Radial Moment Calculations of Coupled Electron-Photon Beams
FRANKE,BRIAN C.; LARSEN,EDWARD W.
2000-07-19
The authors consider the steady-state transport of normally incident pencil beams of radiation in slabs of material. A method has been developed for determining the exact radial moments of 3-D beams of radiation as a function of depth into the slab, by solving systems of 1-D transport equations. They implement these radial moment equations in the ONEBFP discrete ordinates code and simulate energy-dependent, coupled electron-photon beams using CEPXS-generated cross sections. Modified P{sub N} synthetic acceleration is employed to speed up the iterative convergence of the 1-D charged particle calculations. For high-energy photon beams, a hybrid Monte Carlo/discrete ordinates method is examined. They demonstrate the efficiency of the calculations and make comparisons with 3-D Monte Carlo calculations. Thus, by solving 1-D transport equations, they obtain realistic multidimensional information concerning the broadening of electron-photon beams. This information is relevant to fields such as industrial radiography, medical imaging, radiation oncology, particle accelerators, and lasers.
Moment calculations by digital filters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Budrikis, Z. L.; Hatamian, M.
1984-02-01
A simple recursive algorithm is presented for computing moments of two-dimensional integer arrays. It uses only additions, and can be implemented for high speed and real time computation at video rates. The Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS), Very Large-Scale Integrated (VLSI) implementation of the algorithm in a single chip that can calculate the 16 moments on a 512 x 512 array of 8-bit integers in real time (at video rate) is described. Such a chip can have potential applications in image processing, graphics, and robotics. The basic building block of the system is a single-pole digital filter that is implemented by recursive addition. The complexities involved in designing the chip, as well as its area, are significantly reduced by taking advantage of the fact that the column samples of the data array can be processed at a much slower rate than the row samples. An estimate of the chip area obtained from the layout design of the individual cells is given.
A Method to Calculate Protein Dipole Moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mellor, Brett; Mazzeo, Brian
2009-10-01
The electric dipole moments of globular proteins, determined experimentally by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, contribute to both protein function and structure. Numerical computations of dipole moments can be obtained from structures in the Protein Data Bank. However, previous computations in literature have agreed with experimental results for only a limited number of proteins. This paper presents a method to compute the pH-dependent dipole moment. The protein molecule is considered as an array of electrical point charges in aqueous solution. The dipole moment is calculated as the vector sum of two components: (1)the core dipole moment which emerges from the unequal sharing of electrons in covalent bonds; (2)the surface charge dipole moment resulting from pH-dependent side chain partial charges. pKa shifts for each side chain amino acid are determined by the H++ server employing the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The net charge and dipole moment over a range of pH are calculated. The Oncley equation is used to predict the dielectric increment at arbitrary pH, temperature, and protein concentration.
Precise calculations of the deuteron quadrupole moment
Gross, Franz L.
2016-06-01
Recently, two calculations of the deuteron quadrupole moment have have given predictions that agree with the measured value to within 1%, resolving a long-standing discrepancy. One of these uses the covariant spectator theory (CST) and the other chiral effective field theory (cEFT). In this talk I will first briefly review the foundations and history of the CST, and then compare these two calculations with emphasis on how the same physical processes are being described using very different language. The comparison of the two methods gives new insights into the dynamics of the low energy NN interaction.
Distribution and moments of radial error. [Rayleigh distribution - random variables
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, R. G.
1975-01-01
An investigation of the moments and probability distribution of the resultant of two normally distributed random variables is presented. This is the so-called generalized Rayleigh distribution which has many applications in the study of wind shear, random noise, and radar. The most general formula was derived, and two special cases were considered for which tables of the moments and probability distribution functions are included as an appendix. One of the special cases was generalized to n-dimensions.
Calculation of the Moments of Polygons.
1987-06-01
2.1) VowUK-1N0+IDIO TUUNTKPlNO.YKNO C Calculate AREA YKXK-YKPIND*IKNO-YKNO*XKP1NO AIKA-hEEA4YKXX C Calculate ACEIT ACENT (1)- ACEIT ( 1) VSUNI4TKIK... ACEIT (2) -ACENT(2) .VSUNYKXK C Calculate SECHON 3ECNON (1) -SCNON( 1) TKXK*(XX~PIdO*VSUNXKKO**2) SECNO(2) -SEn N(2) .yrf* (XKP114*YKP1MO.XKO*YXO+VB1hi
Radial nodalization effects on BWR (boiling water reactor) stability calculations
March-Leuba, J.
1990-01-01
Computer simulations have shown that stability calculations in boiling water reactors (BWRs) are very sensitive to a number of input parameters and modeling assumptions. In particular, the number of thermohydraulic regions (i.e., channels) used in the calculation can affect the results of decay ratio calculations by as much as 30%. This paper presents the background theory behind the observed effects of radial nodalization in BWR stability calculations. The theory of how a radial power distribution can be simulated in time or frequency domain codes by using representative'' regions is developed. The approximations involved in this method of solution are reviewed, and some examples of the effect of radial nodalization are presented based on LAPUR code solutions. 2 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.
An Exact Formula for Calculating Inverse Radial Lens Distortions
Drap, Pierre; Lefèvre, Julien
2016-01-01
This article presents a new approach to calculating the inverse of radial distortions. The method presented here provides a model of reverse radial distortion, currently modeled by a polynomial expression, that proposes another polynomial expression where the new coefficients are a function of the original ones. After describing the state of the art, the proposed method is developed. It is based on a formal calculus involving a power series used to deduce a recursive formula for the new coefficients. We present several implementations of this method and describe the experiments conducted to assess the validity of the new approach. Such an approach, non-iterative, using another polynomial expression, able to be deduced from the first one, can actually be interesting in terms of performance, reuse of existing software, or bridging between different existing software tools that do not consider distortion from the same point of view. PMID:27258288
Calculation of Acoustic Radiation Force and Moment in Microfluidic Devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, Kian-Meng; Rahnama, Shahrokh Sepehri
2014-11-01
The ability to compute the acoustic radiation force and torque acting on a particle is critical to the design of microfluidic devices and the operating conditions for separation of different species of particles or biological cells using this force field. Closed-form formulae had been reported in the literature for calculating the acoustic radiation force acting on simple geometries such as spheres and ellipsoids. Also, these analytical formulae are limited to objects that are small compared to the wavelength of sound in the surrounding fluid. Numerical methods provide a more flexible way to calculate the acoustic radiation force and torque on suspended objects of arbitrary shape and size. In this paper, we will present results of using the finite element method and the multipole expansion method to calculate the acoustic radiation force and moment. For harmonic excitation, the Helmholtz equation is solved for the velocity potential of the acoustic field with the appropriate boundary conditions imposed on the surface of the spherical or ellipsoidal objects. The resultant force and torque were then calculated by performing a surface integral of the second order, time-averaged Brillouin stress over the object. The numerical results show good agreement with the analytical results for small size spheres and ellipsoids. When the object size is comparable to the wavelength of the acoustic field, the analytical results breakdown and numerical methods are necessary to obtain accurate results.
Estimating diffusion propagator and its moments using directional radial basis functions
Ning, Lipeng; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Rathi, Yogesh
2015-01-01
The ensemble average diffusion propagator (EAP) obtained from diffusion MRI (dMRI) data captures important structural properties of the underlying tissue. As such, it is imperative to derive an accurate estimate of the EAP from the acquired diffusion data. In this work, we propose a novel method for estimating the EAP by representing the diffusion signal as a linear combination of directional radial basis functions scattered in q-space. In particular, we focus on a special case of anisotropic Gaussian basis functions and derive analytical expressions for the diffusion orientation distribution function (ODF), the return-to-origin probability (RTOP), and mean-squared-displacement (MSD). A significant advantage of the proposed method is that the second and the fourth order moment tensors of the EAP can be computed explicitly. This allows for computing several novel scalar indices (from the moment tensors) such as mean-fourth-order-displacement (MFD) and generalized kurtosis (GK) – which is a generalization of the mean kurtosis measure used in diffusion kurtosis imaging. Additionally, we also propose novel scalar indices computed from the signal in q-space, called the q-space mean-squared-displacement (QMSD) and the q-space mean-fourth-order-displacement (QMFD), which are sensitive to short diffusion time scales. We validate our method extensively on data obtained from a physical phantom with known crossing angle as well as on in-vivo human brain data. Our experiments demonstrate the robustness of our method for different combinations of b-values and number of gradient directions. PMID:25838518
46 CFR 174.055 - Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm). 174.055 Section... Units § 174.055 Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm). (a) The wind heeling moment (Hm) of a unit in a given normal operating condition or severe storm condition is the sum of the individual wind...
46 CFR 174.055 - Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm). 174.055 Section... Units § 174.055 Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm). (a) The wind heeling moment (Hm) of a unit in a given normal operating condition or severe storm condition is the sum of the individual wind...
46 CFR 174.055 - Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm). 174.055 Section... Units § 174.055 Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm). (a) The wind heeling moment (Hm) of a unit in a given normal operating condition or severe storm condition is the sum of the individual wind...
46 CFR 174.055 - Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm). 174.055 Section... Units § 174.055 Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm). (a) The wind heeling moment (Hm) of a unit in a given normal operating condition or severe storm condition is the sum of the individual wind...
46 CFR 174.055 - Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm). 174.055 Section... Units § 174.055 Calculation of wind heeling moment (Hm). (a) The wind heeling moment (Hm) of a unit in a given normal operating condition or severe storm condition is the sum of the individual wind...
Bieron, Jacek; Gaigalas, Gediminas; Gaidamauskas, Erikas; Fritzsche, Stephan; Indelicato, Paul; Joensson, Per
2009-07-15
The multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock theory has been employed to calculate the electric dipole moment of the 7s6d {sup 3}D{sub 2} state of radium induced by the nuclear Schiff moment. The results are dominated by valence and core-valence electron correlation effects. We show that the correlation effects can be evaluated in a converged series of multiconfiguration expansions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zábranová, Eliška; Matyska, Ctirad
2017-01-01
On April 11, 2012, two strike-slip Sumatra earthquakes with moment magnitudes higher than 8 generated strong, preferentially horizontal, motions. If only body and surface waves are inverted, their centroid-moment-tensor (CMT) parameters producing vertical motions, in particular the Mrr components, are poorly resolved. Independent constraints can be obtained from observations of the radial free-oscillation modes. The signal of radial modes is acquired from four unperturbed superconducting gravimeter records with low noise levels in submillihertz frequency range. We show that the observed signal substantially differs from the synthetic calculations for most of the published CMTs except for the Global CMT solution, which agrees better. We perform modal inversions considering uncertainties in centroid times and calculate marginal posterior probability density function of the Mrr components. The amplitude-spectrum inversion is robust enough to estimate the intervals of admissible Mrr values. Finally, we incorporate also a phase information and reduce the trade-off between the Mrr components of the two studied events.
Calculation of Moment Matrix Elements for Bilinear Quadrilaterals and Higher-Order Basis Functions
2016-01-06
B. M. Kolundzija and A. R. Djordjević, Electromagnetic Modeling of Composite Metallic and Dielectric Structures . Boston: Artech House, 2002...REPORT REPORT NO: NAWCADPAX/TR-2015/241 CALCULATION OF MOMENT MATRIX ELEMENTS FOR BILINEAR QUADRILATERALS AND HIGHER-ORDER BASIS...CALCULATION OF MOMENT MATRIX ELEMENTS FOR BILINEAR QUADRILATERALS AND HIGHER-ORDER BASIS FUNCTIONS by John S. Asvestas
Sanli, Aydin; Beser, Bediha; Edwardson, John R; Magnier, Sylvie; Ahmed, Ergin H; Marjatta Lyyra, A
2015-09-14
We report here ab initio calculated electronic transition dipole moments for the sodium dimer ion pair states of (1)Σg (+) symmetry. They vary strongly as a function of internuclear distance because of the effect of the Na(+) + Na(-) ion pair potential, which also causes the formation of additional wells and shoulders in the molecular potential energy curves. We also present a computational study of the transition dipole moment matrix elements and lifetimes for these ion-pair states.
Calculated electric dipole moment of NiH X2Delta
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walch, S.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Langhoff, S. R.
1985-01-01
A calculated dipole moment of 2.39 D at R sub e = 2.79 a sub 0 is reported, obtained from complete active space SCF/configuration interaction calculations plus one natural orbital iteration. The calculation is in good agreement with the experimental value of 2.4 + or - 0.1 D measured for the lowest vibrational level. In agreement with Gray et al. (1985), it is found that the dipole moment is strongly correlated with the 3d electron population; the good agreement with experiment thus provides verification of the mixed state model of NiH. It is concluded that the electric dipole moment of NiH is a sensitive test of the quality of the NiH wave function.
Simplified approach for calculating moments of action for linear reaction-diffusion equations.
Ellery, Adam J; Simpson, Matthew J; McCue, Scott W; Baker, Ruth E
2013-11-01
The mean action time is the mean of a probability density function that can be interpreted as a critical time, which is a finite estimate of the time taken for the transient solution of a reaction-diffusion equation to effectively reach steady state. For high-variance distributions, the mean action time underapproximates the critical time since it neglects to account for the spread about the mean. We can improve our estimate of the critical time by calculating the higher moments of the probability density function, called the moments of action, which provide additional information regarding the spread about the mean. Existing methods for calculating the nth moment of action require the solution of n nonhomogeneous boundary value problems which can be difficult and tedious to solve exactly. Here we present a simplified approach using Laplace transforms which allows us to calculate the nth moment of action without solving this family of boundary value problems and also without solving for the transient solution of the underlying reaction-diffusion problem. We demonstrate the generality of our method by calculating exact expressions for the moments of action for three problems from the biophysics literature. While the first problem we consider can be solved using existing methods, the second problem, which is readily solved using our approach, is intractable using previous techniques. The third problem illustrates how the Laplace transform approach can be used to study coupled linear reaction-diffusion equations.
GFMC calculations of electromagnetic moments and M1 transitions in A {<=} 9 nuclei
Pastore, Saori; Pieper, Steven C.; Schiavilla, Rocco; Wiringa, Robert Bruce
2013-08-01
We present recent Green's function Monte Carlo calculations of magnetic moments and M1 transitions in A{<=} 9 nuclei, which include corrections arising from two-body meson-exchange electromagnetic currents. Two-body effects provide significant corrections to the calculated observables, bringing them in excellent agreement with the experimental data. In particular, we find that two body corrections are especially large in the A = 9, T = 3/2 systems, in which they account for up to ~ 20% (~ 40%) of the total predicted value for the {sup 9}Li ({sup 9}C) magnetic moment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pacheco, Anderson; Fontana, Filipe; Viotti, Matias R.; Veiga, Celso L. N.; Lothhammer, Lívia R.; Albertazzi G., Armando, Jr.
2015-08-01
The authors developed an achromatic speckle pattern interferometer able to measure in-plane displacements in polar coordinates. It has been used to measure combined stresses resulting from the superposition of mechanical loading and residual stresses. Relaxation methods have been applied to produce on the surface of the specimen a displacement field that can be used to determine the amount of combined stresses. Two relaxation methods are explored in this work: blind hole-drilling and indentation. The first one results from a blind hole drilled with a high-speed drilling unit in the area of interest. The measured displacement data is fitted in an appropriate model to quantify the stress level using an indirect approach based on a set of finite element coefficients. The second approach uses indentation, where a hard spherical tip is firmly pressed against the surface to be measured with a predetermined indentation load. A plastic flow occurs around the indentation mark producing a radial in-plane displacement field that is related to the amount of combined stresses. Also in this case, displacements are measured by the radial interferometer and used to determine the stresses by least square fitting it to a displacement field determined by calibration. Both approaches are used to quantify the amount of bending stresses and moment in eight sections of a 12 m long 200 mm diameter steel pipe submitted to a known transverse loading. Reference values of bending stresses are also determined by strain gauges. The comparison between the four results is discussed in the paper.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hopkins, Edward J
1951-01-01
A semiempirical method, in which potential theory is arbitrarily combined with an approximate viscous theory, for calculating the aerodynamic pitching moments for bodies of revolution is presented. The method can also be used for calculating the lift and drag forces. The calculated and experimental force and moment characteristics of 15 bodies of revolution are compared.
Sherman, Michael A; Seth, Ajay; Delp, Scott L
2013-08-01
Biomechanics researchers often use multibody models to represent biological systems. However, the mapping from biology to mechanics and back can be problematic. OpenSim is a popular open source tool used for this purpose, mapping between biological specifications and an underlying generalized coordinate multibody system called Simbody. One quantity of interest to biomechanical researchers and clinicians is "muscle moment arm," a measure of the effectiveness of a muscle at contributing to a particular motion over a range of configurations. OpenSim can automatically calculate these quantities for any muscle once a model has been built. For simple cases, this calculation is the same as the conventional moment arm calculation in mechanical engineering. But a muscle may span several joints (e.g., wrist, neck, back) and may follow a convoluted path over various curved surfaces. A biological joint may require several bodies or even a mechanism to accurately represent in the multibody model (e.g., knee, shoulder). In these situations we need a careful definition of muscle moment arm that is analogous to the mechanical engineering concept, yet generalized to be of use to biomedical researchers. Here we present some biomechanical modeling challenges and how they are resolved in OpenSim and Simbody to yield biologically meaningful muscle moment arms.
Seth, Ajay; Delp, Scott L.
2015-01-01
Biomechanics researchers often use multibody models to represent biological systems. However, the mapping from biology to mechanics and back can be problematic. OpenSim is a popular open source tool used for this purpose, mapping between biological specifications and an underlying generalized coordinate multibody system called Simbody. One quantity of interest to biomechanical researchers and clinicians is “muscle moment arm,” a measure of the effectiveness of a muscle at contributing to a particular motion over a range of configurations. OpenSim can automatically calculate these quantities for any muscle once a model has been built. For simple cases, this calculation is the same as the conventional moment arm calculation in mechanical engineering. But a muscle may span several joints (e.g., wrist, neck, back) and may follow a convoluted path over various curved surfaces. A biological joint may require several bodies or even a mechanism to accurately represent in the multibody model (e.g., knee, shoulder). In these situations we need a careful definition of muscle moment arm that is analogous to the mechanical engineering concept, yet generalized to be of use to biomedical researchers. Here we present some biomechanical modeling challenges and how they are resolved in OpenSim and Simbody to yield biologically meaningful muscle moment arms. PMID:25905111
The calculation of radial dose from heavy ions: predictions of biological action cross sections
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Zhang, C. X.; Wilson, J. W. (Principal Investigator)
1996-01-01
The track structure model of heavy ion cross sections was developed by Katz and co-workers in the 1960s. In this model the action cross section is evaluated by mapping the dose-response of a detector to gamma rays (modeled from biological target theory) onto the radial dose distribution from delta rays about the path of the ion. This is taken to yield the radial distribution of probability for a "hit" (an interaction leading to an observable end-point). Radial integration of the probability yields the cross section. When different response from ions of different Z having the same stopping power is observed this model may be indicated. Since the 1960s there have been several developments in the computation of the radial dose distribution, in the measurement of these distributions, and in new radiobiological data against which to test the model. The earliest model, by Butts and Katz made use of simplified delta ray distribution functions, of simplified electron range-energy relations, and neglected angular distributions. Nevertheless it made possible the calculation of cross sections for the inactivation of enzymes and viruses, and allowed extension to tracks in nuclear emulsions and other detectors and to biological cells. It set the pattern for models of observable effects in the matter through which the ion passed. Here we outline subsequent calculations of radial dose which make use of improved knowledge of the electron emission spectrum, the electron range-energy relation, the angular distribution, and some considerations of molecular excitation, of particular interest both close to the path of the ion and the outer limits of electron penetration. These are applied to the modeling of action cross sections for the inactivation of several strains of E-coli and B. subtilis spores where extensive measurements in the "thin-down" region have been made with heavy ion beams. Such calculations serve to test the radial dose calculations at the outer limit of electron
Heavy ion track-structure calculations for radial dose in arbitrary materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cucinotta, Francis A.; Katz, Robert; Wilson, John W.; Dubey, Rajendra R.
1995-01-01
The delta-ray theory of track structure is compared with experimental data for the radial dose from heavy ion irradiation. The effects of electron transmission and the angular dependence of secondary electron ejection are included in the calculations. Several empirical formulas for electron range and energy are compared in a wide variety of materials in order to extend the application of the track-structure theory. The model of Rudd for the secondary electron-spectrum in proton collisions, which is based on a modified classical kinematics binary encounter model at high energies and a molecular promotion model at low energies, is employed. For heavier projectiles, the secondary electron spectrum is found by scaling the effective charge. Radial dose calculations for carbon, water, silicon, and gold are discussed. The theoretical data agreed well with the experimental data.
Calculation of the radial electric field from a modified Ohm's law
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilks, T. M.; Stacey, W. M.; Evans, T. E.
2017-01-01
A modified Ohm's Law, derived from the conservation of deuterium and carbon ions and electron momentum and the requirement for charge neutrality, yields an expression for the radial electric field, Er, in the edge pedestal region in terms of the motional electric field due to the carbon and deuterium ion rotation velocities as well as pressure gradients and the radial plasma current. This analytical Ohm's Law model for Er is first shown to be consistent with the conventional "experimental" electric field calculated from the carbon radial momentum balance using experimental carbon rotation and pressure gradient measurements when experimental profiles are used to evaluate the Ohm's Law in three DIII-D [Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] representative discharges (for L-mode, H-mode, and Resonant Magnetic Perturbation operating regimes). In order to test the practical predictive ability of the modified Ohm's Law, the calculations were repeated using rotation velocities calculated with neoclassical rotation models instead of measured rotation velocities. The Ohm's Law predicted Er using theoretical rotation velocities did not agree with the "experimental" Er as well as the Ohm's Law prediction using experimental rotation velocities, indicating that more accurate models for predicting edge rotation velocity are needed in order to have a validated predictive model of Er in the plasma edge.
Calculation of the (T,P)-odd electric dipole moment of thallium and cesium
Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.
2009-12-15
Parity and time invariance violating electric dipole moment of {sup 205}Tl is calculated using the relativistic Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction methods and the many-body perturbation theory. Contributions from the interaction of the electron electric dipole moments with internal electric field and scalar-pseudoscalar electron-nucleon (T,P)-odd interaction are considered. The results are d({sup 205}Tl)=-582(20)d{sub e} or d({sup 205}Tl)=-7.0(2)x10{sup -18}C{sup SP}e cm. Interpretation of the measurements are discussed. The results of similar calculations for {sup 133}Cs are d({sup 133}Cs)=124(4)d{sub e} or d({sup 133}Cs)=0.76(2)x10{sup -18}C{sup SP}e cm.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sokalski, W. A.; Shibata, M.; Ornstein, R. L.; Rein, R.
1993-01-01
Distributed Point Charge Models (PCM) for CO, (H2O)2, and HS-SH molecules have been computed from analytical expressions using multi-center multipole moments. The point charges (set of charges including both atomic and non-atomic positions) exactly reproduce both molecular and segmental multipole moments, thus constituting an accurate representation of the local anisotropy of electrostatic properties. In contrast to other known point charge models, PCM can be used to calculate not only intermolecular, but also intramolecular interactions. Comparison of these results with more accurate calculations demonstrated that PCM can correctly represent both weak and strong (intramolecular) interactions, thus indicating the merit of extending PCM to obtain improved potentials for molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics computational methods.
Radial dose distributions from protons of therapeutic energies calculated with Geant4-DNA.
Wang, He; Vassiliev, Oleg N
2014-07-21
Models based on the amorphous track structure approximation have been successful in predicting the biological effects of heavy charged particles. Development of such models remains an active area of research that includes applications to hadrontherapy. In such models, the radial distribution of the dose deposited by delta electrons and directly by the particle is the main characteristic of track structure. We calculated these distributions with Geant4-DNA Monte Carlo code for protons in the energy range from 10 to 100 MeV. These results were approximated by a simple formula that combines the well-known inverse square distance dependence with two factors that eliminate the divergence of the radial dose integral at both small and large distances. A clear physical interpretation is given to the asymptotic behaviour of the radial dose distribution resulting from these two factors. The proposed formula agrees with the Monte Carlo data within 10% for radial distances of up to 10 μm, which corresponds to a dose range covering over eight orders of magnitude. Differences between our results and those of previously published analytical models are discussed.
Radial dose distributions from protons of therapeutic energies calculated with Geant4-DNA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, He; Vassiliev, Oleg N.
2014-07-01
Models based on the amorphous track structure approximation have been successful in predicting the biological effects of heavy charged particles. Development of such models remains an active area of research that includes applications to hadrontherapy. In such models, the radial distribution of the dose deposited by delta electrons and directly by the particle is the main characteristic of track structure. We calculated these distributions with Geant4-DNA Monte Carlo code for protons in the energy range from 10 to 100 MeV. These results were approximated by a simple formula that combines the well-known inverse square distance dependence with two factors that eliminate the divergence of the radial dose integral at both small and large distances. A clear physical interpretation is given to the asymptotic behaviour of the radial dose distribution resulting from these two factors. The proposed formula agrees with the Monte Carlo data within 10% for radial distances of up to 10 μm, which corresponds to a dose range covering over eight orders of magnitude. Differences between our results and those of previously published analytical models are discussed.
Aerodynamic Lift and Moment Calculations Using a Closed-Form Solution of the Possio Equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, Jensen; Iliff, Kenneth W.
2000-01-01
In this paper, we present closed-form formulas for the lift and moment coefficients of a lifting surface in two dimensional, unsteady, compressible, subsonic flow utilizing a newly developed explicit analytical solution of the Possio equation. Numerical calculations are consistent with previous numerical tables based on series expansions or ad hoc numerical schemes. More importantly, these formulas lend themselves readily to flutter analysis, compared with the tedious table-look-up schemes currently in use.
Computer program for the calculation of grain size statistics by the method of moments
Sawyer, Michael B.
1977-01-01
A computer program is presented for a Hewlett-Packard Model 9830A desk-top calculator (1) which calculates statistics using weight or point count data from a grain-size analysis. The program uses the method of moments in contrast to the more commonly used but less inclusive graphic method of Folk and Ward (1957). The merits of the program are: (1) it is rapid; (2) it can accept data in either grouped or ungrouped format; (3) it allows direct comparison with grain-size data in the literature that have been calculated by the method of moments; (4) it utilizes all of the original data rather than percentiles from the cumulative curve as in the approximation technique used by the graphic method; (5) it is written in the computer language BASIC, which is easily modified and adapted to a wide variety of computers; and (6) when used in the HP-9830A, it does not require punching of data cards. The method of moments should be used only if the entire sample has been measured and the worker defines the measured grain-size range. (1) Use of brand names in this paper does not imply endorsement of these products by the U.S. Geological Survey.
Poulain-Paul, Agnieszka; Nassour, Ayoub; Jelsch, Christian; Guillot, Benoit; Kubicki, Maciej; Lecomte, Claude
2012-11-01
Three models of charge-density distribution - Hansen-Coppens multipolar, virtual atom and kappa - of different complexities, different numbers of refined parameters, and with variable levels of restraints, were tested against theoretical and high-resolution X-ray diffraction structure factors for 2-methyl-4-nitro-1-phenyl-1H-imidazole-5-carbonitrile. The influence of the model, refinement strategy, multipole level and treatment of the H atoms on the dipole moment was investigated. The dipole moment turned out to be very sensitive to the refinement strategy. Also, small changes in H-atom treatment can greatly influence the calculated magnitude and orientation of the dipole moment. The best results were obtained when H atoms were kept in positions determined by neutron diffraction and anisotropic displacement parameters (obtained by SHADE, in this case) were used. Also, constraints on kappa values of H atoms were found to be superior to the free refinement of these parameters. It is also shown that the over-parametrization of the multipolar model, although possibly leading to better residuals, in general gives worse dipole moments.
Blum, T; Boyle, P A; Izubuchi, T; Jin, L; Jüttner, A; Lehner, C; Maltman, K; Marinkovic, M; Portelli, A; Spraggs, M
2016-06-10
We report the first lattice QCD calculation of the hadronic vacuum polarization (HVP) disconnected contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment at physical pion mass. The calculation uses a refined noise-reduction technique that enables the control of statistical uncertainties at the desired level with modest computational effort. Measurements were performed on the 48^{3}×96 physical-pion-mass lattice generated by the RBC and UKQCD Collaborations. We find the leading-order hadronic vacuum polarization a_{μ}^{HVP(LO)disc}=-9.6(3.3)(2.3)×10^{-10}, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic.
Lattice calculation of hadronic light-by-light contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment
Blum, Thomas; Christ, Norman; Hayakawa, Masashi; Izubuchi, Taku; Jin, Luchang; Lehner, Christoph
2016-01-12
The quark-connected part of the hadronic light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon’s anomalous magnetic moment is computed using lattice QCD with chiral fermions. Here we report several significant algorithmic improvements and demonstrate their effectiveness through specific calculations which show a reduction in statistical errors by more than an order of magnitude. The most realistic of these calculations is performed with a near-physical 171 MeV pion mass on a (4.6 fm)^{3} spatial volume using the 32^{3}×64 Iwasaki+DSDR gauge ensemble of the RBC/UKQCD Collaboration.
Lattice calculation of hadronic light-by-light contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment
Blum, Thomas; Christ, Norman; Hayakawa, Masashi; ...
2016-01-12
The quark-connected part of the hadronic light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon’s anomalous magnetic moment is computed using lattice QCD with chiral fermions. Here we report several significant algorithmic improvements and demonstrate their effectiveness through specific calculations which show a reduction in statistical errors by more than an order of magnitude. The most realistic of these calculations is performed with a near-physical 171 MeV pion mass on a (4.6 fm)3 spatial volume using the 323×64 Iwasaki+DSDR gauge ensemble of the RBC/UKQCD Collaboration.
Discrepancy in the near-solute electric dipole moment calculated from the electric field.
Yang, Pei-Kun
2011-10-01
The electric dipole moment p(r) was computed as the integral of the permanent dipole moment of the solvent molecule μ(r) weighted by the orientational probability distribution Ω(r;O) over all orientations, where O is the orientation of the solvent molecule at r. The relationship between Ω(r;O) and the potential of the mean torque was derived; p(r) is proportional to the electric field E(r) under the following assumptions: (1) the van der Waals (vdW) interaction is independent of the orientation of the solvent molecule at r; (2) the solvent molecule and its electrical effect are modeled as a point dipole moment; (3) the solvent molecule at r is in a region far from the solute; and (4) μE(r) ≪ k(B) T, where k(B) is Boltzmann's constant and T is absolute temperature. The errors caused by calculating near-solute Ω(r) and p(r) from E(r) are unclear. The results show that Ω(r) is inconsistent with the value calculated from E(r) for water molecules in the first and second shells of solute with charge state Q = ±1 e, and a large variation in solvent molecular polarizability γ(mol) (r), which appeared in the first valley of 4πr(2) E(r) for |Q| < 1 e. Nonetheless, p(r) is consistent with the values calculated from E(r) for |Q| ≤ 1 e. The implication is that the assumptions for calculating p(r) can be ignored in the calculation of the solvation free energy of biomolecules, as they pertain to protein folding and protein-protein/ligand interactions.
GenLocDip: A Generalized Program to Calculate and Visualize Local Electric Dipole Moments.
Groß, Lynn; Herrmann, Carmen
2016-09-30
Local dipole moments (i.e., dipole moments of atomic or molecular subsystems) are essential for understanding various phenomena in nanoscience, such as solvent effects on the conductance of single molecules in break junctions or the interaction between the tip and the adsorbate in atomic force microscopy. We introduce GenLocDip, a program for calculating and visualizing local dipole moments of molecular subsystems. GenLocDip currently uses the Atoms-In-Molecules (AIM) partitioning scheme and is interfaced to various AIM programs. This enables postprocessing of a variety of electronic structure output formats including cube and wavefunction files, and, in general, output from any other code capable of writing the electron density on a three-dimensional grid. It uses a modified version of Bader's and Laidig's approach for achieving origin-independence of local dipoles by referring to internal reference points which can (but do not need to be) bond critical points (BCPs). Furthermore, the code allows the export of critical points and local dipole moments into a POVray readable input format. It is particularly designed for fragments of large systems, for which no BCPs have been calculated for computational efficiency reasons, because large interfragment distances prevent their identification, or because a local partitioning scheme different from AIM was used. The program requires only minimal user input and is written in the Fortran90 programming language. To demonstrate the capabilities of the program, examples are given for covalently and non-covalently bound systems, in particular molecular adsorbates. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Calculating Higher-Order Moments of Phylogenetic Stochastic Mapping Summaries in Linear Time.
Dhar, Amrit; Minin, Vladimir N
2017-02-08
Stochastic mapping is a simulation-based method for probabilistically mapping substitution histories onto phylogenies according to continuous-time Markov models of evolution. This technique can be used to infer properties of the evolutionary process on the phylogeny and, unlike parsimony-based mapping, conditions on the observed data to randomly draw substitution mappings that do not necessarily require the minimum number of events on a tree. Most stochastic mapping applications simulate substitution mappings only to estimate the mean and/or variance of two commonly used mapping summaries: the number of particular types of substitutions (labeled substitution counts) and the time spent in a particular group of states (labeled dwelling times) on the tree. Fast, simulation-free algorithms for calculating the mean of stochastic mapping summaries exist. Importantly, these algorithms scale linearly in the number of tips/leaves of the phylogenetic tree. However, to our knowledge, no such algorithm exists for calculating higher-order moments of stochastic mapping summaries. We present one such simulation-free dynamic programming algorithm that calculates prior and posterior mapping variances and scales linearly in the number of phylogeny tips. Our procedure suggests a general framework that can be used to efficiently compute higher-order moments of stochastic mapping summaries without simulations. We demonstrate the usefulness of our algorithm by extending previously developed statistical tests for rate variation across sites and for detecting evolutionarily conserved regions in genomic sequences.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chong, D. P.; Langhoff, S. R.
1986-01-01
A modified coupled pair functional (CPF) method is presented for the configuration interaction problem that dramatically improves properties for cases where the Hartree-Fock reference configuration is not a good zeroth-order wave function description. It is shown that the tendency for CPF to overestimate the effect of higher excitations arises from the choice of the geometric mean for the partial normalization denominator. The modified method is demonstrated for ground state dipole moment calculations of the NiH, CuH, and ZnH transition metal hydrides, and compared to singles-plus-doubles configuration interaction and the Ahlrichs et al. (1984) CPF method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goc, Roman
2004-09-01
This paper describes m2rc3, a program that calculates Van Vleck second moments for solids with internal rotation of molecules, ions or their structural parts. Only rotations about C 3 axes of symmetry are allowed, but up to 15 axes of rotation per crystallographic unit cell are permitted. The program is very useful in interpreting NMR measurements in solids. Program summaryTitle of the program: m2rc3 Catalogue number: ADUC Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADUC Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland License provisions: none Computers: Cray SV1, Cray T3E-900, PCs Installation: Poznań Supercomputing and Networking Center ( http://www.man.poznan.pl/pcss/public/main/index.html) and Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland ( http://www.amu.edu.pl/welcome.html.en) Operating system under which program has been tested: UNICOS ver. 10.0.0.6 on Cray SV1; UNICOS/mk on Cray T3E-900; Windows98 and Windows XP on PCs. Programming language: FORTRAN 90 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 757 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 9730 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: The NMR second moment reflects the strength of the nuclear magnetic dipole-dipole interaction in solids. This value can be extracted from the appropriate experiment and can be calculated on the basis of Van Vleck formula. The internal rotation of molecules or their parts averages this interaction decreasing the measured value of the NMR second moment. The analysis of the internal dynamics based on the NMR second moment measurements is as follows. The second moment is measured at different temperatures. On the other hand it is also calculated for different models and frequencies of this motion. Comparison of experimental and calculated values permits the building of the most probable model of internal dynamics in the studied material. The program described
Electronic structure, rovibrational, and dipole moment calculations for the AsCl molecule.
Mourad, Khaled A; Abdulal, Saleh N; Korek, Mahmoud
2016-02-01
The potential energy curves of the 19 lowest-lying singlet and triplet electronic states in the (2S+1)Λ((+/-)) representation of the AsCl molecule have been investigated using the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) with multireference configuration interaction (MRCI+Q) method including single and double excitations and with the Davidson correction. The harmonic frequency ω e, the internuclear distance R e, the dipole moment, and the electronic energy with respect to the ground state T e were calculated for the electronic states considered. By using the canonical functions approach, the eigenvalue E v, the rotational constant B v, and the abscissae of the turning points R min and R max were calculated for the electronic states up to the vibrational level v = 60. The values obtained in the present work agree well with corresponding values available in the literature for several electronic states. Fifteen new electronic states were investigated here for the first time.
