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Sample records for radial keratotomy rk

  1. Multifocal Intraocular Lens Results in Correcting Presbyopia in Eyes After Radial Keratotomy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeong Hwan; Seok, Kyung-Won; Kim, Wan Soo

    2017-11-01

    To report results of multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in 2 patients with refractive error and presbyopia after previous radial keratotomy (RK). A refractive multifocal IOL with rotational asymmetry (LS313-MF30; Oculentis, Berlin, Germany) was implanted. The first patient was a 60-year-old man with myopia who underwent unilateral RK 20 years before. His uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) was 20/400, and his distance corrected near vision was J9 in both eyes. Six months after bilateral surgery, his binocular UDVA and uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA) improved to 20/20 and J1, respectively, although he experienced diurnal fluctuation. The second patient was a 55-year-old woman with hyperopia who underwent bilateral RK 18 years before. Uncorrected distance visual acuity was 20/25 in both eyes, but UNVA was between J9 and J10. Three months after unilateral surgery, UDVA and UNVA of the postsurgical eye improved to 20/20 and J1, respectively. Neither patient reported any significant photic phenomena, and both were satisfied with the results of treatment. The desirable clinical outcomes and levels of satisfaction expressed by these patients indicate that surgery using this particular multifocal IOL may benefit presbyopic patients with previous RK.

  2. Laser in-situ keratomileusis for refractive error following radial keratotomy

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rajesh; Sharma, Namrata; Ahuja, Rakesh; Kumar, Chandrashekhar; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in eyes with residual/induced refractive error following radial keratotomy (RK). Design: Retrospective study. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of data of 18 eyes of 10 patients, who had undergone LASIK for refractive error following RK, was performed. All the patients had undergone RK in both eyes at least one year before LASIK. Parameters like uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast sensitivity, glare acuity and corneal parameters were evaluated both preoperatively and postoperatively. Statistical Software: STATA-9.0. Results: The mean UCVA before LASIK was 0.16±0.16 which improved to 0.64 ± 0.22 (P < 0.001) after one year following LASIK. Fourteen eyes (out of 18) had UCVA of ≥ 20/30 on Snellen's acuity chart at one year following LASIK. The mean BCVA before LASIK was 0.75 ± 0.18. This improved to 0.87 ± 0.16 at one year following LASIK. The mean spherical refractive error at the time of LASIK and at one year after the procedure was –5.37 ± 4.83 diopters (D) and –0.22 ± 1.45D, respectively. Only three eyes had a residual spherical refractive error of ≥ 1.0D at one year follow-up. In two eyes, we noted opening up of the RK incisions. No eye developed epithelial in-growth till 1 year after LASIK. Conclusion: LASIK is effective in treating refractive error following RK. However, it carries the risk of flap-related complications like opening up of the previously placed RK incisions and splitting of the corneal flap. PMID:21666312

  3. Radial Keratotomy Surgery: What Health Educators Should Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Kenley; Page, Randy M.

    1988-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the safety and potential side effects of radial keratotomy, a surgical procedure that results in a flattening of the cornea and a reduction of refractive myopia (nearsightedness). (JD)

  4. [Comparative results evaluation of residual myopia and astigmatism correction after radial keratotomy by photorefraction keratectomy and laser specialized keratomileusis].

    PubMed

    Dias-Martines, T E; Sheludchenko, V M; Kurenkov, V V

    1999-01-01

    The results of correction of residual myopia by photorefraction keratectomy (PRK) (51 eyes) and laser specialized keratomileusis (LASIK) (36 eyes) after radial keratotomy (RK) are compared. The patients were observed for up to 12 months. After PRK, 7.3% patients developed late fleur of the cornea, evaluated by at least 2 points. The incidence of fleur directly depended on the value of residual myopia. After LASIK none of the patients developed such fleur. The best visual acuity (0.5 and higher without correction) was attained in 70.73% after PRK and RK, vs. 100% after LASIK. The results of photorefraction operations and severity of residual myopia after RK correlated. In residual myopia of up to -3 diopters the results of correction by PRK and LASIK were virtually the same. In residual myopia higher than -3 diopters, LASIK is preferable.

  5. Femtosecond Laser Flap Creation for Laser In Situ Keratomileusis in the Setting of Previous Radial Keratotomy.

    PubMed

    Rush, Sloan W; Rush, Ryan B

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to report the outcomes of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in subjects with previous radial keratotomy (RK) using a novel femtosecond laser setting on a proprietary femtosecond laser platform. This was a retrospective, consecutive chart review of patients at a single private practice institution. The medical records of 16 eyes of 8 subjects who underwent femtosecond-assisted LASIK for consecutive hyperopia after RK were retrospectively reviewed. The preoperative characteristics, intraoperative details, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed. All 16 eyes had successful femtosecond laser flap creation without significant intraoperative or postoperative complications. Uncorrected visual acuity significantly improved postoperatively (P = 0.0142) and remained stable through the final follow-up interval at 9 to 12 months postoperatively. None of the subjects lost any lines of best spectacle-corrected visual acuity in the postoperative period. The novel femtosecond laser technique described in this study can provide a safe and effective method for patients undergoing LASIK after previous RK. Future investigations are required to further validate the findings reported in this study.

  6. Femtosecond-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis for consecutive hyperopia after radial keratotomy.

    PubMed

    Leccisotti, Antonio; Fields, Stefania V

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate femtosecond-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for the treatment of hyperopic shift after radial keratotomy (RK). Private practice, Siena, Italy. Prospective case series. Eyes with a spherical equivalent (SE) of +1.0 diopters (D) to +4.0 D after RK with 6 or 8 incisions had LASIK. The flap (nominal thickness 130 μm) was created with a femtosecond laser (LDV Z2); the refractive ablation was performed with an excimer laser (217P). The flap was dissected in a centrifugal fashion along previous RK cuts. Eighteen eyes of 10 patients were treated. Preoperatively, the mean defocus equivalent was 3.13 diopters (D) ± 0.71 (SD); the corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was 0.09 ± 0.06 logMAR. At 9 months, the mean defocus equivalent was 0.51 ± 0.47 D (P < .05), with 13 eyes (72%) having 0.50 D or less of defocus equivalent and 16 eyes (89%) having 1.0 D or less of defocus equivalent. The mean CDVA was 0.04 ± 0.06 logMAR (P < .05). No lines of logMAR CDVA were lost. The mean uncorrected distance visual acuity was 0.11 ± 0.10 logMAR. The safety index was 1.11; the efficacy index was 0.97. No retreatments were performed. Flap complications were limited to an RK incision opening larger than 2 mm in 3 eyes and 1 case of a small, self-limiting epithelial ingrowth. Laser in situ keratomileusis with a low-energy femtosecond laser was a safe and effective approach to treat post-RK hyperopia, causing no relevant inflammation. Neither author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fuchs' dystrophy associated with radial keratotomy: Lamellar or perforating keratoplasty?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Ausin, P; Antolin-Garcia, D; Santamaria Garcia, L; Blazquez-Fernandez, A-B

    2017-05-01

    A 70 year-old male patient with a history of radial keratotomy suffering from Fuchs' dystrophy and a cataract. The patient received a two-step surgery: lens phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implant, followed by descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty in both eyes, four months later. There were no complications apart from a recurrent cystoid macular oedema in both eyes. The best corrected visual acuity was 20/40 both eyes, and the patient was satisfied. Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty may be considered as an alternative to penetrating keratoplasty in the case of endothelial dysfunction and radial keratotomy in patients with no corneal ectasia or significant stromal opacity. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Myopia and radial keratotomy: a survey among Norwegian ophthalmologists.

    PubMed

    Midelfart, A

    1990-10-01

    One hundred and eighty-nine of 200 ophthalmologists in Norway responded to a survey requesting them to report their age, sex, refractive state, use of corrective lenses, and if myopic, their view on radial keratotomy as a possible method to correct their own myopia. According to the answers, 32 (17%) females and 154 (82%) males, with mean age of 49 years, were registered. The reported refractive state was 26.5% emmetropy and 72.0% ametropy. The prevalence of myopia was 45%. The mean refractive status (equivalent sphere) in the right eye was -1.02 +/- 2.28 D with a range from -8.5 D to +7.25 D (n = 184). Of the ametropes, 64.8% used spectacles, 15.3% used both spectacles and contact lenses, whilst 3.6% used only contact lenses for distance vision. With the exception of one, all myopes used corrective lenses. Only 2 myopic ophthalmologists responded positively to the question of whether they would consider having radial keratotomy to correct their own myopia.

  9. Outcomes of Phacoemulsification Using Different Size of Clear Corneal Incision in Eyes with Previous Radial Keratotomy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing Shang; Liu, Xue; Wang, Jin Da; Xiong, Ying; Li, Jing; Li, Xiao Xia; Zhao, Jing; You, Qi Sheng; Huang, Yao; Tsai, Frank; Baum, Larry; Jhanji, Vishal; Wan, Xiu Hua

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate visual outcomes and complications after phacoemulsification in eyes with cataract and previous radial keratotomy (RK) cuts using different sizes of clear corneal incisions. The study was a retrospective study. Thirty eyes with cataract and previous RK underwent phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Among them 7 eyes had 8 RK cuts, 13 eyes had 12 RK cuts, and 10 eyes had 16 RK cuts. Phacoemulsification and IOL implantation were performed through a 2.0-3.2 mm clear corneal incision by a single surgeon. In the 8 RK cuts group, 3.2 mm clear corneal incisions were used in 4 eyes, and 3.0 mm clear corneal incisions were used in 3 eyes. In the 12 RK cuts group, 3.2 mm clear corneal incisions were used in 6 eyes, and 2.2 mm clear corneal incisions were used in 7 eyes. In the 16 RK cuts group, 3.2 mm clear corneal incisions were used in 5 eyes, and 2.0 mm clear corneal incisions were used in 5 eyes. Patients were followed up 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years postoperatively and were examined for the dehiscence of RK cuts during or after the surgery, post-operative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), corneal astigmatism, corneal endothelial cell density and complications. Successful phacoemulsification with IOL implantation was performed in all eyes. No wound dehiscence was noted in any eyes with 8 or 12 RK cuts. Wound dehiscence was noted in 2 eyes with 16 RK cuts. The dehiscence of RK cuts was closed successfully by injecting an air bubble with or without viscoelastic agent into the anterior chamber at the end of surgery. During the follow-up, the cuts were well apposed in all eyes, and no new dehiscence of RK cuts was noted. At the last follow-up, mean BCVA (0.2 ± 0.18 logMAR) was better than preoperative BCVA(0.45±0.19 logMAR) (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the long-term preoperative and postoperative mean corneal astigmatism (P = 0.3). However, there was a significant

  10. Comparison of Newer IOL Power Calculation Methods for Eyes With Previous Radial Keratotomy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jack X.; Tang, Maolong; Wang, Li; Weikert, Mitchell P.; Huang, David; Koch, Douglas D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the accuracy of the optical coherence tomography–based (OCT formula) and Barrett True K (True K) intraocular lens (IOL) calculation formulas in eyes with previous radial keratotomy (RK). Methods In 95 eyes of 65 patients, using the actual refraction following cataract surgery as target refraction, the predicted IOL power for each method was calculated. The IOL prediction error (PE) was obtained by subtracting the predicted IOL power from the implanted IOL power. The arithmetic IOL PE and median refractive PE were calculated and compared. Results All formulas except the True K produced hyperopic IOL PEs at 1 month, which decreased at ≥4 months (all P < 0.05). For the double-K Holladay 1, OCT formula, True K, and average of these three formulas (Average), the median absolute refractive PEs were, respectively, 0.78 diopters (D), 0.74 D, 0.60 D, and 0.59 D at 1 month; 0.69 D, 0.77 D, 0.77 D, and 0.61 D at 2 to 3 months; and 0.34 D, 0.65 D, 0.69 D, and 0.46 D at ≥4 months. The Average produced significantly smaller refractive PE than did the double-K Holladay 1 at 1 month (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in refractive PEs among formulas at 4 months. Conclusions The OCT formula and True K were comparable to the double-K Holladay 1 method on the ASCRS (American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery) calculator. The Average IOL power on the ASCRS calculator may be considered when selecting the IOL power. Further improvements in the accuracy of IOL power calculation in RK eyes are desirable. PMID:27409468

  11. Implantation of a Multifocal Toric Intraocular Lens after Radial Keratotomy and Cross-Linking with Hyperopia and Astigmatism Residues: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Nuzzi, Raffaele; Monteu, Francesca; Tridico, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Radial keratotomy is a refractive surgical technique, widely used in the 80s and early 90s to correct myopia and astigmatism, but now overcome by more recent laser techniques. Important consequences, often in patients with more than 45 years of age, are progressive hyperopic shift and/or an increase in corneal astigmatism, whose main cause seems to be an increase in the curvature radius of the central portion of the cornea. This seems to be due to radial keratotomy incisions - with the consequent need for cross-linking - intraocular pressure, and corneal biomechanical parameters. The authors propose phacoemulsification with a customized multifocal toric intraocular lens implantation to correct the induced shift and hyperopic astigmatism. A decent postoperative visual acuity was observed with good patient satisfaction. A specific protocol must be applied to optimize the correct diagnosis, presurgical evaluation and postsurgical outcomes that are to be maintained over time, without regressions.

  12. Radial integrals <r(k)>4f and nephelauxetic effect of Nd3+ in crystals.

    PubMed

    Petrov, D; Angelov, B

    2014-01-24

    The radial expectation values <r(k)>4f,k=2, 4, 6, for oxygen- or halogen- coordinated Nd(3+) ions in 25 crystals have been obtained from experimental Slater parameter shifts ΔFk=Fk (free ion) - Fk (crystal) by means of the dielectric screening model. The <r(k)>4f values found by this new approach are compatible with those computed by relativistic 4f wave functions. The nephelauxetic ratios βk in respect to the free ion Nd IV have been also determined and related to covalency and bonding parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Toric intraocular lens implantation versus astigmatic keratotomy to correct astigmatism during phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Titiyal, Jeewan S; Khatik, Mukesh; Sharma, Namrata; Sehra, Sri Vatsa; Maharana, Parfulla K; Ghatak, Urmimala; Agarwal, Tushar; Khokhar, Sudarshan; Chawla, Bhavana

    2014-05-01

    To compare toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and astigmatic keratotomy (AK) in correction of astigmatism during phacoemulsification. Tertiary care hospital. Prospective randomized trial. Consecutive patients with visually significant cataract and moderate astigmatism (1.25 to 3.00 diopters [D]) were randomized into 2 groups. Temporal clear corneal 2.75 mm phacoemulsification with toric IOL implantation was performed in the toric IOL group and with 30-degree coupled AK at the 7.0 mm optic zone in the keratotomy group. The uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuities, refraction, keratometry, topography, central corneal thickness, and endothelial cell density were evaluated preoperatively and 1 day, 1 week, and 1 and 3 months postoperatively. The study enrolled 34 eyes (34 patients), 17 in each group. There was no difference in UDVA or CDVA between the 2 groups at any follow-up visit. The mean preoperative and postoperative refractive cylinder was 2.00 D ± 0.49 (SD) and 0.33 ± 0.17 D, respectively, in the toric IOL group and 1.95 ± 0.47 D and 0.57 ± 0.41 D, respectively, in the keratotomy group (P=.10). The mean residual astigmatism at 3 months was 0.44 ± 1.89 @ 160 in the toric IOL group and 0.77 ± 1.92 @ 174 in the keratotomy group (P=.61). All eyes in the toric IOL group and 14 eyes (84%) in the keratotomy group achieved a residual refractive cylinder of 1.00 D or less (P=.17). Toric IOL implantation was comparable to AK in eyes with moderate astigmatism having phacoemulsification. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Corneal Astigmatism and Aberrations After Combined Femtosecond-Assisted Phacoemulsification and Arcuate Keratotomy: Two-Year Results.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tommy C Y; Ng, Alex L K; Cheng, George P M; Wang, Zheng; Woo, Victor C P; Jhanji, Vishal

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the stability of corneal astigmatism and higher-order aberrations after combined femtosecond-assisted phacoemulsification and arcuate keratotomy. Retrospective, interventional case series. Surgery was performed using a VICTUS (Bausch & Lomb Inc, Dornach, Germany) platform. A single, 450-μm deep, arcuate keratotomy was paired at the 8-mm zone with the main phacoemulsification incision in the opposite meridian. The keratotomy incisions were not opened. Corneal astigmatism and higher-order aberration measurements obtained preoperatively and at 2 months and 2 years postoperatively were analyzed. Fifty eyes of 50 patients (mean age 66.2 ± 10.5 years) were included. The mean preoperative corneal astigmatism was 1.35 ± 0.48 diopters (D). This was reduced to 0.67 ± 0.54 D at 2 months and 0.74 ± 0.53 D at 2 years postoperatively (P < .001). There was no statistically significant difference between postoperative corneal astigmatism over 2 years (P = .392). Both magnitude of error and absolute angle of error were comparable between the 2 postoperative time points (P > .283). At postoperative 2 months and 2 years, 72% and 70% of eyes were within 15 degrees of preoperative meridian of astigmatism, respectively. All wavefront measurements increased significantly at 2 months and 2 years (P < .007), except spherical aberration (P > .150). There was no significant difference in higher-order aberrations between 2 months and 2 years postoperatively (P > .486). Our study showed the stability of femtosecond-assisted arcuate keratotomy. Further studies using other platforms and nomograms are needed to corroborate the findings of this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. RK and RK* beyond the standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiller, Gudrun; Nišandžić, Ivan

    2017-08-01

    Measurements of the ratio of B →K*μ μ to B →K*e e branching fractions, RK*, by the LHCb Collaboration strengthen the hints from previous studies with pseudoscalar kaons, RK, for the breakdown of lepton universality, and therefore the Standard Model (SM), to ˜3.5 σ . Complementarity between RK and RK* allows us to pin down the Dirac structure of the new contributions to be predominantly SM-like chiral, with possible admixture of chirality-flipped contributions of up to O (few 10 %). Scalar and vector leptoquark representations (S3,V1,V3) plus possible (S˜2,V2) admixture can explain RK ,K* via tree-level exchange. Flavor models naturally predict leptoquark masses not exceeding a few TeV, with couplings to third-generation quarks at O (0.1 ), implying that this scenario can be directly tested at the LHC.

  16. Vector Analysis of Corneal Astigmatism After Combined Femtosecond-Assisted Phacoemulsification and Arcuate Keratotomy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tommy C Y; Cheng, George P M; Wang, Zheng; Tham, Clement C Y; Woo, Victor C P; Jhanji, Vishal

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of femtosecond-assisted arcuate keratotomy combined with cataract surgery in eyes with low to moderate corneal astigmatism. Retrospective, interventional case series. This study included patients who underwent combined femtosecond-assisted phacoemulsification and arcuate keratotomy between March 2013 and August 2013. Keratometric astigmatism was evaluated before and 2 months after the surgery. Vector analysis of the astigmatic changes was performed using the Alpins method. Overall, 54 eyes of 54 patients (18 male and 36 female; mean age, 68.8 ± 11.4 years) were included. The mean preoperative (target-induced astigmatism) and postoperative astigmatism was 1.33 ± 0.57 diopters (D) and 0.87 ± 0.56 D, respectively (P < .001). The magnitude of error (difference between surgically induced and target-induced astigmatism) (-0.13 ± 0.68 D), as well as the correction index (ratio of surgically induced and target-induced astigmatism) (0.86 ± 0.52), demonstrated slight undercorrection. The angle of error was very close to 0, indicating no significant systematic error of misaligned treatment. However, the absolute angle of error showed a less favorable range (17.5 ± 19.2 degrees), suggesting variable factors such as healing or alignment at an individual level. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. Combined phacoemulsification with arcuate keratotomy using femtosecond laser appears to be a relatively easy and safe means for management of low to moderate corneal astigmatism in cataract surgery candidates. Misalignment at an individual level can reduce its effectiveness. This issue remains to be elucidated in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Femtosecond-Assisted Arcuate Keratotomy for the Correction of Postkeratoplasty Astigmatism: Vector Analysis and Accuracy of Laser Incisions.

    PubMed

    Loriaut, Patrick; Borderie, Vincent M; Laroche, Laurent

    2015-09-01

    To assess the clinical and refractive outcomes of femtosecond-assisted arcuate keratotomy in postkeratoplasty patients, and the accuracy of the incisions, using optical coherence tomography. This is a retrospective study of patients with high postkeratoplasty astigmatism. Patients with a minimum of 4 diopters (D) of postkeratoplasty regular astigmatism were included. The main outcome measures were corrected distance visual acuity, keratometry, corneal topography, and the depth of corneal incisions. Arcuate keratotomy procedures were performed using the IntraLase Femtosecond laser. The depth of keratotomies was set to 75% of the thinnest pachymetry. Twenty eyes of 20 patients were recruited in this study. The mean age at surgery was 51 years, and the mean follow-up period was 17 ± 7.9 months. The corrected distance visual acuity improved significantly from 20/60 preoperatively to 20/41 after surgery (P = 0.004). The mean preoperative and postoperative spherical equivalents were -4.34 ± 2.91 D and -4.44 ± 3.64 D, respectively (P = 0.49). The mean keratometric cylinder decreased from 9.45 ± 2.97 D (range, 4.2-15.2 D) to 4.64 ± 2.79 D (range, 1.4-11.8 D) (P < 0.001). There was no statistical difference between the mean surgical-induced astigmatism and the mean target-induced astigmatism (P = 0.313). The mean difference between the scheduled and actual incision depth was 10.5 ± 22.2 μm (P = 0.057). No complications occurred during the procedures. Femtosecond-assisted keratotomy seems to be a safe and efficient technique for the reduction of large amounts of corneal astigmatism. Although overcorrection and undercorrection may occur, the visual outcome is satisfactory. Optical coherence tomography analysis reports a good predictability of the depth of incisions.

  18. Electronic-beam analysis of excimer lasers used for photorefractive keratotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roundy, Carlos B.

    1998-07-01

    Excimer lasers are an excellent instrument for performing photorefractive keratotomy, PRK. The UV light from the laser causes an ablation of the cornea in proportion to the intensity of the light. The primary characteristic essential to successful PRK is the uniformity of the Top Hat, or working portion of the laser beam. In order for this intensity profile to be sufficiently uniform for PRK, it is essential to periodically measure the equality of the laser beam profile. This ensures that the laser continues to operate properly and provide the expected performance.

  19. Astigmatism reduction clinical trial: a multicenter prospective evaluation of the predictability of arcuate keratotomy. Evaluation of surgical nomogram predictability. ARC-T Study Group.

    PubMed

    Price, F W; Grene, R B; Marks, R G; Gonzales, J S

    1995-03-01

    To determine the accuracy of the Lindstrom surgical nomogram for astigmatism. A prospective multicenter study. One hundred sixty eyes of 95 patients underwent astigmatic keratotomy in eight centers by nine surgeons. Inclusion criteria for the study included age of at least 18 years with 1 to 6 diopters (D) of naturally occurring corneal astigmatism and less than 1 D of lenticular astigmatism. A standardized astigmatic keratotomy surgical technique was performed on each eye. Surgical measurements were determined using the Lindstrom surgical nomogram for astigmatism. The Holladay, Cravy, Koch vector analysis method was used to determine the change in refractive cylinder results. Refractive changes also are presented without vector analysis merely using the absolute change in refractive cylinder and axis. Multiple regression analysis was used to develop a mathematical model determining the factors predictive of the change in refractive cylinder. The significant predictors for the amount of astigmatic correction achieved were, in order of decreasing importance, the following: number of incisions (R2 = 30%), incision length (R2 = 16%), age (R2 = 8%), and gender (R2 = 2%). Astigmatism is a two-dimensional measurement of both quantity and direction that is most appropriately analyzed with vector analysis. The original Lindstrom surgical nomogram for arcuate keratotomy used in this study is still quite useful although it tended to underpredict results for many patients, especially those having two incisional surgeries. Some older subjects having minimal surgery achieved greater correction than predicted by the original nomogram. The most important factors predictive of greater astigmatic keratotomy surgical effect are incision number, incision length, older age, and male gender.

  20. Explaining the R_K and R_{K^*} anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Diptimoy

    2017-10-01

    Recent LHCb results on R_{K^*}, the ratio of the branching fractions of B → K^* μ ^+ μ ^- to that of B → K^* e^+ e^-, for the dilepton invariant mass bins q^2 ≡ m_{ℓ ℓ }^2 = [0.045-1.1] GeV^2 and [1.1-6] GeV^2 show approximately 2.5 σ deviations from the corresponding Standard Model prediction in each of the bins. This, when combined with the measurement of R_K (q^2=[1-6] GeV^2), a similar ratio for the decay to a pseudo-scalar meson, highly suggests lepton non-universal new physics in semi-leptonic B meson decays. In this work, we perform a model independent analysis of these potential new physics signals and identify the operators that do the best job in satisfying all these measurements. We show that heavy new physics, giving rise to q^2 independent local 4-Fermi operators of scalar, pseudo-scalar, vector or axial-vector type, is unable to explain all the three measurements simultaneously, in particular R_{K^*} in the bin [0.045-1.1], within their experimental 1σ regions. We point out the possibility to explain R_{K^*} in the low bin by an additional light (≲ 20 {MeV}) vector boson with appropriate coupling strengths to (\\bar{b} s) and (\\bar{e} e).

  1. Long-term follow-up of astigmatic keratotomy for corneal astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Böhringer, Daniel; Dineva, Nina; Maier, Philip; Birnbaum, Florian; Kirschkamp, Thomas; Reinhard, Thomas; Eberwein, Philipp

    2016-11-01

    To report the long-term stability of paired arcuate corneal keratotomies (AKs) in patients with high regular postpenetrating keratoplasty astigmatism. Retrospective chart review of best-corrected visual acuity, refraction and keratometric values of 41 eyes with AK between 2003 and 2012. Magnitude of median target induced astigmatism vector was 9.2 dioptres (Dpt). We reached a median magnitude of surgically induced astigmatism vector of 9.81 Dpt and a median magnitude of difference vector of 5.5 Dpt. In keratometry, we achieved a net median astigmatism reduction by 3.3 Dpt. The average correction index was 1.14, showing a slight overcorrection. Irregularity of keratometric astigmatism increased by 0.6 Dpt, and spherical equivalent changed by 1.75 Dpt. Monocular best spectacle corrected visual acuity increased from preoperatively 20/63 (0.5 logMAR) to 20/40 (0.3 logMAR) postoperatively. Median gain on the ETDRS chart was two lines. Long-term follow-up showed a median keratometric astigmatic increase by 0.3 Dpt per year. Arcuate corneal keratotomies is a safe and effective method to reduce high regular corneal astigmatism following penetrating keratoplasty but has limited predictability. The long-term follow-up shows an increase of keratometric astigmatism by 0.3 Dpt/year, equalizing the surgical effect after 10 years. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Examination of tear film smoothness on corneae after refractive surgeries using a noninvasive interferometric method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczesna, Dorota H.; Kulas, Zbigniew; Kasprzak, Henryk T.; Stenevi, Ulf

    2009-11-01

    A lateral shearing interferometer was used to examine the smoothness of the tear film. The information about the distribution and stability of the precorneal tear film is carried out by the wavefront reflected from the surface of tears and coded in interference fringes. Smooth and regular fringes indicate a smooth tear film surface. On corneae after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) or radial keratotomy (RK) surgery, the interference fringes are seldom regular. The fringes are bent on bright lines, which are interpreted as tear film breakups. The high-intensity pattern seems to appear in similar location on the corneal surface after refractive surgery. Our purpose was to extract information about the pattern existing under the interference fringes and calculate its shape reproducibility over time and following eye blinks. A low-pass filter was applied and correlation coefficient was calculated to compare a selected fragment of the template image to each of the following frames in the recorded sequence. High values of the correlation coefficient suggest that irregularities of the corneal epithelium might influence tear film instability and that tear film breakup may be associated with local irregularities of the corneal topography created after the LASIK and RK surgeries.

  3. Overview of refractive surgery.

    PubMed

    Bower, K S; Weichel, E D; Kim, T J

    2001-10-01

    Patients with myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism can now reduce or eliminate their dependence on contact lenses and eyeglasses through refractive surgery that includes radial keratotomy (RK), photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), laser thermal keratoplasty (LTK) and intrastromal corneal rings (ICR). Since the approval of the excimer laser in 1995, the popularity of RK has declined because of the superior outcomes from PRK and LASIK. In patients with low-to-moderate myopia, PRK produces stable and predictable results with an excellent safety profile. LASIK is also efficacious, predictable and safe, with the additional advantages of rapid vision recovery and minimal pain. LASIK has rapidly become the most widely performed refractive surgery, with high patient and surgeon satisfaction. Noncontact Holium: YAG LTK provides satisfactory correction in patients with low hyperopia. ICR offers patients with low myopia the potential advantage of removal if the vision outcome is unsatisfactory. Despite the current widespread advertising and media attention about laser refractive surgery, not all patients are good candidates for this surgery. Family physicians should be familiar with the different refractive surgeries and their potential complications.

  4. Full-Thickness Astigmatic Keratotomy Combined With Small-Incision Lenticule Extraction to Treat High-Level and Mixed Astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bu Ki; Mun, Su Joung; Lee, Dae Gyu; Kim, Jae Ryun; Kim, Hyun Seung; Chung, Young Taek

    2015-12-01

    To explore the clinical effects of combined full-thickness astigmatic keratotomy and small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) in patients who are inoperable using SMILE alone. We included 13 eyes of 9 patients with high-level or mixed astigmatism who underwent full-thickness astigmatic keratotomy followed by SMILE (secondarily) to correct the residual refractive error. Six months after SMILE, the spherical equivalent was reduced from -4.83 ± 3.26 D to -0.17 ± 0.38 D (P < 0.001), and the astigmatism was reduced from 5.12 ± 0.96 D to 0.21 ± 0.22 D (P < 0.001). The uncorrected and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuities improved from 1.07 ± 0.62 to 0.02 ± 0.13 (P < 0.001) and from 0.08 ± 0.14 to -0.01 ± 0.14 (P = 0.002), respectively. The CDVA improved by 1 or 2 Snellen lines in 8 cases (61.5%), and there was no loss in CDVA. All procedures were completed without intraoperative or postoperative complications. This combined procedure was effective and safe for the treatment of high-level or mixed astigmatism.

  5. [Astigmatic keratotomy with the femtosecond laser: correction of high astigmatisms after keratoplasty].

    PubMed

    Kook, D; Bühren, J; Klaproth, O K; Bauch, A S; Derhartunian, V; Kohnen, T

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel technique for the correction of postoperative astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty with the use of the femtosecond laser creating astigmatic keratotomies (femto-AK) in the scope of a retrospective case series. Clinical data of ten eyes of nine patients with high residual astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty undergoing paired femto-AK using a 60-kHz femtosecond laser (IntraLase™, AMO) were analyzed. A new software algorithm was used to create paired arcuate cuts deep into the donor corneal button with different cut angles. Target values were refraction, uncorrected visual acuity, best corrected visual acuity, topographic data (Orbscan®, Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY, USA), and corneal wavefront analysis using Visual Optics Lab (VOL)-Pro 7.14 Software (Sarver and Associates). Vector analysis was performed using the Holladay, Cravy and Koch formula. Statistical analysis was performed to detect significances between visits using Student's t test. All procedures were performed without any major complications. The mean follow-up was 13 months. The mean patient age was 48.7 years. The preoperative mean uncorrected visual acuity (logMAR) was 1.27, best corrected visual acuity 0.55, mean subjective cylinder -7.4 D, and mean topometric astigmatism 9.3 D. The postoperative mean uncorrected visual acuity (logMAR) was 1.12, best corrected visual acuity 0.47, mean subjective cylinder -4.1 D, and mean topometric astigmatism 6.5 D. Differences between corneal higher order aberrations showed a high standard deviation and were therefore not statistically significant. Astigmatic keratotomy using the femtosecond laser seems to be a safe and effective tool for the correction of higher corneal astigmatisms. Due to the biomechanical properties of the cornea and missing empirical data for the novel femto-AK technology, higher numbers of patients are necessary to develop optimal treatment nomograms.

  6. Nonredundant functions of Arabidopsis LecRK-V.2 and LecRK-VII.1 in controlling stomatal immunity and jasmonate-mediated stomatal closure.

    PubMed

    Yekondi, Shweta; Liang, Fu-Chun; Okuma, Eiji; Radziejwoski, Amandine; Mai, Hsien-Wei; Swain, Swadhin; Singh, Prashant; Gauthier, Mathieu; Chien, Hsiao-Chiao; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Zimmerli, Laurent

    2018-04-01

    Stomatal immunity restricts bacterial entry to leaves through the recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and downstream abscisic acid and salicylic acid signaling. Through a reverse genetics approach, we characterized the function of the L-type lectin receptor kinase-V.2 (LecRK-V.2) and -VII.1 (LecRK-VII.1). Analyses of interactions with the PRR FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2) were performed by co-immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation and whole-cell patch-clamp analyses were used to evaluate guard cell Ca 2+ -permeable cation channels. The Arabidopsis thaliana LecRK-V.2 and LecRK-VII.1 and notably their kinase activities were required for full activation of stomatal immunity. Knockout lecrk-V.2 and lecrk-VII.1 mutants were hyper-susceptible to Pseudomonas syringae infection and showed defective stomatal closure in response to bacteria or to the MAMPs flagellin and EF-Tu. By contrast, Arabidopsis over-expressing LecRK-V.2 or LecRK-VII.1 demonstrated a potentiated stomatal immunity. LecRK-V.2 and LecRK-VII.1 are shown to be part of the FLS2 PRR complex. In addition, LecRK-V.2 and LecRK-VII.1 were critical for methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-mediated stomatal closure, notably for MeJA-induced activation of guard cell Ca 2+ -permeable cation channels. This study highlights the role of LecRK-V.2 and LecRK-VII.1 in stomatal immunity at the FLS2 PRR complex and in MeJA-mediated stomatal closure. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Cloning and characterization of a SnRK2 gene from Jatropha curcas L.

    PubMed

    Chun, J; Li, F-S; Ma, Y; Wang, S-H; Chen, F

    2014-12-19

    Although the SnRK2 class of Ser/Thr protein kinases is critical for signal transduction and abiotic stress resistance in plants, there have been no studies to examine SnRK2 in Jatropha curcas L. In the present study, JcSnRK2 was cloned from J. curcas using the rapid amplification of cDNA end technique and characterized. The JcSnRK2 genomic sequence is 2578 base pairs (bp), includes 10 exons and 9 introns, and the 1017-bp open reading frame encodes 338 amino acids. JcSnRK2 was transcribed in all examined tissues, with the highest transcription rate observed in the roots, followed by the leaves and stalks; the lowest rate was observed in flowers and seeds. JcSnRK2 expression increased following abscisic acid treatment, salinity, and drought stress. During a 48-h stress period, the expression of JcSnRK2 showed 2 peaks and periodic up- and downregulation. JcSnRK2 was rapidly activated within 1 h under salt and drought stress, but not under cold stress. Because of the gene sequence and expression similarity of JcSnRK2 to AtSnRK2.8, primarily in the roots, an eukaryotic expression vector containing the JcSnRK2 gene (pBI121-JcSnRK2) was constructed and introduced to the Arabidopsis AtSnRK2.8 mutant snf2.8. JcSnRK2-overexpressing plants exhibited higher salt and drought tolerance, further demonstrating the function of JcSnRK2 in the osmotic stress response. J. curcas is highly resistant to extreme salt and drought conditions and JcSnRK2 was found to be activated under these conditions. Thus, JcSnRK2 is potential candidate for improving crop tolerance to salt and drought stress.

  8. SnRK1A-Interacting Negative Regulators Modulate the Nutrient Starvation Signaling Sensor SnRK1 in Source-Sink Communication in Cereal Seedlings under Abiotic Stress[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chien-Ru; Lee, Kuo-Wei; Chen, Chih-Yu; Hong, Ya-Fang; Chen, Jyh-Long; Lu, Chung-An; Chen, Ku-Ting; Ho, Tuan-Hua David; Yu, Su-May

    2014-01-01

    In plants, source-sink communication plays a pivotal role in crop productivity, yet the underlying regulatory mechanisms are largely unknown. The SnRK1A protein kinase and transcription factor MYBS1 regulate the sugar starvation signaling pathway during seedling growth in cereals. Here, we identified plant-specific SnRK1A-interacting negative regulators (SKINs). SKINs antagonize the function of SnRK1A, and the highly conserved GKSKSF domain is essential for SKINs to function as repressors. Overexpression of SKINs inhibits the expression of MYBS1 and hydrolases essential for mobilization of nutrient reserves in the endosperm, leading to inhibition of seedling growth. The expression of SKINs is highly inducible by drought and moderately by various stresses, which is likely related to the abscisic acid (ABA)–mediated repression of SnRK1A under stress. Overexpression of SKINs enhances ABA sensitivity for inhibition of seedling growth. ABA promotes the interaction between SnRK1A and SKINs and shifts the localization of SKINs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it binds SnRK1A and prevents SnRK1A and MYBS1 from entering the nucleus. Our findings demonstrate that SnRK1A plays a key role regulating source-sink communication during seedling growth. Under abiotic stress, SKINs antagonize the function of SnRK1A, which is likely a key factor restricting seedling vigor. PMID:24569770

  9. A transfectant RK13 cell line permissive to classical caprine scrapie prion propagation.

    PubMed

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Zhuang, Dongyue; Truscott, Thomas C; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; O'Rourke, Katherine I; Schneider, David A

    2016-03-03

    To assess scrapie infectivity associated with caprine-origin tissues, bioassay can be performed using kids, lambs or transgenic mice expressing caprine or ovine prion (PRNP) alleles, but the incubation periods are fairly long. Although several classical ovine scrapie prion permissive cell lines with the ability to detect brain-derived scrapie prion have been available, no classical caprine scrapie permissive cell line is currently available. Therefore, the aims of this study were to generate a rabbit kidney epithelial cell line (RK13) stably expressing caprine wild-type PRNP (cpRK13) and then to assess permissiveness of cpRK13 cells to classical caprine scrapie prion propagation. The cpRK13 and plasmid control RK13 (pcRK13) cells were incubated with brain-derived classical caprine scrapie inocula prepared from goats or ovinized transgenic mice (Tg338, express ovine VRQ allele) infected with caprine scrapie. Significant PrP(Sc) accumulation, which is indicative of scrapie prion propagation, was detected by TSE ELISA and immunohistochemistry in cpRK13 cells inoculated with classical caprine scrapie inocula. Western blot analysis revealed the typical proteinase K-resistant 3 PrP(res) isoforms in the caprine scrapie prion inoculated cpRK13 cell lysate. Importantly, PrP(Sc) accumulation was not detected in similarly inoculated pcRK13 cells, whether by TSE ELISA, immunohistochemistry, or western blot. These findings suggest that caprine scrapie prions can be propagated in cpRK13 cells, thus this cell line may be a useful tool for the assessment of classical caprine prions in the brain tissues of goats.

  10. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of the GmSnRK2 Family in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Cheng, Yi-Hui; Zhang, Chi; Shen, Xin-Jie; You, Qing-Bo; Guo, Wei; Li, Xiang; Song, Xue-Jiao; Zhou, Xin-An

    2017-01-01

    Sucrose non-fermenting-1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s) that were reported to be involved in the transduction of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, play important roles in response to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Compared to the systemic investigation of SnRK2s in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, little is known regarding SnRK2s in soybean, which is one of the most important oil and protein crops. In the present study, we performed genome-wide identification and characterization of GmSnRK2s in soybean. In summary, 22 GmSnRK2s were identified and clustered into four groups. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the expansion of SnRK2 gene family during the evolution of soybean. Various cis-acting elements such as ABA Response Elements (ABREs) were identified and analyzed in the promoter regions of GmSnRK2s. The results of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data for different soybean tissues showed that GmSnRK2s exhibited spatio-temporally specific expression patterns during soybean growth and development. Certain GmSnRK2s could respond to the treatments including salinity, ABA and strigolactones. Our results provide a foundation for the further elucidation of the function of GmSnRK2 genes in soybean. PMID:28832544

  11. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of the GmSnRK2 Family in Soybean.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Cheng, Yi-Hui; Zhang, Chi; Shen, Xin-Jie; You, Qing-Bo; Guo, Wei; Li, Xiang; Song, Xue-Jiao; Zhou, Xin-An; Jiao, Yong-Qing

    2017-08-23

    Sucrose non-fermenting-1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s) that were reported to be involved in the transduction of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, play important roles in response to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Compared to the systemic investigation of SnRK2s in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa , little is known regarding SnRK2s in soybean, which is one of the most important oil and protein crops. In the present study, we performed genome-wide identification and characterization of GmSnRK2s in soybean. In summary, 22 GmSnRK2s were identified and clustered into four groups. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the expansion of SnRK2 gene family during the evolution of soybean. Various cis -acting elements such as ABA Response Elements (ABREs) were identified and analyzed in the promoter regions of GmSnRK2s . The results of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data for different soybean tissues showed that GmSnRK2s exhibited spatio-temporally specific expression patterns during soybean growth and development. Certain GmSnRK2s could respond to the treatments including salinity, ABA and strigolactones. Our results provide a foundation for the further elucidation of the function of GmSnRK2 genes in soybean.

  12. Genome-wide identification and characterization of SnRK2 gene family in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao; Ge, Xiaoyang; Yang, Zuoren; Zhang, Chaojun; Zhao, Ge; Chen, Eryong; Liu, Ji; Zhang, Xueyan; Li, Fuguang

    2017-06-12

    Sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) is a plant-specific serine/threonine kinase family involved in the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway and responds to osmotic stress. A genome-wide analysis of this protein family has been conducted previously in some plant species, but little is known about SnRK2 genes in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The recent release of the G. hirsutum genome sequence provides an opportunity to identify and characterize the SnRK2 kinase family in upland cotton. We identified 20 putative SnRK2 sequences in the G. hirsutum genome, designated as GhSnRK2.1 to GhSnRK2.20. All of the sequences encoded hydrophilic proteins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the GhSnRK2 genes were classifiable into three groups. The chromosomal location and phylogenetic analysis of the cotton SnRK2 genes indicated that segmental duplication likely contributed to the diversification and evolution of the genes. The gene structure and motif composition of the cotton SnRK2 genes were analyzed. Nine exons were conserved in length among all members of the GhSnRK2 family. Although the C-terminus was divergent, seven conserved motifs were present. All GhSnRK2s genes showed expression patterns under abiotic stress based on transcriptome data. The expression profiles of five selected genes were verified in various tissues by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Transcript levels of some family members were up-regulated in response to drought, salinity or ABA treatments, consistent with potential roles in response to abiotic stress. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of SnRK2 genes in upland cotton. Our results provide the fundamental information for the functional dissection of GhSnRK2s and vital availability for the improvement of plant stress tolerance using GhSnRK2s.

  13. RK-33 Radiosensitizes Prostate Cancer Cells by Blocking the RNA Helicase DDX3

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Min; Vesuna, Farhad; Tantravedi, Saritha; Bol, Guus M.; Heerma van Voss, Marise R.; Nugent, Katriana; Malek, Reem; Gabrielson, Kathleen; van Diest, Paul J.; Tran, Phuoc T.; Raman, Venu

    2017-01-01

    Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in males and the second highest cause of cancer-related mortality. We identified an RNA helicase gene, DDX3 (DDX3X), which is overexpressed in prostate cancers, and whose expression is directly correlated with high Gleason scores. Knockdown of DDX3 in the aggressive prostate cancer cell lines DU145 and 22Rv1 resulted in significantly reduced clonogenicity. To target DDX3, we rationally designed a small molecule, RK-33, which docks into the ATP-binding domain of DDX3. Functional studies indicated that RK-33 preferentially bound to DDX3 and perturbed its activity. RK-33 treatment of prostate cancer cell lines DU145, 22Rv1, and LNCaP (which have high DDX3 levels) decreased proliferation and induced a G1 phase cell-cycle arrest. Conversely, the low DDX3–expressing cell line, PC3, exhibited few changes following RK-33 treatment. Importantly, combination studies using RK-33 and radiation exhibited synergistic effects both in vitro and in a xenograft model of prostate cancer demonstrating the role of RK-33 as a radiosensitizer. Taken together, these results indicate that blocking DDX3 by RK-33 in combination with radiation treatment is a viable option for treating locally advanced prostate cancer. PMID:27634756

  14. The complex becomes more complex: protein-protein interactions of SnRK1 with DUF581 family proteins provide a framework for cell- and stimulus type-specific SnRK1 signaling in plants.

    PubMed

    Nietzsche, Madlen; Schießl, Ingrid; Börnke, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    In plants, SNF1-related kinase (SnRK1) responds to the availability of carbohydrates as well as to environmental stresses by down-regulating ATP consuming biosynthetic processes, while stimulating energy-generating catabolic reactions through gene expression and post-transcriptional regulation. The functional SnRK1 complex is a heterotrimer where the catalytic α subunit associates with a regulatory β subunit and an activating γ subunit. Several different metabolites as well as the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) have been shown to modulate SnRK1 activity in a cell- and stimulus-type specific manner. It has been proposed that tissue- or stimulus-specific expression of adapter proteins mediating SnRK1 regulation can at least partly explain the differences observed in SnRK1 signaling. By using yeast two-hybrid and in planta bi-molecular fluorescence complementation assays we were able to demonstrate that proteins containing the domain of unknown function (DUF) 581 could interact with both isoforms of the SnRK1α subunit (AKIN10/11) of Arabidopsis. A structure/function analysis suggests that the DUF581 is a generic SnRK1 interaction module and co-expression with DUF581 proteins in plant cells leads to reallocation of the kinase to specific regions within the nucleus. Yeast two-hybrid analyses suggest that SnRK1 and DUF581 proteins share common interaction partners inside the nucleus. The analysis of available microarray data implies that expression of the 19 members of the DUF581 encoding gene family in Arabidopsis is differentially regulated by hormones and environmental cues, indicating specialized functions of individual family members. We hypothesize that DUF581 proteins could act as mediators conferring tissue- and stimulus-type specific differences in SnRK1 regulation.

  15. The complex becomes more complex: protein-protein interactions of SnRK1 with DUF581 family proteins provide a framework for cell- and stimulus type-specific SnRK1 signaling in plants

    PubMed Central

    Nietzsche, Madlen; Schießl, Ingrid; Börnke, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    In plants, SNF1-related kinase (SnRK1) responds to the availability of carbohydrates as well as to environmental stresses by down-regulating ATP consuming biosynthetic processes, while stimulating energy-generating catabolic reactions through gene expression and post-transcriptional regulation. The functional SnRK1 complex is a heterotrimer where the catalytic α subunit associates with a regulatory β subunit and an activating γ subunit. Several different metabolites as well as the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) have been shown to modulate SnRK1 activity in a cell- and stimulus-type specific manner. It has been proposed that tissue- or stimulus-specific expression of adapter proteins mediating SnRK1 regulation can at least partly explain the differences observed in SnRK1 signaling. By using yeast two-hybrid and in planta bi-molecular fluorescence complementation assays we were able to demonstrate that proteins containing the domain of unknown function (DUF) 581 could interact with both isoforms of the SnRK1α subunit (AKIN10/11) of Arabidopsis. A structure/function analysis suggests that the DUF581 is a generic SnRK1 interaction module and co-expression with DUF581 proteins in plant cells leads to reallocation of the kinase to specific regions within the nucleus. Yeast two-hybrid analyses suggest that SnRK1 and DUF581 proteins share common interaction partners inside the nucleus. The analysis of available microarray data implies that expression of the 19 members of the DUF581 encoding gene family in Arabidopsis is differentially regulated by hormones and environmental cues, indicating specialized functions of individual family members. We hypothesize that DUF581 proteins could act as mediators conferring tissue- and stimulus-type specific differences in SnRK1 regulation. PMID:24600465

  16. SABIO-RK: an updated resource for manually curated biochemical reaction kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Maja; Weidemann, Andreas; Kania, Renate; Müller, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    Abstract SABIO-RK (http://sabiork.h-its.org/) is a manually curated database containing data about biochemical reactions and their reaction kinetics. The data are primarily extracted from scientific literature and stored in a relational database. The content comprises both naturally occurring and alternatively measured biochemical reactions and is not restricted to any organism class. The data are made available to the public by a web-based search interface and by web services for programmatic access. In this update we describe major improvements and extensions of SABIO-RK since our last publication in the database issue of Nucleic Acid Research (2012). (i) The website has been completely revised and (ii) allows now also free text search for kinetics data. (iii) Additional interlinkages with other databases in our field have been established; this enables users to gain directly comprehensive knowledge about the properties of enzymes and kinetics beyond SABIO-RK. (iv) Vice versa, direct access to SABIO-RK data has been implemented in several systems biology tools and workflows. (v) On request of our experimental users, the data can be exported now additionally in spreadsheet formats. (vi) The newly established SABIO-RK Curation Service allows to respond to specific data requirements. PMID:29092055

  17. miRNAs mediate SnRK1-dependent energy signaling in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Confraria, Ana; Martinho, Cláudia; Elias, Alexandre; Rubio-Somoza, Ignacio; Baena-González, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The SnRK1 protein kinase, the plant ortholog of mammalian AMPK and yeast Snf1, is activated by the energy depletion caused by adverse environmental conditions. Upon activation, SnRK1 triggers extensive transcriptional changes to restore homeostasis and promote stress tolerance and survival partly through the inhibition of anabolism and the activation of catabolism. Despite the identification of a few bZIP transcription factors as downstream effectors, the mechanisms underlying gene regulation, and in particular gene repression by SnRK1, remain mostly unknown. microRNAs (miRNAs) are 20–24 nt RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by driving the cleavage and/or translation attenuation of complementary mRNA targets. In addition to their role in plant development, mounting evidence implicates miRNAs in the response to environmental stress. Given the involvement of miRNAs in stress responses and the fact that some of the SnRK1-regulated genes are miRNA targets, we postulated that miRNAs drive part of the transcriptional reprogramming triggered by SnRK1. By comparing the transcriptional response to energy deprivation between WT and dcl1-9, a mutant deficient in miRNA biogenesis, we identified 831 starvation genes misregulated in the dcl1-9 mutant, out of which 155 are validated or predicted miRNA targets. Functional clustering analysis revealed that the main cellular processes potentially co-regulated by SnRK1 and miRNAs are translation and organelle function and uncover TCP transcription factors as one of the most highly enriched functional clusters. TCP repression during energy deprivation was impaired in miR319 knockdown (MIM319) plants, demonstrating the involvement of miR319 in the stress-dependent regulation of TCPs. Altogether, our data indicates that miRNAs are components of the SnRK1 signaling cascade contributing to the regulation of specific mRNA targets and possibly tuning down particular cellular processes during the stress response

  18. SnRK1 activates autophagy via the TOR signaling pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Burgos, Junmarie

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is a degradation process in which cells break down and recycle their cytoplasmic contents when subjected to environmental stress or during cellular remodeling. The Arabidopsis thaliana SnRK1 complex is a protein kinase that senses changes in energy levels and triggers downstream responses to enable survival. Its mammalian ortholog, AMPK, and yeast ortholog, Snf-1, activate autophagy in response to low energy conditions. We therefore hypothesized that SnRK1 may play a role in the regulation of autophagy in response to nutrient or energy deficiency in Arabidopsis. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of overexpression or knockout of the SnRK1 catalytic subunit KIN10 on autophagy activation by abiotic stresses, including nutrient deficiency, salt, osmotic, oxidative, and ER stress. While wild-type plants had low basal autophagy activity in control conditions, KIN10 overexpression lines had increased autophagy under these conditions, indicating activation of autophagy by SnRK1. A kin10 mutant had a basal level of autophagy under control conditions similar to wild-type plants, but activation of autophagy by most abiotic stresses was blocked, indicating that SnRK1 is required for autophagy induction by a wide variety of stress conditions. In mammals, TOR is a negative regulator of autophagy, and AMPK acts to activate autophagy both upstream of TOR, by inhibiting its activity, and in a parallel pathway. Inhibition of Arabidopsis TOR leads to activation of autophagy; inhibition of SnRK1 did not block this activation. Furthermore, an increase in SnRK1 activity was unable to induce autophagy when TOR was also activated. These results demonstrate that SnRK1 acts upstream of TOR in the activation of autophagy in Arabidopsis. PMID:28783755

  19. SnRK1 activates autophagy via the TOR signaling pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE PAGES

    Soto-Burgos, Junmarie; Bassham, Diane C.

    2017-08-04

    Autophagy is a degradation process in which cells break down and recycle their cytoplasmic contents when subjected to environmental stress or during cellular remodeling. The Arabidopsis thaliana SnRK1 complex is a protein kinase that senses changes in energy levels and triggers downstream responses to enable survival. Its mammalian ortholog, AMPK, and yeast ortholog, Snf-1, activate autophagy in response to low energy conditions. We therefore hypothesized that SnRK1 may play a role in the regulation of autophagy in response to nutrient or energy deficiency in Arabidopsis. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of overexpression or knockout of the SnRK1more » catalytic subunit KIN10 on autophagy activation by abiotic stresses, including nutrient deficiency, salt, osmotic, oxidative, and ER stress. While wild-type plants had low basal autophagy activity in control conditions, KIN10 overexpression lines had increased autophagy under these conditions, indicating activation of autophagy by SnRK1. A kin10 mutant had a basal level of autophagy under control conditions similar to wild-type plants, but activation of autophagy by most abiotic stresses was blocked, indicating that SnRK1 is required for autophagy induction by a wide variety of stress conditions. In mammals, TOR is a negative regulator of autophagy, and AMPK acts to activate autophagy both upstream of TOR, by inhibiting its activity, and in a parallel pathway. Inhibition of Arabidopsis TOR leads to activation of autophagy; inhibition of SnRK1 did not block this activation. Furthermore, an increase in SnRK1 activity was unable to induce autophagy when TOR was also activated. The results presented here demonstrate that SnRK1 acts upstream of TOR in the activation of autophagy in Arabidopsis.« less

  20. SnRK1 activates autophagy via the TOR signaling pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Soto-Burgos, Junmarie; Bassham, Diane C.

    Autophagy is a degradation process in which cells break down and recycle their cytoplasmic contents when subjected to environmental stress or during cellular remodeling. The Arabidopsis thaliana SnRK1 complex is a protein kinase that senses changes in energy levels and triggers downstream responses to enable survival. Its mammalian ortholog, AMPK, and yeast ortholog, Snf-1, activate autophagy in response to low energy conditions. We therefore hypothesized that SnRK1 may play a role in the regulation of autophagy in response to nutrient or energy deficiency in Arabidopsis. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of overexpression or knockout of the SnRK1more » catalytic subunit KIN10 on autophagy activation by abiotic stresses, including nutrient deficiency, salt, osmotic, oxidative, and ER stress. While wild-type plants had low basal autophagy activity in control conditions, KIN10 overexpression lines had increased autophagy under these conditions, indicating activation of autophagy by SnRK1. A kin10 mutant had a basal level of autophagy under control conditions similar to wild-type plants, but activation of autophagy by most abiotic stresses was blocked, indicating that SnRK1 is required for autophagy induction by a wide variety of stress conditions. In mammals, TOR is a negative regulator of autophagy, and AMPK acts to activate autophagy both upstream of TOR, by inhibiting its activity, and in a parallel pathway. Inhibition of Arabidopsis TOR leads to activation of autophagy; inhibition of SnRK1 did not block this activation. Furthermore, an increase in SnRK1 activity was unable to induce autophagy when TOR was also activated. The results presented here demonstrate that SnRK1 acts upstream of TOR in the activation of autophagy in Arabidopsis.« less

  1. Production of a conjugate between the rK346 antigen from Leishmania infantum and the horseradish peroxidase C for the detection of rK346 antibodies.

    PubMed

    Rengifo-González, Juan; Medina-Mora, Yollyseth; Silva-Barrios, Sasha; Márquez-Contreras, María Elizabeth; Tibisay Ruiz, María; Cáceres, Ana J; Concepción, Juan Luis; Quiñones, Wilfredo

    2016-06-01

    It was designed and characterized a reporter system to be captured by an- tibodies bound to ELISA plates. The system was designed with the rK346 from Leishmania infantum, a highly antigenic and specific protein. The rK346 was coupled to the horseradish peroxidase C (HRPc) from Armoracia rusticana using glutaraldehyde or sulfo-SMCC. Gluta- raldehyde conjugation was performed in two steps. Separation of conjugates was carried out using a Sepharose S-200 in size exclusion chromatography (SEC); fractions were analyzed via HRPc activity and through ELISA plates sensitized with polyclonal anti-rK346 IgG puri- fied from rabbit serum. A heterogeneous population of conjugates rK346-HRPc was obtained with molecular weights ranging between 109.7 ± 16.5 to 67.6 ± 10.1 kDa; with rK346-HRPe stoichiometries of 1:2; 2:1; 3:1; and 2:2. Conjugation using sulfo-SMCC was carried out first by introducing -SH groups onto the HRPc using the SATA reagent and the antigen was modi- fied with sulfo-SMCC during 45 min. Separation and analysis of conjugates was performed similarly as with glutaraldehyde, resulting in a heterogeneous population of conjugates rK346- HRPc with molecular weights between 150.5 ± 22.6 to 80.0 ± 12.0 kDa; with rK346-HRPC stoichiometries of 2:1; 1:2; 2:2; and 1:3, with an increased conjugation efficiency in compari- son with glutaraldehyde. This enables sulfo-SMCC to be used as a potential reagent for cou- pling the antigen to the HRPc, to design an economic, specific and easy method to apply as a reporter system, available to assess individuals at risk and/or at early and late stages of visceral leishmaniasis.

  2. Structural basis for basal activity and autoactivation of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling SnRK2 kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Ley-Moy; Soon, Fen-Fen; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Chalmers, Michael J.; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2011-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone that controls plant growth, development, and responses to abiotic stresses. Central for ABA signaling is the ABA-mediated autoactivation of three monomeric Snf1-related kinases (SnRK2.2, -2.3, and -2.6). In the absence of ABA, SnRK2s are kept in an inactive state by forming physical complexes with type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs). Upon relief of this inhibition, SnRK2 kinases can autoactivate through unknown mechanisms. Here, we report the crystal structures of full-length Arabidopsis thaliana SnRK2.3 and SnRK2.6 at 1.9- and 2.3-Å resolution, respectively. The structures, in combination with biochemical studies, reveal a two-step mechanism of intramolecular kinase activation that resembles the intermolecular activation of cyclin-dependent kinases. First, release of inhibition by PP2C allows the SnRK2s to become partially active because of an intramolecular stabilization of the catalytic domain by a conserved helix in the kinase regulatory domain. This stabilization enables SnRK2s to gain full activity by activation loop autophosphorylation. Autophosphorylation is more efficient in SnRK2.6, which has higher stability than SnRK2.3 and has well-structured activation loop phosphate acceptor sites that are positioned next to the catalytic site. Together, these data provide a structural framework that links ABA-mediated release of PP2C inhibition to activation of SnRK2 kinases. PMID:22160701

  3. Do r/K reproductive strategies apply to human differences?

    PubMed

    Rushton, J P

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses the r/K theory of Social Biology and how it relates to humans. The symbols r and K originate in the mathematics of population biology and refer to 2 ends of a continuum in which a compensatory exchange occurs between gamete production (the r-strategy) and longevity (the K-strategy). Both across and within species, r and K strategists differ in a suite of correlated characteristics. Humans are the most K of all. K's supposedly have a longer gestation period, a higher birthweight, a more delayed sexual maturation, a lower sex drive, and a longer life. Studies providing evidence for the expected covariation among K attributes are presented. Additional evidence for r/K theory comes from the comparison of human population known to differ in gamete production. The pattern of racial differences observed to occur in sexual behavior has also been found to exist on numerous other indices of K. For instance, there are racial differences in brain size, intelligence, and maturation rate, among others. The findings suggest that, on the average, Mongoloids are more K than Caucasoids, who in turn, are more K than Negroids. Recently conducted studies have extended the data in favor of r/K theory, and further research is currently underway, including whether r/K attributes underlie individual and social class differences in health and longevity.

  4. Characterization of a common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) TaSnRK2.7 gene involved in abiotic stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongying; Mao, Xinguo; Jing, Ruilian; Chang, Xiaoping; Xie, Huimin

    2011-01-01

    Sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) plays a key role in the plant stress signalling transduction pathway via phosphorylation. Here, a SnRK2 member of common wheat, TaSnRK2.7, was cloned and characterized. Southern blot analysis suggested that the common wheat genome contains three copies of TaSnRK2.7. Subcellular localization showed the presence of TaSnRK2.7 in the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. Expression patterns revealed that TaSnRK2.7 is expressed strongly in roots, and responds to polyethylene glycol, NaCl, and cold stress, but not to abscisic acid (ABA) application, suggesting that TaSnRK2.7 might participate in non-ABA-dependent signal transduction pathways. TaSnRK2.7 was transferred to Arabidopsis under the control of the CaMV-35S promoter. Function analysis showed that TaSnRK2.7 is involved in carbohydrate metabolism, decreasing osmotic potential, enhancing photosystem II activity, and promoting root growth. Its overexpression results in enhanced tolerance to multi-abiotic stress. Therefore, TaSnRK2.7 is a multifunctional regulatory factor in plants, and has the potential to be utilized in transgenic breeding to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. PMID:21030389

  5. New pinhole sulcus implant for the correction of irregular corneal astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Claudio C; Trindade, Bruno C; Trindade, Fernando C; Werner, Liliana; Osher, Robert; Santhiago, Marcony R

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effect on visual acuity of the implantation of a new intraocular pinhole device (Xtrafocus) in cases of irregular corneal astigmatism with significant visual impairment. University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Prospective case series. Pseudophakic eyes of patients with irregular corneal astigmatism were treated with the pinhole device. The causes of irregular corneal astigmatism were keratoconus, post radial keratotomy (RK), post-penetrating keratoplasty (PKP), and traumatic corneal laceration. The device was implanted in the ciliary sulcus in a piggyback configuration to minimize the effect of corneal aberrations. Preoperative and postoperative visual parameters were compared. The main outcome variables were manifest refraction, uncorrected and corrected distance and near visual acuities, subjective patient satisfaction, and intraoperative and postoperative adverse events and complications. Twenty-one patients (ages 35 to 85 years) were included. There was statistically significant improvement in uncorrected and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuities. The median CDVA improved from 20/200 (range 20/800 to 20/60) preoperatively to 20/50 (range 20/200 to 20/20) in the first month postoperatively and remained stable over the following months. Manifest refraction remained unchanged, while a subjective visual performance questionnaire revealed perception of improvement in all the tested working distances. No major complication was observed. One case presented with decentration of the device, which required an additional surgical intervention. The intraocular pinhole device performed well in patients with irregular astigmatism caused by keratoconus, RK, PKP, and traumatic corneal laceration. There was marked improvement in visual function, with high patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. How predictable are the results of excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy? A review.

    PubMed

    Grosvenor, T

    1995-10-01

    At the close of 1994, the AOA News reported that at least 14 companies were preparing to market equipment for excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). More than a dozen PRK centers had been formed for the purpose of recruiting optometrists to co-manage PRK patients. Because the surgery is a "no-touch" computer-driven procedure whose duration is measured in seconds, the preoperative and postoperative care of PRK patients will assume major importance. Optometrists who will be asked to take part in the management of PRK patients must be able to counsel patients on matters such as the predictability of the procedure in terms of postoperative refractive error and visual acuity, as well as the possibility of unintended consequences such as difficulty in night driving. Information currently available, mainly as a result of studies conducted in other countries, shows that the results of PRK are highly predictable for preoperative myopia up to about -3.00 D and somewhat less predictable for myopia between -3.00 and -6.00 D, whereas for myopia greater than -6.00 D the probability of achieving a full correction decreases rapidly with increasing amounts of myopia. As compared to radial keratotomy (RK) in which the postoperative refractive error drifts relentlessly in the hyperopic direction, PRK brings about an initial hyperopic shift followed by regression leading to increasing myopia. Researchers disagree on the cause of the postoperative hyperopic shift and regression, and on the value of various methods of controlling regression including the use of wider and deeper ablation profiles and the postoperative use of corticosteroids and nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs. It is too early to determine whether the myopic creep in PRK will be as persistent as the hyperopic creep in RK, but it is likely that whereas presbyopic post-RK patients may have adequate distance vision but require corrective lenses for reading, presbyopic post-PRK patients may be sufficiently myopic

  7. a Comprehensive Review of Pansharpening Algorithms for GÖKTÜRK-2 Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahraman, S.; Ertürk, A.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive review and performance evaluation of pansharpening algorithms for GÖKTÜRK-2 images is presented. GÖKTÜRK-2 is the first high resolution remote sensing satellite of Turkey which was designed and built in Turkey, by The Ministry of Defence, TUBITAK-UZAY and Turkish Aerospace Industry (TUSAŞ) collectively. GÖKTÜRK-2 was launched at 18th. December 2012 in Jinguan, China and provides 2.5 meter panchromatic (PAN) and 5 meter multispectral (MS) spatial resolution satellite images. In this study, a large number of pansharpening algorithms are implemented and evaluated for performance on multiple GÖKTÜRK-2 satellite images. Quality assessments are conducted both qualitatively through visual results and quantitatively using Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Correlation Coefficient (CC), Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), Erreur Relative Globale Adimensionnelle de Synthése (ERGAS), Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Structural Similarity Index (SSIM) and Universal Image Quality Index (UIQI).

  8. Genome-wide identification and expression profiling of the SnRK2 gene family in Malus prunifolia.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yun; Qin, Yuan; Zou, Yangjun; Ma, Fengwang

    2014-11-15

    Sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) constitutes a small plant-specific serine/threonine kinase family with essential roles in the abscisic acid (ABA) signal pathway and in responses to osmotic stress. Although a genome-wide analysis of this family has been conducted in some species, little is known about SnRK2 genes in apple (Malus domestica). We identified 14 putative sequences encoding 12 deduced SnRK2 proteins within the apple genome. Gene chromosomal location and synteny analysis of the apple SnRK2 genes indicated that tandem and segmental duplications have likely contributed to the expansion and evolution of these genes. All 12 full-length coding sequences were confirmed by cloning from Malus prunifolia. The gene structure and motif compositions of the apple SnRK2 genes were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MpSnRK2s could be classified into four groups. Profiling of these genes presented differential patterns of expression in various tissues. Under stress conditions, transcript levels for some family members were up-regulated in the leaves in response to drought, salinity, or ABA treatments. This suggested their possible roles in plant response to abiotic stress. Our findings provide essential information about SnRK2 genes in apple and will contribute to further functional dissection of this gene family. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification and functional characterization of the Arabidopsis Snf1-related protein kinase SnRK2.4 phosphatidic acid-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Julkowska, Magdalena M; McLoughlin, Fionn; Galvan-Ampudia, Carlos S; Rankenberg, Johanna M; Kawa, Dorota; Klimecka, Maria; Haring, Michel A; Munnik, Teun; Kooijman, Edgar E; Testerink, Christa

    2015-03-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is an important signalling lipid involved in various stress-induced signalling cascades. Two SnRK2 protein kinases (SnRK2.4 and SnRK2.10), previously identified as PA-binding proteins, are shown here to prefer binding to PA over other anionic phospholipids and to associate with cellular membranes in response to salt stress in Arabidopsis roots. A 42 amino acid sequence was identified as the primary PA-binding domain (PABD) of SnRK2.4. Unlike the full-length SnRK2.4, neither the PABD-YFP fusion protein nor the SnRK2.10 re-localized into punctate structures upon salt stress treatment, showing that additional domains of the SnRK2.4 protein are required for its re-localization during salt stress. Within the PABD, five basic amino acids, conserved in class 1 SnRK2s, were found to be necessary for PA binding. Remarkably, plants overexpressing the PABD, but not a non-PA-binding mutant version, showed a severe reduction in root growth. Together, this study biochemically characterizes the PA-SnRK2.4 interaction and shows that functionality of the SnRK2.4 PABD affects root development. © 2014 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Sucrose non-ferment 1 related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) genes could mediate the stress responses in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Bai, Jiangping; Mao, Juan; Yang, Hongyu; Khan, Awais; Fan, Aqi; Liu, Siyan; Zhang, Junlian; Wang, Di; Gao, Huijuan; Zhang, Jinlin

    2017-05-15

    The SnRKs (sucrose non-fermenting 1 related protein kinase) are a gene family coding for Ser/Thr protein kinases and play important roles in linking the tolerance and metabolic responses of plants to abiotic stresses. To date, no genome-wide characterization of the sucrose non-ferment 1 related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) subfamily has been conducted in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). In this study, eight StSnRK2 genes (StSnRK2.1- StSnRK2.8) were identified in the genome of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivar 'Longshu 3', with similar characteristics to SnRK2 from other plant species in gene structure, motif distribution and secondary structures. The C-terminal regions were highly divergent among StSnRK2s, while they all carried the similar Ser/Thr protein kinase domain. The fluorescence of GFP fused with StSnRK2.1, StSnRK2.2, StSnRK2.6, StSnRK2.7 and StSnRK2.8 was detected in the nucleus and cytoplasm of onion epidermal cells with StSnRK2.3 and StSnRK2.4 mainly associated to the nucleus while StSnRK2.5 to subcellular organelles. Expression level analysis by qRT-PCR showed that StSnRK2.1, 2.2, 2.5 and 2.6 were more than 1 fold higher in the root than in the leaf, tuber and stem tissues. The expressions of StSnRK2.3, 2.7, and 2.8 were at least 1.5 folds higher in the leaf and stem than in the root, but lower in the tuber. The expression of StSnRK2.4 was also significantly (P < 0.05) higher in leaf, stem, and tuber than in the root. From the perspective of the relative expressions of StSnRK2 genes in potato, ABA treatment had a different effect from NaCl and PEG treatments. In the present study, we identified and characterized eight SnRK2s in the potato genome. The eight StSnRK2s exhibit similar gene structure and secondary structures in potato to the SnRK2s found in other plant species. The relative expression of eight genes varied among various tissues (roots, leaves, tubers, and stems) and abiotic stresses (ABA, NaCl and PEG-6000) with the prolongation of

  11. Health Information in Turkish (Türkçe)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Expand Section Salmonella Infections Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) -- Typhoid Vaccines: What You Need to Know - English PDF Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) -- Typhoid Vaccines: What You Need to Know - Türkçe (Turkish) ...

