 48 (39.3%) surgery was performed within 6 months after the injury. In 80 (65.6%) patients, we found lesion in discontinuity, and in 42 (34.4%) patients lesion in continuity. The distribution of surgical procedures performed was as follows: autotransplantation (51.6%), neurolysis (23.8%), nerve transfer (13.9%), direct suture (8.2%), and resection of neuroma (2.5%). In total, we achieved satisfactory recovery in 91 (74.6%), whereas the result was dissatisfactory in 31 (25.4%) patients. Patients with iatrogenic nerve injuries should be examined as soon as possible by experts with experience in traumatic nerve injuries, so that the correct diagnosis can be reached and the appropriate therapy planned. The timing of reconstructive surgery and the technique used are the crucial factors for functional recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Karolinska institutet 200-year anniversary. Symposium on traumatic injuries in the nervous system: injuries to the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system - injuries and repair, pain problems, lesions to brachial plexus.

    PubMed

    Sköld, Mattias K; Svensson, Mikael; Tsao, Jack; Hultgren, Thomas; Landegren, Thomas; Carlstedt, Thomas; Cullheim, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    The Karolinska Institutet 200-year anniversary symposium on injuries to the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system gathered expertise in the spinal cord, spinal nerve, and peripheral nerve injury field spanning from molecular prerequisites for nerve regeneration to clinical methods in nerve repair and rehabilitation. The topics presented at the meeting covered findings on adult neural stem cells that when transplanted to the hypoglossal nucleus in the rat could integrate with its host and promote neuron survival. Studies on vascularization after intraspinal replantation of ventral nerve roots and microarray studies in ventral root replantation as a tool for mapping of biological patterns typical for neuronal regeneration were discussed. Different immune molecules in neurons and glia and their very specific roles in synapse plasticity after injury were presented. Novel strategies in repair of injured peripheral nerves with ethyl-cyanoacrylate adhesive showed functional recovery comparable to that of conventional epineural sutures. Various aspects on surgical techniques which are available to improve function of the limb, once the nerve regeneration after brachial plexus lesions and repair has reached its limit were presented. Moreover, neurogenic pain after amputation and its treatment with mirror therapy were shown to be followed by dramatic decrease in phantom limb pain. Finally clinical experiences on surgical techniques to repair avulsed spinal nerve root and the motoric as well as sensoric regain of function were presented.

  11. Central glucocorticoid receptors regulate the upregulation of spinal cannabinoid-1 receptors after peripheral nerve injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxing; Lim, Grewo; Mao, Ji; Sung, Backil; Yang, Liling; Mao, Jianren

    2007-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that peripheral nerve injury upregulated both glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and cannabinoid-1 receptors (CB1R) within the spinal cord dorsal horn in rats. However, the relationship between the expression of spinal GR and CB1R after nerve injury remains unclear. Here, we examined the hypothesis that the upregulation of spinal CB1R induced by chronic constriction nerve injury (CCI) in rats would be regulated by spinal GR. CCI induced the upregulation of spinal CB1R primarily within the ipsilateral spinal cord dorsal horn as revealed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The expression of CB1R in CCI rats was substantially attenuated by intrathecal treatment with either the GR antagonist RU38486 or a GR antisense oligonucleotide given twice daily for postoperative day 1-6, whereas the expression of spinal CB1R was enhanced following intrathecal administration of a GR sense oligonucleotide twice daily for postoperative day 1-6. Furthermore, the upregulation of spinal CB1R after nerve injury was prevented in adrenalectomized rats, which was at least partially restored with the intrathecal administration of an exogenous GR agonist dexamethasone, indicating that corticosteroids (endogenous GR agonists) were critical to spinal GR actions. Since the development of neuropathic pain behaviors in CCI rats was attenuated by either RU38486 or a GR antisense oligonucleotide, these results suggest that CB1R is a downstream target for spinal GR actions contributory to the mechanisms of neuropathic pain.

  12. Correlation of nerve ultrasound, electrophysiological and clinical findings in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kerasnoudis, A; Pitarokoili, K; Behrendt, V; Gold, R; Yoon, M-S

    2015-01-01

    We present the nerve ultrasound findings in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and examine their correlation with electrophysiology and functional disability. A total of 75 healthy controls and 48 CIDP patients underwent clinical, sonographic and electrophysiological evaluation a mean of 3.9 years(SD+/-2.7) after disease onset. Nerve ultrasound revealed statistically significant higher cross-sectional area (CSA) values of the median (P<.0001), ulnar (P<.0001), radial (P<.0001), tibial (P<.0001), fibular nerve(P<.0001) in most of the anatomic sites and brachial plexus (supraclavicular, P<.0001;interscalene space, P = .0118),when compared to controls. The electroneurography documented signs of permanent axonal loss in the majority of peripheral nerves. A correlation between sonographic and electrophysiological findings was found only between the motor conduction velocity and CSA of the tibial nerve at the ankle (r = -.451, P = .007). Neither nerve sonography nor electrophysiology correlated with functional disability. The CSA of the median nerve in carpal tunnel and the ulnar nerve in Guyon's canal correlated with disease duration (P = .036, P = .027 respectively). CIDP seems to show inhomogenous CSA enlargement in brachial plexus and peripheral nerves, with weak correlation to electrophysiological findings. Neither nerve sonography nor electrophysiology correlated with functional disability in CIDP patients. Multicenter, prospective studies are required to proof the applicability and diagnostic values of these findings. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  13. Aerophagia as a cause of ineffective phrenic nerve pacing in high tetraplegia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Colachis, Sam C; Kadyan, Vivek

    2003-05-01

    We report an unusual case of aerophagia after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), which shows the profound effects of abdominal distension on respiratory ability in such individuals. In this case, abdominal distension resulting from aerophagia reduced the effectiveness of phrenic nerve pacing on diaphragm function necessitating greater use of positive-pressure ventilatory (PPV) support. Reduction of postprandial gastric air and abdominal distension with insertion of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube ameliorated the condition and allowed for more effective phrenic nerve pacing and greater PPV-free breathing. We are unaware of a similar case involving an individual with an SCI.

  14. Functional collagen conduits combined with human mesenchymal stem cells promote regeneration after sciatic nerve transection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yi; Yao, Yao; Zhao, Yannan; Xiao, Zhifeng; Cao, Zongfu; Han, Sufang; Li, Xing; Huan, Yong; Pan, Juli; Dai, Jianwu

    2018-05-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the development of novel and innovative approaches for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury using artificial nerve guide conduits. In this study, we attempted to bridge 3.5-cm defects of the sciatic nerve with a longitudinally oriented collagen conduit (LOCC) loaded with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs). The LOCC contains a bundle of longitudinally aligned collagenous fibres enclosed in a hollow collagen tube. Our previous studies showed that an LOCC combined with neurotrophic factors enhances peripheral nerve regeneration. However, it remained unknown whether an LOCC seeded with hUC-MSCs could also promote regeneration. In this study, using various histological and electrophysiological analyses, we found that an LOCC provides mechanical support to newly growing nerves and functions as a structural scaffold for cells, thereby stimulating sciatic nerve regeneration. The LOCC and hUC-MSCs synergistically promoted regeneration and improved the functional recovery in a dog model of sciatic nerve injury. Therefore, the combined use of an LOCC and hUC-MSCs might have therapeutic potential for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Roof Plate-Derived Radial Glial-like Cells Support Developmental Growth of Rapidly Adapting Mechanoreceptor Ascending Axons.

    PubMed

    Kridsada, Kim; Niu, Jingwen; Haldipur, Parthiv; Wang, Zhiping; Ding, Long; Li, Jian J; Lindgren, Anne G; Herrera, Eloisa; Thomas, Gareth M; Chizhikov, Victor V; Millen, Kathleen J; Luo, Wenqin

    2018-06-05

    Spinal cord longitudinal axons comprise some of the longest axons in our body. However, mechanisms that drive this extra long-distance axonal growth are largely unclear. We found that ascending axons of rapidly adapting (RA) mechanoreceptors closely abut a previously undescribed population of roof plate-derived radial glial-like cells (RGLCs) in the spinal cord dorsal column, which form a network of processes enriched with growth-promoting factors. In dreher mutant mice that lack RGLCs, the lengths of ascending RA mechanoreceptor axon branches are specifically reduced, whereas their descending and collateral branches, and other dorsal column and sensory pathways, are largely unaffected. Because the number and intrinsic growth ability of RA mechanoreceptors are normal in dreher mice, our data suggest that RGLCs provide critical non-cell autonomous growth support for the ascending axons of RA mechanoreceptors. Together, our work identifies a developmental mechanism specifically required for long-range spinal cord longitudinal axons. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Aquaporin-4 in brain and spinal cord oedema.

    PubMed

    Saadoun, S; Papadopoulos, M C

    2010-07-28

    Brain oedema is a major clinical problem produced by CNS diseases (e.g. stroke, brain tumour, brain abscess) and systemic diseases that secondarily affect the CNS (e.g. hyponatraemia, liver failure). The swollen brain is compressed against the surrounding dura and skull, which causes the intracranial pressure to rise, leading to brain ischaemia, herniation, and ultimately death. A water channel protein, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), is found in astrocyte foot processes (blood-brain border), the glia limitans (subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid-brain border) and ependyma (ventricular cerebrospinal fluid-brain border). Experiments using mice lacking AQP4 or alpha syntrophin (which secondarily downregulate AQP4) showed that AQP4 facilitates oedema formation in diseases causing cytotoxic (cell swelling) oedema such as cerebral ischaemia, hyponatraemia and meningitis. In contrast, AQP4 facilitates oedema elimination in diseases causing vasogenic (vessel leak) oedema and therefore AQP4 deletion aggravates brain oedema produced by brain tumour and brain abscess. AQP4 is also important in spinal cord oedema. AQP4 deletion was associated with less cord oedema and improved outcome after compression spinal cord injury in mice. Here we consider the possible routes of oedema formation and elimination in the injured cord and speculate about the role of AQP4. Finally we discuss the role of AQP4 in neuromyelitis optica (NMO), an inflammatory demyelinating disease that produces oedema in the spinal cord and optic nerves. NMO patients have circulating AQP4 IgG autoantibody, which is now used for diagnosing NMO. We speculate how NMO-IgG might produce CNS inflammation, demyelination and oedema. Since AQP4 plays a key role in the pathogenesis of CNS oedema, we conclude that AQP4 inhibitors and activators may reduce CNS oedema in many diseases. Copyright (c) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Constriction of the buccal branch of the facial nerve produces unilateral craniofacial allodynia.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Susannah S; Grace, Peter M; Hutchinson, Mark R; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2017-08-01

    Despite pain being a sensory experience, studies of spinal cord ventral root damage have demonstrated that motor neuron injury can induce neuropathic pain. Whether injury of cranial motor nerves can also produce nociceptive hypersensitivity has not been addressed. Herein, we demonstrate that chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the buccal branch of the facial nerve results in long-lasting, unilateral allodynia in the rat. An anterograde and retrograde tracer (3000MW tetramethylrhodamine-conjugated dextran) was not transported to the trigeminal ganglion when applied to the injury site, but was transported to the facial nucleus, indicating that this nerve branch is not composed of trigeminal sensory neurons. Finally, intracisterna magna injection of interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist reversed allodynia, implicating the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1 in the maintenance of neuropathic pain induced by facial nerve CCI. These data extend the prior evidence that selective injury to motor axons can enhance pain to supraspinal circuits by demonstrating that injury of a facial nerve with predominantly motor axons is sufficient for neuropathic pain, and that the resultant pain has a neuroimmune component. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF POSTERIOR INTEROSSEOUS NERVE ENTRAPMENT: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    MORAES, MARCO AURÉLIO DE; GONÇALVES, RUBENS GUILHERME; SANTOS, JOÃO BAPTISTA GOMES DOS; BELLOTI, JOÃO CARLOS; FALOPPA, FLÁVIO; MORAES, VINÍCIUS YNOE DE

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Compressive syndromes of the radial nerve have different presentations. There is no consensus on diagnostic and therapeutic methods. The aim of this review is to summarize such methods. Eletronic searches related terms, held in databases (1980-2016): Pubmed (via Medline), Lilacs (via Scielo) and Google Scholar. Through pre-defined protocol, we identified relevant studies. We excluded case reports. Aspects of diagnosis and treatment were synthesized for analysis and tables. Quantitative analyzes were followed by their dispersion variables. Fourteen studies were included. All studies were considered as level IV evidence. Most studies consider aspects of clinical history and provocative maneuvers. There is no consensus on the use of electromyography, and methods are heterogeneous. Studies have shown that surgical treatment (muscle release and neurolysis) has variable success rate, ranging from 20 to 96.5%. Some studies applied self reported scores, though the heterogeneity of the population does not allow inferential analyzes on the subject. few complications reported. Most studies consider the diagnosis of compressive radial nerve syndromes essentially clinical. The most common treatment was combined muscle release and neurolysis, with heterogeneous results. There is a need for comparative studies. Level of Evidence III, Systematic Review. PMID:28642652

  19. Karolinska Institutet 200-Year Anniversary. Symposium on Traumatic Injuries in the Nervous System: Injuries to the Spinal Cord and Peripheral Nervous System – Injuries and Repair, Pain Problems, Lesions to Brachial Plexus

    PubMed Central

    Sköld, Mattias K.; Svensson, Mikael; Tsao, Jack; Hultgren, Thomas; Landegren, Thomas; Carlstedt, Thomas; Cullheim, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    The Karolinska Institutet 200-year anniversary symposium on injuries to the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system gathered expertise in the spinal cord, spinal nerve, and peripheral nerve injury field spanning from molecular prerequisites for nerve regeneration to clinical methods in nerve repair and rehabilitation. The topics presented at the meeting covered findings on adult neural stem cells that when transplanted to the hypoglossal nucleus in the rat could integrate with its host and promote neuron survival. Studies on vascularization after intraspinal replantation of ventral nerve roots and microarray studies in ventral root replantation as a tool for mapping of biological patterns typical for neuronal regeneration were discussed. Different immune molecules in neurons and glia and their very specific roles in synapse plasticity after injury were presented. Novel strategies in repair of injured peripheral nerves with ethyl-cyanoacrylate adhesive showed functional recovery comparable to that of conventional epineural sutures. Various aspects on surgical techniques which are available to improve function of the limb, once the nerve regeneration after brachial plexus lesions and repair has reached its limit were presented. Moreover, neurogenic pain after amputation and its treatment with mirror therapy were shown to be followed by dramatic decrease in phantom limb pain. Finally clinical experiences on surgical techniques to repair avulsed spinal nerve root and the motoric as well as sensoric regain of function were presented. PMID:21629875

  20. Possible role of antioxidative capacity of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate treatment in morphological and neurobehavioral recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury.

    PubMed

    Renno, Waleed M; Benov, Ludmil; Khan, Khalid M

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examined the capacity of the major polyphenolic green tea extract (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) to suppress oxidative stress and stimulate the recovery and prompt the regeneration of sciatic nerve after crush injury. METHODS Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups: 1) Naïve, 2) Sham (sham injury, surgical control group), 3) Crush (sciatic nerve crush injury treated with saline), and 4) Crush+EGCG (sciatic nerve crush injury treated with intraperitoneally administered EGCG, 50 mg/kg). All animals were tested for motor and sensory neurobehavioral parameters throughout the study. Sciatic nerve and spinal cord tissues were harvested and processed for morphometric and stereological analysis. For the biochemical assays, the time points were Day 1, Day 7, Day 14, and Day 28 after nerve injury. RESULTS After sciatic nerve crush injury, the EGCG-treated animals (Crush+EGCG group) showed significantly better recovery of foot position and toe spread and 50% greater improvement in motor recovery than the saline-treated animals (Crush group). The Crush+EGCG group displayed an early hopping response at the beginning of the 3rd week postinjury. Animals in the Crush+EGCG group also showed a significant reduction in mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia latencies and significant improvement in recovery from nociception deficits in both heat withdrawal and tail flick withdrawal latencies compared with the Crush group. In both the Crush+EGCG and Crush groups, quantitative evaluation revealed significant morphological evidence of neuroregeneration according to the following parameters: mean cross-sectional area of axons, myelin thickness in the sciatic nerve (from Week 4 to Week 8), increase of myelin basic protein concentration and gene expression in both the injured sciatic nerve and spinal cord, and fiber diameter to axon diameter ratio and myelin thickness to axon diameter ratio at Week 2 after sciatic nerve injury. However

  1. Perineurial Glial Plasticity and the Role of TGF-β in the Development of the Blood-Nerve Barrier.

    PubMed

    Morris, Angela D; Lewis, Gwendolyn M; Kucenas, Sarah

    2017-05-03

    Precisely orchestrated interactions between spinal motor axons and their ensheathing glia are vital for forming and maintaining functional spinal motor nerves. Following perturbations to peripheral myelinating glial cells, centrally derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) ectopically exit the spinal cord and myelinate peripheral nerves in myelin with CNS characteristics. However, whether remaining peripheral ensheathing glia, such as perineurial glia, properly encase the motor nerve despite this change in glial cell and myelin composition, remains unknown. Using zebrafish mutants in which OPCs migrate out of the spinal cord and myelinate peripheral motor axons, we assayed perineurial glial development, maturation, and response to injury. Surprisingly, in the presence of OPCs, perineurial glia exited the CNS normally. However, aspects of their development, response to injury, and function were altered compared with wildtype larvae. In an effort to better understand the plasticity of perineurial glia in response to myelin perturbations, we identified transforming growth factor-β1 as a partial mediator of perineurial glial development. Together, these results demonstrate the incredible plasticity of perineurial glia in the presence of myelin perturbations. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Peripheral neuropathies can result from damage or dysregulation of the insulating myelin sheath surrounding spinal motor axons, causing pain, inefficient nerve conduction, and the ectopic migration of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), the resident myelinating glial cell of the CNS, into the periphery. How perineurial glia, the ensheathing cells that form the protective blood-nerve barrier, are impacted by this myelin composition change is unknown. Here, we report that certain aspects of perineurial glial development and injury responses are mostly unaffected in the presence of ectopic OPCs. However, perineurial glial function is disrupted along nerves containing centrally

  2. Electrodiagnostic Examination of the Tibial Nerve in Clinically Normal Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Ezio; Callegari, Daniela; Ravera, Manuela; Dondi, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Tibial nerves of 10 normal domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) were evaluated by means of electrodiagnostic tests: motor nerve conduction studies (MNCSs), supramaximal repetitive nerve stimulation (SRNS), F waves, and cord dorsum potentials (CDPs). Values of conduction velocity, proximal and distal compound muscular action potentials, and amplitudes of MNCS were, respectively, 63.25 ± 7.56 m/sec, 10.79 ± 2.75 mV, and 13.02 ± 3.41 mV. Mean decrements in amplitude and area of compound muscular action potentials of wave 9 with low frequency SRNS were 0.3 ± 3.83% and 0.1 ± 3.51%. The minimum latency of the F waves and the F ratio were, respectively, 8.49 ± 0.65 ms and 1.92 ± 0.17. Onset latency of CDP was 1.99 ± 0.03 ms. These tests may help in diagnosing neuromuscular disorders and in better characterizing the hindlimb paresis reported in many ferrets with systemic illnesses. PMID:20706690

  3. Minimally Invasive Drainage of a Post-Laminectomy Subfascial Seroma with Cervical Spinal Cord Compression.

    PubMed

    Kitshoff, Adriaan Mynhardt; Van Goethem, Bart; Cornelis, Ine; Combes, Anais; Dvm, Ingeborgh Polis; Gielen, Ingrid; Vandekerckhove, Peter; de Rooster, Hilde

    2016-01-01

    A 14 mo old female neutered Doberman pinscher was evaluated for difficulty in rising, a wide based stance, pelvic limb gait abnormalities, and cervical pain of 2 mo duration. Neurologic examination revealed pelvic limb ataxia and cervical spinal hyperesthesia. Spinal reflexes and cranial nerve examination were normal. The pathology was localized to the C1-C5 or C6-T2 spinal cord segments. Computed tomography (CT) findings indicated bony proliferation of the caudal articular processes of C6 and the cranial articular processes of C7, resulting in bilateral dorsolateral spinal cord compression that was more pronounced on the left side. A limited dorsal laminectomy was performed at C6-C7. Due to progressive neurological deterioration, follow-up CT examination was performed 4 days postoperatively. At the level of the laminectomy defect, a subfacial seroma had developed, entering the spinal canal and causing significant spinal cord compression. Under ultrasonographic guidance a closed-suction wound catheter was placed. Drainage of the seroma successfully relieved its compressive effects on the spinal cord and the patient's neurological status improved. CT was a valuable tool in assessing spinal cord compression as a result of a postoperative subfascial seroma. Minimally invasive application of a wound catheter can be successfully used to manage this condition.

  4. "In Situ Vascular Nerve Graft" for Restoration of Intrinsic Hand Function: An Anatomical Study.

    PubMed

    Mozaffarian, Kamran; Zemoodeh, Hamid Reza; Zarenezhad, Mohammad; Owji, Mohammad

    2018-06-01

    In combined high median and ulnar nerve injury, transfer of the posterior interosseous nerve branches to the motor branch of the ulnar nerve (MUN) is previously described in order to restore intrinsic hand function. In this operation a segment of sural nerve graft is required to close the gap between the donor and recipient nerves. However the thenar muscles are not innervated by this nerve transfer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the superficial radial nerve (SRN) can be used as an "in situ vascular nerve graft" to connect the donor nerves to the MUN and the motor branch of median nerve (MMN) at the same time in order to address all denervated intrinsic and thenar muscles. Twenty fresh male cadavers were dissected in order to evaluate the feasibility of this modification of technique. The size of nerve branches, the number of axons and the tension at repair site were evaluated. This nerve transfer was technically feasible in all specimens. There was no significant size mismatch between the donor and recipient nerves Conclusions: The possible advantages of this modification include innervation of both median and ulnar nerve innervated intrinsic muscles, preservation of vascularity of the nerve graft which might accelerate the nerve regeneration, avoidance of leg incision and therefore the possibility of performing surgery under regional instead of general anesthesia. Briefly, this novel technique is a viable option which can be used instead of conventional nerve graft in some brachial plexus or combined high median and ulnar nerve injuries when restoration of intrinsic hand function by transfer of posterior interosseous nerve branches is attempted.

  5. Radial forces in a misaligned radial face seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etsion, I.

    1978-01-01

    Radial forces on the primary seal ring of a flat misaligned seal are analyzed, taking into account the radial variation in seal clearance. An analytical solution for both hydrostatic and hydrodynamic effects is presented that covers the whole range from zero to full angular misalignment. The net radial force on the primary seal ring is always directed so as to produce a radial eccentricity which generates inward pumping. Although the radial force is usually very small, in some cases it may be one of the reasons for excessive leakage through both the primary and secondary seals of a radial face seal.

  6. Radial forces in a misaligned radial face seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etsion, I.

    1977-01-01

    Radial forces on the primary seal ring of a flat misaligned seal are analyzed, taking into account the radial variation in seal clearance. An analytical solution for both hydrostatic and hydrodynamic effects is presented that covers the whole range from zero to full angular misalignment. The net radial force on the primary seal ring is always directed so as to produce a radial eccentricity which generates inward pumping. Although the radial force is usually very small, in some cases it may be one of the reasons for excessive leakage through both the primary and secondary seals of a radial face seal.