Calculated dipole moment and energy in collision of a hydrogen molecule and a hydrogen atom
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patch, R. W.
1973-01-01
Calculations were carried out using three Slater-type 1s orbitals in the orthogonalized valencebond theory of McWeeny. Each orbital exponent was optimized, the H2 internuclear distance was varied from 7.416 x 10 to the -11th power to 7.673 x 10 to the -11th power m (1.401 to 1.450 bohrs). The intermolecular distance was varied from 1 to 4 bohrs (0.5292 to 2.117 x 10 to the 10th power). Linear, scalene, and isosceles configurations were used. A weighted average of the interaction energies was taken for each intermolecular distance. Although energies are tabulated, the principal purpose was to calculate the electric dipole moment and its derivative with respect to H2 internuclear distance.
Kellö, Vladimir
2015-01-22
Highly correlated scalar relativistic calculations of electric field gradients at nuclei in diatomic molecules in combination with accurate nuclear quadrupole coupling constants obtained from microwave spectroscopy are used for determination of nuclear quadrupole moments.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Billingsley, F. P., II; Krauss, M.
1974-01-01
Using the optimized valence configurations (OVC) multiconfiguration self-consistent-field (MCSCF) method, the dipole moment function for the ground state of CO in the vicinity of the equilibrium internuclear distance has been calculated. The OVC MCSCF calculation results are compared with existing Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction treatments of this molecule at single points and also the dipole moment function deduced from experimental infrared intensities. A general prescription for constructing OVC wavefunctions for diatomic molecules is also presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoff, N J; Libby, Paul A; Klein, Bertran
1946-01-01
This report deals with the calculation of the bending moments in and the distortions of fuselage rings upon which known concentrated and distributed loads are acting. In the procedure suggested, the ring is divided into a number of beams each having a constant radius of curvature. The forces and moments caused in the end sections of the beams by individual unit displacements of the end sections are listed in a table designated as the operations table in conformity with Southwell's nomenclature. The operations table and the external loads are equivalent to a set of linear equations. For their solution the following three procedures are presented: 1) Southwell's method of systematic relaxations. This is a step-by-step approximation procedure guided by the physical interpretation of the changes in the values of the unknown. 2) The growing unit procedure in which the individual beams are combined successively into beams of increasing length until finally the entire ring becomes a single beam. In each step of the procedure a set of not more than three simultaneous linear equations is solved. 3) Solution of the entire set of simultaneous equations by the methods of the matrix calculus. In order to demonstrate the manner in which the calculations may be carried out, the following numerical examples are worked out: 1) Curved beam with both its end sections rigidly fixed. The load is a concentrated force. 2) Egg-shape ring with symmetric concentrated loads. 3) Circular ring with antisymmetric concentrated loads and shear flow (torsion of the fuselage). 4) Same with V-braces incorporated in the ring. 5) Egg-shape ring with antisymmetric concentrated loads and shear flow (torsion of the fuselage). 6) Same with V-braces incorporated in the ring. The results of these calculations are checked, whenever possible, by calculations carried out according to known methods of analysis. The agreement is found to be good. The amount of work necessary for the solution of ring problems by
Hutchings, L
2001-12-12
The purpose of computer program NetMoment (Appendix I) is to utilize fundamental knowledge of earthquake sources, propagation attenuation, and site response in a simultaneous inversion of network data to determine the moment and source corner frequency of earthquakes, and site specific t*. The source parameters are especially difficult to determine for small earthquakes. A fundamental problem in determining the source corner frequencies of small earthquakes is that site response can result in spectral corner frequencies in the range that may be expected from the earthquakes themselves. Several authors have identified this as fmax (Hanks, 1982), a constant corner frequency for small events so that below threshold moment (about 1.0 x 10{sup 21} dyne-cm) the corner frequency remains constant the size of events diminishes. Hutchings and Wu (1990) found that for the southern California region, events with moment less than about 1.5 x 10{sup 21} dyne-cm (about magnitude 3.4) show no source effect in their spectra. Hanks (1982) found the threshold to be about 1.0 x l0{sup 21} dyne-cm for other southern California sites. Baise et al. (2002) found borehole recordings on Yerba Buena Island, in San Francisco Bay, to have corner frequencies limited to about 3-5 Hz for M < 4.0 earthquakes in the region. Some authors have attributed this to a minimum source dimension for earthquakes, which results in a decrease in stress drop for smaller events (Archuleta et al., 1982; Papageorgiou and Aki, 1983). alternative explanation is that the constant corner frequencies result from whole path or near site attenuation and/or amplifications due to soil response. This is supported by a wide body of literature (Anderson and Hough, 1984, Hutchings and Wu, 1990, Blakeslee and Malin, 1991; Aster and Shearer, 1991; Abercrombie, 1995). Abercrombie, for example, estimated source corner frequencies from events recorded in granite at a depth of 2.5 Km in the Cajon Pass scientific drill hole and
Calculation of Heavy Ion Inactivation and Mutation Rates in Radial Dose Model of Track Structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Shavers, Mark R.; Katz, Robert
1997-01-01
In the track structure model, the inactivation cross section is found by summing an inactivation probability over all impact parameters from the ion to the sensitive sites within the cell nucleus. The inactivation probability is evaluated by using the dose response of the system to gamma rays and the radial dose of the ions and may be equal to unity at small impact parameters. We apply the track structure model to recent data with heavy ion beams irradiating biological samples of E. Coli, B. Subtilis spores, and Chinese hamster (V79) cells. Heavy ions have observed cross sections for inactivation that approach and sometimes exceed the geometric size of the cell nucleus. We show how the effects of inactivation may be taken into account in the evaluation of the mutation cross sections in the track structure model through correlation of sites for gene mutation and cell inactivation. The model is fit to available data for HPRT (hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase) mutations in V79 cells, and good agreement is found. Calculations show the high probability for mutation by relativistic ions due to the radial extension of ions track from delta rays. The effects of inactivation on mutation rates make it very unlikely that a single parameter such as LET (linear energy transfer) can be used to specify radiation quality for heavy ion bombardment.
Lin, Bin; Wong, Ka-Yiu; Hu, Char Y.; Kokubo, Hironori; Pettitt, Bernard M.
2011-07-07
Although detailed atomic models may be applied for a full description of solvation, simpler phenomenologicalmodels are particularly useful to interpret the results for scanning many large, complex systems, where a full atomic model is too computationally expensive to use. Among the most costly are solvation free-energy evaluations by simulation. Here we develop a fast way to calculate electrostatic solvation free energy while retaining much of the accuracy of explicit solvent free-energy simulation. The basis of our method is to treat the solvent not as a structureless dielectric continuum but as a structured medium by making use of universal proximal radial distribution functions. Using a deca-alanine peptide as a test case, we compare the use of our theory with free-energy simulations and traditional continuum estimates of the electrostatic solvation free energy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayo, Alton P.
1959-01-01
Flapwise bending moments were calculated for a teetering rotor blade using a reasonably rapid theoretical method in which airloads obtained from wind-tunnel tests were employed. The calculated moments agreed reasonably well with those measured with strain gages under the same test conditions. The range of the tests included one hovering and two forward-flight conditions. The rotor speed for the test was very near blade resonance, and difficult-to-calculate resonance effects apparently were responsible for the largest differences between the calculated and measured harmonic components of blade bending moments. These differences, moreover, were largely nullified when the harmonic components were combined to give a comparison of the calculated and measured blade total- moment time histories. The degree of agreement shown is therefore considered adequate to warrant the use of the theoretical method in establishing and applying methods of prediction of rotor-blade fatigue loads. At the same time, the validity of the experimental methods of obtaining both airload and blade stress measurement is also indicated to be adequate for use in establishing improved methods for prediction of rotor-blade fatigue loads during the design stage. The blade stiffnesses and natural frequencies were measured and found to be in close agreement with calculated values; however, for a condition of blade resonance the use of the experimental stiffness values resulted in better agreement between calculated and measured blade stresses.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eggleston, John M; Diederich, Franklin W
1957-01-01
The correlation functions and power spectra of the rolling and yawing moments on an airplane wing due to the three components of continuous random turbulence are calculated. The rolling moments to the longitudinal (horizontal) and normal (vertical) components depend on the spanwise distributions of instantaneous gust intensity, which are taken into account by using the inherent properties of symmetry of isotropic turbulence. The results consist of expressions for correlation functions or spectra of the rolling moment in terms of the point correlation functions of the two components of turbulence. Specific numerical calculations are made for a pair of correlation functions given by simple analytic expressions which fit available experimental data quite well. Calculations are made for four lift distributions. Comparison is made with the results of previous analyses which assumed random turbulence along the flight path and linear variations of gust velocity across the span.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Curtiss, L. A.; Langhoff, S. R.; Carney, G. D.
1979-01-01
The constant and linear terms in a Taylor series expansion of the dipole moment function of the ground state of ozone are calculated with Cartesian Gaussian basis sets ranging in quality from minimal to double zeta plus polarization. Results are presented at both the self-consistent field and configuration-interaction levels. Although the algebraic signs of the linear dipole moment derivatives are all established to be positive, the absolute magnitudes of these quantities, as well as the infrared intensities calculated from them, vary considerably with the level of theory.
Zhang, G. P.; Si, M. S.; George, Thomas F.
2015-05-07
When a laser pulse excites a ferromagnet, its spin undergoes a dramatic change. The initial demagnetization process is very fast. Experimentally, it is found that the demagnetization time is related to the spin moment in the sample. In this study, we employ the first-principles method to directly simulate such a process. We use the fixed spin moment method to change the spin moment in ferromagnetic nickel, and then we employ the Liouville equation to couple the laser pulse to the system. We find that in general the dependence of demagnetization time on the spin moment is nonlinear: It decreases with the spin moment up to a point, after which an increase with the spin moment is observed, followed by a second decrease. To understand this, we employ an extended Heisenberg model, which includes both the exchange interaction and spin-orbit coupling. The model directly links the demagnetization rate to the spin moment itself and demonstrates analytically that the spin relaxes more slowly with a small spin moment. A future experimental test of our predictions is needed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, G. P.; Si, M. S.; George, Thomas F.
2015-05-01
When a laser pulse excites a ferromagnet, its spin undergoes a dramatic change. The initial demagnetization process is very fast. Experimentally, it is found that the demagnetization time is related to the spin moment in the sample. In this study, we employ the first-principles method to directly simulate such a process. We use the fixed spin moment method to change the spin moment in ferromagnetic nickel, and then we employ the Liouville equation to couple the laser pulse to the system. We find that in general the dependence of demagnetization time on the spin moment is nonlinear: It decreases with the spin moment up to a point, after which an increase with the spin moment is observed, followed by a second decrease. To understand this, we employ an extended Heisenberg model, which includes both the exchange interaction and spin-orbit coupling. The model directly links the demagnetization rate to the spin moment itself and demonstrates analytically that the spin relaxes more slowly with a small spin moment. A future experimental test of our predictions is needed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hannum, Richard W; Zimmerman, Richard H
1945-01-01
Calculations based on dynamometer test-stand data obtained on an 18-cylinder radial engine were made to determine the improvement in fuel consumption that can be obtained at various altitudes by gearing an exhaust-gas turbine to the engine crankshaft in order to increase the engine-shaft work.
Pavlov, A A; Klimov, Vasilii V; Vladimorova, Yu V; Zadkov, Viktor N
2013-05-31
On the basis of calculations of multipole moments of meta-atoms forming a planar metamaterial, a new method is proposed for the quantitative determination of its optical and polarisation properties. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by the example of a planar metamaterial consisting of H-shaped nanoparticles. (metamaterials)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dimitroulis, Christos; Raptis, Theophanes; Raptis, Vasilios
2015-12-01
We present an application for the calculation of radial distribution functions for molecular centres of mass, based on trajectories generated by molecular simulation methods (Molecular Dynamics, Monte Carlo). When designing this application, the emphasis was placed on ease of use as well as ease of further development. In its current version, the program can read trajectories generated by the well-known DL_POLY package, but it can be easily extended to handle other formats. It is also very easy to 'hack' the program so it can compute intermolecular radial distribution functions for groups of interaction sites rather than whole molecules.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, H. K.; Wong, Eric Y.; Dogra, V. K.
1991-01-01
Grad's thirteen-moment equations are applied to the flow behind a bow shock under the formalism of a thin shock layer. Comparison of this version of the theory with Direct Simulation Monte Carlo calculations of flows about a flat plate at finite attack angle has lent support to the approach as a useful extension of the continuum model for studying translational nonequilibrium in the shock layer. This paper reassesses the physical basis and limitations of the development with additional calculations and comparisons. The streamline correlation principle, which allows transformation of the 13-moment based system to one based on the Navier-Stokes equations, is extended to a three-dimensional formulation. The development yields a strip theory for planar lifting surfaces at finite incidences. Examples reveal that the lift-to-drag ratio is little influenced by planform geometry and varies with altitudes according to a 'bridging function' determined by correlated two-dimensional calculations.
Application of AWE for RCS Frequency Response Calculations Using Method of Moments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, C. J.; Deshpande, M. D.
1996-01-01
An implementation of the Asymptotic Waveform Evaluation (AWE) technique is presented for obtaining the frequency response of the Radar Cross Section (RCS) of arbitrarily shaped, three-dimensional perfect electric conductor (PEC) bodies. An Electric Field Integral Equation (EFIE) is solved using the Method of Moments (MoM) to compute the RCS. The electric current, thus obtained, is expanded in a Taylor series around the frequency of interest. The coefficients of the Taylor series (called 'moments') are obtained using the frequency derivatives of the EFIE. Using the moments, the electric current on the PEC body is obtained over a frequency band. Using the electric current at different frequencies, RCS of the PEC body is obtained over a wide frequency band. Numerical results for a square plate, a cube, and a sphere are presented over a bandwidth. A good agreement between AWE and the exact solution over the bandwidth is observed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yakut, H.; Guliyev, E.; Guner, M.; Tabar, E.; Zenginerler, Z.
2012-08-01
A new microscopic method has been developed in the framework of the Quasiparticle-Phonon Nuclear Model (QPNM) in order to investigate spin polarization effects on the magnetic properties such as magnetic moment, intrinsic magnetic moment and effective gs factor of the ground state of odd-mass 157-167Er isotopes. The calculations were performed using both Tamm-Dancoff Approximation (TDA) and Quasiparticle Random-Phase Approximation (QRPA). Reasonably good agreement has been obtained between the QRPA results and the relevant experimental data. Furthermore the variation of the intrinsic magnetic moment gK values with the mass number A exhibits similar behavior for both theoretical and experimental results. From the compression of the calculated intrinsic magnetic moment values with the experimental data the spin-spin interaction parameter has been found as χ=(30/A) MeV for odd-mass 157-167Er isotopes. Our results clarify the possibility of using this new method to describe the magnetic properties of odd-mass deformed nuclei.
Santos, L
1977-01-01
From the biomechanic point of view, the osteo-myo-articular system works as a physical pulley instead of working as a simple closing and opening of the angle formed between two arms of lever turning around the same point of support. The vector which expresses the force of muscular flexion being always 'sliding'; its moment is constant independently of the angular value between the bone segments which are in flexion.
Moments of single-molecule spectra in low-temperature glasses: Measurements and model calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naumov, A. V.; Vainer, Yu. G.; Bauer, M.; Kador, L.
2002-05-01
Single-molecule spectroscopy of isolated chromophores in solids yields detailed information about the matrix on a microscopic level. In most studies so far, single-molecule (SM) spectra have been characterized by their linewidths. We demonstrate that in a doped amorphous polymer, in which SM excitation spectra generally have a complicated shape, the shapes of SM lines are more fully characterized by their moments than by the usually used linewidth. We present the measured and simulated distributions of the first four moments and of the linewidth for low-temperature spectra of single tetra-tert-butylterrylene molecules embedded in an amorphous poly(isobutylene) matrix. The simulations are based on the standard tunneling model of glasses with appropriate modifications and on a theory of SM line shapes in a disordered host, which was recently derived by Geva and Skinner [J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 8920 (1997)]. The comparative analysis of the measured and simulated distributions allowed us to evaluate the minimal distance of two-level-system-chromphore interactions and the main parameters of the distribution of coupling constants.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Kork, Nayla; Abu el kher, Nariman; Korjieh, Farah; Chtay, John Anwar; Korek, Mahmoud
2017-04-01
A theoretical investigation for the feasibility of laser-cooling is performed through the calculation of accurate potential energy curves, static dipole moments, spectroscopic constants and rovibrational calculations for 24, 26 and 27 highly excited electronic states for BeF, CaF and MgF molecules respectively. In order to understand the electronic structure of their lowest lying electronic states and to learn the characteristic behavior of their chemical bonding, a high level of calculation is realized by using the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) with multi-reference configuration interaction MRCI method including single and double excitations with Davidson correction (+ Q) for the three considered molecules. The comparison between the values of the present work and those available in the literature for several electronic states shows a good agreement. Fifty new excited electronic states have been investigated, in the present work, for the first time for the three studied molecules.
El-Kork, Nayla; Abu El Kher, Nariman; Korjieh, Farah; Chtay, John Anwar; Korek, Mahmoud
2017-04-15
A theoretical investigation for the feasibility of laser-cooling is performed through the calculation of accurate potential energy curves, static dipole moments, spectroscopic constants and rovibrational calculations for 24, 26 and 27 highly excited electronic states for BeF, CaF and MgF molecules respectively. In order to understand the electronic structure of their lowest lying electronic states and to learn the characteristic behavior of their chemical bonding, a high level of calculation is realized by using the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) with multi-reference configuration interaction MRCI method including single and double excitations with Davidson correction (+Q) for the three considered molecules. The comparison between the values of the present work and those available in the literature for several electronic states shows a good agreement. Fifty new excited electronic states have been investigated, in the present work, for the first time for the three studied molecules.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, C. J.
1998-01-01
An implementation of the Model Based Parameter Estimation (MBPE) technique is presented for obtaining the frequency response of the Radar Cross Section (RCS) of arbitrarily shaped, three-dimensional perfect electric conductor (PEC) bodies. An Electric Field Integral Equation (EFTE) is solved using the Method of Moments (MoM) to compute the RCS. The electric current is expanded in a rational function and the coefficients of the rational function are obtained using the frequency derivatives of the EFIE. Using the rational function, the electric current on the PEC body is obtained over a frequency band. Using the electric current at different frequencies, RCS of the PEC body is obtained over a wide frequency band. Numerical results for a square plate, a cube, and a sphere are presented over a bandwidth. Good agreement between MBPE and the exact solution over the bandwidth is observed.
Calculated dipole moments for silicon and phosphorus compounds of astrophysical interest.
Müller, Holger S P; Woon, David E
2013-12-19
Dipole moments, which contribute to the intensities of rotational transitions and also affect reactivity, have been computed for nearly 80 compounds with up to 6 atoms containing silicon or phosphorus. More than a dozen of the set have been detected in interstellar or circumstellar media. The remaining ones are related to these, and several of them may be found in space in the future. We compare results from the commonly used B3LYP level of density functional theory with ab initio results at the coupled cluster CCSD(T)/RCCSD(T) levels of theory. Correlation consistent basis sets as large as quintuple ζ quality were used, and extrapolations to the estimated complete basis set (CBSE) limit were performed for almost all of the species with coupled cluster theory. In addition to evaluating the accuracy of the results against available data, we explore various issues: the critical importance of including diffuse basis functions, the range of basis set dependence exhibited by the suite of molecules, and the presence of low-lying excited states for some species. Dipole polarizabilities are also reported at the CCSD(T)/RCCSD(T) CBSE level.
Goldberg, Evan J; Requejo, Philip S; Fowler, Eileen G
2008-01-01
Joint reaction forces, moments and powers are important in interpreting gait mechanics and compensatory strategies used by patients walking with above-knee prostheses. Segmental anthropometrics, required to calculate joint moments, are often estimated using data from cadaver studies. However, these values may not be accurate for patients following amputation as prostheses are composed of non-biologic material. The purpose of this study was to compare joint moments using anthropometrics calculated from cadaver studies versus direct measurements of the residual limb and prosthesis for children with an above-knee amputation. Gait data were collected for four subjects with above-knee prostheses walking at preferred and fast speeds. Joint moments were computed using anthropometrics from cadaver studies and direct measurements for each subject. The difference between these two methods primarily affected the inertia couple (Ialpha term) and the inertial effect due to gravity, which comprised a greater percentage of the total joint moment during swing as compared to stance. Peak hip and knee flexor and extensor moments during swing were significantly greater when calculated using cadaver data (p<0.05). These differences were greater while walking fast as compared to slow speeds. A significant difference was not found between these two methods for peak hip and knee moments during stance. A significant difference was found for peak ankle joint moments during stance, but the magnitude was not clinically important. These results support the use of direct measurements of anthropometry when examining above-knee prosthetic gait, particularly during swing.
Liu, Hanchao; Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M
2015-05-21
The calculation and characterization of the IR spectrum of liquid water have remained a challenge for theory. In this paper, we address this challenge using a combination of ab initio approaches, namely, a quantum treatment of IR spectrum using the ab initio WHBB water potential energy surface and a refined ab initio dipole moment surface. The quantum treatment is based on the embedded local monomer method, in which the three intramolecular modes of each embedded H2O monomer are fully coupled and also coupled singly to each of six intermolecular modes. The new dipole moment surface consists of a previous spectroscopically accurate 1-body dipole moment surface and a newly fitted ab initio intrinsic 2-body dipole moment. A detailed analysis of the new dipole moment surface in terms of the coordinate dependence of the effective atomic charges is done along with tests of it for the water dimer and prism hexamer double-harmonic spectra against direct ab initio calculations. The liquid configurations are taken from previous molecular dynamics calculations of Skinner and co-workers, using the TIP4P plus E3B rigid monomer water potential. The IR spectrum of water at 300 K in the range of 0-4000 cm(-1) is calculated and compared with experiment, using the ab initio WHBB potential and new ab initio dipole moment, the q-TIP4P/F potential, which has a fixed-charged description of the dipole moment, and the TTM3-F potential and dipole moment surfaces. The newly calculated ab initio spectrum is in very good agreement with experiment throughout the above spectral range, both in band positions and intensities. This contrasts to results with the other potentials and dipole moments, especially the fixed-charge q-TIP4P/F model, which gives unrealistic intensities. The calculated ab initio spectrum is analyzed by examining the contribution of various transitions to each band.
Liu, Hanchao; Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M.
2015-05-21
The calculation and characterization of the IR spectrum of liquid water have remained a challenge for theory. In this paper, we address this challenge using a combination of ab initio approaches, namely, a quantum treatment of IR spectrum using the ab initio WHBB water potential energy surface and a refined ab initio dipole moment surface. The quantum treatment is based on the embedded local monomer method, in which the three intramolecular modes of each embedded H{sub 2}O monomer are fully coupled and also coupled singly to each of six intermolecular modes. The new dipole moment surface consists of a previous spectroscopically accurate 1-body dipole moment surface and a newly fitted ab initio intrinsic 2-body dipole moment. A detailed analysis of the new dipole moment surface in terms of the coordinate dependence of the effective atomic charges is done along with tests of it for the water dimer and prism hexamer double-harmonic spectra against direct ab initio calculations. The liquid configurations are taken from previous molecular dynamics calculations of Skinner and co-workers, using the TIP4P plus E3B rigid monomer water potential. The IR spectrum of water at 300 K in the range of 0–4000 cm{sup −1} is calculated and compared with experiment, using the ab initio WHBB potential and new ab initio dipole moment, the q-TIP4P/F potential, which has a fixed-charged description of the dipole moment, and the TTM3-F potential and dipole moment surfaces. The newly calculated ab initio spectrum is in very good agreement with experiment throughout the above spectral range, both in band positions and intensities. This contrasts to results with the other potentials and dipole moments, especially the fixed-charge q-TIP4P/F model, which gives unrealistic intensities. The calculated ab initio spectrum is analyzed by examining the contribution of various transitions to each band.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hanchao; Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M.
2015-05-01
The calculation and characterization of the IR spectrum of liquid water have remained a challenge for theory. In this paper, we address this challenge using a combination of ab initio approaches, namely, a quantum treatment of IR spectrum using the ab initio WHBB water potential energy surface and a refined ab initio dipole moment surface. The quantum treatment is based on the embedded local monomer method, in which the three intramolecular modes of each embedded H2O monomer are fully coupled and also coupled singly to each of six intermolecular modes. The new dipole moment surface consists of a previous spectroscopically accurate 1-body dipole moment surface and a newly fitted ab initio intrinsic 2-body dipole moment. A detailed analysis of the new dipole moment surface in terms of the coordinate dependence of the effective atomic charges is done along with tests of it for the water dimer and prism hexamer double-harmonic spectra against direct ab initio calculations. The liquid configurations are taken from previous molecular dynamics calculations of Skinner and co-workers, using the TIP4P plus E3B rigid monomer water potential. The IR spectrum of water at 300 K in the range of 0-4000 cm-1 is calculated and compared with experiment, using the ab initio WHBB potential and new ab initio dipole moment, the q-TIP4P/F potential, which has a fixed-charged description of the dipole moment, and the TTM3-F potential and dipole moment surfaces. The newly calculated ab initio spectrum is in very good agreement with experiment throughout the above spectral range, both in band positions and intensities. This contrasts to results with the other potentials and dipole moments, especially the fixed-charge q-TIP4P/F model, which gives unrealistic intensities. The calculated ab initio spectrum is analyzed by examining the contribution of various transitions to each band.
Experimental measurement and calculation of losses in planar radial magnetic bearings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kasarda, M. E. F.; Allaire, P. E.; Hope, R. W.; Humphris, R. R.
1994-05-01
The loss mechanisms associated with magnetic bearings have yet to be adequately characterized or modeled analytically and thus pose a problem for the designer of magnetic bearings. This problem is particularly important for aerospace applications where low power consumption of components is critical. Also, losses are expected to be large for high speed operation. The iron losses in magnetic bearings can be divided into eddy current losses and hysteresis losses. While theoretical models for these losses exist for transformer and electric motor applications, they have not been verified for magnetic bearings. This paper presents the results from a low speed experimental test rig and compares them to calculated values from existing theory. Experimental data was taken over a range of 90 to 2,800 rpm for several bias currents and two different pole configurations. With certain assumptions agreement between measured and calculated power losses was within 16 percent for a number of test configurations.
Experimental measurement and calculation of losses in planar radial magnetic bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kasarda, M. E. F.; Allaire, P. E.; Hope, R. W.; Humphris, R. R.
1994-01-01
The loss mechanisms associated with magnetic bearings have yet to be adequately characterized or modeled analytically and thus pose a problem for the designer of magnetic bearings. This problem is particularly important for aerospace applications where low power consumption of components is critical. Also, losses are expected to be large for high speed operation. The iron losses in magnetic bearings can be divided into eddy current losses and hysteresis losses. While theoretical models for these losses exist for transformer and electric motor applications, they have not been verified for magnetic bearings. This paper presents the results from a low speed experimental test rig and compares them to calculated values from existing theory. Experimental data was taken over a range of 90 to 2,800 rpm for several bias currents and two different pole configurations. With certain assumptions agreement between measured and calculated power losses was within 16 percent for a number of test configurations.
Khalifah, Peter
2015-02-01
The problem of numerically evaluating absorption correction factors for cylindrical samples has been revisited using a treatment that fully takes advantage of the sample symmetry. It is shown that the path lengths for all points within the sample at all possible diffraction angles can be trivially determined once the angle-dependent distance distribution for a single line of points is calculated. This provides advantages in both computational efficiency and in gaining an intuitive understanding of the effects of absorption on diffraction data. A matrix of absorption coefficients calculated for µR products between 0 and 20 for diffraction angles θD of 0°more » to 90° were used to examine the influence of (1) capillary diameter and of (2) sample density on the overall scattered intensity as a function of diffraction angle, where µ is the linear absorption coefficient for the sample and R is the capillary radius. Based on this analysis, the optimal sample loading for a capillary experiment to maximize diffraction at angles of 0 – 50° is in general expected to be achieved when the maximum radius capillary compatible with the beam is used, and when the sample density is adjusted to be 3/(4µR) of its original density.« less
Khalifah, Peter
2015-02-01
The problem of numerically evaluating absorption correction factors for cylindrical samples has been revisited using a treatment that fully takes advantage of the sample symmetry. It is shown that the path lengths for all points within the sample at all possible diffraction angles can be trivially determined once the angle-dependent distance distribution for a single line of points is calculated. This provides advantages in both computational efficiency and in gaining an intuitive understanding of the effects of absorption on diffraction data. A matrix of absorption coefficients calculated for µR products between 0 and 20 for diffraction angles θ_{D} of 0° to 90° were used to examine the influence of (1) capillary diameter and of (2) sample density on the overall scattered intensity as a function of diffraction angle, where µ is the linear absorption coefficient for the sample and R is the capillary radius. Based on this analysis, the optimal sample loading for a capillary experiment to maximize diffraction at angles of 0 – 50° is in general expected to be achieved when the maximum radius capillary compatible with the beam is used, and when the sample density is adjusted to be 3/(4µR) of its original density.
Supersonic and Moment-of-Area Rules Combined for Rapid Zero-Lift Wave-Drag Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levy, Lionel L., Jr.
1959-01-01
The concepts of the supersonic area rule and the moment-of-area rule are combined to develop a new method for calculating zero-lift wave drag which is amenable to the use of ordinary desk calculators. The total zero-lift wave drag of a configuration is calculated by the new method as the sum of the wave drag of each component alone plus the interference between components. In calculating the separate contributions each component or pair of components is analyzed over the smallest allowable length in order to improve the convergence of the series expression for the wave drag. The accuracy of the present method is evaluated by comparing the total zero-lift wave-drag solutions for several simplified configurations obtained by the present method with solutions given by slender-body and linearized theory. The accuracy and computational time required by the present method are also evaluated relative to the supersonic area rule and the moment-of-area rule. The results of the evaluation indicate that total zero-lift wave-drag solutions for simplified configurations can be obtained by the present method which differ from solutions given by slender-body and linearized theory by less than 6 percent. This accuracy for simplified configurations was obtained from only nine terms of the series expression for the wave drag as a result of calculating the total zero-lift wave drag by parts. For the same number of terms these results represent an accuracy greater than that for solutions obtained by either of the two methods upon which the present method is based, except in a few isolated cases. For the excepted cases, solutions by the present method and the supersonic area rule are identical. Solutions by the present method are obtained in one fifth the computing time required by the supersonic area rule. This difference in computing time of course would be substantially reduced if the complete procedures for both methods were programmed on electronic computing machines.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huo, W. M.
1984-10-01
The solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation of the molecule + radiation field system is analyzed. A quantized radiation field is used. The relationship between the oscillatory wave function and the dressed state wave function is established, the oscillatory wave function being the solution if the radiation field is turned on at t = 0 and the dressed state being the stationary solution satisfying the boundary condition only if the field is present at t = negative infinity. In general, the oscillatory wave function can be expressed using a complete set of dressed states. However, in the presence of a nonresonant radiation field, the system is well represented by a single dressed state. Molecular properties such as dynamic polarizabilities and two-photon transition moments can be deduced from the dressed state wave function instead of the oscillatory wave function as in previous methods. Because of its stationary character, the dressed state is more amenable to approximate calculations. A CI method is developed for this purpose. The CI matrix is simple in form and can be readily constructed using existing computer codes. The present method can also be adapted to calculate other optical properties.
Pawlowska, Zuzanna; Lietard, Aude; Aloïse, Stéphane; Sliwa, Michel; Idrissi, Abdenacer; Poizat, Olivier; Buntinx, Guy; Delbaere, Stéphanie; Perrier, Aurélie; Maurel, François; Jacques, Patrice; Abe, Jiro
2011-08-07
This work reports on the solvatochromic properties of a simple heterocyclic betaine pyridinium, 2-(1-pyridinio)benzimidazolate (SBPa), having promising potentialities in non-linear optics. From advanced PCM-TDDFT calculations, the solvatochromism of SBPa was found to be unusual, involving two different electronic states for absorption (S(0)→ S(2)) and emission (S(1)→S'(0)). To account for this behavior, we developed an innovative physical treatment which consists in a non-linear fit of the solvatochromic data using the Bilot-Kawski theoretical model and visualizing the least-square coefficient χ(2) on a 2D map as a function of the solute polarizability and gas phase absorption energy. In parallel, Kamlet-Taft correlations were undertaken to select a propitious set of electrostatic solvents usable in this treatment. Protic solvents that lead to specific interactions and nonpolar solvents that favor dimerization processes were excluded. From a choice of aprotic solvents with sufficiently high polarity, 4 dipole moments μ(g)(S(0)) = +9.1 D, μ(e)(S(2)) = -1.5 D, μ(e)(S(1)) = 0 D and μ(g)(S'(0)) = +3.31 D were determined, the 3 former values being in close agreement with TDDFT values, although the solute polarizability values seem underestimated. Anyhow, disregarding this discrepancy, we evaluated the static hyperpolarizability to β(0) = -64 × 10(-30) esu from the solvatochromic data in close agreement with DFT calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
César Ricci, Mário
2015-10-01
In a companion paper of this was introduced a set of non-linear algebraic equations for ball's motion, sliding friction and internal loading distribution computation in a high-speed, single-row, angular-contact ball bearing, subjected to a known combined radial, thrust and moment load, which must be applied to the inner ring's center of mass. It was shown there that it is required the iterative solution of 9Z + 3 simultaneous non-linear equations - where Z is the number of balls - to yield exact solution for contact angles, ball attitude angles, rolling radii, normal contact deformations and axial, radial, and angular deflections of the inner ring with respect the outer ring. The Newton-Rhapson method is to be used to solve the problem. This paper deals with the numerical procedure description. The numerical results derived from the described procedure shall be published later.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosso, O. A.; Szybisz, L.
1983-10-01
The magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of the ground states of148Pm and210Bi are evaluated with phenomenological wave functions derived from β-decay studies published in previous works. It is found that these wave functions account satisfactorily for the experimental data of both nuclear moments of the210Bi ground state. In the case of148Pm, while the calculated value of the electric quadrupole moment is not inconsistent with the experimental data, a strong disagreement between theory and experiment is found for the magnetic dipole moment. We attribute this failure to the use of a too small configuration space for the expansion of the nuclear wave function of148Pm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, J.; Thompson, L.; Li, G.
2016-12-01
A semi-analytical model for determining the equilibrium configuration and the radial breathing mode (RBM) frequency of single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is presented. By taking advantage of the symmetry characteristics, a CNT structure is represented by five independent variables. A line search optimization procedure is employed to determine the equilibrium values of these variables by minimizing the potential energy. With the equilibrium configuration obtained, the semi-analytical model enables an efficient calculation of the RBM frequency of the CNTs. The radius and radial breathing mode frequency results obtained from the semi-analytical approach are compared with those from molecular dynamics (MD) and ab initio calculations. The results demonstrate that the semi-analytical approach offers an efficient and accurate way to determine the equilibrium structure and radial breathing mode frequency of CNTs.
Wiklund, Kristin; Olivera, Gustavo H; Brahme, Anders; Lind, Bengt K
2008-07-01
To speed up dose calculation, an analytical pencil-beam method has been developed to calculate the mean radial dose distributions due to secondary electrons that are set in motion by light ions in water. For comparison, radial dose profiles calculated using a Monte Carlo technique have also been determined. An accurate comparison of the resulting radial dose profiles of the Bragg peak for (1)H(+), (4)He(2+) and (6)Li(3+) ions has been performed. The double differential cross sections for secondary electron production were calculated using the continuous distorted wave-eikonal initial state method (CDW-EIS). For the secondary electrons that are generated, the radial dose distribution for the analytical case is based on the generalized Gaussian pencil-beam method and the central axis depth-dose distributions are calculated using the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE. In the Monte Carlo case, the PENELOPE code was used to calculate the whole radial dose profile based on CDW data. The present pencil-beam and Monte Carlo calculations agree well at all radii. A radial dose profile that is shallower at small radii and steeper at large radii than the conventional 1/r(2) is clearly seen with both the Monte Carlo and pencil-beam methods. As expected, since the projectile velocities are the same, the dose profiles of Bragg-peak ions of 0.5 MeV (1)H(+), 2 MeV (4)He(2+) and 3 MeV (6)Li(3+) are almost the same, with about 30% more delta electrons in the sub keV range from (4)He(2+)and (6)Li(3+) compared to (1)H(+). A similar behavior is also seen for 1 MeV (1)H(+), 4 MeV (4)He(2+) and 6 MeV (6)Li(3+), all classically expected to have the same secondary electron cross sections. The results are promising and indicate a fast and accurate way of calculating the mean radial dose profile.