  12. Purification and antibacterial activity of recombinant warnericin RK expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Julien; Girardin, Nicolas; Marchand, Adrienne; Héchard, Yann; Berjeaud, Jean-Marc

    2013-06-01

    Warnericin RK is a small cationic peptide produced by Staphylococcus warneri RK. This peptide has an antimicrobial spectrum of activity almost restricted to the Legionella genus. It is a membrane-active peptide with a proposed detergent-like mechanism of action at high concentration. Moreover, the fatty acids content of Legionella was shown to modulate the peptide activity. In order to decipher the mode of action in details using solid-state NMR spectroscopy, large amount of an isotopic labeled peptide is required. Since it is less expensive to obtain such a peptide biologically, we report here methods to express warnericin RK in Escherichia coli with or without a fusion partner and to purify resulting recombinant peptides. The cDNA fragment encoding warnericin RK was synthesized and ligated into three expression vectors. Two fusion peptides, carrying polyhistidine tag in N- or C-terminal and a native peptide, without tag, were expressed in E. coli cells. Fusion peptides were purified, with a yield of 3 mg/l, by affinity chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The recombinant native peptide was purified using a two-step purification method consisting of a hydrophobic chromatography followed by a reverse-phase HPLC step with a yield of 1.4 mg/l. However, the anti-Legionella activity was lower for both tagged peptide probably because of structural modifications. So, the native recombinant peptide was preferentially chosen for (15)N-labeling experiments. Our results suggest that the developed production and purification procedures will be useful in obtaining a large quantity of recombinant isotope-labeled warnericin RK for further studies.

  13. Isolation, phylogeny and evolution of the SymRK gene in the legume genus Lupinus L.

    PubMed

    Mahé, Frédéric; Markova, Dragomira; Pasquet, Rémy; Misset, Marie-Thérèse; Aïnouche, Abdelkader

    2011-07-01

    SymRK is one of the key genes involved in initial steps of legume symbiotic association with fungi (mycorrhization) and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (nodulation). A large portion of the sequence encoding the extracellular domain of SYMRK was obtained for 38 lupine accessions and 2 outgroups in order to characterize this region, to evaluate its phylogenetic utility, and to examine whether its molecular evolutionary pattern is correlated with rhizobial diversity and specificity in Lupinus. The data suggested that, in Lupinus, SymRK is a single copy gene that shows good phylogenetic potential. Accordingly, SymRK provided additional support to previous molecular phylogenies, and shed additional light on relationships within the Old World group of Lupinus, especially among the African species. Similar to results of other studies, analyses of SymRK sequences were unable to resolve placement of the Florida unifoliolate lineage, whose relationship was weakly supported to either the Old or the New World lupines. Our data are consistent with strong purifying selection operating on SymRK in Lupinus, preserving rather than diversifying its function. Thus, although SymRK was demonstrated to be a vital gene in the early stages of the root-bacterial symbiotic associations, no evidence from present analyses indicate that this gene is involved in changes in rhizobial specificity in Lupinus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Regulatory functions of SnRK1 in stress-responsive gene expression and in plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Hee; Hong, Jung-Woo; Kim, Eun-Chul; Yoo, Sang-Dong

    2012-04-01

    Sucrose-nonfermentation1-related protein kinase1 (SnRK1) is an evolutionarily conserved energy sensor protein that regulates gene expression in response to energy depletion in plants. Efforts to elucidate the functions and mechanisms of this protein kinase are hampered, however, by inherent growth defects of snrk1-null mutant plants. To overcome these limitations and study SnRK1 functions in vivo, we applied a method combining transient expression in leaf mesophyll protoplasts and stable expression in transgenic plants. We found that both rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SnRK1 activities critically influence stress-inducible gene expression and the induction of stress tolerance. Genetic, molecular, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses further revealed that the nuclear SnRK1 modulated target gene transcription in a submergence-dependent manner. From early seedling development through late senescence, SnRK1 activities appeared to modulate developmental processes in the plants. Our findings offer insight into the regulatory functions of plant SnRK1 in stress-responsive gene regulation and in plant growth and development throughout the life cycle.

  15. Femtosecond Laser-assisted Arcuate Keratotomy Versus Toric IOL Implantation for Correcting Astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Aeri; Yun, Samyoung; Kim, Jae Yong; Kim, Myoung Joon; Tchah, Hungwon

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of femtosecond laser-assisted arcuate keratotomy (FS-AK) versus toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation for correcting astigmatism in patients with cataract. A retrospective chart review was performed. All patients had senile cataracts with corneal astigmatism (range: +1.00 to +3.00 diopters [D]) before cataract surgery. Twenty-five patients agreed to undergo toric IOL implantation (the toric IOL group). Twenty-three patients did not agree to undergo toric IOL implantation despite astigmatism; however, these patients were not satisfied with their remaining astigmatism following cataract surgery and requested astigmatism correction using FS-AK (the FS-AK group). Visual acuity and intraocular pressure were evaluated, and automated refraction, keratometry, and slit-lamp examinations were performed at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 5 months after surgery. Refractive astigmatism decreased in both groups. The mean preoperative and postoperative refractive cylinders were 1.71 ± 1.15 and 0.78 ± 1.06 D, respectively, in the FS-AK group (P < .001) and 1.67 ± 0.13 and 0.83 ± 0.097 D, respectively, in the toric IOL group (P < .001). There were no statistically significant differences between groups at any time during the follow-up period. FS-AK is a fast, customizable, adjustable, precise, and safe procedure for reducing refractive errors in patients with residual astigmatism after cataract surgery. The results of this procedure are comparable to the toric IOL. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. An Apple Protein Kinase MdSnRK1.1 Interacts with MdCAIP1 to Regulate ABA Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Xin; An, Xiu-Hong; Han, Peng-Liang; You, Chun-Xiang; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2017-10-01

    ABA is a crucial phytohormone for development and stress responses in plants. Snf1-related protein kinase 1.1 (SnRK1.1) is involved in the ABA response. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the SnRK1.1 response to ABA is largely unknown. Here, it was found that overexpression of the apple MdSnRK1.1 gene enhanced ABA sensitivity in both transgenic apple calli and Arabidopsis seedlings. Subsequently, a yeast two-hybrid screen demonstrated that MdCAIP1 (C2-domain ABA Insensitive Protein1) interacted with MdSnRK1.1. Their interaction was further confirmed by pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Expression of the MdCAIP1 gene was positively induced by ABA. Its overexpression enhanced ABA sensitivity in transgenic apple calli. Furthermore, it was found that MdSnRK1.1 phosphorylated the MdCAIP1 protein in vivo and promoted its degradation in vitro and in vivo. As a result, MdSnRK1.1 inhibited MdCAIP1-mediated ABA sensitivity, and MdCAIP1 partially reduced MdSnRK1.1-mediated ABA sensitivity. Our findings indicate that MdSnRK1.1 plays an important role in the ABA response, partially by controlling the stability of the MdCAIP1 protein. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Light resonances and the low-q2 bin of RK*$$ {R}_{K^{*}} $$

    SciTech Connect

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Baker, Michael J.; Gori, Stefania

    LHCb has reported hints of lepton-flavor universality violation in the rare decaysmore » $$B \\to K^{(*)} \\ell^+\\ell^-$$, both in high- and low-$q^2$ bins. Although the high-$q^2$ hint may be explained by new short-ranged interactions, the low-$q^2$ one cannot. We thus explore the possibility that the latter is explained by a new light resonance. We find that LHCb's central value of $$R_{K^*}$$ in the low-$q^2$ bin is achievable in a restricted parameter space of new-physics scenarios in which the new, light resonance decays preferentially to electrons and has a mass within approximately $10$ MeV of the di-muon threshold. Interestingly, such an explanation can have a kinematic origin and does not require a source of lepton-flavor universality violation. A model-independent prediction is a narrow peak in the differential $$B \\to K^* e^+e^-$$ rate close to the di-muon threshold. If such a peak is observed, other observables, such as the differential $$B \\to K e^+e^-$$ rate and $$R_K$$, may be employed to distinguish between models. However, if a low-mass resonance is not observed and the low-$q^2$ anomaly increases in significance, then the case for an experimental origin of the lepton-flavor universality violating anomalies would be strengthened. Finally, to further explore this, we also point out that, in analogy to $$J/\\psi$$ decays, $e^+e^-$ and $$\\mu^+\\mu^-$$ decays of $$\\phi$$ mesons can be used as a cross check of lepton-flavor universality by LHCb with $5$ fb$$^{-1}$$ of integrated luminosity.« less

  18. Light resonances and the low-q2 bin of RK*$$ {R}_{K^{*}} $$

    DOE PAGES

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Baker, Michael J.; Gori, Stefania; ...

    2018-03-29

    LHCb has reported hints of lepton-flavor universality violation in the rare decaysmore » $$B \\to K^{(*)} \\ell^+\\ell^-$$, both in high- and low-$q^2$ bins. Although the high-$q^2$ hint may be explained by new short-ranged interactions, the low-$q^2$ one cannot. We thus explore the possibility that the latter is explained by a new light resonance. We find that LHCb's central value of $$R_{K^*}$$ in the low-$q^2$ bin is achievable in a restricted parameter space of new-physics scenarios in which the new, light resonance decays preferentially to electrons and has a mass within approximately $10$ MeV of the di-muon threshold. Interestingly, such an explanation can have a kinematic origin and does not require a source of lepton-flavor universality violation. A model-independent prediction is a narrow peak in the differential $$B \\to K^* e^+e^-$$ rate close to the di-muon threshold. If such a peak is observed, other observables, such as the differential $$B \\to K e^+e^-$$ rate and $$R_K$$, may be employed to distinguish between models. However, if a low-mass resonance is not observed and the low-$q^2$ anomaly increases in significance, then the case for an experimental origin of the lepton-flavor universality violating anomalies would be strengthened. Finally, to further explore this, we also point out that, in analogy to $$J/\\psi$$ decays, $e^+e^-$ and $$\\mu^+\\mu^-$$ decays of $$\\phi$$ mesons can be used as a cross check of lepton-flavor universality by LHCb with $5$ fb$$^{-1}$$ of integrated luminosity.« less

  19. SCFAtPP2-B11 modulates ABA signaling by facilitating SnRK2.3 degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Ziyin; Zhi, Liya; Yao, Bin; Su, Chao; Liu, Liu; Li, Xia

    2017-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential part of the plant response to abiotic stressors such as drought. Upon the perception of ABA, pyrabactin resistance (PYR)/PYR1-like (PYL)/regulatory components of ABA receptor (RCAR) proteins interact with co-receptor protein phosphatase type 2Cs to permit activation Snf1-related protein kinase2 (SnRK2) kinases, which switch on ABA signaling by phosphorylating various target proteins. Thus, SnRK2 kinases are central regulators of ABA signaling. However, the mechanisms that regulate SnRK2 degradation remain elusive. Here, we show that SnRK2.3 is degradated by 26S proteasome system and ABA promotes its degradation. We found that SnRK2.3 interacts with AtPP2-B11 directly. AtPP2-B11 is an F-box protein that is part of a SKP1/Cullin/F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that negatively regulates plant responses to ABA by specifically promoting the degradation of SnRK2.3. AtPP2-B11 was induced by ABA, and the knockdown of AtPP2-B11 expression markedly increased the ABA sensitivity of plants during seed germination and postgerminative development. Overexpression of AtPP2-B11 does not affect ABA sensitivity, but inhibits the ABA hypersensitive phenotypes of SnRK2.3 overexpression lines. These results reveal a novel mechanism through which AtPP2-B11 specifically degrades SnRK2.3 to attenuate ABA signaling and the abiotic stress response in Arabidopsis. PMID:28787436

  20. Molecular mimicry regulates ABA signaling by SnRK2 kinases and PP2C phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X Edward; West, Graham M; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M H Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J; Brunzelle, Joseph S; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric

    2012-01-06

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.

  1. Quantitative phosphoproteomics identifies SnRK2 protein kinase substrates and reveals the effectors of abscisic acid action.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengcheng; Xue, Liang; Batelli, Giorgia; Lee, Shinyoung; Hou, Yueh-Ju; Van Oosten, Michael J; Zhang, Huiming; Tao, W Andy; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2013-07-02

    Sucrose nonfermenting 1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s) are central components of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathways. The snrk2.2/2.3/2.6 triple-mutant plants are nearly completely insensitive to ABA, suggesting that most of the molecular actions of ABA are triggered by the SnRK2s-mediated phosphorylation of substrate proteins. Only a few substrate proteins of the SnRK2s are known. To identify additional substrate proteins of the SnRK2s and provide insight into the molecular actions of ABA, we used quantitative phosphoproteomics to compare the global changes in phosphopeptides in WT and snrk2.2/2.3/2.6 triple mutant seedlings in response to ABA treatment. Among the 5,386 unique phosphorylated peptides identified in this study, we found that ABA can increase the phosphorylation of 166 peptides and decrease the phosphorylation of 117 peptides in WT seedlings. In the snrk2.2/2.3/2.6 triple mutant, 84 of the 166 peptides, representing 58 proteins, could not be phosphorylated, or phosphorylation was not increased under ABA treatment. In vitro kinase assays suggest that most of the 58 proteins can serve as substrates of the SnRK2s. The SnRK2 substrates include proteins involved in flowering time regulation, RNA and DNA binding, miRNA and epigenetic regulation, signal transduction, chloroplast function, and many other cellular processes. Consistent with the SnRK2 phosphorylation of flowering time regulators, the snrk2.2/2.3/2.6 triple mutant flowered significantly earlier than WT. These results shed new light on the role of the SnRK2 protein kinases and on the downstream effectors of ABA action, and improve our understanding of plant responses to adverse environments.

  2. CaLecRK-S.5, a pepper L-type lectin receptor kinase gene, confers broad-spectrum resistance by activating priming

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Joo Yong; Jeong, Kwang Ju; Kim, Young Jin; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, several L-type lectin receptor kinases (LecRKs) have been identified as putative immune receptors. However, to date, there have been few analyses of LecRKs in crop plants. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaLecRK-S.5 verified the role of CaLecRK-S.5 in broad-spectrum resistance. Compared with control plants, CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants showed reduced hypersensitive response, reactive oxygen species burst, secondary metabolite production, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and defense-related gene expression in response to Tobacco mosaic virus pathotype P0 (TMV-P0) infection. Suppression of CaLecRK-S.5 expression significantly enhanced the susceptibility to Pepper mild mottle virus pathotype P1,2,3, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, Phytophthora capsici, as well as TMV-P0. Additionally, β-aminobutyric acid treatment and a systemic acquired resistance assay revealed that CaLecRK-S.5 is involved in priming of plant immunity. Pre-treatment with β-aminobutyric acid before viral infection restored the reduced disease resistance phenotypes shown in CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants. Systemic acquired resistance was also abolished in CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants. Finally, RNA sequencing analysis indicated that CaLecRK-S.5 positively regulates plant immunity at the transcriptional level. Altogether, these results suggest that CaLecRK-S.5-mediated broad-spectrum resistance is associated with the regulation of priming. PMID:27647723

  3. Identification of novel interactors and potential phosphorylation substrates of GsSnRK1 from wild soybean (Glycine soja).

    PubMed

    Song, Yu; Zhang, Hang; You, Hongguang; Liu, Yuanming; Chen, Chao; Feng, Xu; Yu, Xingyu; Wu, Shengyang; Wang, Libo; Zhong, Shihua; Li, Qiang; Zhu, Yanming; Ding, Xiaodong

    2018-04-17

    The plant sucrose nonfermenting kinase 1 (SnRK1) kinases play the central roles in the processes of energy balance, hormone perception, stress resistance, metabolism, growth, and development. However, the functions of these kinases are still elusive. In this study, we used GsSnRK1 of wild soybean as bait to perform library-scale screens by the means of yeast two-hybrid to identify its interacting proteins. The putative interactions were verified by yeast retransformation and β-galactosidase assays, and the selected interactions were further confirmed in planta by bimolecular fluorescence complementation and biochemical Co-IP assays. Protein phosphorylation analyses were carried out by phos-tag assay and anti-phospho-(Ser/Thr) substrate antibodies. Finally, we obtained 24 GsSnRK1 interactors and several putative substrates that can be categorized into SnRK1 regulatory β subunit, protein modification, biotic and abiotic stress-related, hormone perception and signalling, gene expression regulation, water and nitrogen transport, metabolism, and unknown proteins. Intriguingly, we first discovered that GsSnRK1 interacted with and phosphorylated the components of soybean nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The interactions and potential functions of GsSnRK1 and its associated proteins were extensively discussed and analysed. This work provides plausible clues to elucidate the novel functions of SnRK1 in response to variable environmental, metabolic, and physiological requirements. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Radial-radial single rotor turbine

    DOEpatents

    Platts, David A [Los Alamos, NM

    2006-05-16

    A rotor for use in turbine applications has a radial compressor/pump having radially disposed spaced apart fins forming passages and a radial turbine having hollow turbine blades interleaved with the fins and through which fluid from the radial compressor/pump flows. The rotor can, in some applications, be used to produce electrical power.

  5. Combined astigmatic keratotomy and conductive keratoplasty to correct high corneal astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Sy, Mary Ellen; Kovoor, Timmy A; Tannan, Anjali; Choi, Daniel; Deng, Sophie X; Danesh, Jennifer; Hamilton, D Rex

    2015-05-01

    To determine the safety, efficacy, and predictability of combined astigmatic keratotomy (AK) and conductive keratoplasty (CK) for treating high corneal astigmatism. University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA. Retrospective case series. From January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2009, AK and CK were performed in eyes with corneal astigmatism of 5.0 diopters (D) or more after keratoplasty or trauma. The uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuities, spherical equivalent (SE), defocus equivalent, mean astigmatism, efficacy index, and complications were evaluated. In 11 eyes of 11 patients, the mean UDVA improved from 1.54 logMAR ± 0.50 (SD) preoperatively to 0.69 ± 0.62 logMAR 3 months postoperatively (P < .001) and the mean CDVA from 0.55 ± 0.62 logMAR to 0.12 ± 0.11 logMAR (P = .028). The mean SE and mean defocus equivalent decreased from -1.25 ± 5.06 D to 3.13 ± 3.06 D (P = .15) and from 7.98 ± 4.41 D to 6.97 ± 3.73 D (P = .45), respectively; these changes were not statistically significant. The mean absolute astigmatism decreased from 10.25 ± 4.71 D to 4.31 ± 2.34 D (P < .001). The mean absolute orthogonal and mean oblique astigmatism showed a statistically significant decrease. The efficacy index was 0.82. One case of wound gape after AK required suturing. No infectious keratitis, corneal perforation, or graft rejection occurred. Results indicate that combined AK and CK is safe and effective for correcting high corneal astigmatism after surgery or trauma. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of prior photorefractive keratectomy in donor tissue.

    PubMed

    Terry, M A; Ousley, P J; Rich, L F; Wilson, D J

    1999-05-01

    To describe a case in which an eye donor had prior bilateral photorefractive keratectomies and to elucidate possible methods of evaluation and screening of donor tissue. Case report. A 62-year-old eye donor was reported to have received radial keratotomy before his death. Further investigation by the eye bank showed a history of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), not radial keratotomy. The corneas were therefore not used for transplantation, and the eyes were evaluated by slit-lamp examination, photography, corneal topography, and histology. Slit-lamp and photographic examination did not indicate the presence of PRK ablations. Corneal topography mapping with the TMS-1 was relatively ambiguous for identifying PRK flattening, while multiple data formatting of the cornea with the Orbscan resulted in the strongest suggestion of prior PRK. Histologic analysis showed central corneal thinning and loss of Bowman's membrane consistent with PRK. In the absence of a positive donor history for PRK, current methods of screening donor tissue for prior PRK often are insufficient to exclude these corneas from use in transplantation. More refined placido imagery corneal topography or newer technologies such as the Orbscan may allow more sensitive and specific methods of donor tissue screening.

  7. Molecular Mimicry Regulates ABA Signaling by SnRK2 Kinases and PP2C Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M. H. Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites. PMID:22116026

  8. Molecular Mimicry Regulates ABA Signaling by SnRK2 Kinases and PP2C Phosphatases

    SciTech Connect

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanismmore » that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.« less

  9. Overexpression of a Common Wheat Gene TaSnRK2.8 Enhances Tolerance to Drought, Salt and Low Temperature in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongying; Mao, Xinguo; Wang, Chengshe; Jing, Ruilian

    2010-01-01

    Drought, salinity and low temperatures are major factors limiting crop productivity and quality. Sucrose non-fermenting1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) plays a key role in abiotic stress signaling in plants. In this study, TaSnRK2.8, a SnRK2 member in wheat, was cloned and its functions under multi-stress conditions were characterized. Subcellular localization showed the presence of TaSnRK2.8 in the cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus. Expression pattern analyses in wheat revealed that TaSnRK2.8 was involved in response to PEG, NaCl and cold stresses, and possibly participates in ABA-dependent signal transduction pathways. To investigate its role under various environmental stresses, TaSnRK2.8 was transferred to Arabidopsis under control of the CaMV-35S promoter. Overexpression of TaSnRK2.8 resulted in enhanced tolerance to drought, salt and cold stresses, further confirmed by longer primary roots and various physiological characteristics, including higher relative water content, strengthened cell membrane stability, significantly lower osmotic potential, more chlorophyll content, and enhanced PSII activity. Meanwhile, TaSnRK2.8 plants had significantly lower total soluble sugar levels under normal growing conditions, suggesting that TaSnRK2.8 might be involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Moreover, the transcript levels of ABA biosynthesis (ABA1, ABA2), ABA signaling (ABI3, ABI4, ABI5), stress-responsive genes, including two ABA-dependent genes (RD20A, RD29B) and three ABA-independent genes (CBF1, CBF2, CBF3), were generally higher in TaSnRK2.8 plants than in WT/GFP controls under normal/stress conditions. Our results suggest that TaSnRK2.8 may act as a regulatory factor involved in a multiple stress response pathways. PMID:21209856

  10. Comparative Study of rK39 Leishmania Antigen for Serodiagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis: Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Zuinara; Lírio, Monique; Mistro, Sóstenes; Mendes, Carlos Maurício Cardeal; Mehta, Sanjay R.; Badaro, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Background The rK39 recombinant protein is derived from a specific antigen produced by the Leishmania donovani complex, and has been used in the last two decades for the serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. We present here a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating serologic assays to diagnose visceral leishmaniasis to determine the accuracy of rK39 antigen in comparison to the use of other antigen preparations. Methodology/Principal Findings A systematic review with meta-analysis of the literature was performed to compare the rK39 strip-test and ELISA formats against serological tests using promastigote antigens derived from whole or soluble parasites for Direct Aglutination Test (DAT), Indirect Immunofluorescence test (IFAT) and ELISA with a promastigote antigen preparation (p-ELISA). Gold standard diagnosis was defined by the demonstration of amastigotes on hematological specimens. A database search was performed on Medline, Lilacs, Scopus, Isi Web of Science, and Cochrane Library. Quality of data was assessed using the QUADAS questionnaire. A search of the electronic databases found 352 papers of which only 14 fulfilled the selection criteria. Three evaluated the rK39 ELISA, while 13 evaluated the rK39 immunochromatographic strip test. The summarized sensitivity for the rK39-ELISA was 92% followed by IFAT 88% and p-ELISA 87%. The summarized specificity for the three diagnostic tests was 81%, 90%, and 77%. Studies comparing the rK39 strip test with DAT found a similar sensitivity of 94%, although the DAT had a slightly higher specificity. The rK39 strip test was more sensitive and specific than the IFAT and p-ELISA. We did not detect any difference in the sensitivity and specificity between strips produced by different manufacturers. Conclusions The rK39 protein used either in a strip test or in an ELISA, and the DAT are the best choices for implementation of rapid, easy and efficient test for serodiagnosis of VL. PMID:22303488

  11. Comparative study of rK39 Leishmania antigen for serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis: systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Maia, Zuinara; Lírio, Monique; Mistro, Sóstenes; Mendes, Carlos Maurício Cardeal; Mehta, Sanjay R; Badaro, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The rK39 recombinant protein is derived from a specific antigen produced by the Leishmania donovani complex, and has been used in the last two decades for the serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. We present here a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating serologic assays to diagnose visceral leishmaniasis to determine the accuracy of rK39 antigen in comparison to the use of other antigen preparations. A systematic review with meta-analysis of the literature was performed to compare the rK39 strip-test and ELISA formats against serological tests using promastigote antigens derived from whole or soluble parasites for Direct Aglutination Test (DAT), Indirect Immunofluorescence test (IFAT) and ELISA with a promastigote antigen preparation (p-ELISA). Gold standard diagnosis was defined by the demonstration of amastigotes on hematological specimens. A database search was performed on Medline, Lilacs, Scopus, Isi Web of Science, and Cochrane Library. Quality of data was assessed using the QUADAS questionnaire. A search of the electronic databases found 352 papers of which only 14 fulfilled the selection criteria. Three evaluated the rK39 ELISA, while 13 evaluated the rK39 immunochromatographic strip test. The summarized sensitivity for the rK39-ELISA was 92% followed by IFAT 88% and p-ELISA 87%. The summarized specificity for the three diagnostic tests was 81%, 90%, and 77%. Studies comparing the rK39 strip test with DAT found a similar sensitivity of 94%, although the DAT had a slightly higher specificity. The rK39 strip test was more sensitive and specific than the IFAT and p-ELISA. We did not detect any difference in the sensitivity and specificity between strips produced by different manufacturers. The rK39 protein used either in a strip test or in an ELISA, and the DAT are the best choices for implementation of rapid, easy and efficient test for serodiagnosis of VL.

  12. The Protein Kinase SmSnRK2.6 Positively Regulates Phenolic Acid Biosynthesis in Salvia miltiorrhiza by Interacting with SmAREB1

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yanyan; Bai, Zhenqing; Pei, Tianlin; Ding, Kai; Liang, Zongsuo; Gong, Yuehua

    2017-01-01

    Subclass III members of the sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) play essential roles in both the abscisic acid signaling and abiotic stress responses of plants by phosphorylating the downstream ABA-responsive element (ABRE)-binding proteins (AREB/ABFs). This comprehensive study investigated the function of new candidate genes, namely SmSnRK2.3, SmSnRK2.6, and SmAREB1, with a view to breeding novel varieties of Salvia miltiorrhiza with improved stress tolerance stresses and more content of bioactive ingredients. Exogenous ABA strongly induced the expression of these genes. PlantCARE predicted several hormones and stress response cis-elements in their promoters. SmSnRK2.6 and SmAREB1 showed the highest expression levels in the leaves of S. miltiorrhiza seedlings, while SmSnRK2.3 exhibited a steady expression in their roots, stems, and leaves. A subcellular localization assay revealed that both SmSnRK2.3 and SmSnRK2.6 were located in the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus, whereas SmAREB1 was exclusive to the nucleus. Overexpressing SmSnRK2.3 did not significantly promote the accumulation of rosmarinic acid (RA) and salvianolic acid B (Sal B) in the transgenic S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. However, overexpressing SmSnRK2.6 and SmAREB1 increased the contents of RA and Sal B, and regulated the expression levels of structural genes participating in the phenolic acid-branched and side-branched pathways, including SmPAL1, SmC4H, Sm4CL1, SmTAT, SmHPPR, SmRAS, SmCHS, SmCCR, SmCOMT, and SmHPPD. Furthermore, SmSnRK2.3 and SmSnRK2.6 interacted physically with SmAREB1. In summary, our results indicate that SmSnRK2.6 is involved in stress responses and can regulate structural gene transcripts to promote greater metabolic flux to the phenolic acid-branched pathway, via its interaction with SmAREB1, a transcription factor. In this way, SmSnRK2.6 contributes to the positive regulation of phenolic acids in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. PMID:28848585

  13. The Protein Kinase SmSnRK2.6 Positively Regulates Phenolic Acid Biosynthesis in Salvia miltiorrhiza by Interacting with SmAREB1.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yanyan; Bai, Zhenqing; Pei, Tianlin; Ding, Kai; Liang, Zongsuo; Gong, Yuehua

    2017-01-01

    Subclass III members of the sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) play essential roles in both the abscisic acid signaling and abiotic stress responses of plants by phosphorylating the downstream ABA-responsive element (ABRE)-binding proteins (AREB/ABFs). This comprehensive study investigated the function of new candidate genes, namely SmSnRK2.3 , SmSnRK2.6 , and SmAREB1 , with a view to breeding novel varieties of Salvia miltiorrhiza with improved stress tolerance stresses and more content of bioactive ingredients. Exogenous ABA strongly induced the expression of these genes. PlantCARE predicted several hormones and stress response cis -elements in their promoters. SmSnRK2.6 and SmAREB1 showed the highest expression levels in the leaves of S. miltiorrhiza seedlings, while SmSnRK2.3 exhibited a steady expression in their roots, stems, and leaves. A subcellular localization assay revealed that both SmSnRK2.3 and SmSnRK2.6 were located in the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus, whereas SmAREB1 was exclusive to the nucleus. Overexpressing SmSnRK2.3 did not significantly promote the accumulation of rosmarinic acid (RA) and salvianolic acid B (Sal B) in the transgenic S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. However, overexpressing SmSnRK2.6 and SmAREB1 increased the contents of RA and Sal B, and regulated the expression levels of structural genes participating in the phenolic acid-branched and side-branched pathways, including SmPAL1 , SmC4H , Sm4CL1 , SmTAT , SmHPPR , SmRAS , SmCHS , SmCCR , SmCOMT , and SmHPPD . Furthermore, SmSnRK2.3 and SmSnRK2.6 interacted physically with SmAREB1. In summary, our results indicate that SmSnRK2.6 is involved in stress responses and can regulate structural gene transcripts to promote greater metabolic flux to the phenolic acid-branched pathway, via its interaction with SmAREB1 , a transcription factor. In this way, SmSnRK2.6 contributes to the positive regulation of phenolic acids in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots.

  14. STOREKEEPER RELATED1/G-Element Binding Protein (STKR1) Interacts with Protein Kinase SnRK1.

    PubMed

    Nietzsche, Madlen; Guerra, Tiziana; Alseekh, Saleh; Wiermer, Marcel; Sonnewald, Sophia; Fernie, Alisdair R; Börnke, Frederik

    2018-02-01

    Sucrose nonfermenting related kinase1 (SnRK1) is a conserved energy sensor kinase that regulates cellular adaptation to energy deficit in plants. Activation of SnRK1 leads to the down-regulation of ATP-consuming biosynthetic processes and the stimulation of energy-generating catabolic reactions by transcriptional reprogramming and posttranslational modifications. Although considerable progress has been made during the last years in understanding the SnRK1 signaling pathway, many of its components remain unidentified. Here, we show that the catalytic α-subunits KIN10 and KIN11 of the Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) SnRK1 complex interact with the STOREKEEPER RELATED1/G-Element Binding Protein (STKR1) inside the plant cell nucleus. Overexpression of STKR1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants led to reduced growth, a delay in flowering, and strongly attenuated senescence. Metabolite profiling revealed that the transgenic lines exhausted their carbohydrates during the dark period to a greater extent than the wild type and accumulated a range of amino acids. At the global transcriptome level, genes affected by STKR1 overexpression were broadly associated with systemic acquired resistance, and transgenic plants showed enhanced resistance toward a virulent strain of the biotrophic oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis Noco2. We discuss a possible connection of STKR1 function, SnRK1 signaling, and plant immunity. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Fatty acid composition modulates sensitivity of Legionella pneumophila to warnericin RK, an antimicrobial peptide.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Julien; Labanowski, Jérome; Sahr, Tobias; Ferreira, Thierry; Lacombe, Christian; Buchrieser, Carmen; Berjeaud, Jean-Marc; Héchard, Yann

    2011-04-01

    Warnericin RK is an antimicrobial peptide, produced by a Staphyloccocus warneri strain, described to be specifically active against Legionella, the pathogenic bacteria responsible for Legionnaires' disease. Warnericin RK is an amphiphilic alpha-helical peptide, which possesses a detergent-like mode of action. Two others peptides, δ-hemolysin I and II, produced by the same S. warneri strain, are highly similar to S. aureus δ-hemolysin and also display anti-Legionella activity. It has been recently reported that S. aureus δ-hemolysin activity on vesicles is likewise related to phospholipid acyl-chain structure, such as chain length and saturation. As staphylococcal δ-hemolysins were highly similar, we thus hypothesized that fatty acid composition of Legionella's membrane might influence the sensitivity of the bacteria to warnericin RK. Relationship between sensitivity to the peptide and fatty acid composition was then followed in various conditions. Cells in stationary phase, which were already described as less resistant than cells in exponential phase, displayed higher amounts of branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) and short chain fatty acids. An adapted strain, able to grow at a concentration 33 fold higher than minimal inhibitory concentration of the wild type (i.e. 1μM), was isolated after repeated transfers of L. pneumophila in the presence of increased concentrations of warnericin RK. The amount of BCFA was significantly higher in the adapted strain than in the wild type strain. Also, a transcriptomic analysis of the wild type and adapted strains showed that two genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis were repressed in the adapted strain. These genes encode enzymes involved in desaturation and elongation of fatty acids respectively. Their repression was in agreement with the decrease of unsaturated fatty acids and fatty acid chain length in the adapted strain. Conclusively, our results indicate that the increase of BCFA and the decrease of fatty acid

  16. Minimal Unified Resolution to R_{K^{(*)}} and R(D^{(*)}) Anomalies with Lepton Mixing.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Debajyoti; Kundu, Anirban; Mandal, Rusa; Sinha, Rahul

    2017-10-13

    It is a challenging task to explain, in terms of a simple and compelling new physics scenario, the intriguing discrepancies between the standard model expectations and the data for the neutral-current observables R_{K} and R_{K^{*}}, as well as the charged-current observables R(D) and R(D^{*}). We show that this can be achieved in an effective theory with only two unknown parameters. In addition, this class of models predicts some interesting signatures in the context of both B decays as well as high-energy collisions.

  17. Cloning and expression profiling of the PacSnRK2 and PacPP2C gene families during fruit development, ABA treatment, and dehydration stress in sweet cherry.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xinjie; Guo, Xiao; Zhao, Di; Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Yuzhuang; Wang, Yantao; Peng, Xiang; Wei, Yan; Zhai, Zefeng; Zhao, Wei; Li, Tianhong

    2017-10-01

    Plant SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) and protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) family members are core components of the ABA signal transduction pathway. SnRK2 and PP2C proteins have been suggested to play crucial roles in fruit ripening and improving plant tolerance to drought stress, but supporting genetic information has been lacking in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). Here, we cloned six full-length SnRK2 genes and three full-length PP2C genes from sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that PacSnRK2.2, PacSnRK2.3, PacSnRK2.6, and PacPP2C1-3 were negatively regulated in fruits in response to exogenous ABA treatment, PacSnRK2.4 and PacSnRK2.5 were upregulated, and PacSnRK2.1 expression was not affected. The ABA treatment also significantly promoted the accumulation of anthocyanins in sweet cherry fruit. The expression of all PacSnRK2 and PacPP2C genes was induced by dehydration stress, which also promoted the accumulation of drought stress signaling molecules in the sweet cherry fruits, including ABA, soluble sugars, and anthocyanin. Furthermore, a yeast two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that PacPP2C1 interacts with all six PacSnRK2s, while PacPP2C3 does not interact with PacSnRK2.5. PacPP2C2 does not interact with PacSnRK2.1 or PacSnRK2.4. These results indicate that PacSnRK2s and PacPP2Cs may play a variety of roles in the sweet cherry ABA signaling pathway and the fruit response to drought stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. STOREKEEPER RELATED1/G-Element Binding Protein (STKR1) Interacts with Protein Kinase SnRK11[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Nietzsche, Madlen; Guerra, Tiziana; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2018-01-01

    Sucrose nonfermenting related kinase1 (SnRK1) is a conserved energy sensor kinase that regulates cellular adaptation to energy deficit in plants. Activation of SnRK1 leads to the down-regulation of ATP-consuming biosynthetic processes and the stimulation of energy-generating catabolic reactions by transcriptional reprogramming and posttranslational modifications. Although considerable progress has been made during the last years in understanding the SnRK1 signaling pathway, many of its components remain unidentified. Here, we show that the catalytic α-subunits KIN10 and KIN11 of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SnRK1 complex interact with the STOREKEEPER RELATED1/G-Element Binding Protein (STKR1) inside the plant cell nucleus. Overexpression of STKR1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants led to reduced growth, a delay in flowering, and strongly attenuated senescence. Metabolite profiling revealed that the transgenic lines exhausted their carbohydrates during the dark period to a greater extent than the wild type and accumulated a range of amino acids. At the global transcriptome level, genes affected by STKR1 overexpression were broadly associated with systemic acquired resistance, and transgenic plants showed enhanced resistance toward a virulent strain of the biotrophic oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis Noco2. We discuss a possible connection of STKR1 function, SnRK1 signaling, and plant immunity. PMID:29192025

  19. Radial forces in a misaligned radial face seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etsion, I.

    1978-01-01

    Radial forces on the primary seal ring of a flat misaligned seal are analyzed, taking into account the radial variation in seal clearance. An analytical solution for both hydrostatic and hydrodynamic effects is presented that covers the whole range from zero to full angular misalignment. The net radial force on the primary seal ring is always directed so as to produce a radial eccentricity which generates inward pumping. Although the radial force is usually very small, in some cases it may be one of the reasons for excessive leakage through both the primary and secondary seals of a radial face seal.

  20. Radial forces in a misaligned radial face seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etsion, I.

    1977-01-01

    Radial forces on the primary seal ring of a flat misaligned seal are analyzed, taking into account the radial variation in seal clearance. An analytical solution for both hydrostatic and hydrodynamic effects is presented that covers the whole range from zero to full angular misalignment. The net radial force on the primary seal ring is always directed so as to produce a radial eccentricity which generates inward pumping. Although the radial force is usually very small, in some cases it may be one of the reasons for excessive leakage through both the primary and secondary seals of a radial face seal.

  1. Interactions of ABA signaling core components (SlPYLs, SlPP2Cs, and SlSnRK2s) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicon).

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei; Sun, Yu-Fei; Kai, Wen-Bin; Liang, Bin; Zhang, Yu-Shu; Zhai, Xia-Wan; Jiang, Li; Du, Yang-Wei; Leng, Ping

    2016-10-20

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates fruit development and ripening via its signaling. However, the exact role of ABA signaling core components in fruit have not yet been clarified. In this study, we investigated the potential interactions of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) ABA signaling core components using yeast two-hybrid analysis, with or without ABA at different concentrations. The results showed that among 12 PYR/PYL/RCAR ABA receptors (SlPYLs), SlPYL1, SlPYL2, SlPYL4, SlPYL5, SlPYL 7, SlPYL8, SlPYL9, SlPYL10, SlPYL11, and SlPYL13 were ABA-dependent receptors, while SlPYL3 and SlPYL12 were ABA-independent receptors. Among five SlPP2Cs (type 2C protein phosphatases) and seven SlSnRK2s (subfamily 2 of SNF1-related kinases), all SlSnRK2s could interact with SlPP2C2, while SlSnRK2.8 also interacted with SlPP2C3. SlSnRK2.5 could interact with SlABF2/4 (ABA-responsive element binding factors). Expressions of SlPYL1, SlPYL2, SlPYL8, and SlPYL10 were upregulated under exogenous ABA but downregulated under nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) at the mature green stage of fruit ripening. The expressions of SlPP2C1, SlPP2C2, SlPP2C3, and SlPP2C5 were upregulated in ABA-treated fruit, but downregulated in NDGA-treated fruit at the mature green stage. The expressions of SlSnRK2.4, SlSnRK2.5, SlSnRK2.6, and SlSnRK2.7 were upregulated by ABA, but downregulated by NDGA. However, SlSnRK2.2 was down regulated by ABA. Expression of SlABF2/3/4 was enhanced by ABA but decreased by NDGA. Based on these results, we concluded that the majority of ABA receptor PYLs interact with SlPP2Cs in an ABA-dependent manner. SlPP2C2 and SlPP2C3 can interact with SlSnRK2s. SlSnRK2.5 could interact with SlABF2/4. Most ABA signaling core components respond to exogenous ABA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanisms of regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Confraria, Ana; Rodrigues, Américo; Martinho, Cláudia; Adamo, Mattia; Elias, Carlos A; Baena-González, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1)-related protein kinases 1 (SnRKs1) are the plant orthologs of the budding yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). These evolutionarily conserved kinases are metabolic sensors that undergo activation in response to declining energy levels. Upon activation, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases trigger a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprograming that restores energy homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions, partly through an induction of catabolic processes and a general repression of anabolism. These kinases typically function as a heterotrimeric complex composed of two regulatory subunits, β and γ, and an α-catalytic subunit, which requires phosphorylation of a conserved activation loop residue for activity. Additionally, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases are controlled by multiple mechanisms that have an impact on kinase activity, stability, and/or subcellular localization. Here we will review current knowledge on the regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 by upstream components, post-translational modifications, various metabolites, hormones, and others, in an attempt to highlight both the commonalities of these essential eukaryotic kinases and the divergences that have evolved to cope with the particularities of each one of these systems.

  3. Mechanisms of regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Confraria, Ana; Rodrigues, Américo; Martinho, Cláudia; Adamo, Mattia; Elias, Carlos A.; Baena-González, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1)-related protein kinases 1 (SnRKs1) are the plant orthologs of the budding yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). These evolutionarily conserved kinases are metabolic sensors that undergo activation in response to declining energy levels. Upon activation, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases trigger a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprograming that restores energy homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions, partly through an induction of catabolic processes and a general repression of anabolism. These kinases typically function as a heterotrimeric complex composed of two regulatory subunits, β and γ, and an α-catalytic subunit, which requires phosphorylation of a conserved activation loop residue for activity. Additionally, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases are controlled by multiple mechanisms that have an impact on kinase activity, stability, and/or subcellular localization. Here we will review current knowledge on the regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 by upstream components, post-translational modifications, various metabolites, hormones, and others, in an attempt to highlight both the commonalities of these essential eukaryotic kinases and the divergences that have evolved to cope with the particularities of each one of these systems. PMID:24904600

  4. Development of a nomogram for femtosecond laser astigmatic keratotomy for astigmatism after keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    St Clair, Ryan M; Sharma, Anushree; Huang, David; Yu, Fei; Goldich, Yakov; Rootman, David; Yoo, Sonia; Cabot, Florence; Jun, Jason; Zhang, Lijun; Aldave, Anthony J

    2016-04-01

    To develop a nomogram for femtosecond laser astigmatic keratotomy (AK) to treat post-keratoplasty astigmatism. Three academic medical centers. Retrospective interventional case series. A review of post-keratoplasty femtosecond laser AK was performed. Uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuities, manifest refraction, and keratometry were recorded preoperatively and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. The location, length, depth, and diameter of the AK incisions were recorded, and the surgically induced astigmatic correction was related to these variables using regression analysis. One hundred forty femtosecond laser AK procedures were performed after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) (n = 129) or deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) (n =11), with 89 procedures (80 PKP, 9 DALK) included in the analysis. The mean CDVA improved from 20/59 (0.47 logMAR ± 0.38 [SD]) preoperatively to 20/45 (0.35 ± 0.31 logMAR) postoperatively (P = .013) (n = 46). The mean keratometric astigmatism decreased from 8.26 ± 2.90 diopters (D) preoperatively to 3.62 ± 2.59 D postoperatively (P < .0001) (n = 89). The mean refractive cylinder decreased from 6.77 ± 2.80 D preoperatively to 2.85 ± 2.57 D postoperatively (P < .0001) (n = 69). A nomogram for femtosecond laser AK to treat post-keratoplasty astigmatism was generated using regression analysis. Femtosecond laser AK significantly improved UDVA and CDVA and significantly reduced keratometric astigmatism and refractive cylinder after keratoplasty. The nomogram generated should improve the accuracy of post-keratoplasty femtosecond laser AK. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lower- and higher-order aberrations predicted by an optomechanical model of arcuate keratotomy for astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Rafael; Palos, Fernando; Lanchares, Elena; Calvo, Begoña; Cristóbal, José A

    2009-01-01

    To develop a realistic model of the optomechanical behavior of the cornea after curved relaxing incisions to simulate the induced astigmatic change and predict the optical aberrations produced by the incisions. ICMA Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas and Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain. A 3-dimensional finite element model of the anterior hemisphere of the ocular surface was used. The corneal tissue was modeled as a quasi-incompressible, anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive behavior strongly dependent on the physiological collagen fibril distribution. Similar behaviors were assigned to the limbus and sclera. With this model, some corneal incisions were computer simulated after the Lindstrom nomogram. The resulting geometry of the biomechanical simulation was analyzed in the optical zone, and finite ray tracing was performed to compute refractive power and higher-order aberrations (HOAs). The finite-element simulation provided new geometry of the corneal surfaces, from which elevation topographies were obtained. The surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) of the simulated incisions according to the Lindstrom nomogram was computed by finite ray tracing. However, paraxial computations would yield slightly different results (undercorrection of astigmatism). In addition, arcuate incisions would induce significant amounts of HOAs. Finite-element models, together with finite ray-tracing computations, yielded realistic simulations of the biomechanical and optical changes induced by relaxing incisions. The model reproduced the SIA indicated by the Lindstrom nomogram for the simulated incisions and predicted a significant increase in optical aberrations induced by arcuate keratotomy.

  6. Late complications in patients with Björk-Shiley and St. Jude Medical heart valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Horstkotte, D; Körfer, R; Seipel, L; Bircks, W; Loogen, F

    1983-09-01

    Valve-related complications after Björk-Shiley mitral valve implantation (n = 475), aortic valve implantation (n = 424), or mitral-aortic valve implantation (n = 119) were compared with those after St. Jude Medical mitral valve replacement (n = 173), aortic valve replacement (n = 152), or mitral-aortic valve replacement (n = 69). All patients were placed on anticoagulant therapy with phenprocoumon early after operation. All patients had a comparable follow-up time of approximately 23 months, which showed that cumulative thromboembolic rates were significantly higher after St. Jude valve implantation than after Björk-Shiley valve implantation. Reoperations were necessary because of valve thrombosis (0.46%), perivalvular leakage (2.2%), or prosthetic valve endocarditis with perivalvular regurgitation (0.46%). One Björk-Shiley mitral valve prosthesis had to be replaced because of fracture of the outlet strut. Without significant intergroup differences, hemorrhage due to anticoagulant treatment was the most frequent complication. Thromboembolic complications were significantly more frequent after Björk-Shiley mitral, aortic, and double valve replacements than after St. Jude valve implantation. This may lead to consideration of changes in the prophylaxis of thrombus formations in the St. Jude valve, especially in aortic valve replacements, in patients with sinus rhythm.

  7. SnRK1-triggered switch of bZIP63 dimerization mediates the low-energy response in plants

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Andrea; Pedrotti, Lorenzo; Wurzinger, Bernhard; Anrather, Dorothea; Simeunovic, Andrea; Weiste, Christoph; Valerio, Concetta; Dietrich, Katrin; Kirchler, Tobias; Nägele, Thomas; Vicente Carbajosa, Jesús; Hanson, Johannes; Baena-González, Elena; Chaban, Christina; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang; Teige, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic adjustment to changing environmental conditions, particularly balancing of growth and defense responses, is crucial for all organisms to survive. The evolutionary conserved AMPK/Snf1/SnRK1 kinases are well-known metabolic master regulators in the low-energy response in animals, yeast and plants. They act at two different levels: by modulating the activity of key metabolic enzymes, and by massive transcriptional reprogramming. While the first part is well established, the latter function is only partially understood in animals and not at all in plants. Here we identified the Arabidopsis transcription factor bZIP63 as key regulator of the starvation response and direct target of the SnRK1 kinase. Phosphorylation of bZIP63 by SnRK1 changed its dimerization preference, thereby affecting target gene expression and ultimately primary metabolism. A bzip63 knock-out mutant exhibited starvation-related phenotypes, which could be functionally complemented by wild type bZIP63, but not by a version harboring point mutations in the identified SnRK1 target sites. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05828.001 PMID:26263501

  8. [Late complications following Björk-Shiley and St. Jude Medical heart valve replacement].

    PubMed

    Horstkotte, D; Körfer, R; Budde, T; Haerten, K; Schulte, H D; Bircks, W; Loogen, F

    1983-05-01

    Valve-related complications after Björk-Shiley mitral (n = 475), aortic (n = 424), or mitral-aortic implantation (n = 119) were compared to complications after St. Jude mitral (n = 173), aortic (n = 152), and St. Jude mitral and aortic (n = 63) replacements. The 1,018 consecutive patients with Björk-Shiley valves had been operated upon between 1974 and 1982, those with St. Jude valves between 1978 and 1982. All patients were placed on anticoagulant therapy with phenprocoumon early after operation and no significant intergroup differences in the effectiveness of the anticoagulant therapy were found. At a comparable follow-up time of approximately 23 months, 24 major thromboembolic episodes were observed after Björk-Shiley mitral (BSM) and 3 after St. Jude mitral valve implantation (SJM), corresponding to a thromboembolic rate of 2.82/100 patient years with BSM and 0.93/100 patient years with SJM. After aortic valve replacements, 1.93 events in 100 patient years occurred after Björk-Shiley aortic (BSA) and 0.73 after St. Jude aortic implantation (SJA). In patients with double valve replacements, these rates were 3.2 (BSM + BSA) and 0.88 (SJM + SJA), respectively. The cerebral vessels were involved in 52% and the arteries of the extremities in 22% of these major events. Six Björk-Shiley prostheses had to be replaced because of valve thrombosis. The overall incidence of severe hemorrhagic complications was 2.94/100 patient years in BSM and 1.79 in SJM. After aortic valve replacement, we found rates of 1.80/100 patient years (BSA) and 2.57/100 patient years (SJA), respectively. Intravascular hemolysis no longer seems to be a significant clinical problem. However, indications of red cell damage after heart valve replacement were significantly greater in patients with perivalvular leakage, valve thrombosis, or dysfunction than in those with normally functioning prostheses. Reoperations were necessary because of valve thrombosis (0.46%), perivalvular leakage (2

  9. Transcriptional Regulation of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lsrACDBFG and lsrRK Operons and Their Role in Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Escobar, Ascención; Juárez-Rodríguez, María Dolores; Lamont, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is required for biofilm formation and virulence of the oral pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and we previously showed that lsrB codes for a receptor for AI-2. The lsrB gene is expressed as part of the lsrACDBFG operon, which is divergently transcribed from an adjacent lsrRK operon. In Escherichia coli, lsrRK encodes a repressor and AI-2 kinase that function to regulate lsrACDBFG. To determine if lsrRK controls lsrACDBFG expression and influences biofilm growth of A. actinomycetemcomitans, we first defined the promoters for each operon. Transcriptional reporter plasmids containing the 255-bp lsrACDBFG-lsrRK intergenic region (IGR) fused to lacZ showed that essential elements of lsrR promoter reside 89 to 255 bp upstream from the lsrR start codon. Two inverted repeat sequences that represent potential binding sites for LsrR and two sequences resembling the consensus cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) binding site were identified in this region. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), purified LsrR and CRP proteins were shown to bind probes containing these sequences. Surprisingly, the 255-bp IGR did not contain the lsrA promoter. Instead, a fragment encompassing nucleotides +1 to +159 of lsrA together with the 255-bp IGR was required to promote lsrA transcription. This suggests that a region within the lsrA coding sequence influences transcription, or alternatively that the start codon of A. actinomycetemcomitans lsrA has been incorrectly annotated. Transformation of ΔlsrR, ΔlsrK, ΔlsrRK, and Δcrp deletion mutants with lacZ reporters containing the lsrA or lsrR promoter showed that LsrR negatively regulates and CRP positively regulates both lsrACDBFG and lsrRK. However, in contrast to what occurs in E. coli, deletion of lsrK had no effect on the transcriptional activity of the lsrA or lsrR promoters, suggesting that another kinase may be capable of phosphorylating AI-2 in A. actinomycetemcomitans. Finally, biofilm

  10. Regulation of Bacteriocin Production and Cell Death by the VicRK Signaling System in Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Senadheera, D. B.; Cordova, M.; Ayala, E. A.; Chávez de Paz, L. E.; Singh, K.; Downey, J. S.; Svensäter, G.; Goodman, S. D.

    2012-01-01

    The VicRK two-component signaling system modulates biofilm formation, genetic competence, and stress tolerance in Streptococcus mutans. We show here that the VicRK modulates bacteriocin production and cell viability, in part by direct modulation of competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) production in S. mutans. Global transcriptome and real-time transcriptional analysis of the VicK-deficient mutant (SmuvicK) revealed significant modulation of several bacteriocin-related loci, including nlmAB, nlmC, and nlmD (P < 0.001), suggesting a role for the VicRK in producing mutacins IV, V, and VI. Bacteriocin overlay assays revealed an altered ability of the vic mutants to kill related species. Since a well-conserved VicR binding site (TGTWAH-N5-TGTWAH) was identified within the comC coding region, we confirmed VicR binding to this sequence using DNA footprinting. Overexpression of the vic operon caused growth-phase-dependent repression of comC, comDE, and comX. In the vic mutants, transcription of nlmC/cipB encoding mutacin V, previously linked to CSP-dependent cell lysis, as well as expression of its putative immunity factor encoded by immB, were significantly affected relative to the wild type (P < 0.05). In contrast to previous reports that proposed a hyper-resistant phenotype for the VicK mutant in cell viability, the release of extracellular genomic DNA was significantly enhanced in SmuvicK (P < 0.05), likely as a result of increased autolysis compared with the parent. The drastic influence of VicRK on cell viability was also demonstrated using vic mutant biofilms. Taken together, we have identified a novel regulatory link between the VicRK and ComDE systems to modulate bacteriocin production and cell viability of S. mutans. PMID:22228735

  11. SnRK1 is differentially regulated in the cotyledon and embryo axe of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) seeds.

    PubMed

    Coello, Patricia; Martínez-Barajas, Eleazar

    2014-07-01

    SnRK1 activity is developmentally regulated in bean seeds and exhibits a transient increase with the highest value at 20 days after anthesis (DAA), which coincides with the beginning of protein and starch accumulation. The catalytic subunit of SnRK1 shows a consistent decrease throughout the seed development period. However, by 15 DAA a significant proportion of the catalytic subunit appears phosphorylated. The increase in activity and phosphorylation of the catalytic subunit coincides with a decrease in hexoses. However, SnRK1 activity is differentially regulated in the cotyledon and embryo axe, where a larger proportion of the catalytic subunit is phosphorylated. SnRK1 obtained from endosperm extract is inhibited by T6P and to a lesser extent by ADPG and UDPG, whereas the enzyme isolated from embryo is virtually insensitive to T6P but exhibits some inhibition by ADPG and UDPG. In cotyledon extracts, the effects of T6P and ADPG on SnRK1 activity are additive, whereas in embryo extract, T6P inhibits the enzyme only when ADPG is present. After fractionation on Sephacryl-S300, SnRK1 activity obtained from cotyledon extracts is detected as a single peak associated with a molecular weight of 250 kDa whereas that obtained form embryo axe extracts detected as 2 peaks associated with molecular weight of 250 and 180 kDa. In both cases, the catalytic subunit exhibits a wide distribution but is concentrated in the fractions with the highest activity. To analyse the composition of the complex, cotyledon and embryo extracts were treated with a reversible crosslinker (DSP). DSP induced the formation of complexes with molecular weights of 97 and 180 kDa in the cotyledon and embryo extracts, respectively. Since all the phosphorylated catalytic subunit is present in the complexes induced by DSP, it appears that the phosphorylation favors its interaction with other proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. [Minor strut fracture of the Björk-Shiley mitral valve].

    PubMed

    Sugita, T; Yasuda, R; Watarida, S; Onoe, M; Tabata, R; Mori, A

    1990-06-01

    In May, 1982, a 49-year-old man underwent mitral valve replacement (MVR) in our hospital with a 31 mm Björk-Shiley prosthesis for mitral regurgitation. He had been doing well until his episode of palpitation and dyspnea of sudden onset, and was transferred to our ICU with severe cardiogenic shock in Aug, 1986. Chest X-ray film revealed pulmonary edema and breakage of the valve with migration of the disc and the minor strut of the prosthesis. He was operated upon 5 hours after the onset of his complaints. The minor strut was removed from the left upper pulmonary vein and mitral valve re-replacement was done with a 29 mm Björk-Shiley Monostrut valve. The disc which had dislocated into the abdominal aorta was also recovered on the twenty-third post operative day. His postoperative course was uneventful. Immediate diagnosis and subsequent re-operation is absolute indication for rescue from acute cardiac failure due to mechanical failure of any prosthetic valve.

  13. Yellow fever vaccine: comparison of the neurovirulence of new 17D-204 Stamaril™ seed lots and RK 168-73 strain.

    PubMed

    Moulin, Jean-Claude; Silvano, Jérémy; Barban, Véronique; Riou, Patrice; Allain, Caroline

    2013-07-01

    The neurovirulence of two new candidate 17D-204 Stamaril™ working seed lots and that of two reference preparations were compared. The Stamaril™ working seed lots have been used for more than twenty years for the manufacturing of vaccines of acceptable safety and efficacy. The preparation designated RK 168-73 and provided by the Robert Koch Institute was used as a reference. It was confirmed that RK 168-73 strain was not a good virus control in our study because it has a very low neurovirulence regarding both the clinical and histopathological scores in comparison with Stamaril™ strain and is not representative of a vaccine known to be satisfactory in use. The results were reinforced by the phenotypic characterization by plaque assay demonstrating that RK 168-73 was very different from the Stamaril™ vaccine, and by sequencing results showing 4 mutations between Stamaril™ and RK 168-73 viruses leading to amino acid differences in the NS4B and envelop proteins. Copyright © 2013 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Beveled Femtosecond Laser Astigmatic Keratotomy for the Treatment of High Astigmatism Post–Penetrating Keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, Catherine; Tang, Maolong; Ahmed, Habeeb; Fox, Martin; Huang, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To use beveled femtosecond laser astigmatic keratotomy (FLAK) incisions to treat high astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty. Methods Paired FLAK incisions at a bevel angle of 135 degrees, 65% to 75% depth, and arc lengths of 60 to 90 degrees were performed using a femtosecond laser. One case of perpendicular FLAK was presented for comparison. Vector analysis was used to calculate the changes in astigmatism. Fourier domain optical coherence tomography was used to examine incision morphology. Results Wound gaping requiring suturing was observed in the case of perpendicular FLAK. Six consecutive cases of beveled FLAK were analyzed. Fourier domain optical coherence tomography showed that beveled FLAK caused a mean forward shift of Bowman layer anterior to the incisions of 126 ± 38 μm, with no wound gaping. The mean magnitude of preoperative keratometric astigmatism was 9.8 ± 2.9 diopters (D), and postoperatively it was 4.5 ± 3.2 D (P < 0.05). Uncorrected visual acuity improved from 1.24 ± 0.13 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution preoperatively to 0.76 ± 0.38 postoperatively (P < 0.05). Best spectacle–corrected visual acuity improved from 0.43 ± 0.33 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution preoperatively to 0.27 ± 0.24 postoperatively (P = 0.22). Visual results were reduced in 2 patients by cataract progression. Between 1 and 3 months after beveled FLAK, the keratometric cylinder was stable (<1 D change) in 5 of 6 patients, and regressed in 1 patient. No complications occurred. Conclusions Beveled FLAK incisions at varied depth are effective in the management of postkeratoplasty astigmatism. Early postoperative changes stabilized within 1 month in most patients. Further studies are needed to assess long-term outcomes. PMID:22968362

  15. LecRK-V, an L-type lectin receptor kinase in Haynaldia villosa, plays positive role in resistance to wheat powdery mildew.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zongkuan; Cheng, Jiangyue; Fan, Anqi; Zhao, Jia; Yu, Zhongyu; Li, Yingbo; Zhang, Heng; Xiao, Jin; Muhammad, Faheem; Wang, Haiyan; Cao, Aizhong; Xing, Liping; Wang, Xiue

    2018-01-01

    Plant sense potential microbial pathogen using pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The Lectin receptor-like kinase genes (LecRKs) are involved in various cellular processes mediated by signal transduction pathways. In the present study, an L-type lectin receptor kinase gene LecRK-V was cloned from Haynaldia villosa, a diploid wheat relative which is highly resistant to powdery mildew. The expression of LecRK-V was rapidly up-regulated by Bgt inoculation and chitin treatment. Its transcript level was higher in the leaves than in roots, culms, spikes and callus. Single-cell transient overexpression of LecRK-V led to decreased haustorium index in wheat variety Yangmai158, which is powdery mildew susceptible. Stable transformation LecRK-V into Yangmai158 significantly enhanced the powdery mildew resistance at both seedling and adult stages. At seedling stage, the transgenic line was highly resistance to 18 of the tested 23 Bgt isolates, hypersensitive responses (HR) were observed for 22 Bgt isolates, and more ROS at the Bgt infection sites was accumulated. These indicated that LecRK-V confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew, and ROS and SA pathways contribute to the enhanced powdery mildew resistance in wheat. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Acute aortic regurgitation secondary to disk embolization of a Björk-Shiley prosthetic aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Grande, Robert D; Katz, William E

    2011-03-01

    Having passed the 30th anniversary of the first implantation of a Björk-Shiley convexo-concave tilting mechanical valve, recognition of the life-threatening complication of strut fracture is not widespread. The authors report the case of a 48-year-old man with acute-onset chest pain and dyspnea found to have strut fracture and disk embolization of a 26-year-old Björk-Shiley prosthetic aortic valve. The value of echocardiography in the diagnosis of this condition is discussed. Copyright © 2010 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Placing Intelligence into an Evolutionary Framework or How "g" Fits into the "r-K" Matrix of Life-History Traits Including Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, J. Philippe

    2004-01-01

    First, I describe why intelligence (Spearman's "g") can only be fully understood through "r-K" theory, which places it into an evolutionary framework along with brain size, longevity, maturation speed, and several other life-history traits. The "r-K" formulation explains why IQ predicts longevity and also why the gap in mortality rates between…

  18. Comparative evaluation of immunochromatographic dipstick test (ICT) rk39, soluble antigen ELISA and IFAT for the sero-diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Mniouil, Meryem; Fellah, Hajiba; Amarir, Fatima; Sadak, Abderrahim; Et-Touys, Abdeslam; Bakri, Youssef; Moustachi, Aziza; Tassou, Fatima Zahraa; Hida, Mostapha; Lyagoubi, Mohamed; Adlaoui, El Bachir; Rhajaoui, Mohamed; Sebti, Faiza

    2018-06-01

    A rapid, sensitive and specific tool for detection of Leishmania infantum infection in Humans would be highly desirable, because it would allow control interventions in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis. This study was carried out at the Reference National Laboratory of Leishmaniasis (RNLL) in National Institute of Hygiene (NIH) Morocco, in order to evaluate the diagnostic potential of immunochromatographic dipstick test (ICT) rk39 in Moroccan suspected VL patients. A total of 49 admitted patients with strong clinical suspicion of VL and 40 healthy controls were investigated for the performance of the ICT rk39. Bone marrow smears were examined for microscopic detection of Leishmania amastigotes obtained from the admitted patients. Only PCR and smear positive cases were considered as gold standard as well as confirmed cases of VL. Out of 49 suspected patients, twenty four (48.9%) were found PCR and smear-positive and twenty three (46.9%) were positive for ICT rk39. Voluntary healthy controls, which included twenty persons from the endemic zone and twenty from non-endemic zone of VL, were found all negative for the strip test. The sensitivity in sera was 75% by ELISA and 87.5% by IFAT, compared with 95.8% for ICT rk39. Specificity was 95.8%, with both tests ELISA and IFAT, and 100% by ICT rk39 respectively. Present study findings again reinforce that the ICT rk39 is a simple, reliable and easy-to-perform non-invasive diagnostic tool for visceral leishmaniasis in the endemic area of Morocco. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ectopic expression of vaccinia virus E3 and K3 cannot rescue ectromelia virus replication in rabbit RK13 cells.

    PubMed

    Hand, Erin S; Haller, Sherry L; Peng, Chen; Rothenburg, Stefan; Hersperger, Adam R

    2015-01-01

    As a group, poxviruses have been shown to infect a wide variety of animal species. However, there is individual variability in the range of species able to be productively infected. In this study, we observed that ectromelia virus (ECTV) does not replicate efficiently in cultured rabbit RK13 cells. Conversely, vaccinia virus (VACV) replicates well in these cells. Upon infection of RK13 cells, the replication cycle of ECTV is abortive in nature, resulting in a greatly reduced ability to spread among cells in culture. We observed ample levels of early gene expression but reduced detection of virus factories and severely blunted production of enveloped virus at the cell surface. This work focused on two important host range genes, named E3L and K3L, in VACV. Both VACV and ECTV express a functional protein product from the E3L gene, but only VACV contains an intact K3L gene. To better understand the discrepancy in replication capacity of these viruses, we examined the ability of ECTV to replicate in wild-type RK13 cells compared to cells that constitutively express E3 and K3 from VACV. The role these proteins play in the ability of VACV to replicate in RK13 cells was also analyzed to determine their individual contribution to viral replication and PKR activation. Since E3L and K3L are two relevant host range genes, we hypothesized that expression of one or both of them may have a positive impact on the ability of ECTV to replicate in RK13 cells. Using various methods to assess virus growth, we did not detect any significant differences with respect to the replication of ECTV between wild-type RK13 compared to versions of this cell line that stably expressed VACV E3 alone or in combination with K3. Therefore, there remain unanswered questions related to the factors that limit the host range of ECTV.

  20. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of the GÖKTÜRK-2 Satellite Sensor Using Tuz GÖLÜ (landnet Site) from Ndvi Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakarya, Ufuk; Hakkı Demirhan, İsmail; Seda Deveci, Hüsne; Teke, Mustafa; Demirkesen, Can; Küpçü, Ramazan; Feray Öztoprak, A.; Efendioğlu, Mehmet; Fehmi Şimşek, F.; Berke, Erdinç; Zübeyde Gürbüz, Sevgi

    2016-06-01

    TÜBİTAK UZAY has conducted a research study on the use of space-based satellite resources for several aspects of agriculture. Especially, there are two precision agriculture related projects: HASSAS (Widespread application of sustainable precision agriculture practices in Southeastern Anatolia Project Region (GAP) Project) and AKTAR (Smart Agriculture Feasibility Project). The HASSAS project aims to study development of precision agriculture practice in GAP region. Multi-spectral satellite imagery and aerial hyperspectral data along with ground measurements was collected to analyze data in an information system. AKTAR aims to develop models for irrigation, fertilization and spectral signatures of crops in Inner Anatolia. By the end of the project precision agriculture practices to control irrigation, fertilization, pesticide and estimation of crop yield will be developed. Analyzing the phenology of crops using NDVI is critical for the projects. For this reason, absolute radiometric calibration of the Red and NIR bands in space-based satellite sensors is an important issue. The Göktürk-2 satellite is an earth observation satellite which was designed and built in Turkey and was launched in 2012. The Göktürk-2 satellite sensor has a resolution 2.5 meters in panchromatic and 5 meters in R/G/B/NIR bands. The absolute radiometric calibration of the Göktürk-2 satellite sensor was performed via the ground-based measurements - spectra-radiometer, sun photometer, and meteorological station- in Tuz Gölü cal/val site in 2015. In this paper, the first ground-based absolute radiometric calibration results of the Göktürk-2 satellite sensor using Tuz Gölü is demonstrated. The absolute radiometric calibration results of this paper are compared with the published cross-calibration results of the Göktürk-2 satellite sensor utilizing Landsat 8 imagery. According to the experimental comparison results, the Göktürk-2 satellite sensor coefficients for red and NIR bands

  1. Molecular cloning and comparative analysis of a PR-1-RK hybrid gene from Triticum urartu, the A-genome progenitor of hexaploid wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat genomes encode pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR-1)/receptor-like kinase (RK) hybrid proteins as first reported for hexaploid wheat. To date, no PR-1-RK-like proteins have been identified in the diploid wild wheat Triticum urartu, the A-genome progenitor of hexaploid wheat. Here we report the...

  2. Effect of amino acid substitution in the staphylococcal peptides warnericin RK and PSMα on their anti-Legionella and hemolytic activities.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Adrienne; Augenstreich, Jacques; Loiseau, Clémence; Verdon, Julien; Lecomte, Sophie; Berjeaud, Jean-Marc

    2015-07-01

    Warnericin RK from Staphylococcus warneri and PSMα from Staphylococcus epidermidis are anti-Legionella peptides which were differently classified in a previous study according to their mode of action. Indeed, warnericin RK is highly hemolytic with a bactericidal mode of action, whereas PSMα is poorly hemolytic with a bacteriostatic mode of action toward L. pneumophila. In order to find anti-Legionella peptides which are not hemolytic, a collection of peptides varying in sequence from warnericin RK to PSMα were designed and synthesized, and their anti-Legionella activities, in terms of growth inhibition, permeabilization, and bactericidal effect, as well as their hemolytic activities, were measured and compared. The results showed that some residues, at position 14 for both peptides for instance, were of major importance for bactericidal and hemolytic activities.