  7. Development of serotonergic and adrenergic receptors in the rat spinal cord: effects of neonatal chemical lesions and hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Lau, C; Pylypiw, A; Ross, L L

    1985-03-01

    The sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord receive dense serotonergic (5-HT) and catecholaminergic (CA) afferent inputs from the descending supraspinal pathways. In the rat spinal cord, the levels of these biogenic amines and their receptors are low at birth, but undergo rapid ontogenetic increases in the ensuing 2-3 postnatal weeks until the adult levels are reached. In many systems it has been shown that denervation of presynaptic neurons leads to an up-regulation of the number of postsynaptic receptors. To determine whether the 5-HT and CA receptors in the developing spinal cord are also subject to such transsynaptic regulation, we examined the ontogeny of serotonergic receptors and alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors in thoracolumbar spinal cord of rats given neurotoxins which destroy serotonergic (5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT)) or noradrenergic (6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)) nerve terminals. Intracisternal administration of 5,7-DHT or 6-OHDA at 1 and 6 days of age prevented, respectively, the development of 5-HT and CA levels in the spinal cord. Rats lesioned with 5,7-DHT displayed a marked elevation of 5-HT receptors with a binding of 50% greater than controls at 1 week and a continuing increase to twice normal by 4 weeks. A similar pattern of up-regulation was also detected with the alpha-adrenergic receptor, as rats lesioned with 6-OHDA exhibited persistent increases in receptor concentration. However, in these same animals ontogeny of the beta-adrenergic receptor in the spinal cord remained virtually unaffected by the chemical lesion. In several other parts of the nervous system, it has been demonstrated that the beta-adrenergic sensitivity can be modulated by hormonal signals, particularly that of the thyroid hormones. This phenomenon was examined in the spinal cord and in confirmation with previous studies neonatal treatment of triiodothyronine (0.1 mg/kg, s.c. daily) was capable of evoking persistent increases in beta

  8. Transformation of synaptic vesicle phenotype in the intramedullary axonal arbors of cat spinal motoneurons following peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Havton, L A; Kellerth, J O

    2001-08-01

    Permanent transection of a peripheral motor nerve induces a gradual elimination of whole axon collateral systems in the axotomized spinal motoneurons. There is also an initial concurrent decrease in the amount of recurrent inhibition exerted by these arbors in the spinal cord for up to 6 weeks after the injury, whereas the same reflex action returns to normal by the 12-week postoperative state. The aim of the present investigation was to study the fine structure of the intramedullary axonal arbors of axotomized alpha-motoneurons in the adult cat spinal cord following a permanent peripheral motor nerve lesion. For this purpose, single axotomized alpha-motoneurons were labeled intracellularly with horseradish peroxidase at 12 weeks after permanent transection of their peripheral motor nerve. The intramedullary portions of their motor axon and axon collateral arbors were first reconstructed at the light microscopic level and subsequently studied ultrastructurally. This study shows that the synaptic contacts made by the intramedullary axon collateral arbors of axotomized motoneurons have undergone a change in synaptic vesicle ultrastructure from spherical and clear vesicles to spherical and dense-cored vesicles at 12 weeks after the transection of their peripheral axons. We suggest that the present transformation in synaptic vesicle fine structure may also correspond to a change in the contents of these boutons. This may, in turn, be responsible for the strengthening and recovery of the recurrent inhibitory reflex action exerted by the axotomized spinal motoneurons following a prolonged permanent motor nerve injury.

  9. Motor evoked responses from the thigh muscles to the stimulation of the upper limb nerves in patients with late poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Ertekin, Cumhur; On, Arzu Yagiz; Kirazli, Yeşim; Kurt, Tülay; Gürgör, Nevin

    2002-04-01

    To demonstrate a clear-cut M response recorded from the severely affected thigh muscles to the stimulation of the upper limb nerves in a serial of patients with late poliomyelitis. Fifteen patients with late poliomyelitis, 7 patients with spinal cord disorders and 11 control subjects were included. Evoked muscle responses were investigated in quadriceps femoris and/or thigh adductor muscles to the stimulation of the brachial plexus, median and ulnar nerves. Evoked muscle responses were obtained from the thigh muscles in all 12 late polio patients with proximal lower extremity involvement. The response could not be recorded from the thigh muscles neither in the 3 polio patients with upper extremity involvement nor in the healthy control subjects and in patients with other spinal cord disorders of anterior horn cell. It is proposed that the electrical stimulation of the arm nerves produce interlimb descending muscle responses in the severely affected atrophic thigh muscles of the patients with late polio. This finding suggests that there might be a focal and/or specific loss of inhibitory interneurons between injured and normal motor neurons and increased facilitatory synaptic action at the end of long propriospinal descending fibers in the case of late poliomyelitis.

  10. VGLUTs in Peripheral Neurons and the Spinal Cord: Time for a Review

    PubMed Central

    Brumovsky, Pablo R.

    2013-01-01

    Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) are key molecules for the incorporation of glutamate in synaptic vesicles across the nervous system, and since their discovery in the early 1990s, research on these transporters has been intense and productive. This review will focus on several aspects of VGLUTs research on neurons in the periphery and the spinal cord. Firstly, it will begin with a historical account on the evolution of the morphological analysis of glutamatergic systems and the pivotal role played by the discovery of VGLUTs. Secondly, and in order to provide an appropriate framework, there will be a synthetic description of the neuroanatomy and neurochemistry of peripheral neurons and the spinal cord. This will be followed by a succinct description of the current knowledge on the expression of VGLUTs in peripheral sensory and autonomic neurons and neurons in the spinal cord. Finally, this review will address the modulation of VGLUTs expression after nerve and tissue insult, their physiological relevance in relation to sensation, pain, and neuroprotection, and their potential pharmacological usefulness. PMID:24349795

  11. Relation between functional dysphagia and vocal cord palsy after transhiatal oesophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Pierie, J P; Goedegebuure, S; Schuerman, F A; Leguit, P

    2000-03-01

    To assess the incidence, natural course, and possible pathogenesis of dysphagia that is not caused by anastomotic stricture, after transhiatal oesophagectomy and gastric tube reconstruction. Prospective study. District teaching hospital, The Netherlands. 22 patients who had transhiatal oesophagectomy and gastric tube reconstruction for cancer. Incidence of dysphagia that is not caused by anastomotic stricture one week after operation, and presence of this functional dysphagia and correlation with vocal cord palsy at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks postoperatively. The incidence of functional dysphagia was 7 out of 22 (32%); it was self-limiting in 5 out of 7 (71%) of the cases and associated with the incidence of vocal cord palsy (p = 0.0006). Functional dysphagia after transhiatal oesophagectomy occurs frequently, but is self-limiting in most patients. Injury to branches of the recurrent laryngeal nerve is a likely cause.

  12. Ex Vivo Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Spinal Cord Injury in Rats of Varying Degrees of Severity

    PubMed Central

    Jirjis, Michael B.; Kurpad, Shekar N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to characterize magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in proximal regions of the spinal cord following a thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI). Sprague–Dawley rats (n=40) were administered a control, mild, moderate, or severe contusion injury at the T8 vertebral level. Six direction diffusion weighted images (DWIs) were collected ex vivo along the length of the spinal cord, with an echo/repetition time of 31.6 ms/14 sec and b=500 sec/mm2. Diffusion metrics were correlated to hindlimb motor function. Significant differences were found for whole cord region of interest (ROI) drawings for fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), longitudinal diffusion coefficient (LD), and radial diffusion coefficient (RD) at each of the cervical levels (p<0.01). Motor function correlated with MD in the cervical segments of the spinal cord (r2=0.80). The diffusivity of water significantly decreased throughout “uninjured” portions of the spinal cord following a contusion injury (p<0.05). Diffusivity metrics were found to be altered following SCI in both white and gray matter regions. Injury severity was associated with diffusion changes over the entire length of the cord. This study demonstrates that DTI is sensitive to SCI in regions remote from injury, suggesting that the diffusion metrics may be used as a biomarker for severity of injury. PMID:23782233

  13. Adenovirus vector-mediated ex vivo gene transfer of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) tohuman umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) promotescrush-injured rat sciatic nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hei, Wei-Hong; Almansoori, Akram A; Sung, Mi-Ae; Ju, Kyung-Won; Seo, Nari; Lee, Sung-Ho; Kim, Bong-Ju; Kim, Soung-Min; Jahng, Jeong Won; He, Hong; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2017-03-16

    This study was designed toinvestigate the efficacy of adenovirus vector-mediated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) ex vivo gene transfer to human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. BDNF protein and mRNA expression after infection was checked through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250g, 6 weeks old) were distributed into threegroups (n=20 each): the control group, UCB-MSC group, and BDNF-adenovirus infected UCB-MSC (BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSC) group. UCB-MSCs (1×10 6 cells/10μl/rat) or BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCs (1×10 6 cells/10μl/rat)were transplantedinto the rats at the crush site immediately after sciatic nerve injury. Cell tracking was done with PKH26-labeled UCB-MSCs and BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCs (1×10 6 cells/10μl/rat). The rats were monitored for 4 weeks post-surgery. Results showed that expression of BDNF at both the protein and mRNA levels was higher inthe BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSC group compared to theUCB-MSC group in vitro.Moreover, BDNF mRNA expression was higher in both UCB-MSC group and BDNF-Ad+ UCB-MSC group compared tothe control group, and BDNF mRNA expression in theBDNF-Ad+UCB-MSC group was higher than inboth other groups 5days after surgeryin vivo. Labeled neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), axon counts, axon density, and sciatic function index were significantly increased in the UCB-MSC and BDNF-Ad+ UCB-MSCgroupscompared to the controlgroup four weeksaftercell transplantation. Importantly,the BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCgroup exhibited more peripheral nerve regeneration than the other two groups.Our results indicate thatboth UCB-MSCs and BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCscan improve rat sciatic nerve regeneration, with BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCsshowing a greater effectthan UCB-MSCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential involvement of forearm muscles in ALS does not relate to sonographic structural nerve alterations.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Stefanie; Schreiber, Frank; Debska-Vielhaber, Grazyna; Garz, Cornelia; Hensiek, Nathalie; Machts, Judith; Abdulla, Susanne; Dengler, Reinhard; Petri, Susanne; Nestor, Peter J; Vielhaber, Stefan

    2018-07-01

    We aimed to assess whether differential peripheral nerve involvement parallels dissociated forearm muscle weakness in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The analysis comprised 41 ALS patients and 18 age-, sex-, height- and weight-matched healthy controls. Strength of finger-extension and -flexion was measured using the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. Radial, median and ulnar nerve sonographic cross-sectional area (CSA) and echogenicity, expressed by the hypoechoic fraction (HF), were determined. In ALS, finger extensors were significantly weaker than finger flexors. Sonographic evaluation revealed peripheral nerve atrophy, affecting various nerve segments in ALS. HF was unaltered. This systematic study confirmed a long-observed physical examination finding in ALS - weakness in finger-extension out of proportion to finger-flexion. This phenomenon was not related to any particular sonographic pattern of upper limb peripheral nerve alteration. In ALS, dissociated forearm muscle weakness could aid in the disease's diagnosis. Nerve ultrasound did not provide additional information on the differential involvement of finger-extension and finger-flexion strength. Copyright © 2018 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Significance of fixation of the vertebral column for spinal cord injury experiments.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Luo, Zhuo-Jin; You, Si-Wei; Jiao, Xi-Ying; Meng, Xiao-Mei; Shi, Ming; Wang, Chun-Ting; Ju, Gong

    2003-08-01

    Thoracic spinal cord transections were performed in adult rats. The animals were divided into two groups, with or without internal fixation of the involved vertebral column. Histologic and immunohistochemical studies were performed to compare the effect of internal fixation of the vertebral column. To find out the aspects and extent of beneficial effects of vertebral column fixation for spinal cord repair. Vertebral column fixation is a routine procedure in clinical spinal cord surgery. Paradoxically, most, if not all, animal spinal cord experiments seem to have ignored the importance of vertebral column fixation. During trunk movements, the vertebral column flexes to different directions, accompanied by bending of the spinal cord. Following spinal cord lesions, with frequent bending of the cord there will be repeated bleeding, inflammation, and other pathologic processes at the lesion site. Thus, the healing process will be hampered. The severity of the damages that will be brought about by bending of the cord is, to a certain degree, unpredictable. There will be rather big individual variations in injury and repair among the same type of experiments, rendering quantification and conclusion difficult. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used. The thoracic spinal cord was transected. Strong stainless steel wires were used for internal fixation of the vertebral column. The histology of the horizontal sections of the spinal cord segment, which included the lesion site, was examined at the 14th postoperative day. The volumes of the secondary degeneration and meningeal scar, the gap between the borders of the proximal and distal stumps of the transected spinal cord, the thickness of the meningeal scar, the astrocytic reaction, and the abundance of regenerating nerve fibers at the lesion site were compared between the vertebral column fixed and nonfixed groups. Whenever possible, the results were evaluated quantitatively. In all these aspects, the internally fixed group was

  16. Fatigue of cord-rubber composites for tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jaehoon

    Fatigue behaviors of cord-rubber composite materials forming the belt region of radial pneumatic tires have been characterized to assess their dependence on stress, strain and temperature history as well as materials composition and construction . Using actual tires, it was found that interply shear strain is one of the crucial parameters for damage assessment from the result that higher levels of interply shear strain of actual tires reduce the fatigue lifetime. Estimated at various levels of load amplitude were the fatigue life, the extent and rate of resultant strain increase ("dynamic creep"), cyclic strains at failure, and specimen temperature. The interply shear strain of 2-ply 'tire belt' composite laminate under circumferential tension was affected by twisting of specimen due to tension-bending coupling. However, a critical level of interply shear strain, which governs the gross failure of composite laminate due to the delamination, appeared to be independent of different lay-up of 2-ply vs. symmetric 4-ply configuration. Reflecting their matrix-dominated failure modes such as cord-matrix debonding and delamination, composite laminates with different cord reinforcements showed the same S-N relationship as long as they were constructed with the same rubber matrix, the same cord angle, similar cord volume, and the same ply lay-up. Because of much lower values of single cycle strength (in terms of gross fracture load per unit width), the composite laminates with larger cord angle and the 2-ply laminates exhibited exponentially shorter fatigue lifetime, at a given stress amplitude, than the composite laminates with smaller cord angle and 4-ply symmetric laminates, respectively. The increase of interply rubber thickness lengthens their fatigue lifetime at an intermediate level of stress amplitude. However, the increase in the fatigue lifetime of the composite laminate becomes less noticeable at very low stress amplitude. Even with small compressive cyclic

  17. Collateral development and spinal motor reorganization after nerve injury and repair

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Youlai; Zhang, Peixun; Han, Na; Kou, Yuhui; Yin, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Baoguo

    2016-01-01

    Functional recovery is often unsatisfactory after severe extended nerve defects or proximal nerve trunks injuries repaired by traditional repair methods, as the long regeneration distance for the regenerated axons to reinnervate their original target end-organs. The proximal nerve stump can regenerate with many collaterals that reinnervate the distal stump after peripheral nerve injury, it may be possible to use nearby fewer nerve fibers to repair more nerve fibers at the distal end to shorten the regenerating distance. In this study, the proximal peroneal nerve was used to repair both the distal peroneal and tibial nerve. The number and location of motor neurons in spinal cord as well as functional and morphological recovery were assessed at 2 months, 4 months and 8 months after nerve repair, respectively. Projections from the intact peroneal and tibial nerves were also studied in normal animals. The changes of motor neurons were assessed using the retrograde neurotracers FG and DiI to backlabel motor neurons that regenerate axons into two different pathways. To evaluate the functional recovery, the muscle forces and sciatic function index were examined. The muscles and myelinated axons were assessed using electrophysiology and histology. The results showed that all labeled motor neurons after nerve repair were always confined within the normal peroneal nerve pool and nearly all the distribution of motor neurons labeled via distal different nerves was disorganized as compared to normal group. However, there was a significant decline in the number of double labeled motor neurons and an obvious improvement with respect to the functional and morphological recovery between 2 and 8 months. In addition, the tibial/peroneal motor neuron number ratio at different times was 2.11±0.05, 2.13±0.08, 2.09±0.12, respectively, and was close to normal group (2.21±0.09). Quantitative analysis showed no significant morphological differences between myelinated nerve fibers

  18. International spinal cord injury pulmonary function basic data set.

    PubMed

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Krassioukov, A; Alexander, M S; Donovan, W; Karlsson, A-K; Mueller, G; Perkash, I; Sheel, A William; Wecht, J; Schilero, G J

    2012-06-01

    To develop the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Pulmonary Function Basic Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets in order to facilitate consistent collection and reporting of basic bronchopulmonary findings in the SCI population. International. The SCI Pulmonary Function Data Set was developed by an international working group. The initial data set document was revised on the basis of suggestions from members of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) Executive and Scientific Committees, American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Board, other interested organizations and societies and individual reviewers. In addition, the data set was posted for 2 months on ISCoS and ASIA websites for comments. The final International SCI Pulmonary Function Data Set contains questions on the pulmonary conditions diagnosed before spinal cord lesion,if available, to be obtained only once; smoking history; pulmonary complications and conditions after the spinal cord lesion, which may be collected at any time. These data include information on pneumonia, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and sleep apnea. Current utilization of ventilator assistance including mechanical ventilation, diaphragmatic pacing, phrenic nerve stimulation and Bi-level positive airway pressure can be reported, as well as results from pulmonary function testing includes: forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second and peak expiratory flow. The complete instructions for data collection and the data sheet itself are freely available on the website of ISCoS (http://www.iscos.org.uk).

  19. Nerve stripper-assisted sural nerve harvest.

    PubMed

    Hassanpour, Esmail; Yavari, Masoud; Karbalaeikhani, Ali; Saremi, Hossein

    2014-03-01

    Sural nerve has the favorite length and size for nerve graft interposition. Here two techniques, that is, "stocking seam" and "stair-step" or "stepladder," have been used for harvesting sural nerve. The first technique results in an unsightly scar at the posterior calf, and the latter one takes a long time to perform and exert undue traction to the graft during harvesting. The purpose of this article is to describe our experience in harvesting the sural nerve by a nerve stripper. A nerve stripper was used for harvesting sural nerve in 35 adult patients (in 6 patients, sural harvesting was done bilaterally), 27 men and 8 women. Thirty-one sural nerve harvests were done by closed technique (i.e., harvesting of sural nerve only by two incisions, one in the posterior of the lateral malleolus and the other in popliteal fossa), in 8 others by limited open technique, and in 2 cases, there was early laceration of the sural nerve at the beginning of the study. The contralateral sural nerve was harvested in one patient and medial antebrachial nerve in another by open technique. The mean length of the retrieved sural nerve was 34.5 cm in the closed technique group and 35 cm in the limited open technique group. We detected advancing Tinel's sign in all nerve stripper-assisted sural nerve harvested group members in both the closed and limited open groups. Sural nerve harvesting by the nerve stripper is a reliable and simple technique, and it is applicable as a routine technique. Applying controlled rotatory movements of the nerve stripper instead of pushing can result in satisfactory harvesting of the sural nerve without early laceration. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Progranulin contributes to endogenous mechanisms of pain defense after nerve injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hee-Young; Albuquerque, Boris; Häussler, Annett; Myrczek, Thekla; Ding, Aihao; Tegeder, Irmgard

    2012-04-01

    Progranulin haploinsufficiency is associated with frontotemporal dementia in humans. Deficiency of progranulin led to exaggerated inflammation and premature aging in mice. The role of progranulin in adaptations to nerve injury and neuropathic pain are still unknown. Here we found that progranulin is up-regulated after injury of the sciatic nerve in the mouse ipsilateral dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord, most prominently in the microglia surrounding injured motor neurons. Progranulin knockdown by continuous intrathecal spinal delivery of small interfering RNA after sciatic nerve injury intensified neuropathic pain-like behaviour and delayed the recovery of motor functions. Compared to wild-type mice, progranulin-deficient mice developed more intense nociceptive hypersensitivity after nerve injury. The differences escalated with aging. Knockdown of progranulin reduced the survival of dissociated primary neurons and neurite outgrowth, whereas addition of recombinant progranulin rescued primary dorsal root ganglia neurons from cell death induced by nerve growth factor withdrawal. Thus, up-regulation of progranulin after neuronal injury may reduce neuropathic pain and help motor function recovery, at least in part, by promoting survival of injured neurons and supporting regrowth. A deficiency in this mechanism may increase the risk for injury-associated chronic pain. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Continuous monitoring of L-glutamate released from cultured nerve cells by an online sensor coupled with micro-capillary sampling.

    PubMed

    Niwa, O; Horiuchi, T; Torimitsu, K

    1997-01-01

    A small volume L-glutamate online sensor was developed in order to monitor changes in the local concentration of L-glutamate released from cultured nerve cells. Syringe pump in the suction mode is used to sample extracellular fluid continuously from a glass micro-capillary and the concentration of L-glutamate can be determined by using a glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with an Os-polyvinylpyridine mediator bottom film containing horseradish peroxidase and a bovine serum albumin top layer containing L-glutamate oxidase. The overall efficiency of L-glutamate detection with a sensor is 71% under optimum conditions due to an efficient enzymatic reaction at the modified electrode in the thin layer radial flow cell. As a result, we achieved a detection limit of 7-15 nM and a linear range of 50 nM to 10 microM. In an in vitro experiment, the extracellular fluid near a particular nerve cell can be sampled with this micro-pipet and continuously introduced into the modified GC electrode in the radial flow cell via suction provided by a syringe pump. The nerve cells are stimulated by the KCl in a glass capillary and the L-glutamate concentration change can be monitored by changing the distance between the sampling pipet and the nerve cells.

  2. The emergence of Nervennahrung: Nerves, mind and metabolism in the long eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Stahnisch, Frank W

    2012-06-01

    Morphological assumptions concerning the form, structure and internal life of the brain and nervous system profoundly influenced contemporary physiological concepts about nerve actions throughout the 'long eighteenth century'. This article investigates some early theories of mind and metabolism. In a bottom-up fashion, it asks how eighteenth-century theories regarding the physiological actions of the body organs shaped the conceptions of the structure of the brain and nervous tissue themselves. These proposed that a healthy Nervennahrung (the German word for 'nerve nutrition', which might be rendered as brain food in modern English), not only guaranteed the integrity and stability of neuronal structures in the body, but also explained the complex texture of the brain and spinal cord in physiological terms. Eighteenth-century nerve theories already embodied a Leitmotiv of neurology and brain psychiatry from the later nineteenth century: 'Without phosphorus there is no thought!' Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Cervical cord infarction associated with unilateral vertebral artery dissection due to golf swing].