Arena, Sara L; McLaughlin, Kelsey; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Smoliga, James M; Ford, Kevin R
2017-02-01
Athletic individuals may differ in body segment inertial parameter (BSIP) estimates due to differences in body composition, and this may influence calculation of joint kinetics. The purposes of this study were to (1) compare BSIPs predicted by the method introduced by de Leva(1) with DXA-derived BSIPs in collegiate female soccer players, and (2) examine the effects of these BSIP estimation methods on joint moment and power calculations during a drop vertical jump (DVJ). Twenty female NCAA Division I soccer players were recruited. BSIPs of the shank and thigh (mass, COM location, and radius of gyration) were determined using de Leva's method and analysis of whole-body DXA scans. These estimates were used to determine peak knee joint moments and power during the DVJ. Compared with DXA, de Leva's method located the COM more distally in the shank (P = .008) and more proximally in the thigh (P < .001), and the radius of gyration of the thigh to be further from the thigh COM (P < .001). All knee joint moment and power measures were similar between methods. These findings suggest that BSIP estimation may vary between methods, but the impact on joint moment calculations during a dynamic task is negligible.
Xu, Xu; Faber, Gert S; Kingma, Idsart; Chang, Chien-Chi; Hsiang, Simon M
2013-07-26
In ergonomics studies, linked segment models are commonly used for estimating dynamic L5/S1 joint moments during lifting tasks. The kinematics data input to these models are with respect to an arbitrary stationary reference frame. However, a body-centered reference frame, which is defined using the position and the orientation of human body segments, is sometimes used to conveniently identify the location of the load relative to the body. When a body-centered reference frame is moving with the body, it is a non-inertial reference frame and fictitious force exists. Directly applying a linked segment model to the kinematics data with respect to a body-centered non-inertial reference frame will ignore the effect of this fictitious force and introduce errors during L5/S1 moment estimation. In the current study, various lifting tasks were performed in the laboratory environment. The L5/S1 joint moments during the lifting tasks were calculated by a linked segment model with respect to a stationary reference frame and to a body-centered non-inertial reference frame. The results indicate that applying a linked segment model with respect to a body-centered non-inertial reference frame will result in overestimating the peak L5/S1 joint moments of the coronal plane, sagittal plane, and transverse plane during lifting tasks by 78%, 2%, and 59% on average, respectively. The instant when the peak moment occurred was delayed by 0.13, 0.03, and 0.09s on average, correspondingly for the three planes. The root-mean-square errors of the L5/S1 joint moment for the three planes are 21Nm, 19Nm, and 9Nm, correspondingly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsemo Kamga, Joel Alain; Müller, Wolfgang F. O.; Weiland, Thomas
2016-04-01
Beam emittance has particular importance in particle physics, because it provides information about the quality of the particle beam. There are many techniques for measuring the beam emittance, such as that proposed by Miller et al. [Report No. SLAC-PUB-3186, (A) (1983)]. This technique is based on determining the emittance by measuring the second-order moment of the beam using quadrupole pickups consisting of four symmetrical electrodes placed around the beam pipe at 90° intervals, respectively. Based on Miller's approach, two signal processing methods are generally used to get the quadrupole moment of the beam, namely the difference over sum and the log ratio [P. Li et al., IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, N24-404, 2007, pp. 1675-1678] methods. However, these traditional methods provide results with a good accuracy only for a well centered beam. The method presented in this paper, which starts with Miller's approach, considerably reduces the impact of the dipole signal on the quadrupole moment measurement for both small and large values of the beam position. Furthermore, a methodology for the numerical determination of the sensitivity of quadrupole pickups will be presented.
Wurmehl, Sabine; Fecher, Gerhard H.; Kandpal, Hem C.; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Felser, Claudia; Lin Hongji; Morais, Jonder
2005-11-01
In this work a simple concept was used for a systematic search for materials with high spin polarization. It is based on two semiempirical models. First, the Slater-Pauling rule was used for estimation of the magnetic moment. This model is well supported by electronic structure calculations. The second model was found particularly for Co{sub 2} based Heusler compounds when comparing their magnetic properties. It turned out that these compounds exhibit seemingly a linear dependence of the Curie temperature as function of the magnetic moment. Stimulated by these models, Co{sub 2}FeSi was revisited. The compound was investigated in detail concerning its geometrical and magnetic structure by means of x-ray diffraction, x-ray absorption, and Moessbauer spectroscopies as well as high and low temperature magnetometry. The measurements revealed that it is, currently, the material with the highest magnetic moment (6{mu}{sub B}) and Curie temperature (1100 K) in the classes of Heusler compounds as well as half-metallic ferromagnets. The experimental findings are supported by detailed electronic structure calculations.
Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M
2016-09-14
Stimulated by new experiments from the Havenith group, we report IR spectra of the bend fundamentals of (H2O)n=3,4,5, using anharmonic, coupled-mode VSCF/VCI calculations, done in a subspace of modes consisting of all the monomer bends plus the hydrogen-bonded OH stretches. Double-harmonic spectra are also reported. All calculations employ a faster version of the ab initio WHBB potential and also a more accurate representation of the dipole moment surface, reported previously. Comparisons at the harmonic level are made with previous high-level ab initio calculations, notably those of Howard and Tschumper and also with harmonic frequencies from the semi-empirical TTM3-F potential, which have been reported previously by Howard and Tschumper. The calculations provide energies and intensities of the hydrogen-bonded OH stretches and these are also presented and briefly discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexander, S. G.; Walentosky, M. J.; Messinger, Justin; Staron, Alexander; Blankartz, Benjamin; Clark, Tristan
2017-02-01
We present a new computational method for calculating the motion of stars in a dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) that can use either Newtonian gravity or Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). In our model, we explicitly calculate the motion of several thousand stars in a spherically symmetric gravitational potential, and we statistically obtain both the line-of-sight bulk velocity dispersion and dispersion profile. Our results for MOND calculated bulk dispersions for Local Group dSph’s agree well with previous calculations and observations. Our MOND calculated dispersion profiles are compared with the observations of Walker et al. for Milky Way dSph’s, and we present calculated dispersion profiles for a selection of Andromeda dSph’s.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masrour, R.; Hlil, E. K.
2016-08-01
Self-consistent ab initio calculations based on density-functional theory and using both full potential linearized augmented plane wave and Korring-Kohn-Rostoker-coherent potential approximation methods, are performed to investigate both electronic and magnetic properties of the Ga1-xMnxN system. Magnetic moments considered to lie along (001) axes are computed. Obtained data from ab initio calculations are used as input for the high temperature series expansions (HTSEs) calculations to compute other magnetic parameters such as the magnetic phase diagram and the critical exponent. The increasing of the dilution x in this system has allowed to verify a series of HTSEs predictions on the possibility of ferromagnetism in dilute magnetic insulators and to demonstrate that the interaction changes from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic passing through the spins glace phase.
Skripnikov, L. V.; Petrov, A. N.; Titov, A. V.; Mosyagin, N. S.
2009-12-15
Recently, the molecular cation PtH{sup +} was suggested as a promising candidate for the experimental search for the electron electric dipole moment. For estimating the sensitivity of the experiment on the cation and for interpretation of the experimental results, it is necessary to calculate an effective electric field acting on the electron with good accuracy because the value of the field cannot be obtained experimentally. We have performed relativistic correlation calculations to compute this effective field for the {sup 3}DELTA{sub 3} electronic state of PtH{sup +} as well as spectroscopic properties of four lowest lying states, which are also not measured up to date. The {sup 3}DELTA{sub 3} state is found to be the ground one and {sup 1}SIGMA{sup +} state is the first excited one. The calculated value of the effective electric field acting on an electron is found to be 28 GV/cm.
No quenching of magnetic moment for the GenCo (n=1-13) clusters: First-principles calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jing, Qun; Tian, Fu-yang; Wang, Yuan-xu
2008-03-01
The authors predict that for the GenCo (n=1-13) clusters the magnetic moment does not quench, which is dark contrast to the previous results with transition-metal-doped Sin clusters. It may be due to the unpaired electrons of the Co atom in the clusters. For the ground state structures of the GenCo (n⩾9) clusters, the Co atom completely falls into the center of the Ge outer frame, forming metal-encapsulated Gen cages. The doping of the Co atom enhances the stability of the host Gen clusters. The Ge10Co cluster with the bicapped tetragonal antiprism structure is more stable than others, which agrees very well with the results of the experiment of the Co /Ge binary clusters by the laser vaporization.
No quenching of magnetic moment for the GenCo (n=1-13) clusters: first-principles calculations.
Jing, Qun; Tian, Fu-yang; Wang, Yuan-xu
2008-03-28
The authors predict that for the Ge(n)Co (n=1-13) clusters the magnetic moment does not quench, which is dark contrast to the previous results with transition-metal-doped Si(n) clusters. It may be due to the unpaired electrons of the Co atom in the clusters. For the ground state structures of the Ge(n)Co (n>or=9) clusters, the Co atom completely falls into the center of the Ge outer frame, forming metal-encapsulated Ge(n) cages. The doping of the Co atom enhances the stability of the host Ge(n) clusters. The Ge(10)Co cluster with the bicapped tetragonal antiprism structure is more stable than others, which agrees very well with the results of the experiment of the Co/Ge binary clusters by the laser vaporization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papoulia, A.; Carlsson, B. G.; Ekman, J.
2016-10-01
Atomic spectral lines from different isotopes display a small shift in energy, commonly referred to as the line isotope shift. One of the components of the isotope shift is the field shift, which depends on the extent and the shape of the nuclear charge density distribution. The purpose of this work is to investigate how sensitive field shifts are with respect to variations in the nuclear size and shape and what information of nuclear charge distributions can be extracted from measurements. Nuclear properties are obtained from nuclear density functional theory calculations based on the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach. These results are combined with multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock methods to obtain realistic field shifts and it is seen that phenomena such as nuclear deformation and variations in the diffuseness of nuclear charge distributions give measurable contributions to the isotope shifts. Using a different approach, we demonstrate the possibility to extract information concerning the nuclear charge densities from the observed field shifts. We deduce that combining methods used in atomic and nuclear structure theory gives an improved description of field shifts and that extracting additional nuclear information from measured isotope shifts is possible in the near future with improved experimental methods.
A novel integrated 4-DOF radial hybrid magnetic bearing for MSCMG
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jinji, Sun; Ziyan, Ju; Weitao, Han; Gang, Liu
2017-01-01
This paper proposes a novel integrated radial hybrid magnetic bearing (RHMB) for application with the small-sized magnetically suspended control moment gyroscope (MSCMG), which can control four degrees of freedom (4-DOFs), including two radial translational DOFs and two radial tilting DOFs, and provide the axial passive resilience. The configuration and working principle of the RHMB are introduced. Mathematical models of radial force, axial resilience and moment are established by using equivalent magnetic circuit method (EMCM), from which the radial force-radial displacement, radial force-current relationships are derived, as well as axial resilience-axial displacement, moment-tilting angle and moment-current. Finite element method (FEM) is also applied to analyze the performance and characteristics of the RHMB. The analysis results are in good agreement with that calculated by the EMCM, which is helpful in designing, optimizing and controlling the RHMB. The comparisons between the performances of the integrated 4-DOF RHMB and the traditional 4-DOF RHMB are made. The contrast results indicate that the proposed integrated 4-DOF RHMB possesses better performance compared to the traditional structure, such as copper loss, current stiffness, and tilting current stiffness.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chackerian, C., Jr.
1976-01-01
The electric dipole moment function of the ground electronic state of carbon monoxide has been determined by combining numerical solutions of the radial Schrodinger equation with absolute intensity data of vibration-rotation bands. The derived dipole moment function is used to calculate matrix elements of interest to stellar astronomy and of importance in the carbon monoxide laser.
Yoshizawa, Terutaka; Zou, Wenli; Cremer, Dieter
2016-11-14
The analytical energy gradient and Hessian of the two-component Normalized Elimination of the Small Component (2c-NESC) method with regard to the components of the electric field are derived and used to calculate spin-orbit coupling (SOC) corrected dipole moments and dipole polarizabilities of molecules, which contain elements with high atomic number. Calculated 2c-NESC dipole moments and isotropic polarizabilities agree well with the corresponding four-component-Dirac Hartree-Fock or density functional theory values. SOC corrections for the electrical properties are in general small, but become relevant for the accurate prediction of these properties when the molecules in question contain sixth and/or seventh period elements (e.g., the SO effect for At2 is about 10% of the 2c-NESC polarizability). The 2c-NESC changes in the electric molecular properties are rationalized in terms of spin-orbit splitting and SOC-induced mixing of frontier orbitals with the same j = l + s quantum numbers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshizawa, Terutaka; Zou, Wenli; Cremer, Dieter
2016-11-01
The analytical energy gradient and Hessian of the two-component Normalized Elimination of the Small Component (2c-NESC) method with regard to the components of the electric field are derived and used to calculate spin-orbit coupling (SOC) corrected dipole moments and dipole polarizabilities of molecules, which contain elements with high atomic number. Calculated 2c-NESC dipole moments and isotropic polarizabilities agree well with the corresponding four-component-Dirac Hartree-Fock or density functional theory values. SOC corrections for the electrical properties are in general small, but become relevant for the accurate prediction of these properties when the molecules in question contain sixth and/or seventh period elements (e.g., the SO effect for At2 is about 10% of the 2c-NESC polarizability). The 2c-NESC changes in the electric molecular properties are rationalized in terms of spin-orbit splitting and SOC-induced mixing of frontier orbitals with the same j = l + s quantum numbers.
Homayoon, Zahra
2014-09-28
A new, full (nine)-dimensional potential energy surface and dipole moment surface to describe the NO{sup +}(H{sub 2}O) cluster is reported. The PES is based on fitting of roughly 32 000 CCSD(T)-F12/aug-cc-pVTZ electronic energies. The surface is a linear least-squares fit using a permutationally invariant basis with Morse-type variables. The PES is used in a Diffusion Monte Carlo study of the zero-point energy and wavefunction of the NO{sup +}(H{sub 2}O) and NO{sup +}(D{sub 2}O) complexes. Using the calculated ZPE the dissociation energies of the clusters are reported. Vibrational configuration interaction calculations of NO{sup +}(H{sub 2}O) and NO{sup +}(D{sub 2}O) using the MULTIMODE program are performed. The fundamental, a number of overtone, and combination states of the clusters are reported. The IR spectrum of the NO{sup +}(H{sub 2}O) cluster is calculated using 4, 5, 7, and 8 modes VSCF/CI calculations. The anharmonic, coupled vibrational calculations, and IR spectrum show very good agreement with experiment. Mode coupling of the water “antisymmetric” stretching mode with the low-frequency intermolecular modes results in intensity borrowing.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Demuren, A. O.
1990-01-01
A multigrid method is presented for calculating turbulent jets in crossflow. Fairly rapid convergence is obtained with the k-epsilon turbulence model, but computations with a full Reynolds stress turbulence model (RSM) are not yet very efficient. Grid dependency tests show that there are slight differences between results obtained on the two finest grid levels. Computations using the RSM are significantly different from those with k-epsilon model and compare better to experimental data. Some work is still required to improve the efficiency of the computations with the RSM.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, Kate
2012-01-01
The informatics moment is the moment when a person seeks help in using some digital technology that is new to him or her. This article examines the informatics moment in people's everyday lives as they sought help at a branch public library. Four types of literacy were involved: basic literacy (reading and writing), computer literacy (use of a…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tung, J. C.; Guo, G. Y.
2010-03-01
An extensive ab initio study of the physical properties of both linear and zigzag atomic chains of all 4d and 5d transition metals (TMs) within the generalized gradient approximation by using the accurate projector-augmented wave method, has been carried out. The atomic structures of equilibrium and metastable states were theoretically determined. All the TM linear chains are found to be unstable against the corresponding zigzag structures. All the TM chains, except Nb, Ag, and La, have a stable (or metastable) magnetic state in either the linear or zigzag or both structures. Magnetic states appear also in the sufficiently stretched Nb and La linear chains and in the largely compressed Y and La chains. The spin magnetic moments in the Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, W, Re chains could be large (≥1.0μB/atom) . Structural transformation from the linear to zigzag chains could suppress the magnetism already in the linear chain, induce the magnetism in the zigzag structure, and also cause a change in the magnetic state (ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic or vice verse). The calculations including the spin-orbit coupling reveal that the orbital moments in the Zr, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt chains could be rather large (≥0.1μB/atom) . Importantly, large magnetic anisotropy energy (≥1.0meV/atom) is found in most of the magnetic TM chains, suggesting that these nanowires could have fascinating applications in ultrahigh-density magnetic memories and hard disks. In particular, giant magnetic anisotropy energy (≥10.0meV/atom) could appear in the Ru, Re, Rh, and Ir chains. Furthermore, the magnetic anisotropy energy in several elongated linear chains could be as large as 40.0 meV/atom. A spin-reorientation transition occurs in the Ru, Ir, Ta, Zr, La, Ta, and Ir linear chains when they are elongated. Remarkably, all the 5d as well as Tc and Pd chains show the colossal magnetic anisotropy (i.e., it is impossible to rotate magnetization into certain directions
Tang, Jiqiang; Xiang, Biao; Zhang, Yongbin
2014-07-01
For a magnetically suspended control moment gyroscope, stiffness and damping of magnetic bearing will influence modal frequency of a rotor. In this paper the relationship between modal frequency and stiffness and damping has been investigated. The mathematic calculation model of axial passive magnetic bearing (PMB) stiffness is developed. And PID control based on internal model control is introduced into control of radial active magnetic bearing (AMB), considering the radial coupling of axial PMB, a mathematic calculation model of stiffness and damping of radial AMB is established. According to modal analysis, the relationship between modal frequency and modal shapes is achieved. Radial vibration frequency is mainly influenced by stiffness of radial AMB; however, when stiffness increases, radial vibration will disappear and a high frequency bending modal will appear. Stiffness of axial PMB mainly affects the axial vibration mode, which will turn into high-order bending modal. Axial PMB causes bigger influence on torsion modal of the rotor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sundholm, Dage; Olsen, Jeppe
1993-04-01
The atomic quadrupole moments Qzz of Be(2s2p;3P2), Al(3p;2P3/2), In(5p;2P3/2), Ne(2p53s3P2), Ar(3p54s;3P2), Kr(4p55s;3P2), and Xe(5p56s;3P2) have been calculated using a finite-element multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method. The obtained Qzz(Be) of 2.265 a.u. agrees with previously calculated values. The calculated Qzz(Al) and Qzz(In) of 2.579 and 3.165 a.u. are in good agreement with the experimental values of 2.53(15) a.u. and 2.94(10) a.u. A large s-d polarization contribution to the Qzz of the rare gases is found in the present calculations. The correlation contributions from double (D), triple (T), and quadruple (Q) excitations to the Qzz of the rare gases alternate; the total DTQ correlation contribution is negligibly small for Ne, Ar, and Kr, while the DTQ correlation contribution to the Qzz(Xe) is 25% of the final Qzz. The final values are Qzz(Ne)=-0.0506 a.u., Qzz(Ar)=-0.0553 a.u., Qzz(Kr)=+0.0601 a.u., and Qzz(Xe)=+0.4505 a.u., as compared to the experimental values of -0.048(5) a.u., -0.042(4) a.u., +0.046(5) a.u., and +0.30(3) a.u. for Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe, respectively.
Delgado, Juan C; Selsby, Ronald G
2013-01-01
The ground state configuration of the gas phase cationic dyes pinacyanol chloride and rhodamine B are optimized with HF/6-311 + G(2d,2p) method and basis set. B3PW91/6-311 + G(2df,2p) functional and basis set is used to calculate the Mulliken atom charge distribution, total molecular energy, the dipole moment, the vertical ionization potential, the adiabatic electron affinity and the lowest excited triplet state, the last three as an energy difference between separately calculated open shell and ground states. The triplet and extra electron states are optimized to find the relaxation energy. In the ground state optimization of both dyes the chloride anion migrates to a position near the center of the chromophore. For rhodamine B the benzoidal group turns perpendicular to the chromophore plane. For both dyes, the LUMO is mostly of π character associated with the aromatic part of the molecule containing the chromophore. The highest occupied MOs consist of three almost degenerate eigenvectors involving the chloride anion coordinated with σ electrons in the molecular framework. The fourth highest MO is of π character. For both molecules in the gas phase ionization process the chloride anion loses the significant fraction of electric charge. In electron capture, the excess charge goes mainly on the dye cation.
Hybrid Calculation of Invariant Moments
1988-12-01
on each output. Mapxy has ten parameters which must be specified. Call mapxy(amin., amax., bmin., bmax., amiz., amaa., bmii., bmaa ., igrid, itype) (45...the values used in this program are (0,1). 3. amii,amaabmii, bmaa : minimum and maximum values along the x and y axes, respectively, in absolute
Effect of hammer mass on upper extremity joint moments.
Balendra, Nilanthy; Langenderfer, Joseph E
2017-04-01
This study used an OpenSim inverse-dynamics musculoskeletal model scaled to subject-specific anthropometrics to calculate three-dimensional intersegmental moments at the shoulder, elbow and wrist while 10 subjects used 1 and 2 lb hammers to drive nails. Motion data were collected via an optoelectronic system and the interaction of the hammer with nails was recorded with a force plate. The larger hammer caused substantial increases (50-150%) in moments, although increases differed by joint, anatomical component, and significance of the effect. Moment increases were greater in cocking and strike/follow-through phases as opposed to swinging and may indicate greater potential for injury. Compared to shoulder, absolute increases in peak moments were smaller for elbow and wrist, but there was a trend toward larger relative increases for distal joints. Shoulder rotation, elbow varus-valgus and pronation-supination, and wrist radial-ulnar deviation and rotation demonstrated large relative moment increases. Trial and phase durations were greater for the larger hammer. Changes in moments and timing indicate greater loads on musculoskeletal tissues for an extended period with the larger hammer. Additionally, greater variability in timing with the larger hammer, particularly for cocking phase, suggests differences in control of the motion. Increased relative moments for distal joints may be particularly important for understanding disorders of the elbow and wrist associated with hammer use.
Isaev, T A; Petrov, A N; Mosyagin, N S; Titov, A V
2005-10-14
We report the first results of ab initio relativistic correlation calculation of the effective electric field on the electron, E(eff), in the ground state of the HI+ cation. This value is required for interpretation of the suggested experiment on the search for the electron electric dipole moment. The generalized relativistic effective core potential, Fock-space relativistic coupled cluster with single and double cluster amplitudes (RCC-SD), and spin-orbit direct configuration interaction (SODCI) methods are used, followed by nonvariational one-center restoration of the four-component wave function in the iodine core. The RCC-SD value is E(eff) = 0.345 x 10(24) Hz/e cm and SODCI study gives E(eff) = 0.336 x 10(24) Hz/e cm (our final value). The structure of chemical bonding in HI+ is clarified, and a significant deviation of our value from that of Ravaine et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 013001 (2005)] is explained.
Michael Ramsey-Musolf; Wick Haxton; Ching-Pang Liu
2002-03-29
Nuclear anapole moments are parity-odd, time-reversal-even E1 moments of the electromagnetic current operator. Although the existence of this moment was recognized theoretically soon after the discovery of parity nonconservation (PNC), its experimental isolation was achieved only recently, when a new level of precision was reached in a measurement of the hyperfine dependence of atomic PNC in 133Cs. An important anapole moment bound in 205Tl also exists. In this paper, we present the details of the first calculation of these anapole moments in the framework commonly used in other studies of hadronic PNC, a meson exchange potential that includes long-range pion exchange and enough degrees of freedom to describe the five independent S-P amplitudes induced by short-range interactions. The resulting contributions of pi-, rho-, and omega-exchange to the single-nucleon anapole moment, to parity admixtures in the nuclear ground state, and to PNC exchange currents are evaluated, using configuration-mixed shell-model wave functions. The experimental anapole moment constraints on the PNC meson-nucleon coupling constants are derived and compared with those from other tests of the hadronic weak interaction. While the bounds obtained from the anapole moment results are consistent with the broad ''reasonable ranges'' defined by theory, they are not in good agreement with the constraints from the other experiments. We explore possible explanations for the discrepancy and comment on the potential importance of new experiments.
Moment inference from tomograms
Day-Lewis, F. D.; Chen, Y.; Singha, K.
2007-01-01
Time-lapse geophysical tomography can provide valuable qualitative insights into hydrologic transport phenomena associated with aquifer dynamics, tracer experiments, and engineered remediation. Increasingly, tomograms are used to infer the spatial and/or temporal moments of solute plumes; these moments provide quantitative information about transport processes (e.g., advection, dispersion, and rate-limited mass transfer) and controlling parameters (e.g., permeability, dispersivity, and rate coefficients). The reliability of moments calculated from tomograms is, however, poorly understood because classic approaches to image appraisal (e.g., the model resolution matrix) are not directly applicable to moment inference. Here, we present a semi-analytical approach to construct a moment resolution matrix based on (1) the classic model resolution matrix and (2) image reconstruction from orthogonal moments. Numerical results for radar and electrical-resistivity imaging of solute plumes demonstrate that moment values calculated from tomograms depend strongly on plume location within the tomogram, survey geometry, regularization criteria, and measurement error. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.
Kmicikiewicz, M.A.
1988-03-01
A radial engine is described comprising: a housing; equally spaced openings disposed in ring-like arrangement on the periphery of the housing; a piston and cylinder arrangement in each of the opening, a piston rod for each arrangement fixed to and extending radially inwardly from its respective piston and through its respective opening; shoe means pivotally attached at the other end of each of the piston rod; radial guide means extending in the housing in line with each of the piston rods, and the shoe means provided with guide means followers to ensure radial reciprocal movement of the piston rods and shoe means; and a connecting ring journaled on a crankshaft for circular translation motion in the housing, the ring including a circular rim. Each shoe means includes an arcuate follower member being slidably connected to the rim of the connecting ring.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zamick, Larry; Robinson, Shadow; Hoang, T.; Sharon, Yitzhak; Escuderos, Alberto
2013-10-01
We calculate B(E2)'s and quadrupole moments Q(J) in the even-even N = Z nuclei (88Ru,92Pd and 96Cd) in the model space p3/2, f5/2, p1/2, and g9/2. We use 2 interactions (jj44b, jun45). For the J = 0+ ground states the occupations of the lowest configuration i.e. the one with least g9/2 occupancy are quite different for the 2 interactions-((1.6,7.4), (9.7,28.8) and (49.6,58.8)). To the extent that one can make a collective associatkon with the shell model it appears that in this model space 88Ru is strongly oblate, 92Pd is vibrational and 96Cd is prolate. The values of B(E2, J --> J-2) (e2 fm4) and Q(J) (e fm2) using jj44b for J = 2,4,6,8,10 are 88Ru B(E2) (578,843,972,1056, 1107) and for Q(J) (28.0,37.1,45.5,49.5,51.1). The positive Q (2+) is indicative of oblateness. 92Pd B(E2) (366, 498, 465, 283, 344) and for Q(J) (4.8,11.1,24.0,33.8,40.0). In the harmonic vibrational limit Q(2+) is zero. Here it is small. 96Cd B(E2) (155, 206, 187, 71, 81 and for Q(J) (- 16.4, - 15.2, - 2.4, +37.6, +24.0). Note the change in sign from J = 6 to J = 8 and 10.
Józefowicz, Marek; Milart, Piotr; Heldt, Janina R
2009-11-01
Electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra of 4,5'-diamino[1,1':3',1''-terphenyl]-4',6'-dicarbonitrile (1) were recorded at room temperature in several solvents of different polarity. The results of spectroscopic measurements are analyzed using the theory of solvatochromism, based on a dielectric continuum description of the solvent and the classical Onsager cavity model. The difference in the excited and ground state dipole moments (mu(e)-mu(g)) of the molecule under study was estimated using methods applied by Bayliss, Ooshika, McRae, Lippert, Mataga, Bakhshiev and Kawski. Finally, the influence of polarizability on the determined change of the dipole moment was discussed. Austin model 1 (AM1) semiempirical molecular calculations were carried out to estimate the ground state dipole moment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Józefowicz, Marek; Milart, Piotr; Heldt, Janina R.
2009-11-01
Electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra of 4,5'-diamino[1,1':3',1″-terphenyl]-4',6'-dicarbonitrile ( 1) were recorded at room temperature in several solvents of different polarity. The results of spectroscopic measurements are analyzed using the theory of solvatochromism, based on a dielectric continuum description of the solvent and the classical Onsager cavity model. The difference in the excited and ground state dipole moments ( μe- μg) of the molecule under study was estimated using methods applied by Bayliss, Ooshika, McRae, Lippert, Mataga, Bakhshiev and Kawski. Finally, the influence of polarizability on the determined change of the dipole moment was discussed. Austin model 1 (AM1) semiempirical molecular calculations were carried out to estimate the ground state dipole moment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murakami, Arata; Hirose, Minako; Terashima, Mariko; Kuze, Nobuhiko; Sakaizumi, Takeshi; Ohashi, Osamu
2004-03-01
The spectroscopic constants of s- trans ( E)-acrylaldehyde oxime of normal, CH 2CHCHNOH, and deuterated, CH 2CHCHNOD, species were refined by adding a-type R-branch transitions observed in the frequency range of 34-40 GHz in the ground vibrational state. For s- trans ( Z) form, the spectroscopic constants of normal species were refined by refitting the reported frequencies with four b-type Q-branch transitions and those of deuterated species were determined by the least-squares fitting of the observed a-type R-branch transitions in the ground vibrational state. The spectroscopic constants of two isomers of normal species were also determined in the vibrationally excited states. The inertial defects (Δ I= Ic- Ia- Ib) of normal and deuterated species were determined to be -0.042(24) and -0.064(17) u Å 2 for s- trans ( E)-1 form, and -0.0536(8) and -0.063(11) u Å 2 for s- trans ( Z)-1 form, respectively. From the rs coordinates of the hydroxyl hydrogen atom determined for s- trans ( Z)-1 form, its OH bond was concluded to be at the trans position with respect to the CN double bond. The dipole moments of deuterated species of s- trans ( E)-1 form and those of normal and deuterated species of s- trans ( Z)-1 form were determined. The structural parameters of r(C 2C 3), ∠C 1C 2C 3, ∠C 2C 3N, and ∠C 3NO for s- trans ( E)-1 and s- trans ( Z)-1 forms were adjusted separately using to their rotational constants observed. It was found that the bond angle of ∠C 2C 3N in s- trans ( Z)-1 form are much wider than that in s- trans ( E)-1 form by about 10°. The difference between the observed and calculated (using MP2/6-311++G (d,p) level) rotational constants of s- trans ( Z)-1 form was larger than that of s- trans ( E)-1 form.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Margolis, Kenneth; Elliott, Miriam H.
1960-01-01
Based on expressions for the linearized velocity potentials and pressure distributions given in NACA Technical Report 1268, formulas for the span load distribution, forces, and moments are derived for families of thin isolated vertical tails with arbitrary aspect ratio, taper ratio, and sweepback performing the motions constant sideslip, steady rolling, steady yawing, and constant lateral acceleration. The range of Mach number considered corresponds, in general, to the condition that the tail leading and trailing edges are supersonic. To supplement the analytical results, design-type charts are presented which enable rapid estimation of the forces and moments (expressed as stability derivatives) for given combinations of geometry parameters and Mach number.
Predicting Robust Learning with the Visual Form of the Moment-by-Moment Learning Curve
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baker, Ryan S.; Hershkovitz, Arnon; Rossi, Lisa M.; Goldstein, Adam B.; Gowda, Sujith M.
2013-01-01
We present a new method for analyzing a student's learning over time for a specific skill: analysis of the graph of the student's moment-by-moment learning over time. Moment-by-moment learning is calculated using a data-mined model that assesses the probability that a student learned a skill or concept at a specific time during learning (Baker,…
Carter, Stuart; Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M
2017-02-17
The code MULTIMODE is used in its reaction path version, along with ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces introduced earlier, to predict the infrared spectra of both trans and cis forms of HOCO at temperatures 296 and 15 K. All six fundamentals are isolated for each isomer and temperature, and their main features examined, paying particular attention to the OH stretch fundamental, whose spectrum has been reported experimentally for trans-HOCO. The current spectra for cis-HOCO, while not of "spectroscopic" accuracy, should be sufficient to aid in new experimental efforts to record the spectrum of this isomer.
Thierfelder, Christian; Schwerdtfeger, Peter; Saue, Trond
2007-09-15
The electric field gradient in late transition metal compounds is incorrectly determined by most density functionals. We show that the coupling of short-range density functional based with long-range wave function based methods using a reparametrization of the Coulomb-attenuated Becke three-parameter Lee-Yang-Parr approximation gives reliable results for the electric field gradients of copper and gold for a series of compounds. This results in nuclear quadrupole moments of -0.208 b for {sup 63}Cu and +0.526 b for {sup 197}Au in good agreement with experimental values of -0.220(15) and +0.547(16)b, respectively.
Radial-radial single rotor turbine
Platts, David A.
2006-05-16
A rotor for use in turbine applications has a radial compressor/pump having radially disposed spaced apart fins forming passages and a radial turbine having hollow turbine blades interleaved with the fins and through which fluid from the radial compressor/pump flows. The rotor can, in some applications, be used to produce electrical power.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2005-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]
The ejecta surrounding the crater (off image to the left) in this image has undergone significant erosion by the wind. The wind has stripped the surface features from the ejecta and has started to winnow away the ejecta blanket. Near the margin of the ejecta the wind is eroding along a radial pattern -- taking advantage of radial emplacement. Note the steep margin of the ejecta blanket. Most, if not all, of the fine ejecta material has been removed and the wind in now working on the more massive continuous ejecta blanket.
Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 12.5, Longitude 197.4 East (162.6 West). 37 meter/pixel resolution.
Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
Moment generation in wheelchair propulsion.
Guo, Lan-Yuen; Zhao, K D; Su, Fong-Chin; An, Kai-Nan
2003-01-01
Wheelchair propulsion is a man machine interaction in which chair design and fit affect the relative positions and orientations of the upper extremity relative to the handrim and wheel axle. To understand these relationships better, experimental data were collected in five hand positions from five subjects exerting maximal effort to propel an instrumented wheelchair with its wheel in a locked position. The results of experiments revealed that the progression moment was greater at both initial and terminal propulsion positions and smaller in the mid-propulsion position. The vertical and horizontal force components were directed radially away from the wheel axle posterior to the dead centre position and radially towards the wheel axle anterior to top dead centre. Subsequently, a subject-specific quasi-static model of the upper extremity which maximized wheel progression moment was developed to augment our understanding of experimental measures. Model-predicted trends in progression moments and hand force direction were similar to experiment. Model predictions revealed that the optimal progression moment generation could potentially be affected by an individual's anthropometric parameters, joint strengths and also the direction of force applied by the hand on the handrim. Through wheelchair fitting and training of wheelchair users, it may be possible to improve propulsion technique.
Radial transport with perturbed magnetic field
Hazeltine, R. D.
2015-05-15
It is pointed out that the viscosity coefficient describing radial transport of toroidal angular momentum is proportional to the second power of the gyro-radius—like the corresponding coefficients for particle and heat transport—regardless of any geometrical symmetry. The observation is widely appreciated, but worth emphasizing because some literature gives the misleading impression that asymmetry can allow radial moment transport in first-order.
Camacho-Bello, César; Padilla-Vivanco, Alfonso; Toxqui-Quitl, Carina; Báez-Rojas, José Javier
2016-01-01
A detailed analysis of the quaternion generic Jacobi-Fourier moments (QGJFMs) for color image description is presented. In order to reach numerical stability, a recursive approach is used during the computation of the generic Jacobi radial polynomials. Moreover, a search criterion is performed to establish the best values for the parameters [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] of the radial Jacobi polynomial families. Additionally, a polar pixel approach is taken into account to increase the numerical accuracy in the calculation of the QGJFMs. To prove the mathematical theory, some color images from optical microscopy and human retina are used. Experiments and results about color image reconstruction are presented.
Camacho-Bello, César; Padilla-Vivanco, Alfonso; Toxqui-Quitl, Carina; Báez-Rojas, José Javier
2016-01-01
Abstract. A detailed analysis of the quaternion generic Jacobi-Fourier moments (QGJFMs) for color image description is presented. In order to reach numerical stability, a recursive approach is used during the computation of the generic Jacobi radial polynomials. Moreover, a search criterion is performed to establish the best values for the parameters α and β of the radial Jacobi polynomial families. Additionally, a polar pixel approach is taken into account to increase the numerical accuracy in the calculation of the QGJFMs. To prove the mathematical theory, some color images from optical microscopy and human retina are used. Experiments and results about color image reconstruction are presented. PMID:27014716
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
James, T. C.