  3. Laser Refractive Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynne, James

    Refractive surgery has its roots in corneal transplant surgery, first performed in 1905, where the damaged or diseased cornea of a living individual is replaced by donated corneal tissue taken from a recently deceased individual. Since the cornea has no blood supply, there is no danger of organ rejection. Recognizing the exceptional healing power of corneal tissue, ophthalmologists began to explore methods of reshaping the cornea to improve the visual acuity of patients suffering from myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. In 1964, a procedure known as keratomileusis was introduced. In 1974, radial keratotomy (RK) was introduced. In 1981, excimer laser surgery was discovered by the speaker and his IBM Research colleagues. In 1983, the excimer laser was used to create clean, precise incisions in the cornea of enucleated calf eyes, derived from slaughter, launching the era of laser refractive surgery, with more precise and safer techniques to correct myopia, hyperopia, and stigmatism. This talk will describe the widely practiced surgical procedures known as photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), which have improved the visual acuity of more than 35 million people. Most patients undergoing PRK or LASIK end up with uncorrected vision better than 20/20. In 2007, development commenced on a new procedure known as small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE), employing a femtosecond laser and no excimer laser. SMILE is promoted as minimally invasive and combining the advantages of PRK and LASIK. However, long term stability of visual acuity following SMILE surgery is yet to be determined.

  4. Role of the parCBA Operon of the Broad-Host-Range Plasmid RK2 in Stable Plasmid Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Easter, Carla L.; Schwab, Helmut; Helinski, Donald R.

    1998-01-01

    The par region of the stably maintained broad-host-range plasmid RK2 is organized as two divergent operons, parCBA and parDE, and a cis-acting site. parDE encodes a postsegregational killing system, and parCBA encodes a resolvase (ParA), a nuclease (ParB), and a protein of unknown function (ParC). The present study was undertaken to further delineate the role of the parCBA region in the stable maintenance of RK2 by first introducing precise deletions in the three genes and then assessing the abilities of the different constructs to stabilize RK2 in three strains of Escherichia coli and two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The intact parCBA operon was effective in stabilizing a conjugation-defective RK2 derivative in E. coli MC1061K and RR1 but was relatively ineffective in E. coli MV10Δlac. In the two strains in which the parCBA operon was effective, deletions in parB, parC, or both parB and parC caused an approximately twofold reduction in the stabilizing ability of the operon, while a deletion in the parA gene resulted in a much greater loss of parCBA activity. For P. aeruginosa PAO1161Rifr, the parCBA operon provided little if any plasmid stability, but for P. aeruginosa PAC452Rifr, the RK2 plasmid was stabilized to a substantial extent by parCBA. With this latter strain, parA and res alone were sufficient for stabilization. The cer resolvase system of plasmid ColE1 and the loxP/Cre system of plasmid P1 were tested in comparison with the parCBA operon. We found that, not unlike what was previously observed with MC1061K, cer failed to stabilize the RK2 plasmid with par deletions in strain MV10Δlac, but this multimer resolution system was effective in stabilizing the plasmid in strain RR1. The loxP/Cre system, on the other hand, was very effective in stabilizing the plasmid in all three E. coli strains. These observations indicate that the parA gene, along with its res site, exhibits a significant level of plasmid stabilization in the absence of the parC and

  5. Effectiveness and confounding factors of penetrating astigmatic keratotomy in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Chu-Yu; Tseng, Gow-Lieng

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Penetrating astigmatic keratotomy (penetrating AK) is a well-known method to correct corneal astigmatism but rarely be performed nowadays. This article reevaluated the clinical effectiveness and confounding factors of penetrating AK. Patient concerns: Penetrating AK has been introduced to serve as one alternative operation for astigmatism correction, and is thought to have the potential advantage of being more affordable and easy to perform. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the effectiveness and confounding factors of penetrating AK. Diagnoses: The chart of 95 patients with corneal astigmatism (range: 0.75–3.25 diopters [D]) who received penetrating AK from January 2014 to December 2016 was collected. The corneal astigmatism were measured by an autokeratometer (Topcon KR8100PA topographer-autorefractor), and repeated with manual keratometer in low reproducibility cases. Interventions: All patients received penetrating AK by an experienced ophthalmologist (Dr. Gow-Lieng Tseng, MD, PHD) in the operation room. Among which, 66 patients received penetrating AK with phacoemulsification simultaneously (group A), whereas 29 patients received penetrating AK at least 3 months after phacoemulsification (group B). After excluding the patients combined with other procedures or lost followed up, 79 patients are remaining for analysis. The outcome was evaluated by net correction, the difference between preoperative corneal astigmatism (PCA) and residual corneal astigmatism (RCA). Two sample t tests and Pearson test were used for effectiveness evaluation. For confounding factors, multivariate linear regression was used for statistical analysis. Outcomes: The mean preoperative and postoperative refractive cylinders were 1.97 ± 0.77 and 1.08 ± 0.64 D, respectively, in group A and 2.62 ± 1.05 and 1.51 ± 0.89 D in group B. There were no statistically significant differences in net correction between these two groups (0.9 ± 0.66 vs

  6. Cloning of Gossypium hirsutum Sucrose Non-Fermenting 1-Related Protein Kinase 2 Gene (GhSnRK2) and Its Overexpression in Transgenic Arabidopsis Escalates Drought and Low Temperature Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Babatunde; Zhang, Xueyan; Liu, Chuanliang; Yang, Zhaoen; Yang, Zuoren; Wang, Qianhua; Zhao, Ge; Li, Fuguang

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of stress tolerance and the use of modern genetics approaches for the improvement of drought stress tolerance have been major focuses of plant molecular biologists. In the present study, we cloned the Gossypium hirsutum sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (GhSnRK2) gene and investigated its functions in transgenic Arabidopsis. We further elucidated the function of this gene in transgenic cotton using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) techniques. We hypothesized that GhSnRK2 participates in the stress signaling pathway and elucidated its role in enhancing stress tolerance in plants via various stress-related pathways and stress-responsive genes. We determined that the subcellular localization of the GhSnRK2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) was localized in the nuclei and cytoplasm. In contrast to wild-type plants, transgenic plants overexpressing GhSnRK2 exhibited increased tolerance to drought, cold, abscisic acid and salt stresses, suggesting that GhSnRK2 acts as a positive regulator in response to cold and drought stresses. Plants overexpressing GhSnRK2 displayed evidence of reduced water loss, turgor regulation, elevated relative water content, biomass, and proline accumulation. qRT-PCR analysis of GhSnRK2 expression suggested that this gene may function in diverse tissues. Under normal and stress conditions, the expression levels of stress-inducible genes, such as AtRD29A, AtRD29B, AtP5CS1, AtABI3, AtCBF1, and AtABI5, were increased in the GhSnRK2-overexpressing plants compared to the wild-type plants. GhSnRK2 gene silencing alleviated drought tolerance in cotton plants, indicating that VIGS technique can certainly be used as an effective means to examine gene function by knocking down the expression of distinctly expressed genes. The results of this study suggested that the GhSnRK2 gene, when incorporated into Arabidopsis, functions in positive responses to drought stress and in low temperature tolerance. PMID:25393623

  7. Cornea Optical Topographical Scan System (COTSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Cornea Optical Topographical Scan System (COTSS) is an instrument designed for use by opthalmologist to aid in performing surgical procedures such as radial keratotomy and to provide quick accurate data to aid in prescribing contact lenses and eyeglasses. A breadboard of the system was built and demonstrated in June of 1984. Additional refinements to the breadboard are needed to meet systems requirements prior to proceeding with prototype development. The present status of the COTSS instrument is given and the areas in which system refinements are required, are defined.

  8. Transcriptional regulation of SlPYL, SlPP2C, and SlSnRK2 gene families encoding ABA signal core components during tomato fruit development and drought stress.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liang; Wang, Yan-Ping; Chen, Pei; Ren, Jie; Ji, Kai; Li, Qian; Li, Ping; Dai, Sheng-Jie; Leng, Ping

    2011-11-01

    In order to characterize the potential transcriptional regulation of core components of abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction in tomato fruit development and drought stress, eight SlPYL (ABA receptor), seven SlPP2C (type 2C protein phosphatase), and eight SlSnRK2 (subfamily 2 of SNF1-related kinases) full-length cDNA sequences were isolated from the tomato nucleotide database of NCBI GenBank. All SlPYL, SlPP2C, and SlSnRK2 genes obtained are homologous to Arabidopsis AtPYL, AtPP2C, and AtSnRK2 genes, respectively. Based on phylogenetic analysis, SlPYLs and SlSnRK2s were clustered into three subfamilies/subclasses, and all SlPP2Cs belonged to PP2C group A. Within the SlPYL gene family, SlPYL1, SlPYL2, SlPYL3, and SlPYL6 were the major genes involved in the regulation of fruit development. Among them, SlPYL1 and SlPYL2 were expressed at high levels throughout the process of fruit development and ripening; SlPYL3 was strongly expressed at the immature green (IM) and mature green (MG) stages, while SlPYL6 was expressed strongly at the IM and red ripe (RR) stages. Within the SlPP2C gene family, the expression of SlPP2C, SlPP2C3, and SlPP2C4 increased after the MG stage; SlPP2C1 and SlPP2C5 peaked at the B3 stage, while SlPP2C2 and SlPP2C6 changed little during fruit development. Within the SlSnRK2 gene family, the expression of SlSnRK2.2, SlSnRK2.3, SlSnRK2.4, and SlSnRK2C was higher than that of other members during fruit development. Additionally, most SlPYL genes were down-regulated, while most SlPP2C and SlSnRK2 genes were up-regulated by dehydration in tomato leaf.

  9. Radiographic detection of single-leg fracture in Björk-Shiley Convexo-Concave prosthetic valves: a phantom model study.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, I C; Cardella, J F; Fox, P S; Pae, W E; el-Ghamry Sabe, A A; Landis, J R; Localio, A R; Kunselman, A R; Hopper, K D

    1997-02-01

    Cineradiography can identify patients with single-leg fractured Björk-Shiley Convexo-Concave valves, although little is known about the sensitivity and specificity of this technique. We evaluated three normal and six (0 microm gap) single-leg fractured Björk-Shiley valves that were placed in a working phantom model. Valves were randomly imaged a total of 33 times and duplicated into a 120-valve series with a 1:9 ratio of abnormal/normal valves. Six reviewers independently graded each valve and demonstrated markedly different rates of identifying the fractured valves. Average sensitivity at the grade that clinically results in valve explanation was 47%. Among the normal valves, a correct identification was made 96% (range 91% to 99%) of the time. Present radiographic technology may have significant difficulty in identifying true single-leg fracture in Björk-Shiley valves with limb separations that are common among clinically explanted valves.

  10. Arabidopsis Duodecuple Mutant of PYL ABA Receptors Reveals PYL Repression of ABA-Independent SnRK2 Activity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Zhengjing; Gao, Jinghui; Wang, Pengcheng; Hu, Tao; Wang, Zegang; Hou, Yueh-Ju; Wan, Yizhen; Liu, Wenshan; Xie, Shaojun; Lu, Tianjiao; Xue, Liang; Liu, Yajie; Macho, Alberto P; Tao, W Andy; Bressan, Ray A; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2018-06-12

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone controlling responses to abiotic stresses and is sensed by proteins from the PYR/PYL/RCAR family. To explore the genetic contribution of PYLs toward ABA-dependent and ABA-independent processes, we generated and characterized high-order Arabidopsis mutants with mutations in the PYL family. We obtained a pyl quattuordecuple mutant and found that it was severely impaired in growth and failed to produce seeds. Thus, we carried out a detailed characterization of a pyl duodecuple mutant, pyr1pyl1/2/3/4/5/7/8/9/10/11/12. The duodecuple mutant was extremely insensitive to ABA effects on seed germination, seedling growth, stomatal closure, leaf senescence, and gene expression. The activation of SnRK2 protein kinases by ABA was blocked in the duodecuple mutant, but, unexpectedly, osmotic stress activation of SnRK2s was enhanced. Our results demonstrate an important role of basal ABA signaling in growth, senescence, and abscission and reveal that PYLs antagonize ABA-independent activation of SnRK2s by osmotic stress. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictors of femtosecond laser intrastromal astigmatic keratotomy efficacy for astigmatism management in cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Day, Alexander C; Stevens, Julian D

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the factors associated with the efficacy of femtosecond laser intrastromal astigmatic keratotomy (AK). Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, United Kingdom. Prospective case series. Eyes having intrastromal AK for corneal cylinder correction were analyzed. Preoperative biometric parameters included axial length, anterior chamber depth, central corneal thickness, and Ocular Response Analyzer corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF). Preoperative and 1-month postoperative corneal keratometry was measured using the Topcon KR8100PA topographer-autorefractor. Astigmatic analyses were performed using the Alpins method. The study analyzed 319 eyes of 213 patients with a mean target induced astigmatism of 1.24 diopters (D) ± 0.44 (SD), mean surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) of 0.71 ± 0.43 D, and mean difference vector of 0.79 ± 0.41 D. Two multiple regression models were constructed for SIA prediction. Model 1, based on previous manual limbal relaxing incision parameters, confirmed age and astigmatism meridian (with/against the rule and oblique) to be associated with SIA in addition to AK arc length, AK start depth, and preoperative corneal cylinder magnitude. Model 2, additionally considering other parameters, found only lower CH (-0.06 DC per unit CH), a higher CRF (0.04 D per unit CRF), and the astigmatism meridian to be independent predictors of greater SIA (after adjusting for intrastromal AK arc length, start depth, and preoperative corneal cylinder). With-the-rule astigmatism was associated with a 0.13 D higher SIA than against-the-rule astigmatism, holding all other variables constant. Corneal biomechanical parameters and astigmatism meridian were independent predictors of femtosecond laser intrastromal AK efficacy even after adjusting for AK arc length, AK start depth, and preoperative corneal cylinder. Dr. Stevens is a previous consultant to Optimedica, Inc. which is now part of Abbott Medical Optics, Inc. Drs. Stevens and Day have

  12. Safety and efficacy of femtosecond laser-assisted arcuate keratotomy to treat irregular astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Fadlallah, Ali; Mehanna, Chadi; Saragoussi, Jean-Jacques; Chelala, Elias; Amari, Belkacem; Legeais, Jean-Marc

    2015-06-01

    To determine the refractive efficacy, predictability, stability, and complication rate of Intralase femtosecond laser-assisted astigmatic keratotomy (AK) for irregular astigmatism after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). Ophthalmology Department, Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France. Retrospective case series. Femtosecond laser-assisted AK was performed to treat high irregular astigmatism (>5.0 diopters [D]) after PKP. The uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuities, manifest refraction, vector analysis, and complications were evaluated. The study evaluated 62 eyes of 57 patients over a mean follow-up of 28 months ± 3.5 (SD). Preoperatively, the mean CDVA was 0.51 ± 0.26 logMAR and the mean UDVA was 0.98 ± 0.24 logMAR; 6 months postoperatively, the mean CDVA and UDVA improved to 0.40 ± 0.22 logMAR and 0.60 ± 0.2 logMAR, respectively (both P < .01). The mean preoperative absolute astigmatism was 7.1 ± 1.72 D; 6 months postoperatively, the mean refractive astigmatism was 2.6 ± 2.4 D (P < .001). The UDVA, CDVA, and astigmatism remained stable up to the end of follow-up. The efficacy index was 0.81 at 6 months and 0.67 at 2 years. There were 2 cases of microperforation, 3 cases of infectious keratitis, 3 graft rejection episodes, and 1 case of endophthalmitis. Overcorrection occurred in 12 eyes. Femtosecond laser-assisted AK was effective in reducing irregular astigmatism after PKP. Predictability of astigmatism correction is variable over time with a decrease in the efficacy index 2 years postoperatively. Refinement of the treatment nomogram for femtosecond laser-assisted AK for high astigmatism after PKP remains a major issue. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydrogel Film-Immobilized Lactobacillus brevis RK03 for γ-Aminobutyric Acid Production

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Liaw, Wen-Chang; Kuo, Jen-Min; Deng, Chi-Shin

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogels of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate/polyethylene glycol diacrylate (HEMA/PEGDA) have been extensively studied for their use in biomedical and pharmaceutical applications owing to their nontoxic and highly hydrophilic characteristics. Recently, cells immobilized by HEMA/PEGDA hydrogels have also been studied for enhanced production in fermentation. Hydrogel films of HEMA/PEGDA copolymer were generated by Ultraviolet (UV)-initiated photopolymerization. The hydrogel films were used to immobilize viable Lactobacillus brevis RK03 cells for the bioconversion of monosodium glutamate (MSG) to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The mechanical properties and fermentation yields of the L. brevis RK03 cells immobilized on polyacrylate hydrogel films with different monomeric formulations were investigated. Fermentation was carried out in 75 mL de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) medium containing various concentrations of MSG. We found that HEMA (93%)/PEGDA (3%) hydrogels (sample H) maximized GABA production. The conversion rate of MSG to GABA reached a maximum value of 98.4% after 240 h. Bioconversion activity gradually declined after 420 h to 83.8% after five cycles of semi-continuous fermentation. Our results suggest that HEMA (93%)/PEGDA (3%) hydrogels have great potential for use in GABA production via semi-continuous fermentation. PMID:29099794

  14. Surface Wave Elastometry of the Cornea in Porcine and Human Donor Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Dupps, William J.; Netto, Marcelo V.; Herekar, Satish; Krueger, Ronald R.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE To introduce a nondestructive technique for characterization of corneal stiffness, determine measurement precision, and investigate comparative stiffness values along central, radial, and circumferential vectors in porcine corneas. The effects of epithelial debridement, relaxing incisions, and crosslink-mediated stiffening on surface wave velocity are also studied. METHODS A handheld prototype system was used to measure ultrasound surface wave propagation time between two fixed-distance transducers along a ten-position map. Repeatability was assessed with replicate measurements in 6 porcine corneas. In 12 porcine globes with controlled intraocular pressure (IOP), serial measurements were performed before and after epithelial removal, then after 250- and 750-μm-deep relaxing incisions. In human globes with constant intravitreal pressure, central wave velocity and transcorneal IOP measurements were compared before and after collagen cross-linking. RESULTS Measurement repeatability across all regions was between 2.2% and 8.1%. Epithelial removal resulted in increases in measured stiffness in 67% of eyes, but statistical power was insufficient to detect a systematic change. Wave velocity across a central incision decreased significantly after 250-μm keratotomy (P<.001), but did not undergo a significant further decrease with deeper keratotomy. Meridional stiffness changes consistent with coupling effects were detected after keratotomy. Surface wave velocity and transcorneal IOP measurements increased markedly after collagen cross-linking despite maintenance of a constant IOP. CONCLUSIONS Handheld corneal elastometry provides a repeatable measure of regional stiffness changes after relaxing incisions and collagen cross-linking in in vitro experiments. Surface wave elastometry allows focal assessment of corneal biomechanical properties that are relevant in refractive surgery, ectatic disease, and glaucoma. PMID:17269246

  15. Newly developed PPAR-alpha agonist (R)-K-13675 inhibits the secretion of inflammatory markers without affecting cell proliferation or tube formation.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Ken; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Mastuo, Yoshino; Uehara, Yoshinari; Saku, Keijiro

    2009-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) is a key regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism and has been implicated in inflammation. The vascular effects of activator for PPARs, particularly PPAR-alpha, on vascular cells remain to be fully elucidated. Therefore, we analyzed the hypothesis that newly developed (R)-K-13675 decreases the secretion of inflammatory markers without affecting cell proliferation or tube formation. Human coronary endothelial cells (HCECs) were maintained in different doses of (R)-K-13675 under serum starvation. After 20h, the levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted (RANTES), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) secreted in the medium and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) in cell lysate were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Upon treatment with (R)-K-13675 at 0, 10, 20, 50 and 100nM, with the inflammatory markers at 0nM as 100 (arbitrary units), MCP-1 levels were significantly suppressed (94+/-9, 88+/-2, 80+/-5 and 74+/-11, respectively). RANTES, IL-6 and INF-gamma levels were also significantly suppressed (RANTES: 92+/-2, 74+/-9, 64+/-7 and 60+/-2, respectively, IL-6: 97+/-2, 89+/-10, 82+/-1 and 66+/-7, respectively, INF-gamma: 98+/-7, 94+/-3, 76+/-8 and 64+/-8, respectively). NFkappaB levels were also decreased to 91+/-5, 90+/-5, 84+/-7 and 82+/-8, respectively. In addition, (R)-K-13675 did not affect HCEC proliferation or tube formation at up to 100nM. Thus, (R)-K-13675 was associated with the inhibition of inflammatory responses without affecting cell proliferation or angiogenesis, and subsequently may induce an anti-atherosclerotic effect.

  16. Enhancement of radiosensitizing effect of the nitroimidazole derivative RK28 on the proliferation of MethA tumor cells in combined use with diethyldithiocarbamate

    SciTech Connect

    Mashiba, Harukazu; Matsunaga, Keiko; Hata, Kazuo

    1991-01-01

    The radiosensitizing effect of the nitroimidazole derivative RK28 and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), which is an inhibitor of superoxide dismutase activity, was examined in vitro by using Meth A tumor cells. The radiosensitizing effect of 0.5 mM RK28 was observed in both of 10 Gy and 15 Gy irradiated groups. The addition of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} M DDC also enhanced the radiation-induced proliferation inhibition. Marked enhancement of the anti-proliferative effect was observed in combined use of 0.2 mM or 0.5 mM RK28 with 2 {times} 10 M or 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} M DDC. These results suggest that enhanced oxygen effectmore » could be expected through combined use of the ionizing irradiation with both of these agents.« less

  17. The SnRK2-APC/CTE regulatory module mediates the antagonistic action of gibberellic acid and abscisic acid pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qibing; Wu, Fuqing; Sheng, Peike; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Xiuping; Wang, Jiulin; Cheng, Zhijun; Wang, Jie; Wang, Haiyang; Wan, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) antagonistically regulate many developmental processes and responses to biotic or abiotic stresses in higher plants. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this antagonism is still poorly understood. Here, we show that loss-of-function mutation in rice Tiller Enhancer (TE), an activator of the APC/CTE complex, causes hypersensitivity and hyposensitivity to ABA and GA, respectively. We find that TE physically interacts with ABA receptor OsPYL/RCARs and promotes their degradation by the proteasome. Genetic analysis also shows OsPYL/RCARs act downstream of TE in mediating ABA responses. Conversely, ABA inhibits APC/CTE activity by phosphorylating TE through activating the SNF1-related protein kinases (SnRK2s), which may interrupt the interaction between TE and OsPYL/RCARs and subsequently stabilize OsPYL/RCARs. In contrast, GA can reduce the level of SnRK2s and may promote APC/CTE-mediated degradation of OsPYL/RCARs. Thus, we propose that the SnRK2-APC/CTE regulatory module represents a regulatory hub underlying the antagonistic action of GA and ABA in plants. PMID:26272249

  18. An Initial Investigation of the Effects of Turbulence Models on the Convergence of the RK/Implicit Scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, R. C.; Rossow, C.-C.

    2008-01-01

    A three-stage Runge-Kutta (RK) scheme with multigrid and an implicit preconditioner has been shown to be an effective solver for the fluid dynamic equations. This scheme has been applied to both the compressible and essentially incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations using the algebraic turbulence model of Baldwin and Lomax (BL). In this paper we focus on the convergence of the RK/implicit scheme when the effects of turbulence are represented by either the Spalart-Allmaras model or the Wilcox k-! model, which are frequently used models in practical fluid dynamic applications. Convergence behavior of the scheme with these turbulence models and the BL model are directly compared. For this initial investigation we solve the flow equations and the partial differential equations of the turbulence models indirectly coupled. With this approach we examine the convergence behavior of each system. Both point and line symmetric Gauss-Seidel are considered for approximating the inverse of the implicit operator of the flow solver. To solve the turbulence equations we use a diagonally dominant alternating direction implicit (DDADI) scheme. Computational results are presented for three airfoil flow cases and comparisons are made with experimental data. We demonstrate that the two-dimensional RANS equations and transport-type equations for turbulence modeling can be efficiently solved with an indirectly coupled algorithm that uses the RK/implicit scheme for the flow equations.

  19. Radial arm strike rail

    DOEpatents

    McKeown, Mark H.; Beason, Steven C.

    1991-01-01

    The radial arm strike rail assembly is a system for measurement of bearings, directions, and stereophotography for geologic mapping, particularly where magnetic compasses are not appropriate. The radial arm, pivoting around a shaft axis, provides a reference direction determination for geologic mapping and bearing or direction determination. The centerable and levelable pedestal provide a base for the radial arm strike rail and the telescoping camera pedestal. The telescoping feature of the radial arm strike rail allows positioning the end of the rail for strike direction or bearing measurement with a goniometer.

  20. Triple acting radial seal

    DOEpatents

    Ebert, Todd A [West Palm Beach, FL; Carella, John A [Jupiter, FL

    2012-03-13

    A triple acting radial seal used as an interstage seal assembly in a gas turbine engine, where the seal assembly includes an interstage seal support extending from a stationary inner shroud of a vane ring, the interstage seal support includes a larger annular radial inward facing groove in which an outer annular floating seal assembly is secured for radial displacement, and the outer annular floating seal assembly includes a smaller annular radial inward facing groove in which an inner annular floating seal assembly is secured also for radial displacement. A compliant seal is secured to the inner annular floating seal assembly. The outer annular floating seal assembly encapsulates the inner annular floating seal assembly which is made from a very low alpha material in order to reduce thermal stress.

  1. Arcuate keratotomy on post-keratoplasty astigmatism is unpredictable and frequently needs repeat procedures to increase its success rate.

    PubMed

    Bayramlar, Huseyin; Karadag, Remzi; Cakici, Ozgur; Ozsoy, Isilay

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and predictability of arcuate keratotomy (AK) for post-keratoplasty astigmatism and to present the complications and rate of repeat procedures. Sixteen eyes from 14 patients were included. Paired 70-80° arc length AKs centred on the steep axis were carried out 0.5 mm within the graft-host junction. The depth of the AKs was set at approximately 80-90% of the depth of the cornea, based on a topographic pachymeter at the incision location. The outcome measures included preoperative and postoperative topographic astigmatism, uncorrected and corrected visual acuity, surgical complications and repeat procedures. In 12 of the 16 eyes (75%), at least one additional surgical procedure was required to obtain the desired result: suturing for overcorrection or wound gape in six eyes (38%), lengthening of the incisions for undercorrection in four eyes (25%) and additional AKs for marked astigmatic axis displacement in three eyes (19%). The mean preoperative astigmatism was 10.45±3.82 dioptres (D); the postoperative astigmatism at the last visit was 2.99±1.14 D (in a mean follow-up of 17.6±5.55 months). The efficacy index was 0.83 and the safety index was 1.68. In treatment of post-keratoplasty astigmatism, AK does not have a good predictability. Additional procedures such as lengthening of the AK incisions for undercorrection or using compression sutures for overcorrection with significantly gaping wounds are frequently required to improve the final outcome. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Kinetic study of Escherichia coli BPPTCC-EgRK2 to produce recombinant cellulase for ethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limoes, S.; Rahman, S. F.; Setyahadi, S.; Gozan, M.

    2018-03-01

    Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) is an abundant biomass resource in Indonesia, which contains 46,77% (w/w) of cellulose. The high cellulose content of OPEFB can be used as a substrate for bacteria cultivation to produce cellulase. By using OPEFB as an alternative substrate, the production cost of cellulase in industrial scale can be suppressed. However, currently there are no available research that simulate a cellulase production plant design. Prior to simulating the cellulase plant design, kinetic studies of bacteria used in cultivation are needed to create an accurate simulation. In this research, kinetic studies of E. coli BPPTCC-EgRK2 growth were examined with the Monod approach to get the Monod constant (Ks) and maximum specific growth rate (μmax). This study found that E. coli BPPTCC-EgRK2 have μmax and Ks of 1.581 and 0.0709 respectively. BPPTCC-EgRK2 produced intracellular cellulase, thus gave linear correlation between cell concentration and cellulase production.

  3. Functional analysis of duplicated Symbiosis Receptor Kinase (SymRK) genes during nodulation and mycorrhizal infection in soybean (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Indrasumunar, Arief; Wilde, Julia; Hayashi, Satomi; Li, Dongxue; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2015-03-15

    Association between legumes and rhizobia results in the formation of root nodules, where symbiotic nitrogen fixation occurs. The early stages of this association involve a complex of signalling events between the host and microsymbiont. Several genes dealing with early signal transduction have been cloned, and one of them encodes the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor kinase (SymRK; also termed NORK). The Symbiosis Receptor Kinase gene is required by legumes to establish a root endosymbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria as well as mycorrhizal fungi. Using degenerate primer and BAC sequencing, we cloned duplicated SymRK homeologues in soybean called GmSymRKα and GmSymRKβ. These duplicated genes have high similarity of nucleotide (96%) and amino acid sequence (95%). Sequence analysis predicted a malectin-like domain within the extracellular domain of both genes. Several putative cis-acting elements were found in promoter regions of GmSymRKα and GmSymRKβ, suggesting a participation in lateral root development, cell division and peribacteroid membrane formation. The mutant of SymRK genes is not available in soybean; therefore, to know the functions of these genes, RNA interference (RNAi) of these duplicated genes was performed. For this purpose, RNAi construct of each gene was generated and introduced into the soybean genome by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy root transformation. RNAi of GmSymRKβ gene resulted in an increased reduction of nodulation and mycorrhizal infection than RNAi of GmSymRKα, suggesting it has the major activity of the duplicated gene pair. The results from the important crop legume soybean confirm the joint phenotypic action of GmSymRK genes in both mycorrhizal and rhizobial infection seen in model legumes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Intraoperative echocardiography of a dislodged Björk-Shiley mitral valve disc.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Abe, T; Takeuchi, E; Watanabe, T; Tamaki, S

    1991-02-01

    The successful management of a patient who suffered an outlet strut fracture of a Björk-Shiley 60-degree convexo-concave mitral valve prosthesis is reported. Emergency operation was life-saving. Preoperative echocardiography assisted in making a prompt diagnosis, and intraoperative echocardiography allowed the detection and removal of the dislodged disc from the left ventricle at the time of the operation. The role of intraoperative echocardiography in the diagnosis of prosthetic strut fracture is emphasized.

  5. Characterization of a Potential Probiotic Lactobacillus brevis RK03 and Efficient Production of γ-Aminobutyric Acid in Batch Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chien-Hui; Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Kuo, Jen-Min; Liu, Si-Jia

    2018-01-04

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fish and evaluated for their γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing abilities. Out of thirty-two isolates, Lactobacillus brevis RK03 showed the highest GABA production ability. The effects of various fermentation parameters including initial glutamic acid level, culture temperature, initial pH, and incubation time on GABA production were investigated via a singleparameter optimization strategy. For industrial large-scale production, a low-cost GABA producing medium (GM) broth was developed for fermentation with L. brevis RK03. We found that an optimized GM broth recipe of 1% glucose; 2.5% yeast extract; 2 ppm each of CaCO₃, MnSO₄, and Tween 80; and 10 μM pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) resulted in a maximum GABA yield of 62,523 mg/L after 88 h following the addition of 650 mM monosodium glutamate (MSG), for a conversion rate of 93.28%. Our data provide a practical approach for the highly efficient and economic production of GABA. In addition, L. brevis RK03 is highly resistant to gastric acid and bovine bile salt. Thus, the discovery of Lactobacillus strains with the ability to synthesize GABA may offer new opportunities in the design of improved health-promoting functional foods.

  6. Characterization of a Potential Probiotic Lactobacillus brevis RK03 and Efficient Production of γ-Aminobutyric Acid in Batch Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Kuo, Jen-Min; Liu, Si-Jia

    2018-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fish and evaluated for their γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing abilities. Out of thirty-two isolates, Lactobacillus brevis RK03 showed the highest GABA production ability. The effects of various fermentation parameters including initial glutamic acid level, culture temperature, initial pH, and incubation time on GABA production were investigated via a singleparameter optimization strategy. For industrial large-scale production, a low-cost GABA producing medium (GM) broth was developed for fermentation with L. brevis RK03. We found that an optimized GM broth recipe of 1% glucose; 2.5% yeast extract; 2 ppm each of CaCO3, MnSO4, and Tween 80; and 10 μM pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) resulted in a maximum GABA yield of 62,523 mg/L after 88 h following the addition of 650 mM monosodium glutamate (MSG), for a conversion rate of 93.28%. Our data provide a practical approach for the highly efficient and economic production of GABA. In addition, L. brevis RK03 is highly resistant to gastric acid and bovine bile salt. Thus, the discovery of Lactobacillus strains with the ability to synthesize GABA may offer new opportunities in the design of improved health-promoting functional foods. PMID:29300336

  7. Anatomic fit of six different radial head plates: comparison of precontoured low-profile radial head plates.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, Klaus Josef; Nowak, Tobias E; Kim, Yoon-Joo; Rommens, Pol M; Müller, Lars P

    2011-04-01

    Bulky implants may lead to symptomatic soft tissue irritation after open reduction and internal fixation of radial head and neck fractures. The purpose of our study was to compare the anatomic fit of precontoured radial head plates. We stripped 22 embalmed human cadaveric radiuses of soft tissues. We investigated 6 radial head plates: (1) the Medartis radial head buttress plate (MBP), (2) the Medartis radial head rim plate (MRP), (3) the Synthes radial neck plate (SNP), (4) the Synthes radial head plate (SHP), (5) the Acumed radial head plate (AHP), and (6) the Wright radial head plate (WHP). Each plate was applied to each radial head at the place of best fit within the safe zone. We tested 4 parameters of anatomic fit: (1) plate-to-bone distance, (2) plate contact judged by 3 different observers, (3) pin-subchondral zone distance, and (4) plate-to-bone contact after adjustment of the plates. The MBP and MRP showed the lowest profile by objective measurements, the SNP and AHP had a moderate profile, and the SHP and WHP demonstrated the bulkiest profile. The subjective assessments also demonstrated the best fit for the MBP, a good fit for the SNP, a moderate fit for the MRP and AHP, and a poor fit for the SHP and WHP. The MBP, MRP, and AHP could always provide pin-subchondral zone contact, unlike the SHP, SNP, and WHP. After bending, significant improvement of plate-to-bone distance could only be seen for the MBP, MRP, and WHP. The ranking among plates remained the same except for the WHP, which showed a significantly lower plate-to-bone distance than the SHP. Currently available radial head implants are heterogeneous. The MBP and MRP showed the lowest profile and best anatomic fit. Owing to the complex radial head anatomy, to date there is no one radial head plate that perfectly fits all radial heads. Conformance of existing plates to the radial head and neck is not perfect. Careful plate selection and modification, when necessary, may minimize interference of this

  8. Antimicrobial profile of Arthrobacter kerguelensis VL-RK_09 isolated from Mango orchards.

    PubMed

    Munaganti, Rajesh Kumar; Muvva, Vijayalakshmi; Konda, Saidulu; Naragani, Krishna; Mangamuri, Usha Kiranmayi; Dorigondla, Kumar Reddy; Akkewar, Dattatray M

    An actinobacterial strain VL-RK_09 having potential antimicrobial activities was isolated from a mango orchard in Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh (India) and was identified as Arthrobacter kerguelensis. The strain A. kerguelensis VL-RK_09 exhibited a broad spectrum of in vitro antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. Production of bioactive metabolites by the strain was the highest in modified yeast extract malt extract dextrose broth, as compared to other media tested. Lactose (1%) and peptone (0.5%) were found to be the most suitable carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, for the optimum production of the bioactive metabolites. The maximum production of the bioactive metabolites was detected in the culture medium with an initial pH of 7, in which the strain was incubated for five days at 30°C under shaking conditions. Screening of secondary metabolites obtained from the culture broth led to the isolation of a compound active against a wide variety of Gram-positive and negative bacteria and fungi. The structure of the first active fraction was elucidated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, 1 H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The compound was identified as S,S-dipropyl carbonodithioate. This study is the first report of the occurrence of this compound in the genus Arthrobacter. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison between toric and spherical phakic intraocular lenses combined with astigmatic keratotomy for high myopic astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lin-Yan; Zhu, Shuang-Qian; Su, Yan-Feng; Zou, Hu-Yong; Wang, Qin-Mei; Yu, A-Yong

    2017-01-01

    To compare the outcomes of a toric phakic intraocular lens (PIOL) and a spherical PIOL combined with astigmatic keratotomy (AK) for the correction of high myopic astigmatism. This study enrolled patients with high myopic astigmatism, including 30 eyes (22 patients) that received a toric PIOL implantation (TICL group), and 32 eyes (24 patients) that received combined AK and a spherical PIOL implantation (AK+ ICL group). The outcomes were compared between the two groups before surgery, and at the following time points after surgery: 1 week, 1, 3, 6 months, and 1, 2 years. Preoperatively, the mean manifest spherical equivalent (SE) was -14.14 ± 2.12 D in the TICL group and -14.83 ± 2.79 D in the AK + ICL group ( P  = 0.28), and the mean manifest refractive cylinder, -2.87 ± 1.09 D and -2.58 ± 0.85 D, respectively ( P  = 0.28). Two years postoperatively, the mean safety index was 1.53 ± 0.55 in the TICL group and 1.60 ± 0.70 in the AK + ICL group ( P  = 1.00), and the mean efficacy index, 1.18 ± 0.45 and 1.38 ± 0.52, respectively ( P  = 0.86). The mean manifest refractive cylinder correction was 1.94 ± 1.07 D in the TICL group and 1.39 ± 0.71 D in the AK + ICL group ( P  = 0.02). The mean changes in SE and refractive cylinder from 1 week to 2 years were less than 0.50 D in both groups. Both TICL implantation and AK + ICL implantation are a good alternative for correction of astigmatism in addition to high myopia. TICL implantation has better predictability in correction of high myopic astigmatism. NCT03202485.

  10. Two-component system VicRK regulates functions associated with establishment of Streptococcus sanguinis in biofilms.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Julianna J; Stipp, Rafael N; Harth-Chu, Erika N; Camargo, Tarsila M; Höfling, José F; Mattos-Graner, Renata O

    2014-12-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is a commensal pioneer colonizer of teeth and an opportunistic pathogen of infectious endocarditis. The establishment of S. sanguinis in host sites likely requires dynamic fitting of the cell wall in response to local stimuli. In this study, we investigated the two-component system (TCS) VicRK in S. sanguinis (VicRKSs), which regulates genes of cell wall biogenesis, biofilm formation, and virulence in opportunistic pathogens. A vicK knockout mutant obtained from strain SK36 (SKvic) showed slight reductions in aerobic growth and resistance to oxidative stress but an impaired ability to form biofilms, a phenotype restored in the complemented mutant. The biofilm-defective phenotype was associated with reduced amounts of extracellular DNA during aerobic growth, with reduced production of H2O2, a metabolic product associated with DNA release, and with inhibitory capacity of S. sanguinis competitor species. No changes in autolysis or cell surface hydrophobicity were detected in SKvic. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA), and promoter sequence analyses revealed that VicR directly regulates genes encoding murein hydrolases (SSA_0094, cwdP, and gbpB) and spxB, which encodes pyruvate oxidase for H2O2 production. Genes previously associated with spxB expression (spxR, ccpA, ackA, and tpK) were not transcriptionally affected in SKvic. RT-qPCR analyses of S. sanguinis biofilm cells further showed upregulation of VicRK targets (spxB, gbpB, and SSA_0094) and other genes for biofilm formation (gtfP and comE) compared to expression in planktonic cells. This study provides evidence that VicRKSs regulates functions crucial for S. sanguinis establishment in biofilms and identifies novel VicRK targets potentially involved in hydrolytic activities of the cell wall required for these functions. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Two-Component System VicRK Regulates Functions Associated with Establishment of Streptococcus sanguinis in Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Julianna J.; Stipp, Rafael N.; Harth-Chu, Erika N.; Camargo, Tarsila M.; Höfling, José F.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is a commensal pioneer colonizer of teeth and an opportunistic pathogen of infectious endocarditis. The establishment of S. sanguinis in host sites likely requires dynamic fitting of the cell wall in response to local stimuli. In this study, we investigated the two-component system (TCS) VicRK in S. sanguinis (VicRKSs), which regulates genes of cell wall biogenesis, biofilm formation, and virulence in opportunistic pathogens. A vicK knockout mutant obtained from strain SK36 (SKvic) showed slight reductions in aerobic growth and resistance to oxidative stress but an impaired ability to form biofilms, a phenotype restored in the complemented mutant. The biofilm-defective phenotype was associated with reduced amounts of extracellular DNA during aerobic growth, with reduced production of H2O2, a metabolic product associated with DNA release, and with inhibitory capacity of S. sanguinis competitor species. No changes in autolysis or cell surface hydrophobicity were detected in SKvic. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA), and promoter sequence analyses revealed that VicR directly regulates genes encoding murein hydrolases (SSA_0094, cwdP, and gbpB) and spxB, which encodes pyruvate oxidase for H2O2 production. Genes previously associated with spxB expression (spxR, ccpA, ackA, and tpK) were not transcriptionally affected in SKvic. RT-qPCR analyses of S. sanguinis biofilm cells further showed upregulation of VicRK targets (spxB, gbpB, and SSA_0094) and other genes for biofilm formation (gtfP and comE) compared to expression in planktonic cells. This study provides evidence that VicRKSs regulates functions crucial for S. sanguinis establishment in biofilms and identifies novel VicRK targets potentially involved in hydrolytic activities of the cell wall required for these functions. PMID:25183732

  12. Pan Sharpening Quality Investigation of Turkish In-Operation Remote Sensing Satellites: Applications with Rasat and GÖKTÜRK-2 Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozendi, Mustafa; Topan, Hüseyin; Cam, Ali; Bayık, Çağlar

    2016-10-01

    Recently two optical remote sensing satellites, RASAT and GÖKTÜRK-2, launched successfully by the Republic of Turkey. RASAT has 7.5 m panchromatic, and 15 m visible bands whereas GÖKTÜRK-2 has 2.5 m panchromatic and 5 m VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared) bands. These bands with various resolutions can be fused by pan-sharpening methods which is an important application area of optical remote sensing imagery. So that, the high geometric resolution of panchromatic band and the high spectral resolution of VNIR bands can be merged. In the literature there are many pan-sharpening methods. However, there is not a standard framework for quality investigation of pan-sharpened imagery. The aim of this study is to investigate pan-sharpening performance of RASAT and GÖKTÜRK-2 images. For this purpose, pan-sharpened images are generated using most popular pan-sharpening methods IHS, Brovey and PCA at first. This procedure is followed by quantitative evaluation of pan-sharpened images using Correlation Coefficient (CC), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Relative Average Spectral Error (RASE), Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Erreur Relative Globale Adimensionnelle de Synthése (ERGAS) metrics. For generation of pan-sharpened images and computation of metrics SharpQ tool is used which is developed with MATLAB computing language. According to metrics, PCA derived pan-sharpened image is the most similar one to multispectral image for RASAT, and Brovey derived pan-sharpened image is the most similar one to multispectral image for GÖKTÜRK-2. Finally, pan-sharpened images are evaluated qualitatively in terms of object availability and completeness for various land covers (such as urban, forest and flat areas) by a group of operators who are experienced in remote sensing imagery.

  13. [Late outlet strut fracture of an aortic Björk-Shiley and embolization of the prosthetic disc].

    PubMed

    Brochet, E; Bougis de Brux, M A; Assayag, P; Benacin, Y; Gamerman, G; Guerot, C; Valère, P E

    1988-09-01

    A new case of late fracture of an outlet strut in a convexo-concave Björk-Shiley valve is reported. The fracture occurred 6 years after aortic implantation of the valve and was responsible for aorto-iliac embolization by the prosthetic disc and death of the patient from cardiogenic shock. This not uncommon complication of the Björk-Shiley valve prosthesis is usually ascribed to the relative fragility of its outlet strut welded to the metallic ring and subjected to strong pressures. Although most cases were observed within the first two years of prosthetic valve insertion, and mainly with valves manufactured in 1981 and 1982, our case and a few others demonstrate the possibility of late rupture. Cardiologists must be aware of this possible complication, since in some favourable cases it can be diagnosed at an early stage and the patient's life can be saved by an emergency operation.

  14. Measuring the levels of noise at the İstanbul Atatürk Airport and comparisons with model simulations.

    PubMed

    Sari, Deniz; Ozkurt, Nesimi; Akdag, Ali; Kutukoglu, Murat; Gurarslan, Aliye

    2014-06-01

    Airport noise and its impact on the surrounding areas are major issues in the aviation industry. The İstanbul Atatürk Airport is a major global airport with passenger numbers increasing rapidly per annum. The noise levels for day, evening and night times were modeled around the İstanbul Atatürk Airport according to the European Noise Directive using the actual data records for the year 2011. The "ECAC Doc. 29-Interim" method was used for the computation of the aircraft traffic noise. In the setting the noise model for the local airport topography was taken into consideration together with the noise source data, the airport loadings, features of aircraft and actual air traffic data. Model results were compared with long-term noise measurement values for calibration. According to calibration results, classifications of the aircraft type and flight tracks were revised. For noise model validation, the daily noise measurements at four additional locations were used during the verification period. The input data was re-edited only for these periods and the model was validated. A successful model performance was obtained in several zones around the airport. The validated noise model of the İstanbul Atatürk Airport can be now utilized both for determining the noise levels in the future and for producing new strategies which are about the land use planning, operational considerations for the air traffic management and the noise abatement procedures. Crown Copyright © 2013. All rights reserved.

  15. Source/sink interactions underpin crop yield: the case for trehalose 6-phosphate/SnRK1 in improvement of wheat

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, David W.; Paul, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable interest has been evoked by the analysis of the regulatory pathway in carbohydrate metabolism and cell growth involving the non-reducing disaccharide trehalose (TRE). TRE is at small concentrations in mesophytes such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Triticum aestivum, excluding a role in osmoregulation once suggested for it. Studies of TRE metabolism, and genetic modification of it, have shown a very wide and more important role of the pathway in regulation of many processes in development, growth, and photosynthesis. It has now been established that rather than TRE, it is trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P) which has such profound effects. T6P is the intermediary in TRE synthesis formed from glucose-6-phosphate and UDP-glucose, derived from sucrose, by the action of trehalose phosphate synthase. The concentration of T6P is determined both by the rate of synthesis, which depends on the sucrose concentration, and also by the rate of breakdown by trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase which produces TRE. Changing T6P concentrations by genetically modifying the enzymes of synthesis and breakdown has altered photosynthesis, sugar metabolism, growth, and development which affect responses to, and recovery from, environmental factors. Many of the effects of T6P on metabolism and growth occur via the interaction of T6P with the SnRK1 protein kinase system. T6P inhibits the activity of SnRK1, which de-represses genes encoding proteins involved in anabolism. Consequently, a large concentration of sucrose increases T6P and thereby inhibits SnRK1, so stimulating growth of cells and their metabolic activity. The T6P/SnRK1 mechanism offers an important new view of how the distribution of assimilates to organs, such as developing grains in cereal plants, is achieved. This review briefly summarizes the factors determining, and limiting, yield of wheat (particularly mass/grain which is highly conserved) and considers how T6P/SnRK1 might function to determine grain yield and might be

  16. Experimental feasibility study of radial injection cooling of three-pad radial air foil bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Suman K.

    Air foil bearings use ambient air as a lubricant allowing environment-friendly operation. When they are designed, installed, and operated properly, air foil bearings are very cost effective and reliable solution to oil-free turbomachinery. Because air is used as a lubricant, there are no mechanical contacts between the rotor and bearings and when the rotor is lifted off the bearing, near frictionless quiet operation is possible. However, due to the high speed operation, thermal management is one of the very important design factors to consider. Most widely accepted practice of the cooling method is axial cooling, which uses cooling air passing through heat exchange channels formed underneath the bearing pad. Advantage is no hardware modification to implement the axial cooling because elastic foundation structure of foil bearing serves as a heat exchange channels. Disadvantage is axial temperature gradient on the journal shaft and bearing. This work presents the experimental feasibility study of alternative cooling method using radial injection of cooling air directly on the rotor shaft. The injection speeds, number of nozzles, location of nozzles, total air flow rate are important factors determining the effectiveness of the radial injection cooling method. Effectiveness of the radial injection cooling was compared with traditional axial cooling method. A previously constructed test rig was modified to accommodate a new motor with higher torque and radial injection cooling. The radial injection cooling utilizes the direct air injection to the inlet region of air film from three locations at 120° from one another with each location having three axially separated holes. In axial cooling, a certain axial pressure gradient is applied across the bearing to induce axial cooling air through bump foil channels. For the comparison of the two methods, the same amount of cooling air flow rate was used for both axial cooling and radial injection. Cooling air flow rate was

  17. Elective removal of convexo-concave Björk-Shiley valves.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, P B; Smith, G H; Lawford, P V; Black, M M

    1994-08-01

    Replacement has been an accepted method for treating advanced cardiac valvular disease for more than 25 years. However, the perfect prosthesis has yet to be developed, judging by the number of devices available. A prosthesis that initially appears promising may cause problems in due course, and indeed some devices have been modified or withdrawn from clinical use. A notable example of a prosthetic valve that has give problems is the Björk-Shiley convexo-concave prosthesis, some models of which have undergone mechanical failure due to strut fracture. We report the elective removal of such a valve and the subsequent examination of the prosthesis. The results of this examination suggest that a policy of elective removal is justified.

  18. Strut fracture and disc embolization of a Björk-Shiley mitral valve prosthesis: localization of embolized disc by computerized axial tomography.

    PubMed

    Larrieu, A J; Puglia, E; Allen, P

    1982-08-01

    The case of a patient who survived strut fracture and embolization of a Björk-Shiley mitral prosthetic disc is presented. Prompt surgical treatment was directly responsible for survival. In addition, computerized axial tomography of the abdomen aided in localizing and retrieving the embolized disc, which was lodged at the origin of the superior mesenteric artery. A review of similar case reports from the literature supports our conclusions that the development of acute heart failure and absent or muffled prosthetic heart sounds in a patient with a Björk-Shiley prosthetic heart valve inserted prior to 1978 should raise the possibility of valve dysfunction and lead to early reoperation.

  19. The Björk-Shiley 70 degree convexo-concave prosthesis strut fracture problem (present state of information).

    PubMed

    Ostermeyer, J; Horstkotte, D; Bennett, J; Huysmans, H; Lindblom, D; Olin, C; Orinius, E; Semb, G

    1987-04-01

    Between June 1980 and June 1983 4028 Björk-Shiley 70 degree convexo-concave prosthetic heart valves were distributed and implanted in Australia, Canada, Europe and South Africa. As of March 1986, a total of 52 outlet strut fractures (1.29%; 70% CL: 1.1%-1.5%) have been reported from 29 implant institutions in 12 countries. The majority (82.7%) occurred in Europe. Intervals between implantation and fracture were 13 days to 45.3 months (mean: 18.4 months; 70% CL: 16.6 months-20.1 months). The mortality rate after strut fracture was 78.7% (70% CL: 72.5%-84.9%). Upon stratification of the fracture by valve sizes and types it becomes evident that 75% (70% CL: 68.8%-81.2%) of all fractures are related to the sizes 29 mm to 33 mm (which virtually represent the same valve size) and predominantly to mitral valves (p less than 0.01). The large valves again have been stratified into two subsets, namely those fabricated from flanges originally machined as Björk-Shiley 60 degree convexo-concave valves (group I) and later produced valves machined initially to 70 degree specifications (group II). In group I the fracture rate was 5.2% (70% CL: 4.2%-6.2%) versus 1.6% (70% CL: 1.1%-2.1%) in group II (p less than 0.01), which identifies the group I 29 mm-33 mm Björk-Shiley 70 degree convexo-concave valves as the highest risk group for strut fracture. The rates are based upon all available information as of March 16, 1986.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Air Pollution Caused By Aircrafts in LTO-number-Record Breaking Year 2016 at Istanbul Atatürk Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Orhan; Durmus, Onur

    2017-04-01

    2016 was a record breaking year in terms of LTO numbers at Istanbul Atatürk Airport. The days with maximum LTO (Landing- Take-off) numbers coincides with the beginning or end of national festival days. In this study, air pollutant (HC, NOx, CO, SO2) quantities that are released as a result of LTO activities taking place at Atatürk Airport in 10-months-period of the year 2016 when LTO numbers reached peak point and emission quantities resulting from aircrafts on the days when maximum LTO numbers happened on a daily basis have been calculated with Tier 2 method. In Tier 2 method emission less than 935m (3000ft) of atmosphere during LTO activities related to airplane type without making domestic or international distinction and free from landing/ take-off point play an important role. This approach is used in calculating emissions that are being released to the atmosphere during LTO activities which have a maximum effect on air pollution by taking into account the fuel consumption of each airplane type and with the help of determined emission coefficients. As a result of the calculations between 01.01.2016 and 25.10.2016 at Istanbul Atatürk Airport, 186.986 LTO cycle took place by passenger and cargo aircrafts. And 209.984 tones fuel were consumed. As a result of this fuel consumption 187,2 tones hydrocarbon (HC), 3263,9 tones nitrogen oxide (NOx), 1626,5 tones carbon monoxide (CO) and 210 tones sulphur dioxide (SO2) emission were released as air pollutants. Keyword: LTO, Air pollution, Aircraft

  1. BAC-recombineering for studying plant gene regulation: developmental control and cellular localization of SnRK1 kinase subunits.

    PubMed

    Bitrián, Marta; Roodbarkelari, Farshad; Horváth, Mihály; Koncz, Csaba

    2011-03-01

    Recombineering, permitting precise modification of genes within bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) through homologous recombination mediated by lambda phage-encoded Red proteins, is a widely used powerful tool in mouse, Caenorhabditis and Drosophila genetics. As Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of large DNA inserts from binary BACs and TACs into plants occurs at low frequency, recombineering is so far seldom exploited in the analysis of plant gene functions. We have constructed binary plant transformation vectors, which are suitable for gap-repair cloning of genes from BACs using recombineering methods previously developed for other organisms. Here we show that recombineering facilitates PCR-based generation of precise translational fusions between coding sequences of fluorescent reporter and plant proteins using galK-based exchange recombination. The modified target genes alone or as part of a larger gene cluster can be transferred by high-frequency gap-repair into plant transformation vectors, stably maintained in Agrobacterium and transformed without alteration into plants. Versatile application of plant BAC-recombineering is illustrated by the analysis of developmental regulation and cellular localization of interacting AKIN10 catalytic and SNF4 activating subunits of Arabidopsis Snf1-related (SnRK1) protein kinase using in vivo imaging. To validate full functionality and in vivo interaction of tagged SnRK1 subunits, it is demonstrated that immunoprecipitated SNF4-YFP is bound to a kinase that phosphorylates SnRK1 candidate substrates, and that the GFP- and YFP-tagged kinase subunits co-immunoprecipitate with endogenous wild type AKIN10 and SNF4. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Pre-Service Social Studies Teachers' Viewpoints about Atatürk as Founding and Transformational Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dönmez, Cengiz; Uslu, Salih; Hamarat, Ercenk

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to identify the opinions of pre-service social studies teachers about Atatürk as a founding and transformational leader. The sample of the study comprises 180 pre-service teachers in the social studies teaching department of an education faculty in a public university. The data have been collected through an…

  3. Radial retinotomy in the macula.

    PubMed

    Bovino, J A; Marcus, D F

    1984-01-01

    Radial retinotomy is an operative procedure usually performed in the peripheral or equatorial retina. To facilitate retinal attachment, the authors used intraocular scissors to perform radial retinotomy in the macula of two patients during vitrectomy surgery. In the first patient, a retinal detachment complicated by periretinal proliferation and macula hole formation was successfully reoperated with the aid of three radial cuts in the retina at the edges of the macular hole. In the second patient, an intraoperative retinal tear in the macula during diabetic vitrectomy was also successfully repaired with the aid of radial retinotomy. In both patients, retinotomy in the macula was required because epiretinal membranes, which could not be easily delaminated, were hindering retinal reattachment.

  4. Optimization of L(+)-Lactic Acid Fermentation Without Neutralisation of Rhizopus Oryzae Mutant RK02 by Low-Energy Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen; Wang, Tao; Yang, Yingge; Liu, Dan; Fan, Yonghong; Wang, Dongmei; Yang, Qian; Yao, Jianming; Zheng, Zhiming; Yu, Zengliang

    2008-04-01

    In order to get an industrial strain which can yield a high concentration of lactic acid for ISPR (in situ product removal), the original strain Rhizopus oryzae RE3303 was mutated by low-energy ion beam implantation. A mutant RK02 was screened, and the factors such as the substrate concentration, nitrogen source concentration, inoculum size, seed age, aeration and temperature that affect the production of lactic acid were studied in detail. Under optimal conditions, the maximum concentration of L(+)-lactic acid reached 34.85 g/L after 30 h shake-flask cultivation without adding any neutralisation (5% Glucose added), which was a 146% increase in lactic acid production after ion implantation compared with the original strain. It was also shown that RK02 can be used in ISPR to reduce the number of times of separation.

  5. Radial turbine cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    The technology of high temperature cooled radial turbines is reviewed. Aerodynamic performance considerations are described. Heat transfer and structural analysis are addressed, and in doing so the following topics are covered: cooling considerations, hot side convection, coolant side convection, and rotor mechanical analysis. Cooled rotor concepts and fabrication are described, and the following are covered in this context: internally cooled rotor, hot isostatic pressure bonded rotor, laminated rotor, split blade rotor, and the NASA radial turbine program.

  6. Combination radial and thrust magnetic bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A combination radial and thrust magnetic bearing is disclosed that allows for both radial and thrust axes control of an associated shaft. The combination radial and thrust magnetic bearing comprises a rotor and a stator. The rotor comprises a shaft, and first and second rotor pairs each having respective rotor elements. The stator comprises first and second stator elements and a magnet-sensor disk. In one embodiment, each stator element has a plurality of split-poles and a corresponding plurality of radial force coils and, in another embodiment, each stator element does not require thrust force coils, and radial force coils are replaced by double the plurality of coils serving as an outer member of each split-pole half.

  7. Radial turbine cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Radial turbines have been used extensively in many applications including small ground based electrical power generators, automotive engine turbochargers and aircraft auxiliary power units. In all of these applications the turbine inlet temperature is limited to a value commensurate with the material strength limitations and life requirements of uncooled metal rotors. To take advantage of all the benefits that higher temperatures offer, such as increased turbine specific power output or higher cycle thermal efficiency, requires improved high temperature materials and/or blade cooling. Extensive research is on-going to advance the material properties of high temperature superalloys as well as composite materials including ceramics. The use of ceramics with their high temperature potential and low cost is particularly appealing for radial turbines. However until these programs reach fruition the only way to make significant step increases beyond the present material temperature barriers is to cool the radial blading.

  8. Radial q-space sampling for DSI.

    PubMed

    Baete, Steven H; Yutzy, Stephen; Boada, Fernando E

    2016-09-01

    Diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) has been shown to be an effective tool for noninvasively depicting the anatomical details of brain microstructure. Existing implementations of DSI sample the diffusion encoding space using a rectangular grid. Here we present a different implementation of DSI whereby a radially symmetric q-space sampling scheme for DSI is used to improve the angular resolution and accuracy of the reconstructed orientation distribution functions. Q-space is sampled by acquiring several q-space samples along a number of radial lines. Each of these radial lines in q-space is analytically connected to a value of the orientation distribution functions at the same angular location by the Fourier slice theorem. Computer simulations and in vivo brain results demonstrate that radial diffusion spectrum imaging correctly estimates the orientation distribution functions when moderately high b-values (4000 s/mm2) and number of q-space samples (236) are used. The nominal angular resolution of radial diffusion spectrum imaging depends on the number of radial lines used in the sampling scheme, and only weakly on the maximum b-value. In addition, the radial analytical reconstruction reduces truncation artifacts which affect Cartesian reconstructions. Hence, a radial acquisition of q-space can be favorable for DSI. Magn Reson Med 76:769-780, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Radial Halbach Magnetic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2009-01-01

    Radial Halbach magnetic bearings have been investigated as part of an effort to develop increasingly reliable noncontact bearings for future high-speed rotary machines that may be used in such applications as aircraft, industrial, and land-vehicle power systems and in some medical and scientific instrumentation systems. Radial Halbach magnetic bearings are based on the same principle as that of axial Halbach magnetic bearings, differing in geometry as the names of these two types of bearings suggest. Both radial and axial Halbach magnetic bearings are passive in the sense that unlike most other magnetic bearings that have been developed in recent years, they effect stable magnetic levitation without need for complex active control. Axial Halbach magnetic bearings were described in Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings (LEW-18066-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), page 85. In the remainder of this article, the description of the principle of operation from the cited prior article is recapitulated and updated to incorporate the present radial geometry. In simplest terms, the basic principle of levitation in an axial or radial Halbach magnetic bearing is that of the repulsive electromagnetic force between (1) a moving permanent magnet and (2) an electric current induced in a stationary electrical conductor by the motion of the magnetic field. An axial or radial Halbach bearing includes multiple permanent magnets arranged in a Halbach array ("Halbach array" is defined below) in a rotor and multiple conductors in the form of wire coils in a stator, all arranged so the rotary motion produces an axial or radial repulsion that is sufficient to levitate the rotor. A basic Halbach array (see Figure 1) consists of a row of permanent magnets, each oriented so that its magnetic field is at a right angle to that of the adjacent magnet, and the right-angle turns are sequenced so as to maximize the magnitude of the magnetic flux density on one side of the row while

  10. Protective effect of ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 on cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung-Hoon; Shin, Byong-Kyu; Kim, Nam Jae; Chang, Sun-Young; Park, Jeong Hill

    2017-07-01

    Nephrotoxicity is the major side effect in cisplatin chemotherapy. Previously, we reported that the ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 reduced cisplatin toxicity on porcine renal proximal epithelial tubular cells (LLC-PK1). Here, we aimed to evaluate the protective effect of ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 on kidney function and elucidate their antioxidant effect using in vitro and in vivo models of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure. An enriched mixture of ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 (KG-KH; 49.3% and 43.1%, respectively) was purified from sun ginseng (heat processed Panax ginseng ). Cytotoxicity was induced by treatment of 20μM cisplatin to LLC-PK1 cells and rat model of acute renal failure was generated by single intraperitoneal injection of 5 mg/kg cisplatin. Protective effects were assessed by determining cell viability, reactive oxygen species generation, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, antioxidant enzyme activity, and histopathological examination. The in vitro assay demonstrated that KG-KH (50 μg/mL) significantly increased cell viability (4.6-fold), superoxide dismutase activity (2.8-fold), and glutathione reductase activity (1.5-fold), but reduced reactive oxygen species generation (56%) compared to cisplatin control cells. KG-KH (6 mg/kg, per os ) also significantly inhibited renal edema (87% kidney index) and dysfunction (71.4% blood urea nitrogen, 67.4% creatinine) compared to cisplatin control rats. Of note, KG-KH significantly recovered the kidney levels of catalase (1.2-fold) and superoxide dismutase (1.5-fold). Considering the oxidative injury as an early trigger of cisplatin nephrotoxicity, our findings suggest that ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 protect the kidney from cisplatin-induced oxidative injury and help to recover renal function by restoring intrinsic antioxidant defenses.

  11. Björk-Shiley strut fracture and disc escape: literature review and a method of disc retrieval.

    PubMed

    Hendel, P N

    1989-03-01

    Embolization of a prosthetic valve poppet is a rare but life-threatening event. It was reported sporadically before the introduction of the Björk-Shiley 70-degree convexoconcave prosthesis in 1980. Since that time, there have been a large number of reported mechanical failures with disc escape. The rate for the 29-mm to 33-mm mitral valves is estimated as 5.2%. In 29 of 35 patients (including the 2 presented here) in whom the site of disc lodgment could be determined, the disc was in the descending or abdominal aorta. Fifteen of these patients died. Six survivors had the disc removed at the same operation and 6 at a later operation. In 2 patients, the disc was not removed. In 2 patients in whom the disc was not removed initially, it was thought to contribute to postoperative complications. Two more cases of structural failure of the Björk-Shiley convexoconcave prosthesis are presented. A transpericardial approach to the descending aorta on bypass is described. It allows easy removal of the disc and eliminates the need for a second operation.

  12. The role of Tre6P and SnRK1 in maize early kernel development and events leading to stress-induced kernel abortion.

    PubMed

    Bledsoe, Samuel W; Henry, Clémence; Griffiths, Cara A; Paul, Matthew J; Feil, Regina; Lunn, John E; Stitt, Mark; Lagrimini, L Mark

    2017-04-12

    Drought stress during flowering is a major contributor to yield loss in maize. Genetic and biotechnological improvement in yield sustainability requires an understanding of the mechanisms underpinning yield loss. Sucrose starvation has been proposed as the cause for kernel abortion; however, potential targets for genetic improvement have not been identified. Field and greenhouse drought studies with maize are expensive and it can be difficult to reproduce results; therefore, an in vitro kernel culture method is presented as a proxy for drought stress occurring at the time of flowering in maize (3 days after pollination). This method is used to focus on the effects of drought on kernel metabolism, and the role of trehalose 6-phosphate (Tre6P) and the sucrose non-fermenting-1-related kinase (SnRK1) as potential regulators of this response. A precipitous drop in Tre6P is observed during the first two hours after removing the kernels from the plant, and the resulting changes in transcript abundance are indicative of an activation of SnRK1, and an immediate shift from anabolism to catabolism. Once Tre6P levels are depleted to below 1 nmol∙g -1 FW in the kernel, SnRK1 remained active throughout the 96 h experiment, regardless of the presence or absence of sucrose in the medium. Recovery on sucrose enriched medium results in the restoration of sucrose synthesis and glycolysis. Biosynthetic processes including the citric acid cycle and protein and starch synthesis are inhibited by excision, and do not recover even after the re-addition of sucrose. It is also observed that excision induces the transcription of the sugar transporters SUT1 and SWEET1, the sucrose hydrolyzing enzymes CELL WALL INVERTASE 2 (INCW2) and SUCROSE SYNTHASE 1 (SUSY1), the class II TREHALOSE PHOSPHATE SYNTHASES (TPS), TREHALASE (TRE), and TREHALOSE PHOSPHATE PHOSPHATASE (ZmTPPA.3), previously shown to enhance drought tolerance (Nuccio et al., Nat Biotechnol (October 2014):1-13, 2015). The impact

  13. Radial/axial power divider/combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaddiparty, Yerriah P. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An electromagnetic power divider/combiner comprises N radial outputs (31) having equal powers and preferably equal phases, and a single axial output (20). A divider structure (1) and a preferably identical combiner structure (2) are broadside coupled across a dielectric substrate (30) containing on one side the network of N radial outputs (31) and on its other side a set of N equispaced stubs (42) which are capacitively coupled through the dielectric substrate (30) to the N radial outputs (31). The divider structure (1) and the combiner structure (2) each comprise a dielectric disk (12, 22, respectively) on which is mounted a set of N radial impedance transformers (14, 24, respectively). Gross axial coupling is determined by the thickness of the dielectric layer (30). Rotating the disks (12, 22) with respect to each other effectuates fine adjustment in the degree of axial coupling.

  14. Growth Arrest by Trehalose-6-Phosphate: An Astonishing Case of Primary Metabolite Control over Growth by Way of the SnRK1 Signaling Pathway1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Delatte, Thierry L.; Sedijani, Prapti; Kondou, Youichi; Matsui, Minami; de Jong, Gerhardus J.; Somsen, Govert W.; Wiese-Klinkenberg, Anika; Primavesi, Lucia F.; Paul, Matthew J.; Schluepmann, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    The strong regulation of plant carbon allocation and growth by trehalose metabolism is important for our understanding of the mechanisms that determine growth and yield, with obvious applications in crop improvement. To gain further insight on the growth arrest by trehalose feeding, we first established that starch-deficient seedlings of the plastidic phosphoglucomutase1 mutant were similarly affected as the wild type on trehalose. Starch accumulation in the source cotyledons, therefore, did not cause starvation and consequent growth arrest in the growing zones. We then screened the FOX collection of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing full-length cDNAs for seedling resistance to 100 mm trehalose. Three independent transgenic lines were identified with dominant segregation of the trehalose resistance trait that overexpress the bZIP11 (for basic region/leucine zipper motif) transcription factor. The resistance of these lines to trehalose could not be explained simply through enhanced trehalase activity or through inhibition of bZIP11 translation. Instead, trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) accumulation was much increased in bZIP11-overexpressing lines, suggesting that these lines may be insensitive to the effects of T6P. T6P is known to inhibit the central stress-integrating kinase SnRK1 (KIN10) activity. We confirmed that this holds true in extracts from seedlings grown on trehalose, then showed that two independent transgenic lines overexpressing KIN10 were insensitive to trehalose. Moreover, the expression of marker genes known to be jointly controlled by SnRK1 activity and bZIP11 was consistent with low SnRK1 or bZIP11 activity in seedlings on trehalose. These results reveal an astonishing case of primary metabolite control over growth by way of the SnRK1 signaling pathway involving T6P, SnRK1, and bZIP11. PMID:21753116

  15. The two-component system VicRK regulates functions associated with Streptococcus mutans resistance to complement immunity.