    PubMed

    Tokumoto, Kazuki; Ueda, Nobuhiko

    2014-01-01

    A-68-year-old man experienced nuchal pain and bilateral shoulder weakness that occurred suddenly after he performed a golf swing. He was conscious. His cranial nerves were normal, but bilateral deltoid and biceps muscle strengths weakened. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed no brain stem infarctions or cervical epidural hematoma. We tentatively diagnosed him with concussion of the spinal cord because of mild recovery of his bilateral upper limb weakness after several hours; he was later discharged. The next day, he suddenly developed serious tetraplegia and was admitted to the emergency department. His breathing was controlled by a respirator as he had expectoration difficulty and respiratory muscle paralysis. A lesion in the cervical cord became apparent on MRI; the right vertebral artery was not detected on magnetic resonance angiography. Cervical MRI showed the intimal flap and a lack of flow void in the right vertebral artery. These findings revealed a right vertebral artery dissection. Cervical cord infarction due to unilateral vertebral artery dissection is rarer than posterior cerebral infarction due to the same pathogenesis; however, some such cases have been reported. We consider the present case to be caused by cervical cord infarction associated with unilateral vertebral artery dissection resulting from golf swing.

  4. Early applied electric field stimulation attenuates secondary apoptotic responses and exerts neuroprotective effects in acute spinal cord injury of rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Zhang, G; Rong, W; Wang, A; Wu, C; Huo, X

    2015-04-16

    Injury potential, which refers to a direct current voltage between intact and injured nerve ends, is mainly caused by injury-induced Ca2+ influx. Our previous studies revealed that injury potential increased with the onset and severity of spinal cord injury (SCI), and an application of applied electric field stimulation (EFS) with the cathode distal to the lesion could delay and attenuate injury potential formation. As Ca2+ influx is also considered as a major trigger for secondary injury after SCI, we hypothesize that EFS would protect an injured spinal cord from secondary injury and consequently improve functional and pathological outcomes. In this study, rats were divided into three groups: (1) sham group, laminectomy only; (2) control group, subjected to SCI only; and (3) EFS group, received EFS immediately post-injury with the injury potential modulated to 0±0.5 mV by EFS. Functional recovery of the hind limbs was assessed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale. Results revealed that EFS-treated rats exhibited significantly better locomotor function recovery. Luxol fast blue staining was performed to assess the spared myelin area. Immunofluorescence was used to observe the number of myelinated nerve fibers. Ultrastructural analysis was performed to evaluate the size of myelinated nerve fibers. Findings showed that the EFS group rats exhibited significantly less myelin loss and had larger and more myelinated nerve fibers than the control group rats in dorsal corticospinal tract (dCST) 8 weeks after SCI. Furthermore, we found that EFS inhibited the activation of calpain and caspase-3, as well as the expression of Bax, as detected by Western blot analysis. Moreover, EFS decreased cellular apoptosis, as measured by TUNEL, within 4 weeks post-injury. Results suggest that early EFS could significantly reduce spinal cord degeneration and improve functional and historical recovery. Furthermore, these neuroprotective effects may be related to

  5. Activation of the unfolded protein response promotes axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Oñate, Maritza; Catenaccio, Alejandra; Martínez, Gabriela; Armentano, Donna; Parsons, Geoffrey; Kerr, Bredford; Hetz, Claudio; Court, Felipe A

    2016-02-24

    Although protein-folding stress at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is emerging as a driver of neuronal dysfunction in models of spinal cord injury and neurodegeneration, the contribution of this pathway to peripheral nerve damage remains poorly explored. Here we targeted the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive reaction against ER stress, in mouse models of sciatic nerve injury and found that ablation of the transcription factor XBP1, but not ATF4, significantly delay locomotor recovery. XBP1 deficiency led to decreased macrophage recruitment, a reduction in myelin removal and axonal regeneration. Conversely, overexpression of XBP1s in the nervous system in transgenic mice enhanced locomotor recovery after sciatic nerve crush, associated to an improvement in key pro-regenerative events. To assess the therapeutic potential of UPR manipulation to axonal regeneration, we locally delivered XBP1s or an shRNA targeting this transcription factor to sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia using a gene therapy approach and found an enhancement or reduction of axonal regeneration in vivo, respectively. Our results demonstrate a functional role of specific components of the ER proteostasis network in the cellular changes associated to regeneration and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury.

  6. Electrospun Fibers for Spinal Cord Injury Research and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Schaub, Nicholas J.; Johnson, Christopher D.; Cooper, Blair

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Electrospinning is the process by which a scaffold containing micrometer and nanometer diameter fibers are drawn from a polymer solution or melt using a large voltage gradient between a polymer emitting source and a grounded collector. Ramakrishna and colleagues first investigated electrospun fibers for neural applications in 2004. After this initial study, electrospun fibers are increasingly investigated for neural tissue engineering applications. Electrospun fibers robustly support axonal regeneration within in vivo rodent models of spinal cord injury. These findings suggest the possibility of their eventual use within patients. Indeed, both spinal cord and peripheral nervous system regeneration research over the last several years shows that physical guidance cues induce recovery of limb, respiration, or bladder control in rodent models. Electrospun fibers may be an alternative to the peripheral nerve graft (PNG), because PNG autografts injure the patient and are limited in supply, and allografts risk host rejection. In addition, electrospun fibers can be engineered easily to confront new therapeutic challenges. Fibers can be modified to release therapies locally or can be physically modified to direct neural stem cell differentiation. This review summarizes the major findings and trends in the last decade of research, with a particular focus on spinal cord injury. This review also demonstrates how electrospun fibers can be used to study the central nervous system in vitro. PMID:26650778

  7. Phrenic Nerve Transfer for Reconstruction of Elbow Extension in Severe Brachial Plexus Injuries.

    PubMed

    Flores, Leandro P; Socolovsky, Mariano

    2016-09-01

    Background Restoring elbow extension is an important objective to pursue when repairing the brachial plexus in patients with a flail arm. Based upon the good results obtained using the phrenic nerve to restore elbow flexion and shoulder stability, we hypothesized that this nerve could also be employed to reconstruct elbow extension in patients with severe brachial plexus injuries. Methods A retrospective study of 10 patients in which the phrenic nerve targeted the radial nerve (7 patients) or the branch to the long head of the triceps (3 patients) as a surgical strategy for reconstruction of the brachial plexus. Results The mean postoperative follow-up time was 34 months. At final follow-up, elbow extension graded as M4 was measured in three patients, Medical Research Council MRC M3 in five patients, and M2 in one patient, while one patient experienced no measurable recovery (M0). No patient complained or demonstrated any signs of respiratory insufficiency postoperatively. Conclusions The phrenic nerve is a reliable donor for reanimation of elbow extension in such cases, and the branch to the long head of the triceps should be considered as a better target for the nerve transfer. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Acute intraparenchymal spinal cord injury in a cat due to high-rise syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Arámbulo, Robert; Nykamp, Stephanie

    2012-03-01

    A 9-year-old spayed female Bengal Red cat was evaluated for high-rise syndrome. The cat had paraplegia of the hind limbs, intact reflexes and pain perception, and hyperesthesia in the caudal thoracic area. Mentation, cranial nerve function, forelimb proprioceptive responses, and spinal reflexes were normal. There were no abnormalities on radiographs or computed tomography scan, but magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hyperintense intraparenchymal spinal cord lesion on T2-weighted and T2 fat saturation images.

  9. Sciatic Nerve Intrafascicular Lidocaine Injection-induced Peripheral Neuropathic Pain: Alleviation by Systemic Minocycline Administration.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kuang-I; Wang, Hung-Chen; Wu, Yi-Chia; Tseng, Kuang-Yi; Chuang, Yi-Ta; Chou, Chao-Wen; Chen, Ping-Luen; Chang, Lin-Li; Lai, Chung-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral nerve block guidance with a nerve stimulator or echo may not prevent intrafascicular injury. This study investigated whether intrafascicular lidocaine induces peripheral neuropathic pain and whether this pain can be alleviated by minocycline administration. A total of 168 male Sprague-Dawley rats were included. In experiment 1, 2% lidocaine (0.1 mL) was injected into the left sciatic nerve. Hindpaw responses to thermal and mechanical stimuli, and sodium channel and activating transcription factor (ATF-3) expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and glial cells in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH), were measured on days 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28. On the basis of the results in experiment 1, rats in experiment 2 were divided into sham, extraneural, intrafascicular, peri-injury minocycline, and postinjury minocycline groups. Behavioral responses, macrophage recruitment, expression changes of myelin basic protein and Schwann cells in the sciatic nerve, dysregulated expression of ATF-3 in the DRG, and activated glial cells in L5 SDH were assessed on days 7 and 14. Intrafascicular lidocaine induced mechanical allodynia, downregulated Nav1.8, increased ATF-3 expression in the DRG, and activated glial cells in the SDH. Increased expression of macrophages, Schwann cells, and myelin basic protein was found in the sciatic nerve. Minocycline attenuated intrafascicular lidocaine-induced neuropathic pain and nerve damage significantly. Peri-injury minocycline was better than postinjury minocycline administration in alleviating mechanical behaviors, mitigating macrophage recruitment into the sciatic nerve, and suppressing activated microglial cells in the spinal cord. Systemic minocycline administration alleviates intrafascicular lidocaine injection-induced peripheral nerve damage.

  10. Ontogeny of the collar cord: neurulation in the hemichordate Saccoglossus kowalevskii.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Sabrina; Stach, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    The chordate body plan is characterized by a central notochord, a pharynx perforated by gill pores, and a dorsal central nervous system. Despite progress in recent years, the evolutionary origin of each of theses characters remains controversial. In the case of the nervous system, two contradictory hypotheses exist. In the first, the chordate nervous system is derived directly from a diffuse nerve net; whereas, the second proposes that a centralized nervous system is found in hemichordates and, therefore, predates chordate evolution. Here, we document the ontogeny of the collar cord of the enteropneust Saccoglossus kowalevskii using transmission electron microscopy and 3D-reconstruction based on completely serially sectioned stages. We demonstrate that the collar cord develops from a middorsal neural plate that is closed in a posterior to anterior direction. Transversely oriented ependymal cells possessing myofilaments mediate this morphogenetic process and surround the remnants of the neural canal in juveniles. A mid-dorsal glandular complex is present in the collar. The collar cord in juveniles is clearly separated into a dorsal saddle-like region of somata and a ventral neuropil. We characterize two cell types in the somata region, giant neurons and ependymal cells. Giant neurons connect via a peculiar cell junction that seems to function in intercellular communication. Synaptic junctions containing different vesicle types are present in the neuropil. These findings support the hypotheses that the collar cord constitutes a centralized element of the nervous system and that the morphogenetic process in the ontogeny of the collar cord is homologous to neurulation in chordates. Moreover, we suggest that these similarities are indicative of a close phylogenetic relationship between enteropneusts and chordates. ©2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Evaluation of normal appearing spinal cord by diffusion tensor imaging, fiber tracking, fractional anisotropy, and apparent diffusion coefficient measurement in 13 dogs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging offers plenty of new opportunities in the diagnosis of central nervous system diseases. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a technique sensitive to the random motion of water providing information about tissue architecture. We applied DTI to normal appearing spinal cords of 13 dogs of different breeds and body weights in a 3.0 T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. The aim was to study fiber tracking (FT) patterns by tractography and the variations of the fractional anisotropy (FA) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) observed in the spinal cords of dogs with different sizes and at different locations (cervical and thoracolumbar). For that reason we added a DTI sequence to the standard clinical MR protocol. The values of FA and ADC were calculated by means of three regions of interest defined on the cervical or the thoracolumbar spinal cord (ROI 1, 2, and 3). Results The shape of the spinal cord fiber tracts was well illustrated following tractography and the exiting nerve roots could be differentiated from the spinal cord fiber tracts. Routine MR scanning times were extended for 8 to 12 min, depending on the size of the field of view (FOV), the slice thickness, and the size of the interslice gaps. In small breed dogs (< 15 kg body weight) the fibers could be tracked over a length of approximately 10 vertebral bodies with scanning times of about 8 min, whereas in large breed dogs (> 25 kg body weight) the traceable fiber length was about 5 vertebral bodies which took 10 to 12 min scanning time. FA and ADC values showed mean values of 0.447 (FA), and 0.560 × 10-3 mm2/s (ADC), respectively without any differences detected with regard to different dog sizes and spinal cord 45 segments examined. Conclusion FT is suitable for the graphical depiction of the canine spinal cord and the exiting nerve roots. The FA and ADC values offer an objective measure for evaluation of the spinal cord fiber

  12. [Sural nerve removal using a nerve stripper].

    PubMed

    Assmus, H

    1983-03-01

    In 19 patients the sural nerve was removed for nerve grafting by a specially designed nerve stripper. This technique provides a safe and time-saving removal of the nerve in length up to 34 cm (depending on the length of the stripper used). From a single short incision at the level of the lateral malleolus the nerve is stripped proximally tearing some small branches of the distal nerve. The relatively blunt tip avoids inadvertent transection of the nerve at a lower level or dissection of the nerve at a point where branching occurs. Finally the nerve is cut by the divided cylinder at the tip of the stripper.

  13. "Dangerous" anatomic varieties of recurrent motor branch of median nerve.

    PubMed

    Elsaftawy, Ahmed; Gworys, Bohdan; Jabłecki, Jerzy; Szajerka, Tobiasz

    2013-08-01

    Carpal tunnel release became one of the most common operations in the field of hand surgery. Many controversies has been made about frequency of the so-called dangerous variations of motor branch of the median nerve. Knowledge of all the anatomical variations motor branches is the duty of every surgeon dealing with the subject. The aim of the study was to present the incidence of dangerous variants of median nerve motor branch in the carpal tunnel based on both clinical experience and anatomical studies performed on 20 cadaver wrists. Between 2006-2012 during minimally open carpal tunnel release we made photographic documentation of all visible dangerous varieties of recurrent motor branches of the median nerve. We also studied 20 cadaver wrists in the Department of Anatomy Medical University in Wrocław. Dangerous varieties of the motor branch of median nerve was found in three clinical cases and in one cadaver wrist. Also In one wrist we found one regular branche, which, however, has atypical two separate branches supplying the thenar muscles. Dangerous varieties of the motor branch of median nerve occur very rare in the population, but does not release from the fact that in each case special attention must be given.We also conclude that, at the minimally open carpal tunnel release procedure, the transverse carpal ligament should be released rather from the line of radial border of the 4th finger to minimize the risk of injury to the recurrent motor branch of median nerve.

  14. Continuous intraoperative neural monitoring of the recurrent nerves in thyroid surgery: a quantum leap in technology

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Gregory W.; Barczynski, Marcin; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Wu, Che-Wei; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Machens, Andreas; Kamani, Dipti; Dralle, Henning

    2016-01-01

    The continuous intraoperative neural monitoring (CIONM) technique is increasingly acknowledged as a useful tool to recognize impending nerve injury and to abort the related manoeuvre to prevent nerve injury during thyroid surgery. CIONM provides valuable real-time information constantly, which is really useful during complex thyroid surgeries especially in the settings of unusual anatomy. Thus, CIONM overcomes the key methodological limitation inherent in intermittent nerve monitoring (IINOM); which is allowing the nerve to be at risk in between the stimulations. The clinically important combined electromyographic (EMG) event, indicative of impending recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury, prevents the majority of traction related injuries to the anatomically intact RLN enabling modification of the causative surgical manoeuvre in 80% of cases. These EMG changes can progress to loss of EMG signal with postoperative vocal cord palsy (VCP) if corrective action is not taken. As a further extension, CIONM also helps to identify intraoperative functional nerve recovery with restitution of amplitude to ≥50% of initial baseline; this allows continuing of resection of contralateral side. CIONM facilitates for early corrective action before permanent damage to the nerve has been done. CIONM is a recent but rapidly evolving technique, constantly being refined by various studies focusing on improvement in its implementation and interpretation, as well as on the elimination of the technical snags. PMID:28149807

  15. Effect of noxious electrical stimulation of the peroneal nerve on stretch reflex activity of the hamstring muscle in rats: possible implications of neuronal mechanisms in the development of tight hamstrings in lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Jiro; Yamagata, Masatsune; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Moriya, Hideshige

    2005-05-01

    The effect of noxious electrical stimulation of the peroneal nerve on the stretch reflex electromyogram activity of the hamstring muscle (semitendinous) was studied. To verify the following hypothetical mechanisms underlying tight hamstrings in lumbar disc herniation: stretch reflex muscle activity of hamstrings is increased by painful inputs from an injured spinal nerve root and the increased stretch reflex muscle activity is maintained by central sensitization. It is reported that stretch reflex activity of the trunk muscles is induced by noxious stimulation of the sciatic nerve and maintained by central sensitization. In spinalized rats (transected spinal cord), the peroneal nerve was stimulated electrically as a conditioning stimulus. Stretch reflex electromyogram activity of the semitendinous muscle was recorded before and after the conditioning stimulus. Even after electrical stimulation was terminated, an increased stretch reflex activity of the hamstring muscle was observed. It is likely that a central sensitization mechanism at the spinal cord level was involved in the increased reflex activity. Central sensitization may play a part in the neuronal mechanisms of tight hamstrings in lumbar disc herniation.

  16. Dynamic diffusion tensor imaging of spinal cord contusion: A canine model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changbin; Yang, Degang; Li, Jianjun; Li, Dapeng; Yang, Mingliang; Sun, Wei; Meng, Qianru; Zhang, Wenhao; Cai, Chang; Du, Liangjie; Li, Jun; Gao, Feng; Gu, Rui; Feng, Yutong; Dong, Xuechao; Miao, Qi; Yang, Xinghua; Zuo, Zhentao

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to explore the dynamic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of changes in spinal cord contusion using a canine model of injury involving rostral and caudal levels. In this study, a spinal cord contusion model was established in female dogs using a custom-made weight-drop lesion device. DTI was performed on dogs with injured spinal cords (n=7) using a Siemens 3.0T MRI scanner at pre-contusion and at 3 h, 24 h, 6 weeks and 12 weeks post-injury. The tissue sections were stained for immunohistochemical analysis. Canine models of spinal cord contusion were created successfully using the weight-drop lesion device. The fractional anisotropy (FA) value of lesion epicenter decreased, while the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), mean diffusivity (MD), and radial diffusivity (RD) values increased, and the extent of the curve was apparent gradually. The site and time affected the DTI parameters significantly in the whole spinal cord, ADC (site, P < 0.001 and time, P = 0.077, respectively); FA (site, P < 0.001 and time, P = 0.002, respectively). Immunohistological analysis of GFAP and NF revealed the pathologic changes of reactive astrocytes and axons, as well as the cavity and glial scars occurring during chronic SCI. DTI is a sensitive and noninvasive imaging tool useful to assess edema, hemorrhage, cavity formation, structural damage and reconstruction of axon, and myelin in dogs. The DTI parameters after contusion vary. However, the curves of ADC, MD, and RD were nearly similar and the FA curve was distinct. All the DTI parameters were affected by distance and time. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. N-Acetylcysteine Prevents Retrograde Motor Neuron Death after Neonatal Peripheral Nerve Injury.

    PubMed

    Catapano, Joseph; Zhang, Jennifer; Scholl, David; Chiang, Cameron; Gordon, Tessa; Borschel, Gregory H

    2017-05-01

    Neuronal death may be an overlooked and unaddressed component of disability following neonatal nerve injuries, such as obstetric brachial plexus injury. N-acetylcysteine and acetyl-L-carnitine improve survival of neurons after adult nerve injury, but it is unknown whether they improve survival after neonatal injury, when neurons are most susceptible to retrograde neuronal death. The authors' objective was to examine whether N-acetylcysteine or acetyl-L-carnitine treatment improves survival of neonatal motor or sensory neurons in a rat model of neonatal nerve injury. Rat pups received either a sciatic nerve crush or transection injury at postnatal day 3 and were then randomized to receive either intraperitoneal vehicle (5% dextrose), N-acetylcysteine (750 mg/kg), or acetyl-L-carnitine (300 mg/kg) once or twice daily. Four weeks after injury, surviving neurons were retrograde-labeled with 4% Fluoro-Gold. The lumbar spinal cord and L4/L5 dorsal root ganglia were then harvested and sectioned to count surviving motor and sensory neurons. Transection and crush injuries resulted in significant motor and sensory neuron loss, with transection injury resulting in significantly less neuron survival. High-dose N-acetylcysteine (750 mg/kg twice daily) significantly increased motor neuron survival after neonatal sciatic nerve crush and transection injury. Neither N-acetylcysteine nor acetyl-L-carnitine treatment improved sensory neuron survival. Proximal neonatal nerve injuries, such as obstetric brachial plexus injury, produce significant retrograde neuronal death after injury. High-dose N-acetylcysteine significantly increases motor neuron survival, which may improve functional outcomes after obstetrical brachial plexus injury.

  18. Over-expression of Oct4 and Sox2 transcription factors enhances differentiation of human umbilical cord blood cells in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Guseva, Daria; Hannover Medical School, Hannover; Rizvanov, Albert A.

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Gene and cell-based therapies comprise innovative aspects of regenerative medicine. • Genetically modified hUCB-MCs enhanced differentiation of cells in a mouse model of ALS. • Stem cells successfully transformed into micro-glial and endothelial lines in spinal cords. • Over-expressing oct4 and sox2 also induced production of neural marker PGP9.5. • Formation of new nerve cells, secreting trophic factors and neo-vascularisation could improve symptoms in ALS. - Abstract: Gene and cell-based therapies comprise innovative aspects of regenerative medicine. Even though stem cells represent a highly potential therapeutic strategy, their wide-spread exploitation is marred by ethical concerns, potential for malignantmore » transformation and a plethora of other technical issues, largely restricting their use to experimental studies. Utilizing genetically modified human umbilical cord blood mono-nuclear cells (hUCB-MCs), this communication reports enhanced differentiation of transplants in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Over-expressing Oct4 and Sox2 induced production of neural marker PGP9.5, as well as transformation of hUCB-MCs into micro-glial and endothelial lines in ALS spinal cords. In addition to producing new nerve cells, providing degenerated areas with trophic factors and neo-vascularisation might prevent and even reverse progressive loss of moto-neurons and skeletal muscle paralysis.« less

  19. A Pilot Study of a Novel Automated Somatosensory Evoked Potential (SSEP) Monitoring Device for Detection and Prevention of Intraoperative Peripheral Nerve Injury in Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chui, Jason; Murkin, John M; Drosdowech, Darren

    2018-05-21

    Peripheral nerve injury is a potentially devastating complication after total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) surgery. This pilot study aimed to assess the feasibility of using an automated somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) device to provide a timely alert/intervention to minimize intraoperative nerve insults during TSA surgery. A prospective, single-arm, observational study was conducted in a single university hospital. The attending anesthesiologist monitored the study participants using the EPAD automated SSEP device and an intervention was made if there was an alert during TSA surgery. The median, radial, and ulnar nerve SSEP on the operative arm, as well as the median nerve SSEP of the nonoperative arm were monitored for each patient. All patients were evaluated for postoperative neurological deficits 6 weeks postoperatively. In total, 21 patients were consented and were successfully monitored. In total, 4 (19%) patients developed intraoperative abnormal SSEP signal changes in the operative arm, in which 3 were reversible and 1 was irreversible till the end of surgery. Median and radial nerves were mostly involved (3/4 patients). The mean cumulative duration of nerve insult (abnormal SSEP) was 21.7±26.2 minutes. Univariate analysis did not identify predictor of intraoperative nerve insults. No patients demonstrated postoperative peripheral neuropathy at 6 weeks. A high incidence (19%) of intraoperative nerve insult was observed in this study demonstrating the feasibility of using an automated SSEP device to provide a timely alert and enable an intervention in order to minimize peripheral nerve injury during TSA. Further randomized studies are warranted.