1971-01-01
Discussion of the factors affecting the intensity of forbidden transitions in diatomic molecules. It is shown that using Franck-Condon factors to predict relative band intensities is less reliable for forbidden transitions than it is for allowed transitions. The intensity of the 0,0 and 1,0 bands of the a super 3 pi-super 1 sigma Cameron system of CO are calculated using perturbation theory. The intensity arises from spin-orbit mixing of the A super 1 pi state with the a super 3 pi state. From the known spin-orbit coupling constant of the a super 1 pi state and the known intensity of the fourth positive A super 1 pi-super 1 sigma transition, the oscillator strengths of the 0,0 and 1,0 bands are calculated to be 1.63 x 10 to the minus 7th power and 1.99 x 10 to the minus 7th power. Lifetimes of various rotational levels are shown to range from 2.9 to several hundred milliseconds.-
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Jun; Piecuch, Piotr
2012-04-01
We have recently suggested the CC(P;Q) methodology that can correct energies obtained in the active-space coupled-cluster (CC) or equation-of-motion (EOM) CC calculations, which recover much of the nondynamical and some dynamical electron correlation effects, for the higher-order, mostly dynamical, correlations missing in the active-space CC/EOMCC considerations. It is shown that one can greatly improve the description of biradical transition states, both in terms of the resulting energy barriers and total energies, by combining the CC approach with singles, doubles, and active-space triples, termed CCSDt, with the CC(P;Q)-style correction due to missing triple excitations defining the CC(t;3) approximation.
Shen, Jun; Piecuch, Piotr
2012-04-14
We have recently suggested the CC(P;Q) methodology that can correct energies obtained in the active-space coupled-cluster (CC) or equation-of-motion (EOM) CC calculations, which recover much of the nondynamical and some dynamical electron correlation effects, for the higher-order, mostly dynamical, correlations missing in the active-space CC/EOMCC considerations. It is shown that one can greatly improve the description of biradical transition states, both in terms of the resulting energy barriers and total energies, by combining the CC approach with singles, doubles, and active-space triples, termed CCSDt, with the CC(P;Q)-style correction due to missing triple excitations defining the CC(t;3) approximation.
Perception and Haptic Rendering of Friction Moments.
Kawasaki, H; Ohtuka, Y; Koide, S; Mouri, T
2011-01-01
This paper considers moments due to friction forces on the human fingertip. A computational technique called the friction moment arc method is presented. The method computes the static and/or dynamic friction moment independent of a friction force calculation. In addition, a new finger holder to display friction moment is presented. This device incorporates a small brushless motor and disk, and connects the human's finger to an interface finger of the five-fingered haptic interface robot HIRO II. Subjects' perception of friction moment while wearing the finger holder, as well as perceptions during object manipulation in a virtual reality environment, were evaluated experimentally.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Qing-Miao; Li, Chun-Mei; Yang, Rui; Kulkova, Svetlana E.; Bazhanov, Dmitry I.; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente
2009-04-01
The site occupancy and elastic modulus of off-stoichiometric Ni2MnGa alloys are investigated by the use of the first-principles exact muffin-tin orbital method in combination with coherent-potential approximation. The stable site occupancy at 300 K is determined by comparing the free energies of the alloys with different site-occupation configurations. It is shown that, for most of the off-stoichiometric Ni2MnGa , the “normal” site occupation is favorable, i.e., the excess atoms of the rich component occupy the sublattice(s) of the deficient one(s). Nevertheless, for the Ga-rich alloys, the excess Ga atoms have strong tendency to take the Mn sublattice no matter if Mn is deficient or not. Based on the determined site occupancy, the elastic moduli of the off-stoichiometric Ni2MnGa are calculated. We find that, in general, the bulk modulus increases with increasing e/a ratio (i.e., the number of valence electrons per atom). The shear moduli C' and C44 change oppositely with e/a ratio: C' decreases but C44 increases with increasing e/a . However, the Mn-rich Ga-deficient alloys deviate significantly from this general trend. The correlation of calculated elastic moduli and available experimental martensitic transformation temperatures (TM) demonstrates that the alloy with larger C' than that of the perfect Ni2MnGa generally possesses lower TM except for Ni2Mn1+xGa1-x .
Rotor hub vibration and blade loads reduction, and energy harvesting via embedded radial oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Austruy, Julien
An embedded radial absorber is investigated to control helicopter rotor hub vibration and blade loads. The absorber is modeled as a discrete mass moving in the spanwise direction within the blade. The absorber is retained in place and tuned with a spring and a damper. The radial absorber couples with lead-lag dynamic through Coriolis forces. The embedded radial absorber coupled to the helicopter is analyzed with a comprehensive rotorcraft model. The blade is modeled as an elastic beam undergoing flap bending, lag bending and elastic torsion, and a radial degree of freedom is added for the absorber. The tuning of the embedded radial absorber to a frequency close to 3/rev with no damping is shown to reduce significantly (up to 86%) the 4/rev in-plane hub forces of a 4-bladed hingeless rotor similar to a MBB BO-105 in high speed flight. The simulation shows that the absorber modifies the in-plane blade root shears to synchronize them to cancel each other in the transmission from rotating frame to fixed frame. A design of an embedded radial absorber experiment for hub vibration control is presented and it is concluded that for such high tuning frequencies as 3/rev, it is feasible to use a regular coil spring to compensate for the steady centrifugal force. Large reduction of blade lag shear (85%) and lag bending moment (71%) is achieved by tuning the embedded radial absorber close to 1/rev (also shown for a BO-105 like helicopter in high speed flight). The absorber reduces the amplitude of the lag bending moment at 1/rev, thus reducing the blade lead-lag motion and reducing the blade drag shear and lag bending moment. Finally, the use of the embedded radial absorber is investigated as a source electrical power when combined with an electromagnetic circuit. A model of the electromagnetic system is developed and validated, and an evaluation of the amount of power harvestable for different configurations is presented. The maximum power harvested was calculated to be 133
Moment of Inertia by Differentiation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rizcallah, Joseph A.
2015-01-01
The calculation of the moment of inertia of an extended body, as presented in standard introductory-level textbooks, involves the evaluation of a definite integral--an operation often not fully mastered by beginners, let alone the conceptual difficulties it presents, even to the advanced student, in understanding and setting up the integral in the…
Energy summation method for energy loss computation in radial distribution networks
Taleski, R.; Rajicic, D.
1996-05-01
A method for energy loss calculation in radial distribution networks is presented. It is based on the statistical representation of the influence of different load curves in the network upon element power flows and on the oriented ordering of the network elements. Also, the paper proposes the use of different, but constant, voltages at each node, instead of nominal voltage at all nodes. The procedure is very simple, and it involves four steps: element ordering, calculation of second moments, power flow calculation with average loads at nodes, and energy calculation in network elements. The presented results illustrate that the algorithm has advantages over methods that use nominal voltage at each node for accuracy, and advantages over methods that calculate accurate energy losses for speed.
Moment-to-Moment Emotions during Reading
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Graesser, Arthur C.; D'Mello, Sidney
2012-01-01
Moment-to-moment emotions are affective states that dynamically change during reading and potentially influence comprehension. Researchers have recently identified these emotions and the emotion trajectories in reading, tutoring, and problem solving. The primary learning-centered emotions are boredom, frustration, confusion, flow (engagement),…
... of the radial artery for cardiac catheterization procedures. Advantages of Radial Artery Catheterization Any catheter placement into ... walk, and eat immediately. This is a particular advantage for patients with back problems because there is ...
Atomic physics processes in radial transport calculations
Hogan, J.T.
1983-02-01
These lectures were intended as preparation for detailed discussions of the role of atomic and molecular physics in confinement research at the 1982 NATO Advanced Study Institute. They begin with a description of the major approaches to magnetic confinement: tandem (ambipolar) mirrors with their associated auxiliary barriers, tokamaks, and stellarators. The leading alternatives, the ELMO Bumpy Torus and the reversed field pinch, are also treated. The evolution equations for particle, energy, and (where relevant) field diffusion are presented and discussed. This is the context for atomic and molecular processes relevant to confinement.
Joint moments of proper delay times
Martínez-Argüello, Angel M.; Martínez-Mares, Moisés; García, Julio C.
2014-08-15
We calculate negative moments of the N-dimensional Laguerre distribution for the orthogonal, unitary, and symplectic symmetries. These moments correspond to those of the proper delay times, which are needed to determine the statistical fluctuations of several transport properties through classically chaotic cavities, like quantum dots and microwave cavities with ideal coupling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gunde, R.; Ha, T.-K.; Günthard, H. H.
1990-08-01
In this paper results of consistent force field modeling (CFF) of the potential function to conversion of the gauche (g) to the trans (t) conformer of 1,2-difluoroethane (DFE) isolated in an argon matrix will be reported. Starting point are locally stable configurations gDFE:Ar 364 (defect GH1) and tDFE:Ar 364 (TH1) obtained in previous work from CFF modeling of a cube shaped Ar 364 fragment containing one DFE molecule in its center. Using the dihedral angle of DFE as an independent parameter the minimum energy path of the conversion process gDFE:Ar 364→tDFE:Ar 364 will be determined by CFF energy minimization. Determination of the minimum energy path is found to require large numbers of energy minimization steps and to lead to a rather complicated motion of the molecule with respect to the crystal fragment. Surprisingly the molecule-matrix interactions lead to a reduction of the g-t barrier by ≈500 cal/mol and to a stabilization of the trans species by ≈500 cal/mol. This finding is a consequence of a delicate interplay of matrix-molecule and matrix-matrix interactions. Calculation of the electric polarization energy (induced dipole-first-order polarization approximation) is based on extended ab initio calculations of dipole and quadrupole moments and a bond polarizability estimate of the first-order polarizability of DFE as a function of the internal rotation angle, on Fourier expansion of multipole components and use of symmetry for reduction of the order of the linear system defining the (self-consistent) induced dipole moments of all Ar atoms. Electric polarization is found to alter the potential function of the conversion process in a profound way: the g-t barrier and the t-g energy difference are increased to ≈3000 cal/mol and to ≈1500 cal/mol respectively (≈2500 and ≈530 cal/mol respectively for free DFE). Further applications of the technique developed in this work to related problems of matrix isolated molecules, e.g., vibrational matrix
Hydrodynamic effects in a misaligned radial face seal
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Etsion, I.
1977-01-01
Hydrodynamic effects in a flat seal having an angular misalignment are analyzed, taking into account the radial variation in seal clearance. An analytical solution for axial force, restoring moment, and transverse moment is presented that covers the whole range from zero to full angular misalignment. Both low pressure seals with cavitating flow and high pressure seals with full fluid film are considered. Strong coupling is demonstrated between angular misalignment and transverse moment which leads the misalignment vector by 90 degrees. This transverse moment, which is entirely due to hydrodynamic effects, is a significant factor in the seal operating mechanism.
Are axial and radial flow chromatography different?
Besselink, Tamara; van der Padt, Albert; Janssen, Anja E M; Boom, Remko M
2013-01-04
Radial flow chromatography can be a solution for scaling up a packed bed chromatographic process to larger processing volumes. In this study we compared axial and radial flow affinity chromatography both experimentally and theoretically. We used an axial flow column and a miniaturized radial flow column with a ratio of 1.8 between outer and inner surface area, both with a bed height of 5 cm. The columns were packed with affinity resin to adsorb BSA. The average velocity in the columns was set equal. No difference in performance between the two columns could be observed. To gain more insight into the design of a radial flow column, the velocity profile and resin distribution in the radial flow column were calculated. Using mathematical models we found that the breakthrough performance of radial flow chromatography is very similar to axial flow when the ratio between outer and inner radius of the radial flow column is around 2. When this ratio is increased, differences become more apparent, but remain small. However, the ratio does have a significant influence on the velocity profile inside the resin bed, which directly influences the pressure drop and potentially resin compression, especially at higher values for this ratio. The choice between axial and radial flow will be based on cost price, footprint and packing characteristics. For small-scale processes, axial flow chromatography is probably the best choice, for resin volumes of at least several tens of litres, radial flow chromatography may be preferable.
On the dipole moment of CO/+/.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Certain, P. R.; Woods, R. C.
1973-01-01
Results of self-consistent field calculations on neutral CO, its positive ion, and on neutral CN to verify an earlier estimate of the dipole moment of CO(+) in its ground super 2 Sigma state. Based on the above-mentioned calculations, direct evidence is obtained that the dipole moment (relative to the center of mass) is approximately 2.5 plus or minus 0.5 C, as previously determined by Kopelman and Klemperer (1962).
Rogowski, Isabelle; Creveaux, Thomas; Chèze, Laurence; Macé, Pierre; Dumas, Raphaël
2014-01-01
This study examined the effect of the polar moment of inertia of a tennis racket on upper limb loading in the serve. Eight amateur competition tennis players performed two sets of 10 serves using two rackets identical in mass, position of center of mass and moments of inertia other than the polar moment of inertia (0.00152 vs 0.00197 kg.m2). An eight-camera motion analysis system collected the 3D trajectories of 16 markers, located on the thorax, upper limbs and racket, from which shoulder, elbow and wrist net joint moments and powers were computed using inverse dynamics. During the cocking phase, increased racket polar moment of inertia was associated with significant increases in the peak shoulder extension and abduction moments, as well the peak elbow extension, valgus and supination moments. During the forward swing phase, peak wrist extension and radial deviation moments significantly increased with polar moment of inertia. During the follow-through phase, the peak shoulder adduction, elbow pronation and wrist external rotation moments displayed a significant inverse relationship with polar moment of inertia. During the forward swing, the magnitudes of negative joint power at the elbow and wrist were significantly larger when players served using the racket with a higher polar moment of inertia. Although a larger polar of inertia allows players to better tolerate off-center impacts, it also appears to place additional loads on the upper extremity when serving and may therefore increase injury risk in tennis players. PMID:25117871
Rogowski, Isabelle; Creveaux, Thomas; Chèze, Laurence; Macé, Pierre; Dumas, Raphaël
2014-01-01
This study examined the effect of the polar moment of inertia of a tennis racket on upper limb loading in the serve. Eight amateur competition tennis players performed two sets of 10 serves using two rackets identical in mass, position of center of mass and moments of inertia other than the polar moment of inertia (0.00152 vs 0.00197 kg.m2). An eight-camera motion analysis system collected the 3D trajectories of 16 markers, located on the thorax, upper limbs and racket, from which shoulder, elbow and wrist net joint moments and powers were computed using inverse dynamics. During the cocking phase, increased racket polar moment of inertia was associated with significant increases in the peak shoulder extension and abduction moments, as well the peak elbow extension, valgus and supination moments. During the forward swing phase, peak wrist extension and radial deviation moments significantly increased with polar moment of inertia. During the follow-through phase, the peak shoulder adduction, elbow pronation and wrist external rotation moments displayed a significant inverse relationship with polar moment of inertia. During the forward swing, the magnitudes of negative joint power at the elbow and wrist were significantly larger when players served using the racket with a higher polar moment of inertia. Although a larger polar of inertia allows players to better tolerate off-center impacts, it also appears to place additional loads on the upper extremity when serving and may therefore increase injury risk in tennis players.
McKeown, Mark H.; Beason, Steven C.
1991-01-01
The radial arm strike rail assembly is a system for measurement of bearings, directions, and stereophotography for geologic mapping, particularly where magnetic compasses are not appropriate. The radial arm, pivoting around a shaft axis, provides a reference direction determination for geologic mapping and bearing or direction determination. The centerable and levelable pedestal provide a base for the radial arm strike rail and the telescoping camera pedestal. The telescoping feature of the radial arm strike rail allows positioning the end of the rail for strike direction or bearing measurement with a goniometer.
Study on the radial composite piezoelectric ceramic transducer in radial vibration.
Lin, Shuyu
2007-03-01
A new type of radial composite piezoelectric transducer in radial vibration is developed and analyzed. The radial composite transducer consists of a piezoelectric ceramic thin ring polarized in the thickness direction and a metal thin circular ring. They are connected together and excited to vibrate in the radial direction. The radial vibrations of a piezoelectric ceramic thin ring and a metal thin circular ring are analyzed, respectively. Their radial electro-mechanical equivalent circuits are obtained. Based on the electro-mechanical equivalent circuits and using the boundary conditions between the piezoelectric ceramic thin ring and the metal thin circular ring in the radial direction, the electro-mechanical equivalent circuit of the radial composite piezoelectric transducer is derived out and the resonance frequency equation is obtained. The relationship between the resonance frequency and the geometrical dimensions of the transducer is analyzed. Some radial composite piezoelectric transducers are designed and manufactured. The resonance frequencies and the anti-resonance frequencies, the electro-mechanical equivalent circuit parameters are measured. The effective electro-mechanical coupling coefficient and the mechanical quality factor are calculated. It is illustrated that the measured radial resonance frequencies are in good agreement with the theoretical results from the resonance frequency equation.
Shell Model Estimate of Electric Dipole Moments for Xe Isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teruya, Eri; Yoshinaga, Naotaka; Higashiyama, Koji
The nuclear Schiff moments of Xe isotopes which induce electric dipole moments of neutral Xe atoms is theoretically estimated. Parity and time-reversal violating two-body nuclear interactions are assumed. The nuclear wave functions are calculated in terms of the nuclear shell model. Influences of core excitations on the Schiff moments in addition to the over-shell excitations are discussed.
Nonaxisymmetric incompressible hydrostatic pressure effects in radial face seals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Etsion, I.
1976-01-01
A flat seal having an angular misalinement is analyzed, taking into account the radial variations in seal clearance. An analytical solution for axial force, tilting moment, and leakage is presented that covers the whole range from zero to full angular misalinement. Nonaxisymmetric hydrostatic pressures due to the radial variations in the film thickness have a considerable effect on seal stability. When the high pressure is on the outer periphery of the seal, both the axial force and the tilting moment are nonrestoring. The case of high-pressure seals where cavitation is eliminated is discussed, and the possibility of dynamic instability is pointed out.
Ebert, Todd A; Carella, John A
2012-03-13
A triple acting radial seal used as an interstage seal assembly in a gas turbine engine, where the seal assembly includes an interstage seal support extending from a stationary inner shroud of a vane ring, the interstage seal support includes a larger annular radial inward facing groove in which an outer annular floating seal assembly is secured for radial displacement, and the outer annular floating seal assembly includes a smaller annular radial inward facing groove in which an inner annular floating seal assembly is secured also for radial displacement. A compliant seal is secured to the inner annular floating seal assembly. The outer annular floating seal assembly encapsulates the inner annular floating seal assembly which is made from a very low alpha material in order to reduce thermal stress.
Moments of zeta and correlations of divisor-sums: I.
Conrey, Brian; Keating, Jonathan P
2015-04-28
We examine the calculation of the second and fourth moments and shifted moments of the Riemann zeta-function on the critical line using long Dirichlet polynomials and divisor correlations. Previously, this approach has proved unsuccessful in computing moments beyond the eighth, even heuristically. A careful analysis of the second and fourth moments illustrates the nature of the problem and enables us to identify the terms that are missed in the standard application of these methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roostaei, B.; Ermler, W. C.
2012-03-01
A procedure for calculating electric dipole transition moments and permanent dipole moments from spin-orbit configuration interaction (SOCI) wave functions has been developed in the context of the COLUMBUS ab initio electronic structure programs. The SOCI procedure requires relativistic effective core potentials and their corresponding spin-orbit coupling operators to define the molecular Hamiltonian, electric dipole transition moment and permanent dipole moment matrices. The procedure can be used for any molecular system for which the COLUMBUS SOCI circuits are applicable. Example applications are reported for transition moments and dipole moments for a series of electronic states of LiBe and LiSr defined in diatomic relativistic ωω-coupling.
Droplet-model predictions of charge moments
Myers, W.D.
1982-04-01
The Droplet Model expressions for calculating various moments of the nuclear charge distribution are given. There are contributions to the moments from the size and shape of the system, from the internal redistribution induced by the Coulomb repulsion, and from the diffuseness of the surface. A case is made for the use of diffuse charge distributions generated by convolution as an alternative to Fermi-functions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Basiulis, A.; Buzzard, R. J.
1971-01-01
Unit moves heat radially from small diameter shell to larger diameter shell, or vice versa, with negligible temperature drop, making device useful wherever heating or cooling of concentrically arranged materials, substances, and structures is desired.
Radial head fracture - aftercare
Elbow fracture - radial head - aftercare ... to 2 weeks. If you have a small fracture and your bones did not move around much, ... to see a bone doctor (orthopedic surgeon). Some fractures require surgery to: Insert pins and plates to ...
On the moment of inertia of a quantum harmonic oscillator
Khamzin, A. A. Sitdikov, A. S.; Nikitin, A. S.; Roganov, D. A.
2013-04-15
An original method for calculating the moment of inertia of the collective rotation of a nucleus on the basis of the cranking model with the harmonic-oscillator Hamiltonian at arbitrary frequencies of rotation and finite temperature is proposed. In the adiabatic limit, an oscillating chemical-potential dependence of the moment of inertia is obtained by means of analytic calculations. The oscillations of the moment of inertia become more pronounced as deformations approach the spherical limit and decrease exponentially with increasing temperature.
Chang, D. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL ); Senjanovic, G. . Dept. of Theoretical Physics)
1990-01-01
We review attempts to achieve a large neutrino magnetic moment ({mu}{sub {nu}} {le} 10{sup {minus}11}{mu}{sub B}), while keeping neutrino light or massless. The application to the solar neutrino puzzle is discussed. 24 refs.
A fully relativistic radial fall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spallicci, Alessandro D. A. M.; Ritter, Patxi
2014-10-01
Radial fall has historically played a momentous role. It is one of the most classical problems, the solutions of which represent the level of understanding of gravitation in a given epoch. A gedankenexperiment in a modern frame is given by a small body, like a compact star or a solar mass black hole, captured by a supermassive black hole. The mass of the small body itself and the emission of gravitational radiation cause the departure from the geodesic path due to the back-action, that is the self-force. For radial fall, as any other non-adiabatic motion, the instantaneous identity of the radiated energy and the loss of orbital energy cannot be imposed and provide the perturbed trajectory. In the first part of this paper, we present the effects due to the self-force computed on the geodesic trajectory in the background field. Compared to the latter trajectory, in the Regge-Wheeler, harmonic and all others smoothly related gauges, a far observer concludes that the self-force pushes inward (not outward) the falling body, with a strength proportional to the mass of the small body for a given large mass; further, the same observer notes a higher value of the maximal coordinate velocity, this value being reached earlier during infall. In the second part of this paper, we implement a self-consistent approach for which the trajectory is iteratively corrected by the self-force, this time computed on osculating geodesics. Finally, we compare the motion driven by the self-force without and with self-consistent orbital evolution. Subtle differences are noticeable, even if self-force effects have hardly the time to accumulate in such a short orbit.
The Variation of Yawing Moment Due to Rolling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, Edwin Bidwell
1918-01-01
The aerodynamical constants of an airplane necessary for the discussion of stability are partly observed and partly calculated. Among the calculated coefficients is n(p), which is the variation of yawing moment due to rolling. (author)
Table of nuclear electric quadrupole moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stone, N. J.
2016-09-01
This Table is a compilation of experimental measurements of static electric quadrupole moments of ground states and excited states of atomic nuclei throughout the periodic table. To aid identification of the states, their excitation energy, half-life, spin and parity are given, along with a brief indication of the method and any reference standard used in the particular measurement. Experimental data from all quadrupole moment measurements actually provide a value of the product of the moment and the electric field gradient [EFG] acting at the nucleus. Knowledge of the EFG is thus necessary to extract the quadrupole moment. A single recommended moment value is given for each state, based, for each element, wherever possible, upon a standard reference moment for a nuclear state of that element studied in a situation in which the electric field gradient has been well calculated. For several elements one or more subsidiary EFG/moment reference is required and their use is specified. The literature search covers the period to mid-2015.
Magnetic moments in graphene with vacancies.
Chen, Jing-Jing; Wu, Han-Chun; Yu, Da-Peng; Liao, Zhi-Min
2014-08-07
Vacancies can induce local magnetic moments in graphene, paving the way to make magnetic functional graphene. Due to the interaction between magnetic moments and conduction carriers, the magnetotransport properties of graphene can be modulated. Here, the effects of vacancy induced magnetic moments on the electrical properties of graphene are studied via magnetotransport measurements and spin-polarized density functional theory calculations. We show by quantum Hall measurements that a sharp resonant Vπ state is introduced in the midgap region of graphene with vacancies, resulting in the local magnetic moment. The coupling between the localized Vπ state and the itinerant carrier is tuned by varying the carrier concentration, temperature, magnetic field, and vacancy density, which results in a transition between hopping transport and the Kondo effect and a transition between giant negative magnetoresistance (MR) and positive MR. This modulated magnetotransport is valuable for graphene based spintronic devices.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roelke, Richard J.
1992-01-01
Radial turbines have been used extensively in many applications including small ground based electrical power generators, automotive engine turbochargers and aircraft auxiliary power units. In all of these applications the turbine inlet temperature is limited to a value commensurate with the material strength limitations and life requirements of uncooled metal rotors. To take advantage of all the benefits that higher temperatures offer, such as increased turbine specific power output or higher cycle thermal efficiency, requires improved high temperature materials and/or blade cooling. Extensive research is on-going to advance the material properties of high temperature superalloys as well as composite materials including ceramics. The use of ceramics with their high temperature potential and low cost is particularly appealing for radial turbines. However until these programs reach fruition the only way to make significant step increases beyond the present material temperature barriers is to cool the radial blading.
Smith, Karl H.
2002-01-01
A radial wedge flange clamp comprising a pair of flanges each comprising a plurality of peripheral flat wedge facets having flat wedge surfaces and opposed and mating flat surfaces attached to or otherwise engaged with two elements to be joined and including a series of generally U-shaped wedge clamps each having flat wedge interior surfaces and engaging one pair of said peripheral flat wedge facets. Each of said generally U-shaped wedge clamps has in its opposing extremities apertures for the tangential insertion of bolts to apply uniform radial force to said wedge clamps when assembled about said wedge segments.
Radially uniform electron source
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccomas, D.; Bame, S. J.
1982-01-01
A thermionic electron source capable of producing uniform count rates in a number of channel electron multipliers simultaneously was required for conditioning multipliers for an extended space mission. It was found that a straight tungsten filament in the center of a cylindrically symmetric geometry surrounded by an array of multipliers emits a radially asymmetric distribution of electrons that changes with time. A source was developed which successfully produces a time-independent radially uniform distribution of electrons by moving the filament out of the direct line of sight and replacing it with a centrally located electron 'cloud.'
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katsanis, T.; Mcnally, W. D.
1977-01-01
A FORTRAN IV computer program has been developed that obtains a detailed subsonic or shock free transonic flow solution on the hub-shroud midchannel stream surface of a turbomachine. The blade row may be fixed or rotating, and the blades may be twisted and leaned. Flow may be axial, mixed, or radial. Upstream and downstream flow variables may vary from hub to shroud, and provisions are made to correct for loss of stagnation pressure. The results include velocities, streamlines, and flow angles on the stream surface and approximate blade surface velocities.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goodrow, Mary Ellen
2000-01-01
Details how an unplanned activity involving spinning wool presented a teachable moment for children in a family child care setting. Notes how activities related to farming, spinning wool, and using wool cloth resulted from following the children's lead. Concludes that everyday activities provide opportunities to listen to children, learn about…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Child & Youth Services, 2004
2004-01-01
This chapter presents additional stories and interpretations by John Korsmo, Molly Weingrod, Joseph Stanley, Quinn Wilder, Amy Evans, Rick Flowers, Arcelia Martinez, and Pam Ramsey. The stories and interpretations are presented as teachable moments that are examples of how people are learning to understand youthwork and, as such, are open to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Higgins, Chris
2014-01-01
In "The Humanist Moment," Chris Higgins sets out to recover a tenable, living humanism, rejecting both the version vilified by the anti-humanists and the one sentimentalized by the reactionary nostalgists. Rescuing humanism from such polemics is only the first step, as we find at least nine rival, contemporary definitions of humanism.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Espinoza, Roberta
2012-01-01
Educators can have a powerful influence on the future of low-income and minority students whose paths might appear uncertain. By developing trusting relationships, acting as mentors, and sharing information about the education system, teachers, counselors, and other adults can create pivotal moments that transform students' lives. Espinoza shares…
Moments of fusion-barrier distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rehm, K. E.; Esbensen, H.; Jiang, C. L.; Back, B. B.; Stefanini, A. M.; Montagnoli, G.
2016-10-01
A study of fusion-barrier distributions through an analysis of their moments is presented. The moments can be obtained from least-squares fits of the energy-weighted fusion cross sections without the need of calculating second derivatives. The zeroth and first moments determine the fusion radius R and the Coulomb barrier VC. These two quantities are the same as the parameters R and VC that are used in the well-known expression, E σ =π R2(E -VC) , for the fusion cross section at high energies. The second and third moments, M2 and M3, determine the width and skewness of the barrier distribution, respectively. From these global parameters new correlations for the study of heavy-ion-induced fusion reactions can be obtained. Systems exhibiting a large coupling to transfer reactions show a small fusion radius as well as a large second moment. A negative third moment is correlated with a prolate deformation of the target nucleus.
Radial Halbach Magnetic Bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.
2009-01-01
Radial Halbach magnetic bearings have been investigated as part of an effort to develop increasingly reliable noncontact bearings for future high-speed rotary machines that may be used in such applications as aircraft, industrial, and land-vehicle power systems and in some medical and scientific instrumentation systems. Radial Halbach magnetic bearings are based on the same principle as that of axial Halbach magnetic bearings, differing in geometry as the names of these two types of bearings suggest. Both radial and axial Halbach magnetic bearings are passive in the sense that unlike most other magnetic bearings that have been developed in recent years, they effect stable magnetic levitation without need for complex active control. Axial Halbach magnetic bearings were described in Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings (LEW-18066-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), page 85. In the remainder of this article, the description of the principle of operation from the cited prior article is recapitulated and updated to incorporate the present radial geometry. In simplest terms, the basic principle of levitation in an axial or radial Halbach magnetic bearing is that of the repulsive electromagnetic force between (1) a moving permanent magnet and (2) an electric current induced in a stationary electrical conductor by the motion of the magnetic field. An axial or radial Halbach bearing includes multiple permanent magnets arranged in a Halbach array ("Halbach array" is defined below) in a rotor and multiple conductors in the form of wire coils in a stator, all arranged so the rotary motion produces an axial or radial repulsion that is sufficient to levitate the rotor. A basic Halbach array (see Figure 1) consists of a row of permanent magnets, each oriented so that its magnetic field is at a right angle to that of the adjacent magnet, and the right-angle turns are sequenced so as to maximize the magnitude of the magnetic flux density on one side of the row while
MARVELS Radial Velocity Solutions to Seven Kepler Eclipsing Binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heslar, Michael Francis; Thomas, Neil B.; Ge, Jian; Ma, Bo; Herczeg, Alec; Reyes, Alan; SDSS-III MARVELS Team
2016-01-01
Eclipsing binaries serve momentous purposes to improve the basis of understanding aspects of stellar astrophysics, such as the accurate calculation of the physical parameters of stars and the enigmatic mass-radius relationship of M and K dwarfs. We report the investigation results of 7 eclipsing binary candidates, initially identified by the Kepler mission, overlapped with the radial velocity observations from the SDSS-III Multi-Object APO Radial-Velocity Exoplanet Large-Area Survey (MARVELS). The RV extractions and spectroscopic solutions of these eclipsing binaries were generated by the University of Florida's 1D data pipeline with a median RV precision of ~60-100 m/s, which was utilized for the DR12 data release. We performed the cross-reference fitting of the MARVELS RV data and the Kepler photometric fluxes obtained from the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog (V2) and modelled the 7 eclipsing binaries in the BinaryMaker3 and PHOEBE programs. This analysis accurately determined the absolute physical and orbital parameters of each binary. Most of the companion stars were determined to have masses of K and M dwarf stars (0.3-0.8 M⊙), and allowed for an investigation into the mass-radius relationship of M and K dwarfs. Among the cases are KIC 9163796, a 122.2 day period "heartbeat star", a recently-discovered class of eccentric binaries known for tidal distortions and pulsations, with a high eccentricity (e~0.75) and KIC 11244501, a 0.29 day period, contact binary with a double-lined spectrum and mass ratio (q~0.45). We also report on the possible reclassification of 2 Kepler eclipsing binary candidates as background eclipsing binaries based on the analysis of the flux measurements, flux ratios of the spectroscopic and photometric solutions, the differences in the FOVs, the image processing of Kepler, and RV and spectral analysis of MARVELS.
GCFR radial blanket and shield experiment
Muckenthaler, F.J.; Hull, J.L.; Manning, J.J.
1980-12-01
This report presents integral neutron flux, energy spectra, and gamma-ray heating measurements made for the Radial Blanket and Shield Experiment at the ORNL Tower Shielding Facility as part of a continuing Gas Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor program. The experimental configurations were divided into four basic segments: a spectrum modifier inserted into the Tower Shielding Reactor II beam; blanket slabs consisting of either ThO/sub 2/ or UO/sub 2/ placed directly behind the spectrum modifier; an inner radial shield behind the blankets; and an outer radial shield to complete the mockup. The segments were added in sequence, with selected measurements made within and beyond each segment. The integral experiment was performed to provide verification of calculational methods and nuclear data used in designing a radial shield for the GCFR and determining the effectiveness of the design. The ThO/sub 2/ blanket measurements were needed to bracket the uncertainties in the nuclear cross sections for calculating both the neutron transmission through the blanket and the gamma-ray heating rates within the blanket. Measurements with a UO/sub 2/ blanket were included both as a reference for the ThO/sub 2/ analysis, neutron transmission through UO/sub 2/ having been successfully calculated in previous experiments, and to provide comparison information for other breeder reactor designs.
Radial Inflow Turboexpander Redesign
William G. Price
2001-09-24
Steamboat Envirosystems, LLC (SELC) was awarded a grant in accordance with the DOE Enhanced Geothermal Systems Project Development. Atlas-Copco Rotoflow (ACR), a radial expansion turbine manufacturer, was responsible for the manufacturing of the turbine and the creation of the new computer program. SB Geo, Inc. (SBG), the facility operator, monitored and assisted ACR's activities as well as provided installation and startup assistance. The primary scope of the project is the redesign of an axial flow turbine to a radial inflow turboexpander to provide increased efficiency and reliability at an existing facility. In addition to the increased efficiency and reliability, the redesign includes an improved reduction gear design, and improved shaft seal design, and upgraded control system and a greater flexibility of application
Variable stator radial turbine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rogo, C.; Hajek, T.; Chen, A. G.
1984-01-01
A radial turbine stage with a variable area nozzle was investigated. A high work capacity turbine design with a known high performance base was modified to accept a fixed vane stagger angle moveable sidewall nozzle. The nozzle area was varied by moving the forward and rearward sidewalls. Diffusing and accelerating rotor inlet ramps were evaluated in combinations with hub and shroud rotor exit rings. Performance of contoured sidewalls and the location of the sidewall split line with respect to the rotor inlet was compared to the baseline. Performance and rotor exit survey data are presented for 31 different geometries. Detail survey data at the nozzle exit are given in contour plot format for five configurations. A data base is provided for a variable geometry concept that is a viable alternative to the more common pivoted vane variable geometry radial turbine.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katsanis, T.; Mcnally, W. D.
1977-01-01
A FORTRAN 4 computer program was developed that obtains a detailed subsonic or shock-free transonic flow solution on the hub-shroud midchannel stream surface of a turbomachine. The blade row may be fixed or rotating, and the blades may be twisted and leaned. Flow may be axial, mixed, or radial. Upstream and downstream flow variables may vary from hub to shroud, and provision is made to correct for loss of stagnation pressure. The results include velocities, streamlines, and flow angles on the stream surface as well as approximate blade surface velocities. Subsonic solutions are obtained by a finite-difference, stream-function solution. Transonic solutions are obtained by a velocity-gradient method that uses information from a finite-difference, stream-function solution at a reduced mass flow.
Batzer, Thomas H.; Call, Wayne R.
1989-01-01
This invention provides an all metal seal for vacuum or pressure vessels or systems. This invention does not use gaskets. The invention uses a flange which fits into a matching groove. Fluid pressure is applied in a chamber in the flange causing at least one of the flange walls to radially press against a side of the groove creating the seal between the flange wall and the groove side.
Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.
1989-01-24
This invention provides an all metal seal for vacuum or pressure vessels or systems. This invention does not use gaskets. The invention uses a flange which fits into a matching groove. Fluid pressure is applied in a chamber in the flange causing at least one of the flange walls to radially press against a side of the groove creating the seal between the flange wall and the groove side. 5 figs.
Radial Field Piezoelectric Diaphragms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryant, R. G.; Effinger, R. T., IV; Copeland, B. M., Jr.
2002-01-01
A series of active piezoelectric diaphragms were fabricated and patterned with several geometrically defined Inter-Circulating Electrodes "ICE" and Interdigitated Ring Electrodes "ICE". When a voltage potential is applied to the electrodes, the result is a radially distributed electric field that mechanically strains the piezoceramic along the Z-axis (perpendicular to the applied electric field). Unlike other piezoelectric bender actuators, these Radial Field Diaphragms (RFDs) strain concentrically yet afford high displacements (several times that of the equivalent Unimorph) while maintaining a constant circumference. One of the more intriguing aspects is that the radial strain field reverses itself along the radius of the RFD while the tangential strain remains relatively constant. The result is a Z-deflection that has a conical profile. This paper covers the fabrication and characterization of the 5 cm. (2 in.) diaphragms as a function of poling field strength, ceramic thickness, electrode type and line spacing, as well as the surface topography, the resulting strain field and displacement as a function of applied voltage at low frequencies. The unique features of these RFDs include the ability to be clamped about their perimeter with little or no change in displacement, the environmentally insulated packaging, and a highly repeatable fabrication process that uses commodity materials.
Magnetic moments of light nuclei from lattice quantum chromodynamics
Beane, S. R.; Chang, E.; Cohen, S.; ...
2014-12-16
We present the results of lattice QCD calculations of the magnetic moments of the lightest nuclei, the deuteron, the triton and 3He, along with those of the neutron and proton. These calculations, performed at quark masses corresponding to mπ ~ 800 MeV, reveal that the structure of these nuclei at unphysically heavy quark masses closely resembles that at the physical quark masses. We find that the magnetic moment of 3He differs only slightly from that of a free neutron, as is the case in nature, indicating that the shell-model configuration of two spin-paired protons and a valence neutron captures itsmore » dominant structure. Similarly a shell-model-like moment is found for the triton, μ3H ~ μp. The deuteron magnetic moment is found to be equal to the nucleon isoscalar moment within the uncertainties of the calculations.« less
Oscillating Hadron and Jet Multiplicity Moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ochs, W.
2004-01-01
Recently, the moments of multiplicity distributions in e^{+e- annihilation and the ratios Hq (cumulant over factorial moments Kq/Fq) have been determined both for the hadronic final state and for jets at variable resolution. These ratios show an oscillatory behaviour as function of q with strong dependence of the amplitude and length of oscillation on the jet resolution parameter ycut. The recent explanation of this phenomenon based on perturbative QCD calculations is discussed.}
First moments of nucleon generalized parton distributions
Wang, P.; Thomas, A. W.
2010-06-01
We extrapolate the first moments of the generalized parton distributions using heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. The calculation is based on the one loop level with the finite range regularization. The description of the lattice data is satisfactory, and the extrapolated moments at physical pion mass are consistent with the results obtained with dimensional regularization, although the extrapolation in the momentum transfer to t=0 does show sensitivity to form factor effects, which lie outside the realm of chiral perturbation theory. We discuss the significance of the results in the light of modern experiments as well as QCD inspired models.
Practical method for balancing airplane moments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamburger, H
1924-01-01
The present contribution is the sequel to a paper written by Messrs. R. Fuchs, L. Hopf, and H. Hamburger, and proposes to show that the methods therein contained can be practically utilized in computations. Furthermore, the calculations leading up to the diagram of moments for three airplanes, whose performance in war service gave reason for complaint, are analyzed. Finally, it is shown what conclusions can be drawn from the diagram of moments with regard to the defects in these planes and what steps may be taken to remedy them.
Antiproton compression and radial measurements
Andresen, G. B.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Humphries, A. J.; Jenkins, M. J.; Joergensen, L. V.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der; Bray, C. C.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Povilus, A.; Wurtele, J. S.; Cesar, C. L.; Lambo, R.; Silveira, D. M.; Fujiwara, M. C.
2008-08-08
Control of the radial profile of trapped antiproton clouds is critical to trapping antihydrogen. We report detailed measurements of the radial manipulation of antiproton clouds, including areal density compressions by factors as large as ten, achieved by manipulating spatially overlapped electron plasmas. We show detailed measurements of the near-axis antiproton radial profile, and its relation to that of the electron plasma. We also measure the outer radial profile by ejecting antiprotons to the trap wall using an octupole magnet.
The forces and moments on airplane engine mounts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Donely, Philip
1936-01-01
A resume of the equations and formulas for the forces and moments on an aircraft-engine mount is presented. In addition, available experimental data have been included to permit the computation of these forces and moments. A sample calculation is made and compared with present design conditions for engine mounts.
Magnetic Moments of Excited Baryons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Metag, Volker
2017-01-01
In project A.3, the reaction γ p → π0γ'p has been studied using the TAPS photon spectrometer in the energy range √s= 1221-1331 MeV. Energy tagged photon beams have been produced with the Glasgow tagging spectrometer from electron beams provided by the MAMI-B accelerator. Angle and energy differential cross sections have been measured and compared to theoretical calculations. This comparison allows the magnetic moment of the Δ+ isobar to be extracted for the first time to μΔ+ = [2.7+1.3-1.0(stat)±1.5(syst)±3(theo)] μN. In an extension of the A3 project to the meson sector, the time-like transition form factor of the η meson has been measured with the Crystal Ball/TAPS detector system at MAMI-C.
Apparent Explosion Moments from Rg Waves Recorded on SPE
Larmat, Carene; Rougier, Esteban; Patton, Howard John
2016-11-29
Seismic moments for the first four chemical tests making up phase I of the Source Physics Experiments (SPE) are estimated from 6-Hz Rg waves recorded along a single radial line of geophones under the assumption that the tests are pure explosions. These apparent explosion moments are compared with moments determined from the reduced displacement potential method applied to free-field data. Light detection and ranging (lidar) observations, strong ground motions on the free surface in the vicinity of ground zero, and moment tensor inversion results are evidence that the fourth test SPE-4P is a pure explosion, and the moments show goodmore » agreement, 8×1010 N·m for free-field data versus 9×1010 N·m for Rg waves. In stark contrast, apparent moments for the first three tests are smaller than near-field moments by factors of 3–4. Relative amplitudes for the three tests determined from Rg interferometry using SPE-4P as an empirical Green’s function indicate that radiation patterns are cylindrically symmetric within a factor of 1.25 (25%). This fact assures that the apparent moments are reliable even though they were measured on just one azimuth. Spallation occurred on the first three tests, and ground-based lidar detected permanent deformations. As such, the source medium suffered late-time damage. In conclusion, destructive interference between Rg waves radiated by explosion and damage sources will reduce amplitudes and explain why apparent moments are smaller than near-field moments based on compressional energy emitted directly from the source.« less
Apparent Explosion Moments from Rg Waves Recorded on SPE
Larmat, Carene; Rougier, Esteban; Patton, Howard John
2016-11-29
Seismic moments for the first four chemical tests making up phase I of the Source Physics Experiments (SPE) are estimated from 6-Hz Rg waves recorded along a single radial line of geophones under the assumption that the tests are pure explosions. These apparent explosion moments are compared with moments determined from the reduced displacement potential method applied to free-field data. Light detection and ranging (lidar) observations, strong ground motions on the free surface in the vicinity of ground zero, and moment tensor inversion results are evidence that the fourth test SPE-4P is a pure explosion, and the moments show good agreement, 8×10^{10} N·m for free-field data versus 9×10^{10} N·m for Rg waves. In stark contrast, apparent moments for the first three tests are smaller than near-field moments by factors of 3–4. Relative amplitudes for the three tests determined from Rg interferometry using SPE-4P as an empirical Green’s function indicate that radiation patterns are cylindrically symmetric within a factor of 1.25 (25%). This fact assures that the apparent moments are reliable even though they were measured on just one azimuth. Spallation occurred on the first three tests, and ground-based lidar detected permanent deformations. As such, the source medium suffered late-time damage. In conclusion, destructive interference between Rg waves radiated by explosion and damage sources will reduce amplitudes and explain why apparent moments are smaller than near-field moments based on compressional energy emitted directly from the source.
Extension of moment projection method to the fragmentation process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Shaohua; Yapp, Edward K. Y.; Akroyd, Jethro; Mosbach, Sebastian; Xu, Rong; Yang, Wenming; Kraft, Markus
2017-04-01
The method of moments is a simple but efficient method of solving the population balance equation which describes particle dynamics. Recently, the moment projection method (MPM) was proposed and validated for particle inception, coagulation, growth and, more importantly, shrinkage; here the method is extended to include the fragmentation process. The performance of MPM is tested for 13 different test cases for different fragmentation kernels, fragment distribution functions and initial conditions. Comparisons are made with the quadrature method of moments (QMOM), hybrid method of moments (HMOM) and a high-precision stochastic solution calculated using the established direct simulation algorithm (DSA) and advantages of MPM are drawn.
Formulas for additional mass corrections to the moments of inertia of airplanes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malvestuto, Frank S; Gale, Lawrence J
1947-01-01
Formulas are presented for the calculation of the additional mass corrections to the moments of inertia of airplanes. These formulas are of particular value in converting the virtual moments of inertia of airplanes or models experimentally determined in air to the true moments of inertia. A correlation of additional moments of inertia calculated by these formulas with experimental additional moments of inertia obtained from vacuum chamber tests of 40 spin-tunnel models indicates that formulas give satisfactory estimations of the additional moments of inertia.
Boundary effects in welded steel moment connections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Kyoung-Hyeog
Unprecedented widespread failure of welded moment connections in steel frames caused by the 1994 Northridge and the 1995 Kobe earthquakes have alarmed the engineering communities throughout the world. Welded moment connections in steel frames have been traditionally designed by using the classical beam theory which leads to assumptions that the flanges transfer moment while the web connection primarily resists the shear force. However, this study shows that the magnitude and direction of the principal stresses in the connection region are better approximated by using truss analogy rather than the classical beam theory. Accordingly, both the bending moment and the shear force are transferred across the connection near the beam flanges through diagonal strut action. Thus, the beam flange region of the traditionally designed connection is overloaded. This conclusion explains, to a large extent, the recently observed steel moment connection failures. In this study, detailed finite element analyses were carried out for a representative beam-to-column subassemblage with fully welded connection. The stress distribution in the beam web and flanges in the vicinity of the connection were closely studied. The factors responsible for stress redistribution and concentration were identified by using fundamental principles of mechanics. It was concluded that peak resultant stresses can exceed the values used in simple design calculations by large margins. Using the finite element analysis results and the truss analogy to establish a realistic load path in the connection, a practical and more rational analysis and design procedure was developed. The proposed design procedure and the new connection details were successfully validated through cyclic load testing of a nearly full size specimen. The truss model represented the force transmission around the beam-to-column moment connection region very well. Results of the finite element analyses and the laboratory testing showed
Radial Reflection diffraction tomorgraphy
Lehman, Sean K
2013-11-19
A wave-based tomographic imaging method and apparatus based upon one or more rotating radially outward oriented transmitting and receiving elements have been developed for non-destructive evaluation. At successive angular locations at a fixed radius, a predetermined transmitting element can launch a primary field and one or more predetermined receiving elements can collect the backscattered field in a "pitch/catch" operation. A Hilbert space inverse wave (HSIW) algorithm can construct images of the received scattered energy waves using operating modes chosen for a particular application. Applications include, improved intravascular imaging, bore hole tomography, and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of parts having existing access holes.
Radial reflection diffraction tomography
Lehman, Sean K.
2012-12-18
A wave-based tomographic imaging method and apparatus based upon one or more rotating radially outward oriented transmitting and receiving elements have been developed for non-destructive evaluation. At successive angular locations at a fixed radius, a predetermined transmitting element can launch a primary field and one or more predetermined receiving elements can collect the backscattered field in a "pitch/catch" operation. A Hilbert space inverse wave (HSIW) algorithm can construct images of the received scattered energy waves using operating modes chosen for a particular application. Applications include, improved intravascular imaging, bore hole tomography, and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of parts having existing access holes.
Nuclear electric dipole moments for the lowest 1/2+ states in Xe and Ba isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshinaga, N.; Higashiyama, K.; Arai, R.; Teruya, E.
2014-04-01
The electric dipole moments for the lowest 1/2+ states of Xe and Ba isotopes are calculated in terms of the nuclear shell model, which includes two-body nucleon interactions violating parity and time-reversal invariance. Using the wave functions thus obtained, the nuclear electric dipole moments arising from the intrinsic nucleon electric dipole moments and also from asymmetric charge distribution are calculated. The upper limits for the nuclear electric dipole moments of Xe and Ba isotopes are estimated.
New Measurements of Radial Mode Eigenfrequencies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laske, G.; Masters, G.; Dziewonski, A. M.
2001-12-01
Radial mode eigenfrequencies are commonly thought to be measured with great ease and precision. The reason for this is that these modes have no geographic pattern so one should be able to measure frequencies from a spectrum observed at any station in the world. Yet, radial modes often seem inconsistent with spherical Earth models that fit all other mode frequencies. It turns out that radial modes are sometimes strongly coupled. The strongest coupling is predicted to be with l=2 modes which is caused by the Earth's hydrostatic ellipticity and aspherical structure of harmonic degree 2. In such cases, mode-coupling due to ellipticity alone can cause a frequency shift for the radial modes by more than 4 microHz. Given that mode frequencies can be measured to within 0.1 microHz, this shift is significant, and some singlets of l=2 modes have indeed been misidentified as the radial mode in the past. Including the spectra of the June 23, 2001 Southern Peru Earthquake we have re-analyzed radial mode eigenfrequencies and present a mode dataset that is internally more consistent than previous ones. We construct spherical Earth models that are consistent with our new data, the Earth's mass and moment of inertia and the current best estimates of ``Reference Normal Mode Data'' (available on the Reference Earth Model web site: //mahi.ucsd.edu/Gabi/rem.html). We seek the smallest perturbation to PREM but update the Q-structure as well as the depths of the upper mantle discontinuities (418~km and 660~km as first order discontinuities; 520~km as change in gradient). The best fitting 1D model is transversely isotropic but we also show isotropic models that fit the data to within their errors. We show that the 220~km discontinuity is not required in the isotropic model but that there exists a trade-off between high shear-velocities in the lid and a low-density zone beneath it. We also investigate ways of truncating transverse isotropy without the 220.
Development of the moments method for neutron gauging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ingman, D.; Taviv, E.
1981-11-01
In the present investigation the new methodology of neutron moisture probe, based on measurements of the spatial moments of the slow neutron fluxes, is developed. Within the framework of the present work calibration curves for moments of low orders were calculated and recursive relations for high-order moments were obtained on the base of a P-1 approximation and diffusion theory. The neutron flux distributions obtained from a semiempirical method [5], three-group diffusion and age theories for the moments calculation, were investigated. It is shown that the spatial moments of neutron flux could serve as a basis for measurements of the volume weighted moisture and the content of strong neutron absorbers in the medium.
Alhaidari, A.D.
2008-07-15
We relax the usual diagonal constraint on the matrix representation of the eigenvalue wave equation by allowing it to be tridiagonal. This results in a larger representation space that incorporates an analytic solution for the non-central electric dipole potential cos{theta}/r{sup 2}, which was believed not to belong to the class of exactly solvable potentials. Therefore, we were able to obtain a closed form solution of the three-dimensional time-independent Schroedinger equation for a charged particle in the field of a point electric dipole that could carry a nonzero net charge. This problem models the interaction of an electron with a molecule (neutral or ionized) that has a permanent electric dipole moment. The solution is written as a series in a basis composed of special functions that support a tridiagonal matrix representation for the angular and radial components of the wave operator. Moreover, this solution is for all energies, the discrete (for bound states) as well as the continuous (for scattering states). The expansion coefficients of the radial and angular components of the wavefunction are written in terms of orthogonal polynomials satisfying three-term recursion relations. For the Coulomb-free case, where the molecule is neutral, we calculate critical values for its dipole moment below which no electron capture is allowed. These critical values are obtained not only for the ground state, where it agrees with already known results, but also for excited states as well.
Wittmann, Marc
2011-01-01
It has been suggested that perception and action can be understood as evolving in temporal epochs or sequential processing units. Successive events are fused into units forming a unitary experience or “psychological present.” Studies have identified several temporal integration levels on different time scales which are fundamental for our understanding of behavior and subjective experience. In recent literature concerning the philosophy and neuroscience of consciousness these separate temporal processing levels are not always precisely distinguished. Therefore, empirical evidence from psychophysics and neuropsychology on these distinct temporal processing levels is presented and discussed within philosophical conceptualizations of time experience. On an elementary level, one can identify a functional moment, a basic temporal building block of perception in the range of milliseconds that defines simultaneity and succession. Below a certain threshold temporal order is not perceived, individual events are processed as co-temporal. On a second level, an experienced moment, which is based on temporal integration of up to a few seconds, has been reported in many qualitatively different experiments in perception and action. It has been suggested that this segmental processing mechanism creates temporal windows that provide a logistical basis for conscious representation and the experience of nowness. On a third level of integration, continuity of experience is enabled by working memory in the range of multiple seconds allowing the maintenance of cognitive operations and emotional feelings, leading to mental presence, a temporal window of an individual’s experienced presence. PMID:22022310
Radial rib antenna surface deviation analysis program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coyner, J. V., Jr.
1971-01-01
A digital computer program was developed which analyzes any radial rib antenna with ribs radiating from a central hub. The program has the capability for calculating the antenna surface contour (reversed pillowing effect), the optimum rib shape for minimizing the rms surface error, and the actual rms surface error. Rib deflection due to mesh tension and catenary cable tension can also be compensated for, and the pattern from which the mesh gores are cut can be determined.
Grundy, Brian R.
1981-01-01
The radial cold trap comprises a housing having a plurality of mesh bands disposed therein. The mesh bands comprise concentrically arranged bands of mesh with the mesh specific surface area of each band increasing from the outermost mesh band to the innermost mesh band. An inlet nozzle is attached to the outside section of the housing while an outlet nozzle is attached to the inner portion of the housing so as to be concentrically connected to the innermost mesh band. An inlet baffle having orifices therein may be disposed around the outermost mesh band and within the housing for directing the flow of the fluid from the inlet nozzle to the outermost mesh band in a uniform manner. The flow of fluid passes through each consecutive mesh band and into the outlet nozzle. The circular pattern of the symmetrically arranged mesh packing allows for better utilization of the entire cold trap volume.
Grundy, B.R.
1981-09-29
The radial cold trap comprises a housing having a plurality of mesh bands disposed therein. The mesh bands comprise concentrically arranged bands of mesh with the mesh specific surface area of each band increasing from the outermost mesh band to the innermost mesh band. An inlet nozzle is attached to the outside section of the housing while an outlet nozzle is attached to the inner portion of the housing so as to be concentrically connected to the innermost mesh band. An inlet baffle having orifices therein may be disposed around the outermost mesh band and within the housing for directing the flow of the fluid from the inlet nozzle to the outermost mesh band in a uniform manner. The flow of fluid passes through each consecutive mesh band and into the outlet nozzle. The circular pattern of the symmetrically arranged mesh packing allows for better utilization of the entire cold trap volume. 2 figs.
Matrix elements from moments of correlation functions
Chang, Chia Cheng; Bouchard, Chris; Orginos, Konstantinos; Richards, David G.
2016-10-01
Momentum-space derivatives of matrix elements can be related to their coordinate-space moments through the Fourier transform. We derive these expressions as a function of momentum transfer Q2 for asymptotic in/out states consisting of a single hadron. We calculate corrections to the finite volume moments by studying the spatial dependence of the lattice correlation functions. This method permits the computation of not only the values of matrix elements at momenta accessible on the lattice, but also the momentum-space derivatives, providing {\\it a priori} information about the Q2 dependence of form factors. As a specific application we use the method, at a single lattice spacing and with unphysically heavy quarks, to directly obtain the slope of the isovector form factor at various Q2, whence the isovector charge radius. The method has potential application in the calculation of any hadronic matrix element with momentum transfer, including those relevant to hadronic weak decays.
Inquiry-Based Science: Turning Teachable Moments into Learnable Moments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haug, Berit S.
2014-01-01
This study examines how an inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning creates teachable moments that can foster conceptual understanding in students, and how teachers capitalize upon these moments. Six elementary school teachers were videotaped as they implemented an integrated inquiry-based science and literacy curriculum in their…
Turbine with radial acting seal
Eng, Darryl S; Ebert, Todd A
2016-11-22
A floating brush seal in a rim cavity of a turbine in a gas turbine engine, where the floating brush seal includes a seal holder in which the floating brush seal floats, and a expandable seal that fits within two radial extending seal slots that maintains a seal with radial displacement of the floating brush seal and the seal holder.
Radial systems of dark globules
Gyul'budagyn, A.L.
1986-03-01
The author gives examples of radial systems consisting of dark globules and ''elephant trunks''. Besides already known systems, which contain hot stars at their center, data are given on three radial systems of a new kind, at the center of which there are stars of spectral types later than B. Data are given on 32 globules of radial systems of the association Cep OB2. On the basis of the observational data, it is concluded that at least some of the isolated Bok globules derive from elephant trunks and dark globules forming radial systems around hot stars. It is also suggested that the two molecular clouds situated near the Rosette nebula and possessing velocities differing by ca 20 km/sec from the velocity of the nebula could have been ejected in opposite directions from the center of the nebula. One of these clouds consists of dark globules forming the radial system of the Rosette nebula.
Local electric dipole moments: A generalized approach.
Groß, Lynn; Herrmann, Carmen
2016-09-30
We present an approach for calculating local electric dipole moments for fragments of molecular or supramolecular systems. This is important for understanding chemical gating and solvent effects in nanoelectronics, atomic force microscopy, and intensities in infrared spectroscopy. Owing to the nonzero partial charge of most fragments, "naively" defined local dipole moments are origin-dependent. Inspired by previous work based on Bader's atoms-in-molecules (AIM) partitioning, we derive a definition of fragment dipole moments which achieves origin-independence by relying on internal reference points. Instead of bond critical points (BCPs) as in existing approaches, we use as few reference points as possible, which are located between the fragment and the remainder(s) of the system and may be chosen based on chemical intuition. This allows our approach to be used with AIM implementations that circumvent the calculation of critical points for reasons of computational efficiency, for cases where no BCPs are found due to large interfragment distances, and with local partitioning schemes other than AIM which do not provide BCPs. It is applicable to both covalently and noncovalently bound systems. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Moment estimation for chemically reacting systems by extended Kalman filtering.
Ruess, J; Milias-Argeitis, A; Summers, S; Lygeros, J
2011-10-28
In stochastic models of chemically reacting systems that contain bimolecular reactions, the dynamics of the moments of order up to n of the species populations do not form a closed system, in the sense that their time-derivatives depend on moments of order n + 1. To close the dynamics, the moments of order n + 1 are generally approximated by nonlinear functions of the lower order moments. If the molecule counts of some of the species have a high probability of becoming zero, such approximations may lead to imprecise results and stochastic simulation is the only viable alternative for system analysis. Stochastic simulation can produce exact realizations of chemically reacting systems, but tends to become computationally expensive, especially for stiff systems that involve reactions at different time scales. Further, in some systems, important stochastic events can be very rare and many simulations are necessary to obtain accurate estimates. The computational cost of stochastic simulation can then be prohibitively large. In this paper, we propose a novel method for estimating the moments of chemically reacting systems. The method is based on closing the moment dynamics by replacing the moments of order n + 1 by estimates calculated from a small number of stochastic simulation runs. The resulting stochastic system is then used in an extended Kalman filter, where estimates of the moments of order up to n, obtained from the same simulation, serve as outputs of the system. While the initial motivation for the method was improving over the performance of stochastic simulation and moment closure methods, we also demonstrate that it can be used in an experimental setting to estimate moments of species that cannot be measured directly from time course measurements of the moments of other species.
Radially sandwiched cylindrical piezoelectric transducer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Shuyu; Fu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Yong; Hu, Jing
2013-01-01
A new type of radially sandwiched piezoelectric short cylindrical transducer is developed and its radial vibration is studied. The transducer is composed of a solid metal disk, a radially polarized piezoelectric ceramic short tube and a metal tube. The radial vibrations of the solid metal disk, the radially polarized piezoelectric tube and the metal tube are analyzed and their electromechanical equivalent circuits are introduced. Based on the mechanical boundary conditions among the metal disk, the piezoelectric tube and the metal tube, a three-port electromechanical equivalent circuit for the radially sandwiched transducer is obtained and the frequency equation is given. The theoretical relationship of the resonance and anti-resonance frequencies and the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient with the geometrical dimensions is analyzed. The radial vibration of the sandwiched transducer is simulated by using two different numerical methods. It is shown that the analytical resonance and anti-resonance frequencies are in good agreement with the numerically simulated results. The transducer is expected to be used in piezoelectric resonators, actuators and ultrasonic radiators in ultrasonic and underwater sound applications.
Exact linearized Coulomb collision operator in the moment expansion
Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D.
2006-10-15
In the moment expansion, the Rosenbluth potentials, the linearized Coulomb collision operators, and the moments of the collision operators are analytically calculated for any moment. The explicit calculation of Rosenbluth potentials converts the integro-differential form of the Coulomb collision operator into a differential operator, which enables one to express the collision operator in a simple closed form for any arbitrary mass and temperature ratios. In addition, it is shown that gyrophase averaging the collision operator acting on arbitrary distribution functions is the same as the collision operator acting on the corresponding gyrophase averaged distribution functions. The moments of the collision operator are linear combinations of the fluid moments with collision coefficients parametrized by mass and temperature ratios. Useful forms involving the small mass-ratio approximation are easily found since the collision operators and their moments are expressed in terms of the mass ratio. As an application, the general moment equations are explicitly written and the higher order heat flux equation is derived.
Exact linearized Coulomb collision operator in the moment expansion
Ji, Jeong -Young; Held, Eric D.
2006-10-05
In the moment expansion, the Rosenbluth potentials, the linearized Coulomb collision operators, and the moments of the collision operators are analytically calculated for any moment. The explicit calculation of Rosenbluth potentials converts the integro-differential form of the Coulomb collision operator into a differential operator, which enables one to express the collision operator in a simple closed form for any arbitrary mass and temperature ratios. In addition, it is shown that gyrophase averaging the collision operator acting on arbitrary distribution functions is the same as the collision operator acting on the corresponding gyrophase averaged distribution functions. The moments of the collisionmore » operator are linear combinations of the fluid moments with collision coefficients parametrized by mass and temperature ratios. Furthermore, useful forms involving the small mass-ratio approximation are easily found since the collision operators and their moments are expressed in terms of the mass ratio. As an application, the general moment equations are explicitly written and the higher order heat flux equation is derived.« less
Dudley's dilemma: Magnetic moments in relativistic theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McNeil, J. A.
1986-10-01
In 1975 L. Dudley Miller showed how the basic phenomenology of the major shell and spin-orbit splittings constrained the relativistic scalar/vector structure model to values of the potentials incompatible with the observed magnetic moments of nuclei one nucleon away from closed shell [1]. In this talk the resolution of this problem is presented from three different perspectives. First a self-consistent Landau-Migdal approach is used to define the single particle isoscalar current in infinite nuclear matter. The constraint of self-consistency provides a vector suppression factor to the single particle current which returns the current to its nonrelativistic form and resolves the problem. The same suppression factor is shown to follow as well from either a consideration of gauge invariance or (equivalently) the relativistic random phase approximation. Local density approximation calculations of isoscalar magnetic moments of nuclei one nucleon away from closed shell recover the Schmidt values, thus resolving this longstanding problem.
Interpreting magnetic data by integral moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tontini, F. Caratori; Pedersen, L. B.
2008-09-01
The use of the integral moments for interpreting magnetic data is based on a very elegant property of potential fields, but in the past it has not been completely exploited due to problems concerning real data. We describe a new 3-D development of previous 2-D results aimed at determining the magnetization direction, extending the calculation to second-order moments to recover the centre of mass of the magnetization distribution. The method is enhanced to reduce the effects of the regional field that often alters the first-order solutions. Moreover, we introduce an iterative correction to properly assess the errors coming from finite-size surveys or interaction with neighbouring anomalies, which are the most important causes of the failing of the method for real data. We test the method on some synthetic examples, and finally, we show the results obtained by analysing the aeromagnetic anomaly of the Monte Vulture volcano in Southern Italy.
Enhancement of the electron electric dipole moment in gadolinium garnets
Mukhamedjanov, T.N.; Dzuba, V.A.; Sushkov, O.P.
2003-10-01
Effects caused by the electron electric dipole moment (EDM) in gadolinium garnets are considered. Experimental studies of these effects could improve the current upper limit on the electron EDM by several orders of magnitude. We suggest a consistent theoretical model and perform calculations of observable effects in gadolinium gallium garnet and gadolinium iron garnet. Our calculation accounts for both direct and exchange diagrams.
Moment of Inertia of a Ping-Pong Ball
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cao, Xian-Sheng
2012-01-01
This note describes how to theoretically calculate and experimentally measure the moment of inertia of a Ping-Pong[R] ball. The theoretical calculation results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements that can be reproduced in an introductory physics laboratory.
Using radial NMR profiles to characterize pore size distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deriche, Rachid; Treilhard, John
2012-02-01
Extracting information about axon diameter distributions in the brain is a challenging task which provides useful information for medical purposes; for example, the ability to characterize and monitor axon diameters would be useful in diagnosing and investigating diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)1 or autism.2 Three families of operators are defined by Ozarslan,3 whose action upon an NMR attenuation signal extracts the moments of the pore size distribution of the ensemble under consideration; also a numerical method is proposed to continuously reconstruct a discretely sampled attenuation profile using the eigenfunctions of the simple harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian: the SHORE basis. The work presented here extends Ozarlan's method to other bases that can offer a better description of attenuation signal behaviour; in particular, we propose the use of the radial Spherical Polar Fourier (SPF) basis. Testing is performed to contrast the efficacy of the radial SPF basis and SHORE basis in practical attenuation signal reconstruction. The robustness of the method to additive noise is tested and analysed. We demonstrate that a low-order attenuation signal reconstruction outperforms a higher-order reconstruction in subsequent moment estimation under noisy conditions. We propose the simulated annealing algorithm for basis function scale parameter estimation. Finally, analytic expressions are derived and presented for the action of the operators on the radial SPF basis (obviating the need for numerical integration, thus avoiding a spectrum of possible sources of error).
Approximate theory for radial filtration/consolidation
Tiller, F.M.; Kirby, J.M.; Nguyen, H.L.
1996-10-01
Approximate solutions are developed for filtration and subsequent consolidation of compactible cakes on a cylindrical filter element. Darcy`s flow equation is coupled with equations for equilibrium stress under the conditions of plane strain and axial symmetry for radial flow inwards. The solutions are based on power function forms involving the relationships of the solidosity {epsilon}{sub s} (volume fraction of solids) and the permeability K to the solids effective stress p{sub s}. The solutions allow determination of the various parameters in the power functions and the ratio k{sub 0} of the lateral to radial effective stress (earth stress ratio). Measurements were made of liquid and effective pressures, flow rates, and cake thickness versus time. Experimental data are presented for a series of tests in a radial filtration cell with a central filter element. Slurries prepared from two materials (Microwate, which is mainly SrSO{sub 4}, and kaolin) were used in the experiments. Transient deposition of filter cakes was followed by static (i.e., no flow) conditions in the cake. The no-flow condition was accomplished by introducing bentonite which produced a nearly impermeable layer with negligible flow. Measurement of the pressure at the cake surface and the transmitted pressure on the central element permitted calculation of k{sub 0}.
Point estimates for probability moments
Rosenblueth, Emilio
1975-01-01
Given a well-behaved real function Y of a real random variable X and the first two or three moments of X, expressions are derived for the moments of Y as linear combinations of powers of the point estimates y(x+) and y(x-), where x+ and x- are specific values of X. Higher-order approximations and approximations for discontinuous Y using more point estimates are also given. Second-moment approximations are generalized to the case when Y is a function of several variables. PMID:16578731
Spectral moments of fullerene cages
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Hongxing; Balasubramanian, K.
Based on the symmetric method, analytical expression or recursive relations for the spectral moments of the C20, C24, C26, C28, C30, C32, C36, C38, C40, C42, C44, C50 and C60 fullerene cage clusters are obtained by factoring the original graphs and the corresponding characteristic polynomials into their smaller subgraphs and subpolynomials. We also give numerical results for the spectral moments. It is demonstrated that the symmetric method is feasible in enumerating the moments as well as factoring the characteristic polynomials for fullerene cages.
Radial Distribution of Electron Spectra from High-Energy Ions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cucinotta, Francis A.; Katz, Robert; Wilson, John W.
1998-01-01
The average track model describes the response of physical and biological systems using radial dose distribution as the key physical descriptor. We report on an extension of this model to describe the average distribution of electron spectra as a function of radial distance from an ion. We present calculations of these spectra for ions of identical linear energy transfer (LET), but dissimilar charge and velocity to evaluate the differences in electron spectra from these ions. To illustrate the usefulness of the radial electron spectra for describing effects that are not described by electron dose, we consider the evaluation of the indirect events in microdosimetric distributions for ions. We show that folding our average electron spectra model with experimentally determined frequency distributions for photons or electrons provides a good representation of radial event spectra from high-energy ions in 0.5-2 micrometer sites.
Computing moment-to-moment BOLD activation for real-time neurofeedback.
Hinds, Oliver; Ghosh, Satrajit; Thompson, Todd W; Yoo, Julie J; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Triantafyllou, Christina; Gabrieli, John D E
2011-01-01
Estimating moment-to-moment changes in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation levels from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data has applications for learned regulation of regional activation, brain state monitoring, and brain-machine interfaces. In each of these contexts, accurate estimation of the BOLD signal in as little time as possible is desired. This is a challenging problem due to the low signal-to-noise ratio of fMRI data. Previous methods for real-time fMRI analysis have either sacrificed the ability to compute moment-to-moment activation changes by averaging several acquisitions into a single activation estimate or have sacrificed accuracy by failing to account for prominent sources of noise in the fMRI signal. Here we present a new method for computing the amount of activation present in a single fMRI acquisition that separates moment-to-moment changes in the fMRI signal intensity attributable to neural sources from those due to noise, resulting in a feedback signal more reflective of neural activation. This method computes an incremental general linear model fit to the fMRI time series, which is used to calculate the expected signal intensity at each new acquisition. The difference between the measured intensity and the expected intensity is scaled by the variance of the estimator in order to transform this residual difference into a statistic. Both synthetic and real data were used to validate this method and compare it to the only other published real-time fMRI method.
QUANTIFYING UNCERTAINTY DUE TO RANDOM ERRORS FOR MOMENT ANALYSES OF BREAKTHROUGH CURVES
The uncertainty in moments calculated from breakthrough curves (BTCs) is investigated as a function of random measurement errors in the data used to define the BTCs. The method presented assumes moments are calculated by numerical integration using the trapezoidal rule, and is t...
Ratio of isoscalar to isovector core polarization for magnetic moments
Zamick, L.; Sharon, Y. Y.; Robinson, S. J. Q.
2010-12-15
In calculations of isoscalar magnetic moments of odd-odd N=Z nuclei, it was found that, for medium- to heavy-mass nuclei, large-scale shell-model calculations yielded results that were very close to those obtained with the much simpler single-j shell model. To understand this, we compare isoscalar and isovector core-polarization configuration-mixing contributions to the magnetic moments of mirror pairs in first-order perturbation theory, using a spin-dependent {delta} interaction. We fit the strength of the {delta} interaction by looking at isovector and isoscalar mirror pairs. We then use the same interaction to calculate corrections due to first-order core polarization of the magnetic moments of odd-odd nuclei.
A New Shape Description Method Using Angular Radial Transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Whoi-Yul
Shape is one of the primary low-level image features in content-based image retrieval. In this paper we propose a new shape description method that consists of a rotationally invariant angular radial transform descriptor (IARTD). The IARTD is a feature vector that combines the magnitude and aligned phases of the angular radial transform (ART) coefficients. A phase correction scheme is employed to produce the aligned phase so that the IARTD is invariant to rotation. The distance between two IARTDs is defined by combining differences in the magnitudes and aligned phases. In an experiment using the MPEG-7 shape dataset, the proposed method outperforms existing methods; the average BEP of the proposed method is 57.69%, while the average BEPs of the invariant Zernike moments descriptor and the traditional ART are 41.64% and 36.51%, respectively.