    PubMed

    Alves, Livia A; Harth-Chu, Erika N; Palma, Thais H; Stipp, Rafael N; Mariano, Flávia S; Höfling, José F; Abranches, Jacqueline; Mattos-Graner, Renata O

    2017-10-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a dental caries pathogen, can promote systemic infections upon reaching the bloodstream. The two-component system (TCS) VicRK Sm of S. mutans regulates the synthesis of and interaction with sucrose-derived exopolysaccharides (EPS), processes associated with oral and systemic virulence. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which VicRK Sm affects S. mutans susceptibility to blood-mediated immunity. Compared with parent strain UA159, the vicK Sm isogenic mutant (UAvic) showed reduced susceptibility to deposition of C3b of complement, low binding to serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), and low frequency of C3b/IgG-mediated opsonophagocytosis by polymorphonuclear cells in a sucrose-independent way (P<.05). Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis comparing gene expression in UA159 and UAvic revealed that genes encoding putative peptidases of the complement (pepO and smu.399) were upregulated in UAvic in the presence of serum, although genes encoding murein hydrolases (SmaA and Smu.2146c) or metabolic/surface proteins involved in bacterial interactions with host components (enolase, GAPDH) were mostly affected in a serum-independent way. Among vicK Sm -downstream genes (smaA, smu.2146c, lysM, atlA, pepO, smu.399), only pepO and smu.399 were associated with UAvic phenotypes; deletion of both genes in UA159 significantly enhanced levels of C3b deposition and opsonophagocytosis (P<.05). Moreover, consistent with the fibronectin-binding function of PepO orthologues, UAvic showed increased binding to fibronectin. Reduced susceptibility to opsonophagocytosis was insufficient to enhance ex vivo persistence of UAvic in blood, which was associated with growth defects of this mutant under limited nutrient conditions. Our findings revealed that S. mutans employs mechanisms of complement evasion through peptidases, which are controlled by VicRK Sm. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. 14 CFR 73.5 - Bearings; radials; miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bearings; radials; miles. 73.5 Section 73.5... SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE General § 73.5 Bearings; radials; miles. (a) All bearings and radials in this part... statute miles. ...

  17. 14 CFR 73.5 - Bearings; radials; miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bearings; radials; miles. 73.5 Section 73.5... SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE General § 73.5 Bearings; radials; miles. (a) All bearings and radials in this part... statute miles. ...

  18. 14 CFR 73.5 - Bearings; radials; miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bearings; radials; miles. 73.5 Section 73.5... SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE General § 73.5 Bearings; radials; miles. (a) All bearings and radials in this part... statute miles. ...

  19. 14 CFR 73.5 - Bearings; radials; miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bearings; radials; miles. 73.5 Section 73.5... SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE General § 73.5 Bearings; radials; miles. (a) All bearings and radials in this part... statute miles. ...

  20. 14 CFR 73.5 - Bearings; radials; miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bearings; radials; miles. 73.5 Section 73.5... SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE General § 73.5 Bearings; radials; miles. (a) All bearings and radials in this part... statute miles. ...

  1. Endoscopic versus open radial artery harvest and mammario-radial versus aorto-radial grafting in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery: protocol for the 2 × 2 factorial designed randomised NEO trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Coronary artery bypass grafting using the radial artery has, since the 1990s, gone through a revival. Observational studies have indicated better long-term patency when using radial arteries. Therefore, radial artery might be preferred especially in younger patients where long time patency is important. During the last 10 years different endoscopic techniques to harvest the radial artery have evolved. Endoscopic radial artery harvest only requires a small incision near the wrist in contrast to open harvest, which requires an incision from the elbow to the wrist. However, it is unknown whether the endoscopic technique results in fewer complications or a graft patency comparable to open harvest. When the radial artery has been harvested, there are two ways to use the radial artery as a graft. One way is sewing it onto the aorta and another is sewing it onto the mammary artery. It is unknown which technique is the superior revascularisation technique. Methods/Design The NEO Trial is a randomised clinical trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design. We plan to randomise 300 participants into four intervention groups: (1) mammario-radial endoscopic group; (2) aorto-radial endoscopic group; (3) mammario-radial open surgery group; and (4) aorto-radial open surgery group. The hand function will be assessed by a questionnaire, a clinical examination, the change in cutaneous sensibility, and the measurement of both sensory and motor nerve conduction velocity at 3 months postoperatively. All the postoperative complications will be registered, and we will evaluate muscular function, scar appearance, vascular supply to the hand, and the graft patency including the patency of the central radial artery anastomosis. A patency evaluation by multi-slice computer tomography will be done at one year postoperatively. We expect the nerve conduction studies and the standardised neurological examinations to be able to discriminate differences in hand function comparing

  2. Radial wave crystals: radially periodic structures from anisotropic metamaterials for engineering acoustic or electromagnetic waves.

    PubMed

    Torrent, Daniel; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2009-08-07

    We demonstrate that metamaterials with anisotropic properties can be used to develop a new class of periodic structures that has been named radial wave crystals. They can be sonic or photonic, and wave propagation along the radial directions is obtained through Bloch states like in usual sonic or photonic crystals. The band structure of the proposed structures can be tailored in a large amount to get exciting novel wave phenomena. For example, it is shown that acoustical cavities based on radial sonic crystals can be employed as passive devices for beam forming or dynamically orientated antennas for sound localization.

  3. Radial q-space sampling for DSI

    PubMed Central

    Baete, Steven H.; Yutzy, Stephen; Boada, Fernando, E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Diffusion Spectrum Imaging (DSI) has been shown to be an effective tool for non-invasively depicting the anatomical details of brain microstructure. Existing implementations of DSI sample the diffusion encoding space using a rectangular grid. Here we present a different implementation of DSI whereby a radially symmetric q-space sampling scheme for DSI (RDSI) is used to improve the angular resolution and accuracy of the reconstructed Orientation Distribution Functions (ODF). Methods Q-space is sampled by acquiring several q-space samples along a number of radial lines. Each of these radial lines in q-space is analytically connected to a value of the ODF at the same angular location by the Fourier slice theorem. Results Computer simulations and in vivo brain results demonstrate that RDSI correctly estimates the ODF when moderately high b-values (4000 s/mm2) and number of q-space samples (236) are used. Conclusion The nominal angular resolution of RDSI depends on the number of radial lines used in the sampling scheme, and only weakly on the maximum b-value. In addition, the radial analytical reconstruction reduces truncation artifacts which affect Cartesian reconstructions. Hence, a radial acquisition of q-space can be favorable for DSI. PMID:26363002

  4. Dependence of radiation belt simulations to assumed radial diffusion rates tested for two empirical models of radial transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdov, Alexander; Shprits, Yuri; Aseev, Nikita; Kellerman, Adam; Reeves, Geoffrey

    2017-04-01

    Radial diffusion is one of the dominant physical mechanisms that drives acceleration and loss of the radiation belt electrons, which makes it very important for nowcasting and forecasting space weather models. We investigate the sensitivity of the two parameterizations of the radial diffusion of Brautigam and Albert [2000] and Ozeke et al. [2014] on long-term radiation belt modeling using the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB). Following Brautigam and Albert [2000] and Ozeke et al. [2014], we first perform 1-D radial diffusion simulations. Comparison of the simulation results with observations shows that the difference between simulations with either radial diffusion parameterization is small. To take into account effects of local acceleration and loss, we perform 3-D simulations, including pitch-angle, energy and mixed diffusion. We found that the results of 3-D simulations are even less sensitive to the choice of parameterization of radial diffusion rates than the results of 1-D simulations at various energies (from 0.59 to 1.80 MeV). This result demonstrates that the inclusion of local acceleration and pitch-angle diffusion can provide a negative feedback effect, such that the result is largely indistinguishable simulations conducted with different radial diffusion parameterizations. We also perform a number of sensitivity tests by multiplying radial diffusion rates by constant factors and show that such an approach leads to unrealistic predictions of radiation belt dynamics. References Brautigam, D. H., and J. M. Albert (2000), Radial diffusion analysis of outer radiation belt electrons during the October 9, 1990, magnetic storm, J. Geophys. Res., 105(A1), 291-309, doi:10.1029/1999ja900344. Ozeke, L. G., I. R. Mann, K. R. Murphy, I. Jonathan Rae, and D. K. Milling (2014), Analytic expressions for ULF wave radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients, J. Geophys. Res. [Space Phys.], 119(3), 1587-1605, doi:10.1002/2013JA019204.

  5. Radial Neck Dilatory Remodeling After Radial Head Arthroplasty With an Uncemented, Press Fit, Fully Chemically Etched Stem Design.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Matthew P; Firoozabadi, Reza; Kennedy, Stephen A; Agel, Julie; Magnusson, Eric; Schiffman, Brett; Folchert, Matthew; Beingessner, Daphne

    2017-09-01

    To compare the radiographic outcomes of 2 widely used side loading, press fit, RHA implants used to reconstruct complex elbow trauma. Retrospective cohort study. Level-1 Academic trauma center. Patients undergoing RHA. Cohort 1 received Synthes Radial Head Prosthesis. Cohort 2 received Biomet ExploR Radial Head Replacement. Radial neck dilatory remodeling. Eighty-two subjects were included in final analysis, 63 from the Biomet Cohort, and 19 from Synthes cohort. Demographic and injury characteristics were similar among cohorts. Radial neck dilatory remodeling as well as periprosthetic radiographic lucency were seen significantly more frequently and to a significantly greater degree in the Synthes cohort. The average percentage of dilatory remodeling of the Synthes cohort was 34.9% and that of the Biomet cohort was 2.7%. There were no differences in rates of revision surgery. Our study demonstrates significant radiographic differences between 2 frequently used RHA implants. Radial neck dilatory remodeling is a common, rapidly progressive, and dramatic finding frequently seen with the Synthes Radial Head Prosthesis. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  6. Radial lean direct injection burner

    DOEpatents

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  7. Confirmation of radial velocity variability in Arcturus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, William D.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents results of high-precision measurements of radial-velocity variations in Alpha Boo. Significant radial-velocity variability is detected well in excess of the random and systematic measurement errors. The radial velocity varies by an amount greater than 200 m/sec with a period of around 2 days.

  8. Methods and apparatus for radially compliant component mounting

    DOEpatents

    Bulman, David Edward [Cincinnati, OH; Darkins, Jr., Toby George; Stumpf, James Anthony [Columbus, IN; Schroder, Mark S [Greenville, SC; Lipinski, John Joseph [Simpsonville, SC

    2012-03-27

    Methods and apparatus for a mounting assembly for a liner of a gas turbine engine combustor are provided. The combustor includes a combustor liner and a radially outer annular flow sleeve. The mounting assembly includes an inner ring surrounding a radially outer surface of the liner and including a plurality of axially extending fingers. The mounting assembly also includes a radially outer ring coupled to the inner ring through a plurality of spacers that extend radially from a radially outer surface of the inner ring to the outer ring.

  9. [Clinical observation on the different treatments targeted at different types of radial head fracture and radial neck fracture].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Ze; Guo, Ming-Ke; Zheng, Zhan-le; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wei

    2009-06-15

    To assess the effect of the different treatments targeted at different types of radial head fracture and radial neck fracture. A retrospective study was performed in 87 patients from February 2006 to March 2007. Fifty-four patients with radial head fractures included 36 males and 18 females, aged from 18 to 65 years (the average age was 33); Forty of them resulted from crashing, 8 from traffic injury and 6 from falling injury. According to Mason classification system, there were 15 type I, 23 type II and 16 type III. Thirty-three patients with radial neck fractures included 21 males and 12 females, aged from 9 to 17 years (the average age was 13), 29 of them resulted from crashing, 1 from traffic injury and 3 from falling injury. According to O'Brien classification system, there were 8 type I, 14 type II and 11 type III. Type I of radial head fractures and radial neck fractures were immobilization with cast, the patients with type II of radial head fractures were treated with open reduction and micro-screw or T-trapezoid and bridge-shaped plate fixation and type III had operations to fix with bridge-shaped locked plate and repair the broken annular ligament, or replace heads with prosthesis. All patients with type II and type III of radial neck fractures were treated with closed reduction by leverage and percutaneous intra-medullary nailing. The patients were followed up for 4-12 months (mean 7.2 months). The functional recovery degrees were evaluated with Wheeler's evaluation system. In group of radial head fractures, the results were excellent in 26 patients, good in 20, fair in 6 and poor in 2, the excellent and good rate was 85.2%. In group of radial neck fractures, the results were excellent in 20 patients, good in 9, fair in 4 and poor in no patient, and the excellent and good rate was 87.9%. Different types of fractures should choose different surgical methods according to their characters. The excellent functional recovery depend on anatomical reduction

  10. Novel Integration Radial and Axial Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth; Brown, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Typically, fully active magnetically suspended systems require one axial and two radial magnetic bearings. Combining radial and axial functions into a single device allows for more compact and elegant packaging. Furthermore, in the case of high-speed devices such as energy storage flywheels, it is beneficial to minimize shaft length to keep rotor mode frequencies as high as possible. Attempts have been made to combine radial and axial functionality, but with certain drawbacks. One approach requires magnetic control flux to flow through a bias magnet reducing control effectiveness, thus resulting in increased resistive losses. This approach also requires axial force producing magnetic flux to flow in a direction into the rotor laminate that is undesirable for minimizing eddy-current losses resulting in rotational losses. Another approach applies a conical rotor shape to what otherwise would be a radial heteropolar magnetic bearing configuration. However, positional non-linear effects are introduced with this scheme and the same windings are used for bias, radial, and axial control adding complexity to the controller and electronics. For this approach, the amount of axial capability must be limited. It would be desirable for an integrated radial and axial magnetic bearing to have the following characteristics; separate inputs for radial and axial control for electronics and control simplicity, all magnetic control fluxes should only flow through their respective air gaps and should not flow through any bias magnets for minimal resistive losses, be of a homopolar design to minimize rotational losses, position related non-linear effects should be minimized, and dependent upon the design parameters, be able to achieve any radial/axial force or power ratio as desired. The integrated radial and axial magnetic bearing described in this paper exhibits all these characteristics. Magnetic circuit design, design equations, and magnetic field modeling results will be presented.

  11. Novel Integrated Radial and Axial Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A.; Brown, Gary L.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Typically, fully active magnetically suspended systems require one axial and two radial magnetic bearings. Combining radial and axial functions into a single device allows for more compact and elegant packaging. Furthermore, in the case of high-speed devices such as energy storage flywheels, it is beneficial to minimize shaft length to keep rotor mode frequencies as high as possible. Attempts have been made to combine radial and axial functionality, but with certain drawbacks. One approach requires magnetic control flux to flow through a bias magnet reducing control effectiveness, thus resulting in increased resistive losses. This approach also requires axial force producing magnetic flux to flow in a direction into the rotor laminate that is undesirable for minimizing eddy-current losses resulting in rotational losses. Another approach applies a conical rotor shape to what otherwise would be a radial heteropolar magnetic bearing configuration. However, positional non-linear effects are introduced with this scheme and the same windings are used for bias, radial, and axial control adding complexity to the controller and electronics. For this approach, the amount of axial capability must be limited. It would be desirable for an integrated radial and axial magnetic bearing to have the following characteristics, separate inputs for radial and axial control for electronics and control simplicity, all magnetic control fluxes should only flow through their respective air gaps and should not flow through any bias magnets for minimal resistive losses, be of a homopolar design to minimize rotational losses, position related non-linear effects should be minimized, and dependent upon the design parameters, be able to achieve any radial/axial force or power ratio as desired. The integrated radial and axial magnetic bearing described in this paper exhibits all these characteristics. Magnetic circuit design, design equations, and analysis results will be presented.

  12. Successful treatment of a patient after sudden loss of the disc in a Björk-Shiley convexo-concave mitral prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Scalia, D; Giacomin, A; Da Col, U; Valfre, C

    1987-10-01

    The patient's survival after minor strut fracture and migration of a Björk-Shiley mitral prosthetic disc is presented. The operation was carried out in two stages: first emergency replacement of the mitral prosthesis and, later, elective removal of the dislocated disc.

  13. Computer model analysis of the radial artery pressure waveform.

    PubMed

    Schwid, H A; Taylor, L A; Smith, N T

    1987-10-01

    Simultaneous measurements of aortic and radial artery pressures are reviewed, and a model of the cardiovascular system is presented. The model is based on resonant networks for the aorta and axillo-brachial-radial arterial system. The model chosen is a simple one, in order to make interpretation of the observed relationships clear. Despite its simplicity, the model produces realistic aortic and radial artery pressure waveforms. It demonstrates that the resonant properties of the arterial wall significantly alter the pressure waveform as it is propagated from the aorta to the radial artery. Although the mean and end-diastolic radial pressures are usually accurate estimates of the corresponding aortic pressures, the systolic pressure at the radial artery is often much higher than that of the aorta due to overshoot caused by the resonant behavior of the radial artery. The radial artery dicrotic notch is predominantly dependent on the axillo-brachial-radial arterial wall properties, rather than on the aortic valve or peripheral resistance. Hence the use of the radial artery dicrotic notch as an estimate of end systole is unreliable. The rate of systolic upstroke, dP/dt, of the radial artery waveform is a function of many factors, making it difficult to interpret. The radial artery waveform usually provides accurate estimates for mean and diastolic aortic pressures; for all other measurements it is an inadequate substitute for the aortic pressure waveform. In the presence of low forearm peripheral resistance the mean radial artery pressure may significantly underestimate the mean aortic pressure, as explained by a voltage divider model.

  14. Radial velocity studies of cool stars.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hugh R A; Barnes, John; Tuomi, Mikko; Jenkins, James S; Anglada-Escude, Guillem

    2014-04-28

    Our current view of exoplanets is one derived primarily from solar-like stars with a strong focus on understanding our Solar System. Our knowledge about the properties of exoplanets around the dominant stellar population by number, the so-called low-mass stars or M dwarfs, is much more cursory. Based on radial velocity discoveries, we find that the semi-major axis distribution of M dwarf planets appears to be broadly similar to those around more massive stars and thus formation and migration processes might be similar to heavier stars. However, we find that the mass of M dwarf planets is relatively much lower than the expected mass dependency based on stellar mass and thus infer that planet formation efficiency around low-mass stars is relatively impaired. We consider techniques to overcome the practical issue of obtaining good quality radial velocity data for M dwarfs despite their faintness and sustained activity and emphasize (i) the wavelength sensitivity of radial velocity signals, (ii) the combination of radial velocity data from different experiments for robust detection of small amplitude signals, and (iii) the selection of targets and radial velocity interpretation of late-type M dwarfs should consider Hα behaviour.

  15. Turbine with radial acting seal

    DOEpatents

    Eng, Darryl S; Ebert, Todd A

    2016-11-22

    A floating brush seal in a rim cavity of a turbine in a gas turbine engine, where the floating brush seal includes a seal holder in which the floating brush seal floats, and a expandable seal that fits within two radial extending seal slots that maintains a seal with radial displacement of the floating brush seal and the seal holder.

  16. Suppressor of K+ transport growth defect 1 (SKD1) interacts with RING-type ubiquitin ligase and sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase (SnRK1) in the halophyte ice plant

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Chih-Pin; Li, Chang-Hua; Jou, Yingtzy; Chen, Yu-Chan; Lin, Ya-Chung; Yang, Fang-Yu; Huang, Nu-Chuan; Yen, Hungchen Emilie

    2013-01-01

    SKD1 (suppressor of K+ transport growth defect 1) is an AAA-type ATPase that functions as a molecular motor. It was previously shown that SKD1 accumulates in epidermal bladder cells of the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. SKD1 knock-down Arabidopsis mutants showed an imbalanced Na+/K+ ratio under salt stress. Two enzymes involved in protein post-translational modifications that physically interacted with McSKD1 were identified. McCPN1 (copine 1), a RING-type ubiquitin ligase, has an N-terminal myristoylation site that links to the plasma membrane, a central copine domain that interacts with McSKD1, and a C-terminal RING domain that catalyses protein ubiquitination. In vitro ubiquitination assay demonstrated that McCPN1 was capable of mediating ubiquitination of McSKD1. McSnRK1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase) is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that contains an N-terminal STKc catalytic domain to phosphorylate McSKD1, and C-terminal UBA and KA1 domains to interact with McSKD1. The transcript and protein levels of McSnRK1 increased as NaCl concentrations increased. The formation of an SKD1–SnRK1–CPN1 ternary complex was demonstrated by yeast three-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation. It was found that McSKD1 preferentially interacts with McSnRK1 in the cytosol, and salt induced the re-distribution of McSKD1 and McSnRK1 towards the plasma membrane via the microtubule cytoskeleton and subsequently interacted with RING-type E3 McCPN1. The potential effects of ubiquitination and phosphorylation on McSKD1, such as changes in the ATPase activity and cellular localization, and how they relate to the functions of SKD1 in the maintenance of Na+/K+ homeostasis under salt stress, are discussed. PMID:23580756

  17. Suppressor of K+ transport growth defect 1 (SKD1) interacts with RING-type ubiquitin ligase and sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase (SnRK1) in the halophyte ice plant.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chih-Pin; Li, Chang-Hua; Jou, Yingtzy; Chen, Yu-Chan; Lin, Ya-Chung; Yang, Fang-Yu; Huang, Nu-Chuan; Yen, Hungchen Emilie

    2013-05-01

    SKD1 (suppressor of K+ transport growth defect 1) is an AAA-type ATPase that functions as a molecular motor. It was previously shown that SKD1 accumulates in epidermal bladder cells of the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. SKD1 knock-down Arabidopsis mutants showed an imbalanced Na+/K+ ratio under salt stress. Two enzymes involved in protein post-translational modifications that physically interacted with McSKD1 were identified. McCPN1 (copine 1), a RING-type ubiquitin ligase, has an N-terminal myristoylation site that links to the plasma membrane, a central copine domain that interacts with McSKD1, and a C-terminal RING domain that catalyses protein ubiquitination. In vitro ubiquitination assay demonstrated that McCPN1 was capable of mediating ubiquitination of McSKD1. McSnRK1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase) is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that contains an N-terminal STKc catalytic domain to phosphorylate McSKD1, and C-terminal UBA and KA1 domains to interact with McSKD1. The transcript and protein levels of McSnRK1 increased as NaCl concentrations increased. The formation of an SKD1-SnRK1-CPN1 ternary complex was demonstrated by yeast three-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation. It was found that McSKD1 preferentially interacts with McSnRK1 in the cytosol, and salt induced the re-distribution of McSKD1 and McSnRK1 towards the plasma membrane via the microtubule cytoskeleton and subsequently interacted with RING-type E3 McCPN1. The potential effects of ubiquitination and phosphorylation on McSKD1, such as changes in the ATPase activity and cellular localization, and how they relate to the functions of SKD1 in the maintenance of Na+/K+ homeostasis under salt stress, are discussed.

  18. Balloon-Assisted Tracking Use Reduces Radial Artery Access Failure in an Experienced Radial Center and is Feasible During Primary PCI for STEMI.

    PubMed

    Obaid, Daniel; Hailan, Ahmed; Chase, Alexander; Dorman, Stephen; Jenkins, Geraint; Raybould, Adrian; Ramsey, Mark; Thomas, Phillip; Smith, David; Ionescu, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    This prospective study assesses balloon-assisted tracking (BAT) in reducing radial access failure during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Arterial spasm prevents PCI from the radial artery in a small percentage of cases. A total of 2223 consecutive patients undergoing PCI from the radial approach were analyzed. Radial access failure mode and requirement for crossover to femoral access during a 12-month run-in period were compared with the following 14-month period with routine BAT usage. During the 14-month study period, 1334 radial PCIs were attempted. Twenty-six patients switched to femoral at an early stage, while 76 encountered radial spasm and underwent successful BAT in 69 cases (91%), giving a total crossover rate to femoral of 33/1334 (2.5%). Utilizing BAT rather than a femoral puncture reduced our institution's radial-femoral crossover rate from 7.6% to 2.5% (P<.01), which is also significantly lower than the radial-femoral crossover rate in the 12 months before BAT implementation (6.1%; P<.01). Mean procedure times were similar for those requiring BAT compared with conventional radial access (51.3 ± 21.3 min vs 47.9 ± 23.7 min; P=.23), and those crossing straight to femoral (BAT not attempted) (60.7 ± 31.9 min; P=.10). Mean first device/balloon time for the BAT-assisted primary PCI cases (22.6 ± 9.4 min) was similar to cases that had radial difficulties and converted to femoral without attempting BAT (25.8 ± 13.4 min; P=.54). BAT allowed catheter passage despite radial spasm in 91% of cases, significantly reducing the institution's rate of femoral crossover. During radial spasm in primary PCI, using BAT did not delay reperfusion compared with femoral crossover.

  19. Reconsideration of r/K Selection Theory Using Stochastic Control Theory and Nonlinear Structured Population Models.

    PubMed

    Oizumi, Ryo; Kuniya, Toshikazu; Enatsu, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that density effects and individual differences in life history are considered to be important for evolution, these factors lead to several difficulties in understanding the evolution of life history, especially when population sizes reach the carrying capacity. r/K selection theory explains what types of life strategies evolve in the presence of density effects and individual differences. However, the relationship between the life schedules of individuals and population size is still unclear, even if the theory can classify life strategies appropriately. To address this issue, we propose a few equations on adaptive life strategies in r/K selection where density effects are absent or present. The equations detail not only the adaptive life history but also the population dynamics. Furthermore, the equations can incorporate temporal individual differences, which are referred to as internal stochasticity. Our framework reveals that maximizing density effects is an evolutionarily stable strategy related to the carrying capacity. A significant consequence of our analysis is that adaptive strategies in both selections maximize an identical function, providing both population growth rate and carrying capacity. We apply our method to an optimal foraging problem in a semelparous species model and demonstrate that the adaptive strategy yields a lower intrinsic growth rate as well as a lower basic reproductive number than those obtained with other strategies. This study proposes that the diversity of life strategies arises due to the effects of density and internal stochasticity.

  20. An rK28-Based Immunoenzymatic Assay for the Diagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Lauricella, Marta Alicia; Maidana, Cristina Graciela; Frias, Victoria Fragueiro; Romagosa, Carlo M.; Negri, Vanesa; Benedetti, Ruben; Sinagra, Angel J.; Luna, Concepcion; Tartaglino, Lilian; Laucella, Susana; Reed, Steven G.; Riarte, Adelina R.

    2016-01-01

    Direct observation of Leishmania parasites in tissue aspirates has shown low sensitivity for the detection of canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Therefore in the last quarter century immunoenzymatic tests have been developed to improve diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to develop a fast recombinant K28 antigen, naked-eye qualitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (VL Ql-ELISA) and a quantitative version (VL Qt-ELISA), and to display it in a kit format, whose cutoff value (0.156) was selected as the most adequate one to differentiate reactive from nonreactive samples. Considering 167 cases and 300 controls, sensitivity was 91% for both assays and specificity was 100% and 98.7% in Ql-ELISA and Qt-ELISA, respectively. Positive predictive values were 100% and 97.4% for Ql-ELISA and Qt-ELISA, respectively, and negative predictive values were 95.2% for both ELISAs. Reagent stability, reliability studies, including periodic repetitions and retest of samples, cutoff selection, and comparison of rK28 ELISAs with rK39 immunochromatographic test, were the international criteria that supported the quality in both kits. The performance of both ELISA kits in this work confirmed their validity and emphasized their usefulness for low-to-medium complexity laboratories. PMID:27162270

  1. Radial spoke proteins of Chlamydomonas flagella

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Pinfen; Diener, Dennis R.; Yang, Chun; Kohno, Takahiro; Pazour, Gregory J.; Dienes, Jennifer M.; Agrin, Nathan S.; King, Stephen M.; Sale, Winfield S.; Kamiya, Ritsu; Rosenbaum, Joel L.; Witman, George B.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The radial spoke is a ubiquitous component of ‘9+2’ cilia and flagella, and plays an essential role in the control of dynein arm activity by relaying signals from the central pair of microtubules to the arms. The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii radial spoke contains at least 23 proteins, only 8 of which have been characterized at the molecular level. Here, we use mass spectrometry to identify 10 additional radial spoke proteins. Many of the newly identified proteins in the spoke stalk are predicted to contain domains associated with signal transduction, including Ca2+-, AKAP- and nucleotide-binding domains. This suggests that the spoke stalk is both a scaffold for signaling molecules and itself a transducer of signals. Moreover, in addition to the recently described HSP40 family member, a second spoke stalk protein is predicted to be a molecular chaperone, implying that there is a sophisticated mechanism for the assembly of this large complex. Among the 18 spoke proteins identified to date, at least 12 have apparent homologs in humans, indicating that the radial spoke has been conserved throughout evolution. The human genes encoding these proteins are candidates for causing primary ciliary dyskinesia, a severe inherited disease involving missing or defective axonemal structures, including the radial spokes. PMID:16507594

  2. Radial nerve palsy

    PubMed Central

    Bumbasirevic, Marko; Palibrk, Tomislav; Lesic, Aleksandar; Atkinson, Henry DE

    2016-01-01

    As a result of its proximity to the humeral shaft, as well as its long and tortuous course, the radial nerve is the most frequently injured major nerve in the upper limb, with its close proximity to the bone making it vulnerable when fractures occur. Injury is most frequently sustained during humeral fracture and gunshot injuries, but iatrogenic injuries are not unusual following surgical treatment of various other pathologies. Treatment is usually non-operative, but surgery is sometimes necessary, using a variety of often imaginative procedures. Because radial nerve injuries are the least debilitating of the upper limb nerve injuries, results are usually satisfactory. Conservative treatment certainly has a role, and one of the most important aspects of this treatment is to maintain a full passive range of motion in all the affected joints. Surgical treatment is indicated in cases when nerve transection is obvious, as in open injuries or when there is no clinical improvement after a period of conservative treatment. Different techniques are used including direct suture or nerve grafting, vascularised nerve grafts, direct nerve transfer, tendon transfer, functional muscle transfer or the promising, newer treatment of biological therapy. Cite this article: Bumbasirevic M, Palibrk T, Lesic A, Atkinson HDE. Radial nerve palsy. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:286-294. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000028. PMID:28461960

  3. Stirling Engine With Radial Flow Heat Exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitale, N.; Yarr, George

    1993-01-01

    Conflict between thermodynamical and structural requirements resolved. In Stirling engine of new cylindrical configuration, regenerator and acceptor and rejector heat exchangers channel flow of working gas in radial direction. Isotherms in regenerator ideally concentric cylinders, and gradient of temperature across regenerator radial rather than axial. Acceptor and rejector heat exchangers located radially inward and outward of regenerator, respectively. Enables substantial increase in power of engine without corresponding increase in diameter of pressure vessel.

  4. 14 CFR 71.7 - Bearings, radials, and mileages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bearings, radials, and mileages. 71.7 Section 71.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REPORTING POINTS § 71.7 Bearings, radials, and mileages. All bearings and radials in this part are true and...

  5. Radial wedge flange clamp

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Karl H.

    2002-01-01

    A radial wedge flange clamp comprising a pair of flanges each comprising a plurality of peripheral flat wedge facets having flat wedge surfaces and opposed and mating flat surfaces attached to or otherwise engaged with two elements to be joined and including a series of generally U-shaped wedge clamps each having flat wedge interior surfaces and engaging one pair of said peripheral flat wedge facets. Each of said generally U-shaped wedge clamps has in its opposing extremities apertures for the tangential insertion of bolts to apply uniform radial force to said wedge clamps when assembled about said wedge segments.

  6. Lateral idiopathic subluxation of the radial head. Case report.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, S; Horowitz, M

    1987-01-01

    Idiopathic subluxation of the radial head (ISRH) is a rare entity that is separate from congenital dislocations of the radial head, both symptomatically and radiographically. ISRH causes pain and restriction of rotation. A dome-shaped radial head, a hypertrophied ulna, and a hypoplastic capitellum are not present in ISRH, as they are in a congenital dislocation of the radial head (CDRH). A true lateral ISRH is used as an example to demonstrate these differences. Remodeling of the radial head may preserve motion in the joint surface deformed by growth along abnormal planes of motion.

  7. Intraluminal milrinone for dilation of the radial artery graft.

    PubMed Central

    García-Rinaldi, R; Soltero, E R; Carballido, J; Mojica, J

    1999-01-01

    There is renewed interest in the use of the radial artery as a conduit for coronary artery bypass surgery. The radial artery is, however, a very muscular artery, prone to vasospasm. Milrinone, a potent vasodilator, has demonstrated vasodilatory properties superior to those of papaverine. In this report, we describe our technique of radial artery harvesting and the adjunctive use of intraluminal milrinone as a vasodilator in the preparation of this conduit for coronary artery bypass grafting. We have used these techniques in 25 patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass grafting using the radial artery. No hand ischemic complications have been observed in this group. Intraluminal milrinone appears to dilate and relax the radial artery, rendering this large conduit spasm free and very easy to use. We recommend the skeletonization technique for radial artery harvesting and the use of intraluminal milrinone as a radial artery vasodilator in routine myocardial revascularization. PMID:10524740

  8. A design of coaxial-to-radial line adaptors in radial line slot antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natori, Makoto; Ando, Makoto; Goto, Naohisa

    1990-11-01

    A numerical design of a coaxial-to-radial line adaptor is presented for the use as a feed in a radial line slot antenna. To realize stable performances in mass production, the reflection from a probe type adaptor in which only the outer conductor of a coaxial line is in contact with the waveguide, is analyzed and suppressed. The tolerance for the change and the errors in the height of the waveguide as well as the bandwidth is highlighted; the advantages of the conical probe over the conventional shorting post and the coax-gap adaptor are emphasized.

  9. The Rényi entanglement entropy of a general quantum dimer model at the RK point: a highly efficient algorithm.

    PubMed

    Pei, Jiquan; Han, Steve; Liao, Haijun; Li, Tao

    2014-01-22

    A highly efficient and simple-to-implement Monte Carlo algorithm is proposed for the evaluation of the Rényi entanglement entropy (REE) of the quantum dimer model (QDM) at the Rokhsar-Kivelson (RK) point. It makes possible the evaluation of REE at the RK point to the thermodynamic limit for a general QDM. We apply the algorithm to a QDM defined on the triangular and the square lattice in two dimensions and the simple and the face centered cubic (fcc) lattice in three dimensions. We find the REE on all these lattices follows perfect linear scaling in the thermodynamic limit, apart from an even-odd oscillation in the case of the square lattice. We also evaluate the topological entanglement entropy (TEE) with both a subtraction and an extrapolation procedure. We find the QDMs on both the triangular and the fcc lattice exhibit robust Z2 topological order. The expected TEE of ln2 is clearly demonstrated in both cases. Our large scale simulation also proves the recently proposed extrapolation procedure in cylindrical geometry to be a highly reliable way to extract the TEE of a topologically ordered system.

  10. Arabidopsis shaker pollen inward K+ channel SPIK functions in SnRK1 complex-regulated pollen hydration on the stigma.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan-Dan; Guan, Huan; Li, Fei; Liu, Chang-Zhen; Dong, Yu-Xiu; Zhang, Xian-Sheng; Gao, Xin-Qi

    2017-09-01

    Pollen hydration is a critical step that determines pollen germination on the stigma. KINβγ is a plant-specific subunit of the SNF1-related protein kinase 1 complex (SnRK1 complex). In pollen of the Arabidopsis kinβγ mutant, the levels of reactive oxygen species were decreased which lead to compromised hydration of the mutant pollen on the stigma. In this study, we analyzed gene expression in kinβγ mutant pollen by RNA-seq and found the expression of inward shaker K + channel SPIK was down-regulated in the kinβγ pollen. Furthermore, we showed that the pollen hydration of the Arabidopsis spik mutant was defective on the wild-type stigma, although the mutant pollen demonstrated normal hydration in vitro. Additionally, the defective hydration of spik mutant pollen could not be rescued by the wild-type pollen on the stigma, indicating that the spik mutation deprived the capability of pollen absorption on the stigma. Our results suggest that the Arabidopsis SnRK1 complex regulates SPIK expression, which functions in determining pollen hydration on the stigma. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  11. Traumatic Axillary Artery Dissection with Radial Artery Embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hwan-Hoon; Cha, Sang Hoon, E-mail: shcha123@naver.com; Cho, Sung Bum

    This report describes a case of pathologically proven traumatic arterial dissection, presenting as complete occlusion of the axillary artery with radial artery embolism. Occlusion of the axillary artery by traumatic dissection mimicked transection and radial artery embolism mimicked congenital absence of the radial artery on the initial angiogram, but these were correctly diagnosed with the following sonogram.

  12. Acute closed radial nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Tuncel, Umut; Turan, Aydin; Kostakoglu, Naci

    2011-01-01

    We present a 45-year-old patient who had acute radial nerve palsy following a blunt trauma without any fracture or dislocation. He was injured by strucking in a combat three months ago. The patient has been followed by application of a long-arm plaster cast before referred to our clinic. Preoperative electromyoneurography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicated that there was a radial nerve injury on humeral groove. The British Medical Research Council (MRC) grade was 2/5 on his wrist preoperatively. The patient underwent an operation under general anesthesia. It was seen to be a second-degree nerve injury. The patient has subsequently regained full movement on his wrist and finger extension in six months. We suggest that a detailed clinical and electrodiagnostical evaluation is necessary in patients who have radial nerve injury when deciding the treatment, conservative or surgical. PMID:22347334

  13. Generalized radially self-accelerating helicon beams.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Christian; Eichelkraut, Toni; Ornigotti, Marco; Szameit, Alexander

    2014-10-31

    We report, in theory and experiment, on a new class of optical beams that are radially self-accelerating and nondiffracting. These beams continuously evolve on spiraling trajectories while maintaining their amplitude and phase distribution in their rotating rest frame. We provide a detailed insight into the theoretical origin and characteristics of radial self-acceleration and prove our findings experimentally. As radially self-accelerating beams are nonparaxial and a solution to the full scalar Helmholtz equation, they can be implemented in many linear wave systems beyond optics, from acoustic and elastic waves to surface waves in fluids and soft matter. Our work generalized the study of classical helicon beams to a complete set of solutions for rotating complex fields.

  14. Interaction of non-radially symmetric camphor particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ei, Shin-Ichiro; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Koyano, Yuki; Nagayama, Masaharu

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the interaction between two non-radially symmetric camphor particles is theoretically investigated and the equation describing the motion is derived as an ordinary differential system for the locations and the rotations. In particular, slightly modified non-radially symmetric cases from radial symmetry are extensively investigated and explicit motions are obtained. For example, it is theoretically shown that elliptically deformed camphor particles interact so as to be parallel with major axes. Such predicted motions are also checked by real experiments and numerical simulations.

  15. Modeling of noise pollution and estimated human exposure around İstanbul Atatürk Airport in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozkurt, Nesimi; Sari, Deniz; Akdag, Ali; Kutukoglu, Murat; Gurarslan, Aliye

    2014-06-01

    The level of aircraft noise exposure around İstanbul Atatürk Airport was calculated according to the European Noise Directive. These calculations were based on the actual flight data for each flight in the year 2011. The study area was selected to cover of 25km radius centered on the Aerodrome Reference Point of the airport. The geographical data around İstanbul Atatürk Airport was used to prepare elevation, residential building, auxiliary building, hospital and school layers in SoundPlan software. It was found that 1.2% of the land area of İstanbul City exceeds the threshold of 55dB(A) during daytime. However, when the exceedance of threshold of 65dB(A)is investigated, the affected area is found quite small (0.2% of land area of city). About 0.3% of the land area of İstanbul City has noise levels exceeding 55dB(A) during night-time. Our results show that about 4% of the resident population was exposed to 55dB(A) or higher noises during daytime in İstanbul. When applying the second threshhold criteria, nearly 1% of the population is exposed to noise levels greater than 65dB(A). At night-time, 1.3% of the population is exposed to 55dB(A) or higher noise levels. © 2013.

  16. Radial Cracks Would Signal Wearout Of Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulus, Donald E.

    1990-01-01

    Nonfatal defects made to appear before fatal ones. Proposed to design turbine blades to crack radially before they crack chordwise. Advance radial cracking promoted in design by adjusting thermal stresses and net bending stresses. Prior appearance of radial crack or cracks in used blade serves as warning that more-threatening chordwise crack or cracks may subsequently appear. Blade replaced before it fails.

  17. The radial approach to the wrist with styloidectomy: A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Lecoq, F-A; Sébilo, A; Bellemère, P

    2017-09-01

    The radial approach to the wrist is already used in several surgical techniques such as radial styloidectomy and Zaidemberg's vascularized radial graft. The aim of our work was to describe the surgical anatomy of that approach and to determine the acceptable limits of radial oblique styloidectomy that does not damage the anterior and posterior radiocarpal ligaments. This radial approach was performed on 11 cadaver specimens. The superficial branches of the radial nerve and the antebrachial cephalic vein were carefully located in the superficial plane. The radiocarpal articular capsule was opened longitudinally between the first and second compartments of the extensor tendons. We drew the oblique radial styloidectomy line at 3, 6 and 9mm from the apex of radial styloid process on the articular surface and then measured the width of ligaments theoretically taken away by the styloidectomy. An oblique radial styloidectomy of less than 6mm preserved the anterior and posterior radiocarpal ligaments. There was one case of radial artery damage while opening the joint capsule. The radial approach to the wrist as described in this work provided good access to the radial styloid process, the radioscaphoid joint and the proximal pole of the scaphoid, if the approach is done carefully to preserve the superficial branches of the radial nerve, the antebrachial cephalic vein and the radial artery. Radial styloidectomy can be performed up to 6mm from the apex without significantly damaging the radiocarpal ligaments, particularly the volar ones. Copyright © 2017 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Dispersion-free radial transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J [Livermore, CA; Nelson, Scott D [Patterson, CA

    2011-04-12

    A dispersion-free radial transmission line ("DFRTL") preferably for linear accelerators, having two plane conductors each with a central hole, and an electromagnetically permeable material ("EPM") between the two conductors and surrounding a channel connecting the two holes. At least one of the material parameters of relative magnetic permeability, relative dielectric permittivity, and axial width of the EPM is varied as a function of radius, so that the characteristic impedance of the DFRTL is held substantially constant, and pulse transmission therethrough is substantially dispersion-free. Preferably, the EPM is divided into concentric radial sections, with the varied material parameters held constant in each respective section but stepwise varied between sections as a step function of the radius. The radial widths of the concentric sections are selected so that pulse traversal time across each section is the same, and the varied material parameters of the concentric sections are selected to minimize traversal error.

  19. Calculation of transonic flow in radial turbine blade cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petr, Straka

    2017-09-01

    Numerical modeling of transonic centripetal turbulent flow in radial blade cascade is described in this paper. Attention is paid to effect of the outlet confusor on flow through the radial blade cascade. Parameters of presented radial blade cascade are compared with its linear representation

  20. Radial Field Piezoelectric Diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, R. G.; Effinger, R. T., IV; Copeland, B. M., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    A series of active piezoelectric diaphragms were fabricated and patterned with several geometrically defined Inter-Circulating Electrodes "ICE" and Interdigitated Ring Electrodes "ICE". When a voltage potential is applied to the electrodes, the result is a radially distributed electric field that mechanically strains the piezoceramic along the Z-axis (perpendicular to the applied electric field). Unlike other piezoelectric bender actuators, these Radial Field Diaphragms (RFDs) strain concentrically yet afford high displacements (several times that of the equivalent Unimorph) while maintaining a constant circumference. One of the more intriguing aspects is that the radial strain field reverses itself along the radius of the RFD while the tangential strain remains relatively constant. The result is a Z-deflection that has a conical profile. This paper covers the fabrication and characterization of the 5 cm. (2 in.) diaphragms as a function of poling field strength, ceramic thickness, electrode type and line spacing, as well as the surface topography, the resulting strain field and displacement as a function of applied voltage at low frequencies. The unique features of these RFDs include the ability to be clamped about their perimeter with little or no change in displacement, the environmentally insulated packaging, and a highly repeatable fabrication process that uses commodity materials.

  1. Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes of Unipolar and Bipolar Radial Head Prosthesis in Patients with Radial Head Fracture: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongwei; Wang, Ziyang; Shang, Yongjun

    2018-06-01

    To compare clinical outcomes of unipolar and bipolar radial head prosthesis in the treatment of patients with radial head fracture. Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, Google Scholar databases were searched until April 18, 2016 using the following search terms: radial head fracture, elbow fracture, radial head arthroplasty, implants, prosthesis, unipolar, bipolar, cemented, and press-fit. Randomized controlled trials, retrospective, and cohort studies were included. The Mayo elbow performance score (MEPS), disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) score, radiologic assessment, ROM, and grip strength following elbow replacement were similar between prosthetic devices. The pooled mean excellent/good ranking of MEPS was 0.78 for unipolar and 0.73 for bipolar radial head arthroplasty, and the pooled mean MEPS was 86.9 and 79.9, respectively. DASH scores for unipolar and bipolar prosthesis were 19.0 and 16.3, respectively. Range of motion outcomes were similar between groups, with both groups have comparable risk of flexion arc, flexion, extension deficit, rotation arc, pronation, and supination (p values <0.001 for both unipolar and bipolar prosthesis). However, bipolar radial head prosthesis was associated with an increased chance of heterotopic ossification and lucency (p values ≤0.049) while unipolar prosthesis was not (p values ≥0.088). Both groups had risk for development of capitellar osteopenia or erosion/wear (p values ≤0.039). Unipolar and bipolar radial head prostheses were similar with respect to clinical outcomes. Additional comparative studies are necessary to further compare different radial head prostheses used to treat radial head fracture.

  2. Disc dislodgment in Björk Shiley mitral valve prosthesis: two successfully operated cases.

    PubMed

    Dubernet, J; Irarrázaval, M J; Urzúa, J; Maturana, G; Morán, S; Lema, G; Asenjo, F; Fajuri, A

    1986-02-01

    Two patients with Björk Shiley mitral valve replacement had migration and embolization of the occluding disc. One patient suffered migration of the disc a few hours after surgery and the other had a strut fracture with disc translocation six years after the initial operation. Clinical signs in both cases were pulmonary edema, cardiogenic shock, and absence of prosthetic sounds. Both patients were reoperated on an emergency basis, recovering after a complicated postoperative course. They are on functional Class I, 8 and 1 years later, respectively, with their dislodged discs still in the abdominal aorta. The only hope for survival in these patients is emergency reoperation, once the prosthetic mitral valve dysfunction is confirmed.

  3. Ulnar Rotation Osteotomy for Congenital Radial Head Dislocation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruiyu; Miao, Wusheng; Mu, Mingchao; Wu, Ge; Qu, Jining; Wu, Yongtao

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate an ulnar rotation osteotomy for congenital anterior dislocation of the radial head. Nine patients (5 boys and 4 girls aged 6 to 13 years) with congenital anterior dislocation of the radial head were treated with ulnar rotation osteotomy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow showed the proximal radioulnar joint on the anterior-lateral side of the ulna rather than on the lateral side in patients with congenital anterior dislocation of the radial head. On the basis of this finding, we performed an osteotomy on the ulna and laterally rotated the proximal radioulnar joint achieving radial head reduction and restoring the anatomical relationship between the radial head and the capitellum. Clinical and radiographical evaluation of the elbow was performed before surgery and at postoperative follow-up. All patients were followed for 13 to 45 months after surgery. Elbow radiography showed that the radiocapitellar joint was reduced in all patients at the last follow-up visit and that the carrying angle was decreased relative to that in the preoperative condition. Elbow stability and the range of elbow flexion motion were improved at the last follow-up. We did not observe ulnar osteotomy site nonunion or elbow osteoarthritis in these patients. Furthermore, radial head dislocation did not recur. At early follow-up, ulnar rotation osteotomy was a safe and effective method for the treatment of congenital anterior dislocation of the radial head. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Radial access for cerebrovascular procedures: Case report and technical note.

    PubMed

    Satti, Sudhakar R; Vance, Ansar Z; Sivapatham, Thinesh

    2016-04-01

    Advantages of radial access over brachial/axillary or femoral access have been well described for several decades and include decreased cost, patient preference, and decreased major access site complications. Despite these advantages, radial access is rarely employed or even considered for neurointerventional procedures. This attitude should be reconsidered given several recent large, randomized, controlled trials from the cardiovascular literature proving that radial access is associated with statistically lower costs, decreased incidence of myocardial infarctions, strokes, and even decreased mortality. Radial access is now considered the standard of care for percutaneous coronary interventions in most US centers. Although radial access has been described for neurovascular procedures in the past, overall experience is limited. The two major challenges are the unique anatomy required to access the cerebral vasculature given very acute angles between the arm and craniocervical vessels and limitations in available technology. We present a simplified approach to radial access for cerebrovascular procedures and provide a concise step-by-step approach for patient selection, ultrasound-guided single-wall access, recommended catheters/wires, and review of patent hemostasis. Additionally, we present a complex cerebrovascular intervention in which standard femoral access was unsuccessful, while radial access was quickly achieved to highlight the importance of familiarity with the radial approach for all neurointerventionalists. We have found that the learning curve is not too steep and that the radial access approach can be adopted smoothly for a large percentage of diagnostic and interventional neuroradiologic procedures. Radial access should be considered in all patients undergoing a cerebrovascular procedure. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Radial gradient and radial deviation radiomic features from pre-surgical CT scans are associated with survival among lung adenocarcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Tunali, Ilke; Stringfield, Olya; Guvenis, Albert; Wang, Hua; Liu, Ying; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Lambin, Philippe; Gillies, Robert J; Schabath, Matthew B

    2017-11-10

    The goal of this study was to extract features from radial deviation and radial gradient maps which were derived from thoracic CT scans of patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma and assess whether these features are associated with overall survival. We used two independent cohorts from different institutions for training (n= 61) and test (n= 47) and focused our analyses on features that were non-redundant and highly reproducible. To reduce the number of features and covariates into a single parsimonious model, a backward elimination approach was applied. Out of 48 features that were extracted, 31 were eliminated because they were not reproducible or were redundant. We considered 17 features for statistical analysis and identified a final model containing the two most highly informative features that were associated with lung cancer survival. One of the two features, radial deviation outside-border separation standard deviation, was replicated in a test cohort exhibiting a statistically significant association with lung cancer survival (multivariable hazard ratio = 0.40; 95% confidence interval 0.17-0.97). Additionally, we explored the biological underpinnings of these features and found radial gradient and radial deviation image features were significantly associated with semantic radiological features.

  6. Radial gradient and radial deviation radiomic features from pre-surgical CT scans are associated with survival among lung adenocarcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Tunali, Ilke; Stringfield, Olya; Guvenis, Albert; Wang, Hua; Liu, Ying; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Lambin, Philippe; Gillies, Robert J.; Schabath, Matthew B.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to extract features from radial deviation and radial gradient maps which were derived from thoracic CT scans of patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma and assess whether these features are associated with overall survival. We used two independent cohorts from different institutions for training (n= 61) and test (n= 47) and focused our analyses on features that were non-redundant and highly reproducible. To reduce the number of features and covariates into a single parsimonious model, a backward elimination approach was applied. Out of 48 features that were extracted, 31 were eliminated because they were not reproducible or were redundant. We considered 17 features for statistical analysis and identified a final model containing the two most highly informative features that were associated with lung cancer survival. One of the two features, radial deviation outside-border separation standard deviation, was replicated in a test cohort exhibiting a statistically significant association with lung cancer survival (multivariable hazard ratio = 0.40; 95% confidence interval 0.17-0.97). Additionally, we explored the biological underpinnings of these features and found radial gradient and radial deviation image features were significantly associated with semantic radiological features. PMID:29221183

  7. Illumination Profile & Dispersion Variation Effects on Radial Velocity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieves, Nolan; Ge, Jian; Thomas, Neil B.; Ma, Bo; Li, Rui; SDSS-III

    2015-01-01

    The Multi-object APO Radial-Velocity Exoplanet Large-Area Survey (MARVELS) measures radial velocities using a fiber-fed dispersed fixed-delay interferometer (DFDI) with a moderate dispersion spectrograph. This setup allows a unique insight into the 2D illumination profile from the fiber on to the dispersion grating. Illumination profile investigations show large changes in the profile over time and fiber location. These profile changes are correlated with dispersion changes and long-term radial velocity offsets, a major problem within the MARVELS radial velocity data. Characterizing illumination profiles creates a method to both detect and correct radial velocity offsets, allowing for better planet detection. Here we report our early results from this study including improvement of radial velocity data points from detected giant planet candidates. We also report an illumination profile experiment conducted at the Kitt Peak National Observatory using the EXPERT instrument, which has a DFDI mode similar to MARVELS. Using profile controlling octagonal-shaped fibers, long term offsets over a 3 month time period were reduced from ~50 m/s to within the photon limit of ~4 m/s.

  8. Radial transfer effects for poloidal rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallatschek, Klaus

    2010-11-01

    Radial transfer of energy or momentum is the principal agent responsible for radial structures of Geodesic Acoustic Modes (GAMs) or stationary Zonal Flows (ZF) generated by the turbulence. For the GAM, following a physical approach, it is possible to find useful expressions for the individual components of the Poynting flux or radial group velocity allowing predictions where a mathematical full analysis is unfeasible. Striking differences between up-down symmetric flux surfaces and asymmetric ones have been found. For divertor geometries, e.g., the direction of the propagation depends on the sign of the ion grad-B drift with respect to the X-point, reminiscent of a sensitive determinant of the H-mode threshold. In nonlocal turbulence computations it becomes obvious that the linear energy transfer terms can be completely overwhelmed by the action of the turbulence. In contrast, stationary ZFs are governed by the turbulent radial transfer of momentum. For sufficiently large systems, the Reynolds stress becomes a deterministic functional of the flows, which can be empirically determined from the stress response in computational turbulence studies. The functional allows predictions even on flow/turbulence states not readily obtainable from small amplitude noise, such as certain transport bifurcations or meta-stable states.

  9. Anterior transposition of the radial nerve--a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Yakkanti, Madhusudhan R; Roberts, Craig S; Murphy, Joshua; Acland, Robert D

    2008-01-01

    The radial nerve is at risk during the posterior plating of the humerus. The purpose of this anatomic study was to assess the extent of radial nerve dissection required for anterior transposition through the fracture site (transfracture anterior transposition). A cadaver study was conducted approaching the humerus by a posterior midline incision. The extent of dissection of the nerve necessary for plate fixation of the humerus fracture was measured. An osteotomy was created to model a humeral shaft fracture at the spiral groove (OTA classification 12-A2, 12-A3). The radial nerve was then transposed anterior to the humeral shaft through the fracture site. The additional dissection of the radial nerve and the extent of release of soft tissue from the humerus shaft to achieve the transposition were measured. Plating required a dissection of the radial nerve 1.78 cm proximal and 2.13 cm distal to the spiral groove. Transfracture anterior transposition of the radial nerve required an average dissection of 2.24 cm proximal and 2.68 cm distal to the spiral groove. The lateral intermuscular septum had to be released for 2.21 cm on the distal fragment to maintain laxity of the transposed nerve. Transfracture anterior transposition of the radial nerve before plating is feasible with dissection proximal and distal to the spiral groove and elevation of the lateral intermuscular septum. Potential clinical advantages of this technique include enhanced fracture site visualization, application of broader plates, and protection of the radial nerve during the internal fixation.

  10. Press-fit bipolar radial head arthroplasty, midterm results.

    PubMed

    Kodde, Izaäk F; Heijink, Andras; Kaas, Laurens; Mulder, Paul G H; van Dijk, C Niek; Eygendaal, Denise

    2016-08-01

    Theoretical advantages of bipolar compared with monopolar radial head arthroplasty include better accommodation of radiocapitellar malalignment, reduction of capitellar abrasion, and reduction of stress at the bone-implant interfaces. Our purpose was to report the midterm results of press-fit bipolar radial head arthroplasty. Thirty patients were treated by press-fit bipolar radial head arthroplasty for acute fracture of the radial head, failed earlier treatment, or post-traumatic sequelae. Three patients were lost to follow-up. Results are presented for the remaining 27 patients. At mean follow-up of 48 months (range, 28-73), there had been 3 (11%) revisions. Two involved conversion to prosthetic radiocapitellar hemiarthroplasty for symptomatic capitellar abrasion; a third involved exchange of the articular component (ie, head) for instability. In all, the stems appeared well fixed. A prosthesis in a subluxed position accounted for the 1 (4%) additional radiologic failure. The average flexion-extension arc was 136° (range, 120°-145°), and the average pronation-supination arc was 138° (range, 70°-180°). According to the Mayo Elbow Performance Score, the combined excellent and good results accounted for 70%. The overall midterm outcome of this series of 30 press-fit bipolar radial head arthroplasties can be considered favorable. Although the revision rate was 11%, the stems were well fixed in all. There was 1 (4%) additional radiologic failure. We suggest considering a press-fit bipolar radial head prosthesis for acute comminuted radial head fractures with limited bone loss of the proximal radius. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Aircraft radial-belted tire evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Davis, Pamela A.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of the ongoing joint NASA/FAA/Industry Surface Traction And Radial Tire (START) Program being conducted at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF). The START Program involves tests using three different tire sizes to evaluate tire rolling resistance, braking, and cornering performance throughout the aircraft ground operational speed range for both dry and wet runway surfaces. Preliminary results from recent 40 x 14 size bias-ply, radial-belted, and H-type aircraft tire tests are discussed. The paper concludes with a summary of the current program status and planned ALDF test schedule.

  12. Off-Design Performance of Radial-Inflow Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meitner, P. L.; Glassman, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Computer code determines rotor exit flow from hub to tip. RTOD (Radial Turbine Off-Design), computes off-design performance of radial turbine by modeling flow with stator viscous and trailing-edge losses, and with vaneless space loss between stator and rotor, and with rotor incidence, viscous, clearance, trailing-edge, and disk friction losses.

  13. Radial Inflow Turboexpander Redesign

    SciTech Connect

    William G. Price

    2001-09-24

    Steamboat Envirosystems, LLC (SELC) was awarded a grant in accordance with the DOE Enhanced Geothermal Systems Project Development. Atlas-Copco Rotoflow (ACR), a radial expansion turbine manufacturer, was responsible for the manufacturing of the turbine and the creation of the new computer program. SB Geo, Inc. (SBG), the facility operator, monitored and assisted ACR's activities as well as provided installation and startup assistance. The primary scope of the project is the redesign of an axial flow turbine to a radial inflow turboexpander to provide increased efficiency and reliability at an existing facility. In addition to the increased efficiency and reliability, themore » redesign includes an improved reduction gear design, and improved shaft seal design, and upgraded control system and a greater flexibility of application« less

  14. Biologic plating of unstable distal radial fractures.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jae-Man; Jung, Gu-Hee

    2018-04-14

    Volar locking plating through the flexor carpi radialis is a well-established technique for treating unstable distal radial fractures, with few reported complications. In certain circumstances, including metaphyseal comminuted fractures, bridge plating through a pronator quadratus (PQ)-sparing approach may be required to preserve the soft tissue envelope. This study describes our prospective experience with bridge plating through indirect reduction. Thirty-three wrists (four 23A2, six 23A3, 15 23C1, and eight 23C2) underwent bridge plating through a PQ-sparing approach with indirect reduction from June 2006 to December 2010. Mean patient age was 56.8 years (range, 25-83 years), and the mean follow-up period was 47.5 months (range, 36-84 months). Changes in radiologic parameters (volar tilt, radial inclination, radial length, and ulnar variance) were analyzed, and functional results at final follow-up were evaluated by measuring the Modified Mayo Wrist Score (MMWS) and Modified Gartland-Werley Score (MGWS). All wrists achieved bone healing without significant complications after a single operation. At final follow-up, radial length was restored from an average of 3.7 mm to 11.0 mm, as were radial inclination, from 16.4° to 22.5°, and volar tilt, from - 9.1° to 5.5°. However, radial length was overcorrected in three wrists, and two experienced residual dorsal tilt. Excellent and good results on the MGWS were achieved in 30 wrists (90.9%). The average MMWS outcome was 92.6 (range, 75-100). Our experience with bridge plating was similar to that previously reported in the earlier publications. Compared with the conventional technique, bridge plating through a PQ-sparing approach may help in managing metaphyseal comminuted fractures of both cortices with a reduced radio-ulnar index.

  15. Radially polarized and passively Q-switched fiber laser

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Di; Xia, Kegui; Li, Ruxin; Li, Xiaojun; Li, Guoqiang; Ueda, Ken-ichi; Li, Jianlang

    2017-01-01

    We report, for the first time to our knowledge, a radially polarized and passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser. By using a Cr4+:YAG crystal as a saturable absorber and a photonic crystal grating as a polarization mirror, a radially polarized pulse is produced, which has 202 W of peak power, 75 ns duration, and ~92% polarization purity at a 56.6 kHz repetition rate. The Q-switched pulse with radial polarization from the fiber laser would facilitate numerous applications. PMID:21042354

  16. [A correlation between diffusion kurtosis imaging and the proliferative activity of brain glioma].

    PubMed

    Tonoyan, A S; Pronin, I N; Pitshelauri, D I; Shishkina, L V; Fadeeva, L M; Pogosbekyan, E L; Zakharova, N E; Shults, E I; Khachanova, N V; Kornienko, V N; Potapov, A A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the capabilities of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in diagnosis of the glioma proliferative activity and to evaluate a relationship between the glioma proliferative activity index and diffusion parameters of the contralateral normal appearing white matter (CNAWM). The study included 47 patients with newly diagnosed brain gliomas (23 low grade, 13 grade III, and 11 grade IV gliomas). We determined a relationship between absolute and normalized parameters of the diffusion tensor (mean (MD), axial (AD), and radial (RD) diffusivities; fractional (FA) and relative (RA) anisotropies) and diffusion kurtosis (mean (MK), axial (AK), and radial (RK) kurtosis; kurtosis anisotropy (KA)) and the proliferative activity index in the most malignant glioma parts (p<0.05). We also established a relationship between the tensor and kurtosis parameters of CNAWM and the glioma proliferative activity index (p<0.05). The correlation between all the absolute and normalized diffusion parameters and the glioma proliferative activity index, except absolute and normalized FA and RA values, was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). Kurtosis (MK, AK, and RK) and anisotropy (KA, FA, RA) values increased, and diffusivity (MD, AD, RD) values decreased as the glioma proliferative activity index increased. A strong correlation between the proliferative activity index and absolute RK (r=0,71; p=0.000001) and normalized values of MK (r=0.8; p=0.000001), AK (r=0.71; p=0.000001), RK (r=0.81; p=0.000001), and RD (r=-0.71; p=0.000001) was found. A weak, but statistically significant correlation between the glioma proliferative activity index and diffusion values RK (r=-0.36; p=0.014), KA (r=-0.39; p=0.007), RD (r=0.35; p=0.017), FA (r=-0.42; p=0.003), and RA (r=-0.41; p=0.004) of CNAWM was found. DKI has good capabilities to detect immunohistochemical changes in gliomas. DKI demonstrated a high sensitivity in detection of microstructural changes in the

  17. Transcription factor HAT1 is a substrate of SnRK2.3 kinase and negatively regulates ABA synthesis and signaling in Arabidopsis responding to drought.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenrong; Zhang, Dawei; Zhou, Huapeng; Zheng, Ting; Yin, Yanhai; Lin, Honghui

    2018-04-01

    Drought is a major threat to plant growth and crop productivity. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a critical role in plant response to drought stress. Although ABA signaling-mediated drought tolerance has been widely investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana, the feedback mechanism and components negatively regulating this pathway are less well understood. Here we identified a member of Arabidopsis HD-ZIP transcription factors HAT1 which can interacts with and be phosphorylated by SnRK2s. hat1hat3, loss-of-function mutant of HAT1 and its homolog HAT3, was hypersensitive to ABA in primary root inhibition, ABA-responsive genes expression, and displayed enhanced drought tolerance, whereas HAT1 overexpressing lines were hyposensitive to ABA and less tolerant to drought stress, suggesting that HAT1 functions as a negative regulator in ABA signaling-mediated drought response. Furthermore, expression levels of ABA biosynthesis genes ABA3 and NCED3 were repressed by HAT1 directly binding to their promoters, resulting in the ABA level was increased in hat1hat3 and reduced in HAT1OX lines. Further evidence showed that both protein stability and binding activity of HAT1 was repressed by SnRK2.3 phosphorylation. Overexpressing SnRK2.3 in HAT1OX transgenic plant made a reduced HAT1 protein level and suppressed the HAT1OX phenotypes in ABA and drought response. Our results thus establish a new negative regulation mechanism of HAT1 which helps plants fine-tune their drought responses.

  18. Keratorefractive procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, Theo

    1991-11-01

    Two laser types are going to find a place in refractive surgery of the cornea: the excimer laser (193 nm) and mid-infrared YAG lasers, such as Ho:YAG (2.1 micrometers ) and Er:YAG (2.94 micrometers ). Whereas the excimer laser used for photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) is currently studied in clinical trials, Ho:YAG and Er:YAG lasers are still in the state of preclinical evaluation. For myopic corrections excimer laser PRK has shown to be safe and effective in the range up to -7.0 D. The results compare favorably with conventional procedures such as radial keratotomy. Complications are rare. Hyperopic and astigmatic corrections using the Ho:YAG laser (HOT) are effective, but safety and stability has yet to be proven. Er:YAG laser photoablation yields a healing response in animal eyes similar to the excimer laser.

  19. Revealing the Radial Effect on Orientation Discrimination by Manual Reaction Time

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Lixin; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Mingsha; Pan, Yujun

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that the sensitivity and accuracy of orientation perception in the periphery is significantly better when the orientations are radial with respect to the fixation point than when they are tangential. However, since perception and action may be dissociated, it is unclear whether the perceptual radial effect has a counterpart in reaction time (RT) of motor responses. Furthermore, it is unknown whether or how stimulus-response-compatibility (SRC) effect interacts with the radial effect to determine RT. To address these questions, we measured subjects' manual RT to grating stimuli that appeared across upper visual field (VF). We found that (1) RTs were significantly shorter when a grating was oriented closer to the radial direction than when it was oriented closer to the tangential direction even though the perceptual accuracies for the more radial and more tangential orientations were not significantly different under our experimental condition; (2) This RT version of the radial effect was larger in the left VF than in the right VF; (3) The radial effect and SRC effect interacted with each other to determine the overall RT. These results suggest that the RT radial effect reported here is not a passive reflection of the radial effect in perceptual accuracy, but instead, represents different processing time of radial and tangential orientations along the sensorimotor pathway. PMID:29225564

  20. Early evolution of radial glial cells in Bilateria

    PubMed Central

    Karl, Anett; Beckers, Patrick; Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Ulbricht, Elke; Kourtesis, Ioannis; Kuhrt, Heidrun; Hausen, Harald; Reichenbach, Andreas; Bleidorn, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Bilaterians usually possess a central nervous system, composed of neurons and supportive cells called glial cells. Whereas neuronal cells are highly comparable in all these animals, glial cells apparently differ, and in deuterostomes, radial glial cells are found. These particular secretory glial cells may represent the archetype of all (macro) glial cells and have not been reported from protostomes so far. This has caused controversial discussions of whether glial cells represent a homologous bilaterian characteristic or whether they (and thus, centralized nervous systems) evolved convergently in the two main clades of bilaterians. By using histology, transmission electron microscopy, immunolabelling and whole-mount in situ hybridization, we show here that protostomes also possess radial glia-like cells, which are very likely to be homologous to those of deuterostomes. Moreover, our antibody staining indicates that the secretory character of radial glial cells is maintained throughout their various evolutionary adaptations. This implies an early evolution of radial glial cells in the last common ancestor of Protostomia and Deuterostomia. Furthermore, it suggests that an intraepidermal nervous system—composed of sensory cells, neurons and radial glial cells—was probably the plesiomorphic condition in the bilaterian ancestor. PMID:28724733

  1. Capitellar Erosion after Radial Head Arthroplasty: A Comparative Biomechanical Study of Operated Radial Head Fractures on Cadaveric Specimens.

    PubMed

    Chytas, I D; Antonopoulos, C; Cheva, A; Givissis, P

    2018-03-23

    We asked whether either open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) or radial head arthroplasty (RHA), common techniques used for the confrontation of displaced or comminuted radial head fractures, are correlated with cartilage wear of the capitulum. We hypothesized that neither ORIF nor RHA are correlated with capitellar cartilage wear. On 5 cadaveric elbow specimens, osteotomies were employed to simulate radial head comminuted fractures followed with ORIF by Herbert screws. Radial heads were also excised from other 5 cadaveric elbow specimens and were replaced by metallic monopolar implants. Finally 2 elbows were not operated and used as a control group. Custom-made rotary machines, working unstoppably, generated 700.000 pronation and supination forearm movements at an 110° arc of motion. The elbow joints were examined with pre- and postoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans and the articular surfaces of the capitula were resected and sent for histopathology study. In the 2 cadaveric elbows of the control group and the 4 elbows treated with ORIF no cartilage damage was found. The fifth one displayed cartilage fissures which were classified according to International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) grading system as grade I cartilage damage. On the contrary, all 5 elbows treated with RHA sustained complete cartilage loss, exposure of the subchondral bone and were classified as ICRS grade IV cartilage damage. Our study suggests that metallic monopolar RHA after a displaced or comminuted radial head fracture carries a high risk of rapidly evolving cartilage loss of the capitulum. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficient, high-power, and radially polarized fiber laser

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Di; Xia, Kegui; Li, Jianlang; Li, Ruxin; Ueda, Ken-ichi; Li, Guoqiang; Li, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate an ytterbium-doped fiber laser that emits high-power radially polarized light efficiently. In this study, a photonic crystal grating (PCG) was used as a polarization-selective output coupler, and the power of the radially polarized laser reached 2.42 W with a slope efficiency of 45.9% and a polarization purity of 96%. The results reveal that the inclusion of the PCG mirror into the fiber laser are particularly promising for generating high-power radially polarized light efficiently in view of its many important applications. PMID:20596223

  3. Losses in radial inflow turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khalil, I. M.; Tabakoff, W.; Hamed, A.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine experimentally and theoretically the losses in radial inflow turbine nozzles. Extensive experimental data was obtained to investigate the flow behavior in a full-scale radial turbine stator annulus. A theoretical model to predict the losses in both the vaned and vaneless regions of the nozzle was developed. In this analysis, the interaction effects between the stator and the rotor are not considered. It was found that the losses incurred due to the end wall boundary layers can be significant, especially if they are characterized by a strong crossflow. The losses estimated using the analytical study are compared with the experimentally determined values.