  20. Restoring penis sensation in patients with low spinal cord lesions: the role of the remaining function of the dorsal nerve in a unilateral or bilateral TOMAX procedure.

    PubMed

    Overgoor, Max L E; Braakhekke, Jan P; Kon, Moshe; De Jong, Tom P V M

    2015-04-01

    The recently developed TOMAX-procedure restores unilateral genital sensation, improving sexual health in men with a low spinal lesion (LSL). It connects one dorsal nerve of the penis (DNP) to the intact ipsilateral ilioinguinal nerve. We proposed bilateral neurotization for full sensation of the glans but this entails cutting both DNPs, risking patients' erection/ejaculation ability. The objective was to select patients for a bilateral TOMAX-procedure by measuring remaining DNP function, and perform the first bilateral cases. In 30 LSL patients with no penile- but normal groin sensation selected for a unilateral TOMAX-procedure the integrity of the sacral-reflex-arc and DNP function was tested pre-operatively using bilateral needle electromyography (EMG)-bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) measurements, and an interview about reflex erections (RE) ability. In 13 spina bifida- and 17 spinal cord injury patients [median age 29.5 years (range 13-59 years), spinal lesion T12 (incomplete) to sacral], seven (23%) patients reported RE, four (57%) with intact BCR, and of nine (30%) patients with intact BCR, four reported RE (44%). Even patients with a LSL and no penile sensation can have signs of remaining DNP function, but cutting both DNPs to restore full glans sensation in a bilateral TOMAX-procedure might interfere with their RE/ejaculation. To avoid this risk, we propose a selecting-protocol for a unilateral- or bilateral procedure using RE and BCR measurements. Using this protocol, three patients were bilaterally operated with promising preliminary results. Full sensation of the glans could lead to further improvement in sexual function. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Complications of fluoroscopically directed facet joint nerve blocks: a prospective evaluation of 7,500 episodes with 43,000 nerve blocks.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Malla, Yogesh; Wargo, Bradley W; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Fellows, Bert

    2012-01-01

    Chronic spinal pain is common along with numerous modalities of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions utilized, creating a health care crisis. Facet joint injections and epidural injections are the 2 most commonly utilized interventions in managing chronic spinal pain. While the literature addressing the effectiveness of facet joint nerve blocks is variable and emerging, there is paucity of literature on adverse effects of facet joint nerve blocks. A prospective, non-randomized study of patients undergoing interventional techniques from May 2008 to December 2009. A private interventional pain management practice, a specialty referral center in the United States. Investigation of the incidence in characteristics of adverse effects and complications of facet joint nerve blocks. The study was carried out over a period of 20 months including almost 7,500 episodes of 43,000 facet joint nerve blocks with 3,370 episodes in the cervical region, 3,162 in the lumbar region, and 950 in the thoracic region. All facet joint nerve blocks were performed under fluoroscopic guidance in an ambulatory surgery center by 3 physicians. The complications encountered during the procedure and postoperatively were evaluated prospectively. This study was carried out over a period of 20 months and included over 7,500 episodes or 43,000 facet joint nerve blocks. All of the interventions were performed under fluoroscopic guidance in an ambulatory surgery center by one of 3 physicians. The complications encountered during the procedure and postoperatively were prospectively evaluated. Measurable outcomes employed were intravascular entry of the needle, profuse bleeding, local hematoma, dural puncture and headache, nerve root or spinal cord irritation with resultant injury, and infectious complications. There were no major complications. Multiple side effects and complications observed included overall intravascular penetration in 11.4% of episodes with 20% in cervical region, 4% in lumbar

  2. Progranulin promotes peripheral nerve regeneration and reinnervation: role of notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Christine; Vasic, Verica; Hardt, Stefanie; Heidler, Juliana; Häussler, Annett; Wittig, Ilka; Schmidt, Mirko H H; Tegeder, Irmgard

    2016-10-22

    Peripheral nerve injury is a frequent cause of lasting motor deficits and chronic pain. Although peripheral nerves are capable of regrowth they often fail to re-innervate target tissues. Using newly generated transgenic mice with inducible neuronal progranulin overexpression we show that progranulin accelerates axonal regrowth, restoration of neuromuscular synapses and recovery of sensory and motor functions after injury of the sciatic nerve. Oppositely, progranulin deficient mice have long-lasting deficits in motor function tests after nerve injury due to enhanced losses of motor neurons and stronger microglia activation in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. Deep proteome and gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that the proteins upregulated in progranulin overexpressing mice were involved in 'regulation of transcription' and 'response to insulin' (GO terms). Transcription factor prediction pointed to activation of Notch signaling and indeed, co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that progranulin bound to the extracellular domain of Notch receptors, and this was functionally associated with higher expression of Notch target genes in the dorsal root ganglia of transgenic mice with neuronal progranulin overexpression. Functionally, these transgenic mice recovered normal gait and running, which was not achieved by controls and was stronger impaired in progranulin deficient mice. We infer that progranulin activates Notch signaling pathways, enhancing thereby the regenerative capacity of partially injured neurons, which leads to improved motor function recovery.

  3. RNA content in spinal cord motoneurons during hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorbunova, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of a diminished motor activity of rats upon the ribonucleic and (RNA) content in a single isolated motoneuron of frontal of their spinal cord was studied. Within a 1 to 30 day exposure of rats to the hypokinetic conditions, RNA content was found to decrease on the 1st, 3rd, and 5th day and to return to the initial level by the 7th day. No changes in RNA content were observed during the subsequent stages of the xperiments. The volume of the nerve cells declined on the 3rd and 5th day, whereas RNA concentration reduced on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 30th day.

  4. Phrenic motor outputs in response to bronchopulmonary C‐fibre activation following chronic cervical spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Key points Activation of bronchopulmonary C‐fibres, the main chemosensitive afferents in the lung, can induce pulmonary chemoreflexes to modulate respiratory activity.Following chronic cervical spinal cord injury, bronchopulmonary C‐fibre activation‐induced inhibition of phrenic activity was exaggerated.Supersensitivity of phrenic motor outputs to the inhibitory effect of bronchopulmonary C‐fibre activation is due to a shift of phrenic motoneuron types and slow recovery of phrenic motoneuron discharge in cervical spinal cord‐injured animals.These data suggest that activation of bronchopulmonary C‐fibres may retard phrenic output recovery following cervical spinal cord injury.The alteration of phenotype and discharge pattern of phrenic motoneuron enables us to understand the impact of spinal cord injury on spinal respiratory activity. Abstract Cervical spinal injury interrupts bulbospinal pathways and results in cessation of phrenic bursting ipsilateral to the lesion. The ipsilateral phrenic activity can partially recover over weeks to months following injury due to the activation of latent crossed spinal pathways and exhibits a greater capacity to increase activity during respiratory challenges than the contralateral phrenic nerve. However, whether the bilateral phrenic nerves demonstrate differential responses to respiratory inhibitory inputs is unclear. Accordingly, the present study examined bilateral phrenic bursting in response to capsaicin‐induced pulmonary chemoreflexes, a robust respiratory inhibitory stimulus. Bilateral phrenic nerve activity was recorded in anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated adult rats at 8–9 weeks after C2 hemisection (C2Hx) or C2 laminectomy. Intra‐jugular capsaicin (1.5 μg kg−1) injection was performed to activate the bronchopulmonary C‐fibres to evoke pulmonary chemoreflexes. The present results indicate that capsaicin‐induced prolongation of expiratory duration was significantly attenuated in C2Hx

  5. [Features of peripheral nerve injuries in workers exposed to vibration: an analysis of 197 cases].

    PubMed

    Situ, J; Lin, C M; Qin, Z H; Zhu, D X; Lin, H; Zhang, F F; Zhang, J J

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To investigate the features of peripheral nerve injuries in workers exposed to vibration. Methods: A total of 197 male workers [median age: 34 years (21 - 50 years) ; median working years of vibration exposure: 7.3 years (1 - 20 years) ] engaged in grinding in an enterprise were enrolled. Their clinical data and electromyography results were analyzed to investigate the features of peripheral nerve impairment. Results: Of all workers, 96 (48.73%) had abnormal electromyography results. Of all workers, 88 (44.7%) had simple mild median nerve injury in the wrist, who accounted for 91.7% (88/96) of all workers with abnormal electromy-ography results. Six workers had ulnar nerve injury, superficial radial nerve injury, or/and superficial peroneal nerve injury and accounted for 6.3% of all workers with abnormal electromyography results. Of all workers, 88 had a reduced amplitude of median nerve sensory transduction, and 28 had slowed median nerve sensory transduction. A total of 46 workers were diagnosed with occupational hand-arm vibration disease and hospitalized for treatment. They were followed up for more than 4 months after leaving their jobs, and most of them showed improvements in neural electromyography results and returned to a normal state. Conclusion: Workers exposed to vibration have a high incidence rate of nerve injury in the hand, mainly sensory function impairment at the distal end of the median nerve, and all injuries are mild peripheral nerve injuries. After leaving the vibration job and being treated, most workers can achieve improvements and return to a normal state.

  6. Spectrum of Spinal Cord, Spinal Root, and Brain MRI Abnormalities in Congenital Zika Syndrome with and without Arthrogryposis.

    PubMed

    Aragao, M F V V; Brainer-Lima, A M; Holanda, A C; van der Linden, V; Vasco Aragão, L; Silva Júnior, M L M; Sarteschi, C; Petribu, N C L; Valença, M M

    2017-05-01

    Arthrogryposis is among the malformations of congenital Zika syndrome. Similar to the brain, there might exist a spectrum of spinal cord abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe in detail the MR imaging features found in the spinal cords, nerve roots, and brains of children with congenital Zika syndrome with and without arthrogryposis. Twelve infants with congenital Zika syndrome (4 with arthrogryposis and 8 without) who had undergone brain and spinal cord MR imaging were retrospectively selected. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed and compared between groups. At visual inspection, both groups showed reduced thoracic spinal cord thickness: 75% (6/8) of the group without arthrogryposis and 100% (4/4) of the arthrogryposis group. However, the latter had the entire spinal cord reduced and more severely reduced conus medullaris anterior roots (respectively, P = .002 and .007). Quantitative differences were found for conus medullaris base and cervical and lumbar intumescences diameters (respectively, P = .008, .048, .008), with more prominent reduction in arthrogryposis. Periventricular calcifications were more frequent in infants with arthrogryposis ( P = .018). Most infants had some degree of spinal cord thickness reduction, predominant in the thoracic segment (without arthrogryposis) or in the entire spinal cord (with arthrogryposis). The conus medullaris anterior roots were reduced in both groups (thinner in arthrogryposis). A prominent anterior median fissure of the spinal cord was absent in infants without arthrogryposis. Brain stem hypoplasia was present in all infants with arthrogryposis, periventricular calcifications, in the majority, and polymicrogyria was absent. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  7. Crosstalk between p38, Hsp25 and Akt in spinal motor neurons after sciatic nerve injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murashov, A. K.; Ul Haq, I.; Hill, C.; Park, E.; Smith, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, X.; Goldberg, D. J.; Wolgemuth, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    The p38 stress-activated protein kinase pathway is involved in regulation of phosphorylation of Hsp25, which in turn regulates actin filament dynamic in non-neuronal cells. We report that p38, Hsp25 and Akt signaling pathways were specifically activated in spinal motor neurons after sciatic nerve axotomy. The activation of the p38 kinase was required for induction of Hsp25 expression. Furthermore, Hsp25 formed a complex with Akt, a member of PI-3 kinase pathway that prevents neuronal cell death. Together, our observations implicate Hsp25 as a central player in a complex system of signaling that may both promote regeneration of nerve fibers and prevent neuronal cell death in the injured spinal cord.

  8. Central nervous system (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... receive nerve impulses from the spinal cord and cranial nerves. The spinal cord contains the nerves that carry messages between the brain and the body. Spinal cord injury can occur when there is damage to the cells within the spinal cord or ...

  9. Laryngeal and phrenic nerve involvement in a patient with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP).

    PubMed

    Cortese, A; Piccolo, G; Lozza, A; Schreiber, A; Callegari, I; Moglia, A; Alfonsi, E; Pareyson, D

    2016-07-01

    Lower cranial and phrenic nerve involvement is exceptional in hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). Here we report the occurrence of reversible laryngeal and phrenic nerve involvement in a patient with HNPP. The patient recalled several episodes of reversible weakness and numbness of his feet and hands since the age of 30 years. His medical history was uneventful, apart from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). At age 44, following severe weight loss, he presented with progressive dysphonia and hoarseness. EMG of cricoarytenoid and thyroarytenoid muscles and laryngeal fibroscopy confirmed vocal cord paralysis. These speech disturbances gradually regressed. Two years later, he reported rapidly worsening dyspnea. Electroneurography showed increased distal latency of the right phrenic nerve and diaphragm ultrasonography documented reduced right hemi-diaphragm excursion. Six months later and after optimization of CODP treatment, his respiratory function had improved and both phrenic nerve conduction and diaphragm excursion were completely restored. We hypothesize that chronic cough and nerve stretching in the context of CODP, together with severe weight loss, may have triggered the nerve paralysis in this patient. Our report highlights the need for optimal management of comorbidities such as CODP as well as careful control of weight in HNPP patients to avoid potentially harmful complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Intradiencephalon injection of histamine inhibited the recovery of locomotor function of spinal cord injured zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu-Bing; Zhao, Hou-De; Wang, Lin-Fang; Sun, Meng-Fei; Zhu, Ying-Li; Wu, Yi-Bo; Xu, Yi-Da; Peng, Shi-Xiao; Cui, Chun; Shen, Yan-Qin

    2017-07-29

    Human spinal cord injury (SCI) usually causes irreversible disability beneath the injured site due to poor neural regeneration. On the contrary, zebrafish show significant regenerative ability after SCI, thus is usually worked as an animal model for studying neuroregeneration. Most of the previous SCI studies focused on the local site of SCI, the supraspinal-derived signals were rarely mentioned. Here we showed that intradiencephalon injection of histamine (HA) inhibited the locomotor recovery in adult zebrafish post-SCI. Immunofluorescence results showed that intradiencephalon HA administration increased the activated microglia 3 days post injury (dpi), promoted the proliferation of radial glial cells at 7 dpi and affected the morphology of radial glial cells at 11 dpi. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) results showed that intradiencephalon HA administration also reduced the expression of neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor1 (IGF-1) at the lesion site, however, had no effect on the expression of pro-inflammatory factors such as TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta. Hence, our data suggested that exogenous intradiencephalon HA retarded locomotor recovery in spinal cord injured zebrafish via modulating the repair microenvironment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanism to preserve phrenic nerve function during photosensitization reaction: drug uptake and photosensitization reaction effect on electric propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Haruka; Hamada, Risa; Ogawa, Emiyu; Arai, Tsunenori

    2018-02-01

    To study a mechanism of phrenic nerve preservation phenomena during a photosensitization reaction, we investigated an uptake of talaporfin sodium and photosensitization reaction effect on an electric propagation. Right phrenic nerve was completely preserved after superior vena cava isolations using the photosensitization reaction in canine animal experiments, in spite of adjacent myocardium was electrically blocked. We predicted that low drug uptake and/or low photosensitization reaction effect on the nerve might be a mechanism of that phenomena. To investigate uptake to various nerve tissue, a healthy extracted crayfish ventral nerve cord and an extracted porcine phrenic nerve were immersed in 20 μg/ml talaporfin sodium solution for 0-240 min. The mean talaporfin sodium fluorescence brightness increased depending on the immersion time. This brightness saturated around the immersion time of 120 min. We found that talaporfin sodium uptake inside the perineurium which directly related to the electric propagation function was lower than that of outside in the porcine phrenic nerve. To investigate photosensitization reaction effect on electric propagation, the crayfish nerve was immersed into the same solution for 15 min and irradiated by a 663 nm laser light with 120 mW/cm2. Since we found the action potential disappeared when the irradiation time was 25-65 s, we consider that the crayfish nerve does not tolerant to the photosensitization reaction on electric propagation function at atmospheric pressure. From these results, we think that the low uptake of talaporfin sodium inside the perineurium and low oxygen partial pressure of nerve might be the possible mechanism to preserve phrenic nerve in vivo.

  12. [Vocal cord paralysis after thyroid surgery : Current medicolegal aspects of intraoperative neuromonitoring].

    PubMed

    Dralle, H; Schneider, R; Lorenz, K; Phuong, N Thanh; Sekulla, C; Machens, A

    2015-07-01

    Intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) has been commercially available for approximately 15 years and is highly predictive in thyroid gland surgery concerning either postoperative vocal fold mobility in the case of an intact signal for muscle action electromyogram (EMG, > 99 % right negative) or vocal fold dysfunction in the case of loss of signal (> 70 % right positive). The use of IONM improves the intraoperative identification of recurrent laryngeal nerve function and due to the high predictive value with respect to the expected vocal cord function the result of IONM has to be integrated into the surgical concept of thyroidectomy. Unilateral loss of function of the recurrent laryngeal nerve cannot be completely avoided despite correct application of IONM; however, bilateral vocal fold palsy can be safely avoided when contralateral surgery is cancelled after a loss of signal occurs during resection of the first side in planned bilateral surgery (alternative strategy). Patients have to be informed preoperatively about the limitations of IONM and potential strategy changes during planned bilateral surgery. Surgeons should apply IONM according to the published current recommendations and by selecting a risk-oriented intraoperative strategy in the case of loss of signal from the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

  13. Activation of the unfolded protein response promotes axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Oñate, Maritza; Catenaccio, Alejandra; Martínez, Gabriela; Armentano, Donna; Parsons, Geoffrey; Kerr, Bredford; Hetz, Claudio; Court, Felipe A.

    2016-01-01

    Although protein-folding stress at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is emerging as a driver of neuronal dysfunction in models of spinal cord injury and neurodegeneration, the contribution of this pathway to peripheral nerve damage remains poorly explored. Here we targeted the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive reaction against ER stress, in mouse models of sciatic nerve injury and found that ablation of the transcription factor XBP1, but not ATF4, significantly delay locomotor recovery. XBP1 deficiency led to decreased macrophage recruitment, a reduction in myelin removal and axonal regeneration. Conversely, overexpression of XBP1s in the nervous system in transgenic mice enhanced locomotor recovery after sciatic nerve crush, associated to an improvement in key pro-regenerative events. To assess the therapeutic potential of UPR manipulation to axonal regeneration, we locally delivered XBP1s or an shRNA targeting this transcription factor to sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia using a gene therapy approach and found an enhancement or reduction of axonal regeneration in vivo, respectively. Our results demonstrate a functional role of specific components of the ER proteostasis network in the cellular changes associated to regeneration and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. PMID:26906090

  14. Reciprocal functional interactions between the brainstem and the lower spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Yazawa, Itaru

    2014-01-01

    The interplay of the neuronal discharge patterns regarding respiration and locomotion was investigated using electrophysiological techniques in a decerebrate and arterially perfused in situ mouse preparation. The phrenic, tibial, and/or peroneal nerve discharge became clearly organized into discharge episodes of increasing frequency and duration, punctuated by periods of quiescence as the perfusion flow rate increased at room temperature. The modulated sympathetic tone induced by the hyperoxic/normocapnic state was found to activate the locomotor pattern generator (LPG) via descending pathways and generate a left and right alternating discharge during discharge episodes in the motor nerves. The rhythm coupling of respiration and locomotion occurred at a 1:1 frequency ratio. Although the phrenic discharge synchronized with the tibial discharge at all flow rates tested, the time lag between peaks of the two discharges during locomotion was ≈400 ms rather than ≈200 ms, suggesting spinal feedback via ascending pathways. The incidence of the phrenic and tibial discharge episodes decreased by ≈50% after spinalization at the twelfth thoracic cord and the respiratory rhythm was more regular. These results indicate that: (i) locomotion can be generated in a hyperoxic/normocapnic state induced by specific respiratory conditions, (ii) the central mechanism regarding entrainment of respiratory and locomotor rhythms relies on spinal feedback via ascending pathways, initiated by the activated LPG generating locomotion, and (iii) the increase in respiratory rate seen during locomotion is caused not only by afferent mechanical and nociceptive inputs but also by impulses from the activated spinal cord producing a locomotor-like discharge via ascending pathways. PMID:24910591

  15. High-resolution nerve ultrasound and magnetic resonance neurography as complementary neuroimaging tools for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Pitarokoili, Kalliopi; Kronlage, Moritz; Bäumer, Philip; Schwarz, Daniel; Gold, Ralf; Bendszus, Martin; Yoon, Min-Suk

    2018-01-01

    Background: We present a clinical, electrophysiological, sonographical and magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) study examining the complementary role of two neuroimaging methods of the peripheral nervous system for patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Furthermore, we explore the significance of cross-sectional area (CSA) increase through correlations with MRN markers of nerve integrity. Methods: A total of 108 nerve segments on the median, ulnar, radial, tibial and fibular nerve, as well as the lumbar and cervical plexus of 18 CIDP patients were examined with high-resonance nerve ultrasound (HRUS) and MRN additionally to the nerve conduction studies. Results: We observed a fair degree of correlation of the CSA values for all nerves/nerve segments between the two methods, with a low random error in Bland–Altman analysis (bias = HRUS-CSA − MRN-CSA, −0.61 to −3.26 mm). CSA in HRUS correlated with the nerve T2-weighted (nT2) signal increase as well as with diffusion tensor imaging parameters such as fractional anisotropy, a marker of microstructural integrity. HRUS-CSA of the interscalene brachial plexus correlated significantly with the MRN-CSA and nT2 signal of the L5 and S1 roots of the lumbar plexus. Conclusions: HRUS allows for reliable CSA imaging of all peripheral nerves and the cervical plexus, and CSA correlates with markers of nerve integrity. Imaging of proximal segments as well as the estimation of nerve integrity require MRN as a complementary method. PMID:29552093

  16. Electrical stimulation modulates injury potentials in rats after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guanghao; Huo, Xiaolin; Wang, Aihua; Wu, Changzhe; Zhang, Cheng; Bai, Jinzhu

    2013-01-01

    An injury potential is the direct current potential difference between the site of spinal cord injury and the healthy nerves. Its initial amplitude is a significant indicator of the severity of spinal cord injury, and many cations, such as sodium and calcium, account for the major portion of injury potentials. This injury potential, as well as injury current, can be modulated by direct current field stimulation; however, the appropriate parameters of the electrical field are hard to define. In this paper, injury potential is used as a parameter to adjust the intensity of electrical stimulation. Injury potential could be modulated to slightly above 0 mV (as the anode-centered group) by placing the anodes at the site of the injured spinal cord and the cathodes at the rostral and caudal sections, or around –70 mV, which is resting membrane potential (as the cathode-centered group) by reversing the polarity of electrodes in the anode-centered group. In addition, rats receiving no electrical stimulation were used as the control group. Results showed that the absolute value of the injury potentials acquired after 30 minutes of electrical stimulation was higher than the control group rats and much lower than the initial absolute value, whether the anodes or the cathodes were placed at the site of injury. This phenomenon illustrates that by changing the polarity of the electrical field, electrical stimulation can effectively modulate the injury potentials in rats after spinal cord injury. This is also beneficial for the spontaneous repair of the cell membrane and the reduction of cation influx. PMID:25206563

  17. Chondroitin sulfates do not impede axonal regeneration in goldfish spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Akihito; Okada, Soichiro; Funakoshi, Kengo

    2017-10-15

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans produced in glial scar tissue are a major inhibitory factor for axonal regeneration after central nervous system injury in mammals. The inhibition is largely due to chondroitin sulfates, whose effects differ according to the sulfation pattern. In contrast to mammals, fish nerves spontaneously regenerate beyond the scar tissue after spinal cord injury, although the mechanisms that allow for axons to pass through the scar are unclear. Here, we used immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of two chondroitin sulfates with different sulfation variants at the lesion site in goldfish spinal cord. The intact spinal cord was immunoreactive for both chondroitin sulfate-A (CS-A) and chondroitin sulfate-C (CS-C), and CS-A immunoreactivity overlapped extensively with glial processes positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein. At 1week after inducing the spinal lesion, CS-A immunoreactivity was observed in the cell bodies and extracellular matrix, as well as in glial processes surrounding the lesion center. At 2weeks after the spinal lesion, regenerating axons entering the lesion center overtook the CS-A abundant area. In contrast, at 1week after lesion induction, CS-C immunoreactivity was significantly decreased, and at 2weeks after lesion induction, CS-C immunoreactivity was observed along the regenerating axons entering the lesion center. The present findings suggest that after spinal cord injury in goldfish, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are deposited in the extracellular matrix at the lesion site but do not form an impenetrable barrier to the growth of regenerating axons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The pattern of peripheral nerve injuries among Pakistani soldiers in the war against terror.