Second Moments (planar Moments) and Their Application in Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bohn, Robert K.; Montgomery, John A., Jr.; Michels, H. Harvey; Byrd, Jason N.
2013-06-01
Second moments, also called planar moments (P_{ii} = Σ m_{i}^{} x_{i}^{2}), are the spectroscopic parameters used to determine substitution structures (r_{s}) ) by Kraitchman''s method from spectra of a molecule and its isotopologs. They are also useful for discussing other molecular structural properties. Just as bond lengths and angles are considered transferable among similar molecules, second moments of many common groups are also transferable. This paper discusses applications of second moments of methylene/methyl groups, singly or multiply, isopropyl/tert-butyl groups, phenyl groups, per{f}{l}uoro methylene/methyl groups, combinations of any of them, and planarity of molecules, the historically most common application of second moments. The inertial defect is Δ = (I_{c} - I_{a} - I_{b}) or -2P_{cc}. Some authors err by assuming each isotopolog provides three independent rotational constants, but in some cases they are not all independent. J. Kraitchman, Am. J. Phys. {21 (17), 1953.}
Inquiry-Based Science: Turning Teachable Moments into Learnable Moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haug, Berit S.
2014-02-01
This study examines how an inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning creates teachable moments that can foster conceptual understanding in students, and how teachers capitalize upon these moments. Six elementary school teachers were videotaped as they implemented an integrated inquiry-based science and literacy curriculum in their classrooms. In this curriculum, science inquiry implies that students search for evidence in order to make and revise explanations based on the evidence found and through critical and logical thinking. Furthermore, the curriculum material is designed to address science key concepts multiple times through multiple modalities (do it, say it, read it, write it). Two types of teachable moments were identified: planned and spontaneous. Results suggest that the consolidation phases of inquiry, when students reinforce new knowledge and connect their empirical findings to theory, can be considered as planned teachable moments. These are phases of inquiry during which the teacher should expect, and be prepared for, student utterances that create opportunities to further student learning. Spontaneous teachable moments are instances when the teacher must choose to either follow the pace of the curriculum or adapt to the students' need. One implication of the study is that more teacher support is required in terms of how to plan for and effectively utilize the consolidation phases of inquiry.
Monte Carlo Volcano Seismic Moment Tensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waite, G. P.; Brill, K. A.; Lanza, F.
2015-12-01
Inverse modeling of volcano seismic sources can provide insight into the geometry and dynamics of volcanic conduits. But given the logistical challenges of working on an active volcano, seismic networks are typically deficient in spatial and temporal coverage; this potentially leads to large errors in source models. In addition, uncertainties in the centroid location and moment-tensor components, including volumetric components, are difficult to constrain from the linear inversion results, which leads to a poor understanding of the model space. In this study, we employ a nonlinear inversion using a Monte Carlo scheme with the objective of defining robustly resolved elements of model space. The model space is randomized by centroid location and moment tensor eigenvectors. Point sources densely sample the summit area and moment tensors are constrained to a randomly chosen geometry within the inversion; Green's functions for the random moment tensors are all calculated from modeled single forces, making the nonlinear inversion computationally reasonable. We apply this method to very-long-period (VLP) seismic events that accompany minor eruptions at Fuego volcano, Guatemala. The library of single force Green's functions is computed with a 3D finite-difference modeling algorithm through a homogeneous velocity-density model that includes topography, for a 3D grid of nodes, spaced 40 m apart, within the summit region. The homogenous velocity and density model is justified by long wavelength of VLP data. The nonlinear inversion reveals well resolved model features and informs the interpretation through a better understanding of the possible models. This approach can also be used to evaluate possible station geometries in order to optimize networks prior to deployment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Yintao; Oertel, Christian; Shen, Xiaoliang
2012-11-01
There are two aims for the second part of this paper: verifying the theory presented in the first part through parameter variation and comparison between simulation and experiment, and to study the effect of the belt structure on the cornering properties of radial tyres. Research has been carried out with a passenger car radial tyre and two different kinds of truck or bus radial tyres using both simulation and experiment. This second part of the paper shows that belt structure plays an important role in the generation of tyre forces and moments in addition to the effects of the tread stiffness and friction coefficients. The theory and method presented in this paper opens a new robust way to predict the tyre forces and moments from the tyre design and provides a reliable model for a generation mechanism.
Radial lean direct injection burner
Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier
2012-09-04
A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.
Shell model estimate of electric dipole moments in medium and heavy nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teruya, Eri; Yoshinaga, Naotaka; Higashiyama, Koji
2015-05-01
Existence of the electric dipole moment (EDM) is deeply related with time-reversal invariance. The EDMof a diamagnetic atom is mainly induced by the nuclear Schiff moment. After carrying out the shell model calculations to obtain wavefunctions for Xe isotopes, we evaluate nuclear Schiff moments for Xe isotopes to estimate their atomic EDMs. We estimate the contribution from each single particle orbital for the Schiff moment. It is found that the contribution on the Schiff moment is very different from orbital to orbital.
Light-induced dipole moment modulation in diarylethenes: a fundamental study.
Bianco, Andrea; Ferrari, Giorgio; Castagna, Rossella; Rossi, Andrea; Carminati, Marco; Pariani, Giorgio; Tommasini, Matteo; Bertarelli, Chiara
2016-11-16
The dipole moment of photochromic diarylethenes is determined in solution for both the coloured and uncoloured forms by measuring the capacitance of a capacitor filled with a photochromic solution as a dielectric material. Diarylethenes with different substituents are investigated and the modulation of the dipole moment is related to their chemical structures. We determine a modulation of the dipole moment up to 4 Debye. We discuss the model used to obtain the dipole moment from the capacitance measurements and we compare the experimental results with the outcomes from DFT calculations. The results highlight the importance of conformational effects in the description of the dipole moment of diarylethenes.
Moments of Isovector Quark Distributions in Lattice QCD
W. Detmold; Wally Melnitchouk; A.W. Thomas
2002-06-01
We investigate the connection of lattice calculations of moments of isovector parton distributions to the physical regime through extrapolations in the quark mass. We consider the one pion loop renormalization of the nucleon matrix elements of the corresponding operators and thereby develop formulae with which to extrapolate the moments of the unpolarized, helicity and transversity distributions. There formulae are consistent with chiral perturbation theory in the chiral limit and incorporate the correct heavy quark limits. In the polarized cases, the inclusion of intermediate states involving the Delta isobar is found to be very important. The results of our extrapolations are in general agreement with the phenomenological values of these moments where they are known, and for the first time we perform an extrapolation of the low moments of the isovector transversity distribution which is consistent with chiral symmetry.
46 CFR 172.225 - Calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... calculations required by paragraph (a) of this section, the virtual increase in the vertical center of gravity... center of gravity of the liquid by the moment of transference method. (c) In calculating the free...
46 CFR 172.225 - Calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... calculations required by paragraph (a) of this section, the virtual increase in the vertical center of gravity... center of gravity of the liquid by the moment of transference method. (c) In calculating the free...
46 CFR 172.225 - Calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... calculations required by paragraph (a) of this section, the virtual increase in the vertical center of gravity... center of gravity of the liquid by the moment of transference method. (c) In calculating the free...
Radial propagation of geodesic acoustic modes
Hager, Robert; Hallatschek, Klaus
2009-07-15
The GAM group velocity is estimated from the ratio of the radial free energy flux to the total free energy applying gyrokinetic and two-fluid theory. This method is much more robust than approaches that calculate the group velocity directly and can be generalized to include additional physics, e.g., magnetic geometry. The results are verified with the gyrokinetic code GYRO[J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)], the two-fluid code NLET[K. Hallatschek and A. Zeiler, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2554 (2000)], and analytical calculations. GAM propagation must be kept in mind when discussing the windows of GAM activity observed experimentally and the match between linear theory and experimental GAM frequencies.
Interplanetary magnetic field power spectra - Mean field radial or perpendicular to radial
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sari, J. W.; Valley, G. C.
1976-01-01
A detailed frequency analysis of Pioneer-6 interplanetary magnetic field data is carried out for 5 to 15 hour periods during which the mean interplanetary field is approximately radial or perpendicular to radial. The reason why these data sets were chosen is that by making the usual assumption that the phase speed of any wave present is much less than the mean solar wind speed, the measured frequency spectra can be interpreted in terms of the wave number parallel or perpendicular to the mean field, without such additional assumptions as isotropy or the dominance of a particular mode and without measurements of velocity and density. The details of the calculation of the magnetic field power spectra, coherencies, and correlation functions are discussed, along with results obtained directly from the data (such as spectra, slopes, anisotropies, and coherencies). The results are interpreted in terms of MHD theory, and are related to work in other areas.
Losses in radial inflow turbines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khalil, I. M.; Tabakoff, W.; Hamed, A.
1976-01-01
A study was conducted to determine experimentally and theoretically the losses in radial inflow turbine nozzles. Extensive experimental data was obtained to investigate the flow behavior in a full-scale radial turbine stator annulus. A theoretical model to predict the losses in both the vaned and vaneless regions of the nozzle was developed. In this analysis, the interaction effects between the stator and the rotor are not considered. It was found that the losses incurred due to the end wall boundary layers can be significant, especially if they are characterized by a strong crossflow. The losses estimated using the analytical study are compared with the experimentally determined values.
Magnetic moments of light nuclei from lattice quantum chromodynamics
Beane, S. R.; Chang, E.; Cohen, S.; Detmold, W.; Lin, H. W.; Orginos, K.; Parreño, A.; Savage, M. J.; Tiburzi, B. C.
2014-12-16
We present the results of lattice QCD calculations of the magnetic moments of the lightest nuclei, the deuteron, the triton and ^{3}He, along with those of the neutron and proton. These calculations, performed at quark masses corresponding to m_{π} ~ 800 MeV, reveal that the structure of these nuclei at unphysically heavy quark masses closely resembles that at the physical quark masses. We find that the magnetic moment of ^{3}He differs only slightly from that of a free neutron, as is the case in nature, indicating that the shell-model configuration of two spin-paired protons and a valence neutron captures its dominant structure. Similarly a shell-model-like moment is found for the triton, μ_{3H} ~ μ_{p}. The deuteron magnetic moment is found to be equal to the nucleon isoscalar moment within the uncertainties of the calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2013-07-01
WE RECOMMEND The Quantum Story: A History in 40 Moments Dip into this useful and accessible guide to quantum theory Down2Earth Astronomical-science resource enables students to pursue real, hands-on science, whatever the weather Irwin Signal Generator/Power Amplifier Students enjoy the novelty factor of versatile, affordable kit Laboratory Experiments in Physics for Modern Astronomy Book of experiments would make good supplementary material Heart of Darkness: Unravelling the Mysteries of the Invisible Universe Accessible and distinctive account of cosmology impresses The Long Road to Stockholm: The Story of MRI—An Autobiography Fascinating book tells personal and scientific stories side by side WORTH A LOOK The Address Book: Our Place in the Scheme of Things Entertaining and well-written essays offer insights and anecdotes TI-Nspire Datalogger/Calculator Challenging interface gives this kit a steep learning curve, but once overcome, results are good WEB WATCH Light-beam app game leaves little impression, while astronomy and astrophysics projects provide much-needed resources
Centroid Moment Tensor Inversion in a 3D heterogeneous Earth: Application to the Australasian region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hejrani, B.; Tkalcic, H.; Fichtner, A.
2015-12-01
Australia is surrounded by active complex tectonic belts causing significant seismicity. The recent expansion of permanent seismic networks in the Australasian region provides great opportunity to study Earth structure and a great variety of physical mechanisms responsible for earthquakes.On one hand, a better understanding of the Australasian lithosphere, which is now available through tomographic images from full waveform modelling (Fichtner et al. 2010), provides a powerful tool to scrutinize the determination of earthquake source parameters. Even at relatively long periods (40-200s), the 3D effects of regional structure were shown to significantly alter the global centroid moment tensor solutions (Hingee et al. 2012). Thus, we can now explore other types of uncertainties and test the accuracy of global centroid moment tensor (GCMT) solution for the earthquakes in the Australasian region while checking for the systematic inconsistencies in the solutions. This has a significant bearing on tectonic interpretations. For example, azimuth and plunge of fault planes can be investigated in search for systematic biases.On the other hand, the time has come to take a full advantage of the 3D Earth structural model and embrace ongoing advances in computational power and storage. We develop a semi-automated procedure to calculate the Centroid Moment Tensors in a 3D heterogeneous Earth. We utilize the reciprocity theorem to create Green's functions for point sources covering seismogenic zones of Australasia. We focus on improving the capacity of the method to fully complement the existing monitoring tools at Geosciences Australia. Furthermore, we investigate the effects of detailed velocity structure on Centroid location and double-couple percentages. Moreover Azimuth and Plunge of focal mechanisms in GCMT (Global CMT), were investigated in search for any systematic bias.References: Fichtner, A., Kennett, B.L.N., Igel, H., Bunge, H.-P., 2010. Full waveform tomography for
Vortex Whistle in Radial Intake
2004-10-01
RTO-MP-AVT-110 22 - 1 Vortex Whistle in Radial Intake Dr. Man-Chun Tse Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp. 1000 Marie-Victorin, Longueuil , Quebec...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp. 1000 Marie-Victorin, Longueuil , Quebec, Canada, J4G 1A1 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT
Asymptotic screened hydrogenic radial integrals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olsgaard, D. A.; Khan, F.; Khandelwal, G. S.
1988-01-01
The usefulness of the screened hydrogenic model for the transitions of the helium sequence is studied. The screened hydrogenic radial dipole integral for discrete-discrete transitions from the initial state to the final state is asymptotically expanded to the lowest order such that the final quantum number n approaches infinity. The analytical expression obtained is in terms of confluent hypergeometric functions.
Magnetic Moment Enhancement for Mn7 Cluster on Graphene
Liu, Xiaojie; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Lin, Hai-Qing; Ho, Kai-Ming
2014-08-21
Mn7 cluster on graphene with different structural motifs and magnetic orders are investigated systematically by first-principles calculations. The calculations show that Mn7 on graphene prefers a two-layer motif and exhibits a ferrimagnetic coupling. The magnetic moment of the Mn7 cluster increases from 5.0 μB at its free-standing state to about 6.0 μB upon adsorption on graphene. Mn7 cluster also induces about 0.3 μB of magnetic moment in the graphene layer, leading to an overall enhancement of 1.3 μB magnetic moment for Mn7 on graphene. Detail electron transfer and bonding analysis have been carried out to investigate the origin of the magnetic enhancement.
Moment tensor mechanisms from Iberia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stich, D.; Morales, J.
2003-12-01
New moment tensor solutions are presented for small and moderate earthquakes in Spain, Portugal and the westernmost Mediterranean Sea for the period from 2002 to present. Moment tensor inversion, to estimate focal mechanism, depth and magnitude, is applied at the Instituto Andaluz de Geof¡sica (IAG) in a routine manner to regional earthquakes with local magnitude larger then or equal 3.5. Recent improvements of broadband network coverage contribute to relatively high rates of success: Since beginning of 2002, we could obtain valuable solutions, in the sense that moment tensor synthetic waveforms fit adequately the main characteristics of the observed seismograms, for about 50% of all events of the initial selection. Results are available on-line at http://www.ugr.es/~iag/tensor/. To date, the IAG moment tensor catalogue contains 90 solutions since 1984 and gives a relatively detailed picture of seismotectonics in the Ibero-maghrebian region, covering also low seismicity areas like intraplate Iberia. Solutions are concentrated in southern Spain and the Alboran Sea along the diffuse African-Eurasian plate boundary. These solutions reveal characteristics of the transition between the reverse faulting regime in Algeria and predominately normal faulting on the Iberian Peninsula. Further we discuss the available mechanisms for intermediate deep events, related to subcrustal tectonic processes at the plate contact.
Unteachable Moments and Pedagogical Relationships
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Hongyu
2016-01-01
This paper discusses how Julia Kristeva's theory can inform our understanding of unteachable moments. It proposes a pedagogical relationship that can contain breakdowns of meanings and work toward breakthroughs to new awareness, particularly related to social justice pedagogy in teacher education. First, one example from the author's own teaching…
Elliott, Mark A.; Giersch, Anne
2016-01-01
There has been evidence for the very brief, temporal quantization of perceptual experience at regular intervals below 100 ms for several decades. We briefly describe how earlier studies led to the concept of “psychological moment” of between 50 and 60 ms duration. According to historical theories, within the psychological moment all events would be processed as co-temporal. More recently, a link with physiological mechanisms has been proposed, according to which the 50–60 ms psychological moment would be defined by the upper limit required by neural mechanisms to synchronize and thereby represent a snapshot of current perceptual event structure. However, our own experimental developments also identify a more fine-scaled, serialized process structure within the psychological moment. Our data suggests that not all events are processed as co-temporal within the psychological moment and instead, some are processed successively. This evidence questions the analog relationship between synchronized process and simultaneous experience and opens debate on the ontology and function of “moments” in psychological experience. PMID:26779059
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Arthur I.; Williams, Paul; Palmer, Tim; O'Shea, Michael; Neale, Ron; Reed, Cameron
2016-11-01
In October Philip Ball reported on the “Physics Imagination Retreat” workshop held in June at the University of Cambridge in the UK, at which a number of prominent scientists recounted their moments of sudden insight that led to scientific discoveries.
Measuring the Moment of Inertia
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lehmberg, George L.
1978-01-01
Two physics experiments are described, One, involving a laboratory cart accelerated along a level surface, examines the concept of inertial mass in translation and the other, using a solid cylinder, measures the moment of inertia of a wheel. Equations and illustrations are included. (MA)
Effect of reverse shoulder design philosophy on muscle moment arms.
Hamilton, Matthew A; Diep, Phong; Roche, Chris; Flurin, Pierre Henri; Wright, Thomas W; Zuckerman, Joseph D; Routman, Howard
2015-04-01
This study analyzes the muscle moment arms of three different reverse shoulder design philosophies using a previously published method. Digital bone models of the shoulder were imported into a 3D modeling software and markers placed for the origin and insertion of relevant muscles. The anatomic model was used as a baseline for moment arm calculations. Subsequently, three different reverse shoulder designs were virtually implanted and moment arms were analyzed in abduction and external rotation. The results indicate that the lateral offset between the joint center and the axis of the humerus specific to one reverse shoulder design increased the external rotation moment arms of the posterior deltoid relative to the other reverse shoulder designs. The other muscles analyzed demonstrated differences in the moment arms, but none of the differences reached statistical significance. This study demonstrated how the combination of variables making up different reverse shoulder designs can affect the moment arms of the muscles in different and statistically significant ways. The role of humeral offset in reverse shoulder design has not been previously reported and could have an impact on external rotation and stability achieved post-operatively.
Moments of Inertia of Disks and Spheres without Integration
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hong, Seok-Cheol; Hong, Seok-In
2013-01-01
Calculation of moments of inertia is often challenging for introductory-level physics students due to the use of integration, especially in non-Cartesian coordinates. Methods that do not employ calculus have been described for finding the rotational inertia of thin rods and other simple bodies. In this paper we use the parallel axis theorem and…
Radial reactor for trichloroethylene steam reforming
Moates, F.C.; McMinn, T.E.; Richardson, J.T.
1999-11-01
A ceramic foam radial reactor was used to convert trichloroethylene by steam reforming, using 0.5 wt. % Pt as a catalyst. With a quartz enclosure heated externally by infrared lamps, the inlet temperature to the catalyst bed was low enough to suppress pyrolysis, but high conversions (0.99999 +) were achieved at the exit. Stable operation up to 600 h with a space velocity of 5.6 x 10{sup 4}h{sup {minus}1} was achieved, but reactant break-through then occurred, and the catalyst quickly deactivated. Although the deactivated catalyst was regenerated with carbon burning, activity decline was more rapid due to platinum sintering and washcoat degradation. Measured temperature profiles and model calculations indicated a large gradient in the bed and suggested that stable operation could be extended at lower space velocities. Axial temperature profiles were not uniform, since preferential flow occurred in the middle and lower regions of the radial bed. Potential improvements for future designs are suggested.
SAMBA: Sparse Approximation of Moment-Based Arbitrary Polynomial Chaos
Ahlfeld, R. Belkouchi, B.; Montomoli, F.
2016-09-01
A new arbitrary Polynomial Chaos (aPC) method is presented for moderately high-dimensional problems characterised by limited input data availability. The proposed methodology improves the algorithm of aPC and extends the method, that was previously only introduced as tensor product expansion, to moderately high-dimensional stochastic problems. The fundamental idea of aPC is to use the statistical moments of the input random variables to develop the polynomial chaos expansion. This approach provides the possibility to propagate continuous or discrete probability density functions and also histograms (data sets) as long as their moments exist, are finite and the determinant of the moment matrix is strictly positive. For cases with limited data availability, this approach avoids bias and fitting errors caused by wrong assumptions. In this work, an alternative way to calculate the aPC is suggested, which provides the optimal polynomials, Gaussian quadrature collocation points and weights from the moments using only a handful of matrix operations on the Hankel matrix of moments. It can therefore be implemented without requiring prior knowledge about statistical data analysis or a detailed understanding of the mathematics of polynomial chaos expansions. The extension to more input variables suggested in this work, is an anisotropic and adaptive version of Smolyak's algorithm that is solely based on the moments of the input probability distributions. It is referred to as SAMBA (PC), which is short for Sparse Approximation of Moment-Based Arbitrary Polynomial Chaos. It is illustrated that for moderately high-dimensional problems (up to 20 different input variables or histograms) SAMBA can significantly simplify the calculation of sparse Gaussian quadrature rules. SAMBA's efficiency for multivariate functions with regard to data availability is further demonstrated by analysing higher order convergence and accuracy for a set of nonlinear test functions with 2, 5 and 10
Inclusion of a Body Wave Seismic Moment Tensor Estimator in the CTBTO/IDC Processing Suite
2007-09-01
Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 OBJECTIVES The objective of this project is to integrate an MT and moment magnitude Mw (Hanks and Kanamori , 1979...is desirable to measure the moment magnitude (Hanks and Kanamori , 1979). The moment magnitude samples lower frequencies and is correspondingly...components (Kikuchi and Kanamori 1982), and varied the duration of source time and the centroid depth. The Green’s function is calculated by the method of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hättig, Christof; Christiansen, Ove; Jørgensen, Poul
1998-05-01
Based on an analysis of the first residues of coupled cluster response functions we devise variational functionals from which the transition moments for n-photon excitations can be calculated as nth derivatives. Combining these functionals with variational perturbation theory, we obtain a new approach for the derivation of multiphoton transition moments which allows us to utilize the full strengths of variational perturbation theory without the roundabout way via residues of response functions. Coupled cluster multiphoton transition moments derived by this approach are formally equivalent to the one identified from the first residues of the ground state response functions. The introduction of the variational functionals makes the mathematical structure of the transition moments more transparent and provides an interpretation of intermediates in terms of responses of excited state vectors and Lagrangian multipliers. 2n+1 and 2n+2 rules are formulated for the transition moments and build the basis for a straightforward derivation of a computational efficient formulation. The strength of the new approach is demonstrated by the derivation of three- and four-photon transition moments.
Microscopic Calculations of 240Pu Fission
Younes, W; Gogny, D
2007-09-11
Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations have been performed with the Gogny finite-range effective interaction for {sup 240}Pu out to scission, using a new code developed at LLNL. A first set of calculations was performed with constrained quadrupole moment along the path of most probable fission, assuming axial symmetry but allowing for the spontaneous breaking of reflection symmetry of the nucleus. At a quadrupole moment of 345 b, the nucleus was found to spontaneously scission into two fragments. A second set of calculations, with all nuclear moments up to hexadecapole constrained, was performed to approach the scission configuration in a controlled manner. Calculated energies, moments, and representative plots of the total nuclear density are shown. The present calculations serve as a proof-of-principle, a blueprint, and starting-point solutions for a planned series of more comprehensive calculations to map out a large set of scission configurations, and the associated fission-fragment properties.
Optimal design of radial Bragg cavities and lasers.
Ben-Bassat, Eyal; Scheuer, Jacob
2015-07-01
We present a new and optimal design approach for obtaining maximal confinement of the field in radial Bragg cavities and lasers for TM polarization. The presented approach outperforms substantially the previously employed periodic and semi-periodic design schemes of such lasers. We show that in order to obtain maximal confinement, it is essential to consider the complete reflection properties (amplitude and phase) of the propagating radial waves at the interfaces between Bragg layers. When these properties are taken into account, we find that it is necessary to introduce a wider ("half-wavelength") layer at a specific radius in the "quarter-wavelength" radial Bragg stack. It is shown that this radius corresponds to the cylindrical equivalent of Brewster's angle. The confinement and field profile are calculated numerically by means of transfer matrix method.
Velocidades radiales en Collinder 121
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnal, M.; Morrell, N.
Se han llevado a cabo observaciones espectroscópicas de unas treinta estrellas que son posibles miembros del cúmulo abierto Collinder 121. Las mismas fueron realizadas con el telescopio de 2.15m del Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO). El análisis de las velocidades radiales derivadas del material obtenido, confirma la realidad de Collinder 121, al menos desde el punto de vista cinemático. La velocidad radial baricentral (LSR) del cúmulo es de +17 ± 3 km.s-1. Esta velocidad coincide, dentro de los errores, con la velocidad radial (LSR) de la nebulosa anillo S308, la cual es de ~20 ± 10 km.s-1. Como S308 se encuentra físicamente asociada a la estrella Wolf-Rayet HD~50896, es muy probable que esta última sea un miembro de Collinder 121. Desde un punto de vista cinemático, la supergigante roja HD~50877 (K3Iab) también pertenecería a Collinder 121. Basándonos en la pertenencia de HD~50896 a Collinder 121, y en la interacción encontrada entre el viento de esta estrella y el medio interestelar circundante a la misma, se estima para este cúmulo una distancia del orden de 1 kpc.
Superconductivity from Emerging Magnetic Moments.
Hoshino, Shintaro; Werner, Philipp
2015-12-11
Multiorbital Hubbard models are shown to exhibit a spatially isotropic spin-triplet superconducting phase, where equal-spin electrons in different local orbitals are paired. This superconducting state is stabilized in the spin-freezing crossover regime, where local moments emerge in the metal phase, and the pairing is substantially assisted by spin anisotropy. The phase diagram features a superconducting dome below a non-Fermi-liquid metallic region and next to a magnetically ordered phase. We suggest that this type of fluctuating-moment-induced superconductivity, which is not originating from fluctuations near a quantum critical point, may be realized in spin-triplet superconductors such as strontium ruthenates and uranium compounds.
Magnetic dipole moment determination by near-field analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eichhorn, W. L.
1972-01-01
A method for determining the magnetic moment of a spacecraft from magnetic field data taken in a limited region of space close to the spacecraft. The spacecraft's magnetic field equations are derived from first principles. With measurements of this field restricted to certain points in space, the near-field equations for the spacecraft are derived. These equations are solved for the dipole moment by a least squares procedure. A method by which one can estimate the magnitude of the error in the calculations is also presented. This technique was thoroughly tested on a computer. The test program is described and evaluated, and partial results are presented.
Magnetic moments of negative parity baryons in QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aliev, T. M.; Savcı, M.
2014-03-01
Using the most general form of the interpolating current for the octet baryons, the magnetic moments of the negative-parity baryons are calculated within the light-cone sum rules. The contributions coming from diagonal transitions of the positive-parity baryons and also from a nondiagonal transition between positive- and negative-parity baryons are eliminated by considering the combinations of different sum rules corresponding to the different Lorentz structures. A comparison of our results on magnetic moments of the negative-parity baryons with the other approaches existing in the literature is presented.
Magnetic moments of JP=3/2- baryons in QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aliev, T. M.; Savcı, M.
2014-12-01
The magnetic moments of the low lying, negative parity, spin-3 /2 baryons, including the Λ* baryon, are calculated within the light cone QCD sum rules method. The contributions coming from the positive parity, spin-3 /2 baryons, as well as from the positive and negative parity spin-1 /2 baryons are eliminated by constructing combinations of various invariant amplitudes corresponding to the coefficients of the different Lorentz structures. We also present the results for the magnetic moments of the positive parity, spin-3 /2 baryons.
Raw and Central Moments of Binomial Random Variables via Stirling Numbers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Griffiths, Martin
2013-01-01
We consider here the problem of calculating the moments of binomial random variables. It is shown how formulae for both the raw and the central moments of such random variables may be obtained in a recursive manner utilizing Stirling numbers of the first kind. Suggestions are also provided as to how students might be encouraged to explore this…
Atomic Quadrupole Moment Measurement Using Dynamic Decoupling.
Shaniv, R; Akerman, N; Ozeri, R
2016-04-08
We present a method that uses dynamic decoupling of a multilevel quantum probe to distinguish small frequency shifts that depend on m_{j}^{2}, where m_{j}^{2} is the angular momentum of level |j⟩ along the quantization axis, from large noisy shifts that are linear in m_{j}, such as those due to magnetic field noise. Using this method we measured the electric-quadrupole moment of the 4D_{5/2} level in ^{88}Sr^{+} to be 2.973_{-0.033}^{+0.026}ea_{0}^{2}. Our measurement improves the uncertainty of this value by an order of magnitude and thus helps mitigate an important systematic uncertainty in ^{88}Sr^{+} based optical atomic clocks and verifies complicated many-body quantum calculations.
Geroux, Chris M.; Deupree, Robert G.
2013-07-10
We have developed a three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics code to simulate the interaction of convection and radial pulsation in classical variable stars. One key goal is the ability to carry these simulations to full amplitude in order to compare them with observed light curves. Previous multi-dimensional calculations were prevented from reaching full amplitude because of drift in the radial coordinate system, due to the algorithm defining radial movement of the coordinate system during the pulsation cycle. We have removed this difficulty by defining our radial coordinate flow algorithm to require that the mass in a spherical shell remain constant for every time step throughout the pulsation cycle. We have used our new code to perform two-dimensional (2D) simulations of the interaction of radial pulsation and convection. We have made comparisons between light curves from our 2D convective simulations with observed light curves and find that our 2D simulated light curves are better able to match the observed light curve shape near the red edge of the RR Lyrae instability strip than light curves from previous one-dimensional time-dependent convective models.
Nuclear Quadrupole Moments and Nuclear Shell Structure
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Townes, C. H.; Foley, H. M.; Low, W.
1950-06-23
Describes a simple model, based on nuclear shell considerations, which leads to the proper behavior of known nuclear quadrupole moments, although predictions of the magnitudes of some quadrupole moments are seriously in error.
Moments Method for the Nuclear Density of States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teran, Edgar; Johnson, Calvin
2006-04-01
We utilize statistical spectroscopy to model the nuclear level density in the interacting shell model. Low-lying statistical moments of each configuration of the shell model space are computed. Partial (configuration) densities are generated from the moments, and the sum of all the contributions is the total level density. Modified Breit-Wigner (MBW) distributions are used to model the partial densities. The properties of such functions allow for exact reproduction of the moments at large asymmetries, which are needed to accurately reproduce the overall level density. We work in the sd-shell with USD interaction, and the pf-shell with GXPF1, FPD6G an KB3G interactions. Results from level densities generated with method will be shown in the sd-shell and pf-shell, as well as comparisons to exact calculations and experimental data.
Particle number fluctuations in the moment of inertia
Allal, N.H.; Fellah, M. )
1991-06-01
The nonphysical effects due to the false components introduced by the nonconservation of the particle number in the BCS states are eliminated in the theoretical values of the moment of inertia calculated by the microscopic cranking model. The states of the system are obtained by successive projections of the BCS states in the occupation number space. The moment of inertia appears then as a limit of a rapidly convergent sequence. The errors due to this false component have been numerically estimated and appear to be important both in the BCS states and in the matrix elements of the angular momentum. The predicted values of the moment of inertia satisfactorily reproduce the experimental data over a large number of nuclei within rare-earth and actinide regions with discrepancies ranging from 0.1% to 8%.
Higher order statistical moment application for solar PV potential analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basri, Mohd Juhari Mat; Abdullah, Samizee; Azrulhisham, Engku Ahmad; Harun, Khairulezuan
2016-10-01
Solar photovoltaic energy could be as alternative energy to fossil fuel, which is depleting and posing a global warming problem. However, this renewable energy is so variable and intermittent to be relied on. Therefore the knowledge of energy potential is very important for any site to build this solar photovoltaic power generation system. Here, the application of higher order statistical moment model is being analyzed using data collected from 5MW grid-connected photovoltaic system. Due to the dynamic changes of skewness and kurtosis of AC power and solar irradiance distributions of the solar farm, Pearson system where the probability distribution is calculated by matching their theoretical moments with that of the empirical moments of a distribution could be suitable for this purpose. On the advantage of the Pearson system in MATLAB, a software programming has been developed to help in data processing for distribution fitting and potential analysis for future projection of amount of AC power and solar irradiance availability.
Unit moment analysis as a guide to mirror mount design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vukobratovich, Daniel; Coronato, Patrick
2015-09-01
Unit moment analysis minimizes the computational overhead associated with mirror mount design. Since mirrors operate in the linear domain with respect to stress/strain, it is possible to use the principle of superposition to determine overall optical surface deflection from a variety of sources. Surface deflection is calculated by FEA (finite element analysis) when applying unit loads at single mounting point. Deflection coefficients relating moments with surface deflection can be derived from the results of this analysis. These deflection coefficients are then applied, using the principle of superposition, to find the maximum tolerable moments associated with the mirror mount. Finally, manufacturing tolerances as well as environmental effects can be included to determine the required mirror mount compliance. This design approach is applicable to a wide range of mounting types, including classical kinematic and flexure mounts.
Electric dipole moments of light nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mereghetti, Emanuele
2017-01-01
Electric dipole moments (EDMs) are extremely sensitive probes of physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). A vibrant experimental program is in place, with the goal to improve the existing neutron EDM bound by one/two orders of magnitude, and to test new ideas for the measurement of EDMs of light ions, such as deuteron and helium, at a comparable level. The success of this program, and its implications for physics beyond the SM, relies on the precise calculation of the EDMs in terms of the couplings of CP-violating operators. In light of the non-perturbative nature both of QCD at low energy and of the nuclear interactions, these calculations have proven difficult, and are affected by large theoretical uncertainties. In this talk I will review the progress that in recent years has been achieved on different aspects of the calculation of hadronic and nuclear EDMs. In particular, I will discuss how the interplay between lattice QCD and Chiral Effective Field Theory (EFT) has allowed to reduce a set of hadronic uncertainties. Finally, I will discuss how the measurements of th EDMs of one, two and three nucleon systems can be used to discriminate between various possible mechanisms of time-reversal violation at high energy.
Radial tears of the menisci: MR findings.
Tuckman, G A; Miller, W J; Remo, J W; Fritts, H M; Rozansky, M I
1994-08-01
Radial meniscal tears have a plane of cleavage oriented across the short axis of the meniscus in the same plane in which radial images are oriented. These tears are important to recognize, because they have clinical implications different from those of other meniscal tears with respect to meniscal function, orthopedic treatment, and clinical course. Depending on their size, location, and orientation, radial tears can have different appearances on standard MR images. Certain types can be fairly subtle to diagnose. The purpose of this essay is to illustrate the varied appearances of radial tears on MR images and the findings commonly associated with radial tears.
Intensity calculations of HCN molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yasmin, Kausar
2006-10-01
Accurate spectroscopic data of HCN are required for many astronomical calculations and modeling. HCN molecules are present in the atmosphere of carbon stars and in galactic centers. Ro-vibrational energy levels and intensity calculations were carried out using the full coupled cluster model and radau coordinates. Accurate ab initio calculated potential energy surface^1 and dipole moment surface^2 were used for computation. The computed values were compared with Hitran^99.^
Radial vibrations of BPS skyrmions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adam, C.; Haberichter, M.; Romanczukiewicz, T.; Wereszczynski, A.
2016-11-01
We study radial vibrations of spherically symmetric Skyrmions in the Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield Skyrme model. Concretely, we numerically solve the linearized field equations for small fluctuations in a Skyrmion background, both for linearly stable oscillations and for (unstable) resonances. This is complemented by numerical solutions of the full nonlinear system, which confirm all the results of the linear analysis. In all cases, the resulting fundamental excitation provides a rather accurate value for the Roper resonance, supporting the hypothesis that the Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield Skyrme model already gives a reasonable approximate description of this resonance. Furthermore, for many potentials additional higher resonances appear, again in agreement with known experimental results.