  4. Combining axial and radial nanowire heterostructures: radial Esaki diodes and tunnel field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Dey, Anil W; Svensson, Johannes; Ek, Martin; Lind, Erik; Thelander, Claes; Wernersson, Lars-Erik

    2013-01-01

    The ever-growing demand on high-performance electronics has generated transistors with very impressive figures of merit (Radosavljevic et al., IEEE Int. Devices Meeting 2009, 1-4 and Cho et al., IEEE Int. Devices Meeting 2011, 15.1.1-15.1.4). The continued scaling of the supply voltage of field-effect transistors, such as tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs), requires the implementation of advanced transistor architectures including FinFETs and nanowire devices. Moreover, integration of novel materials with high electron mobilities, such as III-V semiconductors and graphene, are also being considered to further enhance the device properties (del Alamo, Nature 2011, 479, 317-323, and Liao et al., Nature 2010, 467, 305-308). In nanowire devices, boosting the drive current at a fixed supply voltage or maintaining a constant drive current at a reduced supply voltage may be achieved by increasing the cross-sectional area of a device, however at the cost of deteriorated electrostatics. A gate-all-around nanowire device architecture is the most favorable electrostatic configuration to suppress short channel effects; however, the arrangement of arrays of parallel vertical nanowires to address the drive current predicament will require additional chip area. The use of a core-shell nanowire with a radial heterojunction in a transistor architecture provides an attractive means to address the drive current issue without compromising neither chip area nor device electrostatics. In addition to design advantages of a radial transistor architecture, we in this work illustrate the benefit in terms of drive current per unit chip area and compare the experimental data for axial GaSb/InAs Esaki diodes and TFETs to their radial counterparts and normalize the electrical data to the largest cross-sectional area of the nanowire, i.e. the occupied chip area, assuming a vertical device geometry. Our data on lateral devices show that radial Esaki diodes deliver almost 7 times higher peak

  5. Radial nerve dysfunction (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The radial nerve travels down the arm and supplies movement to the triceps muscle at the back of the upper arm. ... the wrist and hand. The usual causes of nerve dysfunction are direct trauma, prolonged pressure on the ...

  6. Variable stator radial turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogo, C.; Hajek, T.; Chen, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    A radial turbine stage with a variable area nozzle was investigated. A high work capacity turbine design with a known high performance base was modified to accept a fixed vane stagger angle moveable sidewall nozzle. The nozzle area was varied by moving the forward and rearward sidewalls. Diffusing and accelerating rotor inlet ramps were evaluated in combinations with hub and shroud rotor exit rings. Performance of contoured sidewalls and the location of the sidewall split line with respect to the rotor inlet was compared to the baseline. Performance and rotor exit survey data are presented for 31 different geometries. Detail survey data at the nozzle exit are given in contour plot format for five configurations. A data base is provided for a variable geometry concept that is a viable alternative to the more common pivoted vane variable geometry radial turbine.

  7. Radial elasticity of self-assembled lipid tubules.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Tamhane, Karan; Zhang, Xuejun; An, Linan; Fang, Jiyu

    2008-07-01

    Self-assembled lipid tubules with crystalline bilayer walls represent useful supramolecular architectures which hold promise as vehicles for the controlled release of preloaded drugs and templates for the synthesis of one-dimensional inorganic materials. We study the local elasticity of lipid tubules of 1,2-bis(tricosa-10,12-diynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine by radial atomic force microscope indentation, coupled with finite element analysis. A reduced stiffness is found to extend a distance of approximately 600 nm from the ends of lipid tubules. The middle section of lipid tubules is homogeneous in terms of their radial elasticity with a Young's modulus of approximately 703 MPa. The inhomogeneous radial elasticity likely arises from the variation of lipid packing density near the tubule ends.

  8. Electrostatics of Nanowire Radial p-n Heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borblik, Vitalii

    2018-04-01

    The electrostatics of a nanowire radial heterostructure p-n junction is considered theoretically. It is shown that when the radius of the core-shell interface decreases, depletion width of the core increases, but depletion width of the shell, on the contrary, decreases. This is the consequence of cylindrical symmetry of the structure. Thereby, the relative contribution from the constituent materials into performance characteristics of the devices, which use a heterostructure p-n junction, changes substantially. Values of the depletion widths in the heterostructure p-n junction prove to be intermediate between those in radial homostructure p-n junctions made of the constituent materials at the same doping levels. An analogous situation takes place for a barrier capacitance of the radial heterostructure p-n junction.

  9. Radial flow nuclear thermal rocket (RFNTR)

    DOEpatents

    Leyse, Carl F.

    1995-11-07

    A radial flow nuclear thermal rocket fuel assembly includes a substantially conical fuel element having an inlet side and an outlet side. An annular channel is disposed in the element for receiving a nuclear propellant, and a second, conical, channel is disposed in the element for discharging the propellant. The first channel is located radially outward from the second channel, and separated from the second channel by an annular fuel bed volume. This fuel bed volume can include a packed bed of loose fuel beads confined by a cold porous inlet frit and a hot porous exit frit. The loose fuel beads include ZrC coated ZrC-UC beads. In this manner, nuclear propellant enters the fuel assembly axially into the first channel at the inlet side of the element, flows axially across the fuel bed volume, and is discharged from the assembly by flowing radially outward from the second channel at the outlet side of the element.

  10. Radial flow nuclear thermal rocket (RFNTR)

    DOEpatents

    Leyse, Carl F.

    1995-01-01

    A radial flow nuclear thermal rocket fuel assembly includes a substantially conical fuel element having an inlet side and an outlet side. An annular channel is disposed in the element for receiving a nuclear propellant, and a second, conical, channel is disposed in the element for discharging the propellant. The first channel is located radially outward from the second channel, and separated from the second channel by an annular fuel bed volume. This fuel bed volume can include a packed bed of loose fuel beads confined by a cold porous inlet frit and a hot porous exit frit. The loose fuel beads include ZrC coated ZrC-UC beads. In this manner, nuclear propellant enters the fuel assembly axially into the first channel at the inlet side of the element, flows axially across the fuel bed volume, and is discharged from the assembly by flowing radially outward from the second channel at the outlet side of the element.

  11. Radial head fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Elbow fracture - radial head - aftercare ... to 2 weeks. If you have a small fracture and your bones did not move around much, ... to see a bone doctor (orthopedic surgeon). Some fractures require surgery to: Insert pins and plates to ...

  12. Radial-probe EBUS for the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions

    PubMed Central

    Jacomelli, Marcia; Demarzo, Sergio Eduardo; Cardoso, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro; Palomino, Addy Lidvina Mejia; Figueiredo, Viviane Rossi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Conventional bronchoscopy has a low diagnostic yield for peripheral pulmonary lesions. Radial-probe EBUS employs a rotating ultrasound transducer at the end of a probe that is passed through the working channel of the bronchoscope. Radial-probe EBUS facilitates the localization of peripheral pulmonary nodules, thus increasing the diagnostic yield. The objective of this study was to present our initial experience using radial-probe EBUS in the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions at a tertiary hospital. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 54 patients who underwent radial-probe EBUS-guided bronchoscopy for the investigation of pulmonary nodules or masses between February of 2012 and September of 2013. Radial-probe EBUS was performed with a flexible 20-MHz probe, which was passed through the working channel of the bronchoscope and advanced through the bronchus to the target lesion. For localization of the lesion and for collection procedures (bronchial brushing, transbronchial needle aspiration, and transbronchial biopsy), we used fluoroscopy. Results: Radial-probe EBUS identified 39 nodules (mean diameter, 1.9 ∓ 0.7 cm) and 19 masses (mean diameter, 4.1 ∓ 0.9 cm). The overall sensitivity of the method was 66.7% (79.5% and 25.0%, respectively, for lesions that were visible and not visible by radial-probe EBUS). Among the lesions that were visible by radial-probe EBUS, the sensitivity was 91.7% for masses and 74.1% for nodules. The complications were pneumothorax (in 3.7%) and bronchial bleeding, which was controlled bronchoscopically (in 9.3%). Conclusions: Radial-probe EBUS shows a good safety profile, a low complication rate, and high sensitivity for the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions. PMID:27832231

  13. Sharp Dissection versus Electrocautery for Radial Artery Harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Marzban, Mehrab; Arya, Reza; Mandegar, Mohammad Hossein; Karimi, Abbas Ali; Abbasi, Kiomars; Movahed, Namvar; Abbasi, Seyed Hesameddin

    2006-01-01

    Radial arteries have been increasingly used during the last decade as conduits for coronary artery revascularization. Although various harvesting techniques have been described, there has been little comparative study of arterial damage and patency. A radial artery graft was used in 44 consecutive patients, who were randomly divided into 2 groups. In the 1st group, the radial artery was harvested by sharp dissection and in the 2nd, by electrocautery. These groups were compared with regard to radial artery free flow, harvest time, number of clips used, complications, and endothelial damage. Radial artery free flow before and after intraluminal administration of papaverine was significantly greater in the electrocautery group (84.3 ± 50.7 mL/min and 109.7 ± 68.5 mL/min) than in the sharp-dissection group (52.9 ± 18.3 mL/min and 69.6 ± 28.2 mL/ min) (P =0.003). Harvesting time by electrocautery was significantly shorter (25.4 ± 4.3 min vs 34.4 ± 5.9 min) (P =0.0001). Electrocautery consumed an average of 9.76 clips, versus 22.45 clips consumed by sharp dissection. The 2 groups were not different regarding postoperative complications, except for 3 cases of temporary paresthesia of the thumb in the electrocautery group; histopathologic examination found no endothelial damage. We conclude that radial artery harvesting by electrocautery is faster and more economical than harvesting by sharp dissection and is associated with better intraoperative flow and good preservation of endothelial integrity. PMID:16572861

  14. Stellar Angular Momentum Distributions and Preferential Radial Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyse, Rosemary; Daniel, Kathryne J.

    2018-04-01

    I will present some results from our recent investigations into the efficiency of radial migration in stellar disks of differing angular momentum distributions, within a given adopted 2D spiral disk potential. We apply to our models an analytic criterion that determines whether or not individual stars are in orbits that could lead to radial migration around the corotation resonance. We couch our results in terms of the local stellar velocity dispersion and find that the fraction of stars that could migrate radially decreases as the velocity dispersion increases. I will discuss implications and comparisons with the results of other approaches.

  15. Radial-probe EBUS for the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions.

    PubMed

    Jacomelli, Marcia; Demarzo, Sergio Eduardo; Cardoso, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro; Palomino, Addy Lidvina Mejia; Figueiredo, Viviane Rossi

    2016-01-01

    Conventional bronchoscopy has a low diagnostic yield for peripheral pulmonary lesions. Radial-probe EBUS employs a rotating ultrasound transducer at the end of a probe that is passed through the working channel of the bronchoscope. Radial-probe EBUS facilitates the localization of peripheral pulmonary nodules, thus increasing the diagnostic yield. The objective of this study was to present our initial experience using radial-probe EBUS in the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions at a tertiary hospital. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 54 patients who underwent radial-probe EBUS-guided bronchoscopy for the investigation of pulmonary nodules or masses between February of 2012 and September of 2013. Radial-probe EBUS was performed with a flexible 20-MHz probe, which was passed through the working channel of the bronchoscope and advanced through the bronchus to the target lesion. For localization of the lesion and for collection procedures (bronchial brushing, transbronchial needle aspiration, and transbronchial biopsy), we used fluoroscopy. Radial-probe EBUS identified 39 nodules (mean diameter, 1.9 ± 0.7 cm) and 19 masses (mean diameter, 4.1 ± 0.9 cm). The overall sensitivity of the method was 66.7% (79.5% and 25.0%, respectively, for lesions that were visible and not visible by radial-probe EBUS). Among the lesions that were visible by radial-probe EBUS, the sensitivity was 91.7% for masses and 74.1% for nodules. The complications were pneumothorax (in 3.7%) and bronchial bleeding, which was controlled bronchoscopically (in 9.3%). Radial-probe EBUS shows a good safety profile, a low complication rate, and high sensitivity for the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions. A broncoscopia convencional possui baixo rendimento diagnóstico para lesões pulmonares periféricas. A ecobroncoscopia radial (EBUS radial) emprega um transdutor ultrassonográfico rotatório na extremidade de uma sonda que é inserida no canal de trabalho do broncoscópio. O EBUS

  16. Radial vibration and ultrasonic field of a long tubular ultrasonic radiator.

    PubMed

    Shuyu, Lin; Zhiqiang, Fu; Xiaoli, Zhang; Yong, Wang; Jing, Hu

    2013-09-01

    The radial vibration of a metal long circular tube is studied analytically and its electro-mechanical equivalent circuit is obtained. Based on the equivalent circuit, the radial resonance frequency equation is derived. The theoretical relationship between the radial resonance frequency and the geometrical dimensions is studied. Finite element method is used to simulate the radial vibration and the radiated ultrasonic field and the results are compared with those from the analytical method. It is concluded that the radial resonance frequency for a solid metal rod is larger than that for a metal tube with the same outer radius. The radial resonance frequencies from the analytical method are in good agreement with those from the numerical method. Based on the acoustic field analysis, it is concluded that the long metal tube with small wall thickness is superior to that with large wall thickness in producing radial vibration and ultrasonic radiation. Therefore, it is expected to be used as an effective radial ultrasonic radiator in ultrasonic sewage treatment, ultrasonic antiscale and descaling and other ultrasonic liquid handling applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. O-space with high resolution readouts outperforms radial imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haifeng; Tam, Leo; Kopanoglu, Emre; Peters, Dana C; Constable, R Todd; Galiana, Gigi

    2017-04-01

    While O-Space imaging is well known to accelerate image acquisition beyond traditional Cartesian sampling, its advantages compared to undersampled radial imaging, the linear trajectory most akin to O-Space imaging, have not been detailed. In addition, previous studies have focused on ultrafast imaging with very high acceleration factors and relatively low resolution. The purpose of this work is to directly compare O-Space and radial imaging in their potential to deliver highly undersampled images of high resolution and minimal artifacts, as needed for diagnostic applications. We report that the greatest advantages to O-Space imaging are observed with extended data acquisition readouts. A sampling strategy that uses high resolution readouts is presented and applied to compare the potential of radial and O-Space sequences to generate high resolution images at high undersampling factors. Simulations and phantom studies were performed to investigate whether use of extended readout windows in O-Space imaging would increase k-space sampling and improve image quality, compared to radial imaging. Experimental O-Space images acquired with high resolution readouts show fewer artifacts and greater sharpness than radial imaging with equivalent scan parameters. Radial images taken with longer readouts show stronger undersampling artifacts, which can cause small or subtle image features to disappear. These features are preserved in a comparable O-Space image. High resolution O-Space imaging yields highly undersampled images of high resolution and minimal artifacts. The additional nonlinear gradient field improves image quality beyond conventional radial imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Scaling Relations for the Efficiency of Radial Migration in Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Kathryne J.

    2018-01-01

    Radial migration is frequently recognized as an internal, secular process that could play an important role in disk galaxy evolution. The driving mechanism for radial migration is transient spiral patterns, which rearrange the orbital angular momentum distribution of disk stars around corotation without causing kinematic heating. Should radial migration be an efficient process, it could cause a substantial fraction of disk stars to move large radial distances over the lifetime of the disk, thus having a significant impact on the disk’s kinematic, structural and chemical evolution. Observational and simulated data are consistent with radial migration being important for kinematically cold stellar populations and less so for populations with hot kinematics. I will present an analytic criterion that determines which stars are in orbits that could lead to radial migration. I will then show some scaling relations for the efficacy of radial migration that result from applying this analytic criterion to a series of models that have a variety of distribution functions and spiral patterns in systems with an assumed flat rotation curve. Most importantly, I will argue that these scaling relations can be used to place constraints on the efficiency of radial migration, where stronger spiral patterns and kinematically cold populations will lead to a higher fraction of stars in orbits that can lead to radial migration.

  19. Self-sustained radial oscillating flows between parallel disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, S.; Yang, W.-J.

    1985-05-01

    It is pointed out that radial flow between parallel circular disks is of interest in a number of physical systems such as hydrostatic air bearings, radial diffusers, and VTOL aircraft with centrally located downward-positioned jets. The present investigation is concerned with the problem of instability in radial flow between parallel disks. A time-dependent numerical study and experiments are conducted. Both approaches reveal the nucleation, growth, migration, and decay of annular separation bubbles (i.e. vortex or recirculation zones) in the laminar-flow region. A finite-difference technique is utilized to solve the full unsteady vorticity transport equation in the theoretical procedure, while the flow patterns in the experiments are visualized with the aid of dye-injection, hydrogen-bubble, and paraffin-mist methods. It is found that the separation and reattachment of shear layers in the radial flow through parallel disks are unsteady phenomena. The sequence of nucleation, growth, migration, and decay of the vortices is self-sustained.

  20. Velocidades radiales en Collinder 121

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, M.; Morrell, N.

    Se han llevado a cabo observaciones espectroscópicas de unas treinta estrellas que son posibles miembros del cúmulo abierto Collinder 121. Las mismas fueron realizadas con el telescopio de 2.15m del Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO). El análisis de las velocidades radiales derivadas del material obtenido, confirma la realidad de Collinder 121, al menos desde el punto de vista cinemático. La velocidad radial baricentral (LSR) del cúmulo es de +17 ± 3 km.s-1. Esta velocidad coincide, dentro de los errores, con la velocidad radial (LSR) de la nebulosa anillo S308, la cual es de ~20 ± 10 km.s-1. Como S308 se encuentra físicamente asociada a la estrella Wolf-Rayet HD~50896, es muy probable que esta última sea un miembro de Collinder 121. Desde un punto de vista cinemático, la supergigante roja HD~50877 (K3Iab) también pertenecería a Collinder 121. Basándonos en la pertenencia de HD~50896 a Collinder 121, y en la interacción encontrada entre el viento de esta estrella y el medio interestelar circundante a la misma, se estima para este cúmulo una distancia del orden de 1 kpc.

  1. A Catalogue of Galaxies Having Radial Velocities: Volume 15: Part 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrick, L. W.; Gutsch, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    A tabulation of galaxies which have radial velocities is presented. The parameters of each galaxy are: (1) an abbreviation for the catalog designation, (2) RA(1950), (3) Dec. (1950), (4) new galactic longitude, (5) new galactic latitude, (6) morphological type, (7) magnitude, (8) observed radial velocity in kilometers per second (9) radial velocity corrected for solar motion, and (10) estimated error in radial velocity in kilometers per second.

  2. Combined intrastromal astigmatic keratotomy and laser in situ keratomileusis flap followed by photoablation to correct post-penetrating keratoplasty ametropia and high astigmatism: One-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Shalash, Riad B; Elshazly, Malak I; Salama, Marwa M

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate a new technique combining intrastromal astigmatic keratotomy (AK) with a laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) flap followed by excimer laser photoablation to correct post-penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) high astigmatism and ametropia. Kasr El Aini Hospital, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. Prospective interventional uncontrolled case series. Patients with post-PKP high astigmatism and ametropia had paired intrastromal AK with LASIK flap using the M2 microkeratome followed 2 to 3 months later by excimer laser photoablation. The main outcome measures were uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), mean refractive spherical equivalent (SE), and mean cylinder after each step and at the 1-year follow-up. The study comprised 20 eyes (20 patients). All parameters were significantly improved in all patients by the last follow-up visit. The mean UDVA improved from 1.07 logMAR ± 0.2 (SD) preoperatively to 0.23 ± 0.18 logMAR (P < .001), the mean CDVA improved from 0.79 ± 0.18 logMAR to 0.12 ± 0.12 logMAR (P < .001), the mean refractive SE improved from -5.04 ± 2.62 diopters (D) to -1.47 ± 1.32 D (P = .001), and the mean cylinder reduced from -5.39 ± 0.98 D to -1.05 ± 0.71 D (P < .001). The mean correction index was 0.84 ± 0.10, and the mean flattening index was 0.83 ± 0.10. Thirty-five percent of cases developed microperforations, and 15% developed epithelial ingrowth. This combined approach allowed for the correction of high astigmatism and ametropia following PKP; however, epithelial ingrowth requiring intervention is a complication to be considered. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Predictors of degenerative medial meniscus extrusion: radial component and knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Lee, Bum-Sik; Kim, Jong-Min; Yang, Kyung-Sook; Cha, Eun-Jong; Park, Ji-Hun; Bin, Seong-Il

    2011-02-01

    the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a radial tear on degenerative medial meniscus posterior horn tear extrusion and to identify predictors of medial meniscus extrusion. we reviewed the records of 102 knees with medial meniscus posterior horn tears and degeneration that underwent a partial meniscectomy. Tears were classified as root (n = 17) and non-root (n = 85) tears, or as radial (n = 46) and non-radial (n = 56) tears. Groups were compared in terms of absolute and relative meniscal extrusion, and the proportion of knees with major (> 3 mm) extrusion. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors of extrusion. the radial group had greater mean absolute (4 ± 1 vs. 3 ± 1 mm, P = 0.001) and relative (31 ± 11 vs. 23 ± 12%, P = 0.031) extrusion than the non-radial group. The radial group also had a greater proportion of major extrusions than the non-radial group (74% vs. 26%; P = 0.016). In contrast, the root tear and non-root tear groups were similar in terms of mean absolute (3 ± 1 vs. 3 ± 1 mm, P = n.s.) and relative (30 ± 7 vs. 26 ± 13%; P = n.s.) extrusion and in terms of proportion with major extrusions (59 vs. 55%; P = n.s.). Extrusion was found to be associated with a similar strength with both the presence of a radial component and the preoperative Kellgren-Lawrence grade. meniscal extrusion was greater and more severe in knees with a radial tear component than in knees without a radial component. The incidence and degree of major extrusion was similar in knees with root tears and non-root tears. A radial component and knee osteoarthritis severity were similarly predictive of absolute and relative extrusion. Meniscal extrusion in osteoarthritic knees was associated not only with degenerative meniscal tear but also with osteoarthritis severity. Therefore, arthroscopic meniscal procedures, especially meniscal repair, should be cautiously considered in patients with meniscal extrusion.

  4. Calculating the Flow Field in a Radial Turbine Scroll

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baskharone, E.; Abdallah, S.; Hamed, A.; Tabaoff, W.

    1983-01-01

    Set of two computer programs calculates flow field in radial turbine scroll. Programs represent improvement in analyzing flow in radial turbine scrolls and provide designer with tools for designing better scrolls. Programs written in FORTRAN IV.

  5. Radial Artery Coursing Behind the Biceps Brachii Tendon: Significance for the Transradial Catheterization and a Clinically Oriented Classification of the Radial Artery Variations

    SciTech Connect

    Jelev, L., E-mail: ljelev@abv.bg; Surchev, L.

    2008-09-15

    In routine clinical practice the variations of the radial artery are the main reason for technical failure during transradial catheterization. If these variations are well documented, however, they do not represent a problem in the transradial approach. Therefore, we report here a rare case of the radial artery which is very strange but potentially valuable for the clinical practice: it arises at a right angle from the brachial artery and passes behind the biceps brachii tendon. Based on our findings and on an extensive literature review, we propose for the first time a clinically oriented classification of the variations ofmore » the radial artery. This classification is related to the catheterization success at the usual access site of the radial artery at the wrist.« less

  6. Radial force measurement of endovascular stents: Influence of stent design and diameter.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Matsubara, Yutaka; Aoyagi, Yukihiko; Matsuda, Daisuke; Okadome, Jun; Morisaki, Koichi; Inoue, Kentarou; Tanaka, Shinichi; Ohkusa, Tomoko; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2016-04-01

    Angioplasty and endovascular stent placement is used in case to rescue the coverage of main branches to supply blood to brain from aortic arch in thoracic endovascular aortic repair. This study assessed mechanical properties, especially differences in radial force, of different endovascular and thoracic stents. We analyzed the radial force of three stent models (Epic, E-Luminexx and SMART) stents using radial force-tester method in single or overlapping conditions. We also analyzed radial force in three thoracic stents using Mylar film testing method: conformable Gore-TAG, Relay, and Valiant Thoracic Stent Graft. Overlapping SMART stents had greater radial force than overlapping Epic or Luminexx stents (P < 0.01). The radial force of the thoracic stents was greater than that of all three endovascular stents (P < 0.01). Differences in radial force depend on types of stents, site of deployment, and layer characteristics. In clinical settings, an understanding of the mechanical characteristics, including radial force, is important in choosing a stent for each patient. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Radial forcing and Edgar Allan Poe's lengthening pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Blasing, David; Whitney, Heather M.

    2013-09-01

    Inspired by Edgar Allan Poe's The Pit and the Pendulum, we investigate a radially driven, lengthening pendulum. We first show that increasing the length of an undriven pendulum at a uniform rate does not amplify the oscillations in a manner consistent with the behavior of the scythe in Poe's story. We discuss parametric amplification and the transfer of energy (through the parameter of the pendulum's length) to the oscillating part of the system. In this manner, radial driving can easily and intuitively be understood, and the fundamental concept applied in many other areas. We propose and show by a numerical model that appropriately timed radial forcing can increase the oscillation amplitude in a manner consistent with Poe's story. Our analysis contributes a computational exploration of the complex harmonic motion that can result from radially driving a pendulum and sheds light on a mechanism by which oscillations can be amplified parametrically. These insights should prove especially valuable in the undergraduate physics classroom, where investigations into pendulums and oscillations are commonplace.

  8. Submarine radial vents on Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanless, V. Dorsey; Garcia, M.O.; Trusdell, F.A.; Rhodes, J.M.; Norman, M.D.; Weis, Dominique; Fornari, D.J.; Kurz, M.D.; Guillou, Herve

    2006-01-01

    A 2002 multibeam sonar survey of Mauna Loa's western flank revealed ten submarine radial vents and three submarine lava flows. Only one submarine radial vent was known previously. The ages of these vents are constrained by eyewitness accounts, geologic relationships, Mn-Fe coatings, and geochemical stratigraphy; they range from 128 years B.P. to possibly 47 ka. Eight of the radial vents produced degassed lavas despite eruption in water depths sufficient to inhibit sulfur degassing. These vents formed truncated cones and short lava flows. Two vents produced undegassed lavas that created “irregular” cones and longer lava flows. Compositionally and isotopically, the submarine radial vent lavas are typical of Mauna Loa lavas, except two cones that erupted alkalic lavas. He-Sr isotopes for the radial vent lavas follow Mauna Loa's evolutionary trend. The compositional and isotopic heterogeneity of these lavas indicates most had distinct parental magmas. Bathymetry and acoustic backscatter results, along with photography and sampling during four JASON2 dives, are used to produce a detailed geologic map to evaluate Mauna Loa's submarine geologic history. The new map shows that the 1877 submarine eruption was much larger than previously thought, resulting in a 10% increase for recent volcanism. Furthermore, although alkalic lavas were found at two radial vents, there is no systematic increase in alkalinity among these or other Mauna Loa lavas as expected for a dying volcano. These results refute an interpretation that Mauna Loa's volcanism is waning. The submarine radial vents and flows cover 29 km2 of seafloor and comprise a total volume of ∼2×109 m3 of lava, reinforcing the idea that submarine lava eruptions are important in the growth of oceanic island volcanoes even after they emerged above sea level.

  9. Radial inflow gas turbine engine with advanced transition duct

    DOEpatents

    Wiebe, David J

    2015-03-17

    A gas turbine engine (10), including: a turbine having radial inflow impellor blades (38); and an array of advanced transition combustor assemblies arranged circumferentially about the radial inflow impellor blades (38) and having inner surfaces (34) that are adjacent to combustion gases (40). The inner surfaces (34) of the array are configured to accelerate and orient, for delivery directly onto the radial inflow impellor blades (38), a plurality of discrete flows of the combustion gases (40). The array inner surfaces (34) define respective combustion gas flow axes (20). Each combustion gas flow axis (20) is straight from a point of ignition until no longer bound by the array inner surfaces (34), and each combustion gas flow axis (20) intersects a unique location on a circumference defined by a sweep of the radial inflow impellor blades (38).

  10. Space Motions of Low-Mass Stars. II: Radial Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upgren, A. R.; Harlow, J. J. B.

    1996-01-01

    Radial velocities are presented for 53 dwarf K and M stars, eight of which are radial velocity standards. This is the second list in a program to determine space motions for all of the stars in the McCormick lists of dwarf stars. The observations reported here differ from those of the first list in that they were made using the 1.88m David Dunlap reflector. One of the stars varies in radial velocity, consistent with a spectroscopic binary with a period of about 48 days. (SECTION: Stars)

  11. Radial anisotropy ambient noise tomography of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordret, Aurélien; Rivet, Diane; Shapiro, Nikolai; Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Landès, Matthieu; Koulakov, Ivan; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The use of ambient seismic noise allows us to perform surface-wave tomography of targets which could hardly be imaged by other means. The frequencies involved (~ 0.5 - 20 s), somewhere in between active seismic and regular teleseismic frequency band, make possible the high resolution imaging of intermediate-size targets like volcanic edifices. Moreover, the joint inversion of Rayleigh and Love waves dispersion curves extracted from noise correlations allows us to invert for crustal radial anisotropy. We present here the two first studies of radial anisotropy on volcanoes by showing results from Lake Toba Caldera, a super-volcano in Indonesia, and from Piton de la Fournaise volcano, a hot-spot effusive volcano on the Réunion Island (Indian Ocean). We will see how radial anisotropy can be used to infer the main fabric within a magmatic system and, consequently, its dominant type of intrusion.

  12. A novel integrated structure with a radial displacement sensor and a permanent magnet biased radial magnetic bearing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jinji; Zhang, Yin

    2014-01-24

    In this paper, a novel integrated structure is proposed in order to reduce the axial length of the high speed of a magnetically suspended motor (HSMSM) to ensure the maximum speed, which combines radial displacement sensor probes and the permanent magnet biased radial magnetic bearing in HSMSM. The sensor probes are integrated in the magnetic bearing, and the sensor preamplifiers are placed in the control system of the HSMSM, separate from the sensor probes. The proposed integrated structure can save space in HSMSMs, improve the working frequency, reduce the influence of temperature on the sensor circuit, and improve the stability of HSMSMs.

  13. Study on Initiation Mechanisms of Hydraulic Fracture Guided by Vertical Multi-radial Boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tiankui; Liu, Binyan; Qu, Zhanqing; Gong, Diguang; Xin, Lei

    2017-07-01

    The conventional hydraulic fracturing fails in the target oil development zone (remaining oil or gas, closed reservoir, etc.) which is not located in the azimuth of maximum horizontal in situ stress of available wellbores. The technology of directional propagation of hydraulic fracture guided by vertical multi-radial boreholes is innovatively developed. The effects of in situ stress, wellbore internal pressure and fracturing fluid percolation effect on geostress field distribution are taken into account, a mechanical model of two radial boreholes (basic research unit) is established, and the distribution and change rule of the maximum principal stress on the various parameters have been studied. The results show that as the radial borehole azimuth increases, the preferential rock tensile fracturing in the axial plane of radial boreholes becomes increasingly difficult. When the radial borehole azimuth increases to a certain extent, the maximum principal stress no longer appears in the azimuth of the radial boreholes, but will go to other orientations outside the axial plane of radial boreholes and the maximum horizontal stress orientation. Therefore, by reducing the ratio between the distance of the radial boreholes and increasing the diameter of the radial boreholes can enhance the guiding strength. In the axial plane of the radical boreholes, particularly in the radial hole wall, position closer to the radial boreholes is more prone to rock tensile destruction. Even in the case of large radial borehole azimuth, rock still preferentially ruptures in this position. The more the position is perpendicularly far from the axis of the wellbore, the lesser it will be affected by wellbore, and the lesser the tensile stress of each point. Meanwhile, at a certain depth, due to the decrease in the impact of the wellbore and the impact of the two radial boreholes increases accordingly, at the further position from the wellbore axis, the tensile fracture is the most prone to

  14. Effects of radial direction and eccentricity on acceleration perception.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Alexandra S; Timney, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Radial optic flow can elicit impressions of self-motion--vection--or of objects moving relative to the observer, but there is disagreement as to whether humans have greater sensitivity to expanding or to contracting optic flow. Although most studies agree there is an anisotropy in sensitivity to radial optic flow, it is unclear whether this asymmetry is a function of eccentricity. The issue is further complicated by the fact that few studies have examined how acceleration sensitivity is affected, even though observers and objects in the environment seldom move at a constant speed. To address these issues, we investigated the effects of direction and eccentricity on the ability to detect acceleration in radial optic flow. Our results indicate that observers are better at detecting acceleration when viewing contraction compared with expansion and that eccentricity has no effect on the ability to detect accelerating radial optic flow. Ecological interpretations are discussed.

  15. Analytic expressions for ULF wave radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Ozeke, Louis G; Mann, Ian R; Murphy, Kyle R; Jonathan Rae, I; Milling, David K

    2014-01-01

    We present analytic expressions for ULF wave-derived radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients, as a function of L and Kp, which can easily be incorporated into global radiation belt transport models. The diffusion coefficients are derived from statistical representations of ULF wave power, electric field power mapped from ground magnetometer data, and compressional magnetic field power from in situ measurements. We show that the overall electric and magnetic diffusion coefficients are to a good approximation both independent of energy. We present example 1-D radial diffusion results from simulations driven by CRRES-observed time-dependent energy spectra at the outer boundary, under the action of radial diffusion driven by the new ULF wave radial diffusion coefficients and with empirical chorus wave loss terms (as a function of energy, Kp and L). There is excellent agreement between the differential flux produced by the 1-D, Kp-driven, radial diffusion model and CRRES observations of differential electron flux at 0.976 MeV—even though the model does not include the effects of local internal acceleration sources. Our results highlight not only the importance of correct specification of radial diffusion coefficients for developing accurate models but also show significant promise for belt specification based on relatively simple models driven by solar wind parameters such as solar wind speed or geomagnetic indices such as Kp. Key Points Analytic expressions for the radial diffusion coefficients are presented The coefficients do not dependent on energy or wave m value The electric field diffusion coefficient dominates over the magnetic PMID:26167440

  16. Radial-orbit instability in modified Newtonian dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nipoti, Carlo; Ciotti, Luca; Londrillo, Pasquale

    2011-07-01

    The stability of radially anisotropic spherical stellar systems in modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) is explored by means of numerical simulations performed with the N-body code N-MODY. We find that Osipkov-Merritt MOND models require for stability larger minimum anisotropy radii than equivalent Newtonian systems (ENSs) with the dark matter, and also than purely baryonic Newtonian models with the same density profile. The maximum value for stability of the Fridman-Polyachenko-Shukhman parameter in MOND models is lower than in ENSs, but higher than in Newtonian models with no dark matter. We conclude that MOND systems are substantially more prone to radial-orbit instability than ENSs with dark matter, while they are able to support a larger amount of kinetic energy stored in radial orbits than purely baryonic Newtonian systems. An explanation of these results is attempted and their relevance to the MOND interpretation of the observed kinematics of globular clusters, dwarf spheroidal and elliptical galaxies is briefly discussed.

  17. On improved confinement in mirror plasmas by a radial electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ågren, O.; Moiseenko, V. E.

    2017-11-01

    A weak radial electric field can suppress radial excursions of a guiding center from its mean magnetic surface. The physical origin of this effect is the smearing action by a poloidal E × B rotation, which tend to cancel out the inward and outward radial drifts. A use of this phenomenon may provide larger margins for magnetic field shaping with radial confinement of particles maintained in the collision free idealization. Mirror fields, stabilized by a quadrupolar field component, are of particular interest for their MHD stability and the possibility to control the quasi neutral radial electric field by biased potential plates outside the confinement region. Flux surface footprints on the end tank wall have to be traced to avoid short-circuiting between biased plates. Assuming a robust biasing procedure, moderate voltage demands for the biased plates seems adequate to cure even the radial excursions of Yushmanov ions which could be locally trapped near the mirrors. Analytical expressions are obtained for a magnetic quadrupolar mirror configuration which possesses minimal radial magnetic drifts in the central confinement region. By adding a weak controlled radial quasi-neutral electric field, the majority of gyro centers are predicted to be forced to move even closer to their respective mean magnetic surface. The gyro center radial coordinate is in such a case an accurate approximation for a constant of motion. By using this constant of motion, the analysis is in a Vlasov description extended to finite β. A correspondence between that Vlasov system and a fluid description with a scalar pressure and an electric potential is verified. The minimum B criterion is considered and implications for flute mode stability in the considered magnetic field is analyzed. By carrying out a long-thin expansion to a higher order, the validity of the calculations are extended to shorter and more compact device designs.

  18. The Role of Radial Clearance on the Performance of Foil Air Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radil, Kevin; Howard, Samuel; Dykas, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Load capacity tests were conducted to determine how radial clearance variations affect the load capacity coefficient of foil air bearings. Two Generation III foil air bearings with the same design but possessing different initial radial clearances were tested at room temperature against an as-ground PS304 coated journal operating at 30,000 rpm. Increases in radial clearance were accomplished by reducing the journal's outside diameter via an in-place grinding system. From each load capacity test the bearing load capacity coefficient was calculated from the rule-of-thumb (ROT) model developed for foil air bearings. The test results indicate that, in terms of the load capacity coefficient, radial clearance has a direct impact on the performance of the foil air bearing. Each test bearing exhibited an optimum radial clearance that resulted in a maximum load capacity coefficient. Relative to this optimum value are two separate operating regimes that are governed by different modes of failure. Bearings operating with radial clearances less than the optimum exhibit load capacity coefficients that are a strong function of radial clearance and are prone to a thermal runaway failure mechanism and bearing seizure. Conversely, a bearing operating with a radial clearance twice the optimum suffered only a 20 percent decline in its maximum load capacity coefficient and did not experience any thermal management problems. However, it is unknown to what degree these changes in radial clearance had on other performance parameters, such as the stiffness and damping properties of the bearings.

  19. A Novel Integrated Structure with a Radial Displacement Sensor and a Permanent Magnet Biased Radial Magnetic Bearing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jinji; Zhang, Yin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel integrated structure is proposed in order to reduce the axial length of the high speed of a magnetically suspended motor (HSMSM) to ensure the maximum speed, which combines radial displacement sensor probes and the permanent magnet biased radial magnetic bearing in HSMSM. The sensor probes are integrated in the magnetic bearing, and the sensor preamplifiers are placed in the control system of the HSMSM, separate from the sensor probes. The proposed integrated structure can save space in HSMSMs, improve the working frequency, reduce the influence of temperature on the sensor circuit, and improve the stability of HSMSMs. PMID:24469351

  20. Radial electron-beam-breakup transit-time oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Mostrom, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    A radial electron-beam-breakup transit-time oscillator (RBTO) provides a compact high power microwave generator. The RBTO includes a coaxial vacuum transmission line having an outer conductor and an inner conductor. The inner conductor defines an annular cavity with dimensions effective to support an electromagnetic field in a TEM.sub.00m mode. A radial field emission cathode is formed on the outer conductor for providing an electron beam directed toward the annular cavity electrode. Microwave energy is then extracted from the annular cavity electrode.

  1. The radial velocity search for extrasolar planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, Robert S.

    1991-01-01

    Radial velocity measurements are being made to search for planets orbiting stars other than the Sun. The reflex acceleration induced on stars by planets can be sensed by measuring the small, slow changes in the line-of-site velocities of stars. To detect these planetary perturbations, the data series must be made on a uniform instrumental scale for as long as it takes a planet to orbit its star. A spectrometer of extreme stability and unprecedented sensitivity to changes in stellar radial velocities was operated.

  2. Radial-piston pump for drive of test machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizhegorodov, A. I.; Gavrilin, A. N.; Moyzes, B. B.; Cherkasov, A. I.; Zharkevich, O. M.; Zhetessova, G. S.; Savelyeva, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    The article reviews the development of radial-piston pump with phase control and alternating-flow mode for seismic-testing platforms and other test machines. The prospects for use of the developed device are proved. It is noted that the method of frequency modulation with the detection of the natural frequencies is easily realized by using the radial-piston pump. The prospects of further research are given proof.

  3. Dependence of radiation belt simulations to assumed radial diffusion rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdov, A.; Shprits, Y.; Aseev, N.; Kellerman, A. C.; Reeves, G. D.

    2017-12-01

    Radial diffusion is one of the dominant physical mechanisms that drives acceleration and loss of the radiation belt electrons due to wave-particle interaction with ultra low frequency (ULF) waves, which makes it very important for radiation belt modeling and forecasting. We investigate the sensitivity of several parameterizations of the radial diffusion including Brautigam and Albert [2000], Ozeke et al. [2014] and Ali et al. [2016] on long-term radiation belt modeling using the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB). Following previous studies, we first perform 1-D radial diffusion simulations. To take into account effects of local acceleration and loss, we perform additional 3-D simulations, including pitch-angle, energy and mixed diffusion. The obtained result demonstrates that the inclusion of local acceleration and pitch-angle diffusion can provide a negative feedback effect, such that the result is largely indistinguishable between simulations conducted with different radial diffusion parameterizations. We also perform a number of sensitivity tests by multiplying radial diffusion rates by constant factors and show that such an approach leads to unrealistic predictions of radiation belt dynamics.

  4. The hypothenar radial arch, a genetically determined epidermal ridge configuration.

    PubMed

    Holt, S B

    1975-03-01

    A radial arch in the hypothenar area of the human palm is an uncommon ridge arrangement. It is associated with an ulnar triradius and no axial triradius is present. The configuration generally occurs on right hands but is sometimes found on both hands. The frequency in the few European populations studied and in one Canadian sample varies from 0.2 per cent to over 2 per cent of persons. Hypothenar radial arches have also been reported in patients with abnormal sex chromosomes but are not specific to any karyotype. Two families are described in which nearly related persons have hypothenar radial arches. They provide the first evidence that the pattern is inherited. In one family three out of six sibs have radial arches in the hypothenar area and so have two out of three children of one of them. In the other family a pair of identical twins and their mother have hypothenar radial arches. It is suggested that, from the information available, inheritance is probably due to a recessive gene.

  5. SpicyNodes Radial Map Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, M.; Ligierko, G.; Angelov, I.

    2008-10-01

    The need for information has increased exponentially over the past decades. The current systems for constructing, exploring, classifying, organizing, and searching information face the growing challenge of enabling their users to operate efficiently and intuitively in knowledge-heavy environments. This paper presents SpicyNodes, an advanced user interface for difficult interaction contexts. It is based on an underlying structure known as a radial map, which allows users to manipulate and interact in a natural manner with entities called nodes. This technology overcomes certain limitations of existing solutions and solves the problem of browsing complex sets of linked information. SpicyNodes is also an organic system that projects users into a living space, stimulating exploratory behavior and fostering creative thought. Our interactive radial layout is used for educational purposes and has the potential for numerous other applications.

  6. Effect of the radial buoyancy on a circular Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Antoine; Yoshikawa, Harunori N.; Mutabazi, Innocent

    2015-11-01

    The effect of a radial temperature gradient on the stability of a circular Couette flow is investigated when the gravitational acceleration is neglected. The induced radial stratification of the fluid density coupled with the centrifugal acceleration generates radial buoyancy which is centrifugal for inward heating and centripetal for outward heating. This radial buoyancy modifies the Rayleigh discriminant and induces the asymmetry between inward heating and outward heating in flow behavior. The critical modes are axisymmetric and stationary for inward heating while for outward heating, they can be oscillatory axisymmetric or nonaxisymmetric depending on fluid diffusion properties, i.e., on the Prandtl number Pr. The dependence of the critical modes on Pr is explored for different values of the radius ratio of the annulus. The power input of the radial buoyancy is compared with other power terms. The critical frequency of the oscillatory axisymmetric modes is linked to the Brunt-Väisälä frequency due to the density stratification in the radial gravity field induced by the rotation. These modes are associated with inertial waves. The dispersion relation of the oscillatory axisymmetric modes is derived in the vicinity of the critical conditions. A weakly nonlinear amplitude equation with a forcing term is proposed to explain the domination of these axisymmetric oscillatory modes over the stationary centrifugal mode.

  7. Optimal design of radial Bragg cavities and lasers.

    PubMed

    Ben-Bassat, Eyal; Scheuer, Jacob

    2015-07-01

    We present a new and optimal design approach for obtaining maximal confinement of the field in radial Bragg cavities and lasers for TM polarization. The presented approach outperforms substantially the previously employed periodic and semi-periodic design schemes of such lasers. We show that in order to obtain maximal confinement, it is essential to consider the complete reflection properties (amplitude and phase) of the propagating radial waves at the interfaces between Bragg layers. When these properties are taken into account, we find that it is necessary to introduce a wider ("half-wavelength") layer at a specific radius in the "quarter-wavelength" radial Bragg stack. It is shown that this radius corresponds to the cylindrical equivalent of Brewster's angle. The confinement and field profile are calculated numerically by means of transfer matrix method.

  8. Purification and cDNA cloning of SAPKK3, the major activator of RK/p38 in stress- and cytokine-stimulated monocytes and epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cuenda, A; Alonso, G; Morrice, N; Jones, M; Meier, R; Cohen, P; Nebreda, A R

    1996-01-01

    Two chromatographically distinct stress-activated protein kinase kinases (SAPKKs) have been identified in several mammalian cells, termed SAPKK2 and SAPKK3, which activate the MAP kinase family member RK/p38 but not JNK/SAPK in vitro. Here we demonstrate that SAPKK2 is identical or very closely related to the MAP kinase kinase family member MKK3. However, under our assay conditions, SAPKK3 was the major activator of RK/p38 detected in extracts prepared from stress- or interleukin-1-stimulated epithelial (KB) cells, from bacterial lipopolysaccharide and tumour necrosis factor alpha-stimulated THP1 monocytes or from rabbit skeletal muscle. The activated form of SAPKK3 was purified from muscle to near homogeneity, and tryptic peptide sequences were used to clone human and murine cDNAs encoding this enzyme. Human SAPKK3 comprised 334 amino acids and was 78% identical to MKK3. The murine and human SAPKK3 were 97% identical in their amino acid sequences. We also cloned a different murine cDNA that appears to encode a SAPKK3 protein truncated at the N-terminus. SAPKK3 is identical to the recently cloned MKK6. Images PMID:8861944

  9. Analytical design of an advanced radial turbine. [automobile engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Large, G. D.; Finger, D. G.; Linder, C. G.

    1981-01-01

    The aerodynamic and mechanical potential of a single stage ceramic radial inflow turbine was evaluated for a high temperature single stage automotive engine. The aerodynamic analysis utilizes a turbine system optimization technique to evaluate both radial and nonradial rotor blading. Selected turbine rotor configurations were evaluated mechanically with three dimensional finite element techniques. Results indicate that exceptionally high rotor tip speeds (2300 ft/sec) and performance potential are feasible with radial bladed rotors if the projected ceramic material properties are realized. Nonradial rotors reduced tip speed requirements (at constant turbine efficiency) but resulted in a lower cumulative probability of success due to higher blade and disk stresses.

  10. A major QTL corresponding to the Rk locus for resistance to root-knot nematodes in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.).

    PubMed

    Huynh, Bao-Lam; Matthews, William C; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Lucas, Mitchell R; Santos, Jansen R P; Ndeve, Arsenio; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    Genome resolution of a major QTL associated with the Rk locus in cowpea for resistance to root-knot nematodes has significance for plant breeding programs and R gene characterization. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) is a susceptible host of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) (RKN), major plant-parasitic pests in global agriculture. To date, breeding for host resistance in cowpea has relied on phenotypic selection which requires time-consuming and expensive controlled infection assays. To facilitate marker-based selection, we aimed to identify and map quantitative trait loci (QTL) conferring the resistance trait. One recombinant inbred line (RIL) and two F2:3 populations, each derived from a cross between a susceptible and a resistant parent, were genotyped with genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The populations were screened in the field for root-galling symptoms and/or under growth-chamber conditions for nematode reproduction levels using M. incognita and M. javanica biotypes. One major QTL was mapped consistently on linkage group VuLG11 of each population. By genotyping additional cowpea lines and near-isogenic lines derived from conventional backcrossing, we confirmed that the detected QTL co-localized with the genome region associated with the Rk locus for RKN resistance that has been used in conventional breeding for many decades. This chromosomal location defined with flanking markers will be a valuable target in marker-assisted breeding and for positional cloning of genes controlling RKN resistance.

  11. Bilateral radial head fractures in a martial arts athlete.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, N V; Shah, M S

    2003-06-01

    Isolated radial head fractures, which are rare, comprise about 2% of all fractures around the elbow. A case is reported of bilateral radial head fracture in an international female athlete. Early recognition and aggressive rehabilitation is essential if an abrupt end to a promising sporting career is to be prevented.

  12. Radial Symmetry of p-Harmonic Minimizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, Aleksis; Onninen, Jani

    2018-03-01

    "It is still not known if the radial cavitating minimizers obtained by uc(Ball) (Philos Trans R Soc Lond A 306:557-611, 1982) (and subsequently by many others) are global minimizers of any physically reasonable nonlinearly elastic energy". This quotation is from uc(Sivaloganathan) and uc(Spector) (Ann Inst Henri Poincaré Anal Non Linéaire 25(1):201-213, 2008) and seems to be still accurate. The model case of the p-harmonic energy is considered here. We prove that the planar radial minimizers are indeed the global minimizers provided we prescribe the admissible deformations on the boundary. In the traction free setting, however, even the identity map need not be a global minimizer.

  13. Experiments with a Supersonic Multi-Channel Radial Diffuser.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    unlimited. 17 . DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (o the *bsta~c entered nRItok 20, it dffttt Iton, Report) IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS (Continue o...Improvements 17 VI SIGNIFICANT TEST RESULTS 20 1. General Considerations 20 2. Typical Radial Diffuser Performance 20 3. Flow Stability Experiments 22 VIII...Adjustments Indicated 39 16 Comparison of the Single Channel Performances for Two Extreme Channel Geometries 40 17 Typical Radial Diffuser Performance

  14. The First Experience of Triple Nerve Transfer in Proximal Radial Nerve Palsy.

    PubMed

    Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Andalib, Sasan

    2018-01-01

    Injury to distal portion of posterior cord of brachial plexus leads to palsy of radial and axillary nerves. Symptoms are usually motor deficits of the deltoid muscle; triceps brachii muscle; and extensor muscles of the wrist, thumb, and fingers. Tendon transfers, nerve grafts, and nerve transfers are options for surgical treatment of proximal radial nerve palsy to restore some motor functions. Tendon transfer is painful, requires a long immobilization, and decreases donor muscle strength; nevertheless, nerve transfer produces promising outcomes. We present a patient with proximal radial nerve palsy following a blunt injury undergoing triple nerve transfer. The patient was involved in a motorcycle accident with complete palsy of the radial and axillary nerves. After 6 months, on admission, he showed spontaneous recovery of axillary nerve palsy, but radial nerve palsy remained. We performed triple nerve transfer, fascicle of ulnar nerve to long head of the triceps branch of radial nerve, flexor digitorum superficialis branch of median nerve to extensor carpi radialis brevis branch of radial nerve, and flexor carpi radialis branch of median nerve to posterior interosseous nerve, for restoration of elbow, wrist, and finger extensions, respectively. Our experience confirmed functional elbow, wrist, and finger extensions in the patient. Triple nerve transfer restores functions of the upper limb in patients with debilitating radial nerve palsy after blunt injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fiber micro-architecture in the longitudinal-radial and circumferential-radial planes of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm media

    PubMed Central

    Tsamis, Alkiviadis; Phillippi, Julie A.; Koch, Ryan G.; Pasta, Salvatore; D'Amore, Antonio; Watkins, Simon C.; Wagner, William R.; Gleason, Thomas G.; Vorp, David A.

    2013-01-01

    It was recently demonstrated by our group that the delamination strength of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (ATAA) was lower than that of control (CTRL, non-aneurysmal) ascending thoracic aorta (ATA), and the reduced strength was more pronounced among bicuspid (BAV) vs. tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) patients, suggesting a different risk of aortic dissection for BAV patients. We hypothesized that aortic valve morphologic phenotype predicts fiber micro-architectural anomalies in ATA. To test the hypothesis, we characterized the micro-architecture in the longitudinal-radial (Z-RAD) and circumferential-radial (Θ-RAD) planes of human ATA tissue that was artificially dissected medially. The outer and inner-media of CTRL-ATA, BAV-ATAA and TAV-ATAA were imaged using multi-photon microscopy in the Z-RAD and Θ-RAD planes to observe collagen and elastin. Micrographs were processed using an image-based tool to quantify several micro-architectural characteristics. In the outer-media of BAV-ATAA, elastin was more undulated and less aligned about the Θ-axis when compared with CTRL-ATA, which is consistent with increased tensile stretch at inflection point of Θ-strips of adventitial-medial half of BAV-ATAA (1.28) when compared with CTRL-ATA (1.13). With increasing age, collagen became more undulated about the Z-axis within the outer-media of TAV-ATAA, and elastin became more oriented in the Z-axis and collagen less radially-oriented within the inner-media of TAV-ATAA. This discrepancy in the micro-architecture with fibers in the inner layers being more stretched and with disrupted radially-oriented components than fibers in the outer layers may be associated with the development, progression and vascular remodeling in aneurysms arising in TAV patients. PMID:24075403

  16. Fiber micro-architecture in the longitudinal-radial and circumferential-radial planes of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm media.

    PubMed

    Tsamis, Alkiviadis; Phillippi, Julie A; Koch, Ryan G; Pasta, Salvatore; D'Amore, Antonio; Watkins, Simon C; Wagner, William R; Gleason, Thomas G; Vorp, David A

    2013-11-15

    It was recently demonstrated by our group that the delamination strength of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (ATAA) was lower than that of control (CTRL, non-aneurysmal) ascending thoracic aorta (ATA), and the reduced strength was more pronounced among bicuspid (BAV) vs. tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) patients, suggesting a different risk of aortic dissection for BAV patients. We hypothesized that aortic valve morphologic phenotype predicts fiber micro-architectural anomalies in ATA. To test the hypothesis, we characterized the micro-architecture in the longitudinal-radial (Z-RAD) and circumferential-radial (Θ-RAD) planes of human ATA tissue that was artificially dissected medially. The outer and inner-media of CTRL-ATA, BAV-ATAA and TAV-ATAA were imaged using multi-photon microscopy in the Z-RAD and Θ-RAD planes to observe collagen and elastin. Micrographs were processed using an image-based tool to quantify several micro-architectural characteristics. In the outer-media of BAV-ATAA, elastin was more undulated and less aligned about the Θ-axis when compared with CTRL-ATA, which is consistent with increased tensile stretch at inflection point of Θ-strips of adventitial-medial half of BAV-ATAA (1.28) when compared with CTRL-ATA (1.13). With increasing age, collagen became more undulated about the Z-axis within the outer-media of TAV-ATAA, and elastin became more oriented in the Z-axis and collagen less radially-oriented within the inner-media of TAV-ATAA. This discrepancy in the micro-architecture with fibers in the inner layers being more stretched and with disrupted radially-oriented components than fibers in the outer layers may be associated with the development, progression and vascular remodeling in aneurysms arising in TAV patients. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A visual study of radial inward choked flow of liquid nitrogen.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Simoneau, R. J.; Hsu, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    Data and high speed movies were acquired on pressurized subcooled liquid nitrogen flowing radially inward through a 0.0076 cm gap. The stagnation pressure ranged from 0.7 to 4 MN/sq m. Steady radial inward choked flow appears equivalent to steady choked flow through axisymmetric nozzles. Transient choked flows through the radial gap are not uniform and the discharge pattern appears as nonuniform impinging jets. The critical mass flow rate data for the transient case appear different from those for the steady case. On the mass flow rate vs pressure map, the slope and separation of the isotherms appear to be less for transient than for steady radial choked flow.

  18. ULF Waves and Diffusive Radial Transport of Charged Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Ashar Fawad

    The Van Allen radiation belts contain highly energetic particles which interact with a variety of plasma and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. Waves in the ultra low-frequency (ULF) range play an important role in the loss and acceleration of energetic particles. Considering the geometry of the geomagnetic field, charged particles trapped in the inner magnetosphere undergo three distinct types of periodic motions; an adiabatic invariant is associated with each type of motion. The evolution of the phase space density of charged particles in the magnetosphere in the coordinate space of the three adiabatic invariants is modeled by the Fokker-Planck equation. If we assume that the first two adiabatic invariants are conserved while the third invariant is violated, then the general Fokker-Planck equation reduces to a radial diffusion equation with the radial diffusion coefficient quantifying the rate of the radial diffusion of charged particles, including contributions from perturbations in both the magnetic and the electric fields. This thesis investigates two unanswered questions about ULF wave-driven radial transport of charged particles. First, how important are the ULF fluctuations in the magnetic field compared with the ULF fluctuations in the electric field in driving the radial diffusion of charged particles in the Earth's inner magnetosphere? It has generally been accepted that magnetic field perturbations dominate over electric field perturbations, but several recently published studies suggest otherwise. Second, what is the distribution of ULF wave power in azimuth, and how does ULF wave power depend upon radial distance and the level of geomagnetic activity? Analytic treatments of the diffusion coefficients generally assume uniform distribution of power in azimuth, but in situ measurements suggest that this may not be the case. We used the magnetic field data from the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) and the electric and the magnetic

  19. Radial Bias Is Not Necessary For Orientation Decoding

    PubMed Central

    Pratte, Michael S.; Sy, Jocelyn L.; Swisher, Jascha D.; Tong, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Multivariate pattern analysis can be used to decode the orientation of a viewed grating from fMRI signals in early visual areas. Although some studies have reported identifying multiple sources of the orientation information that make decoding possible, a recent study argued that orientation decoding is only possible because of a single source: a coarse-scale retinotopically organized preference for radial orientations. Here we aim to resolve these discrepant findings. We show that there were subtle, but critical, experimental design choices that led to the erroneous conclusion that a radial bias is the only source of orientation information in fMRI signals. In particular, we show that the reliance on a fast temporal-encoding paradigm for spatial mapping can be problematic, as effects of space and time become conflated and lead to distorted estimates of a voxel’s orientation or retinotopic preference. When we implement minor changes to the temporal paradigm or to the visual stimulus itself, by slowing the periodic rotation of the stimulus or by smoothing its contrast-energy profile, we find significant evidence of orientation information that does not originate from radial bias. In an additional block-paradigm experiment where space and time were not conflated, we apply a formal model comparison approach and find that many voxels exhibit more complex tuning properties than predicted by radial bias alone or in combination with other known coarse-scale biases. Our findings support the conclusion that radial bias is not necessary for orientation decoding. In addition, our study highlights potential limitations of using temporal phase-encoded fMRI designs for characterizing voxel tuning properties. PMID:26666900

  20. Submarine radial vents on Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaìi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanless, V. Dorsey; Garcia, M. O.; Trusdell, F. A.; Rhodes, J. M.; Norman, M. D.; Weis, Dominique; Fornari, D. J.; Kurz, M. D.; Guillou, Hervé

    2006-05-01

    A 2002 multibeam sonar survey of Mauna Loa's western flank revealed ten submarine radial vents and three submarine lava flows. Only one submarine radial vent was known previously. The ages of these vents are constrained by eyewitness accounts, geologic relationships, Mn-Fe coatings, and geochemical stratigraphy; they range from 128 years B.P. to possibly 47 ka. Eight of the radial vents produced degassed lavas despite eruption in water depths sufficient to inhibit sulfur degassing. These vents formed truncated cones and short lava flows. Two vents produced undegassed lavas that created "irregular" cones and longer lava flows. Compositionally and isotopically, the submarine radial vent lavas are typical of Mauna Loa lavas, except two cones that erupted alkalic lavas. He-Sr isotopes for the radial vent lavas follow Mauna Loa's evolutionary trend. The compositional and isotopic heterogeneity of these lavas indicates most had distinct parental magmas. Bathymetry and acoustic backscatter results, along with photography and sampling during four JASON2 dives, are used to produce a detailed geologic map to evaluate Mauna Loa's submarine geologic history. The new map shows that the 1877 submarine eruption was much larger than previously thought, resulting in a 10% increase for recent volcanism. Furthermore, although alkalic lavas were found at two radial vents, there is no systematic increase in alkalinity among these or other Mauna Loa lavas as expected for a dying volcano. These results refute an interpretation that Mauna Loa's volcanism is waning. The submarine radial vents and flows cover 29 km2 of seafloor and comprise a total volume of ˜2 × 109 m3 of lava, reinforcing the idea that submarine lava eruptions are important in the growth of oceanic island volcanoes even after they emerged above sea level.

  1. Comparison of Deterministic and Probabilistic Radial Distribution Systems Load Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Atma Ram; Kumar, Ashwani

    2017-12-01

    Distribution system network today is facing the challenge of meeting increased load demands from the industrial, commercial and residential sectors. The pattern of load is highly dependent on consumer behavior and temporal factors such as season of the year, day of the week or time of the day. For deterministic radial distribution load flow studies load is taken as constant. But, load varies continually with a high degree of uncertainty. So, there is a need to model probable realistic load. Monte-Carlo Simulation is used to model the probable realistic load by generating random values of active and reactive power load from the mean and standard deviation of the load and for solving a Deterministic Radial Load Flow with these values. The probabilistic solution is reconstructed from deterministic data obtained for each simulation. The main contribution of the work is: Finding impact of probable realistic ZIP load modeling on balanced radial distribution load flow. Finding impact of probable realistic ZIP load modeling on unbalanced radial distribution load flow. Compare the voltage profile and losses with probable realistic ZIP load modeling for balanced and unbalanced radial distribution load flow.

  2. Coevolution of radial glial cells and the cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    De Juan Romero, Camino

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Radial glia cells play fundamental roles in the development of the cerebral cortex, acting both as the primary stem and progenitor cells, as well as the guides for neuronal migration and lamination. These critical functions of radial glia cells in cortical development have been discovered mostly during the last 15 years and, more recently, seminal studies have demonstrated the existence of a remarkable diversity of additional cortical progenitor cell types, including a variety of basal radial glia cells with key roles in cortical expansion and folding, both in ontogeny and phylogeny. In this review, we summarize the main cellular and molecular mechanisms known to be involved in cerebral cortex development in mouse, as the currently preferred animal model, and then compare these with known mechanisms in other vertebrates, both mammal and nonmammal, including human. This allows us to present a global picture of how radial glia cells and the cerebral cortex seem to have coevolved, from reptiles to primates, leading to the remarkable diversity of vertebrate cortical phenotypes. GLIA 2015;63:1303–1319 PMID:25808466

  3. Radial resolution enhancement of the NSTX Thomson scattering diagnostic.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, B P; Diallo, A; Labik, G; Stevens, D R

    2012-10-01

    Current magnetic confinement plasma physics research has increased the demand for radial resolution in profile diagnostics, in particular in the edge and pedestal regions. On NSTX, an upgrade of the existing multi-point Thomson scattering diagnostic has been implemented in order to respond to the research program needs. Twelve new radial channels have been added bringing the total number of positions to 42. Four previously un-instrumented fiber bundles were put in service. Eight existing "active" fiber bundles were divided in two sub-bundles each in order to increase spatial resolution. Twelve radial channels now cover the pedestal region with a resolution near one centimeter. Fifteen radial channels cover the core and internal transport barrier regions. Two additional channels were added, one near the inner edge and one in the outer scrape-off layer. The intersection of the focused viewing optics field of view with a finite-width laser beam results in major-radius cross talk between adjacent fiber sub-bundles. A discussion and calculation of the cross talk will be presented.

  4. Improving the trapping capability using radially polarized narrow-width annular beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hua-Feng; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Qu, Jun; Huang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    A novel optical-trap method for improving the trapping capability using a radially polarized narrow-width annular beam (NWAB) has been proposed. In this paper, we theoretically study the tight focusing properties of a radially polarized NWAB, formed by subtly blocking the central portion of a radially polarized Bessel-Gaussian beam (the original doughnut beam), through a high-numerical aperture objective. It is shown that a sub-wavelength focal spot (?) with a quite long depth of focus (about ?) can be formed in the vicinity of the focus. Furthermore, the optical trapping forces acting on a metallic Rayleigh particle are calculated for the case where a radially polarized annular beam is applied. Numerical results show that the radially polarized NWAB can largely enhance the transverse trap stiffness and broaden the longitudinal trap range compared with the usage of the original doughnut beam. The influence of the annular factor δ on the focusing properties and the trap stiffness is investigated in detail.

  5. Analysis on Coupled Vibration of a Radially Polarized Piezoelectric Cylindrical Transducer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jie; Lin, Shuyu; Ma, Yan; Tang, Yifan

    2017-01-01

    Coupled vibration of a radially polarized piezoelectric cylindrical transducer is analyzed with the mechanical coupling coefficient method. The method has been utilized to analyze the metal cylindrical transducer and the axially polarized piezoelectric cylindrical transducer. In this method, the mechanical coupling coefficient is introduced and defined as the stress ratio in different directions. Coupled vibration of the cylindrical transducer is regarded as the interaction of the plane radial vibration of a ring and the longitudinal vibration of a tube. For the radially polarized piezoelectric cylindrical transducer, the radial and longitudinal electric admittances as functions of mechanical coupling coefficients and angular frequencies are derived, respectively. The resonance frequency equations are obtained. The dependence of resonance frequency and mechanical coupling coefficient on aspect ratio is studied. Vibrational distributions on the surfaces of the cylindrical transducer are presented with experimental measurement. On the support of experiments, this work is verified and provides a theoretical foundation for the analysis and design of the radially polarized piezoelectric cylindrical transducer. PMID:29292785

  6. Errors in radial velocity variance from Doppler wind lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Doubrawa, P.

    A high-fidelity lidar turbulence measurement technique relies on accurate estimates of radial velocity variance that are subject to both systematic and random errors determined by the autocorrelation function of radial velocity, the sampling rate, and the sampling duration. Our paper quantifies the effect of the volumetric averaging in lidar radial velocity measurements on the autocorrelation function and the dependence of the systematic and random errors on the sampling duration, using both statistically simulated and observed data. For current-generation scanning lidars and sampling durations of about 30 min and longer, during which the stationarity assumption is valid for atmospheric flows, themore » systematic error is negligible but the random error exceeds about 10%.« less

  7. Errors in radial velocity variance from Doppler wind lidar

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, H.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Doubrawa, P.; ...

    2016-08-29

    A high-fidelity lidar turbulence measurement technique relies on accurate estimates of radial velocity variance that are subject to both systematic and random errors determined by the autocorrelation function of radial velocity, the sampling rate, and the sampling duration. Our paper quantifies the effect of the volumetric averaging in lidar radial velocity measurements on the autocorrelation function and the dependence of the systematic and random errors on the sampling duration, using both statistically simulated and observed data. For current-generation scanning lidars and sampling durations of about 30 min and longer, during which the stationarity assumption is valid for atmospheric flows, themore » systematic error is negligible but the random error exceeds about 10%.« less

  8. Study of energetic particle physics with advanced ECEI system on the HL-2A tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhongbing; Jiang, Min; Yu, Liming; Chen, Wei; Shi, Peiwan; Zhong, Wulyu; Yang, Zengchen; Zhang, Boyu; Ji, Xiaoquan; Li, Yonggao; Zhou, Yan; Song, Shaodong; Huang, Mei; Song, Xianming; Li, Jiaxuan; Yuan, Baoshan; Fu, Bingzhong; Liu, Zetian; Ding, Xuantong; Xu, Yuhong; Yang, Qingwei; Duan, Xuru

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the physics of energetic particles (EP) is crucial for the burning plasmas in next generation fusion devices such as ITER. In this work, three types of internal kink modes (a saturated internal kink mode (SK), a resonant internal kink mode (RK), and a double e-fishbone) excited by energetic particles in the low density discharges during ECRH/ECCD heating have been studied by the newly developed 24(poloidal) × 16(radial) = 384 channel ECEI system on the HL-2A tokamak. The SK and RK rotate in the electron diamagnetic direction poloidally and are destabilized by the energetic trapped electrons. The SK is destabilized in the case of qmin > 1, while the RK is destabilized in the case of qmin < 1. The double e-fishbone, which has two m/n = 1/1 modes propagating in the opposite directions poloidally, has been observed during plasma current ramp-up with counter-ECCD. Strong thermal transfer and mode coupling between the two m/n = 1/1 modes have been studied.

  9. Intramedullary reduction and stabilisation of adult radial neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Keller, H W; Rehm, K E; Helling, J

    1994-05-01

    We report the treatment of six adult patients with displaced fractures of the radial neck by intramedullary reduction and stabilisation. Nine months after operation all the patients had good joint function, little or no pain, complete healing and no significant periarticular calcification. This simple semi-closed procedure may help to avoid resection of the radial head in some cases.