    PubMed

    Razaq, Sarah; Yasmeen, Rehana; Butt, Aamir Waheed; Akhtar, Noreen; Mansoor, Sahibzada Nasir

    2015-05-01

    To determine the pattern of peripheral nerve injuries in Pakistani soldiers in the War against terror. Case series. Department of Electrodiagnosis at Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM), Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from June 2008 to June 2011. All new cases of war wounded soldiers with peripheral nerve injuries were consecutively enrolled. Physical examination and electrodiagnostic study was carried out by experienced physiatrists. Data was entered in pretested especially designed questionnaire which was analysed using SPSS version 17.0. Seddon's classification system was used to assess the severity of injury. There were 418 cases of peripheral nerve injuries with 504 different nerve segments. Mean age was 29.41 ±8 years. Blast was the main cause of nerve injury in 244 (48.5%) cases followed by gunshot in 215 (42.7%) and 45 (8.9%) cases had nerve injuries secondary to fall, burial under debris and motor vehicle accidents. Eighty six (17%) cases had multiple nerve injuries. Most commonly injured nerve was ulnar (20.6%) followed by sciatic (16.7%), median (16.5%), radial (16.3%), peroneal (8.7%), brachial plexus (8.5%), axillary (4.8%), tibial (2%), femoral (1.8%), long thoracic (0.4%) and others (3.8%). Axonotmesis was seen in 459 (91.1%) cases, 44 (8.7%) cases revealed neurotmesis and 1 (0.2%) case had neuropraxia. Peripheral nerve injuries are a major component of war related injuries mainly involving the upper limbs. Electrodiagnostic studies help in assessing severity and determining prognosis. Precise documentation of severity of nerve injuries is important to estimate the burden on our resources and to extend rehabilitation services.

  19. In vivo assessment of peripheral nerve regeneration by diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Morisaki, Shinsuke; Kawai, Yuko; Umeda, Masahiro; Nishi, Mayumi; Oda, Ryo; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Yamada, Kei; Higuchi, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Chuzo; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in assessing peripheral nerve regeneration in vivo. We assessed the changes in the DTI parameters and histological analyses after nerve injury to examine degeneration and regeneration in the rat sciatic nerves. For magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 16 rats were randomly divided into two groups: group P (permanently crushed; n = 7) and group T (temporally crushed; n = 9). Serial MRI of the right leg was performed before the operation, and then performed at the timepoints of 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after the crush injury. The changes in fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (λ(∥)), and radial diffusivity (λ(⟂)) were quantified. For histological analyses, the number of axons and the myelinated axon areas were quantified. Decreased FA and increased λ(⟂) were observed in the degenerative phase, and increased FA and decreased λ(⟂) were observed in the regenerative phase. The changes in FA and λ(⟂) were strongly correlated with histological changes, including axonal and myelin regeneration. DTI parameters, especially λ(⟂) , can be good indicators for peripheral nerve regeneration and can be applied as noninvasive diagnostic tools for a variety of neurological diseases. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Contribution of intraoperative neuromonitoring to the identification of the external branch of superior laryngeal nerve

    PubMed Central

    Aygün, Nurcihan; Uludağ, Mehmet; İşgör, Adnan

    2017-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the contribution of intraoperative neuromonitoring to the visual and functional identification of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. Material and Methods The prospectively collected data of patients who underwent thyroid surgery with intraoperative neuromonitoring for external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve exploration were assessed retrospectively. The surface endotracheal tube-based Medtronic NIM3 intraoperative neuromonitoring device was used. The external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve function was evaluated by the cricothyroid muscle twitch. In addition, contribution of external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve to the vocal cord adduction was evaluated using electromyographic records. Results The study included data of 126 (female, 103; male, 23) patients undergoing thyroid surgery, with a mean age of 46.2±12.2 years (range, 18–75 years), and 215 neck sides were assessed. Two hundred and one (93.5%) of 215 external branch of the superior laryngeal nerves were identified, of which 60 (27.9%) were identified visually before being stimulated with a monopolar stimulator probe. Eighty-nine (41.4%) external branch of the superior laryngeal nerves were identified visually after being identified with a probe. Although 52 (24.1%) external branch of the superior laryngeal nerves were identified with a probe, they were not visualized. Intraoperative neuromonitoring provided a significant contribution to visual (p<0.001) and functional (p<0.001) identification of external branch of the superior laryngeal nerves. Additionally, positive electromyographic responses were recorded from 160 external branch of the superior laryngeal nerves (74.4%). Conclusion Intraoperative neuromonitoring provides an important contribution to visual and functional identification of external branch of the superior laryngeal nerves. We believe that it can not be predicted whether the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve

  1. Upper extremity palsy following cervical decompression surgery results from a transient spinal cord lesion.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Homma, Takao; Chiba, Yoshikazu

    2007-03-15

    Retrospective analysis. To test the hypothesis that spinal cord lesions cause postoperative upper extremity palsy. Postoperative paresis, so-called C5 palsy, of the upper extremities is a common complication of cervical surgery. Although there are several hypotheses regarding the etiology of C5 palsy, convincing evidence with a sufficient study population, statistical analysis, and clear radiographic images illustrating the nerve root impediment has not been presented. We hypothesized that the palsy is caused by spinal cord damage following the surgical decompression performed for chronic compressive cervical disorders. The study population comprised 857 patients with chronic cervical cord compressive lesions who underwent decompression surgery. Anterior decompression and fusion was performed in 424 cases, laminoplasty in 345 cases, and laminectomy in 88 cases. Neurologic characteristics of patients with postoperative upper extremity palsy were investigated. Relationships between the palsy, and patient sex, age, diagnosis, procedure, area of decompression, and preoperative Japanese Orthopaedic Association score were evaluated with a risk factor analysis. Radiographic examinations were performed for all palsy cases. Postoperative upper extremity palsy occurred in 49 cases (5.7%). The common features of the palsy cases were solely chronic compressive spinal cord disorders and decompression surgery to the cord. There was no difference in the incidence of palsy among the procedures. Cervical segments beyond C5 were often disturbed with frequent multiple segment involvement. There was a tendency for spontaneous improvement of the palsy. Age, decompression area (anterior procedure), and diagnosis (ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament) are the highest risk factors of the palsy. The results of the present study support our hypothesis that the etiology of the palsy is a transient disturbance of the spinal cord following a decompression procedure. It appears

  2. Effects of patterned peripheral nerve stimulation on soleus spinal motor neuron excitability

    PubMed Central

    Dileone, Michele; Campolo, Michela; Carrasco-Lopez, Carmen; Moitinho-Ferreira, Fabricia; Gallego-Izquierdo, Tomas; Siebner, Hartwig R.; Valls-Solé, Josep; Aguilar, Juan

    2018-01-01

    Spinal plasticity is thought to contribute to sensorimotor recovery of limb function in several neurological disorders and can be experimentally induced in animals and humans using different stimulation protocols. In healthy individuals, electrical continuous Theta Burst Stimulation (TBS) of the median nerve has been shown to change spinal motoneuron excitability in the cervical spinal cord as indexed by a change in mean H-reflex amplitude in the flexor carpi radialis muscle. It is unknown whether continuous TBS of a peripheral nerve can also shift motoneuron excitability in the lower limb. In 26 healthy subjects, we examined the effects of electrical TBS given to the tibial nerve in the popliteal fossa on the excitability of lumbar spinal motoneurons as measured by H-reflex amplitude of the soleus muscle evoked by tibial nerve stimulation. Continuous TBS was given at 110% of H-reflex threshold intensity and compared to non-patterned regular electrical stimulation at 15 Hz. To disclose any pain-induced effects, we also tested the effects of TBS at individual sensory threshold. Moreover, in a subgroup of subjects we evaluated paired-pulse inhibition of H-reflex. Continuous TBS at 110% of H-reflex threshold intensity induced a short-term reduction of H-reflex amplitude. The other stimulation conditions produced no after effects. Paired-pulse H-reflex inhibition was not modulated by continuous TBS or non-patterned repetitive stimulation at 15 Hz. An effect of pain on the results obtained was discarded, since non-patterned 15 Hz stimulation at 110% HT led to pain scores similar to those induced by EcTBS at 110% HT, but was not able to induce any modulation of the H reflex amplitude. Together, the results provide first time evidence that peripheral continuous TBS induces a short-lasting change in the excitability of spinal motoneurons in lower limb circuitries. Future studies need to investigate how the TBS protocol can be optimized to produce a larger and longer effect

  3. Patterned sensory nerve stimulation enhances the reactivity of spinal Ia inhibitory interneurons.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Shinji; Hirano, Masato; Morishita, Takuya; Uehara, Kazumasa; Funase, Kozo

    2015-03-25

    Patterned sensory nerve stimulation has been shown to induce plastic changes in the reciprocal Ia inhibitory circuit. However, the mechanisms underlying these changes have not yet been elucidated in detail. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the reactivity of Ia inhibitory interneurons could be altered by patterned sensory nerve stimulation. The degree of reciprocal Ia inhibition, the conditioning effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on the soleus (SOL) muscle H-reflex, and the ratio of the maximum H-reflex amplitude versus maximum M-wave (H(max)/M(max)) were examined in 10 healthy individuals. Patterned electrical nerve stimulation was applied to the common peroneal nerve every 1 s (100 Hz-5 train) at the motor threshold intensity of tibialis anterior muscle to induce activity changes in the reciprocal Ia inhibitory circuit. Reciprocal Ia inhibition, the TMS-conditioned H-reflex amplitude, and H(max)/M(max) were recorded before, immediately after, and 15 min after the electrical stimulation. The patterned electrical nerve stimulation significantly increased the degree of reciprocal Ia inhibition and decreased the amplitude of the TMS-conditioned H-reflex in the short-latency inhibition phase, which was presumably mediated by Ia inhibitory interneurons. However, it had no effect on H(max)/M(max). Our results indicated that patterned sensory nerve stimulation could modulate the activity of Ia inhibitory interneurons, and this change may have been caused by the synaptic modification of Ia inhibitory interneuron terminals. These results may lead to a clearer understanding of the spinal cord synaptic plasticity produced by repetitive sensory inputs. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Delayed recurrent nerve paralysis following post-traumatic aortic pseudoaneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Ricciardiello, Filippo; Tafuri, Domenico; Varriale, Roberto; Testa, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Blunt trauma to the neck or to the chest are increasingly observed in the emergency clinical practice. They usually follow motor vehicle accidents or may be work or sports related. A wide pattern of clinical presentation can be potentially encountered. We report the uncommon case of a patient who was referred to our observation presenting with hoarseness and disphagia. Twenty days before he had sustained a car accident with trauma to the chest, neck and the mandible. Laryngoscopy showed a left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. Further otolaryngo-logical examination showed no other abnormality. At CT and MR imaging a post-traumatic aortic pseudoaneurysm was revealed. The aortic pseudoaneurysm was consequently repaired by implantation of an endovascular stent graft under local anesthesia. The patient was discharged 10 days later. At 30-days follow-up laryngoscopy the left vocal cord palsy was completely resolved. Hoarseness associated with a dilated left atrium in a patient with mitral valve stenosis was initially described by Ortner more than a century ago. Since then several non malignant, cardiovascular, intrathoracic disease that results in embarrassment from recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy usually by stretching, pulling or compression; thus, the correlations of these pathologies was termed as cardiovocal syndrome or Ortner’s syndrome. The reported case illustrates that life-threatening cardiovascular comorbidities can cause hoarseness and that an impaired recurrent laryngeal nerve might be correctable. PMID:28352797

  5. Delayed recurrent nerve paralysis following post-traumatic aortic pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Mesolella, Massimo; Ricciardiello, Filippo; Tafuri, Domenico; Varriale, Roberto; Testa, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Blunt trauma to the neck or to the chest are increasingly observed in the emergency clinical practice. They usually follow motor vehicle accidents or may be work or sports related. A wide pattern of clinical presentation can be potentially encountered. We report the uncommon case of a patient who was referred to our observation presenting with hoarseness and disphagia. Twenty days before he had sustained a car accident with trauma to the chest, neck and the mandible. Laryngoscopy showed a left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. Further otolaryngo-logical examination showed no other abnormality. At CT and MR imaging a post-traumatic aortic pseudoaneurysm was revealed. The aortic pseudoaneurysm was consequently repaired by implantation of an endovascular stent graft under local anesthesia. The patient was discharged 10 days later. At 30-days follow-up laryngoscopy the left vocal cord palsy was completely resolved. Hoarseness associated with a dilated left atrium in a patient with mitral valve stenosis was initially described by Ortner more than a century ago. Since then several non malignant, cardiovascular, intrathoracic disease that results in embarrassment from recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy usually by stretching, pulling or compression; thus, the correlations of these pathologies was termed as cardiovocal syndrome or Ortner's syndrome. The reported case illustrates that life-threatening cardiovascular comorbidities can cause hoarseness and that an impaired recurrent laryngeal nerve might be correctable.

  6. The Prevalence and Phenotype of Activated Microglia/Macrophages within the Spinal Cord of the Hyperostotic Mouse (twy/twy) Changes in Response to Chronic Progressive Spinal Cord Compression: Implications for Human Cervical Compressive Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Takayuki; Uchida, Kenzo; Nakajima, Hideaki; Guerrero, Alexander Rodriguez; Takeura, Naoto; Watanabe, Shuji; Sugita, Daisuke; Yoshida, Ai; Johnson, William E. B.; Baba, Hisatoshi

    2013-01-01

    Background Cervical compressive myelopathy, e.g. due to spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament is a common cause of spinal cord dysfunction. Although human pathological studies have reported neuronal loss and demyelination in the chronically compressed spinal cord, little is known about the mechanisms involved. In particular, the neuroinflammatory processes that are thought to underlie the condition are poorly understood. The present study assessed the localized prevalence of activated M1 and M2 microglia/macrophages in twy/twy mice that develop spontaneous cervical spinal cord compression, as a model of human disease. Methods Inflammatory cells and cytokines were assessed in compressed lesions of the spinal cords in 12-, 18- and 24-weeks old twy/twy mice by immunohistochemical, immunoblot and flow cytometric analysis. Computed tomography and standard histology confirmed a progressive spinal cord compression through the spontaneously development of an impinging calcified mass. Results The prevalence of CD11b-positive cells, in the compressed spinal cord increased over time with a concurrent decrease in neurons. The CD11b-positive cell population was initially formed of arginase-1- and CD206-positive M2 microglia/macrophages, which later shifted towards iNOS- and CD16/32-positive M1 microglia/macrophages. There was a transient increase in levels of T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines at 18 weeks, whereas levels of Th1 cytokines as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF) and macrophage antigen (Mac) −2 progressively increased. Conclusions Spinal cord compression was associated with a temporal M2 microglia/macrophage response, which may act as a possible repair or neuroprotective mechanism. However, the persistence of the neural insult also associated with persistent expression of Th1 cytokines and increased prevalence of activated M1 microglia/macrophages, which may lead to neuronal loss and demyelination

  7. Locomotor recovery after spinal cord hemisection/contusion injures in bonnet monkeys: footprint testing--a minireview.

    PubMed

    Rangasamy, Suresh Babu

    2013-07-01

    Spinal cord injuries usually produce loss or impairment of sensory, motor and reflex function below the level of damage. In the absence of functional regeneration or manipulations that promote regeneration, spontaneous improvements in motor functions occur due to the activation of multiple compensatory mechanisms in animals and humans following the partial spinal cord injury. Many studies were performed on quantitative evaluation of locomotor recovery after induced spinal cord injury in animals using behavioral tests and scoring techniques. Although few studies on rodents have led to clinical trials, it would appear imperative to use nonhuman primates such as macaque monkeys in order to relate the research outcomes to recovery of functions in humans. In this review, we will discuss some of our research evidences concerning the degree of spontaneous recovery in bipedal locomotor functions of bonnet monkeys that underwent spinal cord hemisection/contusion lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first report to discuss on the extent of spontaneous recovery in bipedal locomotion of macaque monkeys through the application of footprint analyzing technique. In addition, the results obtained were compared with the published data on recovery of quadrupedal locomotion of spinally injured rodents. We propose that the mechanisms underlying spontaneous recovery of functions in spinal cord lesioned monkeys may be correlated to the mature function of spinal pattern generator for locomotion under the impact of residual descending and afferent connections. Moreover, based on analysis of motor functions observed in locomotion in these subjected monkeys, we understand that spinal automatism and development of responses by afferent stimuli from outside the cord could possibly contribute to recovery of paralyzed hindlimbs. This report also emphasizes the functional contribution of progressive strengthening of undamaged nerve fibers through a collateral sprouts/synaptic plasticity formed

  8. Vascular endothelial growth factor gene therapy improves nerve regeneration in a model of obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Hillenbrand, Matthias; Holzbach, Thomas; Matiasek, Kaspar; Schlegel, Jürgen; Giunta, Riccardo E

    2015-03-01

    The treatment of obstetric brachial plexus palsy has been limited to conservative therapies and surgical reconstruction of peripheral nerves. In addition to the damage of the brachial plexus itself, it also leads to a loss of the corresponding motoneurons in the spinal cord, which raises the need for supportive strategies that take the participation of the central nervous system into account. Based on the protective and regenerative effects of VEGF on neural tissue, our aim was to analyse the effect on nerve regeneration by adenoviral gene transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in postpartum nerve injury of the brachial plexus in rats. In the present study, we induced a selective crush injury to the left spinal roots C5 and C6 in 18 rats within 24 hours after birth and examined the effect of VEGF-gene therapy on nerve regeneration. For gene transduction an adenoviral vector encoding for VEGF165 (AdCMV.VEGF165) was used. In a period of 11 weeks, starting 3 weeks post-operatively, functional regeneration was assessed weekly by behavioural analysis and force measurement of the upper limb. Morphometric evaluation was carried out 8 months post-operatively and consisted of a histological examination of the deltoid muscle and the brachial plexus according to defined criteria of degeneration. In addition, atrophy of the deltoid muscle was evaluated by weight determination comparing the left with the right side. VEGF expression in the brachial plexus was quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore the motoneurons of the spinal cord segment C5 were counted comparing the left with the right side. On the functional level, VEGF-treated animals showed faster nerve regeneration. It was found less degeneration and smaller mass reduction of the deltoid muscle in VEGF-treated animals. We observed significantly less degeneration of the brachial plexus and a greater number of surviving motoneurons (P < 0·05) in the VEGF group. The results of

  9. Extracellular Recording of Light Responses from Optic Nerve Fibers and the Caudal Photoreceptor in the Crayfish

    PubMed Central

    Nesbit, Steven C.; Van Hoof, Alexander G.; Le, Chi C.; Dearworth, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Few laboratory exercises have been developed using the crayfish as a model for teaching how neural processing is done by sensory organs that detect light stimuli. This article describes the dissection procedures and methods for conducting extracellular recording from light responses of both the optic nerve fibers found in the animal’s eyestalk and from the caudal photoreceptor located in the ventral nerve cord. Instruction for ADInstruments’ data acquisition system is also featured for the data collection and analysis of responses. The comparison provides students a unique view on how spike activities measured from neurons code image-forming and non-image-forming processes. Results from the exercise show longer latency and lower frequency of firing by the caudal photoreceptor compared to optic nerve fibers to demonstrate evidence of different functions. After students learn the dissection, recording procedure, and the functional anatomy, they can develop their own experiments to learn more about the photoreceptive mechanisms and the sensory integration of modalities by these light-responsive interneurons. PMID:26557793

  10. Management of unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve injury after thyroid surgery: A review.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Jeremy; Parameswaran, Rajeev

    2017-07-01

    Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) damage because of thyroid and parathyroid surgery has been recognized for over a century. Injury rates have been slowly decreasing in this period while effective treatment strategies have been increasing. Recent literature was evaluated on the topics of anatomy, pathophysiology, avoidance, and conservative and surgical treatment of RLN injury. Data for this literature review were identified by PubMed and references from relevant articles using the search terms "thyroid," "laryngeal nerve," and "injury." Only articles published in English between 1990 and 2015 were included. Advances in technique and equipment have made injury less likely. The evidence and role for neuromonitoring is discussed. Treatment strategies may include speech therapy, vocal cord augmentation using injection, laryngeal framework surgery techniques (including laryngoplasty and arytenoid adduction), and reinnervation. Injury rates in specialist centers are very low. Good to excellent results may be obtained in most cases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Dexamethasone minimizes the risk of cranial nerve injury during CEA.