PRECISION RADIAL VELOCITIES WITH CSHELL
Crockett, Christopher J.; Prato, L.; Mahmud, Naved I.; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; Jaffe, Daniel T.; Beichman, Charles A. E-mail: lprato@lowell.edu E-mail: cmj@rice.edu
2011-07-10
Radial velocity (RV) identification of extrasolar planets has historically been dominated by optical surveys. Interest in expanding exoplanet searches to M dwarfs and young stars, however, has motivated a push to improve the precision of near-infrared RV techniques. We present our methodology for achieving 58 m s{sup -1} precision in the K band on the M0 dwarf GJ 281 using the CSHELL spectrograph at the 3 m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. We also demonstrate our ability to recover the known 4 M{sub JUP} exoplanet Gl 86 b and discuss the implications for success in detecting planets around 1-3 Myr old T Tauri stars.
Defining moments in leadership character development.
Bleich, Michael R
2015-06-01
Critical moments in life define one's character and clarify true values. Reflective leadership is espoused as an important practice for transformational leaders. Professional development educators can help surface and explore defining moments, strengthen leadership behavior with defining moments as a catalyst for change, and create safe spaces for leaders to expand their leadership capacity.
A ten year Moment Tensor database for Western Greece
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serpetsidaki, Anna; Sokos, Efthimios; Tselentis, G.-Akis
2016-10-01
Moment Tensors (MTs) provide important information for seismotectonic, stress distribution and source studies. It is also important as a real time or near real time information in shakemaps, tsunami warning, and stress transfer. Therefore a reliable and rapid MT computation is a routine task for modern seismic networks with broadband sensors and real-time digital telemetry. In this paper we present the database of Moment Tensor solutions computed during the last ten years in Western Greece by the University of Patras, Seismological Laboratory (UPSL). The data from UPSL broad band network were used together with the ISOLA Moment Tensor inversion package for routine MT calculation. The procedures followed and the comparison of UPSL derived solutions with the ones provided by other agencies for Western Greece region are presented as well. The Moment Tensor database includes solutions for events in the magnitude range 2.8-6.8 and provides a unique insight into the faulting characteristics of Western Greece. Moreover it paves the way for detailed studies of stress tensor and stress transfer. The weak events' Moment Tensor included in UPSL's database are important for the comprehension of local seismotectonics and reveal the role of minor faults, which may be critical in seismic hazard estimation.
Corrugated Waveguide Mode Content Analysis Using Irradiance Moments
Jawla, Sudheer K.; Shapiro, Michael A.; Idei, Hiroshi; Temkin, Richard J.
2015-01-01
We present a novel, relatively simple method for determining the mode content of the linearly polarized modes of a corrugated waveguide using the moments of the intensity pattern of the field radiated from the end of the waveguide. This irradiance moment method is based on calculating the low-order irradiance moments, using measured intensity profiles only, of the radiated field from the waveguide aperture. Unlike the phase retrieval method, this method does not use or determine the phase distribution at the waveguide aperture. The new method was benchmarked numerically by comparison with sample mode mixtures. The results predict less than ±0.7% error bar in the retrieval of the mode content. The method was also tested using high-resolution experimental data from beams radiated from 63.5 mm and 19 mm corrugated waveguides at 170 and 250 GHz, respectively. The results showed a very good agreement of the mode content retrieved using the irradiance moment method versus the phase retrieval technique. The irradiance moment method is most suitable for cases where the modal power is primarily in the fundamental HE11 mode, with <8% of the power in high-order modes. PMID:25821260
A moment projection method for population balance dynamics with a shrinkage term
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Shaohua; Yapp, Edward K. Y.; Akroyd, Jethro; Mosbach, Sebastian; Xu, Rong; Yang, Wenming; Kraft, Markus
2017-02-01
A new method of moments for solving the population balance equation is developed and presented. The moment projection method (MPM) is numerically simple and easy to implement and attempts to address the challenge of particle shrinkage due to processes such as oxidation, evaporation or dissolution. It directly solves the moment transport equation for the moments and tracks the number of the smallest particles using the algorithm by Blumstein and Wheeler (1973) [41]. The performance of the new method is measured against the method of moments (MOM) and the hybrid method of moments (HMOM). The results suggest that MPM performs much better than MOM and HMOM where shrinkage is dominant. The new method predicts mean quantities which are almost as accurate as a high-precision stochastic method calculated using the established direct simulation algorithm (DSA).
Moments of catchment storm area
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eagleson, P. S.; Wang, Q.
1985-01-01
The portion of a catchment covered by a stationary rainstorm is modeled by the common area of two overlapping circles. Given that rain occurs within the catchment and conditioned by fixed storm and catchment sizes, the first two moments of the distribution of the common area are derived from purely geometrical considerations. The variance of the wetted fraction is shown to peak when the catchment size is equal to the size of the predominant storm. The conditioning on storm size is removed by assuming a probability distribution based upon the observed fractal behavior of cloud and rainstorm areas.
Fermion dipole moment and holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulaxizi, Manuela; Rahman, Rakibur
2015-12-01
In the background of a charged AdS black hole, we consider a Dirac particle endowed with an arbitrary magnetic dipole moment. For non-zero charge and dipole coupling of the bulk fermion, we find that the dual boundary theory can be plagued with superluminal modes. Requiring consistency of the dual CFT amounts to constraining the strength of the dipole coupling by an upper bound. We briefly discuss the implications of our results for the physics of holographic non-Fermi liquids.
The higher moments in the Lundgren model conform with Kolmogorov scaling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Segel, Daniel
1995-12-01
We calculate the structure functions of the higher moments of the vorticity in the framework of Lundgren's spiral model of turbulence. We show that they conform to the scaling expected from Kolmogorov's scaling hypothesis of 1941, and explain the result.
Ground and excited state dipole moments of coumarin 337 laser dye
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raikar, U. S.; Tangod, V. B.; Mannopantar, S. R.; Mastiholi, B. M.
2010-11-01
This paper reports that the effects of spectral properties of coumarin 337 laser dye have been investigated in different solvents considering solvent parameters like dielectric constant ( є) and refractive index ( n) of different solvent polarities. The ground state ( μg) and excited state ( μe) dipole moments are calculated using Lippert's, Bakhshiev's, and Kawski-Chamma-Viallet's equations. In all these three equations the variation of Stokes shift was used to calculate the excited state ( μe) dipole moment. It is observed that the Bakhshiev method is comparatively better than the other two methods for ground state and excited state dipole moment calculations. The angle between the excited state and ground state dipole moments is also calculated.
Limitations of Lifting-Line Theory for Estimation of Aileron Hinge-Moment Characteristics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swanson, Robert S.; Gillis, Clarence L.
1943-01-01
Hinge-moment parameters for several typical ailerons were calculated from section data with the aspect-ratio correction as usually determined from lifting-line theory. The calculations showed that the agreement between experimental and calculated results was unsatisfactory. An additional aspect-ratio correction, calculated by the method of lifting-surface theory, was applied to the slope of the curve of hinge-moment coefficient against angle of attack at small angles of attack. This so-called streamline-curvature correction brought the calculated and experimental results into satisfactory agreement.
Socket stars: UBVRJIK radial profiles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaefer, Bradley E.
1995-05-01
Visual inspectin of stars embedded in H II nebulae has shown a significant fraction to be surrounded by nearly symmetric extended regions within which the nebular brightness is apparently significantly fainter than is typical for the surrounding area. These 'socket stars' might be caused by a bubble in the nebula blown out by a stellar wind or they might be caused by a circumstellar envelope of dust hiding the emission behind the star. As such, the sockets could be the first manifestation of a previously unknown component of pre-main-sequence stars. Unfortunately, no quantitative proof of the existence of sockets has been presented. To fill this need, I have imaged 10 socket stars and six background stars with CCD cameras and infrared array cameras. From these images, I have constructed radial plots which should reveal dips in brightness immediately outside the seeing disk. The radial plots do not show any evidence for the existence of sockets. A detailed examination of the photographs orginally used to identify the sockets show that the causes of these reports are (1) artifacts resulting from the photographic process of dodging and (2) random coincidence of stars with local minima in nebular brightness. Thus, I conclude that 'socket stars' do not exist.
Determination of the dipole moments of RNAse SA wild type and a basic mutant.
Chari, Ravi; Singh, Shubhadra N; Yadav, Sandeep; Brems, David N; Kalonia, Devendra S
2012-04-01
In this study, we report the effects of acidic to basic residue point mutations (5K) on the dipole moment of RNAse SA at different pHs. Dipole moments were determined by measuring solution capacitance of the wild type (WT) and the 5K mutant with an impedance analyzer. The dipole moments were then (1) compared with theoretically calculated dipole moments, (2) analyzed to determine the effect of the point mutations, and (3) analyzed for their contribution to overall protein-protein interactions (PPI) in solution as quantitated by experimentally derived second virial coefficients. We determined that experimental and calculated dipoles were in reasonable agreement. Differences are likely due to local motions of residue side chains, which are not accounted for by the calculated dipole. We observed that the proteins' dipole moments increase as the pH is shifted further from their isoelectric points and that the wild-type dipole moments were greater than those of the 5K. This is likely due to an increase in the proportion of one charge (either negative or positive) relative to the other. A greater charge disparity corresponded to a larger dipole moment. Finally, the larger dipole moments of the WT resulted in greater attractive overall PPI for that protein as compared to the 5K.
The Role of Radial Clearance on the Performance of Foil Air Bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Radil, Kevin; Howard, Samuel; Dykas, Brian
2002-01-01
Load capacity tests were conducted to determine how radial clearance variations affect the load capacity coefficient of foil air bearings. Two Generation III foil air bearings with the same design but possessing different initial radial clearances were tested at room temperature against an as-ground PS304 coated journal operating at 30,000 rpm. Increases in radial clearance were accomplished by reducing the journal's outside diameter via an in-place grinding system. From each load capacity test the bearing load capacity coefficient was calculated from the rule-of-thumb (ROT) model developed for foil air bearings. The test results indicate that, in terms of the load capacity coefficient, radial clearance has a direct impact on the performance of the foil air bearing. Each test bearing exhibited an optimum radial clearance that resulted in a maximum load capacity coefficient. Relative to this optimum value are two separate operating regimes that are governed by different modes of failure. Bearings operating with radial clearances less than the optimum exhibit load capacity coefficients that are a strong function of radial clearance and are prone to a thermal runaway failure mechanism and bearing seizure. Conversely, a bearing operating with a radial clearance twice the optimum suffered only a 20 percent decline in its maximum load capacity coefficient and did not experience any thermal management problems. However, it is unknown to what degree these changes in radial clearance had on other performance parameters, such as the stiffness and damping properties of the bearings.
RCS Predictions From a Method of Moments and a Finite-Element Code for Several Targets
2010-07-01
01803 14. ABSTRACT This report presents results of radar cross section (RCS) calculations for several interesting targets using a method-of-moments...TERMS radar cross section, method of moments, finite element, modeling 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18... radar cross section (RCS) simulation that require an exact code for solution. In this report, we compare RCS calculations with two very different
Moment transport equations for the primordial curvature perturbation
Mulryne, David J.; Seery, David; Wesley, Daniel E-mail: d.seery@sussex.ac.uk
2011-04-01
In a recent publication, we proposed that inflationary perturbation theory can be reformulated in terms of a probability transport equation, whose moments determine the correlation properties of the primordial curvature perturbation. In this paper we generalize this formulation to an arbitrary number of fields. We deduce ordinary differential equations for the evolution of the moments of ζ on superhorizon scales, which can be used to obtain an evolution equation for the dimensionless bispectrum, f{sub NL}. Our equations are covariant in field space and allow identification of the source terms responsible for evolution of f{sub NL}. In a model with M scalar fields, the number of numerical integrations required to obtain solutions of these equations scales like O(M{sup 3}). The performance of the moment transport algorithm means that numerical calculations with M >> 1 fields are straightforward. We illustrate this performance with a numerical calculation of f{sub NL} in Nflation models containing M ∼ 10{sup 2} fields, finding agreement with existing analytic calculations. We comment briefly on extensions of the method beyond the slow-roll approximation, or to calculate higher order parameters such as g{sub NL}.
Effect of Stent Radial Force on Stress Pattern After Deployment: A Finite Element Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borghi, Alessandro; Murphy, Olive; Bahmanyar, Reza; McLeod, Chris
2014-07-01
The present article presents a method for assessing the radial stiffness of nitinol stents. An idealized stent model was created, and its radial stiffness was calculated by means of finite element modeling. The calculations were validated against experimental measurements. The variation of radial stiffness with geometrical dimensions was calculated, and the effect of increasing radial stiffness on endovascular deployment was analyzed. Peak tensile and compressive stresses as well as stent penetration were calculated in the case of an idealized pulmonary artery model having realistic dimensions as well as stiffness. The results of stress calculations were compared with a second set of simulations, where an idealized behavior of the stent (uniform expansion to a theoretical contact diameter) was modeled. The results show how in reality nitinol stents behave in a non-ideal way, having a non-uniform expansion and exerting non-uniform pressure on the contact areas with the artery. Such non-ideality decreases though with the increase in radial stiffness. The radial force alone may be insufficient in describing the stent-artery interaction, and numerical modeling proves to be necessary for capturing such complexity.
46 CFR 170.090 - Calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... necessary to compute and plot any of the following curves as part of the calculations required in this subchapter, these plots must also be submitted: (1) Righting arm or moment curves. (2) Heeling arm or...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nelson, David D., Jr.; Schiffman, Aram; Nesbitt, David J.; Yaron, David J.
1989-05-01
A general approach to the determination of the dipole moment function and of the absolute vibrational transition moments for diatomic molecules is presented. This method utilizes the variation of intensity with J within a vibrational transition, together with permanent dipole moment information, to extract the absolute transition moments. An essential feature of the model is its use of algebraic expressions for calculating vibration-rotation line intensities. These expressions can be rapidly evaluated in a least squares fit which determines the dipole moment function.
Electric dipole moment enhancement factor of thallium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porsev, Sergey; Safronova, Marianna; Kozlov, Mikhail
2012-06-01
A number of extensions of the standard model of particle physics predict electric dipole moments (EDM) of particles that may be observable with the present state-of-the art experiments. The EDMs arise from the violations of both parity and time-reversal invariance. The electron EDM is enhanced in certain atomic and molecular systems. One of the most stringent limits on the electron EDM de was obtained from the experiments with ^205Tl: de<1.6 10-27e cm [Regan et al., PRL 88, 071805 (2002)]. This result crucially depend on the calculated value of the effective electric field on the valence electron. In the case of Tl this effective field is proportional to the applied field E0, Eeff= K,0. The goal of this work is to resolve the present controversy in the value of the EDM enhancement factor K in Tl. We have carried out several calculations by different high-precision methods, studied previously omitted corrections, as well as tested our methodology on other parity conserving quantities. We find the EDM enhancement factor of Tl to be equal to -573(20). This value is 20% larger than the recently published result of Nataraj et al. [PRL 106, 200403 (2011)] but agrees very well with several earlier results.
Plasmonic Toroidal Dipolar Response under Radially Polarized Excitation
Bao, Yanjun; Zhu, Xing; Fang, Zheyu
2015-01-01
Plasmonic toroidal resonance has attracted growing interests because of its low loss electromagnetic properties and potential high sensitive nanophotonic applications. However, the realization in a metamaterial requires three-dimensional complicated structural design so far. In this paper, we design a simple metal-dielectric-metal (MIM) sandwich nanostructure, which exhibits a strong toroidal dipolar resonance under radially polarized excitation. The toroidal dipole moment as the dominant contribution for the scattering is demonstrated by the mirror-image method and further analyzed by Lagrangian hybridization model. The proposed toroidal configuration also shows a highly tolerant for misalignment between the structure center and the incident light focus. Our study proves the way for the toroidal plasmonic application with the cylindrical vector beams. PMID:26114966
VanOsdol, John G.
2013-06-25
The disclosure provides a pulse jet mixing vessel for mixing a plurality of solid particles. The pulse jet mixing vessel is comprised of a sludge basin, a flow surface surrounding the sludge basin, and a downcoming flow annulus between the flow surface and an inner shroud. The pulse jet mixing vessel is additionally comprised of an upper vessel pressurization volume in fluid communication with the downcoming flow annulus, and an inner shroud surge volume separated from the downcoming flow annulus by the inner shroud. When the solid particles are resting on the sludge basin and a fluid such as water is atop the particles and extending into the downcoming flow annulus and the inner shroud surge volume, mixing occurs by pressurization of the upper vessel pressurization volume, generating an inward radial flow over the flow surface and an upwash jet at the center of the sludge basin.
Tolerancing a radial velocity spectrometer within Zemax
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gibson, Steven R.
2016-08-01
Techniques are described for tolerancing a radial velocity spectrometer system within Zemax, including: how to set up and verify the tolerancing model, performance metrics and tolerance operands used, as well as post- Zemax analysis methods. Use of the tolerancing model for various analyses will be discussed, such as: alignment sensitivity, radial velocity sensitivity, and sensitivity of the optical system to temperature changes. Tolerance results from the Keck Planet Finder project (a precision radial velocity spectrometer of asymmetric white pupil design) will be shown.
Harmonic moment dynamics in Laplacian growth.
Leshchiner, Alexander; Thrasher, Matthew; Mineev-Weinstein, Mark B; Swinney, Harry L
2010-01-01
Harmonic moments are integrals of integer powers of z=x+iy over a domain. Here, the domain is an exterior of a bubble of air growing in an oil layer between two horizontal closely spaced plates. Harmonic moments are a natural basis for such Laplacian growth phenomena because, unlike other representations, these moments linearize the zero surface tension problem [S. Richardson, J. Fluid Mech. 56, 609 (1972)], so that all moments except the lowest one (the area of the bubble) are conserved in time. In our experiments, we directly determine the harmonic moments and show that for nonzero surface tension, all moments (except the lowest one) decay in time rather than exhibiting the divergences of other representations. Further, we derive an expression that relates the derivative of the k(th) harmonic moment M(k) to measurable quantities (surface tension, viscosity, the distance between the plates, and a line integral over the contour encompassing the growing bubble). The laboratory observations are in good accord with the expression we derive for dM(k)/dt , which is proportional to the surface tension; thus in the zero surface tension limit, the moments (above k=0) are all conserved, in accord with Richardson's theory. In addition, from the measurements of the time evolution of the harmonic moments we obtain a value for the surface tension that is within 20% of the accepted value. In conclusion, our analysis and laboratory observations demonstrate that an interface dynamics description in terms of harmonic moments is physically realizable and robust.
The classical model for moment tensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tape, W.; Tape, C.
2013-12-01
A seismic moment tensor is a description of an earthquake source, but the description is indirect. The moment tensor describes seismic radiation rather than the actual physical process that initiates the radiation. A moment tensor 'model' then ties the physical process to the moment tensor. The model is not unique, and the physical process is therefore not unique. In the classical moment tensor model (Aki and Richards, 1980), an earthquake arises from slip along a planar fault, but with the slip not necessarily in the plane of the fault. The model specifies the resulting moment tensor in terms of the slip vector, the fault normal vector, and the Lame elastic parameters, assuming isotropy. We review the classical model in the context of the fundamental lune. The lune is closely related to the space of moment tensors, and it provides a setting that is conceptually natural as well as pictorial. In addition to the classical model, we consider a crack plus double couple model (CDC model) in which a moment tensor is regarded as the sum of a crack tensor and a double couple. A compilation of full moment tensors from the literature reveals large deviations in Poisson's ratio as implied by the classical model. Either the classical model is inadequate or the published full moment tensors have very large uncertainties. We question the common interpretation of the isotropic component as a volume change in the source region.
Analysis of a high power microwave radial line slot antenna.
Peng, Shengren; Yuan, Chengwei; Shu, Ting
2013-07-01
A traditional radial line slot antenna (RLSA) is a high gain planar array. To improve the power handling capacity, we design a radial line slow wave structure which replaces a traditional dielectric sheet in the radial waveguide of the traditional RLSA. This high power microwave (HPM) RLSA is fed from a double-layered radial line waveguide to realize the directional radiation of the microwave. However, the track of the widen slot array on the upper waveguide could cause large reflection, which disturbs the normal antenna operation, accordingly a reflection canceling slot is added to the lower waveguide, the key technology employed in the design of the HPM RLSA and the antenna return-loss is effectively improved. This article mainly gives the design theory of this antenna, which is confirmed by the simulations and experiments. At 9.4 GHz, the calculated aperture efficiency reaches more than 40%, the reflectance is less than 0.1, the radiation efficiency is more than 99% and its measured power-handling capacity exceeds 700 MW.
Radial resolution enhancement of the NSTX Thomson scattering diagnostica)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LeBlanc, B. P.; Diallo, A.; Labik, G.; Stevens, D. R.
2012-10-01
Current magnetic confinement plasma physics research has increased the demand for radial resolution in profile diagnostics, in particular in the edge and pedestal regions. On NSTX, an upgrade of the existing multi-point Thomson scattering diagnostic has been implemented in order to respond to the research program needs. Twelve new radial channels have been added bringing the total number of positions to 42. Four previously un-instrumented fiber bundles were put in service. Eight existing "active" fiber bundles were divided in two sub-bundles each in order to increase spatial resolution. Twelve radial channels now cover the pedestal region with a resolution near one centimeter. Fifteen radial channels cover the core and internal transport barrier regions. Two additional channels were added, one near the inner edge and one in the outer scrape-off layer. The intersection of the focused viewing optics field of view with a finite-width laser beam results in major-radius cross talk between adjacent fiber sub-bundles. A discussion and calculation of the cross talk will be presented.
Frequency analysis via the method of moment functionals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pearson, A. E.; Pan, J. Q.
1990-01-01
Several variants are presented of a linear-in-parameters least squares formulation for determining the transfer function of a stable linear system at specified frequencies given a finite set of Fourier series coefficients calculated from transient nonstationary input-output data. The basis of the technique is Shinbrot's classical method of moment functionals using complex Fourier based modulating functions to convert a differential equation model on a finite time interval into an algebraic equation which depends linearly on frequency-related parameters.
Transition dipole moments of the Qy band in photosynthetic pigments.
Oviedo, M Belén; Sánchez, Cristián G
2011-11-10
From studying the time evolution of the single electron density matrix within a density functional tight-binding formalism we calculate the Q(y) transition dipole moments vector direction and strength for a series of important photosynthetic pigments. We obtain good agreement with first-principles and experimental results and provide insights into the detailed nature of these excitations from the time evolving populations of molecular orbitals involved as well as correlations between pigment chemistry and dipole strength.
Hallowell, E M
1999-01-01
In the last decade or so, technological changes--mainly voice mail and e-mail--have made a lot of face-to-face interaction unnecessary. Face-to-face contact has also fallen victim to "virtuality"--many people work at home or are otherwise off-site. Indeed, most people today can't imagine life without such technology and the freedom it grants. But Edward Hallowell, a noted psychiatrist who has been treating patients with anxiety disorders--many of them business executives--for more than 20 years, warns that we are in danger of losing what he calls the human moment: an authentic psychological encounter that can happen only when two people share the same physical space. And, he believes, we may be about to discover the destructive power of its absence. The author relates stories of business-people who have dealt firsthand with the misunderstandings caused by an overreliance on technology. An e-mail message is misconstrued. Someone forwards a voice-mail message to the wrong people. A person takes offense because he was not included on a certain circulation list. Was it an accident? Often the consequences of such misunderstandings, taken individually, are minor. Over time, however, they take a larger toll--both on individuals and on the organizations they work for. The problem, however, is not insoluble. The author cites examples of people who have worked successfully to restore face-to-face contact in their organizations. The bottom line is that the strategic use of the human moment adds color to our lives and helps us build confidence and trust at work. We ignore it at our peril.
Propagation of a radial phased-locked Lorentz beam array in turbulent atmosphere.
Zhou, Guoquan
2011-11-21
A radial phased-locked (PL) Lorentz beam array provides an appropriate theoretical model to describe a coherent diode laser array, which is an efficient radiation source for high-power beaming use. The propagation of a radial PL Lorentz beam array in turbulent atmosphere is investigated. Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel integral and some mathematical techniques, analytical formulae for the average intensity and the effective beam size of a radial PL Lorentz beam array are derived in turbulent atmosphere. The average intensity distribution and the spreading properties of a radial PL Lorentz beam array in turbulent atmosphere are numerically calculated. The influences of the beam parameters and the structure constant of the atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of a radial PL Lorentz beam array in turbulent atmosphere are discussed in detail.
Identifying Isotropic Events Using a Regional Moment Tensor Inversion
Ford, S R; Dreger, D S; Walter, W R
2008-11-04
We calculate the deviatoric and isotropic source components for 17 explosions at the Nevada Test Site, as well as 12 earthquakes and 3 collapses in the surrounding region of the western US, using a regional time-domain full waveform inversion for the complete moment tensor. The events separate into specific populations according to their deviation from a pure double-couple and ratio of isotropic to deviatoric energy. The separation allows for anomalous event identification and discrimination between explosions, earthquakes, and collapses. Confidence regions of the model parameters are estimated from the data misfit by assuming normally distributed parameter values. We investigate the sensitivity of the resolved parameters of an explosion to imperfect Earth models, inaccurate event depths, and data with low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) assuming a reasonable azimuthal distribution of stations. In the band of interest (0.02-0.10 Hz) the source-type calculated from complete moment tensor inversion is insensitive to velocity models perturbations that cause less than a half-cycle shift (<5 sec) in arrival time error if shifting of the waveforms is allowed. The explosion source-type is insensitive to an incorrect depth assumption (for a true depth of 1 km), and the goodness-of-fit of the inversion result cannot be used to resolve the true depth of the explosion. Noise degrades the explosive character of the result, and a good fit and accurate result are obtained when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is greater than 5. We assess the depth and frequency dependence upon the resolved explosive moment. As the depth decreases from 1 km to 200 m, the isotropic moment is no longer accurately resolved and is in error between 50-200%. However, even at the most shallow depth the resultant moment tensor is dominated by the explosive component when the data have a good SNR.
Identifying isotropic events using a regional moment tensor inversion
Ford, Sean R.; Dreger, Douglas S.; Walter, William R.
2009-01-17
We calculate the deviatoric and isotropic source components for 17 explosions at the Nevada Test Site, as well as 12 earthquakes and 3 collapses in the surrounding region of the western United States, using a regional time domain full waveform inversion for the complete moment tensor. The events separate into specific populations according to their deviation from a pure double-couple and ratio of isotropic to deviatoric energy. The separation allows for anomalous event identification and discrimination between explosions, earthquakes, and collapses. Confidence regions of the model parameters are estimated from the data misfit by assuming normally distributed parameter values. We investigate the sensitivity of the resolved parameters of an explosion to imperfect Earth models, inaccurate event depths, and data with low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) assuming a reasonable azimuthal distribution of stations. In the band of interest (0.02–0.10 Hz) the source-type calculated from complete moment tensor inversion is insensitive to velocity model perturbations that cause less than a half-cycle shift (<5 s) in arrival time error if shifting of the waveforms is allowed. The explosion source-type is insensitive to an incorrect depth assumption (for a true depth of 1 km), and the goodness of fit of the inversion result cannot be used to resolve the true depth of the explosion. Noise degrades the explosive character of the result, and a good fit and accurate result are obtained when the signal-to-noise ratio is greater than 5. We assess the depth and frequency dependence upon the resolved explosive moment. As the depth decreases from 1 km to 200 m, the isotropic moment is no longer accurately resolved and is in error between 50 and 200%. Furthermore, even at the most shallow depth the resultant moment tensor is dominated by the explosive component when the data have a good SNR.
Identifying isotropic events using a regional moment tensor inversion
Ford, Sean R.; Dreger, Douglas S.; Walter, William R.
2009-01-17
We calculate the deviatoric and isotropic source components for 17 explosions at the Nevada Test Site, as well as 12 earthquakes and 3 collapses in the surrounding region of the western United States, using a regional time domain full waveform inversion for the complete moment tensor. The events separate into specific populations according to their deviation from a pure double-couple and ratio of isotropic to deviatoric energy. The separation allows for anomalous event identification and discrimination between explosions, earthquakes, and collapses. Confidence regions of the model parameters are estimated from the data misfit by assuming normally distributed parameter values. Wemore » investigate the sensitivity of the resolved parameters of an explosion to imperfect Earth models, inaccurate event depths, and data with low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) assuming a reasonable azimuthal distribution of stations. In the band of interest (0.02–0.10 Hz) the source-type calculated from complete moment tensor inversion is insensitive to velocity model perturbations that cause less than a half-cycle shift (<5 s) in arrival time error if shifting of the waveforms is allowed. The explosion source-type is insensitive to an incorrect depth assumption (for a true depth of 1 km), and the goodness of fit of the inversion result cannot be used to resolve the true depth of the explosion. Noise degrades the explosive character of the result, and a good fit and accurate result are obtained when the signal-to-noise ratio is greater than 5. We assess the depth and frequency dependence upon the resolved explosive moment. As the depth decreases from 1 km to 200 m, the isotropic moment is no longer accurately resolved and is in error between 50 and 200%. Furthermore, even at the most shallow depth the resultant moment tensor is dominated by the explosive component when the data have a good SNR.« less
Takazawa, Kenji; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Shindo, Naohisa; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Yamashina, Akira
2007-03-01
Since a decrease of central aortic pressure contributes to the prevention of cardiovascular events, simple measurement of not only brachial blood pressure but also central aortic pressure may be useful in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we simultaneously measured radial artery pulse waves non-invasively and ascending aortic pressure invasively, before and after the administration of nicorandil. We then compared changes in central aortic pressure and radial arterial blood pressure calibrated with brachial blood pressure in addition to calculating the augmentation index (AI) at the aorta and radial artery. After nicorandil administration, the reduction in maximal systolic blood pressure in the aorta (Deltaa-SBP) was -14+/-15 mmHg, significantly larger than that in early systolic pressure in the radial artery (Deltar-SBP) (-9+/-12 mmHg). The reduction in late systolic blood pressure in the radial artery (Deltar-SBP2) was -15+/-14 mmHg, significantly larger than Deltar-SBP, but not significantly different from Deltaa-SBP. There were significant relationships between Deltaa-SBP and Deltar-SBP (r=0.81, p<0.001), and between Deltaa-SBP and Deltar-SBP2 (r=0.91, p<0.001). The slope of the correlation regression line with Deltar-SBP2 (0.83) was larger and closer to 1 than that with Deltar-SBP (0.63), showing that the relationship was close to 1:1. Significant correlations were obtained between aortic AI (a-AI) and radial AI (r-AI) (before nicorandil administration: r=0.91, p<0.001; after administration: r=0.70, p<0.001). These data suggest that the measurement of radial artery pulse wave and observation of changes in the late systolic blood pressure in the radial artery (r-SBP2) in addition to the ordinary measurement of brachial blood pressure may enable a more accurate evaluation of changes in maximal systolic blood pressure in the aorta (a-SBP).
Moments of action provide insight into critical times for advection-diffusion-reaction processes.
Ellery, Adam J; Simpson, Matthew J; McCue, Scott W; Baker, Ruth E
2012-09-01
Berezhkovskii and co-workers introduced the concept of local accumulation time as a finite measure of the time required for the transient solution of a reaction-diffusion equation to effectively reach steady state [Biophys J. 99, L59 (2010); Phys. Rev. E 83, 051906 (2011)]. Berezhkovskii's approach is a particular application of the concept of mean action time (MAT) that was introduced previously by McNabb [IMA J. Appl. Math. 47, 193 (1991)]. Here, we generalize these previous results by presenting a framework to calculate the MAT, as well as the higher moments, which we call the moments of action. The second moment is the variance of action time, the third moment is related to the skew of action time, and so on. We consider a general transition from some initial condition to an associated steady state for a one-dimensional linear advection-diffusion-reaction partial differential equation (PDE). Our results indicate that it is possible to solve for the moments of action exactly without requiring the transient solution of the PDE. We present specific examples that highlight potential weaknesses of previous studies that have considered the MAT alone without considering higher moments. Finally, we also provide a meaningful interpretation of the moments of action by presenting simulation results from a discrete random-walk model together with some analysis of the particle lifetime distribution. This work shows that the moments of action are identical to the moments of the particle lifetime distribution for certain transitions.
Invariant hip moment pattern while walking with a robotic hip exoskeleton.
Lewis, Cara L; Ferris, Daniel P
2011-03-15
Robotic lower limb exoskeletons hold significant potential for gait assistance and rehabilitation; however, we have a limited understanding of how people adapt to walking with robotic devices. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that people reduce net muscle moments about their joints when robotic assistance is provided. This reduction in muscle moment results in a total joint moment (muscle plus exoskeleton) that is the same as the moment without the robotic assistance despite potential differences in joint angles. To test this hypothesis, eight healthy subjects trained with the robotic hip exoskeleton while walking on a force-measuring treadmill. The exoskeleton provided hip flexion assistance from approximately 33% to 53% of the gait cycle. We calculated the root mean squared difference (RMSD) between the average of data from the last 15 min of the powered condition and the unpowered condition. After completing three 30-min training sessions, the hip exoskeleton provided 27% of the total peak hip flexion moment during gait. Despite this substantial contribution from the exoskeleton, subjects walked with a total hip moment pattern (muscle plus exoskeleton) that was almost identical and more similar to the unpowered condition than the hip angle pattern (hip moment RMSD 0.027, angle RMSD 0.134, p<0.001). The angle and moment RMSD were not different for the knee and ankle joints. These findings support the concept that people adopt walking patterns with similar joint moment patterns despite differences in hip joint angles for a given walking speed.
Generation of the pitch moment during the controlled flight after takeoff of fruitflies
Chen, Mao Wei; Wu, Jiang Hao; Sun, Mao
2017-01-01
In the present paper, the controlled flight of fruitflies after voluntary takeoff is studied. Wing and body kinematics of the insects after takeoff are measured using high-speed video techniques, and the aerodynamic force and moment are calculated by the computational fluid dynamics method based on the measured data. How the control moments are generated is analyzed by correlating the computed moments with the wing kinematics. A fruit-fly has a large pitch-up angular velocity owing to the takeoff jump and the fly controls its body attitude by producing pitching moments. It is found that the pitching moment is produced by changes in both the aerodynamic force and the moment arm. The change in the aerodynamic force is mainly due to the change in angle of attack. The change in the moment arm is mainly due to the change in the mean stroke angle and deviation angle, and the deviation angle plays a more important role than the mean stroke angle in changing the moment arm (note that change in deviation angle implies variation in the position of the aerodynamic stroke plane with respect to the anatomical stroke plane). This is unlike the case of fruitflies correcting pitch perturbations in steady free flight, where they produce pitching moment mainly by changes in mean stroke angle. PMID:28296907
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruggles, Adam J.
2015-11-01
This paper presents improved statistical insight regarding the self-similar scalar mixing process of atmospheric hydrogen jets and the downstream region of under-expanded hydrogen jets. Quantitative planar laser Rayleigh scattering imaging is used to probe both jets. The self-similarity of statistical moments up to the sixth order (beyond the literature established second order) is documented in both cases. This is achieved using a novel self-similar normalization method that facilitated a degree of statistical convergence that is typically limited to continuous, point-based measurements. This demonstrates that image-based measurements of a limited number of samples can be used for self-similar scalar mixing studies. Both jets exhibit the same radial trends of these moments demonstrating that advanced atmospheric self-similarity can be applied in the analysis of under-expanded jets. Self-similar histograms away from the centerline are shown to be the combination of two distributions. The first is attributed to turbulent mixing. The second, a symmetric Poisson-type distribution centered on zero mass fraction, progressively becomes the dominant and eventually sole distribution at the edge of the jet. This distribution is attributed to shot noise-affected pure air measurements, rather than a diffusive superlayer at the jet boundary. This conclusion is reached after a rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis and inspection of pure air data collected with each hydrogen data set. A threshold based upon the measurement noise analysis is used to separate the turbulent and pure air data, and thusly estimate intermittency. Beta-distributions (four parameters) are used to accurately represent the turbulent distribution moments. This combination of measured intermittency and four-parameter beta-distributions constitutes a new, simple approach to model scalar mixing. Comparisons between global moments from the data and moments calculated using the proposed model show excellent
Macrodispersion by diverging radial flows in randomly heterogeneous porous media.