  10. Radial shakes and "frost cracks" in living oak trees

    Treesearch

    Heinz Butin; Alex L. Shigo

    1981-01-01

    Dissections of hundreds of living, mature oak trees over a 25-year period revealed that radial shakes (or "frost cracks") and ring shakes are associated with a variety of wounds and stubs of branches and basal sprouts. A more intensive study of radial shakes that included dissections of more than 30 oaks confirmed the earlier finds, and provided additional...

  11. Dust particle radial confinement in a dc glow discharge.

    PubMed

    Sukhinin, G I; Fedoseev, A V; Antipov, S N; Petrov, O F; Fortov, V E

    2013-01-01

    A self-consistent nonlocal model of the positive column of a dc glow discharge with dust particles is presented. Radial distributions of plasma parameters and the dust component in an axially homogeneous glow discharge are considered. The model is based on the solution of a nonlocal Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function, drift-diffusion equations for ions, and the Poisson equation for a self-consistent electric field. The radial distribution of dust particle density in a dust cloud was fixed as a given steplike function or was chosen according to an equilibrium Boltzmann distribution. The balance of electron and ion production in argon ionization by an electron impact and their losses on the dust particle surface and on the discharge tube walls is taken into account. The interrelation of discharge plasma and the dust cloud is studied in a self-consistent way, and the radial distributions of the discharge plasma and dust particle parameters are obtained. It is shown that the influence of the dust cloud on the discharge plasma has a nonlocal behavior, e.g., density and charge distributions in the dust cloud substantially depend on the plasma parameters outside the dust cloud. As a result of a self-consistent evolution of plasma parameters to equilibrium steady-state conditions, ionization and recombination rates become equal to each other, electron and ion radial fluxes become equal to zero, and the radial component of electric field is expelled from the dust cloud.

  12. Preliminary plant design of Escherichia coli BPPTCC-EgRK2 cell culture for recombinant cellulase production using Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) as substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surya, E. A.; Rahman, S. F.; Zulamraini, S.; Gozan, M.

    2018-03-01

    An economic analysis of recombinant cellulase production from E. coli BPPTCC Eg-RK2 was conducted to support the fulfilling of Indonesia’s energy roadmap for ethanol production. The plant use oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) as primary substrate in cellulase production, with the expected lifetime of 12 years. The plant is assumed to be built in Indonesia and will fulfill 1% of total market demand. The effect of different pretreatment process (alkaline, steam explosion, and sequential acid-alkaline) on the economic value was also studied. A simulation using SuperPro Designer was used to calculate the mass and energy balance based on the kinetic parameter of E. coli BPPTCC-EgRK2. Technology evaluation show that alkaline pretreatment gave the highest yield with no known inhibitors formed. The steam explosion show the lowest lignin and hemicellulose removal and known to form known fermentation inhibitors. The net present value of alkaline, steam explosion, and sequential acid-alkaline pretreatment were USD 7,118,000; - USD 73,411,000 and USD -114,013,000 respectively, which mean alkaline pretreatment is the only economically feasible pretreatment method for recombinant cellulase production.

  13. Cooled High-Temperature Radial Turbine Program. Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    proposed for advanced engines with high power-to-weight and inproved SFC requirements. The addition of cooling to the blades of a metal radial turbine ...4 secl/2 ) 62.2 Blade - jet Speed Ratio 0.66 Adiabatic Efficiency (T-to-T, %) 87.0 Cooling flows for the gasifier turbine section are set at 5.7%. The...Way Cincinnati, OH 45215-6301 85 COOLED HIGH-TEMPERATURE RADIAL TURBINE PROGRAM DISTRIBUTION LIST Number Qf Copies General Electric Aircraft Engines

  14. Haematoma block in reduction of distal radial fractures.

    PubMed

    Ogunlade, S O; Omololu, A B; Alonge, T O; Salawu, S A; Bamgboye, E A

    2002-01-01

    A total of 35 patients who presented in the Accident and Emergency Department of University College Hospital with displaced distal radial fracture between January 2000 and March 2001 had reduction of the fracture under haematoma block using 10ml of 2% lignocaine. There was significant reduction of the pain following infiltration of the fracture site with lignocaine and significant pain reduction during manipulation compared to pain score at presentation. All the patients had satisfactory reduction of the fracture. The fracture was mobilised in Plaster of Paris 6 weeks in patients with Collens' fracture and 3 weeks in patients with distal radial epiphyseal injury. All patients had good range of movement at 8 weeks after removal of Plaster of Paris and patients expressed satisfaction with this method. We recommend the use of Haematoma block for patients of 15 years and above with displaced distal radial fracture in the Accident and Emergency Department.

  15. Numerical calculation and analysis of radial force on the single-action vane pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y He, Y.; Y Kong, F.

    2013-12-01

    Unbalanced radial force is a serious adversity that restricts the working pressure and reduces service life of the single-action vane pump. For revealing and predicting the distribution of radial force on the rotor, a numerical simulation about its transient flow field was performed by using dynamic mesh method with RNG κ ε-turbulent model. The details of transient flow characteristic and pressure fluctuation were obtained, and the radial force and periodic variation can be calculated based on the details. The results show: the radial force has a close relationship with the pressure pulsation; the radial force can be reduced drastically by optimizing the angle of port plate and installing the V-shaped cavity; if the odd number vanes are chosen, it will help reduce the radial force of rotor and optimize the pressure fluctuation effectively.

  16. Design and experimental evaluation of compact radial-inflow turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredmonski, A. J.; Huber, F. W.; Roelke, R. J.; Simonyi, S.

    1991-01-01

    The application of a multistage 3D Euler solver to the aerodynamic design of two compact radial-inflow turbines is presented, along with experimental results evaluating and validating the designs. The objectives of the program were to design, fabricate, and rig test compact radial-inflow turbines with equal or better efficiency relative to conventional designs, while having 40 percent less rotor length than current traditionally-sized radial turbines. The approach to achieving these objectives was to apply a calibrated 3D multistage Euler code to accurately predict and control the high rotor flow passage velocities and high aerodynamic loadings resulting from the reduction in rotor length. A comparison of the advanced compact designs to current state-of-the-art configurations is presented.

  17. A radial basis function Galerkin method for inhomogeneous nonlocal diffusion

    DOE PAGES

    Lehoucq, Richard B.; Rowe, Stephen T.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce a discretization for a nonlocal diffusion problem using a localized basis of radial basis functions. The stiffness matrix entries are assembled by a special quadrature routine unique to the localized basis. Combining the quadrature method with the localized basis produces a well-conditioned, sparse, symmetric positive definite stiffness matrix. We demonstrate that both the continuum and discrete problems are well-posed and present numerical results for the convergence behavior of the radial basis function method. As a result, we explore approximating the solution to anisotropic differential equations by solving anisotropic nonlocal integral equations using the radial basis function method.

  18. The radial-azimuthal stability of accretion disks - Gas pressure contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckee, M. R.

    1991-01-01

    A radial-azimuthal stability analysis of a thin, alpha disk accretion flow is presented. The proportion of radiation pressure, Pr, of the unperturbed flow is allowed to vary according to the parameter beta = Pr/P, where P is the total pressure. As is the case for a purely radial analysis, the disk is stable for beta equal to or less than 0.6. However, the coupling of radial and azimuthal perturbations eliminates the viscous instability for such nonradial modes for all values of beta. The group velocity of the retrograde thermal mode is calculated as a function of beta.

  19. Radial nerve palsy in mid/distal humeral fractures: is early exploration effective?

    PubMed

    Keighley, Geffrey; Hermans, Deborah; Lawton, Vidya; Duckworth, David

    2018-03-01

    Radial nerve palsies are a common complication with displaced distal humeral fractures. This case series examines the outcomes of early operative exploration and decompression of the nerve with fracture fixation with the view that this provides a solid construct for optimisation of nerve recovery. A total of 10 consecutive patients with a displaced distal humeral fracture and an acute radial nerve palsy were treated by the senior author by open reduction and internal fixation of the distal humerus and exploration and decompression of the radial nerve. Motor function and sensation of the radial nerve was assessed in the post-operative period every 2 months or until full recovery of the radial nerve function had occurred. All patients (100%) had recovery of motor and sensation function of their upper limb in the radial nerve distribution over a 12-month period. Recovery times ranged between 4 and 32 weeks, with the median time to recovery occurring at 26 weeks and the average time to full recovery being 22.9 weeks. Wrist extension recovered by an average of 3 months (range 2-26 weeks) and then finger extension started to recover 2-6 weeks after this. Disability of the arm, shoulder and hand scores ranged from 0 to 11.8 at greater than 1 year post-operatively. Our study demonstrated that early operative exploration of the radial nerve when performing an open stabilization of displaced distal humeral fractures resulted in a 100% recovery of the radial nerve. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  20. Non-radial oscillation modes with long lifetimes in giant stars.

    PubMed

    De Ridder, Joris; Barban, Caroline; Baudin, Frédéric; Carrier, Fabien; Hatzes, Artie P; Hekker, Saskia; Kallinger, Thomas; Weiss, Werner W; Baglin, Annie; Auvergne, Michel; Samadi, Réza; Barge, Pierre; Deleuil, Magali

    2009-05-21

    Towards the end of their lives, stars like the Sun greatly expand to become red giant stars. Such evolved stars could provide stringent tests of stellar theory, as many uncertainties of the internal stellar structure accumulate with age. Important examples are convective overshooting and rotational mixing during the central hydrogen-burning phase, which determine the mass of the helium core, but which are not well understood. In principle, analysis of radial and non-radial stellar oscillations can be used to constrain the mass of the helium core. Although all giants are expected to oscillate, it has hitherto been unclear whether non-radial modes are observable at all in red giants, or whether the oscillation modes have a short or a long mode lifetime, which determines the observational precision of the frequencies. Here we report the presence of radial and non-radial oscillations in more than 300 giant stars. For at least some of the giants, the mode lifetimes are of the order of a month. We observe giant stars with equally spaced frequency peaks in the Fourier spectrum of the time series, as well as giants for which the spectrum seems to be more complex. No satisfactory theoretical explanation currently exists for our observations.

  1. Observational hints of radial migration in disc galaxies from CALIFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Lara, T.; Pérez, I.; Florido, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; Sánchez, S. F.; Lyubenova, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; van de Ven, G.; Marino, R. A.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Costantin, L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Galbany, L.; García-Benito, R.; Husemann, B.; Kehrig, C.; Márquez, I.; Mast, D.; Walcher, C. J.; Zibetti, S.; Ziegler, B.; Califa Team

    2017-07-01

    Context. According to numerical simulations, stars are not always kept at their birth galactocentric distances but they have a tendency to migrate. The importance of this radial migration in shaping galactic light distributions is still unclear. However, if radial migration is indeed important, galaxies with different surface brightness (SB) profiles must display differences in their stellar population properties. Aims: We investigate the role of radial migration in the light distribution and radial stellar content by comparing the inner colour, age, and metallicity gradients for galaxies with different SB profiles. We define these inner parts, avoiding the bulge and bar regions and up to around three disc scale lengths (type I, pure exponential) or the break radius (type II, downbending; type III, upbending). Methods: We analysed 214 spiral galaxies from the CALIFA survey covering different SB profiles. We made use of GASP2D and SDSS data to characterise the light distribution and obtain colour profiles of these spiral galaxies. The stellar age and metallicity profiles were computed using a methodology based on full-spectrum fitting techniques (pPXF, GANDALF, and STECKMAP) to the Integral Field Spectroscopic CALIFA data. Results: The distributions of the colour, stellar age, and stellar metallicity gradients in the inner parts for galaxies displaying different SB profiles are unalike as suggested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling tests. We find a trend in which type II galaxies show the steepest profiles of all, type III show the shallowest, and type I display an intermediate behaviour. Conclusions: These results are consistent with a scenario in which radial migration is more efficient for type III galaxies than for type I systems, where type II galaxies present the lowest radial migration efficiency. In such a scenario, radial migration mixes the stellar content, thereby flattening the radial stellar properties and shaping different SB profiles. However

  2. Topographical anatomy of the radial nerve and its muscular branches related to surface landmarks.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyejin; Lee, Hye-Yeon; Gil, Young-Chun; Choi, Yun-Rak; Yang, Hee-Jun

    2013-10-01

    Understanding of the anatomy of the radial nerve and its branches is vital to the treatment of humeral fracture or the restoration of upper extremity function. In this study, we dissected 40 upper extremities from adult cadavers to locate the course of the radial nerve and the origins and insertions of the branches of the radial nerve using surface landmarks. The radial nerve reached and left the radial groove and pierced the lateral intermuscular septum, at the levels of 46.7, 60.5, and 66.8% from the acromion to the transepicondylar line, respectively. Branches to the long head of the triceps brachii originated in the axilla, and branches to the medial and lateral heads originated in the axilla or in the arm. The muscular attachments to the long, medial, and lateral heads were on average 34.0 mm proximal, 16.4 mm distal, and 19.3 mm proximal to the level of inferior end of the deltoid muscle, respectively. The radial nerve innervated 65.0% of the brachialis muscles. Branches to the brachioradialis and those to the extensor carpi radialis longus arose from the radial nerve above the transepicondylar line. Branches to the extensor carpi radialis brevis usually arose from the deep branch of radial nerve (67.5%); however, in some cases, branches to the extensor carpi radialis brevis arose from either the radial nerve (20.0%) or the superficial branch of the radial nerve (12.5%). Using these data, the course of the radial nerve can be estimated by observing the surface of the arm. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Propagation of a radial phased-locked Lorentz beam array in turbulent atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoquan

    2011-11-21

    A radial phased-locked (PL) Lorentz beam array provides an appropriate theoretical model to describe a coherent diode laser array, which is an efficient radiation source for high-power beaming use. The propagation of a radial PL Lorentz beam array in turbulent atmosphere is investigated. Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel integral and some mathematical techniques, analytical formulae for the average intensity and the effective beam size of a radial PL Lorentz beam array are derived in turbulent atmosphere. The average intensity distribution and the spreading properties of a radial PL Lorentz beam array in turbulent atmosphere are numerically calculated. The influences of the beam parameters and the structure constant of the atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of a radial PL Lorentz beam array in turbulent atmosphere are discussed in detail. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  4. 14 CFR 97.5 - Bearings, courses, tracks, headings, radials, miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., radials, miles. 97.5 Section 97.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Bearings, courses, tracks, headings, radials, miles. (a) All bearings, courses, tracks, headings, and... visibility values are stated in statute miles. All other mileages are stated in nautical miles. [Doc. No. 561...

  5. 14 CFR 97.5 - Bearings, courses, tracks, headings, radials, miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., radials, miles. 97.5 Section 97.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Bearings, courses, tracks, headings, radials, miles. (a) All bearings, courses, tracks, headings, and... visibility values are stated in statute miles. All other mileages are stated in nautical miles. [Doc. No. 561...

  6. 14 CFR 97.5 - Bearings, courses, tracks, headings, radials, miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., radials, miles. 97.5 Section 97.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Bearings, courses, tracks, headings, radials, miles. (a) All bearings, courses, tracks, headings, and... visibility values are stated in statute miles. All other mileages are stated in nautical miles. [Doc. No. 561...

  7. 14 CFR 97.5 - Bearings, courses, tracks, headings, radials, miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., radials, miles. 97.5 Section 97.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Bearings, courses, tracks, headings, radials, miles. (a) All bearings, courses, tracks, headings, and... visibility values are stated in statute miles. All other mileages are stated in nautical miles. [Doc. No. 561...

  8. Study on the radial vibration and acoustic field of an isotropic circular ring radiator.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuyu; Xu, Long

    2012-01-01

    Based on the exact analytical theory, the radial vibration of an isotropic circular ring is studied and its electro-mechanical equivalent circuit is obtained. By means of the equivalent circuit model, the resonance frequency equation is derived; the relationship between the radial resonance frequency, the radial displacement amplitude magnification and the geometrical dimensions, the material property is analyzed. For comparison, numerical method is used to simulate the radial vibration of isotropic circular rings. The resonance frequency and the radial vibrational displacement distribution are obtained, and the radial radiation acoustic field of the circular ring in radial vibration is simulated. It is illustrated that the radial resonance frequencies from the analytical method and the numerical method are in good agreement when the height is much less than the radius. When the height becomes large relative to the radius, the frequency deviation from the two methods becomes large. The reason is that the exact analytical theory is limited to thin circular ring whose height must be much less than its radius. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spontaneous radial nerve palsy subsequent to non-traumatic neuroma.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimpour, Adel; Nazerani, Shahram; Tavakoli Darestani, Reza; Khani, Salim

    2013-09-01

    Spontaneous radial palsy is a not rare finding in hand clinics. The anatomy of the radial nerve renders it prone to pressure paralysis as often called "Saturday night palsy". This problem is a transient nerve lesion and an acute one but the case presented here is very unusual in that it seems this entity can also occur as an acute on chronic situation with neuroma formation. A 61 year-old man presented with the chief complaint of inability to extend the wrist and the fingers of the left hand which began suddenly the night before admission, following a three-week history of pain, numbness and tingling sensation of the affected extremity. He had no history of trauma to the extremity. Electromyography revealed a severe conductive defect of the left radial nerve with significant axonal loss at the upper arm. Surgical exploration identified a neuroma of the radial nerve measuring 1.5 cm in length as the cause of the paralysis. The neuroma was removed and an end-to-end nerve coaption was performed. Complete recovery of the hand and finger extension was achieved in nine months.

  10. Development and Testing of a Radial Halbach Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center has developed and tested a revolutionary Radial Halbach Magnetic Bearing. The objective of this work is to develop a viable non-contact magnetic bearing utilizing Halbach arrays for all-electric flight, and many other applications. This concept will help reduce harmful emissions, reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels and mitigate many of the concerns and limitations encountered in conventional axial bearings such as bearing wear, leaks, seals and friction loss. The Radial Halbach Magnetic Bearing is inherently stable and requires no active feedback control system or superconductivity as required in many magnetic bearing designs. The Radial Halbach Magnetic Bearing is useful for very high speed applications including turbines, instrumentation, medical applications, manufacturing equipment, and space power systems such as flywheels. Magnetic fields suspend and support a rotor assembly within a stator. Advanced technologies developed for particle accelerators, and currently under development for maglev trains and rocket launchers, served as the basis for this application. Experimental hardware was successfully designed and developed to validate the basic principles and analyses. The report concludes that the implementation of Radial Halbach Magnetic Bearings can provide significant improvements in rotational system performance and reliability.

  11. Optical cage generated by azimuthal- and radial-variant vector beams.

    PubMed

    Man, Zhongsheng; Bai, Zhidong; Li, Jinjian; Zhang, Shuoshuo; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yuquan; Ge, Xiaolu; Fu, Shenggui

    2018-05-01

    We propose a method to generate an optical cage using azimuthal- and radial-variant vector beams in a high numerical aperture optical system. A new kind of vector beam that has azimuthal- and radial-variant polarization states is proposed and demonstrated theoretically. Then, an integrated analytical model to calculate the electromagnetic field and Poynting vector distributions of the input azimuthal- and radial-variant vector beams is derived and built based on the vector diffraction theory of Richards and Wolf. From calculations, a full polarization-controlled optical cage is obtained by simply tailoring the radial index of the polarization, the uniformity U of which is up to 0.7748, and the cleanness C is zero. Additionally, a perfect optical cage can be achieved with U=1, and C=0 by introducing an amplitude modulation; its magnetic field and energy flow are also demonstrated in detail. Such optical cages may be helpful in applications such as optical trapping and high-resolution imaging.

  12. Detection of radial motion depends on spatial displacement.

    PubMed

    de la Malla, Cristina; López-Moliner, Joan

    2010-06-01

    Nakayama and Tyler (1981) disentangled the use of pure motion (speed) information from spatial displacement information for the detection of lateral motion. They showed that when positional cues were removed the contribution of motion or spatial information was dependent on the temporal frequency: for temporal frequencies lower than 1Hz the mechanism used to detect motion relied on speed information while for higher temporal frequencies a mechanism based on displacement information was used. Here we test whether the same dependency is also revealed in radial motion. In order to do so, we adapted the paradigm previously used by Nakayama and Tyler to obtain detection thresholds for lateral and radial motion by using a 2-IFC procedure. Subjects had to report which of the intervals contained the signal stimulus (33% coherent motion). We replicated the temporal frequency dependency for lateral motion but results indicate, however, that the detection of radial is always consistent with detecting a spatial displacement amplitude. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of radial die-wall pressure changes during pharmaceutical powder compaction.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hamid, Sameh; Betz, Gabriele

    2011-04-01

    In tablet manufacturing, less attention is paid to the measurement of die-wall pressure than to force-displacement diagrams. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate radial stress change during pharmaceutical compaction. The Presster(TM), a tablet-press replicator, was used to characterize compaction behavior of microcrystalline cellulose (viscoelastic), calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (brittle), direct compressible mannitol (plastic), pre-gelatinized starch (plastic/elastic), and spray dried lactose monohydrate (plastic/brittle) by measuring radial die-wall pressure; therefore powders were compacted at different (pre) compaction pressures as well as different speeds. Residual die-wall pressure (RDP) and maximum die-wall pressure (MDP) were measured. Various tablet physical properties were correlated to radial die-wall pressure. With increasing compaction pressure, RDP and MDP (P < 0.0001) increased for all materials, with increasing precompaction RDP decreased for plastic materials (P < 0.05), whereas with increasing speed MDP decreased for all materials (P < 0.05). During decompression, microcrystalline cellulose and pre-gelatinized starch showed higher axial relaxation, whereas mannitol and lactose showed higher radial relaxation, calcium hydrogen phosphate showed high axial and radial relaxations. Plastic and brittle materials showed increased tendencies for friction because of high radial relaxation. Die-wall monitoring is suggested as a valuable tool for characterizing compaction behavior of materials and detecting friction phenomena in the early stage of development.

  14. Measurement of radial artery contrast intensity to assess cardiac microbubble behavior.

    PubMed

    Sosnovik, David E; Januzzi, James L; Church, Charles C; Mertsch, Judith A; Sears, Andrea L; Fetterman, Robert C; Walovitch, Richard C; Picard, Michael H

    2003-12-01

    We sought to determine whether analysis of the contrast signal from the radial artery is better able to reflect changes in left ventricular (LV) microbubble dynamics than the signal from the LV itself. Assessment of microbubble behavior from images of the LV may be affected by attenuation from overlying microbubbles and nonuniform background signal intensities. The signal intensity from contrast in a peripheral artery is not affected by these artifacts and may, thus, be more accurate. After injection of a contrast bolus into a peripheral vein, signal intensity was followed simultaneously in the LV and radial artery. The measurements were repeated using continuous, triggered, low and high mechanical index harmonic imaging of the LV. Peak and integrated signal intensities ranged from 25 dB and 1550 dB/s, respectively, with radial artery imaging to 5.6 dB and 471 dB/s with ventricular imaging. Although differences in microbubble behavior during the different imaging protocols could be determined from both the LV and radial artery curves, analysis of the radial artery curves yielded more consistent and robust differences. The signal from microbubbles in the radial artery is not affected by shadowing and is, thus, a more accurate reflection of microbubble behavior in the LV than the signal from the LV itself. This may have important implications for the measurement of myocardial perfusion by contrast echocardiography.

  15. A Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor for Radial Artery Pulse Waveform Measurement.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dagong; Chao, Jing; Li, Shuai; Zhang, Hongxia; Yan, Yingzhan; Liu, Tiegen; Sun, Ye

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we report the design and experimental validation of a novel optical sensor for radial artery pulse measurement based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and lever amplification mechanism. Pulse waveform analysis is a diagnostic tool for clinical examination and disease diagnosis. High fidelity radial artery pulse waveform has been investigated in clinical studies for estimating central aortic pressure, which is proved to be predictors of cardiovascular diseases. As a three-dimensional cylinder, the radial artery needs to be examined from different locations to achieve optimal pulse waveform for estimation and diagnosis. The proposed optical sensing system is featured as high sensitivity and immunity to electromagnetic interference for multilocation radial artery pulse waveform measurement. The FBG sensor can achieve the sensitivity of 8.236 nm/N, which is comparable to a commonly used electrical sensor. This FBG-based system can provide high accurate measurement, and the key characteristic parameters can be then extracted from the raw signals for clinical applications. The detecting performance is validated through experiments guided by physicians. In the experimental validation, we applied this sensor to measure the pulse waveforms at various positions and depths of the radial artery in the wrist according to the diagnostic requirements. The results demonstrate the high feasibility of using optical systems for physiological measurement and using this FBG sensor for radial artery pulse waveform in clinical applications.

  16. Five-year results after valve replacement with the Björk-Shiley 70 degrees convexo-concave prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Koldsland, S; Svennevig, J L; Abdelnoor, M; Aas, H; Semb, G

    1992-01-01

    In the 18 months up to July 1983, 120 Björk-Shiley convexo-concave prostheses with 70 degrees opening angle were implanted in 47 women and 61 men aged 19-78 (mean 58.6) years. The prosthetic valves were aortic in 65 cases, mitral in 23 and both aortic and mitral in 20 cases. Emergency operation was required in ten cases, and concomitant surgery was performed in 43 (39.8%). The early mortality was 5.5%. A follow-up study, comprising 498 patient years, revealed 73.1% 5-year survival. There were three mechanical failures of prosthesis, in one of which re-replacement was successful. Elective prosthesis replacement was performed in four other cases judged to be at high risk of strut fracture.

  17. GJ 3236 - radial velocity determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kára, J.; Wolf, M.; Zharikov, S.

    2018-04-01

    We present a new study of low-mass red-dwarf eclipsing binary GJ 3236 using spectroscopic data obtained by the 2.12-m telescope at the San Pedro Mártir Observatory. We resolved radial velocities of both components of the binary and improved determination of the physical parameters of the binary.

  18. Radial pressure flange seal

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, Thomas H.; Call, Wayne R.

    1989-01-01

    This invention provides an all metal seal for vacuum or pressure vessels or systems. This invention does not use gaskets. The invention uses a flange which fits into a matching groove. Fluid pressure is applied in a chamber in the flange causing at least one of the flange walls to radially press against a side of the groove creating the seal between the flange wall and the groove side.

  19. Radial pressure flange seal

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1989-01-24

    This invention provides an all metal seal for vacuum or pressure vessels or systems. This invention does not use gaskets. The invention uses a flange which fits into a matching groove. Fluid pressure is applied in a chamber in the flange causing at least one of the flange walls to radially press against a side of the groove creating the seal between the flange wall and the groove side. 5 figs.

  20. A visual study of radial inward choked flow of liquid nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Simoneau, R. J.; Hsu, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    A visual study of the radial inward choked flow of liquid nitrogen was conducted. Data and high speed moving pictures were obtained. The study indicated the following: (1) steady radial inward choked flow seems equivalent to steady choked flow through axisymmetric nozzles, (2) transient choked flows through the radial gap are not uniform and the discharge pattern appears as nonuniform impinging jets, and (3) the critical mass flow rate data for the transient case appear different from those of the steady case.

  1. Search for companions in visual binary systems using precise radial-velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, Noriyuki; Itoh, Yoichi; Sato, Bun'ei

    2018-05-01

    The frequency of triple and quadruple systems is considered to be high in the early phase of star formation. Some multiple systems decay in the pre-main-sequence phase. The multiplicity of main-sequence stars provides clues about the evolution of binary systems. This work searched for companions of five components of visual binary systems using precise radial-velocity measurements. Their radial velocities were monitored from 2007 to 2012 using the HIgh Dispersion Echelle Spectrograph (HIDES) installed on the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory (OAO) 1.88 m reflector. In combination with previous work, this work searched for companions with an orbital period of less than 9 yr for the five bodies. We found periodic variations in the radial velocities for ADS 6190 A and BDS 10966A. The radial velocities of ADS 7311 A, 31 Dra A, and 31 Dra B show significant trends. ADS 6190 A is an SB1 binary with an orbital period of 366.2 d. The minimum mass of the secondary star is 0.5^{+0.7}_{-0.2} M_{⊙}. The radial velocity of ADS 7311 A was monitored for an observational span of 3200 d. We rejected a planetary-mass companion as the cause of a decreasing trend in the radial velocity of ADS 7311 A. This work confirmed that the periodic variation in the radial velocity of BDS 10966 A is 771.1 d. Bisector analysis did not reveal a correlation between the asymmetry of a spectral line and the radial velocity of BDS 10966 A. We rejected nonradial oscillation of the photosphere as the source of the radial velocity variation. The variation may be caused by the rotational modulation owing to surface inhomogeneity. The orbital elements of 31 Dra A derived in this paper are consistent with those in a previous paper. 31 Dra A system is an SB1 binary with a minimum mass ratio of 0.30 ± 0.08. 31 Dra B exhibits a periodic variation in radial velocity. The orbital elements derived in this work are consistent with those reported previously by others. The variation is caused by a circumstellar

  2. Radial particle-size segregation during packing of particulates into cylindrical containers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ripple, C.D.; James, R.V.; Rubin, J.

    1973-01-01

    In a series of experiments, soil materials were placed in long cylindrical containers, using various packing procedures. Soil columns produced by deposition and simultaneous vibratory compaction were dense and axially uniform, but showed significant radial segregation of particle sizes. Similar results were obtained with deposition and simultaneous impact-type compaction when the impacts resulted in significant container "bouncing". The latter procedure, modified to minimize "bouncing" produced dense, uniform soil columns, showing little radial particle-size segregation. Other procedures tested (deposition alone and deposition followed by compaction) did not result in radial segregation, but produced columns showing either relatively low or axially nonuniform densities. Current data suggest that radial particle-size segregation is mainly due to vibration-induced particle circulation in which particles of various sizes have different circulation rates and paths. ?? 1973.

  3. Role of Genetic Factors in the Pathogenesis of Radial Deficiencies in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Elmakky, Amira; Stanghellini, Ilaria; Landi, Antonio; Percesepe, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Radial deficiencies (RDs), defined as under/abnormal development or absence of any of the structures of the forearm, radial carpal bones and thumb, occur with a live birth incidence ranging from 1 out of 30,000 to 1 out 6,000 newborns and represent about one third/one fourth of all the congenital upper limb anomalies. About half of radial disorders have a mendelian cause and pattern of inheritance, whereas the remaining half appears sporadic with no known gene involved. In sporadic forms certain anomalies, such as thumb or radial hypoplasia, may occur either alone or in association with systemic conditions, like vertebral abnormalities or renal defects. All the cases with a mendelian inheritance are syndromic forms, which include cardiac defects (in Holt-Oram syndrome), bone marrow failure (in Fanconi anemia), platelet deficiency (in thrombocytopenia-absent-radius syndrome), ocular motility impairment (in Okihiro syndrome). The genetics of radial deficiencies is complex, characterized by genetic heterogeneity and high inter- and intra-familial clinical variability: this review will analyze the etiopathogenesis and the genotype/phenotype correlations of the main radial deficiency disorders in humans. PMID:26962299

  4. Rhamnogalacturonan from Acmella oleracea (L.) R.K. Jansen: gastroprotective and ulcer healing properties in rats.

    PubMed

    Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; da Silva, Luisa Mota; Mendes, Daniel Augusto Gasparin Bueno; Cabrini, Daniela de Almeida; Nascimento, Adamara Machado; Iacomini, Marcello; Cipriani, Thales Ricardo; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko

    2014-01-01

    A rhamnogalacturonan (RGal) isolated from Acmella oleracea (L.) R.K. Jansen administered by oral route showed gastroprotective activity against acute lesions induced by ethanol. In this study, we investigated the gastric ulcer healing effect of RGal and its mechanisms of action. Intraperitoneal treatment of animals with RGal protected the gastric mucosa against acute lesions induced by ethanol, with participation of gastric mucus. Furthermore, in the chronic ulcer model, oral administration of RGal accelerates the gastric ulcer healing, accompanied by increasing of cellular proliferation and gastric mucus content, reducing inflammatory parameters and oxidative stress. In addition, the repeated 7 days-treatment of animals with RGal did not show alterations of clinical and behavioral symptoms, body and organs weights or plasmatic biochemical parameters. Collectively, these results showed that RGal has an interesting antiulcerogenic activity and could constitute an attractive molecule of interest for the development of new antiulcer agents.

  5. 14 CFR 97.5 - Bearings, courses, tracks, headings, radials, miles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., radials, miles. 97.5 Section 97.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... radials in this part are magnetic, unless otherwise designated. (b) RVR values are stated in feet. Other visibility values are stated in statute miles. All other mileages are stated in nautical miles. [Doc. No. 561...

  6. Influence of Radial Stress Gradient on Strainbursts: An Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Guoshao; Zhai, Shaobin; Jiang, Jianqing; Zhang, Gangliang; Yan, Liubin

    2017-10-01

    Strainbursts, which are violent disasters that are accompanied by the ejection failure of rocks, usually occur in hard brittle rocks around highly stressed underground openings. The release of the radial stress at excavation boundaries is one of the major inducing factors for strainbursts in tunnels. After excavation, the radial stress usually exhibits different but apparent gradient variations along the radial direction near the boundary within a certain depth under different in situ stress conditions. In this study, the influence of the radial stress gradient on strainbursts of granite was investigated using an improved true-triaxial rockburst testing system, which was equipped with an acoustic emission monitoring system. The stress state and boundary conditions (i.e., one face free, other faces loaded and increasing tangential stress) of the representative rock element in the vicinity of the excavation boundary were simulated. High-speed cameras were used to capture the ejection failure processes during strainbursts, and the kinetic energy of ejected fragments was quantitatively estimated by analyzing the recorded videos. The experimental results indicate that with an increasing radial stress gradient, the strength increases, the apparent yield platform prior to the peak stress on the stress-strain curves decreases, the failure mode changes from strainburst characterized by tensile splitting to strainburst characterized by shear rupture, and the kinetic energy of ejected fragments during strainbursts significantly increases.

  7. Meshless Local Petrov-Galerkin Euler-Bernoulli Beam Problems: A Radial Basis Function Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, I. S.; Phillips, D. R.; Krishnamurthy, T.

    2003-01-01

    A radial basis function implementation of the meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method is presented to study Euler-Bernoulli beam problems. Radial basis functions, rather than generalized moving least squares (GMLS) interpolations, are used to develop the trial functions. This choice yields a computationally simpler method as fewer matrix inversions and multiplications are required than when GMLS interpolations are used. Test functions are chosen as simple weight functions as in the conventional MLPG method. Compactly and noncompactly supported radial basis functions are considered. The non-compactly supported cubic radial basis function is found to perform very well. Results obtained from the radial basis MLPG method are comparable to those obtained using the conventional MLPG method for mixed boundary value problems and problems with discontinuous loading conditions.

  8. DESIGN ANALYSIS OF RADIAL INFLOW TURBINES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    This program performs a velocity-diagram analysis required for determining geometry and estimating performance for radial-inflow turbines. Input design requirements are power, mass flow rate, inlet temperature and pressure, and rotative rate. The design variables include stator-exit angle, rotor-exit-tip to rotor-inlet radius ratio, rotor-exit-hub to tip radius ratio, and the magnitude and radial distribution of rotor-exit tangential velocity. The program output includes diameters, total and static efficiences, all absolute and relative temperatures, pressures, and velocities, and flow angles at stator inlet, stator exit, rotor inlet, and rotor exit. Losses accounted for in this program by the internal loss model are three-dimensional (profile plus end wall) viscous losses in the stator and the rotor, the disk-friction loss on the back side of the rotor, the loss due to the clearance between the rotor tip and the outer casing, and the exit velocity loss. The flow analysis is one-dimensional at the stator inlet, stator exit, and rotor inlet, each of these calculation stations being at a constant radius. At the rotor exit where there is a variation in flow-field radius, an axisymmetric two-dimensional analysis is made using constant height sectors. Simple radial equilibrium is used to establish the static pressure gradient at the rotor exit. This program is written in FORTRAN V and has been implemented on a UNIVAC 1100 series computer with a memory requirement of approximately 22K of 36 bit words.

  9. Asymmetrical Cortical Processing of Radial Expansioncontraction in Infants and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirai, Nobu; Birtles, Deirdre; Wattam-Bell, John; Yamaguchi, Masami K.; Kanazawa, So; Atkinson, Janette; Braddick, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    We report asymmetrical cortical responses (steady-state visual evoked potentials) to radial expansion and contraction in human infants and adults. Forty-four infants (22 3-month-olds and 22 4-month-olds) and nine adults viewed dynamic dot patterns which cyclically (2.1 Hz) alternate between radial expansion (or contraction) and random directional…

  10. Predictive Power of Distal Radial Metaphyseal Tenderness for Diagnosing Occult Fracture.

    PubMed

    Glickel, Steven Z; Hinojosa, Lauren; Eden, Claire M; Balutis, Elaine; Barron, O Alton; Catalano, Louis W

    2017-10-01

    To correlate the physical examination finding of distal radial metaphyseal tenderness with plain radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging after acute wrist injury to diagnose occult distal radius fractures. We hypothesized that persistent distal radial metaphyseal tenderness 2 weeks after acute injuries is predictive of an occult fracture. Twenty-nine adult patients presented, after acute trauma, with distal radial metaphyseal tenderness and initial plain radiographs and/or fluoroscopic images that did not show a distal radius fracture. Patients were reevaluated clinically and radiographically at approximately 2 weeks after initial presentation. Patients with persistent distal radial tenderness and negative radiographs underwent magnetic resonance imaging to definitively diagnose an occult distal radius fracture. We calculated the sensitivity and positive predictive value for persistent distal radial metaphyseal tenderness using a 95% confidence interval and standard formulas. Both radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging were used as our endpoint diagnosis for a distal radius fracture. We diagnosed 28 occult distal radius fractures, 8 by follow-up radiograph and 20 by magnetic resonance imaging. The positive predictive value for patients who completed the protocol was 96%. One patient who did not have an occult distal radius fracture had a fracture of the ulnar styloid. Tenderness of the distal radial metaphysis after wrist injury is strongly suggestive of a distal radius fracture despite both normal plain radiographs and fluoroscopic images. Diagnostic III. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. RTOD- RADIAL TURBINE OFF-DESIGN PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    The RTOD program was developed to accurately predict radial turbine off-design performance. The radial turbine has been used extensively in automotive turbochargers and aircraft auxiliary power units. It is now being given serious consideration for primary powerplant applications. In applications where the turbine will operate over a wide range of power settings, accurate off-design performance prediction is essential for a successful design. RTOD predictions have already illustrated a potential improvement in off-design performance offered by rotor back-sweep for high-work-factor radial turbines. RTOD can be used to analyze other potential performance enhancing design features. RTOD predicts the performance of a radial turbine (with or without rotor blade sweep) as a function of pressure ratio, speed, and stator setting. The program models the flow with the following: 1) stator viscous and trailing edge losses; 2) a vaneless space loss between the stator and the rotor; and 3) rotor incidence, viscous, trailing-edge, clearance, and disk friction losses. The stator and rotor viscous losses each represent the combined effects of profile, endwall, and secondary flow losses. The stator inlet and exit and the rotor inlet flows are modeled by a mean-line analysis, but a sector analysis is used at the rotor exit. The leakage flow through the clearance gap in a pivoting stator is also considered. User input includes gas properties, turbine geometry, and the stator and rotor viscous losses at a reference performance point. RTOD output includes predicted turbine performance over a specified operating range and any user selected flow parameters. The RTOD program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 370 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 100K of 8 bit bytes. The RTOD program was developed in 1983.

  12. Radial Coherence of Diffusion Tractography in the Cerebral White Matter of the Human Fetus: Neuroanatomic Insights

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gang; Takahashi, Emi; Folkerth, Rebecca D.; Haynes, Robin L.; Volpe, Joseph J.; Grant, P. Ellen; Kinney, Hannah C.

    2014-01-01

    High angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) demonstrates transient radial coherence of telencephalic white matter in the human fetus. Our objective was to define the neuroanatomic basis of this radial coherence through correlative HARDI- and postmortem tissue analyses. Applying immunomarkers to radial glial fibers (RGFs), axons, and blood vessels in 18 cases (19 gestational weeks to 3 postnatal years), we compared their developmental profiles to HARDI tractography in brains of comparable ages (n = 11). At midgestation, radial coherence corresponded with the presence of RGFs. At 30–31 weeks, the transition from HARDI-defined radial coherence to corticocortical coherence began simultaneously with the transformation of RGFs to astrocytes. By term, both radial coherence and RGFs had disappeared. White matter axons were radial, tangential, and oblique over the second half of gestation, whereas penetrating blood vessels were consistently radial. Thus, radial coherence in the fetal white matter likely reflects a composite of RGFs, penetrating blood vessels, and radial axons of which its transient expression most closely matches that of RGFs. This study provides baseline information for interpreting radial coherence in tractography studies of the preterm brain in the assessment of the encephalopathy of prematurity. PMID:23131806

  13. Leakage Account for Radial Face Contact Seal in Aircraft Engine Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, A. S.; Sergeeva, T. V.

    2018-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the development of a methodology for the radial face contact seal design taking into consideration the supporting elements deformations in different aircraft engine operating modes. Radial face contact seals are popular in the aircraft engines bearing support. However, there are no published leakage calculation methodologies of these seals. Radial face contact seal leakage is determined by the gap clearance in the carbon seal ring split. In turn, the size gap clearance depends on the deformation of the seal assembly parts and from the engine operation. The article shows the leakage detection sequence in the intershaft radial face contact seal of the compressor support for take-off and cruising modes. Evaluated calculated leakage values (2.4 g/s at takeoff and 0.75 g/s at cruising) go with experience in designing seals.

  14. Clinical Outcomes following median to radial nerve transfers

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Wilson Z.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose In this study the authors evaluate the clinical outcomes in patients with radial nerve palsy who underwent nerve transfers utilizing redundant fascicles of median nerve (innervating the flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor carpi radialis muscles) to the posterior interosseous nerve and the nerve to the extensor carpi radialis brevis. Methods A retrospective review of the clinical records of 19 patients with radial nerve injuries who underwent nerve transfer procedures using the median nerve as a donor nerve were included. All patients were evaluated using the Medical Research Council (MRC) grading system. Results The mean age of patients was 41 years (range 17 – 78 years). All patients received at least 12 months of follow-up (20.3 ± 5.8 months). Surgery was performed at a mean of 5.7 ± 1.9 months post-injury. Post-operative functional evaluation was graded according to the following scale: grades MRC 0/5 - MRC 2/5 were considered poor outcomes, while MRC of 3/5 was a fair result, MRC grade 4/5 was a good result, and grade 4+/5 was considered an excellent outcome. Seventeen patients (89%) had a complete radial nerve palsy while two patients (11%) had intact wrist extension but no finger or thumb extension. Post-operatively all patients except one had good to excellent recovery of wrist extension. Twelve patients recovered good to excellent finger and thumb extension, two patients had fair recovery, five patients had a poor recovery. Conclusions The radial nerve is a commonly injured nerve, causing significant morbidity in affected patients. The median nerve provides a reliable source of donor nerve fascicles for radial nerve reinnervation. This transfer was first performed in 1999 and evolved over the subsequent decade. The important nuances of both surgical technique and motor re-education critical for to the success of this transfer have been identified and are discussed. PMID:21168979

  15. Radial magnetic bearings: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weiyu; Zhu, Huangqiu

    Radial magnetic bearings (RMBs) are one of the most commonly used magnetic bearings. They are used widely in the field of ultra-high speed and ultra-precise numerical control machine tools, bearingless motors, high speed flywheels, artificial heart pumps, and molecular pumps, and they are being strengthened and extended in various important areas. In this paper, a comprehensive overview is given of different bearing topologies of RMBs with different stator poles that differ in their construction, the driving mode of electromagnets, power consumption, cost, magnetic circuits, and symmetry. RMBs with different poles and couplings between the two bearing axes in the radial direction responsible for cross-coupling generation are compared. In addition, different shaped rotors are compared, as the performances of magnetic bearing-rotor systems are of great concern to rotor constructions. Furthermore, the parameter design methods, the mathematical models and control strategies of the RMBs are described in detail. From the comparison of topologies, models and control methods for RMBs, the advantages, disadvantages and utilizable perspectives are also analyzed. Moreover, several possible development trends of the RMBs are discussed.

  16. Free radial forearm adiposo-fascial flap for inferior maxillectomy defect reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Thankappan, Krishnakumar; Trivedi, Nirav P.; Sharma, Mohit; Kuriakose, Moni A.; Iyer, Subramania

    2009-01-01

    A free radial forearm fascial flap has been described for intraoral reconstruction. Adiposo-fascial flap harvesting involves few technical modifications from the conventional radial forearm fascio-cutaneous free flap harvesting. We report a case of inferior maxillectomy defect reconstruction in a 42-year-old male with a free radial forearm adiposo-fascial flap with good aesthetic and functional outcome with minimal primary and donor site morbidity. The technique of raising the flap and closing the donor site needs to be meticulous in order to achieve good cosmetic and functional outcome. PMID:19881028

  17. Radial extracorporeal shock wave treatment harms developing chicken embryos

    PubMed Central

    Kiessling, Maren C.; Milz, Stefan; Frank, Hans-Georg; Korbel, Rüdiger; Schmitz, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Radial extracorporeal shock wave treatment (rESWT) has became one of the best investigated treatment modalities for cellulite, including the abdomen as a treatment site. Notably, pregnancy is considered a contraindication for rESWT, and concerns have been raised about possible harm to the embryo when a woman treated with rESWT for cellulite is not aware of her pregnancy. Here we tested the hypothesis that rESWT may cause serious physical harm to embryos. To this end, chicken embryos were exposed in ovo to various doses of radial shock waves on either day 3 or day 4 of development, resembling the developmental stage of four- to six-week-old human embryos. We found a dose-dependent increase in the number of embryos that died after radial shock wave exposure on either day 3 or day 4 of development. Among the embryos that survived the shock wave exposure a few showed severe congenital defects such as missing eyes. Evidently, our data cannot directly be used to draw conclusions about potential harm to the embryo of a pregnant woman treated for cellulite with rESWT. However, to avoid any risks we strongly recommend applying radial shock waves in the treatment of cellulite only if a pregnancy is ruled out. PMID:25655309

  18. Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum with radial anomaly in child.

    PubMed

    Taksande, Amar; Vilhekar, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome is a wide spectrum of congenital anomalies that involves structures arising from the first and second branchial arches. It is characterized by a wide spectrum of symptoms and physical features. These abnormalities mainly involve the cheekbones, jaws, mouth, ears, eyes, or vertebrae. Other conditions with ear and/or radial involvement, such as, the Nager syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Radial-renal syndrome, facioauriculoradial dysplasia, Fanconi anemia, and Vertebral, Anal atresia, Cardiac, Trachea, Esophageal, Renal, and Limb (VACTERL) association should be considered for differential diagnosis. Here we report a child who had facial asymmetry, microsomia, microtia, congenital facial nerve palsy, conductive hearing loss, skin tags, iris coloboma, and preaxial polydactyly.

  19. Evidence for Radial Anisotropy in Earth's Upper Inner Core from Normal Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lythgoe, K.; Deuss, A. F.

    2017-12-01

    The structure of the uppermost inner core is related to solidification of outer core material at the inner core boundary. Previous seismic studies using body waves indicate an isotropic upper inner core, although radial anisotropy has not been considered since it cannot be uniquely determined by body waves. Normal modes, however, do constrain radial anisotropy in the inner core. Centre frequency measurements indicate 2-5 % radial anisotropy in the upper 100 km of the inner core, with a fast direction radially outwards and a slow direction along the inner core boundary. This seismic structure provides constraints on solidification processes at the inner core boundary and appears consistent with texture predicted due to anisotropic inner core growth.

  20. Direct Imaging Of Long Period Radial Velocity Targets With NICI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, Graeme S.; Tinney, Chris G.; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Jenkins, James S.; Jones, Hugh R. A.; O'Toole, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    We are finally entering an era where radial velocity and direct imaging parameter spaces are starting to overlap. Radial velocity measurements provide us with a minimum mass for an orbiting companion (the mass as a function of the inclination of the system). By following up these long period radial velocity detections with direct imaging we can determine whether a trend seen is due to an orbiting planet at low inclination or an orbiting brown dwarf at high inclination. In the event of a non-detection we are still able to put a limit on the maximum mass of the orbiting body. The Anglo-Australian Planet Search is one of the longest baseline radial velocity planet searches in existence, amongst its targets are many that show long period trends in the data. Here we present our direct imaging survey of these objects with our results to date. ADI Observations have been made using NICI (Near Infrared Coronagraphic Imager) on Gemini South and analysed using an in house, LOCI-like, post processing.

  1. IncC of broad-host-range plasmid RK2 modulates KorB transcriptional repressor activity In vivo and operator binding in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jagura-Burdzy, G; Kostelidou, K; Pole, J; Khare, D; Jones, A; Williams, D R; Thomas, C M

    1999-05-01

    The korAB operon of broad-host-range plasmid RK2 encodes five genes, two of which, incC and korB, belong to the parA and parB families, respectively, of genome partitioning functions. Both korB and a third gene, korA, are responsible for coordinate regulation of operons encoding replication, transfer, and stable inheritance functions. Overexpression of incC alone caused rapid displacement of RK2. Using two different reporter systems, we show that incC modulates the action of KorB. Using promoter fusions to the reporter gene xylE, we show that incC potentiates the repression of transcription by korB. This modulation of korB activity was only observed with incC1, which encodes the full-length IncC (364 amino acids [aa]), whereas no effect was observed with incC2, which encodes a polypeptide of 259 aa that lacks the N-terminal 105 aa. Using bacterial extracts with IncC1 and IncC2 or IncC1 purified through the use of a His6 tail and Ni-agarose chromatography, we showed that IncC1 potentiates the binding of KorB to DNA at representative KorB operators. The ability of IncC to stabilize KorB-DNA complexes suggests that these two proteins work together in the global regulation of many operons on the IncP-1 genomes, as well in plasmid partitioning.

  2. Radial restricted solid-on-solid and etching interface-growth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Sidiney G.

    2018-03-01

    An approach to generate radial interfaces is presented. A radial network recursively obtained is used to implement discrete model rules designed originally for the investigation in flat substrates. I used the restricted solid-on-solid and etching models as to test the proposed scheme. The results indicate the Kardar, Parisi, and Zhang conjecture is completely verified leading to a good agreement between the interface radius fluctuation distribution and the Gaussian unitary ensemble. The evolution of the radius agrees well with the generalized conjecture, and the two-point correlation function exhibits also a good agreement with the covariance of the Airy2 process. The approach can be used to investigate radial interfaces evolution for many other classes of universality.

  3. Radial restricted solid-on-solid and etching interface-growth models.

    PubMed

    Alves, Sidiney G

    2018-03-01

    An approach to generate radial interfaces is presented. A radial network recursively obtained is used to implement discrete model rules designed originally for the investigation in flat substrates. I used the restricted solid-on-solid and etching models as to test the proposed scheme. The results indicate the Kardar, Parisi, and Zhang conjecture is completely verified leading to a good agreement between the interface radius fluctuation distribution and the Gaussian unitary ensemble. The evolution of the radius agrees well with the generalized conjecture, and the two-point correlation function exhibits also a good agreement with the covariance of the Airy_{2} process. The approach can be used to investigate radial interfaces evolution for many other classes of universality.

  4. Radial orbit error reduction and sea surface topography determination using satellite altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelis, Theodossios

    1987-01-01

    A method is presented in satellite altimetry that attempts to simultaneously determine the geoid and sea surface topography with minimum wavelengths of about 500 km and to reduce the radial orbit error caused by geopotential errors. The modeling of the radial orbit error is made using the linearized Lagrangian perturbation theory. Secular and second order effects are also included. After a rather extensive validation of the linearized equations, alternative expressions of the radial orbit error are derived. Numerical estimates for the radial orbit error and geoid undulation error are computed using the differences of two geopotential models as potential coefficient errors, for a SEASAT orbit. To provide statistical estimates of the radial distances and the geoid, a covariance propagation is made based on the full geopotential covariance. Accuracy estimates for the SEASAT orbits are given which agree quite well with already published results. Observation equations are develped using sea surface heights and crossover discrepancies as observables. A minimum variance solution with prior information provides estimates of parameters representing the sea surface topography and corrections to the gravity field that is used for the orbit generation. The simulation results show that the method can be used to effectively reduce the radial orbit error and recover the sea surface topography.

  5. Inward transport of a toroidally confined plasma subject to strong radial electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Powers, E. J.; Hong, J.; Kim, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The paper aims at showing that the density and confinement time of a toroidal plasma can be enhanced by radial electric fields far stronger than the ambipolar values, and that, if such electric fields point into the plasma, radially inward transport can result. The investigation deals with low-frequency fluctuation-induced transport using digitally implemented spectral analysis techniques and with the role of strong applied radial electric fields and weak vertical magnetic fields on plasma density and particle confinement times in a Bumpy Torus geometry. Results indicate that application of sufficiently strong radially inward electric fields results in radially inward fluctuation-induced transport into the toroidal electrostatic potential well; this inward transport gives rise to higher average electron densities and longer particle confinement times in the toroidal plasma.

  6. Soil impact on the radial growth of Taxodium ( Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.) in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokanovic, D.; Popovic, V.; Vilotic, D.; Mitrovic, S.; Brasanac-Bosanac, Lj.

    2012-04-01

    This work presents results of analyzed radial development, quantity of radial growth and soil factors in two plantations in Serbia. One of them is located close to Backa Palanka area, and the other is in Belgrade , area of a big war island. Both of them were established at the same type of soil. The research was conducted on 27 years old trees. For both of these locations there were a number of dates which were measured, such as physical-chemical characteristics of the soil and current radial growth that was measured among 20 % widest trees - those parameters were the most important. By comparison between values and form of a current radial growth it was concluded that Taxodium trees in a plantation near Backa Palanka have a culmination of a current radial growth a bit earlier and with some bigger values than those that originate from Belgrade - big war island. There was compared radial development and it was concluded that the trees from Backa Palanka reach bigger radial values than those from Belgrade - big war island at the same age as well. There were some differences between these locations based on physical-chemical analyze conducted on a soil, so the differences in a radial development, form and values of a current radial growth can be explained with a soil influence, and it will be proofed over the following period in this scientific research.

  7. Acoustic vibrations of metal nanoparticles: high order radial mode detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelet, A.; Crut, A.; Arbouet, A.; Del Fatti, N.; Vallée, F.; Portalès, H.; Saviot, L.; Duval, E.

    2004-03-01

    The vibrational radial modes of silver nanospheres embedded in a glass matrix are investigated using a high sensitivity femtosecond pump-probe technique. The results yield evidence for coherent launching of the fundamental and higher order radial modes in agreement with a sphere dilation mediated excitation model. The results are consistent with low-frequency Raman scattering experiments.

  8. Dynamics of a radially expanding liquid sheet: Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Nayanika; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh

    2017-11-01

    A recent theory predicts that sinuous waves generated at the center of a radially expanding liquid sheet grow spatially even in absence of a surrounding gas phase. Unlike flat liquid sheets, the thickness of a radially expanding liquid sheet varies inversely with distance from the center of the sheet. To test the predictions of the theory, experiments were carried out on a horizontal, radially expanding liquid sheet formed by collision of a single jet on a solid impactor. The latter was placed on a speaker-vibrator with controlled amplitude and frequency. The growth of sinuous waves was determined by measuring the wave surface inclination angle using reflected laser light under both atmospheric and sub-atmospheric pressure conditions. It is shown that the measured growth rate matches with the predictions of the theory over a large range of Weber numbers for both pressure conditions suggesting that the thinning of the liquid sheet plays a dominant role in setting the growth rate of sinuous waves with minimal influence of the surrounding gas phase on its dynamics. IIT Bombay.

  9. A Cubic Radial Basis Function in the MLPG Method for Beam Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, I. S.; Phillips, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    A non-compactly supported cubic radial basis function implementation of the MLPG method for beam problems is presented. The evaluation of the derivatives of the shape functions obtained from the radial basis function interpolation is much simpler than the evaluation of the moving least squares shape function derivatives. The radial basis MLPG yields results as accurate or better than those obtained by the conventional MLPG method for problems with discontinuous and other complex loading conditions.

  10. Radial Domany-Kinzel models with mutation and selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrentovich, Maxim O.; Korolev, Kirill S.; Nelson, David R.

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of spatial structure, genetic drift, mutation, and selective pressure on the evolutionary dynamics in a simplified model of asexual organisms colonizing a new territory. Under an appropriate coarse-graining, the evolutionary dynamics is related to the directed percolation processes that arise in voter models, the Domany-Kinzel (DK) model, contact process, and so on. We explore the differences between linear (flat front) expansions and the much less familiar radial (curved front) range expansions. For the radial expansion, we develop a generalized, off-lattice DK model that minimizes otherwise persistent lattice artifacts. With both simulations and analytical techniques, we study the survival probability of advantageous mutants, the spatial correlations between domains of neutral strains, and the dynamics of populations with deleterious mutations. “Inflation” at the frontier leads to striking differences between radial and linear expansions. For a colony with initial radius R0 expanding at velocity v, significant genetic demixing, caused by local genetic drift, occurs only up to a finite time t*=R0/v, after which portions of the colony become causally disconnected due to the inflating perimeter of the expanding front. As a result, the effect of a selective advantage is amplified relative to genetic drift, increasing the survival probability of advantageous mutants. Inflation also modifies the underlying directed percolation transition, introducing novel scaling functions and modifications similar to a finite-size effect. Finally, we consider radial range expansions with deflating perimeters, as might arise from colonization initiated along the shores of an island.

  11. Evaluation of Two rK39 Dipstick Tests, Direct Agglutination Test, and Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test for Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis in a New Epidemic Site in Highland Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Cañavate, Carmen; Herrero, Merce; Nieto, Javier; Cruz, Israel; Chicharro, Carmen; Aparicio, Pilar; Mulugeta, Abate; Argaw, Daniel; Blackstock, Anna J.; Alvar, Jorge; Bern, Caryn

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the performance characteristics of two rK39 immunochromatographic tests, a direct agglutination test (DAT), and an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) in the site of a new epidemic of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in northwestern Ethiopia. The study population was composed of 179 patients with suspected VL and 67 controls. The sensitivities of Kalazar Detect®, DiaMed-IT Leish®, DAT, and IFAT in 35 polymerase chain reaction–confirmed VL cases were 94.3%, 91.4%, 91.4%, and 100%, respectively, and the specificities were 98.5%, 94%, 98.5%, and 98.5%, respectively. In a Bayesian latent class analysis of all 246 specimens, the estimated sensitivities were 90.5%, 89%, 88.8%, and 96% for Kalazar Detect®, DiaMed-IT Leish®, DAT, and IFAT, respectively; DAT showed the highest estimated specificity (97.4%). Both rK39 immunochromatographic tests perform as well as DAT, and are suitable for VL diagnosis in first-level health centers in this area of Ethiopia. PMID:21212210

  12. Symmetry Reductions and Group-Invariant Radial Solutions to the n-Dimensional Wave Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wei; Zhao, Songlin

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we derive explicit group-invariant radial solutions to a class of wave equation via symmetry group method. The optimal systems of one-dimensional subalgebras for the corresponding radial wave equation are presented in terms of the known point symmetries. The reductions of the radial wave equation into second-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with respect to each symmetry in the optimal systems are shown. Then we solve the corresponding reduced ODEs explicitly in order to write out the group-invariant radial solutions for the wave equation. Finally, several analytical behaviours and smoothness of the resulting solutions are discussed.

  13. [Strut fracture of a convex-concave 60 degree Björk-Shiley mitral valve prosthesis 5 years after implantation--metallurgic analysis of the prosthesis strut].

    PubMed

    Lemke, B; Rathmann, J; Wiebe, V; Witzel, U

    1991-08-01

    Acute mechanical failure of prosthetic heart valves is rare, but associated with high mortality when occurring. For convexo-concave Björk-Shiley prostheses only fractures of the outlet strut are reported. We present a case of lethal mechanical complication 5 years after implantation. By additional metallurgic analysis we were able to identify a sequential course of the outlet strut fracture. This could lead to new approaches for early detection of this complication.

  14. Quasi-symmetry and the nature of radial turbulent transport in quasi-poloidal stellarators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcuson, J. A.; Reynolds-Barredo, J. M.; Bustos, A.; Sanchez, R.; Tribaldos, V.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Goerler, T.; Newman, D. E.

    2016-10-01

    Quasi-symmetric configurations have a better neoclassical confinement compared to that of standard stellarators. The reduction of the neoclassical viscosity along the direction of quasi-symmetry should facilitate the self-generation of zonal flows and, consequently, the mitigation of turbulent fluctuations and the ensuing radial transport. Therefore, it is expected that quasi-symmetries should also result in better confinement properties regarding radial turbulent transport. In this paper we show that, at least for quasi-poloidal configurations, the influence of quasi-symmetry on radial transport exceeds the expected reduction of fluctuation levels and associated effective transport coefficients, and that the intimate nature of transport itself is affected. In particular, radial turbulent transport becomes increasingly subdiffusive as the degree of quasi-symmetry becomes larger. This behavior is somewhat reminiscent of what has been previously reported in tokamaks with strong radially sheared zonal flows.

  15. Radial line method for rear-view mirror distortion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmah, Fitri; Kusumawardhani, Apriani; Setijono, Heru; Hatta, Agus M.; Irwansyah, .

    2015-01-01

    An image of the object can be distorted due to a defect in a mirror. A rear-view mirror is an important component for the vehicle safety. One of standard parameters of the rear-view mirror is a distortion factor. This paper presents a radial line method for distortion detection of the rear-view mirror. The rear-view mirror was tested for the distortion detection by using a system consisting of a webcam sensor and an image-processing unit. In the image-processing unit, the captured image from the webcam were pre-processed by using smoothing and sharpening techniques and then a radial line method was used to define the distortion factor. It was demonstrated successfully that the radial line method could be used to define the distortion factor. This detection system is useful to be implemented such as in Indonesian's automotive component industry while the manual inspection still be used.

  16. Point Set Denoising Using Bootstrap-Based Radial Basis Function.

    PubMed

    Liew, Khang Jie; Ramli, Ahmad; Abd Majid, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the application of a bootstrap test error estimation of radial basis functions, specifically thin-plate spline fitting, in surface smoothing. The presence of noisy data is a common issue of the point set model that is generated from 3D scanning devices, and hence, point set denoising is one of the main concerns in point set modelling. Bootstrap test error estimation, which is applied when searching for the smoothing parameters of radial basis functions, is revisited. The main contribution of this paper is a smoothing algorithm that relies on a bootstrap-based radial basis function. The proposed method incorporates a k-nearest neighbour search and then projects the point set to the approximated thin-plate spline surface. Therefore, the denoising process is achieved, and the features are well preserved. A comparison of the proposed method with other smoothing methods is also carried out in this study.

  17. Retinal ganglion cell dendritic fields in old-world monkeys are oriented radially.

    PubMed

    Schall, J D; Perry, V H; Leventhal, A G

    1986-03-12

    We analyzed the dendritic field morphology of 297 ganglion cells from peripheral regions of monkey retina. Most of the dendritic fields were elongated, and there was a significant tendency for the dendritic fields to be oriented radially, i.e., like the spokes of a wheel with the fovea at the hub. An overrepresentation of radial orientations in the peripheral retina of primates might explain why humans are best able to detect stimuli which are oriented radially using peripheral vision.

  18. Inner shell radial pin geometry and mounting arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Leach, David; Bergendahl, Peter Allen

    2002-01-01

    Circumferentially spaced arrays of support pins are disposed through access openings in an outer turbine shell and have projections received in recesses in forward and aft sections of an inner turbine shell supported from the outer shell. The projections have arcuate sides in a circumferential direction affording line contacts with the side walls of the recesses and are spaced from end faces of the recesses, enabling radial and axial expansion and contraction of the inner shell relative to the outer shell. All loads are taken up in a tangential direction by the outer shell with the support pins taking no radial loadings.

  19. Radially Magnetized Protoplanetary Disk: Vertical Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Matthew; Thompson, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    This paper studies the response of a thin accretion disk to an external radial magnetic field. Our focus is on protoplanetary disks (PPDs), which are exposed during their later evolution to an intense, magnetized wind from the central star. A radial magnetic field is mixed into a thin surface layer, wound up by the disk shear, and pushed downward by a combination of turbulent mixing and ambipolar and ohmic drift. The toroidal field reaches much greater strengths than the seed vertical field that is usually invoked in PPD models, even becoming superthermal. Linear stability analysis indicates that the disk experiences the magnetorotational instability (MRI) at a higher magnetization than a vertically magnetized disk when both the effects of ambipolar and Hall drift are taken into account. Steady vertical profiles of density and magnetic field are obtained at several radii between 0.06 and 1 AU in response to a wind magnetic field Br ˜ (10-4-10-2)(r/ AU)-2 G. Careful attention is given to the radial and vertical ionization structure resulting from irradiation by stellar X-rays. The disk is more strongly magnetized closer to the star, where it can support a higher rate of mass transfer. As a result, the inner ˜1 AU of a PPD is found to evolve toward lower surface density. Mass transfer rates around 10-8 M⊙ yr-1 are obtained under conservative assumptions about the MRI-generated stress. The evolution of the disk and the implications for planet migration are investigated in the accompanying paper.

  20. Complete Transversal Disc Fracture in a Björk-Shiley Delrin Mitral Valve Prosthesis 43 Years After Implantation.

    PubMed

    González-Santos, Jose María; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Dalmau-Sorlí, María José; Sastre-Rincón, Jose Alfonso; Hernández-Hernández, Jesús; Pérez-Losada, María Elena; Sagredo-Meneses, Víctor; López-Rodríguez, Javier

    2016-10-01

    A patient who underwent previous implantation of a mitral valve replacement with a Björk-Shiley Delrin (BSD) mitral valve prosthesis during infancy was admitted to our institution 43 years later after an episode of syncope and cardiac arrest. Under extreme hemodynamic instability, a mitral valve prosthetic dysfunction causing massive mitral regurgitation was identified. The patient underwent an emergent cardiac operation, and a complete disc fracture with partial disc migration was found. Exceptional cases of mechanical prosthetic heart valve fracture exist. We report the first case of complete transversal disc rupture of a BSD mitral valve prosthesis after the longest period of implantation ever reported in that position. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Generation of tunable radially polarized array beams by controllable coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jipeng; Zhu, Shijun; Li, Zhenhua

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a new method for converting a single radial polarization beam into an arbitrary radially polarized array (RPA) beam such as a radial or rectangular symmetry array in the focal plane by modulating a periodic correlation structure is introduced. The realizability conditions for such source and the beam condition for radiation generated by such source are derived. It is illustrated that both the amplitude and the polarization are controllable by means of initial correlation structure and coherence parameter. Furthermore, by designing the source correlation structure, a tunable NUST-shaped RPA beam is demonstrated, which can find widespread applications in micro-nano engineering. Such a method for generation of arbitrary vector array beams is useful in beam shaping and optical tweezers.

  2. Erosion in radial inflow turbines. Volume 2: Balance of centrifugal and radial drag forces on erosive particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenger, W. B., Jr.; Tabakoff, W.

    1974-01-01

    The particle motion in two-dimensional free and forced inward flowing vortices is considered. A particle in such a flow field experiences a balance between the aerodynamic drag forces that tend to drive erosive particles toward the axis, and centrifugal forces that prevent these particles from traveling toward the axis. Results predict that certain sizes of particles will achieve a stable orbit about the turbine axis in the inward flowing free vortex. In this condition, the radial drag force is equal to the centrifugal force. The sizes of particles that will achieve a stable orbit is shown to be related to the gas flow velocity diagram at a particular radius. A second analysis yields a description of particle sizes that will experience a centrifugal force that is greater than the radial component of the aerodynamic drag force for a more general type of particle motion.

  3. Radial Artery Approach to Salvage Nonmaturing Radiocephalic Arteriovenous Fistulas

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Mu-Yang; Lin, Lin; Tsai, Kuei-Chin

    2013-08-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the usefulness of an approach through the radial artery distal to the arteriovenous anastomosis for salvaging nonmaturing radiocephalic arteriovenous fistulas.MethodsProcedures that fulfilled the following criteria were retrospectively reviewed: (1) autogenous radiocephalic fistulas, (2) fistulas less than 3 months old, (3) distal radial artery approach for salvage. From 2005 to 2011, a total of 51 patients fulfilling the above criteria were enrolled. Outcome variables were obtained from angiographic, clinical and hemodialysis records, including the success, complication, and primary and secondary patency rates.ResultsThe overall anatomical and clinical success rates for the distal radial artery approach were 96 and 94 %,more » respectively. The average procedure time was 36 {+-} 19 min. Six patients (12 %) experienced minor complications as a result of extravasations. No arterial complication or puncture site complication was noted. The postinterventional 6-month primary patency rate was 51 %, and the 6-month secondary patency rate was 90 %. When the patients were divided into a stenosed group (20 patients) and an occluded group (31 patients), there were no differences in the success rate, complication rate, or primary and secondary patency rates.ConclusionAn approach through the radial artery distal to the arteriovenous anastomosis is an effective and safe alternative for the salvage of nonmaturing radiocephalic arteriovenous fistulas, even for occluded fistulas.« less

  4. OUTER-DISK POPULATIONS IN NGC 7793: EVIDENCE FOR STELLAR RADIAL MIGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Radburn-Smith, David J.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Roskar, Rok

    2012-07-10

    We analyzed the radial surface brightness profile of the spiral galaxy NGC 7793 using HST/ACS images from the GHOSTS survey and a new HST/WFC3 image across the disk break. We used the photometry of resolved stars to select distinct populations covering a wide range of stellar ages. We found breaks in the radial profiles of all stellar populations at 280'' ({approx}5.1 kpc). Beyond this disk break, the profiles become steeper for younger populations. This same trend is seen in numerical simulations where the outer disk is formed almost entirely by radial migration. We also found that the older stars ofmore » NGC 7793 extend significantly farther than the underlying H I disk. They are thus unlikely to have formed entirely at their current radii, unless the gas disk was substantially larger in the past. These observations thus provide evidence for substantial stellar radial migration in late-type disks.« less

  5. The Global and Radial Stellar Mass Assembly of Milky Way-sized Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila-Reese, Vladimir; González-Samaniego, Alejandro; Colín, Pedro; Ibarra-Medel, Héctor; Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo

    2018-02-01

    We study the global and radial stellar mass assembly of eight zoomed-in Milky Way (MW)-sized galaxies produced in hydrodynamics cosmological simulations. The disk-dominated galaxies (four) show a fast initial stellar mass growth in the innermost parts, driven mostly by in situ star formation (SF), but since z ∼ 2‑1, the SF has entered a long-term quenching phase. The outer regions follow this trend but more gently, as they are more external. As a result, the radial stellar mass growth is highly inside-out due to both inside-out structural growth and inside-out SF quenching. The half-mass radius evolves fast; for instance, {R}0.5(z = 1) < 0.5 {R}0.5 (z = 0). Two other runs resemble lenticular galaxies. One also shows a pronounced inside-out growth, and the other one presents a nearly uniform radial mass assembly. The other two galaxies suffered late major mergers. Their normalized radial mass growth histories (MGHs) are very close, but with periods of outside-in assembly during or after the mergers. For all of the simulations, the archaeological radial MGHs calculated from the z = 0 stellar particle age distribution are similar to current MGHs, which shows that the mass assembly by ex situ stars and the radial mass transport do not significantly change their radial mass distributions. Our results agree qualitatively with observational inferences from the fossil record method applied to a survey of local galaxies and from look-back observations of progenitors of MW-sized galaxies. However, the inside-out growth mode is more pronounced, and the {R}0.5 growth is faster in simulations than in observational inferences.