    PubMed

    Regina, Guido; Angiletta, Domenico; Impedovo, Giovanni; De Robertis, Giovanni; Fiorella, Marialuisa; Carratu', Maria Rosaria

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cranial and cervical nerve injury during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) ranges from less than 7.6% to more than 50%. Lesions are mainly due to surgical maneuvers such as traction, compression, tissue electrocoagulation, clamping, and extensive dissections. The use of dexamethasone (DEX) and its beneficial effects in spinal cord injuries have already been described. We investigated whether DEX could also be beneficial to minimize the incidence of cranial and cervical nerve injury during CEA. To evaluate whether dexamethasone is able to reduce the incidence of cranial nerve injuries. From March 1999 through April 2006, 1126 patients undergoing CEA because of high-grade carotid stenosis were enrolled and randomized by predetermined randomization tables into two groups. The first group, "A", included 586 patients that all received an intravenous administration of dexamethasone following a therapeutic scheme. The second group, "B", included 540 control subjects that received the standard pre- and postoperative therapy. All patients were submitted to a deep cervical plexus block, eversion carotid endarterectomy, and selective shunting. Three days after the operation, an independent neurologist and otorhinolaryngologist evaluated the presence of cranial nerve deficits. All patients (group A and group B) showing nerve injuries continued the treatment (8 mg of dexamethasone once in the morning) for 7 days and were re-evaluated after 2 weeks, 30 days, and every 3 months for 1 year. Recovery time took from 2 weeks to 12 months, with a mean time of 3.6 months. The chi(2) test was used to compare the two groups and to check for statistical significance. The incidence of cranial nerve dysfunction was higher in group B and the statistical analysis showed a significant effect of dexamethasone in preventing the neurological damage (P = .0081). The incidence of temporary lesions was lower in group A and the chi(2) test yielded a P value of .006. No statistically

  12. Effects of Nerve Injury and Segmental Regeneration on the Cellular Correlates of Neural Morphallaxis

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Veronica G.; Manson, Josiah M.B.; Zoran, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Functional recovery of neural networks after injury requires a series of signaling events similar to the embryonic processes that governed initial network construction. Neural morphallaxis, a form of nervous system regeneration, involves reorganization of adult neural connectivity patterns. Neural morphallaxis in the worm, Lumbriculus variegatus, occurs during asexual reproduction and segmental regeneration, as body fragments acquire new positional identities along the anterior–posterior axis. Ectopic head (EH) formation, induced by ventral nerve cord lesion, generated morphallactic plasticity including the reorganization of interneuronal sensory fields and the induction of a molecular marker of neural morphallaxis. Morphallactic changes occurred only in segments posterior to an EH. Neither EH formation, nor neural morphallaxis was observed after dorsal body lesions, indicating a role for nerve cord injury in morphallaxis induction. Furthermore, a hierarchical system of neurobehavioral control was observed, where anterior heads were dominant and an EH controlled body movements only in the absence of the anterior head. Both suppression of segmental regeneration and blockade of asexual fission, after treatment with boric acid, disrupted the maintenance of neural morphallaxis, but did not block its induction. Therefore, segmental regeneration (i.e., epimorphosis) may not be required for the induction of morphallactic remodeling of neural networks. However, on-going epimorphosis appears necessary for the long-term consolidation of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the morphallaxis of neural circuitry. PMID:18561185

  13. The Midline Protein Regulates Axon Guidance by Blocking the Reiteration of Neuroblast Rows within the Drosophila Ventral Nerve Cord

    PubMed Central

    Manavalan, Mary Ann; Gaziova, Ivana; Bhat, Krishna Moorthi

    2013-01-01

    Guiding axon growth cones towards their targets is a fundamental process that occurs in a developing nervous system. Several major signaling systems are involved in axon-guidance, and disruption of these systems causes axon-guidance defects. However, the specific role of the environment in which axons navigate in regulating axon-guidance has not been examined in detail. In Drosophila, the ventral nerve cord is divided into segments, and half-segments and the precursor neuroblasts are formed in rows and columns in individual half-segments. The row-wise expression of segment-polarity genes within the neuroectoderm provides the initial row-wise identity to neuroblasts. Here, we show that in embryos mutant for the gene midline, which encodes a T-box DNA binding protein, row-2 neuroblasts and their neuroectoderm adopt a row-5 identity. This reiteration of row-5 ultimately creates a non-permissive zone or a barrier, which prevents the extension of interneuronal longitudinal tracts along their normal anterior-posterior path. While we do not know the nature of the barrier, the axon tracts either stall when they reach this region or project across the midline or towards the periphery along this zone. Previously, we had shown that midline ensures ancestry-dependent fate specification in a neuronal lineage. These results provide the molecular basis for the axon guidance defects in midline mutants and the significance of proper specification of the environment to axon-guidance. These results also reveal the importance of segmental polarity in guiding axons from one segment to the next, and a link between establishment of broad segmental identity and axon guidance. PMID:24385932

  14. Neurotrophic factors and receptors in the immature and adult spinal cord after mechanical injury or kainic acid.

    PubMed

    Widenfalk, J; Lundströmer, K; Jubran, M; Brene, S; Olson, L

    2001-05-15

    Delivery of neurotrophic factors to the injured spinal cord has been shown to stimulate neuronal survival and regeneration. This indicates that a lack of sufficient trophic support is one factor contributing to the absence of spontaneous regeneration in the mammalian spinal cord. Regulation of the expression of neurotrophic factors and receptors after spinal cord injury has not been studied in detail. We investigated levels of mRNA-encoding neurotrophins, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family members and related receptors, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), and c-fos in normal and injured spinal cord. Injuries in adult rats included weight-drop, transection, and excitotoxic kainic acid delivery; in newborn rats, partial transection was performed. The regulation of expression patterns in the adult spinal cord was compared with that in the PNS and the neonate spinal cord. After mechanical injury of the adult rat spinal cord, upregulations of NGF and GDNF mRNA occurred in meningeal cells adjacent to the lesion. BDNF and p75 mRNA increased in neurons, GDNF mRNA increased in astrocytes close to the lesion, and GFRalpha-1 and truncated TrkB mRNA increased in astrocytes of degenerating white matter. The relatively limited upregulation of neurotrophic factors in the spinal cord contrasted with the response of affected nerve roots, in which marked increases of NGF and GDNF mRNA levels were observed in Schwann cells. The difference between the ability of the PNS and CNS to provide trophic support correlates with their different abilities to regenerate. Kainic acid delivery led to only weak upregulations of BDNF and CNTF mRNA. Compared with several brain regions, the overall response of the spinal cord tissue to kainic acid was weak. The relative sparseness of upregulations of endogenous neurotrophic factors after injury strengthens the hypothesis that lack of regeneration in the spinal cord is attributable at least partly to lack of trophic support.

  15. Effects of nerve cells and adhesion molecules on nerve conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fiorellini, Joseph P.

    2017-01-01

    Background For peripheral nerve regeneration, recent attentions have been paid to the nerve conduits made by tissue-engineering technique. Three major elements of tissue-engineering are cells, molecules, and scaffolds. Methods In this study, the attachments of nerve cells, including Schwann cells, on the nerve conduit and the effects of both growth factor and adhesion molecule on these attachments were investigated. Results The attachment of rapidly-proliferating cells, C6 cells and HS683 cells, on nerve conduit was better than that of slowly-proliferating cells, PC12 cells and Schwann cells, however, the treatment of nerve growth factor improved the attachment of slowly-proliferating cells. In addition, the attachment of Schwann cells on nerve conduit coated with fibronectin was as good as that of Schwann cells treated with glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Conclusions Growth factor changes nerve cell morphology and affects cell cycle time. And nerve growth factor or fibronectin treatment is indispensable for Schwann cell to be used for implantation in artificial nerve conduits. PMID:29090249

  16. Active uptake of substance P carboxy-terminal heptapeptide (5-11) into rat brain and rabbit spinal cord slices.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Y; Kusaka, Y; Yajima, H; Segawa, T

    1981-12-01

    We previously reported that nerve terminals and glial cells lack an active uptake system capable of terminating transmitter action of substance P (SP). In the present study, we demonstrated the existence of an active uptake system for SP carboxy-terminal heptapeptide, (5-11)SP. When the slices from either rat brain or rabbit spinal cord were incubated with [3H](5-11)SP, the uptake of (5-11)SP into slices was observed. The uptake system has the properties of an active transport mechanism: it is dependent on temperature and sensitive to hypoosmotic treatment and is inhibited by ouabain and dinitrophenol (DNP). In the brain, (5-11)SP was accumulated by means of a high-affinity and a low-affinity uptake system. The Km and the Vmax values for the high-affinity system were 4.20 x 10(-8) M and 7.59 fmol/10 mg wet weight/min, respectively, whereas these values for the low-affinity system were 1.00 x 10(-6) M and 100 fmol/10 mg wet weight/min, respectively. In the spinal cord, there was only one uptake system, with a Km value of 2.16 x 10(-7) M and Vmax value of 26.2 fmol/10 mg wet weight/min. These results suggest that when SP is released from nerve terminals, it is hydrolysed into (5-11)SP before or after acting as a neurotransmitter, which is in turn accumulated into nerve terminals. Therefore, the uptake system may represent a possible mechanism for the inactivation of SP.

  17. Simultaneous submicrometric 3D imaging of the micro-vascular network and the neuronal system in a mouse spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Fratini, Michela; Bukreeva, Inna; Campi, Gaetano; Brun, Francesco; Tromba, Giuliana; Modregger, Peter; Bucci, Domenico; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Spanò, Raffaele; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena; Requardt, Herwig; Giove, Federico; Bravin, Alberto; Cedola, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    Faults in vascular (VN) and neuronal networks of spinal cord are responsible for serious neurodegenerative pathologies. Because of inadequate investigation tools, the lacking knowledge of the complete fine structure of VN and neuronal system represents a crucial problem. Conventional 2D imaging yields incomplete spatial coverage leading to possible data misinterpretation, whereas standard 3D computed tomography imaging achieves insufficient resolution and contrast. We show that X-ray high-resolution phase-contrast tomography allows the simultaneous visualization of three-dimensional VN and neuronal systems of ex-vivo mouse spinal cord at scales spanning from millimeters to hundreds of nanometers, with nor contrast agent nor sectioning and neither destructive sample-preparation. We image both the 3D distribution of micro-capillary network and the micrometric nerve fibers, axon-bundles and neuron soma. Our approach is very suitable for pre-clinical investigation of neurodegenerative pathologies and spinal-cord-injuries, in particular to resolve the entangled relationship between VN and neuronal system. PMID:25686728

  18. Orally active Epac inhibitor reverses mechanical allodynia and loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers in a mouse model of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Singhmar, Pooja; Huo, XiaoJiao; Li, Yan; Dougherty, Patrick M; Mei, Fang; Cheng, Xiaodong; Heijnen, Cobi J; Kavelaars, Annemieke

    2018-05-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a major side effect of cancer treatment that significantly compromises quality of life of cancer patients and survivors. Identification of targets for pharmacological intervention to prevent or reverse CIPN is needed. We investigated exchange protein regulated by cAMP (Epac) as a potential target. Epacs are cAMP-binding proteins known to play a pivotal role in mechanical allodynia induced by nerve injury and inflammation. We demonstrate that global Epac1-knockout (Epac1-/-) male and female mice are protected against paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia. In addition, spinal cord astrocyte activation and intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) loss are significantly reduced in Epac1-/- mice as compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, Epac1-/- mice do not develop the paclitaxel-induced deficits in mitochondrial bioenergetics in the sciatic nerve that are a hallmark of CIPN. Notably, mice with cell-specific deletion of Epac1 in Nav1.8-positive neurons (N-Epac1-/-) also show reduced paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia, astrocyte activation, and IENF loss, indicating that CIPN develops downstream of Epac1 activation in nociceptors. The Epac-inhibitor ESI-09 reversed established paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia in wild-type mice even when dosing started 10 days after completion of paclitaxel treatment. In addition, oral administration of ESI-09 suppressed spinal cord astrocyte activation in the spinal cord and protected against IENF loss. Ex vivo, ESI-09 blocked paclitaxel-induced abnormal spontaneous discharges in dorsal root ganglion neurons. Collectively, these findings implicate Epac1 in nociceptors as a novel target for treatment of CIPN. This is clinically relevant because ESI-09 has the potential to reverse a debilitating and long-lasting side effect of cancer treatment.

  19. Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the spinal cord. These attachments cause an abnormal stretching of the spinal cord. The course of the ... the spinal cord. These attachments cause an abnormal stretching of the spinal cord. The course of the ...

  20. Modulation of radial blood flow during Braille character discrimination task.

    PubMed

    Murata, Jun; Matsukawa, K; Komine, H; Tsuchimochi, H

    2012-03-01

    Human hands are excellent in performing sensory and motor function. We have hypothesized that blood flow of the hand is dynamically regulated by sympathetic outflow during concentrated finger perception. To identify this hypothesis, we measured radial blood flow (RBF), radial vascular conductance (RVC), heart rate (HR), and arterial blood pressure (AP) during Braille reading performed under the blind condition in nine healthy subjects. The subjects were instructed to read a flat plate with raised letters (Braille reading) for 30 s by the forefinger, and to touch a blank plate as control for the Braille discrimination procedure. HR and AP slightly increased during Braille reading but remained unchanged during the touching of the blank plate. RBF and RVC were reduced during the Braille character discrimination task (decreased by -46% and -49%, respectively). Furthermore, the changes in RBF and RVC were much greater during the Braille character discrimination task than during the touching of the blank plate (decreased by -20% and -20%, respectively). These results have suggested that the distribution of blood flow to the hand is modulated via sympathetic nerve activity during concentrated finger perception.

  1. Raman spectroscopic detection of peripheral nerves towards nerve-sparing surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamikawa, Takeo; Harada, Yoshinori; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2017-02-01

    The peripheral nervous system plays an important role in motility, sensory, and autonomic functions of the human body. Preservation of peripheral nerves in surgery, namely nerve-sparing surgery, is now promising technique to avoid functional deficits of the limbs and organs following surgery as an aspect of the improvement of quality of life of patients. Detection of peripheral nerves including myelinated and unmyelinated nerves is required for the nerve-sparing surgery; however, conventional nerve identification scheme is sometimes difficult to identify peripheral nerves due to similarity of shape and color to non-nerve tissues or its limited application to only motor peripheral nerves. To overcome these issues, we proposed a label-free detection technique of peripheral nerves by means of Raman spectroscopy. We found several fingerprints of peripheral myelinated and unmyelinated nerves by employing a modified principal component analysis of typical spectra including myelinated nerve, unmyelinated nerve, and adjacent tissues. We finally realized the sensitivity of 94.2% and the selectivity of 92.0% for peripheral nerves including myelinated and unmyelinated nerves against adjacent tissues. Although further development of an intraoperative Raman spectroscopy system is required for clinical use, our proposed approach will serve as a unique and powerful tool for peripheral nerve detection for nerve-sparing surgery in the future.

  2. Impact Depth and the Interaction with Impact Speed Affect the Severity of Contusion Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Cameron J.; Assinck, Peggy; Liu, Jie; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) biomechanics suggest that the mechanical factors of impact depth and speed affect the severity of contusion injury, but their interaction is not well understood. The primary aim of this work was to examine both the individual and combined effects of impact depth and speed in contusion SCI on the cervical spinal cord. Spinal cord contusions between C5 and C6 were produced in anesthetized rats at impact speeds of 8, 80, or 800 mm/s with displacements of 0.9 or 1.5 mm (n=8/group). After 7 days postinjury, rats were assessed for open-field behavior, euthanized, and spinal cords were harvested. Spinal cord tissue sections were stained for demyelination (myelin-based protein) and tissue sparing (Luxol fast blue). In parallel, a finite element model of rat spinal cord was used to examine the resulting maximum principal strain in the spinal cord during impact. Increasing impact depth from 0.9 to 1.5 mm reduced open-field scores (p<0.01) above 80 mm/s, reduced gray (GM) and white matter (WM) sparing (p<0.01), and increased the amount of demyelination (p<0.01). Increasing impact speed showed similar results at the 1.5-mm impact depth, but not the 0.9-mm impact depth. Linear correlation analysis with finite element analysis strain showed correlations (p<0.001) with nerve fiber damage in the ventral (R2=0.86) and lateral (R2=0.74) regions of the spinal cord and with WM (R2=0.90) and GM (R2=0.76) sparing. The results demonstrate that impact depth is more important in determining the severity of SCI and that threshold interactions exist between impact depth and speed. PMID:24945364

  3. Neuronal and glial expression of inward rectifier potassium channel subunits Kir2.x in rat dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Murata, Yuzo; Yasaka, Toshiharu; Takano, Makoto; Ishihara, Keiko

    2016-03-23

    Inward rectifier K(+) channels of the Kir2.x subfamily play important roles in controlling the neuronal excitability. Although their cellular localization in the brain has been extensively studied, only a few studies have examined their expression in the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system. In this study, immunohistochemical analyses of Kir2.1, Kir2.2, and Kir2.3 expression were performed in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord using bright-field and confocal microscopy. In DRG, most ganglionic neurons expressed Kir2.1, Kir2.2 and Kir2.3, whereas satellite glial cells chiefly expressed Kir2.3. In the spinal cord, Kir2.1, Kir2.2 and Kir2.3 were all expressed highly in the gray matter of dorsal and ventral horns and moderately in the white matter also. Within the gray matter, the expression was especially high in the substantia gelatinosa (lamina II). Confocal images obtained using markers for neuronal cells, NeuN, and astrocytes, Sox9, showed expression of all three Kir2 subunits in both neuronal somata and astrocytes in lamina I-III of the dorsal horn and the lateral spinal nucleus of the dorsolateral funiculus. Immunoreactive signals other than those in neuronal and glial somata were abundant in lamina I and II, which probably located mainly in nerve fibers or nerve terminals. Colocalization of Kir2.1 and 2.3 and that of Kir2.2 and 2.3 were present in neuronal and glial somata. In the ventral horn, motor neurons and interneurons were also immunoreactive with the three Kir2 subunits. Our study suggests that Kir2 channels composed of Kir2.1-2.3 subunits are expressed in neuronal and glial cells in the DRG and spinal cord, contributing to sensory transduction and motor control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Flight behavior of the rhinoceros beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus during electrical nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    Van Truong, Tien; Byun, Doyoung; Lavine, Laura Corley; Emlen, Douglas J; Park, Hoon Cheol; Kim, Min Jun

    2012-09-01

    Neuronal stimulation is an intricate part of understanding insect flight behavior and control insect itself. In this study, we investigated the effects of electrical pulses applied to the brain and basalar muscle of the rhinoceros beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus). To understand specific neuronal stimulation mechanisms, responses and flight behavior of the beetle, four electrodes were implanted into the two optic lobes, the brain's central complex and the ventral nerve cord in the posterior pronotum. We demonstrated flight initiation, turning and cessation by stimulating the brain. The change undergone by the wing flapping in response to the electrical signal was analyzed from a sequence of images captured by a high-speed camera. Here, we provide evidence to distinguish the important differences between neuronal and muscular flight stimulations in beetles. We found that in the neural potential stimulation, both the hind wing and the elytron were suppressed. Interestingly, the beetle stopped flying whenever a stimulus potential was applied between the pronotum and one side of the optic lobe, or between the ventral nerve cord in the posterior pronotum and the central complex. In-depth experimentation demonstrated the effective of neural stimulation over muscle stimulation for flight control. During electrical stimulation of the optic lobes, the beetle performed unstable flight, resulting in alternating left and right turns. By applying the electrical signal into both the optic lobes and the central complex of the brain, we could precisely control the direction of the beetle flight. This work provides an insight into insect flight behavior for future development of insect-micro air vehicle.

  5. Acellular Nerve Allografts in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Amy M.; MacEwan, Matthew; Santosa, Katherine B.; Chenard, Kristofer E.; Ray, Wilson Z.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Johnson, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Processed nerve allografts offer a promising alternative to nerve autografts in the surgical management of peripheral nerve injuries where short deficits exist. Methods Three established models of acellular nerve allograft (cold-preserved, detergent-processed, and AxoGen® -processed nerve allografts) were compared to nerve isografts and silicone nerve guidance conduits in a 14 mm rat sciatic nerve defect. Results All acellular nerve grafts were superior to silicone nerve conduits in support of nerve regeneration. Detergent-processed allografts were similar to isografts at 6 weeks post-operatively, while AxoGen®-processed and cold-preserved allografts supported significantly fewer regenerating nerve fibers. Measurement of muscle force confirmed that detergent-processed allografts promoted isograft-equivalent levels of motor recovery 16 weeks post-operatively. All acellular allografts promoted greater amounts of motor recovery compared to silicone conduits. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that differential processing for removal of cellular constituents in preparing acellular nerve allografts affects recovery in vivo. PMID:21660979

  6. Full spinal cord regeneration after total transection is not possible due to entropy change.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, P; Sokal, P

    2016-09-01

    Transected spinal cord regeneration is a main challenge of regenerative medicine. The mainstream of research is focused on the promotion of spinal axons growth, which is strongly inhibited in mammals. Assuming that the inhibition of the axonal growth may be ever overcome, the complexity of neural reconnections may be the second serious stand to overcome. Peripheral nerve axons regeneration seem to form a random pattern of their targets reconnections. The hypothesis is that due to the laws of entropy or irreversible information loss the full spinal cord restoration after the transection is not possible. The hypothesis is discussed based on several assumptions. Simplifying the dissertation spinal cord is represented by 2millions of pyramidal axons. After the transection each of these axons has to make a growth and reconnect with exactly matching targets below the transection, in the same number. Axons are guided by neurotrophic factors and afterwards reconnected with neuroplasticity mechanisms. Assuming random reconnections, there are 2,000,000! permutations [Formula: see text] , therefore the chance of ideally random but correct reconnection of pyramidal axons with adequate targets is 1/2,000,000!. Apart from pyramidal axons, there are other axons, like extrapyramidal, sensory and associative. Empirical data and analysis of neurotrophic factors and organogenesis mechanisms may seem to slightly contradict the hypothesis, but strictly adhering to the second law of thermodynamics and entropy laws the full restoration of the transected cord may never be possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nerve Transfer Versus Nerve Graft for Reconstruction of High Ulnar Nerve Injuries.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Asser A; El-Deeb, Mohamed S; Imam, Mohamed A

    2017-04-01

    To assess the efficacy of nerve transfer versus nerve grafting in restoring motor and sensory hand function in patients with complete, isolated high ulnar nerve injuries. A retrospective chart review was performed, at a minimum 2 years of follow-up, of 52 patients suffering complete, isolated high ulnar nerve injury between January 2006 and June 2013 in one specialized hand surgery unit. Twenty-four patients underwent motor and sensory nerve transfers (NT group). Twenty-eight patients underwent sural nerve grafting (NG group). Motor recovery, return of sensibility and complications were examined as outcome measures. The Medical Research Council scale was applied to evaluate sensory and motor recovery. Grip and pinch strengths of the hand were measured. Twenty of 24 patients (83.33%) in the NT group regained M3 grade or greater for the adductor pollicis, the abductor digiti minimi, and the medial 2 lumbricals and interossei, compared with only 16 of 28 patients (57.14%) in the NG group. Means for percentage recovery of grip strengths compared with the other healthy hand were significantly higher for the NT group than the NG group. Sensory recovery of S3 or greater was achieved in more than half of each group with no significant difference between groups. Nerve transfer is favored over nerve grafting in managing high ulnar nerve injuries because of better improvement of motor power and better restoration of grip functions of the hand. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Unmodulated 5-kHz Alternating Currents Versus Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Mechanical and Thermal Pain, Tactile Threshold, and Peripheral Nerve Conduction: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial.