  6. [Locked volar plating for complex distal radius fractures: maintaining radial length].

    PubMed

    Jeudy, J; Pernin, J; Cronier, P; Talha, A; Massin, P

    2007-09-01

    Maintaining radial length, likely to be the main challenge in the treatment of complex distal radius fractures, is necessary for complete grip-strength and pro-supination range recovery. In spite of frequent secondary displacements, bridging external-fixation has remained the reference method, either isolated or in association with additional percutaneous pins or volar plating. Also, there seems to be a relation between algodystrophy and the duration of traction applied on the radio-carpal joint. Fixed-angle volar plating offers the advantage of maintaining the reduction until fracture healing, without bridging the joint. In a prospective study, forty-three consecutive fractures of the distal radius with a positivated ulnar variance were treated with open reduction and fixed-angle volar plating. Results were assessed with special attention to the radial length and angulation obtained and maintained throughout treatment, based on repeated measurements of the ulnar variance and radial angulation in the first six months postoperatively. The correction of the ulnar variance was maintained until complete recovery, independently of initial metaphyseal comminution, and of the amount of radial length gained at reduction. Only 3 patients lost more than 1 mm of radial length after reduction. The posterior tilt of the distal radial epiphysis was incompletely reduced in 13 cases, whereas reduction was partially lost in 6 elderly osteoporotic female patients. There was 8 articular malunions, all of them less than 2 mm. Secondary displacements were found to be related to a deficient locking technique. Eight patients developed an algodystropy. The risk factors for algodystrophy were articular malunion, associated posterior pining, and associated lesions of the ipsilateral upper limb. Provided that the locking technique was correct, this type of fixation appeared efficient in maintaining the radial length in complex fractures of the distal radius. The main challenge remains the

  7. Radial Velocity Survey of T Tauri Stars in Taurus-Auriga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, Christopher; Mahmud, N.; Huerta, M.; Prato, L.; Johns-Krull, C.; Hartigan, P.; Jaffe, D.

    2009-01-01

    Is the frequency of giant planet companions to young stars similar to that seen around old stars? Is the "brown dwarf desert" a product of how low-mass companion objects form, or of how they evolve? Some models indicate that both giant planets and brown dwarfs should be common at young ages within 3 AU of a primary star, but migration induced by massive disks drive brown dwarfs into the parent stars, leaving behind proportionally more giant planets. Our radial velocity survey of young stars will provide a census of the young giant planet and brown dwarf population in Taurus-Auriga. In this poster we present our progress in quantifying how spurious radial velocity signatures are caused by stellar activity and in developing models to help distinguish between companion induced and spot induced radial velocity variations. Early results stress the importance of complementary observations in both visible light and NIR. We present our technique to determine radial velocities by fitting telluric features and model stellar features to our observed spectra. Finally, we discuss ongoing observations at McDonald Observatory, KPNO, and the IRTF, and several new exoplanet host candidates.

  8. Tuning porosity and radial mechanical properties of DNA origami nanotubes via crossover design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhipeng; Kawai, Kentaro; Hirai, Yoshikazu; Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki; Tabata, Osamu

    2017-06-01

    DNA origami nanotubes are utilized as structural platforms for the fabrication of various micro/nanosystems for drug delivery, optical or biological sensing, and even nanoscale robots. Their radial structural and mechanical properties, which play a crucial role in the effective use of micro/nanosystems, have not been fully studied. In particular, the effects of crossovers, which are basic structures for rationally assembling double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) helices into a nanotube configuration, have not yet been characterized experimentally. To investigate the effects of crossovers on the porosity and the radial mechanical properties of DNA origami nanotubes, we fabricated a DNA origami nanotube with varied crossover designs along the nanotube axis. The radial geometry of the DNA origami nanotube is experimentally characterized by both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). Moreover, the radial mechanical properties of the DNA origami nanotube including the radial modulus are directly measured by force-distance-based AFM. These measurements reveal that the porosity and the radial modulus of DNA origami nanotubes can be tuned by adjusting the crossover design, which enables the optimal design and construction of DNA origami nanostructures for various applications.

  9. 21 CFR 888.3170 - Elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis. 888.3170 Section 888.3170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis. (a) Identification. An elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer...

  10. 21 CFR 888.3170 - Elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis. 888.3170 Section 888.3170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis. (a) Identification. An elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer...

  11. 21 CFR 888.3170 - Elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis. 888.3170 Section 888.3170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis. (a) Identification. An elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer...

  12. 21 CFR 888.3170 - Elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis. 888.3170 Section 888.3170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis. (a) Identification. An elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer...

  13. 21 CFR 888.3170 - Elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis. 888.3170 Section 888.3170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis. (a) Identification. An elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer...

  14. [Sudden and fatal malfunction of a Björk-Shiley prosthesis in mitral position due to rupture of the ventricular bracket and disk embolization].

    PubMed

    Casarotto, D; Motta, A; Fabbri, A; Pugliese, P; Muneretto, C; Zanini, M; Sheiban, I

    1985-04-01

    Mechanical complications of prosthetic valves are increasing. The following report describes a case of fracture of a Björk-Shiley mitral prosthetic strut with dislogment of the valve occluder into the thoracic aorta. At the reoperation a new prosthesis was implanted but the patient died of acute heart failure. The diagnosis of valve disfunction must be made non invasively, because the time required for cardiac catherization usually constitutes a lethal delay. The only hope for survival is prompt surgical treatment.

  15. Radial evolution of power spectra of interplanetary Alfvenic turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavassano, B.; Dobrowolny, M.; Mariani, F.; Ness, N. F.

    1981-01-01

    The radial evolution of the power spectra of the MHD turbulence within the trailing edge of high speed streams in the solar wind was investigated with the magnetic field data of Helios 1 and 2 for heliocentric distance between 0.3 and 0.9 AU. In the analyzed frequency range (.00028 Hz to .0083 Hz) the computed spectra have, near the Earth, values of the spectral index close to that predicted for an incompressible hydromagnetic turbulence in a stationary state. Approaching the Sun the spectral slope remains unchanged for frequencies f or approximately .00 Hz, whereas at lower frequencies, a clear evolution toward a less steep fall off with frequency is found. The radial gradient of the power in Alfvenic fluctuations depends on frequency and it increases upon increasing frequency. For frequencies f or approximately .00 Hz, however, the radial gradient remains approximately the same. Possible theoretical implications of the observational features are discussed.

  16. Reactive Radial Diffusion Model for the Aging/Sequestration Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginn, T. R.; Basagaoglu, H.; McCoy, B. J.; Scow, K. M.

    2001-12-01

    A radial diffusion model has been formulated to simulate age-dependent bioavailability of chemical compounds to micro-organisms residing outside (and/or inside) the porous soil particles. Experimental findings in the literature indicate that the sequestration and reduction in bioavailability of contaminants are controlled presumably by the diffusion-limited sorption kinetics and the time-variant desorption process. Here we combine radial-diffusion mass transfer modeling with the exposure-time concept to generate mass-balance equations for the intra- and extra-particle concentrations. The model accomodates reversible sorption kinetics involving sorption time-dependence of the rate coefficients, distinct intra- and extra-particle biodegradation rates; and a dynamic mass interaction between the intra- and extra-particle concentrations arising from the radial diffusion concept. The model explicitly treats multiple particle classes distributed in size and chemical properties in a bulk aquifer or soil volume, which allows the simulation of the sequestration and bioavailability of contaminants in different particle size classes that have distinct diffusion, reaction, and aging properties.

  17. Management of post-traumatic elbow instability after failed radial head excision: A case report.

    PubMed

    Touloupakis, Georgios; Theodorakis, Emmanouil; Favetti, Fabio; Nannerini, Massimiliano

    2017-02-01

    Radial head excision has always been a safe commonly used surgical procedure with a satisfactory clinical outcome for isolated comminuted radial head fractures. However, diagnosis of elbow instability is still very challenging and often underestimated in routine orthopaedic evaluation. We present the case of a 21-years old female treated with excision after radial head fracture, resulting in elbow instability. The patient underwent revision surgery after four weeks. We believe that ligament reconstruction without radial head substitution is a safe alternative choice for Mason III radial head fractures accompanied by complex ligament lesions. Copyright © 2017 Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of the Third Military Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Constraints on the Efficiency of Radial Migration in Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Kathryne J.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    2015-01-01

    A transient spiral arm can permanently rearrange the orbital angular momentum of the stellar disk without inducing kinematic heating. This phenomenon is called radial migration because a star's orbital angular momentum determines its mean orbital radius. Should radial migration be an efficient process it could cause a large fraction of disk stars to experience significant changes in their individual orbital angular momenta on dynamically short timescales. Such scenarios have strong implications for the chemical, structural and kinematic evolution of disk galaxies. We have undertaken an investigation into the physical dependencies of the efficiency of radial migration on stellar kinematics and spiral structure. In order for a disk star to migrate radially, it must first be 'trapped' in a particular family of orbits, called horseshoe orbits, that occur near the radius of corotation with a spiral pattern. Thus far, the only analytic criterion for horseshoe orbits has been for stars with zero random orbital energy. We present our analytically derived 'capture criterion' for stars with some finite random orbital energy in a disk with a given rotation curve. Our capture criterion predict that trapping in a horseshoe orbit is primarily determined by whether or not the position of a star's mean orbital radius (determined by its orbital angular momentum) is within the 'capture region', the location and shape of which can be derived from the capture criterion. We visualize and confirm this prediction via numerically integrated orbits. We then apply our capture criterion to snap shot models of disk galaxies to determine (1) the radial distribution of the fraction of stars initially trapped in horseshoe orbits, and (2) the dependence of the total fraction of captured stars in the disk on the radial component of the stellar velocity dispersion (σR) and the amplitude of the spiral perturbation to the underlying potential at corotation. We here present a model of an exponential

  19. Radial Velocity Studies of Close Binary Stars. XI.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribulla, Theodor; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Lu, Wenxian; Mochnacki, Stefan W.; Conidis, George; Blake, R. M.; DeBond, Heide; Thomson, J. R.; Pych, Wojtek; Ogłoza, Waldemar; Siwak, Michal

    2006-08-01

    Radial-velocity measurements and sine-curve fits to orbital radial velocity variations are presented for 10 close binary systems: DU Boo, ET Boo, TX Cnc, V1073 Cyg, HL Dra, AK Her, VW LMi, V566 Oph, TV UMi, and AG Vir. With this contribution, the David Dunlap Observatory program has reached the point of 100 published radial velocity orbits. The radial velocities have been determined using an improved fitting technique that uses rotational profiles to approximate individual peaks in broadening functions. Three systems, ET Boo, VW LMi, and TV UMi, are found to be quadruple, while AG Vir appears to be a spectroscopic triple. ET Boo, a member of a close visual binary with Pvis=113 yr, was previously known to be a multiple system, but we show that the second component is actually a close, noneclipsing binary. The new observations have enabled us to determine the spectroscopic orbits of the companion, noneclipsing pairs in ET Boo and VW LMi. A particularly interesting case is VW LMi, for which the period of the mutual revolution of the two spectroscopic binaries is only 355 days. While most of the studied eclipsing pairs are contact binaries, ET Boo is composed of two double-lined detached binaries, and HL Dra is a single-lined detached or semidetached system. Five systems of this group have been observed spectroscopically before: TX Cnc, V1073 Cyg, AK Her (as a single-lined binary), V566 Oph, and AG Vir, but our new data are of much higher quality than in the previous studies. Based on data obtained at the David Dunlap Observatory, University of Toronto, Canada.

  20. Reconstructive surgery of true aneurysm of the radial artery: A case report.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Sevinc Bayer; Akansel, Serdar; Selcuk, Nehir Tandogar; Aka, Serap Aykut

    2018-01-01

    True radial artery aneurysms are uncommon pathologies and have an organic cause, unlike trauma-induced false aneurysms. A 52-year-old man presented with a pulsatile mass at the anatomical snuff box area of his left hand. The aneurysm was repaired with reconstructive procedure. Although many posttraumatic and iatrogenic cases of false aneurysm of the radial artery have been reported; there are a few reported cases of a true idiopathic aneurysm. A case of reconstructive surgery for true idiopathic radial artery aneurysm is reported in this paper.

  1. 3D MHD Simulations of Radial Wire Array Z-pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niasse, N.; Chittenden, J. P.; Bland, S. N.; Suzuki-Vidal, F. A.; Hall, G. N.; Lebedev, S. V.; Calamy, H.; Zucchini, F.; Lassalle, F.; Bedoch, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent experiments carried out on the MAGPIE (1 MA, 250 ns), OEDIPE (730 kA, 1.5 μs) and SPHINX (4 MA, 700 ns)[1] facilities have shown the relatively high level of scalability of the Radial Wire Array Z-pinches. These configurations where the wires stretch radially outwards from a central cathode offer numerous advantages over standard cylindrical arrays. In particular, imploding in a very stable and compact way, they seem suitable for coupling to small scale hohlraums. Making use of the 3D resistive magneto-hydrodynamic code GORGON[2] developed at Imperial College, the dynamic of the radial wire arrays is investigated. Influence of the cathode hotspots and wires angle on the x-ray emissions is also discussed. Comparison with experiments is offered to validate the numerical studies.

  2. Advanced radial inflow turbine rotor program: Design and dynamic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, C.

    1976-01-01

    The advancement of small, cooled, radial inflow turbine technology in the area of operation at higher turbine inlet temperature is discussed. The first step was accomplished by designing, fabricating, and subjecting to limited mechanical testing an advanced gas generator rotating assembly comprising a radial inflow turbine and two-stage centrifugal compressor. The radial inflow turbine and second-stage compressor were designed as an integrally machined monorotor with turbine cooling taking place basically by conduction to the compressor. Design turbine inlet rotor gas temperature, rotational speed, and overall gas generator compressor pressure ratio were 1422 K (2560 R), 71,222 rpm, and 10/1 respectively. Mechanical testing on a fabricated rotating assembly and bearing system covered 1,000 cold start/stop cycles and three spins to 120 percent design speed (85,466 rpm).

  3. Navier-Stokes analysis of radial turbine rotor performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larosiliere, L. M.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of flow through a radial turbine rotor using the three-dimensional, thin-layer Navier-Stokes code RVC3D is described. The rotor is a solid version of an air-cooled metallic radial turbine having thick trailing edges, shroud clearance, and scalloped-backface clearance. Results are presented at the nominal operating condition using both a zero-clearance model and a model simulating the effects of the shroud and scalloped-backface clearance flows. A comparison with the available test data is made and details of the internal flow physics are discussed, allowing a better understanding of the complex flow distribution within the rotor.

  4. Integrated Radial Probe Transition From MMIC to Waveguide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoska, Lorene; Chattopadhyay, Goutam

    2007-01-01

    A radial probe transition between a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) and a waveguide has been designed for operation at frequency of 340 GHz and to be fabricated as part of a monolithic unit that includes the MMIC. Integrated radial probe transitions like this one are expected to be essential components of future MMIC amplifiers operating at frequencies above 200 GHz. While MMIC amplifiers for this frequency range have not yet been widely used because they have only recently been developed, there are numerous potential applications for them-- especially in scientific instruments, test equipment, radar, and millimeter-wave imaging systems for detecting hidden weapons.

  5. Experimental and theoretical study of friction torque from radial ball bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geonea, Ionut; Dumitru, Nicolae; Dumitru, Ilie

    2017-10-01

    In this paper it is presented a numerical simulation and an experimental study of total friction torque from radial ball bearings. For this purpose it is conceived a virtual CAD model of the experimental test bench for bearing friction torque measurement. The virtual model it is used for numerical simulation in Adams software, that allows dynamic study of multi-body systems and in particularly with facility Adams Machinery of dynamic behavior of machine parts. It is manufactured an experimental prototype of the test bench for radial ball bearings friction torque measurement. In order to measure the friction torque of the tested bearings it is used an equal resistance elastic beam element, with strain gauge transducer to measure bending deformations. The actuation electric motor of the bench has the shaft mounted on two bearings and the motor housing is fixed to the free side of the elastic beam, which is bended by a force proportional with the total friction torque. The beam elastic element with strain gauge transducer is calibrated in order to measure the force occurred. Experimental determination of the friction torque is made for several progressive radial loads. It is established the correlation from the friction torque and bearing radial load. The bench allows testing of several types and dimensions of radial bearings, in order to establish the bearing durability and of total friction torque.

  6. Radially polarized conical beam from an embedded etched fiber.

    PubMed

    Kalaidji, Djamel; Spajer, Michel; Marthouret, Nadège; Grosjean, Thierry

    2009-06-15

    We propose a method for producing a conical beam based on the lateral refraction of the TM(01) mode from a two-mode fiber after chemical etching of the cladding, and for controlling its radial polarization. The whole power of the guided mode is transferred to the refracted beam with low diffraction. Polarization control by a series of azimuthal detectors and a stress controller affords the transmission of a stabilized radial polarization through an optical fiber. A solid component usable for many applications has been obtained.

  7. Determining Enzyme Activity by Radial Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Bill D.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses advantages of radial diffusion assay in determining presence of enzyme and/or rough approximation of amount of enzyme activities. Procedures are included for the preparation of starch-agar plates, and the application and determination of enzyme. Techniques using plant materials (homogenates, tissues, ungerminated embryos, and seedlings)…

  8. Calculation of the Neoclassical Radial Electric Field using a Gyrokinetic δ f Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, J. L. V.; Boozer, A.; Williams, J.; Lin, Z.; Zarnstorff, M.

    2000-10-01

    The calculation of the radial electric field in stellarator devices is an important issue in neoclassical transport. The radial electric field, which is also related to the formation of transport barriers, can affect the anomalous transport. In stellarator configurations which depart only weakly from axi-symmetry, a direct Monte Carlo calculations of the radial electric is difficult due to the large statistical fluctuations. We present a novel method based on the evaluation of the perpendicular ( p_⊥ ) and parallel ( p_|| ) pressures. The variation of widehatp ≡ ( p_|| + p_⊥ ) /2 on the magnetic surface provides a low-noise calculation of the radial electric field. The low-noise method has been implemented in a three-dimensional gyro-kinetic particle code [1]. The calculation of the radial electric field for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment [2] will be presented. [ 1 ] Z. Lin, T. S. Hahm, W. W. Lee, W. M. Tang, and R. White Science 281, 1835 (1998). [ 2 ] A. Reiman et al, invited talk (this conference).

  9. Radial displacement sensor for non-contact bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCormick, John A. (Inventor); Sixsmith, Herbert (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A radial position sensor includes four capacitive electrodes oriented about a shaft, arranged in two diametrically opposite pairs. Sensor circuitry generates an output signal in proportion to the capacitance between the electrodes and the shaft; the capacitance between an electrode and the shaft increases as the shaft approaches the electrode and decreases as the shaft recedes from the electrode. The sensor circuitry applies an alternating voltage to one electrode of a pair and a 180 degree out of phase alternating voltage to the other electrode of the pair. The electrical responses of the two electrodes to their respective input signals are summed to form a radial deviation signal which is relatively free from the alternating voltage and accurately represents the position of the shaft relative to the electrodes of the pair.

  10. Crust and Mantle Deformation Revealed from High-Resolution Radially Anisotropic Velocity Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, A.; Dave, R.; Yao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Love wave tomography, which can achieve a similar model resolution as Rayleigh wave, so far has limited applications to the USArray data. Recently, we have developed high-resolution Love wave phase velocity maps in the Wyoming craton and Texas using data at the Transportable Array stations. 3-D, radially anisotropic velocity models are obtained by jointly inverting Love and Rayleigh wave phase velocities. A high-velocity anomaly extending to about 200 km depth beneath central Wyoming correlates with negative radial anisotropy (Vsv>Vsh), suggesting that mantle downwelling develops under the cratonic lithosphere. Surprisingly, the significantly low velocity beneath the Yellowstone hotspot, which has been interpreted as partial melting and asthenospheric upwelling, is associated with the largest radial anisotropy (Vsh>Vsv) in the area. This observation does not support mantle upwelling. Instead, it indicates that the upper mantle beneath the hotspot has experienced strong shear deformation probably by the plate motion and large-scale mantle flow. In Texas, positive radial anisotropy in the lower crust extends from the coast to the Ouachita belt, which is characterized by high velocity and negative radial anisotropy. In the upper mantle, large variations of velocity and anisotropy exit under the coastal plain. A common feature in these anisotropic models is that high-velocity anomalies in the upper mantle often correlate with negative anisotropy (Vsv>Vsh) while low-velocity anomalies are associated with positive anisotropy (Vsh>Vsv). The manifestation of mantle downweling as negative radial anisotropy is largely due to the relatively high viscosity of the high-velocity mantle block, which is less affected by the surrounding large-scale horizontal flow. However, mantle upwelling, which is often associated with low-velocity anomalies, presumably low-viscosity mantle blocks, is invisible in radial anisotropy models. Such upwelling may happen too quickly to make last

  11. Declining Radial Growth Response of Coastal Forests to Hurricanes and Nor'easters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Arnold; Rollinson, Christine R.; Kearney, William S.; Dietze, Michael C.; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2018-03-01

    The Mid-Atlantic coastal forests in Virginia are stressed by episodic disturbance from hurricanes and nor'easters. Using annual tree ring data, we adopt a dendroclimatic and statistical modeling approach to understand the response and resilience of a coastal pine forest to extreme storm events, over the past few decades. Results indicate that radial growth of trees in the study area is influenced by age, regional climate trends, and individual tree effects but dominated periodically by growth disturbance due to storms. We evaluated seven local extreme storm events to understand the effect of nor'easters and hurricanes on radial growth. A general decline in radial growth was observed in the year of the extreme storm and 3 years following it, after which the radial growth started recovering. The decline in radial growth showed a statistically significant correlation with the magnitude of the extreme storm (storm surge height and wind speed). This study contributes to understanding declining tree growth response and resilience of coastal forests to past disturbances. Given the potential increase in hurricanes and storm surge severity in the region, this can help predict vegetation response patterns to similar disturbances in the future.

  12. RADIALLY MAGNETIZED PROTOPLANETARY DISK: VERTICAL PROFILE

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Matthew; Thompson, Christopher

    2015-11-10

    This paper studies the response of a thin accretion disk to an external radial magnetic field. Our focus is on protoplanetary disks (PPDs), which are exposed during their later evolution to an intense, magnetized wind from the central star. A radial magnetic field is mixed into a thin surface layer, wound up by the disk shear, and pushed downward by a combination of turbulent mixing and ambipolar and ohmic drift. The toroidal field reaches much greater strengths than the seed vertical field that is usually invoked in PPD models, even becoming superthermal. Linear stability analysis indicates that the disk experiencesmore » the magnetorotational instability (MRI) at a higher magnetization than a vertically magnetized disk when both the effects of ambipolar and Hall drift are taken into account. Steady vertical profiles of density and magnetic field are obtained at several radii between 0.06 and 1 AU in response to a wind magnetic field B{sub r} ∼ (10{sup −4}–10{sup −2})(r/ AU){sup −2} G. Careful attention is given to the radial and vertical ionization structure resulting from irradiation by stellar X-rays. The disk is more strongly magnetized closer to the star, where it can support a higher rate of mass transfer. As a result, the inner ∼1 AU of a PPD is found to evolve toward lower surface density. Mass transfer rates around 10{sup −8} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} are obtained under conservative assumptions about the MRI-generated stress. The evolution of the disk and the implications for planet migration are investigated in the accompanying paper.« less

  13. Impurity profiles and radial transport in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallander, J.

    1999-05-01

    Radially resolved spectroscopy has been used to measure the radial distribution of impurity ions (O III-O V and C III-CVI) in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch (RFP). The radial profile of the emission is reconstructed from line emission measured along five lines of sight. The ion density profile is the fitted quantity in the reconstruction of the brightness profile and is thus obtained directly in this process. These measurements are then used to adjust the parameters in transport calculations in order to obtain consistency with the observed ion density profiles. Comparison between model and measurements show that a radial dependence in the diffusion is needed to explain the measured ion densities.

  14. Radial basis function neural networks applied to NASA SSME data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Kevin R.; Dhawan, Atam P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a brief report on the application of Radial Basis Function Neural Networks (RBFNN) to the prediction of sensor values for fault detection and diagnosis of the Space Shuttle's Main Engines (SSME). The location of the Radial Basis Function (RBF) node centers was determined with a K-means clustering algorithm. A neighborhood operation about these center points was used to determine the variances of the individual processing notes.

  15. Review of literature of radial nerve injuries associated with humeral fractures-an integrated management strategy.

    PubMed

    Li, YuLin; Ning, GuangZhi; Wu, Qiang; Wu, QiuLi; Li, Yan; Feng, ShiQing

    2013-01-01

    Radial nerve palsy associated with fractures of the shaft of the humerus is the most common nerve lesion complicating fractures of long bones. However, the management of radial nerve injuries associated with humeral fractures is debatable. There was no consensus between observation and early exploration. The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Google Scholar, CINAHL, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, and Social Sciences Citation Index were searched. Two authors independently searched for relevant studies in any language from 1966 to Jan 2013. Thirty studies with 2952 humeral fractures participants were identified. Thirteen studies favored conservative strategy. No significant difference between early exploration and no exploration groups (OR, 1.03, 95% CI 0.61, 1.72; I(2) = 0.0%, p = 0.918 n.s.). Three studies recommend early radial nerve exploration in patients with open fractures of humerus with radial nerve injury. Five studies proposed early exploration was performed in high-energy humeral shaft fractures with radial nerve injury. The conservative strategy was a good choice for patients with low-energy closed fractures of humerus with radial nerve injury. We recommend early radial nerve exploration (within the first 2 weeks) in patients with open fractures or high-energy closed fractures of humerus with radial nerve injury.

  16. Do the radial head prosthesis components fit with the anatomical structures of the proximal radioulnar joint?

    PubMed

    Wegmann, Kilian; Hain, Moritz K; Ries, Christian; Neiss, Wolfram F; Müller, Lars P; Burkhart, Klaus J

    2015-09-01

    The fitting accuracy of radial head components has been investigated in the capitulo-radial joint, and reduced contact after prosthetic replacement of the radial head has been observed. The kinematics of the proximal radioulnar joint (PRUJ) are affected by radial head arthroplasty as well, but have not yet been investigated in this regard. The elbow joints of 60 upper extremities of formalin-fixed body donors were disarticulated to obtain a good view of the PRUJ. Each specimen was mounted on the examining table and radial head position in the native PRUJ was assessed in neutral position, full pronation, and full supination. Measurements were repeated after implantation of mono- and bi-polar prostheses. Analysis of the distribution of the joint contacts in the compartments showed significant differences after radial head replacement. In comparison to the native joint, after bipolar and monopolar radial head replacement, the physiological shift of the proximal radius was altered. The physiological shift of the joint contact of the radial head from anterior to posterior during forearm rotation that was found in the native joint in our cadaver model was not observed after prosthetic replacement. With higher conformity and physiological kinematic of radial head prostheses, possibly lower shear forces and lower contact pressures would be generated. The tested radial head prostheses do not replicate the physiological kinematics of the radial head. Further development in the prosthesis design has to be made. The meticulous reconstruction of the annular ligament seems to be of importance to increase joint contact.

  17. Outlet strut fracture of Björk-Shiley convexo-concave valves: can valve-manufacturing characteristics explain the risk?

    PubMed

    Omar, R Z; Morton, L S; Beirne, M; Blot, W J; Lawford, P V; Hose, R; Taylor, K M

    2001-06-01

    Björk-Shiley 60 degrees convexo-concave prosthetic heart valves (Shiley, Inc, Irvine, Calif, a subsidiary of Pfizer, Inc) continue to be a concern for approximately 35,000 nonexplanted patients worldwide, with approximately 600 events reported to the manufacturer to date. Fractures of the outlet struts of the valves began to appear in the early 1980s and have continued to the present, but their causes are only partially understood. A matched case-control study was conducted evaluating manufacturing records for 52 valves with outlet strut fractures and 248 control subjects matched for age at implantation, valve size, and valve position. In addition to the risk factors recognized as determinants of outlet strut fracture, the United Kingdom case-control study has observed 7- to 9-fold increased risk with performance of multiple hook deflection tests. This test was performed more than once, usually after rework on the valve. Six valves in this study underwent multiple hook deflection tests, of which 4 experienced an outlet strut fracture. Cracks and further rework were noted for these valves. Significant associations were also observed between outlet strut fracture and disc-to-strut gap measurements taken before the attachment of the sewing ring. It is our view that a combination of factors related to valve design, manufacturing process, and patient characteristics are responsible for outlet strut fractures of Björk-Shiley convexo-concave valves. Multiple hook deflection tests have emerged as a potential new risk factor for outlet strut fracture in both The Netherlands and the United Kingdom. This factor appears to be correlated with the presence of other abnormalities. A further study is needed to investigate the factors correlated with multiple hook deflection tests. On confirmation of risk, the presence of multiple hook deflection tests may be added to equations, quantifying the risk of outlet strut fracture for comparison against risk of mortality and serious

  18. The effect of radial head implant shape on radiocapitellar kinematics during in vitro forearm rotation.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Hannah L; Deluce, Simon R; Giles, Joshua W; Johnson, James A; King, Graham J W

    2015-02-01

    A number of radial head implants are in clinical use for the management of radial head fractures and their sequelae. However, the optimal shape of a radial head implant to ensure proper tracking relative to the capitellum has not been established. This in vitro biomechanical study compared radiocapitellar joint kinematics for 3 radial head implant designs as well as the native head. Eight cadaveric upper extremities were tested using a forearm rotation simulator with the elbow at 90° of flexion. Motion of the radius relative to the capitellum was optically tracked. A stem was navigated into a predetermined location and cemented in place. Three unipolar implant shapes were tested: axisymmetric, reverse-engineered patient-specific, and population-based quasi-anatomic. The patient-specific and quasi-anatomic implants were derived from measurements performed on computed tomography models. Medial-lateral and anterior-posterior translation of the radial head with respect to the capitellum varied with forearm rotation and radial head condition. A significant difference in medial-lateral (P = .03) and anterior-posterior (P = .03) translation was found between the native radial head and the 3 implants. No differences were observed among the radial head conditions except for a difference in medial-lateral translation between the axisymmetric and patient-specific implants (P = .04). Radiocapitellar kinematics of the tested radial head implants were similar in all but one comparison, and all had different kinematics from the native radial head. Patient-specific radial head implants did not prove advantageous relative to conventional implant designs. The shape of the fixed stem unipolar radial head implants had little influence on radiocapitellar kinematics when optimally positioned in this testing model. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of measured and computed radial trajectories of plasma focus devices UMDPF1 and UMDPF0

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, L. H.; Yap, S. L., E-mail: yapsl@um.edu.my; Lim, L. K.

    In published literature, there has been scant data on radial trajectory of the plasma focus and no comparison of computed with measured radial trajectory. This paper provides the first such comparative study. We compute the trajectories of the inward-moving radial shock and magnetic piston of UMDPF1 plasma focus and compare these with measured data taken from a streak photograph. The comparison shows agreement with the measured radial trajectory in terms of average speeds and general shape of trajectory. This paper also presents the measured trajectory of the radially compressing piston in another machine, the UMDPF0 plasma focus, confirming that themore » computed radial trajectory also shows similar general agreement. Features of divergence between the computed and measured trajectories, towards the end of the radial compression, are discussed. From the measured radial trajectories, an inference is made that the neutron yield mechanism could not be thermonuclear. A second inference is made regarding the speeds of axial post-pinch shocks, which are recently considered as a useful tool for damage testing of fusion-related wall materials.« less

  20. Gas dynamics of a supersonic radial jet. Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosarev, V. F.; Klinkov, S. V.; Zaikovskii, V. N.; Kundasev, S. G.

    2015-11-01

    The gas dynamics of a supersonic radial jet was studied under conditions close to cold spraying. The jet visualization was performed for exhaustion into submerged space with atmospheric pressure and jet impingement to a target. For the cases of swirled and unswirled supersonic radial jets, the pressure profiles measured by a Pitot tube were taken for different distances from the nozzle outlet and for different widths of supersonic part δ ex = 0.5-2 mm and for prechamber pressure in the range p 0 = 1-2.5 MPa.

  1. A high efficiency Ku-band radial line relativistic klystron amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, Fangchao; Zhang, Xiaoping, E-mail: zhangxiaoping@nudt.edu.cn; Zhong, Huihuang

    2016-07-15

    To achieve the gigawatt-level microwave amplification output at Ku-band, a radial-line relativistic klystron amplifier is proposed and investigated in this paper. Different from the annular electron beam in conventional axial relativistic klystron amplifiers, a radial-radiated electron beam is employed in this proposed klystron. Owing to its radially spreading speciality, the electron density and space charge effect are markedly weakened during the propagation in the radial line drift tube. Additionally, the power capacity, especially in the output cavity, is enhanced significantly because of its large volume, which is profitable for the long pulse operation. Particle-in-cell simulation results demonstrate that a highmore » power microwave with the power of 3 GW and the frequency of 14.25 GHz is generated with a 500 kV, 12 kA electron beam excitation and the 30 kW radio-frequency signal injection. The power conversion efficiency is 50%, and the gain is about 50 dB. Meanwhile, there is insignificant electron beam self-excitation in the proposed structure by the adoption of two transverse electromagnetic reflectors. The relative phase difference between the injected signals and output microwaves keeps stable after the amplifier saturates.« less

  2. Cylindrical waveguide filled with radially inhomogeneous magnetized plasma as a microwave accelerating structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedayatian, F.; Salem, M. K.; Saviz, S.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, microwave radiation is used to excite hybrid modes in a radially inhomogeneous cold plasma-filled cylindrical waveguide in the presence of external static magnetic field applied along the waveguide axis. The analytical expressions for EH0l field components, which accelerate an injected electron in the waveguide, are calculated. To study the effects of radial inhomogeneity on the electron dynamics and its acceleration, a model based on the Bessel-Fourier expansion is used while considering hybrid modes E H0 l(l =1 ,2 ,3 ,4 ) inside the waveguide, and the results are compared with the homogeneous plasma waveguide. The numerical results show that the field components related to the coupled EH0l modes are amplified due to radial inhomogeneity, which leads to an increase in the electron's energy gain. It is found that, if the waveguide is filled with radially inhomogeneous plasma, the electron acquires a higher energy gain while covering a shorter distance along the waveguide length (60 MeV energy gain in 1.1 cm distance along the waveguide length), so, a waveguide with a lesser length and a higher energy gain can be designed. The effects of radial inhomogeneity are studied on the deflection angle, the radial position, and the trajectory of an electron in the waveguide. The effects of the initial phase of the wave, injection point of the electron, and microwave power density are also investigated on the electron's energy gain. It is shown that the present model is applicable to both homogeneous and radially inhomogeneous plasma waveguides.

  3. Radial bisection of words and lines in right-brain-damaged patients with spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Veronelli, Laura; Arduino, Lisa S; Girelli, Luisa; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    The bisection of lines positioned radially (with the two ends of the line close and far, with respect to the participant's body) has been less investigated than that of lines placed horizontally (with their two ends left and right, with respect to the body's midsagittal plane). In horizontal bisection, patients with left neglect typically show a rightward bias for both lines and words, greater with longer stimuli. As for radial bisection, available data indicate that neurologically unimpaired participants make a distal error, while results from right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect are contradictory. We investigated the bisection of radially oriented words, with the prediction that, during bisection, linguistic material would be recoded to its canonical left-to-right format in reading, with the performance of neglect patients being similar to that for horizontal words. Thirteen right-brain-damaged patients (seven with left spatial neglect) and fourteen healthy controls were asked to manually bisect 40 radial and 40 horizontal words (5-10 letters), and 80 lines, 40 radial and 40 horizontal, of comparable length. Right-brain-damaged patients with spatial neglect exhibited a proximal bias in the bisection of short radial words, with the proximal part corresponding to the final right part of horizontally oriented words. This proximal error was not found in patients without neglect and healthy controls. For bisection, short radial words may be recoded to the canonical orthographic horizontal format, unveiling the impact of left neglect on radially oriented stimuli. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Note: Radial-thrust combo metal mesh foil bearing for microturbomachinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Cheol Hoon; Choi, Sang Kyu; Hong, Doo Euy; Yoon, Tae Gwang; Lee, Sung Hwi

    2013-10-01

    This Note proposes a novel radial-thrust combo metal mesh foil bearing (MMFB). Although MMFBs have advantages such as higher stiffness and damping over conventional air foil bearings, studies related to MMFBs have been limited to radial MMFBs. The novel combo MMFB is composed of a radial top foil, thrust top foils, and a ring-shaped metal mesh damper—fabricated by compressing a copper wire mesh—with metal mesh thrust pads for the thrust bearing at both side faces. In this study, the combo MMFB was fabricated in half-split type to support the rotor for a micro gas turbine generator. The manufacture and assembly process for the half-split-type combo MMFB is presented. In addition, to verify the proposed combo MMFB, motoring test results up to 250 000 rpm and axial displacements as a function of rotational speed are presented.

  5. Note: Radial-thrust combo metal mesh foil bearing for microturbomachinery.

    PubMed

    Park, Cheol Hoon; Choi, Sang Kyu; Hong, Doo Euy; Yoon, Tae Gwang; Lee, Sung Hwi

    2013-10-01

    This Note proposes a novel radial-thrust combo metal mesh foil bearing (MMFB). Although MMFBs have advantages such as higher stiffness and damping over conventional air foil bearings, studies related to MMFBs have been limited to radial MMFBs. The novel combo MMFB is composed of a radial top foil, thrust top foils, and a ring-shaped metal mesh damper--fabricated by compressing a copper wire mesh--with metal mesh thrust pads for the thrust bearing at both side faces. In this study, the combo MMFB was fabricated in half-split type to support the rotor for a micro gas turbine generator. The manufacture and assembly process for the half-split-type combo MMFB is presented. In addition, to verify the proposed combo MMFB, motoring test results up to 250,000 rpm and axial displacements as a function of rotational speed are presented.

  6. 78 FR 56174 - In-Core Thermocouples at Different Elevations and Radial Positions in Reactor Core

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ...-core thermocouples at different elevations and radial positions throughout the reactor core to enable... different elevations and radial positions throughout the reactor core to enable NPP operators to accurately... NPPs with in-core thermocouples at different elevations and radial positions throughout the reactor...

  7. High-Temperature, High-Load-Capacity Radial Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provenza, Andrew; Montague, Gerald; Kascak, Albert; Palazzolo, Alan; Jansen, Ralph; Jansen, Mark; Ebihara, Ben

    2005-01-01

    A radial heteropolar magnetic bearing capable of operating at a temperature as high as 1,000 F (=540 C) has been developed. This is a prototype of bearings for use in gas turbine engines operating at temperatures and speeds much higher than can be withstood by lubricated rolling-element bearings. It is possible to increase the maximum allowable operating temperatures and speeds of rolling-element bearings by use of cooling-air systems, sophisticated lubrication systems, and rotor-vibration- damping systems that are subsystems of the lubrication systems, but such systems and subsystems are troublesome. In contrast, a properly designed radial magnetic bearing can suspend a rotor without contact, and, hence, without need for lubrication or for cooling. Moreover, a magnetic bearing eliminates the need for a separate damping system, inasmuch as a damping function is typically an integral part of the design of the control system of a magnetic bearing. The present high-temperature radial heteropolar magnetic bearing has a unique combination of four features that contribute to its suitability for the intended application: 1. The wires in its electromagnet coils are covered with an insulating material that does not undergo dielectric breakdown at high temperature and is pliable enough to enable the winding of the wires to small radii. 2. The processes used in winding and potting of the coils yields a packing factor close to 0.7 . a relatively high value that helps in maximizing the magnetic fields generated by the coils for a given supplied current. These processes also make the coils structurally robust. 3. The electromagnets are of a modular C-core design that enables replacement of components and semiautomated winding of coils. 4. The stator is mounted in such a manner as to provide stable support under radial and axial thermal expansion and under a load as large as 1,000 lb (.4.4 kN).

  8. Radial dependence of self-organized criticality behavior in TCABR tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos Lima, G. Z.; Iarosz, K. C.; Batista, A. M.; Guimarães-Filho, Z. O.; Caldas, I. L.; Kuznetsov, Y. K.; Nascimento, I. C.; Viana, R. L.; Lopes, S. R.

    2011-03-01

    In this work we present evidence of the self-organized criticality behavior of the plasma edge electrostatic turbulence in the tokamak TCABR. Analyzing fluctuation data measured by Langmuir probes, we verify the radial dependence of self-organized criticality behavior at the plasma edge and scrape-off layer. We identify evidence of this radial criticality in statistical properties of the laminar period distribution function, power spectral density, autocorrelation, and Hurst parameter for the analyzed fluctuations.

  9. An investigation of viscous losses in radial inflow turbine nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khalil, I.; Tabakoff, W.; Hamed, A.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical model is developed to predict losses in radial inflow turbine nozzles. The analysis is presented in two parts. The first one evaluates the losses which occur across the vaned region of the nozzle, while the second part deals with the losses which take place in the vaneless field. It is concluded that the losses in a radial nozzle would not be greatly affected by the addition of a large vaneless space.

  10. Rehabilitation of 64-meter-antenna radial bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcginness, H.; Gale, G.

    1981-01-01

    The performances of the radial bearings on three 64-meter antennas are presented. Explanations for the distortion of the bearing at DSS 14 are made and the repairs are described. Recommendations for future tests and action are given.

  11. Effect of blade outlet angle on radial thrust of single-blade centrifugal pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Y.; Fukutomi, J.; Fujiwara, R.

    2012-11-01

    Single-blade centrifugal pumps are widely used as sewage pumps. However, a large radial thrust acts on a single blade during pump operation because of the geometrical axial asymmetry of the impeller. This radial thrust causes vibrations of the pump shaft, reducing the service life of bearings and shaft seal devices. Therefore, to ensure pump reliability, it is necessary to quantitatively understand the radial thrust and clarify the behavior and generation mechanism. This study investigated the radial thrust acting on two kinds of single-blade centrifugal impellers having different blade outlet angles by experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Furthermore, the radial thrust was modeled by a combination of three components, inertia, momentum, and pressure, by applying an unsteady conservation of momentum to this impeller. As a result, the effects of the blade outlet angle on both the radial thrust and the modeled components were clarified. The total head of the impeller with a blade outlet angle of 16 degrees increases more than the impeller with a blade outlet angle of 8 degrees at a large flow rate. In this case, since the static pressure of the circumference of the impeller increases uniformly, the time-averaged value of the radial thrust of both impellers does not change at every flow rate. On the other hand, since the impeller blade loading becomes large, the fluctuation component of the radial thrust of the impeller with the blade outlet angle of 16 degrees increases. If the blade outlet angle increases, the fluctuation component of the inertia component will increase, but the time-averaged value of the inertia component is located near the origin despite changes in the flow rate. The fluctuation component of the momentum component becomes large at all flow rates. Furthermore, although the time-averaged value of the pressure component is almost constant, the fluctuation component of the pressure component becomes large at a large flow rate

  12. Radial Variations in the Io Plasma Torus during the Cassini Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delamere, P. A.; Bagenal, F.; Steffl, A.

    2005-01-01

    A radial scan through the midnight sector of the Io plasma torus was made by the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph on 14 January 2001, shortly after closest approach to Jupiter. From these data, Steffl et al. (2004a) derived electron temperature, plasma composition (ion mixing ratios), and electron column density as a function of radius from L = 6 to 0 as well as the total luminosity. We have advanced our homogeneous model of torus physical chemistry (Delamere and Bagenal, 2003) to include latitudinal and radial variations in a manner similar to the two-dimensional model by Schreier et al. (1998). The model variables include: (1) neutral source rate, (2) radial transport coefficient, (3) the hot electron fraction, (4) hot electron temperature, and (5) the neutral O/S ratio. The radial variation of parameters 1-4 are described by simple power laws, making a total of nine parameters. We have explored the sensitivity of the model results to variations in these parameters and compared the best fit with previous Voyager era models (schreier et al., 1998), galileo data (Crary et al., 1998), and Cassini observations (steffl et al., 2004a). We find that radial variations during the Cassini era are consistent with a neutral source rate of 700-1200 kg/s, an integrated transport time from L = 6 to 9 of 100-200 days, and that the core electron temperature is largely determined by a spatially and temporally varying superthermal electron population.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HD20794 HARPS radial velocities (Feng+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, F.; Tuomi, M.; Jones, H. R. A.

    2017-05-01

    HARPS radial velocities, activity indices and differential radial velocities for HD 20794. The HARPS spectra are available in the European Southern Observatory archive, and are processed using the TERRA algorithm (Anglada-Escude and Butler, 2012, Cat. J/ApJS/200/15). (1 data file).

  14. Aerodynamically induced radial forces in a centrifugal gas compressor. Part 1: Experimental measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.J.; Flathers, M.B.

    1998-04-01

    Net radial loading arising from asymmetric pressure fields in the volutes of centrifugal pumps during off-design operation is well known and has been studied extensively. In order to achieve a marked improvement in overall efficiency in centrifugal gas compressors, vaneless volute diffusers are matched to specific impellers to yield improved performance over a wide application envelope. As observed in centrifugal pumps, nonuniform pressure distributions that develop during operation above and below the design flow create static radial loads on the rotor. In order to characterize these radial forces, a novel experimental measurement and post-processing technique is employed that yields bothmore » the magnitude and direction of the load by measuring the shaft centerline locus in the tilt-pad bearings. The method is applicable to any turbomachinery operating on fluid film radial bearings equipped with proximity probes. The forces are found to be a maximum near surge and increase with higher pressures and speeds. The results are nondimensionalized, allowing the radial loading for different operating conditions to be predicted.« less

  15. Formation and evolution of radial fracture systems on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parfitt, E. A.; Head, James W.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of approximately 90 percent of the surface of Venus using Magellan data has been carried out to locate all radial fracture systems and to assess their association with other features such as volcanic edifices and coronae. Squyres et al. and Stofan et al. have discussed the association of radial fracture features in relation to coronae features, our approach was to assess the associations of all of the fracture systems. These fracture systems have two broad types of form - some fracture systems are associated with updomed topography, radiate from a point and have relatively uniform fracture lengths while others have a wider range of fracture lengths and radiate from the outer edge of a central caldera. Squyres et al. and Stofan et al. have interpreted both types of feature as reflecting tectonic fracturing resulting from uplift of the surface as a mantle plume impinges upon the crust. While it is true that a number of features are related to uplift and that such uplift will induce stresses consistent with radial fracturing, we explore the possibility that these fractures are not exclusively of tectonic origin. Purely tectonic fracturing will tend to generate a few main fractures/faults along which most of the stresses due to uplift will be accommodated leading to the triple-junction form common for terrestrial updoming. Though this type of feature is observed on Venus (e.g., feature located at 34S86), the majority of radial fracture systems display much more intensive fracturing than this through a full 360 degrees; this is difficult to explain by purely tectonic processes. The association of many of the fractures with radial lava flows leads us to interpret these fractures as reflecting dike emplacement: the form of the fractures being consistent with primarily vertical propagation from the head of a mantle plume. In the case of the second type of fracture system (those radiating from a central caldera), an even stronger case can be made that the fractures

  16. Socket stars: UBVRJIK radial profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1995-05-01

    Visual inspectin of stars embedded in H II nebulae has shown a significant fraction to be surrounded by nearly symmetric extended regions within which the nebular brightness is apparently significantly fainter than is typical for the surrounding area. These 'socket stars' might be caused by a bubble in the nebula blown out by a stellar wind or they might be caused by a circumstellar envelope of dust hiding the emission behind the star. As such, the sockets could be the first manifestation of a previously unknown component of pre-main-sequence stars. Unfortunately, no quantitative proof of the existence of sockets has been presented. To fill this need, I have imaged 10 socket stars and six background stars with CCD cameras and infrared array cameras. From these images, I have constructed radial plots which should reveal dips in brightness immediately outside the seeing disk. The radial plots do not show any evidence for the existence of sockets. A detailed examination of the photographs orginally used to identify the sockets show that the causes of these reports are (1) artifacts resulting from the photographic process of dodging and (2) random coincidence of stars with local minima in nebular brightness. Thus, I conclude that 'socket stars' do not exist.

  17. Radial Features around Irnini Mons, Venus: Implications for Timing of Regional Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczkowski, D. L.; McGill, G. E.; Cooke, M. L.

    2003-12-01

    Flows and other deposits from Irnini Mons are superimposed on an older, regional plains material. Wrinkle ridges are generally abundant on this regional plains material and are present in at least two sets: one trending east-west and another concentric to Irnini Mons. Radial features on top of the Irnini flows are mapped as lineations or grabens, as resolution allows. High resolution mapping at 75 m/pixel also reveals ridges radial to Irnini Mons on top of the Irnini flows. These radial ridges are located from approximately N60E to N75E. Radial grabens around a volcano have been explained mathematically, with the magma chamber of a volcano simplistically described as a pressurized hole in an elastic plate. However, magma pressure alone can not explain the presence of radial ridges. The regional east-west trending wrinkle ridges imply a regional north-south compression affecting the Irnini Mons area. The regional stress field around an empty hole in an elastic plate is perturbed close to the hole, although it remains unperturbed at infinity; the change in material properties from the surrounding rock to a magma-filled chamber allows us to consider the chamber as "soft" and thus effectively empty. The perturbation of a uniaxial regional compressive stress around a pressurized hole is such that at angles of 90 and 270 degrees (east-west) the maximum principal stresses close to the hole are compressive, while at angles 0 and 180 degrees (north-south) the maximum principal stresses are tensile. The angle at which maximum principal stresses change from tension to compression depends upon the distance from the hole and the relative magnitudes of magma pressure and the regional compression. While in the simple model resultant stresses would be symmetric around the hole, structural complexities to the south and west of Irnini Mons restrict the predicted pattern of radial ridges as well as grabens to the region northeast of the volcano. Thus, the existence of radial ridges

  18. Segmental Analysis of Cardiac Short-Axis Views Using Lagrangian Radial and Circumferential Strain.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chi; Wang, Xiao; Varghese, Tomy

    2016-11-01

    Accurate description of myocardial deformation in the left ventricle is a three-dimensional problem, requiring three normal strain components along its natural axis, that is, longitudinal, radial, and circumferential strains. Although longitudinal strains are best estimated from long-axis views, radial and circumferential strains are best depicted in short-axis views. An algorithm that utilizes a polar grid for short-axis views previously developed in our laboratory for a Lagrangian description of tissue deformation is utilized for radial and circumferential displacement and strain estimation. Deformation of the myocardial wall, utilizing numerical simulations with ANSYS, and a finite-element analysis-based canine heart model were adapted as the input to a frequency-domain ultrasound simulation program to generate radiofrequency echo signals. Clinical in vivo data were also acquired from a healthy volunteer. Local displacements estimated along and perpendicular to the ultrasound beam propagation direction are then transformed into radial and circumferential displacements and strains using the polar grid based on a pre-determined centroid location. Lagrangian strain variations demonstrate good agreement with the ideal strain when compared with Eulerian results. Lagrangian radial and circumferential strain estimation results are also demonstrated for experimental data on a healthy volunteer. Lagrangian radial and circumferential strain tracking provide accurate results with the assistance of the polar grid, as demonstrated using both numerical simulations and in vivo study. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Segmental Analysis of Cardiac Short-Axis Views Using Lagrangian Radial and Circumferential Strain

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chi; Wang, Xiao; Varghese, Tomy

    2016-01-01

    Accurate description of myocardial deformation in the left ventricle is a three-dimensional problem, requiring three normal strain components along its natural axis, that is, longitudinal, radial, and circumferential strains. Although longitudinal strains are best estimated from long-axis views, radial and circumferential strains are best depicted in short-axis views. An algorithm that utilizes a polar grid for short-axis views previously developed in our laboratory for a Lagrangian description of tissue deformation is utilized for radial and circumferential displacement and strain estimation. Deformation of the myocardial wall, utilizing numerical simulations with ANSYS, and a finite-element analysis–based canine heart model were adapted as the input to a frequency-domain ultrasound simulation program to generate radiofrequency echo signals. Clinical in vivo data were also acquired from a healthy volunteer. Local displacements estimated along and perpendicular to the ultrasound beam propagation direction are then transformed into radial and circumferential displacements and strains using the polar grid based on a pre-determined centroid location. Lagrangian strain variations demonstrate good agreement with the ideal strain when compared with Eulerian results. Lagrangian radial and circumferential strain estimation results are also demonstrated for experimental data on a healthy volunteer. Lagrangian radial and circumferential strain tracking provide accurate results with the assistance of the polar grid, as demonstrated using both numerical simulations and in vivo study. PMID:26578642

  20. Spectrum radial velocity analyser (SERVAL). High-precision radial velocities and two alternative spectral indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zechmeister, M.; Reiners, A.; Amado, P. J.; Azzaro, M.; Bauer, F. F.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Caballero, J. A.; Guenther, E. W.; Hagen, H.-J.; Jeffers, S. V.; Kaminski, A.; Kürster, M.; Launhardt, R.; Montes, D.; Morales, J. C.; Quirrenbach, A.; Reffert, S.; Ribas, I.; Seifert, W.; Tal-Or, L.; Wolthoff, V.

    2018-01-01

    Context. The CARMENES survey is a high-precision radial velocity (RV) programme that aims to detect Earth-like planets orbiting low-mass stars. Aims: We develop least-squares fitting algorithms to derive the RVs and additional spectral diagnostics implemented in the SpEctrum Radial Velocity AnaLyser (SERVAL), a publicly available python code. Methods: We measured the RVs using high signal-to-noise templates created by coadding all available spectra of each star. We define the chromatic index as the RV gradient as a function of wavelength with the RVs measured in the echelle orders. Additionally, we computed the differential line width by correlating the fit residuals with the second derivative of the template to track variations in the stellar line width. Results: Using HARPS data, our SERVAL code achieves a RV precision at the level of 1 m/s. Applying the chromatic index to CARMENES data of the active star YZ CMi, we identify apparent RV variations induced by stellar activity. The differential line width is found to be an alternative indicator to the commonly used full width half maximum. Conclusions: We find that at the red optical wavelengths (700-900 nm) obtained by the visual channel of CARMENES, the chromatic index is an excellent tool to investigate stellar active regions and to identify and perhaps even correct for activity-induced RV variations.

  1. Extended foil capacitor with radially spoked electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Foster, James C.

    1990-01-01

    An extended foil capacitor has a conductive disk electrically connected in oncrushing contact to the extended foil. A conductive paste is placed through spaces between radial spokes on the disk to electrically and mechanically connect the extended foil to the disk.

  2. Electrophysiological examination and high frequency ultrasonography for diagnosis of radial nerve torsion and compression

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Miao; Qi, Hengtao; Ding, Hongyu; Chen, Feng; Xin, Zhaoqin; Zhao, Qinghua; Guan, Shibing; Shi, Hao

    2018-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to evaluate the value of electrophysiological examination and high frequency ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis of radial nerve torsion and radial nerve compression. Patients with radial nerve torsion (n = 14) and radial nerve compression (n = 14) were enrolled. The results of neurophysiological and high frequency ultrasonography were compared. Electrophysiological examination and high-frequency ultrasonography had a high diagnostic rate for both diseases with consistent results. Of the 28 patients, 23 were positive for electrophysiological examination, showing decreased amplitude and decreased conduction velocity of radial nerve; however, electrophysiological examination cannot distinguish torsion from compression. A total of 27 cases showed positive in ultrasound examinations among all 28 cases. On ultrasound images, the nerve was thinned at torsion site whereas thickened at the distal ends of torsion. The diameter and cross-sectional area of torsion or compression determined the nerve damage, and ultrasound could locate the nerve injury site and measure the length of the nerve. Electrophysiological examination and high-frequency ultrasonography can diagnose radial neuropathy, with electrophysiological examination reflecting the neurological function, and high-frequency ultrasound differentiating nerve torsion from compression. PMID:29480857

  3. Flow visualization in radial flow through stationary and corotating parallel disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, S.; Tanaka, M.; Yang, Wen-Jei

    Paraffin mist is used here as a tracer to observe the patterns in the radial flow through both stationary and corotating parallel disks. The periodic and alternative generation of separation bubbles on both disks and the resulting flow fluctuation and turbulent flow in the radial channel are studied. Stall cells are visualized around the outer rim of the corotating disks.

  4. Resistance to radial expansion limits muscle strain and work

    PubMed Central

    Deslauriers, A. R.; Holt, N. C.; Eaton, C. E.

    2018-01-01

    The collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) of skeletal muscle functions to transmit force, protect sensitive structures, and generate passive tension to resist stretch. The mechanical properties of the ECM change with age, atrophy, and neuromuscular pathologies, resulting in an increase in the relative amount of collagen and an increase in stiffness. Although numerous studies have focused on the effect of muscle fibrosis on passive muscle stiffness, few have examined how these structural changes may compromise contractile performance. Here we combine a mathematical model and experimental manipulations to examine how changes in the mechanical properties of the ECM constrain the ability of muscle fibers and fascicles to radially expand and how such a constraint may limit active muscle shortening. We model the mechanical interaction between a contracting muscle and the ECM using a constant volume, pressurized, fiber-wound cylinder. Our model shows that as the proportion of a muscle cross section made up of ECM increases, the muscle’s ability to expand radially is compromised, which in turn restricts muscle shortening. In our experiments, we use a physical constraint placed around the muscle to restrict radial expansion during a contraction. Our experimental results are consistent with model predictions and show that muscles restricted from radial expansion undergo less shortening and generate less mechanical work under identical loads and stimulation conditions. This work highlights the intimate mechanical interaction between contractile and connective tissue structures within skeletal muscle and shows how a deviation from a healthy, well-tuned relationship can compromise performance. PMID:28432448

  5. The role of stellar radial motions in shaping galaxy surface brightness profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Lara, T.; Few, C. G.; Florido, E.; Gibson, B. K.; Pérez, I.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.

    2017-12-01

    Aims: The physics driving features such as breaks observed in galaxy surface brightness (SB) profiles remains contentious. Here, we assess the importance of stellar radial motions in shaping their characteristics. Methods: We use the simulated Milky Way-mass cosmological discs from the Ramses Disc Environment Study (RaDES) to characterise the radial redistribution of stars in galaxies displaying type-I (pure exponentials), II (downbending), and III (upbending) SB profiles. We compare radial profiles of the mass fractions and the velocity dispersions of different sub-populations of stars according to their birth and current location. Results: Radial redistribution of stars is important in all galaxies regardless of their light profiles. Type-II breaks seem to be a consequence of the combined effects of outward-moving and accreted stars. The former produce shallower inner profiles (lack of stars in the inner disc) and accumulate material around the break radius and beyond, strengthening the break; the latter can weaken or even convert the break into a pure exponential. Further accretion from satellites can concentrate material in the outermost parts, leading to type-III breaks that can coexist with type-II breaks, but situated further out. Type-III galaxies would be the result of an important radial redistribution of material throughout the entire disc, as well as a concentration of accreted material in the outskirts. In addition, type-III galaxies display the most efficient radial redistribution and the largest number of accreted stars, followed by type-I and II systems, suggesting that type-I galaxies may be an intermediate case between types II and III. In general, the velocity dispersion profiles of all galaxies tend to flatten or even increase around the locations where the breaks are found. The age and metallicity profiles are also affected, exhibiting different inner gradients depending on their SB profile, being steeper in the case of type-II systems (as

  6. Nonaxisymmetric incompressible hydrostatic pressure effects in radial face seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etsion, I.

    1976-01-01

    A flat seal having an angular misalinement is analyzed, taking into account the radial variations in seal clearance. An analytical solution for axial force, tilting moment, and leakage is presented that covers the whole range from zero to full angular misalinement. Nonaxisymmetric hydrostatic pressures due to the radial variations in the film thickness have a considerable effect on seal stability. When the high pressure is on the outer periphery of the seal, both the axial force and the tilting moment are nonrestoring. The case of high-pressure seals where cavitation is eliminated is discussed, and the possibility of dynamic instability is pointed out.

  7. The CERES/NA45 radial drift Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamová, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Antończyk, D.; Appelshäuser, H.; Belaga, V.; Bielčíková, J.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Campagnolo, R.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanović, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Dubitzky, W.; Esumi, S. I.; Filimonov, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glässel, P.; Hering, G.; Holeczek, J.; Kushpil, V.; Marín, A.; Milošević, J.; Milov, A.; Miśkowiec, D.; Musa, L.; Panebrattsev, Y.; Pechenova, O.; Petráček, V.; Pfeiffer, A.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Richter, M.; Sako, H.; Schäfer, E.; Schmitz, W.; Schukraft, J.; Seipp, W.; Sharma, A.; Shimansky, S.; Stachel, J.; Šumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, I.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Windelband, B.; Wurm, J. P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V.

    2008-08-01

    The design, calibration, and performance of the first radial drift Time Projection Chamber (TPC) are presented. The TPC was built and installed at the CERES/NA45 experiment at the CERN SPS in the late nineties, with the objective to improve the momentum resolution of the spectrometer. The upgraded experiment took data twice, in 1999 and in 2000. After a detailed study of residual distortions a spatial resolution of 340 μm in the azimuthal and 640 μm in the radial direction was achieved, corresponding to a momentum resolution of Δp/p=√{(1%·p/GeV)2+(2%)2}.

  8. Neurogenic radial glia in the outer subventricular zone of human neocortex.

    PubMed

    Hansen, David V; Lui, Jan H; Parker, Philip R L; Kriegstein, Arnold R

    2010-03-25

    Neurons in the developing rodent cortex are generated from radial glial cells that function as neural stem cells. These epithelial cells line the cerebral ventricles and generate intermediate progenitor cells that migrate into the subventricular zone (SVZ) and proliferate to increase neuronal number. The developing human SVZ has a massively expanded outer region (OSVZ) thought to contribute to cortical size and complexity. However, OSVZ progenitor cell types and their contribution to neurogenesis are not well understood. Here we show that large numbers of radial glia-like cells and intermediate progenitor cells populate the human OSVZ. We find that OSVZ radial glia-like cells have a long basal process but, surprisingly, are non-epithelial as they lack contact with the ventricular surface. Using real-time imaging and clonal analysis, we demonstrate that these cells can undergo proliferative divisions and self-renewing asymmetric divisions to generate neuronal progenitor cells that can proliferate further. We also show that inhibition of Notch signalling in OSVZ progenitor cells induces their neuronal differentiation. The establishment of non-ventricular radial glia-like cells may have been a critical evolutionary advance underlying increased cortical size and complexity in the human brain.

  9. Radial Alignment of Ellipitcal Galaxies by the Tidal Force of a Cluster of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Rong, Yu; Tu, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Unlike the random radial orientation distribution of field elliptical galaxies, galaxies in a cluster of galaxies are expected to point preferentially toward the center of the cluster, as a result of the cluster's tidal force on its member galaxies. In this work an analytic model is formulated to simulate this effect. The deformation time scale of a galaxy in a cluster is usually much shorter than the time scale of change of the tidal force; the dynamical process of the tidal interaction within the galaxy can thus be ignored. An equilibrium shape of a galaxy is then assumed to be the surface of equipotential, which is the sum of the self-gravitational potential of the galaxy and the tidal potential of the cluster at this location. We use a Monte-Carlo method to calculate the radial orientation distribution of these galaxies, by assuming the NFW mass profile of the cluster and the initial ellipticity of field galaxies. The radial angles show a single peak distribution centered at zero. The Monte-Carlo simulations also show that a shift of the reference center from the real cluster center weakens the anisotropy of the radial angle distribution. Therefore, the expected radial alignment cannot be revealed if the distribution of spatial position angle is used instead of that of radial angle. The observed radial orientations of elliptical galaxies in cluster Abell~2744 are consistent with the simulated distribution.

  10. Radial alignment of elliptical galaxies by the tidal force of a cluster of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Yu; Yi, Shu-Xu; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Tu, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Unlike the random radial orientation distribution of field elliptical galaxies, galaxies in a cluster are expected to point preferentially towards the centre of the cluster, as a result of the cluster's tidal force on its member galaxies. In this work, an analytic model is formulated to simulate this effect. The deformation time-scale of a galaxy in a cluster is usually much shorter than the time-scale of change of the tidal force; the dynamical process of tidal interaction within the galaxy can thus be ignored. The equilibrium shape of a galaxy is then assumed to be the surface of equipotential that is the sum of the self-gravitational potential of the galaxy and the tidal potential of the cluster at this location. We use a Monte Carlo method to calculate the radial orientation distribution of cluster galaxies, by assuming a Navarro-Frenk-White mass profile for the cluster and the initial ellipticity of field galaxies. The radial angles show a single-peak distribution centred at zero. The Monte Carlo simulations also show that a shift of the reference centre from the real cluster centre weakens the anisotropy of the radial angle distribution. Therefore, the expected radial alignment cannot be revealed if the distribution of spatial position angle is used instead of that of radial angle. The observed radial orientations of elliptical galaxies in cluster Abell 2744 are consistent with the simulated distribution.

  11. Radial Alignment of Elliptical Galaxies by the Tidal Force of a Cluster of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Rong, Yu; Tu, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Unlike the random radial orientation distribution of field elliptical galaxies, galaxies in a cluster of galaxies are expected to point preferentially toward the center of the cluster, as a result of the cluster's tidal force on its member galaxies. In this work an analytic model is formulated to simulate this effect. The deformation time scale of a galaxy in a cluster is usually much shorter than the time scale of change of the tidal force; the dynamical process of the tidal interaction within the galaxy can thus be ignored. An equilibrium shape of a galaxy is then assumed to be the surface of equipotential, which is the sum of the self-gravitational potential of the galaxy and the tidal potential of the cluster at this location. We use a Monte-Carlo method to calculate the radial orientation distribution of these galaxies, by assuming the NFW mass profile of the cluster and the initial ellipticity of field galaxies. The radial angles show a single peak distribution centered at zero. The Monte-Carlo simulations also show that a shift of the reference center from the real cluster center weakens the anisotropy of the radial angle distribution. Therefore, the expected radial alignment cannot be revealed if the distribution of spatial position angle is used instead of that of radial angle. The observed radial orientations of elliptical galaxies in cluster Abell~2744 are consistent with the simulated distribution.

  12. Requirements for Radial Migration: How does the migrating fraction depend on stellar velocity dispersion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolfree, Kathryne; Wyse, R. F.

    2014-01-01

    Radial migration is a way to rearrange the orbital angular momentum of stars in an spiral disk without inducing kinematic heating. When radial migration is very efficient, a large fraction of disk stars experience significant changes in their orbital angular momenta in a short period of time. Such scenarios have strong implications for the chemical and kinematic evolution of disk galaxies. We have undertaken an investigation of the physical dependencies of the efficiency of radial migration on stellar kinematics and spiral structure by deriving the fraction of stars that can migrate radially given certain conditions. In order for a star in a spiral disk to migrate radially, it must first be “captured" in a family of resonant orbits near the radius of corotation with a spiral pattern. Thus far, the only analytic criterion for capture has been for stars in circular orbits. We present the capture criterion for stars on non-circular orbits in a disk galaxy. We then use our analytically derived capture criteria to model the radial distribution of the captured fraction in an exponential disk with a flat rotation curve as well as the dependence of the total captured fraction in the disk on the radial component of the stellar velocity dispersion (σR) and the amplitude of the spiral perturbation to the underlying potential at corotation (|Φs|CR). We find that the captured fraction goes as Exp[-σR2/|Φs|CR].

  13. Requirements for Radial Migration: How Does the Migrating Fraction Depend on Stellar Velocity Dispersion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolfree, K. J. D.; Wyse, R. F. G.