    PubMed

    Avendaño-Coy, Juan; Gómez-Soriano, Julio; Goicoechea-García, Carlos; Basco-López, Julian Angel; Taylor, Julian

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effect of unmodulated 5-kHz alternating current on mechanical pain threshold (MPT), heat pain threshold (HPT), tactile threshold (TT), and peripheral nerve conduction (PNC) compared with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and sham stimulation. National referral center. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Healthy volunteers (N=38). No dropouts or adverse events were reported. TENS, unmodulated 5-kHz currents, and sham stimulation were applied on the radial nerve for 20 minutes with a 24-hour washout period between them and concealed intervention allocation. Four measures were taken: before, during, and 2 after the interventions. Algometry was used to assess MPT, a Peltier thermode for HPT using the method of limits, Von Frey filaments for TT, and radial nerve compound action potential. No differences were observed on MPT, HPT, and PNC when 5-kHz current and TENS were compared. However, TT increased 56.2mN (95% confidence interval [CI], 28.8-83.6) in the TENS group compared with the 5-kHz current group during intervention. Compared with sham stimulation during intervention, MPT increased 4.7N (95% CI, 0.3-9.2) using 5-kHz current and 10.4N (95% CI, 3.5-17.3) with TENS. TT increased 17.2mN (95% CI, 4.7-29.7) with 5-kHz current and 73.4mN (95% CI, 47.5-99.2) with TENS. However, HPT increased 1.0°C (95% CI, 0.2-2.0) only with TENS. For the PNC, no differences were found among the 3 groups. Unmodulated 5-kHz current produced an increase in somatosensory thresholds that was greater than placebo but not when compared with TENS; however, participants perceived 5-kHz currents to be more comfortable and showed more habituation to them. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Neurological Complications in Thyroid Surgery: A Surgical Point of View on Laryngeal Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Varaldo, Emanuela; Ansaldo, Gian Luca; Mascherini, Matteo; Cafiero, Ferdinando; Minuto, Michele N.

    2014-01-01

    The cervical branches of the vagus nerve that are pertinent to endocrine surgery are the superior and the inferior laryngeal nerves: their anatomical course in the neck places them at risk during thyroid surgery. The external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EB) is at risk during thyroid surgery because of its close anatomical relationship with the superior thyroid vessels and the superior thyroid pole region. The rate of EB injury (which leads to the paralysis of the cricothyroid muscle) varies from 0 to 58%. The identification of the EB during surgery helps avoiding both an accidental transection and an excessive stretching. When the nerve is not identified, the ligation of superior thyroid artery branches close to the thyroid gland is suggested, as well as the abstention from an indiscriminate use of energy-based devices that might damage it. The inferior laryngeal nerve (RLN) runs in the tracheoesophageal groove toward the larynx, close to the posterior aspect of the thyroid. It is the main motor nerve of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles, and also provides sensory innervation to the larynx. Its injury finally causes the paralysis of the omolateral vocal cord and various sensory alterations: the symptoms range from mild to severe hoarseness, to acute airway obstruction, and swallowing impairment. Permanent lesions of the RNL occur from 0.3 to 7% of cases, according to different factors. The surgeon must be aware of the possible anatomical variations of the nerve, which should be actively searched for and identified. Visual control and gentle dissection of RLN are imperative. The use of intraoperative nerve monitoring has been safely applied but, at the moment, its impact in the incidence of RLN injuries has not been clarified. In conclusion, despite a thorough surgical technique and the use of intraoperative neuromonitoring, the incidence of neurological complications after thyroid surgery cannot be suppressed, but should be maintained in a low range. PMID

  10. Brachial Plexus Injury in a 6-Year-Old Boy with 100% Displaced Proximal Humeral Metaphyseal Fracture: A Case Presentation.

    PubMed

    Jovanovich, Elizabeth Nora; Howard, James F

    2017-12-01

    Posttraumatic brachial plexopathies can occur following displaced proximal humeral fractures, causing profound functional deficits. Described here is an unusual case of a displaced proximal humeral metaphyseal fracture in a young child. The patient underwent closed reduction and serial casting, but hand weakness and forearm sensory loss persisted. Needle electromyography localized the injury to the mid/proximal arm near the fracture site, resulting in damage to the posterior and medial cords of the brachial plexus with profound involvement of the radial, ulnar, and median nerves and sparing of the axillary nerve. After months of occupational therapy, hand strength improved, with a nearly full return of function. V. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The spinal cord dura mater reaction to nitinol and titanium alloy particles: a 1-year study in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Rhalmi, Souad; Charette, Sylvie; Assad, Michel; Coillard, Christine

    2007-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to simulate in an animal model the particles released from a porous nitinol interbody fusion device and to evaluate its consequences on the dura mater, spinal cord and nerve roots, lymph nodes (abdominal para-aortic), and organs (kidneys, spleen, pancreas, liver, and lungs). Our objective was to evaluate the compatibility of the nitinol particles with the dura mater in comparison with titanium alloy. In spite of the great use of metallic devices in spine surgery, the proximity of the spinal cord to the devices raised concerns about the effect of the metal debris that might be released onto the neural tissue. Forty-five New Zealand white female rabbits were divided into three groups: nitinol (treated: N = 4 per implantation period), titanium (treated: N = 4 per implantation period), and sham rabbits (control: N = 1 per observation period). The nitinol and titanium alloy particles were implanted in the spinal canal on the dura mater at the lumbar level L2–L3. The rabbits were sacrificed at 1, 4, 12, 26, and 52 weeks. Histologic sections from the regional lymph nodes, organs, from remote and implantation sites, were analyzed for any abnormalities and inflammation. Regardless of the implantation time, both nitinol and titanium particles remained at the implantation site and clung to the spinal cord lining soft tissue of the dura mater. The inflammation was limited to the epidural space around the particles and then reduced from acute to mild chronic during the follow-up. The dura mater, sub-dural space, nerve roots, and the spinal cord were free of reaction. No particles or abnormalities were found either in the lymph nodes or in the organs. In contact with the dura, the nitinol elicits an inflammatory response similar to that of titanium. The tolerance of nitinol by a sensitive tissue such as the dura mater during the span of 1 year of implantation demonstrated the safety of nitinol and its potential use as an intervertebral

  12. Rostral dorsolateral pontine neurons with sympathetic nerve-related activity.

    PubMed

    Barman, S M; Gebber, G L; Kitchens, H

    1999-02-01

    Spike-triggered averaging, arterial pulse-triggered analysis, and coherence analysis were used to classify rostral dorsolateral pontine (RDLP) neurons into groups whose naturally occurring discharges were correlated to only the 10-Hz rhythm (n = 29), to only the cardiac-related rhythm (n = 15), and to both rhythms (n = 15) in inferior cardiac sympathetic nerve discharge (SND) of urethan-anesthetized cats. Most of the neurons with activity correlated to only the cardiac-related rhythm were located medial to the other two groups of neurons. The firing rates of most RDLP neurons with activity correlated to only the 10-Hz rhythm (9 of 12) or both rhythms (7 of 8) were decreased during baroreceptor reflex-induced inhibition of SND produced by aortic obstruction; thus, they are presumed to be sympathoexcitatory. The firing rates of four of seven RDLP neurons with activity correlated to only the cardiac-related rhythm increased during baroreceptor reflex activation; thus, they may be sympathoinhibitory. We conclude that the RDLP contains a functionally heterogeneous population of neurons with sympathetic nerve-related activity. These neurons could not be antidromically activated by stimulation of the thoracic spinal cord.

  13. Quantitative anatomical and behavioral analyses of regeneration and collateral sprouting following spinal cord transection in the nurse shark (ginglymostoma cirratum).

    PubMed

    Gelderd, J B

    1979-01-01

    The spinal cord was transected at the mid-thoracic level in 32 nurse sharks. Four animals per group were sacrificed at intervals of 10, 20, 30, 40, 60 and 90 days postoperative. Two groups of fish underwent a subsequent spinla1 cord retransection at the same site at 90 days and were sacrificed 10 and 20 days later. Three sections of spinal cord were removed from each shark for histological analysis. Behaviorally, timed trials for swimming speed and a strength test for axial musculature contraction caudal to the lesion site were performed at 5 day postoperative intervals. Histological analysis showed little regeneration (9-13 percent) of two descending tracts 90 days following the lesion and no return of rostrally controlled movements caudal to the lesion. However, synaptic readjustment did occur caudal to the lesion. This phenomenon was attributed to local segmental sprouting of adjacent, intact nerve fibers. A close correlation was shown between this synaptic readjustment and the strength of uncontrollable undulatory movements seen caudal to the lesion site following spinal cord transection. The relationship of regeneration and collateral sprouting to quantitative behavioral changes is discussed.

  14. Nerve Cross-Bridging to Enhance Nerve Regeneration in a Rat Model of Delayed Nerve Repair

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There are currently no available options to promote nerve regeneration through chronically denervated distal nerve stumps. Here we used a rat model of delayed nerve repair asking of prior insertion of side-to-side cross-bridges between a donor tibial (TIB) nerve and a recipient denervated common peroneal (CP) nerve stump ameliorates poor nerve regeneration. First, numbers of retrogradely-labelled TIB neurons that grew axons into the nerve stump within three months, increased with the size of the perineurial windows opened in the TIB and CP nerves. Equal numbers of donor TIB axons regenerated into CP stumps either side of the cross-bridges, not being affected by target neurotrophic effects, or by removing the perineurium to insert 5-9 cross-bridges. Second, CP nerve stumps were coapted three months after inserting 0-9 cross-bridges and the number of 1) CP neurons that regenerated their axons within three months or 2) CP motor nerves that reinnervated the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle within five months was determined by counting and motor unit number estimation (MUNE), respectively. We found that three but not more cross-bridges promoted the regeneration of axons and reinnervation of EDL muscle by all the CP motoneurons as compared to only 33% regenerating their axons when no cross-bridges were inserted. The same 3-fold increase in sensory nerve regeneration was found. In conclusion, side-to-side cross-bridges ameliorate poor regeneration after delayed nerve repair possibly by sustaining the growth-permissive state of denervated nerve stumps. Such autografts may be used in human repair surgery to improve outcomes after unavoidable delays. PMID:26016986

  15. Exploration of Hand Grasp Patterns Elicitable Through Non-Invasive Proximal Nerve Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Henry; Watkins, Zach; Hu, Xiaogang

    2017-11-29

    Various neurological conditions, such as stroke or spinal cord injury, result in an impaired control of the hand. One method of restoring this impairment is through functional electrical stimulation (FES). However, traditional FES techniques often lead to quick fatigue and unnatural ballistic movements. In this study, we sought to explore the capabilities of a non-invasive proximal nerve stimulation technique in eliciting various hand grasp patterns. The ulnar and median nerves proximal to the elbow joint were activated transcutanously using a programmable stimulator, and the resultant finger flexion joint angles were recorded using a motion capture system. The individual finger motions averaged across the three joints were analyzed using a cluster analysis, in order to classify the different hand grasp patterns. With low current intensity (<5 mA and 100 µs pulse width) stimulation, our results show that all of our subjects demonstrated a variety of consistent hand grasp patterns including single finger movement and coordinated multi-finger movements. This study provides initial evidence on the feasibility of a proximal nerve stimulation technique in controlling a variety of finger movements and grasp patterns. Our approach could also be developed into a rehabilitative/assistive tool that can result in flexible movements of the fingers.

  16. The complex simplicity of the brittle star nervous system.

    PubMed

    Zueva, Olga; Khoury, Maleana; Heinzeller, Thomas; Mashanova, Daria; Mashanov, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Brittle stars (Ophiuroidea, Echinodermata) have been increasingly used in studies of animal behavior, locomotion, regeneration, physiology, and bioluminescence. The success of these studies directly depends on good working knowledge of the ophiuroid nervous system. Here, we describe the arm nervous system at different levels of organization, including the microanatomy of the radial nerve cord and peripheral nerves, ultrastructure of the neural tissue, and localization of different cell types using specific antibody markers. We standardize the nomenclature of nerves and ganglia, and provide an anatomically accurate digital 3D model of the arm nervous system as a reference for future studies. Our results helped identify several general features characteristic to the adult echinoderm nervous system, including the extensive anatomical interconnections between the ectoneural and hyponeural components, neuroepithelial organization of the central nervous system, and the supporting scaffold of the neuroepithelium formed by radial glial cells. In addition, we provide further support to the notion that the echinoderm radial glia is a complex and diverse cell population. We also tested the suitability of a range of specific cell-type markers for studies of the brittle star nervous system and established that the radial glial cells are reliably labeled with the ERG1 antibodies, whereas the best neuronal markers are acetylated tubulin, ELAV, and synaptotagmin B. The transcription factor Brn1/2/4 - a marker of neuronal progenitors - is expressed not only in neurons, but also in a subpopulation of radial glia. For the first time, we describe putative ophiuroid proprioceptors associated with the hyponeural part of the central nervous system. Together, our data help establish both the general principles of neural architecture common to the phylum Echinodermata and the specific ophiuroid features.

  17. Nerve membrane ion channels as the target site of environmental toxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Narahashi, T.

    1987-04-01

    There are many environmentally important chemicals which exhibit potent effects on the nervous system. Since nerve excitation takes place in a fraction of a second, electrophysiological methods provide the authors with the most straightforward approach to the study of the mechanisms of action of environmental toxicants on the nervous system. Aquatic animals such as crayfish, lobster, squid, and marine snails represent extremely useful materials for such electrophysiological studies, because much of the authors knowledge of nerve excitation is derived from those animals. Nerve excitation takes place as a result of opening and closing of ion channels of the membrane. Thesemore » functions are independent of metabolic energy, and can be measured most effectively by voltage clamp techniques as applied to the giant axons of the crayfish and the squid. Patch clamp techniques developed during the past 10 years have added a new dimension to the electrophysiological investigation. These techniques allow them to measure the activity of individual ion channels, thereby making it possible to analyze the interaction of toxic molecules directly with single ion channels. Examples are given summarizing electrophysiological studies of environmental neurotoxicants. The abdominal nerve cords and neuromuscular preparations isolated from the crayfish are convenient materials for bioassay of certain environmental toxicants such as pyrethroids, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and other insecticides. Only a small fraction of the flux through the sodium channel, less than 1%, must be modified by pyrethroids for the animal to develop symptoms of poisoning. Such a toxicological application from channel to animal is important is understanding the potent toxic effect.« less

  18. Recovery of sensorimotor function and activities of daily living after cervical spinal cord injury: the influence of age.

    PubMed

    Wirz, Markus; Dietz, Volker

    2015-02-01

    This retrospective study was designed to examine the influence of age on the outcome of motor function and activities of daily living (ADLs) in patients with a cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). The study is based on the data registry of the European Multicenter Study of Spinal Cord Injury (EMSCI) study group. Initial upper-extremity motor score (UEMS) and its change over 5 months, as well as the initial Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) score, did not differ between younger adults (20-39 years) and elderly (60-79 years) patients. However, the change in SCIM score over 5 months was significantly greater in the younger patient group. Initial UEMS, SCIM, and ulnar compound motor action potentials (CMAP), reflecting peripheral nerve damage (motoneurons and roots), were significantly greater in incomplete, compared to complete, SCI, regardless of age group. The initial assessment of UEMS in combination with CMAP recordings allows an early prediction of ADLs outcomes in both younger adults and elderly subjects. The impaired translation of gain in motor score into increased ADL independence in elderly patients requires specifically tailored rehabilitation programs.

  19. Loss of lower limb motor evoked potentials and spinal cord injury during the initial exposure in scoliosis surgery.

    PubMed

    Legatt, Alan D; Fried, Stephen J; Amaral, Terry D; Sarwahi, Vishal; Moguilevitch, Marina

    2014-04-01

    To report a case of motor evoked potential changes and spinal cord injury during the initial dissection in scoliosis surgery. Motor evoked potentials to transcranial electrical stimulation were recorded from multiple muscles. Somatosensory evoked potentials to limb nerve stimulation were recorded from the scalp. Clear motor evoked potentials were initially present in all monitored muscles. The patient was then pharmacologically paralyzed for the initial dissection. More than usual bleeding was encountered during that dissection, prompting transfusion. As the neuromuscular blockade subsided, motor evoked potentials persisted in the hand muscles but disappeared and remained absent in all monitored leg muscles. The spine had not been instrumented. A wake-up test demonstrated paraplegia; the surgery was aborted. There were no adverse somatosensory evoked potential changes. MRI showed an anterior spinal cord infarct. Copious soft tissue bleeding during the initial dissection might have lowered pressures in critical segmental arteries enough to cause spinal cord infarction through a steal phenomenon. The lack of somatosensory evoked potential changes reflected sparing of the dorsal columns. When neuromuscular blockade is used during the initial soft tissue dissection, motor evoked potentials should be assessed after this, but before spinal instrumentation, to determine whether there had been any spinal cord compromise during the initial dissection.

  20. Functional Self-Assembling Peptide Nanofiber Hydrogels Designed for Nerve Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuqiao; Li, Wen; Wu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Na; Zhang, Yongnu; Ouyang, Songying; Song, Xiyong; Fang, Xinyu; Seeram, Ramakrishna; Xue, Wei; He, Liumin; Wu, Wutian

    2016-01-27

    Self-assembling peptide (SAP) RADA16-I (Ac-(RADA)4-CONH2) has been suffering from a main drawback associated with low pH, which damages cells and host tissues upon direct exposure. In this study, we presented a strategy to prepare nanofiber hydrogels from two designer SAPs at neutral pH. RADA16-I was appended with functional motifs containing cell adhesion peptide RGD and neurite outgrowth peptide IKVAV. The two SAPs were specially designed to have opposite net charges at neutral pH, the combination of which created a nanofiber hydrogel (-IKVAV/-RGD) characterized by significantly higher G' than G″ in a viscoelasticity examination. Circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman measurements were performed to investigate the secondary structure of the designer SAPs, indicating that both the hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties and electrostatic interactions of the functional motifs play an important role in the self-assembling behavior of the designer SAPs. The neural progenitor cells (NPCs)/stem cells (NSCs) fully embedded in the 3D-IKVAV/-RGD nanofiber hydrogel survived, whereas those embedded within the RADA 16-I hydrogel hardly survived. Moreover, the -IKVAV/-RGD nanofiber hydrogel supported NPC/NSC neuron and astrocyte differentiation in a 3D environment without adding extra growth factors. Studies of three nerve injury models, including sciatic nerve defect, intracerebral hemorrhage, and spinal cord transection, indicated that the designer -IKVAV/-RGD nanofiber hydrogel provided a more permissive environment for nerve regeneration than the RADA 16-I hydrogel. Therefore, we reported a new mechanism that might be beneficial for the synthesis of SAPs for in vitro 3D cell culture and nerve regeneration.

  1. Neural cell adhesion molecule mediates initial interactions between spinal cord neurons and muscle cells in culture

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Previous studies in this laboratory have described a cell surface glycoprotein, called neural cell adhesion molecule or N-CAM, that appears to be a ligand in the adhesion between neural membranes. N-CAM antigenic determinants were also shown to be present on embryonic muscle and an N-CAM-dependent adhesion was demonstrated between retinal cell membranes and muscle cells in short-term assays. The present studies indicate that these antigenic determinants are associated with the N-CAM polypeptide, and that rapid adhesion mediated by this molecule occurs between spinal cord membranes and muscle cells. Detailed examination of the effects of anti-(N-CAM) Fab' fragments in cultures of spinal cord with skeletal muscle showed that the Fab' fragments specifically block adhesion of spinal cord neurites and cells to myotubes. The Fab' did not affect binding of neurites to fibroblasts and collagen substrate, and did not alter myotube morphology. These results indicate that N-CAM adhesion is essential for the in vitro establishment of physical associations between nerve and muscle, and suggest that binding involving N-CAM may be an important early step in synaptogenesis. PMID:6863388

  2. Preoperative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for localizing superficial nerve paths.

    PubMed

    Natori, Yuhei; Yoshizawa, Hidekazu; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ayato

    2015-12-01

    During surgery, peripheral nerves are often seen to follow unpredictable paths because of previous surgeries and/or compression caused by a tumor. Iatrogenic nerve injury is a serious complication that must be avoided, and preoperative evaluation of nerve paths is important for preventing it. In this study, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was used for an in-depth analysis of peripheral nerve paths. This study included 27 patients who underwent the TENS procedure to evaluate the peripheral nerve path (17 males and 10 females; mean age: 59.9 years, range: 18-83 years) of each patient preoperatively. An electrode pen coupled to an electrical nerve stimulator was used for superficial nerve mapping. The TENS procedure was performed on patients' major peripheral nerves that passed close to the surgical field of tumor resection or trauma surgery, and intraoperative damage to those nerves was apprehensive. The paths of the target nerve were detected in most patients preoperatively. The nerve paths of 26 patients were precisely under the markings drawn preoperatively. The nerve path of one patient substantially differed from the preoperative markings with numbness at the surgical region. During surgery, the nerve paths could be accurately mapped preoperatively using the TENS procedure as confirmed by direct visualization of the nerve. This stimulation device is easy to use and offers highly accurate mapping of nerves for surgical planning without major complications. The authors conclude that TENS is a useful tool for noninvasive nerve localization and makes tumor resection a safe and smooth procedure. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of laryngotracheal topical anesthesia on recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring during thyroid Surgery.

    PubMed

    Pachuski, Justin; Vaida, Sonia; Donahue, Kathleen; Roberts, John; Kunselman, Allen; Oberman, Benjamin; Patel, Hetal; Goldenberg, David

    2016-03-01

    Intraoperative neuromonitoring of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) is often used as an adjunct for RLN identification and preservation during thyroidectomies. Laryngotracheal anesthesia (LTA) with topical lidocaine reduces coughing upon emergence from anesthesia and in the immediate postoperative period; however, its use is prohibited with concerns that it could decrease the sensitivity of the intraoperative neuromonitoring. We hypothesize that there is no difference in measurements of nerve conduction made before and after LTA administration. An observational study in which all patients were subjected to LTA administration was conducted. Recurrent laryngeal nerve threshold currents were measured before and after the intervention. Tertiary medical center operating room. Eighteen patients (total of 25 nerves at risk) with American Society of Anesthesiologists classes 1 to 3 undergoing thyroid surgery. After the thyroid was removed and threshold currents at the RLN were obtained, LTA with endotracheal lidocaine was applied on the left and right side of the in situ endotracheal tube (2 cc of 4% lidocaine per side). Threshold currents were reassessed at 5 and 10 minutes after LTA administration. Threshold currents (minimum stimulus current applied to the RLN required to generate a discernible electromyographic response at the vocal cords) were recorded along the RLN for a baseline at 5 and 10 mm from the insertion point of the RLN into the larynx. Threshold currents were reassessed at the same 2 positions on the RLN at 5 and 10 minutes after LTA administration. Differences in mean values, between threshold currents recorded at the 3 different times, at 2 positions on the RLN, were used to compare effects of LTA on nerve conduction. There were no statistically significant differences when comparing threshold currents before and after LTA administration. Laryngotracheal anesthesia had no significant effect on RLN nerve conduction in the period assessed. Copyright

  4. An autopsy case of minamata disease (methylmercury poisoning)--pathological viewpoints of peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Eto, Komyo; Tokunaga, Hidehiro; Nagashima, Kazuo; Takeuchi, Tadao

    2002-01-01

    The outbreak of methylmercury poisoning in the geographic areas around Minamata Bay, Kumamoto, Japan in the 1950s has become known as Minamata disease. Based on earlier reports and extensive pathological studies on autopsied cases at the Kumamoto University School of Medicine, destructive lesions in the anterior portion of the calcarine cortex and depletion predominantly of granular cells in the cerebellar cortex came to be recognized as the hallmark and diagnostic yardstick of methylmercury poisoning in humans. As the number of autopsy cases of Minamata disease increased, it became apparent that the cerebral lesion was not restricted to the calcarine cortex but was relatively widespread. Less severe lesions, believed to be responsible for the motor symptoms of Minamata patients, were often found in the precentral, postcentral, and lateral temporal cortices. These patients also frequently presented with signs of sensory neuropathy affecting the distal extremities. Because of few sufficiently comprehensive studies, peripheral nerve degeneration has not been universally accepted as a cause of the sensory disturbances in Minamata patients. The present paper describes both biopsy and autopsy findings of the peripheral nerves in a male fisherman who died at the age of 64 years and showed the characteristic central nervous system lesions of Minamata disease at autopsy. A sural nerve biopsy with electron microscopy performed 1 month prior to his death showed endoneurial fibrosis and regenerated myelin sheaths. At autopsy the dorsal roots and sural nerve showed endoneurial fibrosis, loss of nerve fibers, and presence of Büngner's bands. The spinal cord showed Wallerian degeneration of the fasciculus gracilis (Goll's tract) with relative preservation of neurons in sensory ganglia. These findings support the contention that there is peripheral nerve degeneration in Minamata patients due to toxic injury from methylmercury.

  5. Chitin biological absorbable catheters bridging sural nerve grafts transplanted into sciatic nerve defects promote nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Jian-Wei; Qin, Li-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Guang; Zhang, Pei-Xun; Jiang, Bao-Guo

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the efficacy of chitin biological absorbable catheters in a rat model of autologous nerve transplantation. A segment of sciatic nerve was removed to produce a sciatic nerve defect, and the sural nerve was cut from the ipsilateral leg and used as a graft to bridge the defect, with or without use of a chitin biological absorbable catheter surrounding the graft. The number and morphology of regenerating myelinated fibers, nerve conduction velocity, nerve function index, triceps surae muscle morphology, and sensory function were evaluated at 9 and 12 months after surgery. All of the above parameters were improved in rats in which the nerve graft was bridged with chitin biological absorbable catheters compared with rats without catheters. The results of this study indicate that use of chitin biological absorbable catheters to surround sural nerve grafts bridging sciatic nerve defects promotes recovery of structural, motor, and sensory function and improves muscle fiber morphology. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Sensory fibers containing vanilloid receptor-1 (VR-1) mediate spinal cord stimulation-induced vasodilation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mingyuan; Komori, Naoka; Qin, Chao; Farber, Jay P; Linderoth, Bengt; Foreman, Robert D

    2006-08-30

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is used to improve peripheral blood flow in selected populations of patients with ischemia of the extremities. Previous studies show that antidromic activation of sensory fibers is an important mechanism that contributes to SCS-induced vasodilation. However, the characteristics of sensory fibers involved in vasodilation are not fully known. This study investigated the contribution of vanilloid receptor type 1 (VR-1) containing fibers to SCS-induced vasodilation. A unipolar ball electrode was placed on the left dorsal column at the lumbar 2-3 spinal cord segments (L2-L3) in sodium pentobarbital anesthetized, paralyzed and ventilated rats. Cutaneous blood flows from both ipsilateral (left) and contralateral (right) hind foot pads were recorded with laser Doppler flow perfusion monitors. SCS (50 Hz; 0.2 ms) was applied through the ball electrode at 30%, 60%, 90% and 300% of motor threshold (MT). Resiniferatoxin (RTX), an ultra potent analog of capsaicin and VR-1 receptor agonist, was used to suppress the activities of VR-1 containing sensory fibers. SCS at 30%, 60%, 90% and also at 300% of MT significantly increased cutaneous blood flow in the ipsilateral foot pad compared to that in the contralateral side. RTX (2 microg/kg, i.v.) significantly attenuated SCS-induced vasodilation of the ipsilateral side (P<0.05, n=7) compared with responses prior to RTX administration. A pledget of cotton soaked with RTX (2 microg/ml) placed on L2-L3 spinal cord significantly decreased SCS-induced vasodilation of the ipsilateral side at 30%, 60%, 90% and 300% of MT (P<0.05, n=7) compared with responses prior to RTX administration. Additionally, topical application of a pledget of cotton soaked with RTX (2 microg/ml) on the sciatic nerve at the middle level of the thigh or on the tibial nerve at the lower level of the lower hindlimb also decreased SCS-induced vasodilation (n=5). SCS-induced vasodilation is predominantly mediated via VR-1 containing sensory

  7. External laryngeal nerve in thyroid surgery: is the nerve stimulator necessary?

    PubMed

    Aina, E N; Hisham, A N

    2001-09-01

    To find out the incidence and type of external laryngeal nerves during operations on the thyroid, and to assess the role of a nerve stimulator in detecting them. Prospective, non-randomised study. Teaching hospital, Malaysia. 317 patients who had 447 dissections between early January 1998 and late November 1999. Number and type of nerves crossing the cricothyroid space, and the usefulness of the nerve stimulator in finding them. The nerve stimulator was used in 206/447 dissections (46%). 392 external laryngeal nerves were seen (88%), of which 196/206 (95%) were detected with the stimulator. However, without the stimulator 196 nerves were detected out of 241 dissections (81%). The stimulator detected 47 (23%) Type I nerves (nerve > 1 cm from the upper edge of superior pole); 86 (42%) Type IIa nerves (nerve < 1 cm from the upper edge of superior pole); and 63 (31%) Type IIb nerves (nerve below upper edge of superior pole). 10 nerves were not detected. When the stimulator was not used the corresponding figures were 32 (13%), 113 (47%), and 51 (21%), and 45 nerves were not seen. If the nerve cannot be found we recommend dissection of capsule close to the medial border of the upper pole of the thyroid to avoid injury to the nerve. Although the use of the nerve stimulator seems desirable, it confers no added advantage in finding the nerve. In the event of uncertainty about whether a structure is the nerve, the stimulator may help to confirm it. However, exposure of the cricothyroid space is most important for good exposure in searching for the external laryngeal nerve.

  8. Use of GDNF-Releasing Nanofiber Nerve Guide Conduits for the Repair of Conus Medullaris/Cauda Equina Injury in the Non-Human Primate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    peripheral nerve graft to bridge the tissue gap. A comprehensive set of electrodiagnostic, imaging , behavioral and anatomical studies will provide...spinal cord and avulsed ventral roots. All 20 surgeries have been completed and collections of comprehensive functional and imaging data are in...gap. A comprehensive set of electrodiagnostic, imaging , behavioral and anatomical studies will provide detailed information about the outcome of the

  9. Restoration of motor function after operative reconstruction of the acutely transected spinal cord in the canine model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zehan; Ren, Shuai; Fu, Kuang; Wu, Qiong; Wu, Jun; Hou, Liting; Pan, Hong; Sun, Linlin; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Bingjian; Miao, Qing; Sun, Guiyin; Bonicalzi, Vincenzo; Canavero, Sergio; Ren, Xiaoping

    2018-05-01

    Cephalosomatic anastomosis or what has been called a "head transplantation" requires full reconnection of the respective transected ends of the spinal cords. The GEMINI spinal cord fusion protocol has been developed for this reason. Here, we report the first randomized, controlled study of the GEMINI protocol in large animals. We conducted a randomized, controlled study of a complete transection of the spinal cord at the level of T10 in dogs at Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China. These dogs were followed for up to 8 weeks postoperatively by assessments of recovery of motor function, somato-sensory evoked potentials, and diffusion tensor imaging using magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 12 dogs were subjected to operative exposure of the dorsal aspect of the spinal cord after laminectomy and longitudinal durotomy followed by a very sharp, controlled, full-thickness, complete transection of the spinal cord at T10. The fusogen, polyethylene glycol, was applied topically to the site of the spinal cord transection in 7 of 12 dogs; 0.9% NaCl saline was applied to the site of transection in the remaining 5 control dogs. Dogs were selected randomly to receive polyethylene glycol or saline. All polyethylene glycol-treated dogs reacquired a substantial amount of motor function versus none in controls over these first 2 months as assessed on the 20-point (0-19), canine, Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan rating scale (P<.006). Somatosensory evoked potentials confirmed restoration of electrical conduction cranially across the site of spinal cord transection which improved over time. Diffusion tensor imaging, a magnetic resonance permutation that assesses the integrity of nerve fibers and cells, showed restitution of the transected spinal cord with polyethylene glycol treatment (at-injury level difference: P<.02). A sharply and fully transected spinal cord at the level of T10 can be reconstructed with restoration of many aspects of electrical continuity in large animals following

  10. MRI-guided Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Lumbar Medial Branch Nerve: Feasibility and Safety Study in a Swine Model

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Elena A; Monette, Sebastien; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Maybody, Majid; Solomon, Stephen B; Gulati, Amitabh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose About 10–40% of chronic low back pain cases involve facet joints, which are commonly treated with lumbar medial branch (MB) radiofrequency neurotomy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS), a non-invasive, non-ionizing ablation modality used to treat tumors, neuropathic pain and painful bone metastasis, can also be used to disrupt nerve conduction. This work’s purpose was to study the feasibility and safety of direct MRgFUS ablation of the lumbar MB nerve in acute and subacute swine models. Materials and Methods In vivo MRgFUS ablation was performed in six swine (3 acute and 3 subacute) using a clinical MRgFUS system (ExAblate 2000®; InSightec Ltd., Haifa, Israel) and 3 T MRI scanner (SIGNA; GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI, USA) combination. Behavioral assessment was performed, and imaging and histology were used to assess the treatment. Results and Conclusions Histological analysis of the in vivo studies confirmed thermal necrosis of the MB nerve could be achieved without damaging the spinal cord or adjacent nerve roots. MRgFUS did not cause changes in the animals’ behavior and ambulation. PMID:27443328

  11. Results of intraoperative neuromonitoring in thyroid surgery and preoperative vocal cord paralysis.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Kerstin; Abuazab, Mohammed; Sekulla, Carsten; Schneider, Rick; Nguyen Thanh, Phuong; Dralle, Henning

    2014-03-01

    Systematic studies of intermittent intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) have shown that IONM enhances recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) identification via functional assessment, but does not significantly reduce rates of vocal cord (VC) paralysis (VCP). The reliability of functional nerve assessment depends on the preoperative integrity of VC mobility. The present study was therefore performed to analyze the validity of IONM in patients with pre-existing VC paralysis. Of 8,128 patients, 285 (3.5 %) with preoperative VCP underwent thyroid surgery using standardized IONM of the RLN and vagus nerves (VNs). VC function was assessed by pre- and postoperative direct videolaryngoscopy. Quantitative parameters of IONM in patients with VCP were compared with IONM in patients with intact VC function. Clinical symptoms and surgical outcomes of patients with pre-existing VCP were analyzed. A total of 244 patients revealed negative, and 41 revealed positive IONM on the side of the VCP. VCP with positive IONM revealed significantly lower amplitudes of VN and RLN than intact VN (p = 0.010) and RLN (p = 0.011). Symptoms of patients with VCP included hoarseness (25 %), dyspnea (29 %), stridor (13 %), and dysphagia (13 %); 13 % were asymptomatic. New VCP occurred in five patients, ten needed tracheostomy for various reasons, and one patient died. Patients with pre-existing VCP revealed significantly reduced amplitude of ipsilateral VN and RLN, indicating retained nerve conductivity despite VC immobility. Preoperative laryngoscopy is therefore indispensable for reliable IONM and risk assessment, even in patients without voice abnormalities.

  12. Monoamine Release in the Cat Lumbar Spinal Cord during Fictive Locomotion Evoked by the Mesencephalic Locomotor Region

    PubMed Central

    Noga, Brian R.; Turkson, Riza P.; Xie, Songtao; Taberner, Annette; Pinzon, Alberto; Hentall, Ian D.

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord neurons active during locomotion are innervated by descending axons that release the monoamines serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) and these neurons express monoaminergic receptor subtypes implicated in the control of locomotion. The timing, level and spinal locations of release of these two substances during centrally-generated locomotor activity should therefore be critical to this control. These variables were measured in real time by fast-cyclic voltammetry in the decerebrate cat’s lumbar spinal cord during fictive locomotion, which was evoked by electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) and registered as integrated activity in bilateral peripheral nerves to hindlimb muscles. Monoamine release was observed in dorsal horn (DH), intermediate zone/ventral horn (IZ/VH) and adjacent white matter (WM) during evoked locomotion. Extracellular peak levels (all sites) increased above baseline by 138 ± 232.5 nM and 35.6 ± 94.4 nM (mean ± SD) for NE and 5-HT, respectively. For both substances, release usually began prior to the onset of locomotion typically earliest in the IZ/VH and peaks were positively correlated with net activity in peripheral nerves. Monoamine levels gradually returned to baseline levels or below at the end of stimulation in most trials. Monoamine oxidase and uptake inhibitors increased the release magnitude, time-to-peak (TTP) and decline-to-baseline. These results demonstrate that spinal monoamine release is modulated on a timescale of seconds, in tandem with centrally-generated locomotion and indicate that MLR-evoked locomotor activity involves concurrent activation of descending monoaminergic and reticulospinal pathways. These gradual changes in space and time of monoamine concentrations high enough to strongly activate various receptors subtypes on locomotor activated neurons further suggest that during MLR-evoked locomotion, monoamine action is, in part, mediated by extrasynaptic neurotransmission

  13. Neuroprotective effects and impact on caspase-12 expression of tauroursodeoxycholic acid after acute spinal cord injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yi; Miao, Lei; Hei, Long; Lin, Leilei; Ding, Huiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) on nerve function after acute spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats, observe its effect on neuronal apoptosis and caspase-12 expression levels, and investigate the underlying mechanism. Methods: We used a modified Allen’s weight-drop trauma method to establish a rat acute SCI model. The rats were randomly divided into three groups: group A (sham surgery group), group B (DMSO control group) and group C (TUDCA treatment group), with 36 rats in each group. At one minute and at 24 hours after successfully establishing the model, rats in group C received an intraperitoneal injection of TUDCA (200 mg/kg), while rats in group B received an equal amount of DMSO at the same time points. At 24 hours, three days, and five days after injury, a modified Tarlov scoring method and Rivlin’s oblique plate test were used to evaluate rat spinal cord nerve function recovery. Animals were sacrificed at 24 hours, three days, and five days after injury. Specimens were obtained from the center of the injury sites; the pathological changes in spinal cord tissue were observed after hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining; apoptosis was detected using the TUNEL method, and the expression of caspase-12 was measured at the protein level using immunohistochemistry and Western blots. Results: Group C differed significantly from group B in Tarlov scores and the oblique table test as early as 24 hours after the injury (P < 0.05). The TUNEL assay test results showed that neurons underwent apoptosis after SCI, which peaked at 24 hours. The ratios of apoptotic cells in group C were significantly lower than those in group B at 24 hours, three days, and five days after injury (P < 0.01). The immunohistochemistry and Western blot results showed that the caspase-12 expression levels of group C were lower than those of group B at 24 hours, three days, and five days after injury (P < 0.05). Conclusion: TUDCA can inhibit the expression of caspase

  14. [Subcutaneous stimulation as additional therapy to spinal cord stimulation in a post-laminectomy syndrome patient].

    PubMed

    Akbaş, Mert; Yeğin, Mehmet Arif; Özdemir, İrem; Göksu, Ethem; Akyüz, Mahmut

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation as treatment of chronic low back pain via neuromodulation has been frequently performed in recent years. The dorsal column is stimulated by an electrode placed at the epidural region. In the case presently described, subcutaneous lead was implanted in a patient with failed back syndrome after spinal cord stimulation was inadequate to treat back and gluteal pain. A 65-year-old male had undergone surgery to treat lumbar disc herniation, after which he received physical therapy and multiple steroid injections due to unrelieved pain. He was admitted to the pain clinic with pain radiating to right gluteal muscle and leg. Spinal cord stimulation was performed and, as pain was not relieved, subcutaneous lead was applied to the right cluneal nerve distribution. Following treatment, the patient scored 1-2 on visual analog scale. Pain had been reduced by over 80%. Octad electrode was placed between T8 and T10 vertebrae after Tuohy needle was introduced to intervertebral area between L1 and L2. Paresthesia occurred in the right extremity. Boundaries were determined by area of right gluteal region in which paresthesia did not occur. Octad electrode was placed subcutaneously after vertical line was drawn from center point. Paresthesia occurred throughout the region. Pulse wave was 390-450 msec; frequency was 10-30 Hz. Subcutaneous electrode replacement is effective additional therapy when pain is not relieved by spinal cord stimulation.

  15. Exercise modulates chloride homeostasis after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Côté, Marie-Pascale; Gandhi, Sapan; Zambrotta, Marina; Houlé, John D

    2014-07-02

    Activity-based therapies are routinely integrated in spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation programs because they result in a reduction of hyperreflexia and spasticity. However, the mechanisms by which exercise regulates activity in spinal pathways to reduce spasticity and improve functional recovery are poorly understood. Persisting alterations in the action of GABA on postsynaptic targets is a signature of CNS injuries, including SCI. The action of GABA depends on the intracellular chloride concentration, which is determined largely by the expression of two cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs), KCC2 and NKCC1, which serve as chloride exporters and importers, respectively. We hypothesized that the reduction in hyperreflexia with exercise after SCI relies on a return to chloride homeostasis. Sprague Dawley rats received a spinal cord transection at T12 and were assigned to SCI-7d, SCI-14d, SCI-14d+exercise, SCI-28d, SCI-28d+exercise, or SCI-56d groups. During a terminal experiment, H-reflexes were recorded from interosseus muscles after stimulation of the tibial nerve and the low-frequency-dependent depression (FDD) was assessed. We provide evidence that exercise returns spinal excitability and levels of KCC2 and NKCC1 toward normal levels in the lumbar spinal cord. Acutely altering chloride extrusion using the KCC2 blocker DIOA masked the effect of exercise on FDD, whereas blocking NKCC1 with bumetanide returned FDD toward intact levels after SCI. Our results indicate that exercise contributes to reflex recovery and restoration of endogenous inhibition through a return to chloride homeostasis after SCI. This lends support for CCCs as part of a pathway that could be manipulated to improve functional recovery when combined with rehabilitation programs. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/348976-12$15.00/0.

  16. Structural parameters of collagen nerve grafts influence peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Stang, Felix; Fansa, Hisham; Wolf, Gerald; Reppin, Michael; Keilhoff, Gerburg

    2005-06-01

    Large nerve defects require nerve grafts to allow regeneration. To avoid donor nerve problems the concept of tissue engineering was introduced into nerve surgery. However, non-neuronal grafts support axonal regeneration only to a certain extent. They lack viable Schwann cells which provide neurotrophic and neurotopic factors and guide the sprouting nerve. This experimental study used the rat sciatic nerve to bridge 2 cm nerve gaps with collagen (type I/III) tubes. The tubes were different in their physical structure (hollow versus inner collagen skeleton, different inner diameters). To improve regeneration Schwann cells were implanted. After 8 weeks the regeneration process was monitored clinically, histologically and morphometrically. Autologous nerve grafts and collagen tubes without Schwann cells served as control. In all parameters autologous nerve grafts showed best regeneration. Nerve regeneration in a noteworthy quality was also seen with hollow collagen tubes and tubes with reduced lumen, both filled with Schwann cells. The inner skeleton, however, impaired nerve regeneration independent of whether Schwann cells were added or not. This indicates that not only viable Schwann cells are an imperative prerequisite but also structural parameters determine peripheral nerve regeneration.

  17. JNK-induced MCP-1 production in spinal cord astrocytes contributes to central sensitization and neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yong-Jing; Zhang, Ling; Samad, Omar Abdel; Suter, Marc R.; Yasuhiko, Kawasaki; Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Park, Jong-Yeon; Lind, Anne-Li; Ma, Qiufu; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2009-01-01

    Our previous study showed that activation of c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) in spinal astrocytes plays an important role in neuropathic pain sensitization. We further investigated how JNK regulates neuropathic pain. In cultured astrocytes, TNF-α transiently activated JNK via TNF receptor-1. Cytokine array indicated that the chemokine CCL2/MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) was strongly induced by the TNF-α/JNK pathway. MCP-1 upregulation by TNF-α was dose-dependently inhibited by the JNK inhibitors SP600125 and D-JNKI-1. Spinal injection of TNF-α produced JNK-dependent pain hypersensitivity and MCP-1 upregulation in the spinal cord. Further, spinal nerve ligation (SNL) induced persistent neuropathic pain and MCP-1 upregulation in the spinal cord, and both were suppressed by D-JNKI-1. Remarkably, MCP-1 was primarily induced in spinal cord astrocytes after SNL. Spinal administration of MCP-1 neutralizing antibody attenuated neuropathic pain. Conversely, spinal application of MCP-1 induced heat hyperalgesia and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in superficial spinal cord dorsal horn neurons, indicative of central sensitization (hyperactivity of dorsal horn neurons). Patch clamp recordings in lamina II neurons of isolated spinal cord slices showed that MCP-1 not only enhanced spontaneous excitatory synaptic currents (sEPSCs) but also potentiated NMDA- and AMPA-induced currents. Finally, the MCP-1 receptor CCR2 was expressed in neurons and some non-neuronal cells in the spinal cord. Taken together, we have revealed a previously unknown mechanism of MCP-1 induction and action. MCP-1 induction in astrocytes following JNK activation contributes to central sensitization and neuropathic pain facilitation by enhancing excitatory synaptic transmission. Inhibition of the JNK/MCP-1 pathway may provide a new therapy for neuropathic pain management. PMID:19339605

  18. JNK-induced MCP-1 production in spinal cord astrocytes contributes to central sensitization and neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yong-Jing; Zhang, Ling; Samad, Omar Abdel; Suter, Marc R; Yasuhiko, Kawasaki; Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Park, Jong-Yeon; Lind, Anne-Li; Ma, Qiufu; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2009-04-01

    Our previous study showed that activation of c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) in spinal astrocytes plays an important role in neuropathic pain sensitization. We further investigated how JNK regulates neuropathic pain. In cultured astrocytes, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) transiently activated JNK via TNF receptor-1. Cytokine array indicated that the chemokine CCL2/MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) was strongly induced by the TNF-alpha/JNK pathway. MCP-1 upregulation by TNF-alpha was dose dependently inhibited by the JNK inhibitors SP600125 (anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one) and D-JNKI-1. Spinal injection of TNF-alpha produced JNK-dependent pain hypersensitivity and MCP-1 upregulation in the spinal cord. Furthermore, spinal nerve ligation (SNL) induced persistent neuropathic pain and MCP-1 upregulation in the spinal cord, and both were suppressed by D-JNKI-1. Remarkably, MCP-1 was primarily induced in spinal cord astrocytes after SNL. Spinal administration of MCP-1 neutralizing antibody attenuated neuropathic pain. Conversely, spinal application of MCP-1 induced heat hyperalgesia and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in superficial spinal cord dorsal horn neurons, indicative of central sensitization (hyperactivity of dorsal horn neurons). Patch-clamp recordings in lamina II neurons of isolated spinal cord slices showed that MCP-1 not only enhanced spontaneous EPSCs but also potentiated NMDA- and AMPA-induced currents. Finally, the MCP-1 receptor CCR2 was expressed in neurons and some non-neuronal cells in the