    2014-03-01

    Radial migration is a mechanism that can rearrange the orbital angular momentum of stars in a spiral disk without inducing kinematic heating. When radial migration is very efficient, a large fraction of disk stars experience significant changes in their orbital angular momenta over a short period of time. Such scenarios have strong implications for the chemical and kinematic evolution of disk galaxies. We have undertaken an investigation of the physical dependencies of the efficiency of radial migration on stellar kinematics and spiral structure by deriving the fraction of stars that can migrate radially. In order for a star in a spiral disk to migrate radially, it must first be “captured” in a family of resonant orbits near the radius of corotation with a transient spiral pattern. To date, the only analytic criterion for capture has been for stars in circular orbits. We present the capture criterion for disk stars on non-circular orbits. We then use our analytically derived capture criterion to model the radial distribution of the captured fraction in an exponential disk with a flat rotation curve. Further, we derive the dependence of the total captured fraction in the disk on the radial component of the stellar velocity dispersion (σR) and the amplitude of the spiral perturbation to the underlying potential evaluated at corotation (|Φs|CR). We find that within an annulus centered around corotation where σR is constant, the captured fraction goes as e-σR2/|Φs|CR.

  14. Effects of nicergoline on age-related decrements in radial maze performance and acetylcholine levels.

    PubMed

    McArthur, R A; Carfagna, N; Banfi, L; Cavanus, S; Cervini, M A; Fariello, R; Post, C

    1997-01-01

    The effects of chronic oral administration of nicergoline (5.0 mg/kg; bid) on locomotor activity, eight-arm radial maze performance plus striatal, cortical, and hippocampal acetylcholine (ACh) levels were examined in young and aged Wistar rats. Chronic nicergoline administration did not modify either the locomotor activity or radial maze learning in young rats. Young rats learned the radial maze procedure rapidly and improved their performance throughout the successive training sessions. Radial maze performance in young rats was characterised by very few arm reentries. Aged rats were hypoactive and did not explore or enter the radial maze arms, and consequently performed poorly in the radial maze throughout the training sessions. Nicergoline treatment did not significantly modify locomotor activity in aged rats. Aged rats treated with nicergoline also performed poorly initially but improved with repeated training in the radial maze. This improvement was associated with an increasing number of arms being entered and very few arm reentries. Reduced acetylcholine (ACh) levels were also associated with age. Aged rats had significantly reduced levels of ACh in the straitum and cortex, but not the hippocampus as compared to young rats. Nicergoline treatment did not change ACh levels in young rats, but substantially restored the reduced ACh levels in aged rats. These results indicate that nicergoline is an effective cognitive enhancer in a learning model of age-related deficits and that these results may be related to changes in the cholinergic system.

  15. A radial velocity survey of the Carina Nebula's O-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiminki, Megan M.; Smith, Nathan

    2018-06-01

    We have obtained multi-epoch observations of 31 O-type stars in the Carina Nebula using the CHIRON spectrograph on the CTIO/SMARTS 1.5-m telescope. We measure their radial velocities to 1-2 km s-1 precision and present new or updated orbital solutions for the binary systems HD 92607, HD 93576, HDE 303312, and HDE 305536. We also compile radial velocities from the literature for 32 additional O-type and evolved massive stars in the region. The combined data set shows a mean heliocentric radial velocity of 0.6 km s-1. We calculate a velocity dispersion of ≤9.1 km s-1, consistent with an unbound, substructured OB association. The Tr 14 cluster shows a marginally significant 5 km s-1 radial velocity offset from its neighbour Tr 16, but there are otherwise no correlations between stellar position and velocity. The O-type stars in Cr 228 and the South Pillars region have a lower velocity dispersion than the region as a whole, supporting a model of distributed massive star formation rather than migration from the central clusters. We compare our stellar velocities to the Carina Nebula's molecular gas and find that Tr 14 shows a close kinematic association with the Northern Cloud. In contrast, Tr 16 has accelerated the Southern Cloud by 10-15 km s-1, possibly triggering further massive star formation. The expansion of the surrounding H II region is not symmetric about the O-type stars in radial velocity space, indicating that the ionized gas is constrained by denser material on the far side.

  16. Core radial electric field and transport in Wendelstein 7-X plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Pablant, N. A.; Langenberg, A.; Alonso, A.

    The results from the investigation of neoclassical core transport and the role of the radial electric field profile (E r) in the first operational phase of the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator are presented. In stellarator plasmas, the details of the E r profile are expected to have a strong effect on both the particle and heat fluxes. Investigation of the radial electric field is important in understanding neoclassical transport and in validation of neoclassical calculations. The radial electric field is closely related to the perpendicular plasma flow (u ⊥) through the force balance equation. This allows the radial electric fieldmore » to be inferred from measurements of the perpendicular flow velocity, which can be measured using the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer and correlation reflectometry diagnostics. Large changes in the perpendicular rotation, on the order of Δu ⊥~ 5 km/s (ΔE r ~12 kV/m), have been observed within a set of experiments where the heating power was stepped down from 2 MW to 0.6 MW. These experiments are examined in detail to explore the relationship between heating power temperature, and density profiles and the radial electric field. Finally, the inferred E r profiles are compared to initial neoclassical calculations based on measured plasma profiles. The results from several neoclassical codes, sfincs, fortec-3d, and dkes, are compared both with each other and the measurements. Finally, these comparisons show good agreement, giving confidence in the applicability of the neoclassical calculations to the W7-X configuration.« less

  17. Core radial electric field and transport in Wendelstein 7-X plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pablant, N. A.; Langenberg, A.; Alonso, A.; Beidler, C. D.; Bitter, M.; Bozhenkov, S.; Burhenn, R.; Beurskens, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Dinklage, A.; Fuchert, G.; Gates, D.; Geiger, J.; Hill, K. W.; Höfel, U.; Hirsch, M.; Knauer, J.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Landreman, M.; Lazerson, S.; Maaßberg, H.; Marchuk, O.; Massidda, S.; Neilson, G. H.; Pasch, E.; Satake, S.; Svennson, J.; Traverso, P.; Turkin, Y.; Valson, P.; Velasco, J. L.; Weir, G.; Windisch, T.; Wolf, R. C.; Yokoyama, M.; Zhang, D.; W7-X Team

    2018-02-01

    The results from the investigation of neoclassical core transport and the role of the radial electric field profile (Er) in the first operational phase of the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator are presented. In stellarator plasmas, the details of the Er profile are expected to have a strong effect on both the particle and heat fluxes. Investigation of the radial electric field is important in understanding neoclassical transport and in validation of neoclassical calculations. The radial electric field is closely related to the perpendicular plasma flow (u⊥) through the force balance equation. This allows the radial electric field to be inferred from measurements of the perpendicular flow velocity, which can be measured using the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer and correlation reflectometry diagnostics. Large changes in the perpendicular rotation, on the order of Δu⊥˜ 5 km/s (ΔEr ˜ 12 kV/m), have been observed within a set of experiments where the heating power was stepped down from 2 MW to 0.6 MW. These experiments are examined in detail to explore the relationship between heating power temperature, and density profiles and the radial electric field. Finally, the inferred Er profiles are compared to initial neoclassical calculations based on measured plasma profiles. The results from several neoclassical codes, sfincs, fortec-3d, and dkes, are compared both with each other and the measurements. These comparisons show good agreement, giving confidence in the applicability of the neoclassical calculations to the W7-X configuration.

  18. Biomechanical models for radial distance determination by the rat vibrissal system.

    PubMed

    Birdwell, J Alexander; Solomon, Joseph H; Thajchayapong, Montakan; Taylor, Michael A; Cheely, Matthew; Towal, R Blythe; Conradt, Jorg; Hartmann, Mitra J Z

    2007-10-01

    Rats use active, rhythmic movements of their whiskers to acquire tactile information about three-dimensional object features. There are no receptors along the length of the whisker; therefore all tactile information must be mechanically transduced back to receptors at the whisker base. This raises the question: how might the rat determine the radial contact position of an object along the whisker? We developed two complementary biomechanical models that show that the rat could determine radial object distance by monitoring the rate of change of moment (or equivalently, the rate of change of curvature) at the whisker base. The first model is used to explore the effects of taper and inherent whisker curvature on whisker deformation and used to predict the shapes of real rat whiskers during deflections at different radial distances. Predicted shapes closely matched experimental measurements. The second model describes the relationship between radial object distance and the rate of change of moment at the base of a tapered, inherently curved whisker. Together, these models can account for recent recordings showing that some trigeminal ganglion (Vg) neurons encode closer radial distances with increased firing rates. The models also suggest that four and only four physical variables at the whisker base -- angular position, angular velocity, moment, and rate of change of moment -- are needed to describe the dynamic state of a whisker. We interpret these results in the context of our evolving hypothesis that neural responses in Vg can be represented using a state-encoding scheme that includes combinations of these four variables.

  19. Radial gas motions in The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Tobias M.; Bigiel, Frank; Klessen, Ralf S.; de Blok, W. J. G.

    2016-04-01

    The study of 21 cm line observations of atomic hydrogen allows detailed insight into the kinematics of spiral galaxies. We use sensitive high-resolution Very Large Array data from The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS) to search for radial gas flows primarily in the outer parts (up to 3 × r25) of 10 nearby spiral galaxies. Inflows are expected to replenish the gas reservoir and fuel star formation under the assumption that galaxies evolve approximately in steady state. We carry out a detailed investigation of existing tilted ring fitting schemes and discover systematics that can hamper their ability to detect signatures of radial flows. We develop a new Fourier decomposition scheme that fits for rotational and radial velocities and simultaneously determines position angle and inclination as a function of radius. Using synthetic velocity fields we show that our novel fitting scheme is less prone to such systematic errors and that it is well suited to detect radial inflows in discs. We apply our fitting scheme to 10 THINGS galaxies and find clear indications of, at least partly previously unidentified, radial gas flows, in particular for NGC 2403 and NGC 3198 and to a lesser degree for NGC 7331, NGC 2903 and NGC 6946. The mass flow rates are of the same order but usually larger than the star formation rates. At least for these galaxies a scenario in which continuous mass accretion feeds star formation seems plausible. The other galaxies show a more complicated picture with either no clear inflow, outward motions or complex kinematic signatures.

  20. Core radial electric field and transport in Wendelstein 7-X plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Pablant, N. A.; Langenberg, A.; Alonso, A.; ...

    2018-02-12

    The results from the investigation of neoclassical core transport and the role of the radial electric field profile (E r) in the first operational phase of the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator are presented. In stellarator plasmas, the details of the E r profile are expected to have a strong effect on both the particle and heat fluxes. Investigation of the radial electric field is important in understanding neoclassical transport and in validation of neoclassical calculations. The radial electric field is closely related to the perpendicular plasma flow (u ⊥) through the force balance equation. This allows the radial electric fieldmore » to be inferred from measurements of the perpendicular flow velocity, which can be measured using the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer and correlation reflectometry diagnostics. Large changes in the perpendicular rotation, on the order of Δu ⊥~ 5 km/s (ΔE r ~12 kV/m), have been observed within a set of experiments where the heating power was stepped down from 2 MW to 0.6 MW. These experiments are examined in detail to explore the relationship between heating power temperature, and density profiles and the radial electric field. Finally, the inferred E r profiles are compared to initial neoclassical calculations based on measured plasma profiles. The results from several neoclassical codes, sfincs, fortec-3d, and dkes, are compared both with each other and the measurements. Finally, these comparisons show good agreement, giving confidence in the applicability of the neoclassical calculations to the W7-X configuration.« less

  1. Radial Velocity Detection of Extra-Solar Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, William D.

    2004-01-01

    This NASA Origins Program grant supported four closely related research programs at The University of Texas at Austin: 1) The McDonald Observatory Planetary Search (MOPS) Program, using the McDonald Observatory 2.7m Harlan Smith telescope and its 2dcoude spectrometer, 2) A high-precision radial-velocity survey of Hyades dwarfs, using the Keck telescope and its HIRES spectrograph, 3) A program at McDonald Observatory to obtain spectra of the parent stars of planetary systems at R = 210,000, and 4) the start of high precision radial velocity surveys using the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. The most important results from NASA support of these research programs are described. A list of all papers published under support of this grant is included at the end.

  2. A note on the radial solutions for the supercritical Hénon equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barutello, Vivina; Secchi, Simone; Serra, Enrico

    2008-05-01

    We prove the existence of a positive radial solution for the Hénon equation with arbitrary growth. The solution is found by means of a shooting method and turns out to be an increasing function of the radial variable. Some numerical experiments suggest the existence of many positive oscillating solutions.

  3. Assessment of averaging spatially correlated noise for 3-D radial imaging.

    PubMed

    Stobbe, Robert W; Beaulieu, Christian

    2011-07-01

    Any measurement of signal intensity obtained from an image will be corrupted by noise. If the measurement is from one voxel, an error bound associated with noise can be assigned if the standard deviation of noise in the image is known. If voxels are averaged together within a region of interest (ROI) and the image noise is uncorrelated, the error bound associated with noise will be reduced in proportion to the square root of the number of voxels in the ROI. However, when 3-D-radial images are created the image noise will be spatially correlated. In this paper, an equation is derived and verified with simulated noise for the computation of noise averaging when image noise is correlated, facilitating the assessment of noise characteristics for different 3-D-radial imaging methodologies. It is already known that if the radial evolution of projections are altered such that constant sampling density is produced in k-space, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) inefficiency of standard radial imaging (SR) can effectively be eliminated (assuming a uniform transfer function is desired). However, it is shown in this paper that the low-frequency noise power reduction of SR will produce beneficial (anti-) correlation of noise and enhanced noise averaging characteristics. If an ROI contains only one voxel a radial evolution altered uniform k-space sampling technique such as twisted projection imaging (TPI) will produce an error bound ~35% less with respect to noise than SR, however, for an ROI containing 16 voxels the SR methodology will facilitate an error bound ~20% less than TPI. If a filtering transfer function is desired, it is shown that designing sampling density to create the filter shape has both SNR and noise correlation advantages over sampling k-space uniformly. In this context SR is also beneficial. Two sets of 48 images produced from a saline phantom with sodium MRI at 4.7T are used to experimentally measure noise averaging characteristics of radial imaging and good

  4. Investigating radial wire array Z pinches as a compact x-ray source on the Saturn generator

    SciTech Connect

    Ampleford, David J.; Bland, S. N.; Jennings, Christopher A.

    2015-08-27

    Radial wire array z pinches, where wires are positioned radially outward from a central cathode to a concentric anode, can act as a compact bright x-ray source that could potentially be used to drive a hohlraum. Experiments were performed on the 7-MA Saturn generator using radial wire arrays. These experiments studied a number of potential risks in scaling radial wire arrays up from the 1-MA level, where they have been shown to be a promising compact X-ray source. Data indicates that at 7 MA, radial wire arrays can radiate ~9 TW with 10-ns full-width at half-maximum from a compact pinch.

  5. When Disorder Looks Like Order: A New Model to Explain Radial Magnetic Fields in Young Supernova Remnants

    SciTech Connect

    West, J. L.; Gaensler, B. M.; Jaffe, T.

    Radial magnetic fields are observed in all known young, shell-type supernova remnants in our Galaxy, including Cas A, Tycho, Kepler, and SN1006, and yet the nature of these radial fields has not been thoroughly explored. Using a 3D model, we consider the existence and observational implications of an intrinsically radial field. We also present a new explanation of the origin of the radial pattern observed from polarization data as resulting from a selection effect due to the distribution of cosmic-ray electrons (CREs). We show that quasi-parallel acceleration can concentrate CREs at regions where the magnetic field is radial, making amore » completely turbulent field appear ordered, when it is in fact disordered. We discuss observational properties that may help distinguish between an intrinsically radial magnetic field and the case where it only appears radial due to the CRE distribution. We also show that the case of an intrinsically radial field with a quasi-perpendicular CRE acceleration mechanism has intriguing similarities to the observed polarization properties of SN1006.« less

  6. Estimation of the radial diffusion coefficient using REE-associated ground Pc 5 pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, A.; Yumoto, K.

    2010-12-01

    Pc 5 pulsations with frequencies between 1.67 and 6.67 mHz are believed to contribute to the REE in the outer radiation belt during magnetic storms, by means of the observations [Baker et al., 1998; Rostoker et al., 1998; Mathie and Mann, 2000; O'Brien et al., 2001, 2003] and several theoretical studies. The latter studies are roughly categorized into two themes: in-situ acceleration at L lower than 6.6 by wave-particle interactions [Liu et al., 199 9; Summers et al., 1999; Summers and Ma, 2000] and acceleration by radial diffusion from the outer to the inner magnetosphere [Elkington et al., 1999, 2003; Hudson et al., 2000; Kim et al., 2001]. One possible acceleration mechanism is the resonant interaction with Pc 5 toroidal and poloidal pulsations, referred as the radial diffusion mechanism. One of unsolved problems is where and which Pc 5 pulsation mode (toroidal and/or poloidal) play effective role in the radial diffusion process. In order to verify Pc 5 pulsation as the major roles for REEs, we have to examine the time variation of electron phase space density (cf. Green et al., 2004). Electron phase space density is not directly measured, but we can estimate radial diffusion coefficients which determine the electron transportation efficiency, using ground-based magnetic field data. We estimated the radial diffusion coefficient of ground Pc 5 pulsations associated with the Relativistic Electron Enhancement (REE) in the geosynchronous orbit. In order to estimate the radial diffusion coefficient D_LL, we need the value of in-situ Pc 5 electric field power spectral density. In this paper, however, we estimated the equatorial electric field mapped from Pc 5 pulsations power spectral density on the ground. Reciprocal of radial diffusion coefficient describes the timescale T_LL for an electron to diffuse 1 Re. Applying a superposed epoch analysis about timescales T_LL of the radial diffusion for 12 REE events in 2008, we found that when the relativistic electron

  7. Radial and latitudinal gradients in the solar internal angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Edward J., Jr.; Cacciani, Alessandro; Korzennik, Sylvain G.; Tomczyk, Steven; Ulrich, Roger K.; Woodard, Martin F.

    1988-01-01

    The frequency splittings of intermediate-degree (3 to 170 deg) p-mode oscillations obtained from a 16-day subset of observations were analyzed. Results show evidence for both radial and latitudinal gradients in the solar internal angular velocity. From 0.6 to 0.95 solar radii, the solar internal angular velocity increases systematically from 440 to 463 nHz, corresponding to a positive radial gradient of 66 nHz/solar radius for that portion of the solar interior. Analysis also indicates that the latitudinal differential rotation gradient which is seen at the solar surface persists throughout the convection zone, although there are indications that the differential rotation might disappear entirely below the base of the convection zone. The analysis was extended to include comparisons with additional observational studies and between earlier results and the results of additional inversions of several of the observational datasets. All the comparisons reinforce conclusions regarding the existence of radial and latitudinal gradients in the internal angular velocity.

  8. Radial super-resolution in digital holographic microscopy using structured illumination with circular symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yujian; Su, Ping; Ma, Jianshe

    2018-01-01

    A method to improve the radial resolution using special structured light is proposed in the field of digital holographic microscopy (DHM). A specimen is illuminated with circular symmetrical structured light that makes the spectrum have radial movement, so that high frequency components of the specimen are moved into the passband of the receiver to overcome the diffraction limit. In the DHM imaging system, Computer Generated Hologram (CGH) technology is used to generate the required structured light grating. Then the grating is loaded into a spatial light modulator (SLM) to obtain specific structured illumination. After recording the hologram, digital reconstruction, for the microstructure of a binary optical element that needs to observe radial distribution, the radial resolution of the specimen is improved experimentally compare it with the result of one-dimensional sinusoidal structured light imaging. And a method of designing structured light is presented.

  9. Radial maze performance in three strains of mice - Role of the fimbria/fornix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinstein, D. K.; Deboissiere, T.; Robinson, N.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Three strains of mice were tested on an 8-arm radial maze, an index of hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. Levels of performance differed betweens strains with C57Br/cdj greater than Balb/cj greater than C57B1/6j. Lesions of the fimbria/fornix disrupted performance in the C57Br and Balb strains: the C57Bl mice never performed better than chance before or after surgery. Choline acetyltransferase activity in hippocampus was not correlated with radial maze performance. These findings suggest a possible genetic contribution towards radial maze behavior.

  10. Numerous Submarine Radial Vents Revealed on Mauna Loa Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanless, D.; Garcia, M. O.; Rhodes, J. M.; Trusdell, F. A.; Schilling, S.; Weis, D.; Fornari, D.; Vollinger, M.

    2003-12-01

    Among Hawaiian shield volcanoes, Mauna Loa is distinct in having vents outside of its summit and rift zones. These radial vents are located on its northern and western flanks and account for approximately 10% of historic eruptions outside the summit region. Thirty-three subaerial and one submarine vent (active in 1877) were known prior to our work. During a recent Jason2 expedition to the volcano's western flank, nine new submarine radial vents were discovered. Eighty-five samples were collected from these and the 1877 radial vent. Bathymetry and side-scan imagery were acquired using an EM300 multibeam echo sounder. The high resolution data (vertical resolution of approximately 4 m and horizontal resolution of 25 m) allowed us to create the first detailed geologic map of Mauna Loa's western submarine flank. The map was compiled using video and still photography from the Jason2 ROV and geochemical analysis of the samples. The geochemistry includes microprobe glass and XRF whole rock major and trace element data. Eight of the submarine radial vents sampled erupted tholeiitic lavas that are geochemically similar to historical subaerial eruptions on Mauna Loa. However, in contrast to all previously collected Mauna Loa lavas, two of the young vents erupted alkalic basalts. These lavas may have been derived from Mauna Loa, as they have somewhat higher FeO and TiO2 values at a given MgO content than alkalic lavas from neighboring Hualalai volcano, whose vents are located only on rifts 16 km away. Alkalic lavas are indicative of the postshield stage of volcanism and may signal the impending demise of Mauna Loa volcano.

  11. Tight focusing of radially polarized circular Airy vortex beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Musheng; Huang, Sujuan; Shao, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Tight focusing properties of radially polarized circular Airy vortex beams (CAVB) are studied numerically. The light field expressions for the focused fields are derived based on vectorial Debye theory. We also study the relationship between focal profiles, such as light intensity distribution, radius of focal spot and focal length, and the parameters of CAVB. Numerical results demonstrate that we can generate a radially polarized CAVB with super-long focal length, super-strong longitudinal intensity or subwavelength focused spot at the focal plane by properly choosing the parameters of incident light and high numerical aperture (NA) lens. These results have potential applications for optical trapping, optical storage and particle acceleration.

  12. An avulsed radial artery with a high take-off.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Marte, Geurys; Chen, On; Verma, Shivani; Rao, Atul; Shani, Jacob; Ayzenberg, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    A 63-year-old female was diagnosed with severe aortic stenosis, who underwent a diagnostic coronary angiography via transradial approach prior an aortic-valve replacement. After imaging the left coronary system, entrapment of the diagnostic catheter was encountered as a result of spasm of the radial artery. An arteriogram of the arm revealed an anatomical variation in the radial artery (high take-off). Several attempts to remove the entrapped catheter resulted in avulsion of the artery, which was managed successfully with coil embolization. To our knowledge, no such complication has been reported. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Radial Distribution of Stellar Motions in Gaia DR2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Daisuke; Baba, Junichi; Ciucǎ, Ioana; Cropper, Mark; Grand, Robert J. J.; Hunt, Jason A. S.; Seabroke, George

    2018-06-01

    By taking advantage of the superb measurements of position and velocity for an unprecedented large number of stars provided in Gaia DR2, we have generated the first maps of the rotation velocity, Vrot, and vertical velocity, Vz, distributions as a function of the Galactocentric radius, Rgal, across a radial range of 5 < Rgal < 12 kpc. In the R - Vrot map, we have identified many diagonal ridge features, which are compared with the location of the spiral arms and the expected outer Lindblad resonance of the Galactic bar. We have detected also radial wave-like oscillations of the peak of the vertical velocity distribution.

  14. 21 CFR 866.4800 - Radial immunodiffusion plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radial immunodiffusion plate. 866.4800 Section 866.4800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866...

  15. 21 CFR 866.4800 - Radial immunodiffusion plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radial immunodiffusion plate. 866.4800 Section 866.4800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866...

  16. 21 CFR 866.4800 - Radial immunodiffusion plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radial immunodiffusion plate. 866.4800 Section 866.4800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866...

  17. Solostamenides paucitesticulatus n. sp. (Monogenoidea: Mazocraeidea: Microcotylidae) from the freshwater mullet Liza abu (Heckel) (Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) from Atatürk Reservoir on the Euphrates River in southern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Öktener, Ahmet

    2015-06-01

    Solostamenides paucitesticulatus n. sp. (Monogenoidea: Microcotylidae) from the gills of the abu mullet Liza abu (Heckel) in Atatürk Reservoir in southern Turkey is described. Among other features, the new species is easily distinguished from its three congeners, Solostamenides mugilis (Vogt, 1879), Solostamenides pseudomugilis (Hargis, 1956) and Solostamenides polyorchis Zhang & Yang, 2001, by having fewer hooks on the male copulatory organ (11 to 14), testes (5 to 9), and haptoral clamps (31 to 47).

  18. Experimental demonstration of a Ku-band radial-line relativistic klystron oscillator based on transition radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Fangchao; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jun; Ju, Jinchuan; Zhong, Huihuang

    2017-03-01

    We report on a radial-line relativistic klystron oscillator (RL-RKO), which is physically designed to generate gigawatt-level high power microwaves (HPMs) at Ku-band. The 3π/4 mode of a four-gap buncher is selected to highly modulate the radially propagating intense relativistic electron beam (IREB). A three-gap extractor operating at the π mode is employed to extract the radio-frequency energy efficiently. The Ku-band RL-RKO is investigated experimentally on an intense-current electron beam accelerator. The radially propagating IREB is well focused with an axial-width of 2 mm by a radial magnetic field of 0.4 T. Microwaves with a frequency of 14.86 GHz and a power of 1.5 GW are generated, corresponding to an efficiency of 24%, which indicates a significant advance for the research of radial-line HPM sources.

  19. Radial tears associated with cleavage tears of the medial meniscus in athletes.

    PubMed

    Kidron, Amos; Thein, Rafael

    2002-03-01

    To evaluate the significance of a small radial tear in the root of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus in an otherwise normal-looking meniscus in individuals who play vigorous sports. Retrospective review. Arthroscopy was performed in 1,270 patients; 11 patients (0.86%) had a small radial tear in the root of the medial meniscus. Trimming of the tear revealed a large horizontal cleavage tear of the posterior horn and body of the meniscus. The average age of the affected patients was 29.6 years (range, 21 to 45 years), and all were active in sports. Magnetic resonance imaging was of dubious diagnostic value. Three patients had undergone previous arthroscopy at which time the small radial root tear had been noted but was not thought to warrant treatment. All 11 patients returned to their former levels of activity after adequate surgery. When a radial root tear in the medial meniscus is found in an athletic patient, the edges of the tear should be trimmed, the root of the medial meniscus examined, and any additional torn cartilage resected.

  20. Stereoscopic advantages for vection induced by radial, circular, and spiral optic flows.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Stephen; Summersby, Stephanie; Davies, Rodney G; Kim, Juno

    2016-11-01

    Although observer motions project different patterns of optic flow to our left and right eyes, there has been surprisingly little research into potential stereoscopic contributions to self-motion perception. This study investigated whether visually induced illusory self-motion (i.e., vection) is influenced by the addition of consistent stereoscopic information to radial, circular, and spiral (i.e., combined radial + circular) patterns of optic flow. Stereoscopic vection advantages were found for radial and spiral (but not circular) flows when monocular motion signals were strong. Under these conditions, stereoscopic benefits were greater for spiral flow than for radial flow. These effects can be explained by differences in the motion aftereffects generated by these displays, which suggest that the circular motion component in spiral flow selectively reduced adaptation to stereoscopic motion-in-depth. Stereoscopic vection advantages were not observed for circular flow when monocular motion signals were strong, but emerged when monocular motion signals were weakened. These findings show that stereoscopic information can contribute to visual self-motion perception in multiple ways.

  1. Tubular collagen scaffolds with radial elasticity for hollow organ regeneration.

    PubMed

    Versteegden, Luuk R; van Kampen, Kenny A; Janke, Heinz P; Tiemessen, Dorien M; Hoogenkamp, Henk R; Hafmans, Theo G; Roozen, Edwin A; Lomme, Roger M; van Goor, Harry; Oosterwijk, Egbert; Feitz, Wout F; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Daamen, Willeke F

    2017-04-01

    Tubular collagen scaffolds have been used for the repair of damaged hollow organs in regenerative medicine, but they generally lack the ability to reversibly expand in radial direction, a physiological characteristic seen in many native tubular organs. In this study, tubular collagen scaffolds were prepared that display a shape recovery effect and therefore exhibit radial elasticity. Scaffolds were constructed by compression of fibrillar collagen around a star-shaped mandrel, mimicking folds in a lumen, a typical characteristic of empty tubular hollow organs, such as ureter or urethra. Shape recovery effect was introduced by in situ fixation using a star-shaped mandrel, 3D-printed clamps and cytocompatible carbodiimide crosslinking. Prepared scaffolds expanded upon increase of luminal pressure and closed to the star-shaped conformation after removal of pressure. In this study, we applied this method to construct a scaffold mimicking the dynamics of human urethra. Radial expansion and closure of the scaffold could be iteratively performed for at least 1000 cycles, burst pressure being 132±22mmHg. Scaffolds were seeded with human epithelial cells and cultured in a bioreactor under dynamic conditions mimicking urination (pulse flow of 21s every 2h). Cells adhered and formed a closed luminal layer that resisted flow conditions. In conclusion, a new type of a tubular collagen scaffold has been constructed with radial elastic-like characteristics based on the shape of the scaffold, and enabling the scaffold to reversibly expand upon increase in luminal pressure. These scaffolds may be useful for regenerative medicine of tubular organs. In this paper, a new type I collagen-based tubular scaffold is presented that possesses intrinsic radial elasticity. This characteristic is key to the functioning of a number of tubular organs including blood vessels and organs of the gastrointestinal and urogenital tract. The scaffold was given a star-shaped lumen by physical compression

  2. CfRadial - CF NetCDF for Radar and Lidar Data in Polar Coordinates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, M. J.; Lee, W. C.; Michelson, D.; Curtis, M.

    2016-12-01

    Since 1990, NCAR has supported over 20 different data formats for radar and lidar data in polar coordinates. Researchers, students and operational users spend unnecessary time handling a multitude of unique formats. CfRadial grew out of the need to simplify the use of these data and thereby to improve efficiency in research and operations. CfRadial adopts the well-known NetCDF framework, along with the Climate and Forecasting (CF) conventions such that data and metadata are accurately represented. Mobile platforms are also supported. The first major release, CfRadial version 1.1, occurred in February 2011, followed by minor updates. CfRadial has been adopted by NCAR as well as other agencies in the US and the UK. CfRadial development was boosted in 2015 through a two-year NSF EarthCube grant to improve CF in general. Version 1.4 was agreed upon in May 2016, adding explicit support for quality control fields and spectra. In Europe and Australia, EUMETNET OPERA's HDF5-based ODIM_H5 standard has been rapidly embraced as the modern standard for exchanging weather radar data for operations. ODIM_H5 exploits data groups, hierarchies, and built-in compression, characteristics that have been added to NetCDF4. A meeting of the WMO Task Team on Weather Radar Data Exchange (TT-WRDE) was held at NCAR in Boulder in July 2016, with a goal of identifying a single global standard for radar and lidar data in polar coordinates. CfRadial and ODIM_H5 were considered alongside the older and more rigid table-driven WMO BUFR and GRIB2 formats. TT-WRDE recommended that CfRadial 1.4 be merged with the sweep-oriented structure of ODIM_H5, making use of NetCDF groups, to produce a single format that will encompass the best ideas of both formats. That has led to the emergence of the CfRadial 2.0 standard. This format should meet the objectives of both the NSF EarthCube CF 2.0 initiative and the WMO TT-WRDE. It has the added benefit of improving data exchange between operational and research

  3. Note: Precise radial distribution of charged particles in a magnetic guiding field

    SciTech Connect

    Backe, H., E-mail: backe@kph.uni-mainz.de

    2015-07-15

    Current high precision beta decay experiments of polarized neutrons, employing magnetic guiding fields in combination with position sensitive and energy dispersive detectors, resulted in a detailed study of the mono-energetic point spread function (PSF) for a homogeneous magnetic field. A PSF describes the radial probability distribution of mono-energetic electrons at the detector plane emitted from a point-like source. With regard to accuracy considerations, unwanted singularities occur as a function of the radial detector coordinate which have recently been investigated by subdividing the radial coordinate into small bins or employing analytical approximations. In this note, a series expansion of the PSFmore » is presented which can numerically be evaluated with arbitrary precision.« less

  4. Radial stiffness improvement of a flywheel system using multi-surface superconducting levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basaran, Sinan; Sivrioglu, Selim

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this research study is the maximization of the levitation force in a flywheel system by the use of more than one permanent magnet with a single ring-shaped HTS material. An analytical model for the radial stiffness of the ring HTS-PM is derived using the frozen image approach. The experimental works are carried out for different polarizations of the permanent magnets, and radial stiffness values are obtained from the radial force measurements. The rotational test of the flywheel system is also realized for different cases. Finally, natural frequencies of the flywheel superconducting magnetic bearing system are experimentally obtained for different combinations of the permanent magnets using a frequency analyzer.

  5. Congenital radial and thumb aplasia in a neonatal owl monkey (Aotus nancymaae).

    PubMed

    Schuler, Anne Michele; Gibson, Susan V; Brady, Alan G; Abee, Christian R; Scammell, Jonathan G

    2007-09-01

    This report describes congenital radial and thumb aplasia in a neonatal owl monkey. Congenital limb deformities in human neonates and Old World primate species have been well characterized. The many probable causes of these congenital defects in skeletal structure include fetal exposure to environmental toxins and genetic influences. In nonhuman primates, the cause frequently remains undetermined. In the case we present, the neonate presented for examination because of inability to cling to the dam. The forelimbs were contracted distally, and thumbs were absent. Radiographs indicated complete radial aplasia and other skeletal abnormalities. This description is the fi rst case study of congenital radial and thumb aplasia in a New World primate species.

  6. Contrast effects on speed perception for linear and radial motion.

    PubMed

    Champion, Rebecca A; Warren, Paul A

    2017-11-01

    Speed perception is vital for safe activity in the environment. However, considerable evidence suggests that perceived speed changes as a function of stimulus contrast, with some investigators suggesting that this might have meaningful real-world consequences (e.g. driving in fog). In the present study we investigate whether the neural effects of contrast on speed perception occur at the level of local or global motion processing. To do this we examine both speed discrimination thresholds and contrast-dependent speed perception for two global motion configurations that have matched local spatio-temporal structure. Specifically we compare linear and radial configurations, the latter of which arises very commonly due to self-movement. In experiment 1 the stimuli comprised circular grating patches. In experiment 2, to match stimuli even more closely, motion was presented in multiple local Gabor patches equidistant from central fixation. Each patch contained identical linear motion but the global configuration was either consistent with linear or radial motion. In both experiments 1 and 2, discrimination thresholds and contrast-induced speed biases were similar in linear and radial conditions. These results suggest that contrast-based speed effects occur only at the level of local motion processing, irrespective of global structure. This result is interpreted in the context of previous models of speed perception and evidence suggesting differences in perceived speed of locally matched linear and radial stimuli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Endoscopic saphenous vein and radial harvest: state-of-the-art.

    PubMed

    Bisleri, Gianluigi; Muneretto, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an increased adoption of minimally invasive techniques for saphenous vein and radial artery procurement during coronary artery bypass surgery, albeit concerns have been raised about the potential detrimental effects of the endoscopic approach when compared with the conventional 'open' technique. The aim of the present review is to analyse the current available techniques and evidence about the impact of an endoscopic approach on conduit quality and clinical outcomes. At present, the available techniques for endoscopic vessel harvesting can be based on a sealed or non-sealed concept, for both saphenous vein and radial artery procurement. Despite the proven advantages of a minimally invasive approach in terms of reduced incidence of wound complications, pain reduction and improved cosmetic results, some studies questioned the impact of this technique in terms of potential graft damage, thus impairing the longevity of the graft itself. Endoscopic conduit harvesting can be performed safely and effectively with the currently available techniques, albeit a careful knowledge of the pitfalls of each technique is mandatory. Since there is ample evidence in literature that a minimally invasive approach for saphenous vein and radial artery procurement is not associated with an increased risk of graft damage and related failure in the mid-long term, the endoscopic technique should be adopted as the approach of choice for saphenous vein and radial artery harvesting in coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

  8. Effect of radial meniscal tear on in situ forces of meniscus and tibiofemoral relationship.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Yuta; Mae, Tatsuo; Fujie, Hiromichi; Shino, Konsei; Ohori, Tomoki; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Nakata, Ken

    2017-02-01

    To clarify the effect of the radial tear of the lateral meniscus on the in situ meniscus force and the tibiofemoral relationship under axial loads and valgus torques. Ten intact porcine knees were settled to a 6-degree of freedom robotic system, while the force and 3-dimensional path of the knees were recorded via Universal Force Sensor (UFS) during 3 cycles of 250-N axial load and 5-Nm valgus torque at 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60° of knee flexion. The same examination was performed on the following 3 meniscal states sequentially; 33, 66, and 100% width of radial tears at the middle segment of the lateral meniscus, while recording the force and path of the knees via UFS. Finally, all paths were reproduced after total lateral meniscectomy and the in situ force of the lateral meniscus were calculated with the principle of superposition. The radial tear of 100% width significantly decreased the in situ force of the lateral meniscus and caused tibial medial shift and valgus rotation at 30°-60° of knee flexion in both testing protocols. Under a 250-N axial load at 60° of knee flexion, the in situ force decreased to 36 ± 29 N with 100% width of radial tear, which was 122 ± 38 N in the intact state. Additionally, the tibia shifted medially by 2.1 ± 0.9 mm and valgusrotated by 2.5 ± 1.9° with the complete radial tear. However, the radial tear of 33 or 66% width had little effect on either the in situ force or the tibial position. A radial tear of 100% width involving the rim significantly decreased the in situ force of the lateral meniscus and caused medial shift and valgus rotation of the tibia, whereas a radial tear of up to 66% width produced only little change. The clinical relevance is that loss of meniscal functions due to complete radial tear can lead to abnormal stress concentration in a focal area of cartilage and can increase the risk of osteoarthritis in the future.

  9. Investigation of the Radial Compression of Carbon Nanotubes with a Scanning Probe Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Weidian; Jiang, Bin; Han, Bao Shan; Xie, Si-Shen

    2001-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes have attracted great interest since they were first synthesized. The tubes have substantial promise in a variety of applications due to their unique properties. Efforts have been made to characterize the mechanical properties of the tubes. However, previous work has concentrated on the tubes’ longitudinal properties, and studies of their radial properties lag behind. We have operated a scanning probe microscope, NanoScopeTM IIIa, in the indentation/scratching mode to carry out a nanoindentation test on the top of multiwalled carbon nanotubes. We measured the correlation between the radial stress and the tube compression, and thereby determined the radial compressive elastic modulus at different compressive forces. The measurements also allowed us to estimate the radial compressive strength of the tubes. Support of this work by an Eastern Michigan University Faculty Research Fellowship and by the K. C. Wong Education Foundation, Hong Kong is gratefully acknowledged.

  10. OpenACC performance for simulating 2D radial dambreak using FVM HLLE flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, P. H.; Pahlevi, M. R.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the performances of openACC platform for computing 2D radial dambreak. Here, the shallow water equation will be used to describe and simulate 2D radial dambreak with finite volume method (FVM) using HLLE flux. OpenACC is a parallel computing platform based on GPU cores. Indeed, from this research this platform is used to minimize computational time on the numerical scheme performance. The results show the using OpenACC, the computational time is reduced. For the dry and wet radial dambreak simulations using 2048 grids, the computational time of parallel is obtained 575.984 s and 584.830 s respectively for both simulations. These results show the successful of OpenACC when they are compared with the serial time of dry and wet radial dambreak simulations which are collected 28047.500 s and 29269.40 s respectively.

  11. Root cortical aerenchyma inhibits radial nutrient transport in maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Henry, Amelia; Brown, Kathleen M; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    Formation of root cortical aerenchyma (RCA) can be induced by nutrient deficiency. In species adapted to aerobic soil conditions, this response is adaptive by reducing root maintenance requirements, thereby permitting greater soil exploration. One trade-off of RCA formation may be reduced radial transport of nutrients due to reduction in living cortical tissue. To test this hypothesis, radial nutrient transport in intact roots of maize (Zea mays) was investigated in two radiolabelling experiments employing genotypes with contrasting RCA. In the first experiment, time-course dynamics of phosphate loading into the xylem were measured from excised nodal roots that varied in RCA formation. In the second experiment, uptake of phosphate, calcium and sulphate was measured in seminal roots of intact young plants in which variation in RCA was induced by treatments altering ethylene action or genetic differences. In each of three paired genotype comparisons, the rate of phosphate exudation of high-RCA genotypes was significantly less than that of low-RCA genotypes. In the second experiment, radial nutrient transport of phosphate and calcium was negatively correlated with the extent of RCA for some genotypes. The results support the hypothesis that RCA can reduce radial transport of some nutrients in some genotypes, which could be an important trade-off of this trait.

  12. Radial Velocity Detection of Extra-Solar Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, William D.

    2004-01-01

    This NASA Origins Program grant supported four closely related research programs at The University of Texas at Austin: 1) The McDonald Observatory Planetary Search (MOPS) Program, using the McDonald Observatory 2.7m Harlan Smith telescope and its 2dcoud6 spectrometer, 2) A high-precision radial-velocity survey of Hyades dwarfs, using the Keck telescope and its HIRES spectrograph, 3) A program at McDonald Observatory to obtain spectra of the parent stars of planetary systems at R = 210,000, and 4) the start of high precision radial velocity surveys using the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. The most important results from NASA support of these research programs are described below. A list of all papers published under support of this grant is included at the end.

  13. [Spatiotemporal variation of Populus euphratica's radial increment at lower reaches of Tarim River after ecological water transfer].

    PubMed

    An, Hong-Yan; Xu, Hai-Liang; Ye, Mao; Yu, Pu-Ji; Gong, Jun-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Taking the Populus euphratica at lower reaches of Tarim River as test object, and by the methods of tree dendrohydrology, this paper studied the spatiotemporal variation of P. euphratic' s branch radial increment after ecological water transfer. There was a significant difference in the mean radial increment before and after ecological water transfer. The radial increment after the eco-water transfer was increased by 125%, compared with that before the water transfer. During the period of ecological water transfer, the radial increment was increased with increasing water transfer quantity, and there was a positive correlation between the annual radial increment and the total water transfer quantity (R2 = 0.394), suggesting that the radial increment of P. euphratica could be taken as the performance indicator of ecological water transfer. After the ecological water transfer, the radial increment changed greatly with the distance to the River, i.e. , decreased significantly along with the increasing distance to the River (P = 0.007). The P. euphratic' s branch radial increment also differed with stream segment (P = 0.017 ), i.e. , the closer to the head-water point (Daxihaizi Reservoir), the greater the branch radial increment. It was considered that the limited effect of the current ecological water transfer could scarcely change the continually deteriorating situation of the lower reaches of Tarim River.

  14. The design of an air-cooled metallic high temperature radial turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Philip H.; Roelke, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent trends in small advanced gas turbine engines call for higher turbine inlet temperatures. Advances in radial turbine technology have opened the way for a cooled metallic radial turbine capable of withstanding turbine inlet temperatures of 2500 F while meeting the challenge of high efficiency in this small flow size range. In response to this need, a small air-cooled radial turbine has been designed utilizing internal blade coolant passages. The coolant flow passage design is uniquely tailored to simultaneously meet rotor cooling needs and rotor fabrication constraints. The rotor flow-path design seeks to realize improved aerodynamic blade loading characteristics and high efficiency while satisfying rotor life requirements. An up-scaled version of the final engine rotor is currently under fabrication and, after instrumentation, will be tested in the warm turbine test facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  15. Satisfiability of logic programming based on radial basis function neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Tilahun, Surafel Luleseged

    2014-07-10

    In this paper, we propose a new technique to test the Satisfiability of propositional logic programming and quantified Boolean formula problem in radial basis function neural networks. For this purpose, we built radial basis function neural networks to represent the proportional logic which has exactly three variables in each clause. We used the Prey-predator algorithm to calculate the output weights of the neural networks, while the K-means clustering algorithm is used to determine the hidden parameters (the centers and the widths). Mean of the sum squared error function is used to measure the activity of the two algorithms. We appliedmore » the developed technique with the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to represent the quantified Boolean formulas. The new technique can be applied to solve many applications such as electronic circuits and NP-complete problems.« less

  16. Green's function of radial inhomogeneous spheres excited by internal sources.

    PubMed

    Zouros, Grigorios P; Kokkorakis, Gerassimos C

    2011-01-01

    Green's function in the interior of penetrable bodies with inhomogeneous compressibility by sources placed inside them is evaluated through a Schwinger-Lippmann volume integral equation. In the case of a radial inhomogeneous sphere, the radial part of the unknown Green's function can be expanded in a double Dini's series, which allows analytical evaluation of the involved cumbersome integrals. The simple case treated here can be extended to more difficult situations involving inhomogeneous density as well as to the corresponding electromagnetic or elastic problem. Finally, numerical results are given for various inhomogeneous compressibility distributions.

  17. Recent radial turbine research at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohlik, H. E.; Kofskey, M. G.

    1971-01-01

    The high efficiencies of small radial turbines led to their application in space power systems and numerous APU and shaft power engines. Experimental and analytical work associated with these systems included examination of blade-shroud clearance, blade loading, and exit diffuser design. Results indicate high efficiency over a wide range of specific speed and also insensitivity to clearance and blade loading in the radial part of the rotor. The exit diffuser investigation indicated that a conventional conical outer wall may not provide the velocity variation consistent with minimum overall diffuser loss.

  18. Recent radial turbine research at the NASA Lewis Research Center.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohlik, H. E.; Kofskey, M. G.

    1972-01-01

    The major results obtained in several recent experimental programs on small radial inflow turbines for space applications are presented and discussed. Specifically, experimental and analytical work associated with these systems that has included examination of blade-shroud clearance, blade loading, and exit diffuser design, is considered. Results indicate high efficiency over a wide range of specific speed, and also insensitivity to clearance and blade loading in the radial part of the rotor. The exit diffuser investigation indicated that a conventional conical outer wall may not provide the velocity variation consistent with minimum overall diffuser loss.

  19. Steady Fluid Flow to a Radial System of Horizontal Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, P. E.

    2018-03-01

    A semi-analyticalmethod for determining the productivity of a radial system of horizontal wells in an anisotropic reservoir is proposed. Calculation results for the productivity and distribution of fluid flow along the length of the wellbores of the radial system of horizontal wells using the proposed method are compared with the data of experimental studies based on electrolytic simulation and engineering formulas. The effects of the number of wellbores, their location in the reservoir, and the hydraulic pressure loss on the distribution of the fluid flow along the length of horizontal wellbores are investigated.

  20. Cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped fiber laser with radially polarized output.

    PubMed

    Lin, Di; Daniel, J M O; Gecevičius, M; Beresna, M; Kazansky, P G; Clarkson, W A

    2014-09-15

    A simple technique for directly generating a radially polarized output beam from a cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped fiber laser is reported. Our approach is based on the use of a nanograting spatially variant waveplate as an intracavity polarization-controlling element. The laser yielded ~32 W of output power (limited by available pump power) with a radially polarized TM (01)-mode output beam at 1040 nm with a corresponding slope efficiency of 66% and a polarization purity of 95%. The beam-propagation factor (M(2)) was measured to be ~1.9-2.1.

  1. Analysis of Radial Segregation in Directionally Solidified Hg(0.89)Mn(0.11)Te

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, M. W.; Scripa, R. N.; Szofran, F. R.; Motakef, S.; Hanson, B.

    2003-01-01

    Bridgman growth experiments were performed on Hg(0.89)Mn(0.11)Te (MMT) to determine the extent of radial Manganese segregation during directional solidification. MMT crystals were directionally solidified at rates of 0.09 and 0.18 p d s and in axial thermal gradients of 83 and 68"C/cm. Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS) and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) analytical techniques were used to determine the radial homogeneity in all boules and the deflection of the solid-liquid interface (SLI) in two boules that were rapidly quenched after 5 to 6 cm of directional solidification. For all growth runs, the measured radial coinpositional variations were on the order of 0.01 molar percent MnTe in the steady state region of growth. Comparison of the measured radial compositional results of the crystals to predicted values in the diffusion-limited regime indicate a strong influence of convection near the solid-liquid interface. This conclusion is supported by the weak influence of the translation rates and axial thermal gradients utilized in this study upon radial compositional homogeneity.

  2. Deformation Mechanisms in Tube Billets from Zr-1%Nb Alloy under Radial Forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlovich, Yuriy; Isaenkova, Margarita; Fesenko, Vladimir; Krymskaya, Olga; Zavodchikov, Alexander

    2011-05-01

    Features of the deformation process by cold radial forging of tube billets from Zr-1%Nb alloy were reconstructed on the basis of X-ray data concerning their structure and texture. The cold radial forging intensifies grain fragmentation in the bulk of billet and increases significantly the latent hardening of potentially active slip systems, so that operation only of the single slip system becomes possible. As a result, in radially-forged billets unusual deformation and recrystallization textures arise. These textures differ from usual textures of α-Zr by the mutual inversion of crystallographic axes, aligned along the axis of tube.

  3. Radial nerve injury following elbow external fixator: report of three cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Luis; Sarasquete, Juan; Noguera, Laura; Proubasta, Ignacio; Lamas, Claudia

    2017-07-01

    Radial nerve palsy is a rare but serious complication following elbow external fixation. Only 11 cases have been reported in the literature to date, but the incidence may be underreported. We present three new cases of this complication. We analyzed the three cases of radial palsy seen in our center following the application of an external fixator as treatment for complex elbow injuries. Mean patient age at surgery was 50 years. Two patients were female and one was male. In the three cases, the initial lesion was a posterior elbow dislocation, associated with a fracture of the radial shaft in one and a radial head fracture and coronoid fracture, respectively, in the other two. Due to persistent elbow instability, an external fixator was applied in all three cases. The fixator pins were introduced percutaneously in two cases and under direct vision in an open manner in the third case. Radial palsy was noted immediately postoperatively in all cases. It was permanent in two cases and temporary in the third. Radial nerve palsy after placement of an external elbow fixator was resolved in only 1 of our 3 cases and in 6 of the 11 cases in the literature to date. Although the event is rare, these alarming results highlight the need for recommendations to avoid this complication.

  4. Are Titan's radial Labyrinth terrains surface expressions of large laccoliths?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurmeier, L.; Dombard, A. J.; Malaska, M.; Radebaugh, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Labyrinth terrain unit may be the one of the best examples of the surface expression of Titan's complicated history. They are characterized as highly eroded, dissected, and elevated plateaus and remnant ridges, with an assumed composition that is likely organic-rich based on radar emissivity. How these features accumulated organic-rich sediments and formed topographic highs by either locally uplifting or surviving pervasive regional deflation or erosion is an important question for understanding the history of Titan. There are several subsets of Labyrinth terrains, presumably with differing evolutionary histories and formation processes. We aim to explain the formation of a subset of Labyrinth terrain units informally referred to as "radial Labyrinth terrains." They are elevated and appear dome-like, circular in planform, have a strong radial dissection pattern, are bordered by Undifferentiated Plains units, and are found in the mid-latitudes. Based on their shape, clustering, and dimensions, we suggest that they may be the surface expression of large subsurface laccoliths. A recent study by Manga and Michaut (Icarus, 2017) explained Europa's lenticulae (pits, domes, spots) with the formation of saucer-shaped sills that form laccoliths around the brittle-ductile transition depth within the ice shell (1-5 km). Here, we apply the same scaling relationships and find that the larger size of radial labyrinth terrains with Titan's higher gravity implies deeper intrusion depths of around 20-40 km. This intrusion depth matches the expected brittle-ductile transition on Titan based on our finite element simulations and yield strength envelope analyses. We hypothesize that Titan's radial labyrinth terrains formed as cryovolcanic (water) intrusions that rose to the brittle-ductile transition within the ice shell where they spread horizontally, and uplifted the overlying ice. The organic-rich sedimentary cover also uplifted, becoming more susceptible to pluvial and fluvial

  5. Radial reflection diffraction tomography

    DOEpatents

    Lehman, Sean K.

    2012-12-18

    A wave-based tomographic imaging method and apparatus based upon one or more rotating radially outward oriented transmitting and receiving elements have been developed for non-destructive evaluation. At successive angular locations at a fixed radius, a predetermined transmitting element can launch a primary field and one or more predetermined receiving elements can collect the backscattered field in a "pitch/catch" operation. A Hilbert space inverse wave (HSIW) algorithm can construct images of the received scattered energy waves using operating modes chosen for a particular application. Applications include, improved intravascular imaging, bore hole tomography, and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of parts having existing access holes.

  6. Radial Reflection diffraction tomorgraphy

    DOEpatents

    Lehman, Sean K

    2013-11-19

    A wave-based tomographic imaging method and apparatus based upon one or more rotating radially outward oriented transmitting and receiving elements have been developed for non-destructive evaluation. At successive angular locations at a fixed radius, a predetermined transmitting element can launch a primary field and one or more predetermined receiving elements can collect the backscattered field in a "pitch/catch" operation. A Hilbert space inverse wave (HSIW) algorithm can construct images of the received scattered energy waves using operating modes chosen for a particular application. Applications include, improved intravascular imaging, bore hole tomography, and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of parts having existing access holes.

  7. Surgical anatomy of the radial nerve at the elbow.

    PubMed

    Artico, M; Telera, S; Tiengo, C; Stecco, C; Macchi, V; Porzionato, A; Vigato, E; Parenti, A; De Caro, R

    2009-02-01

    An anatomical study of the brachial portion of the radial nerve with surgical implications is proposed. Thirty specimens of arm from 20 fresh cadavers (11 male, 9 female) were used to examine the topographical relations of the radial nerve with reference to the following anatomical landmarks: acromion angle, medial and lateral epicondyles, point of division between the lateral and long heads of the triceps brachii, lateral intermuscular septum, site of division of the radial nerve into its superficial and posterior interosseous branches and entry and exit point of the posterior interosseous branch into the supinator muscle. The mean distances between the acromion angle and the medial and lateral levels of crossing the posterior aspect of the humerus were 109 (+/-11) and 157 (+/-11) mm, respectively. The mean length and calibre of the nerve in the groove were 59 (+/-4) and 6 (+/-1) mm, respectively. The division of the lateral and long heads of the triceps was found at a mean distance of 126 (+/-13) mm from the acromion angle. The mean distances between the lateral point of crossing the posterior aspect of the humerus and the medial and lateral epicondyles were 125 (+/-13) and 121 (+/-13) mm, respectively. The mean distance between the lateral point of crossing the posterior aspect of the humerus and the entry point in the lateral intermuscular septum (LIS) was 29 (+/-6) mm. The mean distances between the entry point of the nerve in the LIS and the medial and lateral epicondyles were 133 (+/-14) and 110 (+/-23) mm, respectively. Our study provides reliable and objective data of surgical anatomy of the radial nerve which should be always kept in mind by surgeons approaching to the surgery of the arm, in order to avoid iatrogenic injuries.

  8. Asymmetry of Radial and Symmetry of Tangential Neuronal Migration Pathways in Developing Human Fetal Brains

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Yuta; Song, Jae W.; Takahashi, Emi

    2016-01-01

    The radial and tangential neural migration pathways are two major neuronal migration streams in humans that are critical during corticogenesis. Corticogenesis is a complex process of neuronal proliferation that is followed by neuronal migration and the formation of axonal connections. Existing histological assessments of these two neuronal migration pathways have limitations inherent to microscopic studies and are confined to small anatomic regions of interest (ROIs). Thus, little evidence is available about their three-dimensional (3-D) fiber pathways and development throughout the entire brain. In this study, we imaged and analyzed radial and tangential migration pathways in the whole human brain using high-angular resolution diffusion MR imaging (HARDI) tractography. We imaged ten fixed, postmortem fetal (17 gestational weeks (GW), 18 GW, 19 GW, three 20 GW, three 21 GW and 22 GW) and eight in vivo newborn (two 30 GW, 34 GW, 35 GW and four 40 GW) brains with no neurological/pathological conditions. We statistically compared the volume of the left and right radial and tangential migration pathways, and the volume of the radial migration pathways of the anterior and posterior regions of the brain. In specimens 22 GW or younger, the volume of radial migration pathways of the left hemisphere was significantly larger than that of the right hemisphere. The volume of posterior radial migration pathways was also larger when compared to the anterior pathways in specimens 22 GW or younger. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in the radial migration pathways of brains older than 22 GW. Moreover, our study did not identify any significant differences in volumetric laterality in the tangential migration pathways. These results suggest that these two neuronal migration pathways develop and regress differently, and radial neuronal migration varies regionally based on hemispheric and anterior-posterior laterality, potentially explaining regional differences in

  9. Wear in ceramic on ceramic type lumbar total disc replacement: effect of radial clearance.

    PubMed

    Shankar, S; Kesavan, D

    2015-01-01

    The wear of the bearing surfaces of total disc replacement (TDR) is a key problem leads to reduction in the lifetime of the prosthesis and it mainly occurs due to the range of clearances of the articulating surface between the superior plate and core. The objective of this paper is to estimate the wear using finite element concepts considering the different radial clearances between the articulating surfaces of ceramic on ceramic type Lumbar Total Disc Replacement (LTDR). The finite element (FE) model was subjected to wear testing protocols according to loading profile of International Standards Organization (ISO) 18192 standards through 10 million cycles. The radial clearance value of 0.05 mm showed less volumetric wear when compared with other radial clearance values. Hence, low radial clearance values are suitable for LTDR to minimize the wear.

  10. Nonlinear Modeling of Radial Stellar Pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolec, R.

    2009-09-01

    In this thesis, I present the results of my work concerning the nonlinear modeling of radial stellar pulsations. I will focus on classical Cepheids, particularly on the double-mode phenomenon. History of nonlinear modeling of radial stellar pulsations begins in the sixties of the previous century. At the beginning convection was disregarded in model equations. Qualitatively, almost all features of the radial pulsators were successfully modeled with purely radiative hydrocodes. Among problems that remained, the most disturbing was modeling of the double-mode phenomenon. This long-standing problem seemed to be finally solved with the inclusion of turbulent convection into the model equations (Kollath et al. 1998, Feuchtinger 1998). Although dynamical aspects of the double-mode behaviour were extensively studied, its origin, particularly the specific role played by convection, remained obscure. To study this and other problems of radial stellar pulsations, I implemented the convection into pulsation hydrocodes. The codes adopt the Kuhfuss (1986) convection model. In other codes, particularly in the Florida-Budapest hydrocode (e.g. Kollath et al. 2002), used in comput! ation of most of the published double-mode models, different approximations concerning e.g. eddy-viscous terms or treatment of convectively stable regions are adopted. Particularly the neglect of negative buoyancy effects in the Florida-Budapest code and its consequences, were never discussed in the literature. These consequences are severe. Concerning the single-mode pulsators, neglect of negative buoyancy leads to smaller pulsation amplitudes, in comparison to amplitudes computed with code including these effects. Particularly, neglect of negative buoyancy reduces the amplitude of the fundamental mode very strong. This property of the Florida-Budapest models is crucial in bringing up the stable non-resonant double-mode Cepheid pulsation involving fundamental and first overtone modes (F/1O). Such

  11. Radial Photonic Crystal for detection of frequency and position of radiation sources.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, J; Díaz-Rubio, A; Torrent, D; Cervera, F; Kirleis, M A; Piqué, A; Sánchez-Dehesa, J

    2012-01-01

    Based on the concepts of artificially microstructured materials, i.e. metamaterials, we present here the first practical realization of a radial wave crystal. This type of device was introduced as a theoretical proposal in the field of acoustics, and can be briefly defined as a structured medium with radial symmetry, where the constitutive parameters are invariant under radial geometrical translations. Our practical demonstration is realized in the electromagnetic microwave spectrum, because of the equivalence between the wave problems in both fields. A device has been designed, fabricated and experimentally characterized. It is able to perform beam shaping of punctual wave sources, and also to sense position and frequency of external radiators. Owing to the flexibility offered by the design concept, other possible applications are discussed.

  12. Radial migration in numerical simulations of Milky-Way sized galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grand, R. J. J.; Kawata, D.

    2016-09-01

    We show that in ßrm N-body simulations of isolated spiral discs, spiral arms appear to transient, recurring features that co-rotate with the stellar disc stars at all radii. As a consequence, stars around the spiral arm continually feel a tangential force from the spiral and gain/lose angular momentum at all radii where spiral structure exists, without gaining significant amounts of random energy. We demonstrate that the ubiquitous radial migration in these simulations can be seen as outward (inward) systematic streaming motions along the trailing (leading) side of the spiral arms. We characterise these spiral induced peculiar motions and compare with those of the Milky Way obtained from APOGEE red clump data. We find that transient, co-rotating spiral arms are consistent with the data, in contrast with density wave-like spirals which are qualitatively inconsistent. In addition, we show that, in our simulations, radial migration does not change the radial metallicity gradient significantly, and broadens the metallicity distribution function at all radii, similar to some previous studies.

  13. Radially fractured domes: A comparison of Venus and the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janes, Daniel M.; Squyres, Steven W.

    1993-01-01

    Radially fractured domes are large, tectonic and topographic features discovered on the surface of Venus by the Magellan spacecraft. They are thought to be due to uplift over mantle diapirism, and to date are known to occur only on Venus. Since Venus and the Earth are grossly similar in size, composition and structure, we seek to understand why these features have not been seen on the Earth. We model the uplift and fracturing over a mantle diapir as functions of lithospheric thickness and diapir size and depth. We find that lithospheres of the same thickness on the Earth and Venus should respond similarly to the same sized diapir, and that radially fractured domes should form most readily in thin oceanic lithospheres on Earth if diapiric activity is similar on the two planets. However, our current knowledge of the Earth's oceanic floors is insufficient to confirm or deny the presence of radially fractured domes. We compute the expected dimensions for these features on the Earth and suggest a search for them to determine whether mantle diapirism operates similarly on the Earth and Venus.

  14. The radial gradients and collisional properties of solar wind electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilvie, K. W.; Scudder, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    The plasma instrument on Mariner 10 carried out measurements of electron density and temperature in the interplanetary medium between heliocentric distances of 0.85 and 0.45 AU. Due to the stable coronal configuration and low solar activity during the period of observation, the radial variations of these quantities could be obtained. The power-law exponent of the core temperature was measured to be -0.3 + or - 0.04, and the halo temperature was found to be almost independent of heliocentric distance. The exponent of the power law for the density variation was 2.5 + or - 0.2 and the extrapolated value at 1 AU was consistent with measured values during the same period. Calculations of the core electron self-collision time, and the core-halo equipartition time were made as a function of radial distance. These measurements indicate a macroscale picture of a Coulomb-collisional core and a collisionless isothermal halo. Extrapolating back to the sun, core and halo temperatures become equal at a radial distance of approx. 2-15 radii.

  15. Excellent low-frequency sound absorption of radial membrane acoustic metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Nansha; Wu, Jiu Hui; Hou, Hong; Yu, Lie

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new radial membrane acoustic metamaterial (RMAM) structure, wherein a layer membrane substrate is covered with a rigid ring (polymethyl methacrylate frame and aluminum lump). The dispersion relationships, transmission spectra and displacement fields of the eigenmodes of this radial membrane acoustic metamaterial are studied with FEM. In contrast to the traditional radial phononic crystals (RPCs), the proposed structures can open bandgaps (BGs) in lower frequency range (0-300 Hz). Simulation results show that the physical mechanism behind the bandgaps is the coupling effects between the rotational vibration of aluminum lump and the transverse vibration of membrane. Geometrical parameters which can adjust the bandgaps’ widths or positions are analyzed. Finally, we investigate the axial sound transmission loss of this acoustic metamaterial structure, and discuss the effects of factor loss, membrane thickness and the number of layers of unit cell on the axial sound transmission loss. Dynamic effective density proves the accuracy of the FEM results. This kind of structure has potential application in pipe or circular ring structure for damping/noise reduction.

  16. Radial Anisotropy in the Mantle Transition Zone and Its Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S. J.; Ferreira, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic anisotropy is a useful tool to investigate mantle flow, mantle convection, and the presence of melts in mantle, since it provides information on the direction of mantle flow or the orientation of melts by combining it with laboratory results in mineral physics. Although the uppermost and lowermost mantle with strong anisotropy have been well studied, anisotropic properties of the mantle transition zone is still enigmatic. We use a recent global radially anisotropic model, SGLOBE-rani, to examine the patterns of radial anisotropy in the mantle transition zone. Strong faster SV velocity anomalies are found in the upper transition zone beneath subduction zones in the western Pacific, which decrease with depth, thereby nearly isotropic in the lower transition zone. This may imply that the origin for the anisotropy is the lattice-preferred orientation of wadsleyite, the dominant anisotropic mineral in the upper transition zone. The water content in the upper transition zone may be inferred from radial anisotropy because of the report that anisotropic intensity depends on the water content in wadsleyite.

  17. The instantaneous radial growth rate of stellar discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzulli, G.; Fraternali, F.; Boissier, S.; Muñoz-Mateos, J. C.

    2015-08-01

    We present a new and simple method to measure the instantaneous mass and radial growth rates of the stellar discs of spiral galaxies, based on their star formation rate surface density (SFRD) profiles. Under the hypothesis that discs are exponential with time-varying scalelengths, we derive a universal theoretical profile for the SFRD, with a linear dependence on two parameters: the specific mass growth rate ν _ M ≡ dot{M}_⋆ /M_⋆ and the specific radial growth rate ν _ R ≡ dot{R}_⋆ /R_⋆ of the disc. We test our theory on a sample of 35 nearby spiral galaxies, for which we derive a measurement of νM and νR. 32/35 galaxies show the signature of ongoing inside-out growth (νR > 0). The typical derived e-folding time-scales for mass and radial growth in our sample are ˜10 and ˜30 Gyr, respectively, with some systematic uncertainties. More massive discs have a larger scatter in νM and νR, biased towards a slower growth, both in mass and size. We find a linear relation between the two growth rates, indicating that our galaxy discs grow in size at ˜0.35 times the rate at which they grow in mass; this ratio is largely unaffected by systematics. Our results are in very good agreement with theoretical expectations if known scaling relations of disc galaxies are not evolving with time.

  18. Outcomes and radiographic findings of anatomic press-fit radial head arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jonathan C; Formaini, Nathan T; Kurowicki, Jennifer

    2016-05-01

    Radial head arthroplasty (RHA) is a popular method of treatment for complex fractures of the radial head. The purpose of this study was to investigate patient outcomes and radiographic findings associated with a single anatomic monopolar press-fit radial head system commonly used for the treatment of radial head fractures. A retrospective review of prospectively collected data was performed for a consecutive series of patients treated with a press-fit anatomically designed RHA between November 2007 and April 2014. The most recent radiographs were evaluated for loosening, stress shielding, and instability. Postoperative motion and outcomes were reported at most recent follow-up. At an average follow-up of 30 months, 6 of the 15 patients (40%) demonstrated radiographic loosening. Six of the 9 patients (67%) without loosening demonstrated stress shielding (average, 6 mm). Functional outcome scores included a mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score of 70, Mayo Elbow Performance Score of 85, visual analog scale score for pain of 2, visual analog scale score for function of 7, and Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation score of 75. Average flexion-extension arc was 14° to 138°, and average pronation-supination was 75° to 74°. All 6 of the patients with radiographic loosening had undergone RHA with an associated ligamentous injury repair. Satisfaction among patients was high as no patient reported an unsatisfactory outcome. The use of an anatomic, press-fit monopolar RHA in the management of acute complex radial head fractures has yielded excellent clinical outcomes despite high rates of radiographic loosening and stress shielding. Press-fit RHA in the setting of ligamentous injury warrants further investigation because of a high rate of implant loosening observed. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Some observations of the effects of radial distortions on performance of a transonic rotating blade row

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandercock, D. M.; Sanger, N. L.

    1974-01-01

    A single rotating blade row was tested with two magnitudes of tip radial distortion and two magnitudes of hub radial distortion imposed on the inlet flow. The rotor was about 50 centimeters (20 in.) in diameter and had a design operating tip speed of approximately 420 meters per second (1380 ft/sec). Overall performance at 60, 80, and 100 percent of equivalent design speed generally showed a decrease (compared to undistorted flow) in rotor stall margin with tip radial distortion but no change, or a slight increase, in rotor stall margin with hub radial distortion. At design speed there was a decrease in rotor overall total pressure ratio and choke flow with all inlet flow distortions. Radial distributions of blade element parameters are presented for selected operating conditions at design speed.

  20. CFD analysis of a twin scroll radial turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fürst, Jiří; Žák, Zdenĕk

    2018-06-01

    The contribution deals with the application of coupled implicit solver for compressible flows to CFD analysis of a twin scroll radial turbine. The solver is based on the finite volume method, convective terms are approximated using AUSM+up scheme, viscous terms use central approximation and the time evolution is achieved with lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel (LU-SGS) method. The solver allows steady simulation with the so called frozen rotor approach as well as the fully unsteady solution. Both approaches are at first validated for the case of ERCOFTAC pump [1]. Then the CFD analysis of the flow through a twin scroll radial turbine and the predictions of the efficiency and turbine power is performed and the results are compared to experimental data obtained in the framework of Josef Božek - Competence Centre for Automotive Industry.