Severino, Gerardo; Santini, Alessandro; Sommella, Angelo
2011-04-01
Radial flow takes place in a heterogeneous porous formation where the transmissivity T is modelled as a stationary random space function (RSF). The steady flow is driven by a given rate, and the mean velocity is radial. A pulse-like of a tracer is injected in the porous formation, and the thin plume spreads due to the fluctuations of the velocity which results a RSF as well. Transport is characterized by the mean front, and by the second spatial moment of the plume. We are primarily interested in tracer macrodispersion modelling. With the neglect of pore-scale dispersion, macrodispersion coefficients are computed at the second order of approximation, without neglecting the head-gradient fluctuations. Although transport is non-ergodic at the source, it is shown that ergodicity is achieved at small distances from the source. This is due to the fact that close to the source local velocities are quite large, and therefore solute particles become uncorrelated very soon. Under ergodic conditions, we compare macrodispersion mechanism in radial flows with that occurring in mean uniform flows. At short distances the spreading effect is highly enhanced by the large variability of the flow field, whereas at large distances transport exhibits a lesser dispersion due to the reduction of velocities. This supports the explanation provided by Indelman and Dagan (1999) to justify why the macrodispersivity is found smaller than that pertaining to mean uniform flows. The model is tested against a tracer transport experiment (Fernàndez-Garcia et al., 2004) by comparing the theoretical and experimental breakthrough curves. The accordance with real data, that is achieved without any fitting to concentration values, strengthens the capability of the proposed model to grasp the main features of such an experiment, the approximations as well as experimental uncertainties notwithstanding.
Muonic hydrogen and the third Zemach moment
Friar, J.L.; Sick, Ingo
2005-10-15
We determine the third Zemach moment of hydrogen (
Gross shell structure of moments of inertia
Deleplanque, M.A.; Frauendorf, S.; Pashkevich, V.V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, A.
2002-07-01
Average yrast moments of inertia at high spins, where the pairing correlations are expected to be largely absent, were found to deviate from the rigid-body values. This indicates that shell effects contribute to the moment of inertia. We discuss the gross dependence of moments of inertia and shell energies on the neutron number in terms of the semiclassical periodic orbit theory. We show that the ground-state shell energies, nuclear deformations and deviations from rigid-body moments of inertia are all due to the same periodic orbits.
SL9 Impacts and Simulations of Enhanced Radial Diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Pater, Imke; Brecht, Stephen H.
2001-05-01
We present detailed calculations on enhanced radial diffusion models and show that many, though not all, of the phenomena observed during the week that Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 crashed into Jupiter can be explained by a sudden increase in the radial diffusion coefficient. Our calculations use estimates for the enhancement in the diffusion coefficient which come from self-consistent calculations of the electromagnetic turbulence generated by the impacts (Brecht et al. 2001, Icarus). These calculations suggest that the diffusion coefficient is enhanced at least a few million times above the nominal value during a short period of time (minutes). Our model shows that Jupiter's main radiation peaks brighten up much more than the high latitude regions, as is indeed observed following impacts during the first few days of the impact week. The calculations also suggest that the largest enhancements in intensity and largest inward shift of the radiation peaks occur at jovicentric longitudes ˜100°≲λ III≲250°, i.e., the longitude range where the B=constant contours are furthest from the planet. This longitude range agrees with the region where the strongest enhancements have indeed been observed. The dramatic increase in the intensity of the high latitude peaks following impacts which took place later in the week is attributed to a direct acceleration of electrons by the upward propagating shock. Finally, compared to the observations, the radial diffusion models predict much larger enhancements in the radiation peaks than observed. We attribute this, as well as the initial decrease in intensity on July 16-17, to a large loss of electrons caused by pitch angle scattering.
Estimation of Schiff moments using the nuclear shell model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teruya, Eri; Yoshinaga, Naotaka; Arai, Ryoichi; Higashiyama, Koji
2014-09-01
The existence of finite permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of an elementary particle or an atom indicates violation of time-reversal symmetry. The time reversal invariance implies violation of charge and parity symmetry through the CPT theorem. The predicted fundamental particle's EDMs are too small to be observed in the Standard Model. However, some models beyond the Standard Model produce much larger EDMs which may be observed in future. Thus, if we observe finite EDMs, we can conclude that we need a new extended model for the Standard Model and the specific value of an EDM gives a constraint on constructing a new model. Experimental efforts searching for atomic EDMs are now in progress. The EDM of a neutral atom is mainly induced by the nuclear Schiff moment, since the electron EDM is very small and the nuclear EDM is shielded by outside electrons owing to the Schiff theorem. In this work we estimate the Schiff moments for the lowest 1/2+ states of Xe isotopes around the mass 130. The nuclear wave functions beyond mean-field theories are calculated in terms of the nuclear shell model. We discuss influences of core excitations and over shell excitations on the Schiff moments.
Sum Rules and Moments of the Nucleon Spin Structure Functions
Jian-Ping Chen; Alexandre Deur; Zein-Eddine Meziani
2005-08-01
The nucleon has been used as a laboratory to investigate its own spin structure and Quantum Chromodynamics. New experimental data on nucleon spin structure at low to intermediate momentum transfers combined with existing high momentum transfer data offer a comprehensive picture of the transition region from the confinement regime of the theory to its asymptotic freedom regime. Insight for some aspects of the theory is gained by exploring lower moments of spin structure functions and their corresponding sum rules (i.e. the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn, Bjorken and Burkhardt-Cottingham). These moments are expressed in terms of an operator product expansion using quark and gluon degrees of freedom at moderately large momentum transfers. The sum rules are verified to a good accuracy assuming that no singular behavior of the structure functions is present at very high excitation energies. The higher twist contributions have been examined through the moments evolution as the momentum transfer varies from higher to lower values. Furthermore, QCD-inspired low energy effective theories, which explicitly include chiral symmetry breaking, are tested at low momentum transfers. The validity of these theories is further examined as the momentum transfer increases to moderate values. It is found that chiral perturbation calculations agree reasonably well with the first moment of the spin structure function g{sub 1} at momentum transfer of 0.1 GeV{sup 2} but fail to reproduce the neutron data in the case of the generalized polarizability {delta}{sub LT}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fitzpatrick, Richard
2016-12-01
The simple analysis of Rutherford [Phys. Fluids 16, 1903 (1973)] is generalized in order to incorporate radial magnetic island asymmetry into the nonlinear theory of tearing mode stability in a low-β, large aspect-ratio, quasi-cylindrical, tokamak plasma. The calculation is restricted to cases in which the radial shifts of the island X- and O-points are (almost) equal and opposite. For the sake of simplicity, the calculation concentrates on a particular (but fairly general) class of radially asymmetric island magnetic flux-surfaces that can all be mapped to the same symmetric flux-surfaces by means of a suitable coordinate transform. The combination of island asymmetry (in which the radial shifts of the X- and O-points are almost equal and opposite) and temperature-induced changes in the inductive current profile in the immediate vicinity of the island is found to have no effect on tearing mode stability.
Reappraisal of the Electric Dipole Moment Enhancement Factor for Thallium
Nataraj, H. S.; Sahoo, B. K.; Das, B. P.; Mukherjee, D.
2011-05-20
The electric dipole moment (EDM) enhancement factor of atomic Tl is of considerable interest as it has been used in determining the most accurate limit on the electron EDM to date. However, its value varies from -179 to -1041 in different approximations. In view of the large uncertainties associated with many of these calculations, we perform an accurate calculation employing the relativistic coupled-cluster theory and obtain -466, which in combination with the most accurate measurement of Tl EDM [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 071805 (2002)] yields a new limit for the electron EDM: |d{sub e}|<2.0x10{sup -27}e cm.
Differentiating common causes of radial wrist pain.
Shuaib, Waqas; Mohiuddin, Zia; Swain, Freddie R; Khosa, Faisal
2014-09-01
Radial wrist pain is a common patient complaint with a broad differential. Because treatment and prognosis differ, determining the underlying cause is key. This article reviews a case of intersection syndrome and compares it to other causes of radial wrist pain.
Radial Correlations Between Two Quarks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Green, A. M.; Koponen, J.; Pennanen, P.; Michael, C.
2002-04-01
In nuclear many-body problems the short-range correlation between two nucleons is well described by the corresponding correlation in the two-body problem. Therefore, as a first step in any attempt at an analogous description of many-quark systems, it is necessary to know the two-quark correlation. With this in mind, we study the light quark distribution in a heavy-light meson with a static heavy quark. The charge and matter radial distributions of these heavy-light mesons are measured on a lattice with a light quark mass about that of the strange quark. Both distributions can be well fitted upto r ≈ 0.7 fm with the exponential form wi2 (r), where Wi(r) = A exp(-r/ri). For the charge(c) and matter(m) distributions rc ≈ 0.32(2)fm and rm ≈ 0.24(2)fm. We also discuss the normalisation of the total charge (defined to be unity in the continuum limit) and matter integrated over all space, finding 1.30(5) and 0.4(1) respectively for a lattice spacing ≈ 0.17 fm.
Computer Simulation of Radial Immunodiffusion
Trautman, Rodes
1972-01-01
Theories of diffusion with chemical reaction are reviewed as to their contributions toward developing an algorithm needed for computer simulation of immunodiffusion. The Spiers-Augustin moving sink and the Engelberg stationary sink theories show how the antibody-antigen reaction can be incorporated into boundary conditions of the free diffusion differential equations. For this, a stoichiometric precipitate was assumed and the location of precipitin lines could be predicted. The Hill simultaneous linear adsorption theory provides a mathematical device for including another special type of antibody-antigen reaction in antigen excess regions of the gel. It permits an explanation for the lowered antigen diffusion coefficient, observed in the Oudin arrangement of single linear diffusion, but does not enable prediction of the location of precipitin lines. The most promising mathematical approach for a general solution is implied in the Augustin alternating cycle theory. This assumes the immunodiffusion process can be evaluated by alternating computation cycles: free diffusion without chemical reaction and chemical reaction without diffusion. The algorithm for the free diffusion update cycle, extended to both linear and radial geometries, is given in detail since it was based on gross flow rather than more conventional expressions in terms of net flow. Limitations on the numerical integration process using this algorithm are illustrated for free diffusion from a cylindrical well. PMID:4629869
Combination radial and thrust magnetic bearing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blumenstock, Kenneth A. (Inventor)
2002-01-01
A combination radial and thrust magnetic bearing is disclosed that allows for both radial and thrust axes control of an associated shaft. The combination radial and thrust magnetic bearing comprises a rotor and a stator. The rotor comprises a shaft, and first and second rotor pairs each having respective rotor elements. The stator comprises first and second stator elements and a magnet-sensor disk. In one embodiment, each stator element has a plurality of split-poles and a corresponding plurality of radial force coils and, in another embodiment, each stator element does not require thrust force coils, and radial force coils are replaced by double the plurality of coils serving as an outer member of each split-pole half.
On radial oscillations in viscous accretion discs surrounding neutron stars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Xingming; Taam, Ronald E.
1992-01-01
Radial oscillations resulting from axisymmetric perturbations in viscous accretion disks surrounding neutron stars in X-ray binary systems have been investigated. Within the framework of the alpha-viscosity model a series of hydrodynamic calculations demonstrates that the oscillations are global for alpha of about 1. On the other hand, for alpha of 0.4 or less, the oscillations are local and confined to the disk boundaries. If viscous stresses acting in the radial direction are included, however, it is found that the disk can be stabilized. The application of such instabilities in accretion disks, without reference to the boundary layer region between the neutron star (or magnetosphere) and the inner edge of the disk, to the phenomenology of quasi-periodic oscillations is brought into question.
New radial pulsation constants for the Beta Cephei variables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shobbrook, R. R.
1985-05-01
Recent new calibrations of luminosities, temperatures and bolometric corrections for B stars in terms of the β index and the Strömgren parameter c0 have necessitated the recalculation of the radial pulsation constants, Q, for the β Cephei (of β Canis Majoris) variable stars. Corrections for the effect of binaries on the absolute magnitudes, derived both from the luminosity calibration and from the mean distance moduli of those variables in clusters, are calculated in an Appendix. The mean value of Q, although determined from absolute magnitudes which are about 0.4 mag fainter than those from previous calibrations of the β index, still suggests that the majority of the variables are pulsating in the first overtone radial mode, as have most investigations in recent years.
Derivation and evaluation of the fourth moment of NMR lineshape in zero-field.
Cutsuridis, Vassilis; Kahol, Pawan K
2008-10-01
An expression for the fourth moment in zero-field NMR has been analytically derived and numerically evaluated for a rigid cubic lattice. Model simulations have been performed to calculate the second moment, the fourth moment, the ratio of the fourth moment to the square of the second moment, and the width of the resonance line for a crystal and a polycrystalline material in high-field as well as in zero-field NMR. The simulation results allow us to draw two conclusions: (1) zero-field NMR gives sharper and better defined spectra than the high-field NMR and (2) the ratio of the high- to zero-field resonance line-widths is 4 for a crystal, whereas it is 11 for a polycrystalline material.
Local electric dipole moments for periodic systems via density functional theory embedding
Luber, Sandra
2014-12-21
We describe a novel approach for the calculation of local electric dipole moments for periodic systems. Since the position operator is ill-defined in periodic systems, maximally localized Wannier functions based on the Berry-phase approach are usually employed for the evaluation of local contributions to the total electric dipole moment of the system. We propose an alternative approach: within a subsystem-density functional theory based embedding scheme, subset electric dipole moments are derived without any additional localization procedure, both for hybrid and non-hybrid exchange–correlation functionals. This opens the way to a computationally efficient evaluation of local electric dipole moments in (molecular) periodic systems as well as their rigorous splitting into atomic electric dipole moments. As examples, Infrared spectra of liquid ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate are presented, which are commonly employed as solvents in Lithium ion batteries.
Spectrographs for the Measurement of Radial Velocities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baranne, A.
A radial-velocity measurement derives from a shift in position of spectral features at the focus of a spectrographic instrument. We do not often think about how small these shifts are. It is not generally appreciated that the accuracy to which this shift must be measured is a tiny fraction of a pixel. Or, if we prefer to calculate in microns a surprising minuteness. What precautions should we be taking for the measurement of such small shifts? It is true that, thanks to computers, modern reduction methods allows us to correct for a wide variety of pertubations, provided that these are foreseen and understood; but such reduction procedures will give the best results if such pertubations are kept very small. We must therefore analyse these pertubations and think about how we can control them. The correlation method initiated in its modern form by Roger Griffin, and which we developed further with an optical mask in CORAVEL twenty-five years ago and more recently with a numerical mask in ELODIE, has demonstrated its power. In terms of these methods, the problem of high precision is to improve the correlation peak. Can this be done? Does the correlation method allow us to distinguish the overall radial velocity of the object from possible distortions of the lines? This is certainly a major problem which must be solved. The luminous efficiency of high-precision spectrographs is low. If the use of an optical fibre with scrambling for feeding the spectrograph seems inevitable to us today, it seems to me that the transmission of this system can be considerably improved by a better choice of the F-ratio of the image beam of the telescope which is to be matched with that of the spectrograph. This problem, common to all spectrographs, could be resolved with a specialised focal-plane instrument, giving a much greater than usual F-ratio, resulting in a simplification of the spectrograph optics, and hence an improvement in transmission and a serious decrease in size (which is
How to Introduce the Magnetic Dipole Moment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bezerra, M.; Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Cougo-Pinto, M. V.; Farina, C.
2012-01-01
We show how the concept of the magnetic dipole moment can be introduced in the same way as the concept of the electric dipole moment in introductory courses on electromagnetism. Considering a localized steady current distribution, we make a Taylor expansion directly in the Biot-Savart law to obtain, explicitly, the dominant contribution of the…
The classical model for moment tensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tape, Walter; Tape, Carl
2013-12-01
A seismic moment tensor is a description of an earthquake source, but the description is indirect. The moment tensor describes seismic radiation rather than the actual physical process that initiates the radiation. A moment tensor `model' then ties the physical process to the moment tensor. The model is not unique, and the physical process is therefore not unique. In the classical moment tensor model, an earthquake arises from slip along a planar fault, but with the slip not necessarily in the plane of the fault. The model specifies the resulting moment tensor in terms of the slip vector, the fault normal vector and the Lamé elastic parameters, assuming isotropy. We review the classical model in the context of the fundamental lune. The lune is closely related to the space of moment tensors, and it provides a setting that is conceptually natural as well as pictorial. In addition to the classical model, we consider a crack plus double-couple model (CDC model) in which a moment tensor is regarded as the sum of a crack tensor and a double couple.
Balancing Beams--For a Few Moments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kibble, Bob
2008-01-01
A 2 m long wooden beam provides an ideal demonstration tool for exploring moments. A class set is cheap and can be used at introductory and advanced levels. This article explores how such beams can be used to support learning about moments, equilibrium, vectors, and simultaneous equations. (Contains 7 figures.)
Teachable Moment: Google Earth Takes Us There
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, Ann; Davinroy, Thomas C.
2015-01-01
In the current educational climate, where clearly articulated learning objectives are required, it is clear that the spontaneous teachable moment still has its place. Authors Ann Williams and Thomas Davinroy think that instructors from almost any discipline can employ Google Earth as a tool to take advantage of teachable moments through the…
Moments from Cumulants and Vice Versa
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Withers, Christopher S.; Nadarajah, Saralees
2009-01-01
Moments and cumulants are expressed in terms of each other using Bell polynomials. Inbuilt routines for the latter make these expressions amenable to use by algebraic manipulation programs. One of the four formulas given is an explicit version of Kendall's use of Faa di Bruno's chain rule to express cumulants in terms of moments.
Low-lying electronic states of CuN calculated by MRCI method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shu-Dong; Liu, Chao
2016-10-01
The high accuracy ab initio calculation method of multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) is used to compute the low-lying eight electronic states of CuN. The potential energy curves (PECs) of the X3Σ-, 13Π, 23Σ-, 13Δ, 11Δ, 11Σ-, 11Π, and 5Σ- in a range of R = 0.1 nm-0.5 nm are obtained and they are goodly asymptotes to the Cu(2Sg) + N(4Su) and Cu(2Sg) + N(2Du) dissociation limits. All the possible vibrational levels, rotational constants, and spectral constants for the six bound states of X3Σ-, 13Π, 23Σ-, 11Δ, 11Σ-, and 11Π are obtained by solving the radial Schrödinger equation of nuclear motion with the Le Roy provided Level8.0 program. Also the transition dipole moments from the ground state X3Σ- to the excited states 13Π and 23Σ- are calculated and the result indicates that the 23Σ--X3Σ- transition has a much higher transition dipole moment than the 13Π-X3Σ- transition even though the 13Π state is much lower in energy than the 23Σ- state.
Molecular multipole moments of water molecules in ice Ih
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batista, Enrique R.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Jónsson, Hannes
1998-09-01
We have used an induction model including dipole, dipole-quadrupole, quadrupole-quadrupole polarizability and first hyperpolarizability as well as fixed octopole and hexadecapole moments to study the electric field in ice. The self-consistent induction calculations gave an average total dipole moment of 3.09 D, a 67% increase over the dipole moment of an isolated water molecule. A previous, more approximate induction model study by Coulson and Eisenberg [Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 291, 445 (1966)] suggested a significantly smaller average value of 2.6 D. This value has been used extensively in recent years as a reference point in the development of various polarizable interaction potentials for water as well as for assessment of the convergence of water cluster properties to those of bulk. The reason for this difference is not due to approximations made in the computational scheme of Coulson and Eisenberg but rather due to the use of less accurate values for the molecular multipoles in these earlier calculations.
Innovative moments and change in narrative therapy.
Matos, Marlene; Santos, Anita; Gonçalves, Miguel; Martins, Carla
2009-01-01
Narrative therapy suggests that change happens by paying close attention in therapy to "unique outcomes," which are narrative details outside the main story (White & Epston, 1990). In this exploratory study, unique outcomes were analyzed in five good-outcome and five poor-outcome psychotherapy cases using the Innovative Moments Coding System (Gonçalves, Matos, & Santos, 2008). Across 127 sessions, innovative moments were coded in terms of salience and type. In accordance with the theory, results suggest that innovative moments are important to therapeutic change. Poor- and good-outcome groups have a global difference in the salience of the innovative moments. In addition, results suggest that two particular types of innovative moments are needed in narrative therapy for therapeutic change to take place: re-conceptualization and new experiences. Implications for future research using this model of analysis are discussed.
Blurred image recognition by legendre moment invariants
Zhang, Hui; Shu, Huazhong; Han, Guo-Niu; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Luo, Limin; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis
2010-01-01
Processing blurred images is a key problem in many image applications. Existing methods to obtain blur invariants which are invariant with respect to centrally symmetric blur are based on geometric moments or complex moments. In this paper, we propose a new method to construct a set of blur invariants using the orthogonal Legendre moments. Some important properties of Legendre moments for the blurred image are presented and proved. The performance of the proposed descriptors is evaluated with various point-spread functions and different image noises. The comparison of the present approach with previous methods in terms of pattern recognition accuracy is also provided. The experimental results show that the proposed descriptors are more robust to noise and have better discriminative power than the methods based on geometric or complex moments. PMID:19933003
Third Zemach moment of the proton
Cloeet, Ian C.; Miller, Gerald A.
2011-01-15
Modern electron scattering experiments have determined the proton electric form factor G{sub Ep}(Q{sup 2}) to high precision. We utilize this data, represented by the different empirical form-factor parametrizations, to compute the third Zemach moment of the proton charge distribution. We find that existing data rule out a value of the third Zemach moment large enough to explain the current puzzle with the proton charge radius, determined from the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen. This is in contrast to the recent paper of De Rujula. We also demonstrate that the size of the third Zemach moment is largely governed by the fourth moment of the conventional charge distributions
Inter-segmental moment analysis characterises the partial correspondence of jumping and jerking
Cleather, Daniel J; Goodwin, Jon E; Bull, Anthony MJ
2014-01-01
The aim of this study was to quantify internal joint moments of the lower limb during vertical jumping and the weightlifting jerk in order to improve awareness of the control strategies and correspondence between these activities, and to facilitate understanding of the likely transfer of training effects. Athletic males completed maximal unloaded vertical jumps (n=12) and explosive push jerks at 40 kg (n=9). Kinematic data were collected using optical motion tracking and kinetic data via a force plate, both at 200 Hz. Joint moments were calculated using a previously described biomechanical model of the right lower limb. Peak moment results highlighted that sagittal plane control strategies differed between jumping and jerking (p<0.05) with jerking being a knee dominant task in terms of peak moments as opposed to a more balanced knee and hip strategy in jumping and landing. Jumping and jerking exhibited proximal to distal joint involvement and landing was typically reversed. High variability was seen in non-sagittal moments at the hip and knee. Significant correlations were seen between jump height and hip and knee moments in jumping (p<0.05). Whilst hip and knee moments were correlated between jumping and jerking (p<0.05), joint moments in the jerk were not significantly correlated to jump height (p>0.05) possibly indicating a limit to the direct transferability of jerk performance to jumping. Ankle joint moments were poorly related to jump performance (p>0.05). Peak knee and hip moment generating capacity are important to vertical jump performance. The jerk appears to offer an effective strategy to overload joint moment generation in the knee relative to jumping. However, an absence of hip involvement would appear to make it a general, rather than specific, training modality in relation to jumping. PMID:22362089
A global ab initio dipole moment surface for methyl chloride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owens, Alec; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Yachmenev, Andrey; Tennyson, Jonathan; Thiel, Walter
2016-11-01
A new dipole moment surface (DMS) for methyl chloride has been generated at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVQZ(+d for Cl) level of theory. To represent the DMS, a symmetry-adapted analytic representation in terms of nine vibrational coordinates has been developed and implemented. Variational calculations of the infrared spectrum of CH3Cl show good agreement with a range of experimental results. This includes vibrational transition moments, absolute line intensities of the ν1, ν4, ν5 and 3ν6 bands, and a rotation-vibration line list for both CH335Cl and CH337Cl including states up to J=85 and vibrational band origins up to 4400 cm-1. Across the spectrum band shape and structure are well reproduced and computed absolute line intensities are comparable with highly accurate experimental measurements for certain fundamental bands. We thus recommend the DMS for future use.
Mercury monohalides: suitability for electron electric dipole moment searches.
Prasannaa, V S; Vutha, A C; Abe, M; Das, B P
2015-05-08
Heavy polar diatomic molecules are the primary tools for searching for the T-violating permanent electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM). Valence electrons in some molecules experience extremely large effective electric fields due to relativistic interactions. These large effective electric fields are crucial to the success of polar-molecule-based eEDM search experiments. Here we report on the results of relativistic ab initio calculations of the effective electric fields in a series of molecules that are highly sensitive to an eEDM, the mercury monohalides (HgF, HgCl, HgBr, and HgI). We study the influence of the halide anions on E_{eff}, and identify HgBr and HgI as attractive candidates for future electric dipole moment search experiments.
Generating accurate dipole moment surfaces using modified Shepard interpolation.
Morris, Michael; Jordan, Meredith J T
2014-05-28
We outline an approach for building molecular dipole moment surfaces using modified Shepard interpolation. Our approach is highly automated, requires minimal parameterization, and is iteratively improvable. Using the water molecule as a test case, we investigate how different aspects of the interpolation scheme affect the rate of convergence of calculated IR spectral line intensities. It is found that the interpolation scheme is sensitive to coordinate singularities present at linear geometries. Due to the generally monotonic nature of the dipole moment surface, the one-part weight function is found to be more effective than the more complicated two-part variant, with first-order interpolation also giving better-than-expected results. Almost all sensible schemes for choosing interpolation reference data points are found to exhibit acceptable convergence behavior.
Geoelectrical inference of mass transfer parameters using temporal moments
Day-Lewis, F. D.; Singha, K.
2008-01-01
We present an approach to infer mass transfer parameters based on (1) an analytical model that relates the temporal moments of mobile and bulk concentration and (2) a bicontinuum modification to Archie's law. Whereas conventional geochemical measurements preferentially sample from the mobile domain, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is sensitive to bulk electrical conductivity and, thus, electrolytic solute in both the mobile and immobile domains. We demonstrate the new approach, in which temporal moments of collocated mobile domain conductivity (i.e., conventional sampling) and ERT-estimated bulk conductivity are used to calculate heterogeneous mass transfer rate and immobile porosity fractions in a series of numerical column experiments. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.
Mercury Monohalides: Suitability for Electron Electric Dipole Moment Searches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasannaa, V. S.; Vutha, A. C.; Abe, M.; Das, B. P.
2015-05-01
Heavy polar diatomic molecules are the primary tools for searching for the T -violating permanent electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM). Valence electrons in some molecules experience extremely large effective electric fields due to relativistic interactions. These large effective electric fields are crucial to the success of polar-molecule-based eEDM search experiments. Here we report on the results of relativistic ab initio calculations of the effective electric fields in a series of molecules that are highly sensitive to an eEDM, the mercury monohalides (HgF, HgCl, HgBr, and HgI). We study the influence of the halide anions on Eeff, and identify HgBr and HgI as attractive candidates for future electric dipole moment search experiments.
Conformational study and ground state dipole moments of two ketene dithioacetal compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Negroni, B.; Botrel, A.; Hérail, M.; Proutière, A.
1997-03-01
Dipole moments (μ) of methyl-2-(1,3-dithietan-2-yliden)-3-oxobutanoate ( 1) and methyl-2-(1,3-dithiolan-2-yliden)-3-oxobutanoate ( 2) were measured in benzene solutions. Calculations of μ were performed using both the quantum chemical semiempirical PM3 method and the bond moments additivity model with additional electrostatic interaction calculations in the case of zwitterionic forms. A comparison of calculated values with the experimental ones shows that the electronic delocalization is larger for 2 than for 1 and more pronounced in the solid state than in solution for both molecules, in qualitative agreement with their first nonlinear polarizabilities β(2ω).
Experimental and theoretical investigation about reaction moments in misaligned splined couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Curà, Francesca; Mura, Andrea
2014-04-01
This paper deals with the uneven loads generated when splined couplings work in misaligned conditions. These loads are balanced by the shafts bearings and they have to be taken into account by designers during the calculation of splined transmission systems. In particular an experimental investigation about tilting moment has been carried on by means of a dedicated test rig, in order to better understand this phenomenon. Experimental tests have been conducted in order to investigate the effect of misalignment angle, transmitted torque and tooth stiffness on the tilting moment. Also a numerical model has been developed in order to obtain a preliminary quick estimation of tilting moment values.
2013-11-06
orthogonal polynomials to coefficients of polynomials for an arbitrary weight function. 2. If using Radau quadrature (fixes one endpoint at 1), update...the discrete points and the first entry of the eigenvectors squared corresponds to the discrete weights. If a Radau set is to be used the matrix...since Radau quadrature can integrate polynomials up to order 2N-1. The following table gives moments of the analog cross section, moments calculated
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sachdeva, Ritika; Kaur, Prabhjot; Singh, V. P.; Saini, G. S. S.
2016-05-01
Analysis of frontier orbitals of sildenafil has been carried using Density Functional Theory. On the basis of HOMO-LUMO energy, values of global chemical reactivity descriptors such as electronegativity, chemical hardness, softness, chemical potential, electrophilicity index have been calculated. Calculated values of dipole moment, polarizability, hyperpolarizability have also been reported for sildenafil along with its thermodynamic parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agudelo-Giraldo, J. D.; Morales-Rojas, S.; Hurtado-Marín, V. A.; Restrepo-Parra, E.
2017-01-01
Magnetic behaviour of nanotubes with square cell has been studied by the Monte Carlo Method, under the Metropolis algorithm and Heisenberg model. The Hamiltonian used includes nearest neighbour exchange interaction and radial and tangential direction for uniaxial anisotropy. Periodic boundary conditions were implemented at the sample's edges. Simulations were carried out varying the nanotube's diameter by changing the number of magnetic moments per ring and anisotropy values. Two transition temperatures were identified corresponding to states where moments were aligned as either ferromagnetic type or anisotropy direction. At low temperatures and low anisotropy values, the system exhibited a ferromagnetic alignment; as the anisotropy was increased, and continued in the low temperature range, spins were aligned in the anisotropy (radial or tangential) direction. As the temperature was increased, spins were reoriented in the ferromagnetic direction, generating a radial (tangential) anisotropy to ferromagnetic transition temperature. When the temperature continued increasing, the system transited toward the paramagnetic phase, appearing a ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition phase temperature. In several cases studied here, between these two transition temperatures (anisotropy to ferromagnetic and ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition phases), the magnetization of the system exhibited instabilities. These instabilities are caused because of the influence of the anisotropy values and the diameter of the nanotubes on the magnetic domains formation. As a consequence, there exist anisotropy values and diameters where metastable states were formed.
Schmidt, Signe; Nørgaard, Kirsten
2014-09-01
Matching meal insulin to carbohydrate intake, blood glucose, and activity level is recommended in type 1 diabetes management. Calculating an appropriate insulin bolus size several times per day is, however, challenging and resource demanding. Accordingly, there is a need for bolus calculators to support patients in insulin treatment decisions. Currently, bolus calculators are available integrated in insulin pumps, as stand-alone devices and in the form of software applications that can be downloaded to, for example, smartphones. Functionality and complexity of bolus calculators vary greatly, and the few handfuls of published bolus calculator studies are heterogeneous with regard to study design, intervention, duration, and outcome measures. Furthermore, many factors unrelated to the specific device affect outcomes from bolus calculator use and therefore bolus calculator study comparisons should be conducted cautiously. Despite these reservations, there seems to be increasing evidence that bolus calculators may improve glycemic control and treatment satisfaction in patients who use the devices actively and as intended.
Radial gate evaluation: Olympus Dam, Colorado
1997-06-01
The report presents a structural analysis of the radial gates of Olympus Dam in eastern Colorado. Five 20-foot wide by 17-foot high radial gates are used to control flow through the spillway at Olympus Dam. The spillway gates were designed in 1947. The gate arm assemblies consist of two separate wide flange beams, with a single brace between the arms. The arms pivot about a 4.0-inch diameter pin and bronze graphite-insert bushing. The pin is cantilevered from the pier anchor girder. The radial gates are supported by a pin bearing on a pier anchor birder bolted to the end of the concrete pier. The gates are operated by two-part wire rope 15,000-pound capacity hoise. Stoplog slots upstream of the radial gates are provided in the concrete piers. Selected drawings of the gates and hoists are located in appendix A.
Radial construction of an arterial wall.
Greif, Daniel M; Kumar, Maya; Lighthouse, Janet K; Hum, Justine; An, Andrew; Ding, Ling; Red-Horse, Kristy; Espinoza, F Hernan; Olson, Lorin; Offermanns, Stefan; Krasnow, Mark A
2012-09-11
Some of the most serious diseases involve altered size and structure of the arterial wall. Elucidating how arterial walls are built could aid understanding of these diseases, but little is known about how concentric layers of muscle cells and the outer adventitial layer are assembled and patterned around endothelial tubes. Using histochemical, clonal, and genetic analysis in mice, here we show that the pulmonary artery wall is constructed radially, from the inside out, by two separate but coordinated processes. One is sequential induction of successive cell layers from surrounding mesenchyme. The other is controlled invasion of outer layers by inner layer cells through developmentally regulated cell reorientation and radial migration. We propose that a radial signal gradient controls these processes and provide evidence that PDGF-B and at least one other signal contribute. Modulation of such radial signaling pathways may underlie vessel-specific differences and pathological changes in arterial wall size and structure.
Scaling laws for radial foil bearings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Honavara Prasad, Srikanth
The effects of fluid pressurization, structural deformation of the compliant members and heat generation in foil bearings make the design and analysis of foil bearings very complicated. The complex fluid-structural-thermal interactions in foil bearings also make modeling efforts challenging because these phenomena are governed by highly non-linear partial differential equations. Consequently, comparison of various bearing designs require detailed calculation of the flow fields (velocities, pressures), bump deflections (structural compliance) and heat transfer phenomena (viscous dissipation in the fluid, frictional heating, temperature profile etc.,) resulting in extensive computational effort (time/hardware). To obviate rigorous computations and aid in feasibility assessments of foil bearings of various sizes, NASA developed the "rule of thumb" design guidelines for estimation of journal bearing load capacity. The guidelines are based on extensive experimental data. The goal of the current work is the development of scaling laws for radial foil bearings to establish an analytical "rule of thumb" for bearing clearance and bump stiffness. The use of scale invariant Reynolds equation and experimentally observed NASA "rule of thumb" yield scale factors which can be deduced from first principles. Power-law relationships between: a. Bearing clearance and bearing radius, and b. bump stiffness and bearing radius, are obtained. The clearance and bump stiffness values obtained from scaling laws are used as inputs for Orbit simulation to study various cases. As the clearance of the bearing reaches the dimensions of the material surface roughness, asperity contact breaks the fluid film which results in wear. Similarly, as the rotor diameter increases (requiring larger bearing diameters), the load capacity of the fluid film should increase to prevent dry rubbing. This imposes limits on the size of the rotor diameter and consequently bearing diameter. Therefore, this thesis aims
Radial pressure sensor of sucker rod based on LabVIEW
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhongyu; Yan, Hu; Li, Qiang
2013-10-01
The eccentric wear, fracture and other phenomena often occur to the sucker rod in major oil fields. It turns out that the radial pressure of sucker rod suffered is the main reason for its eccentric wear. It is necessary to analyze the eccentric wear and fracture of sucker rod in the pumping process. It is also important to measure the radial pressure for the downhole sucker rod accurately. The radial pressure could be analyzed when sucker rod is extruded, collided or sustained friction based on the material mechanics and the fluid dynamics. The mechanical structure is designed for measuring the radial pressure. The data processing system for radial pressure of down-hole sucker rod based on LabVIEW is developed in this paper. The functions are real-time data acquisition and processing for sucker rod radial pressure. The communication of LabVIEW and Access database had been realized. The database management system for radial pressure of sucker rod is built, which could be used to achieve the data storage, historical data retrieval analysis, data organization and calculation. The computer simulation is carried out to verify the reasonability of the theoretical analysis and structure design.
The fundamental definition of ``radial velocity''
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindegren, Lennart; Dravins, Dainis
2003-04-01
Accuracy levels of metres per second require the fundamental concept of ``radial velocity'' for stars and other distant objects to be examined, both as a physical velocity, and as measured by spectroscopic and astrometric techniques. Already in a classical (non-relativistic) framework the line-of-sight velocity component is an ambiguous concept, depending on whether, e.g., the time of light emission (at the object) or that of light detection (by the observer) is used for recording the time coordinate. Relativistic velocity effects and spectroscopic measurements made inside gravitational fields add further complications, causing wavelength shifts to depend, e.g., on the transverse velocity of the object and the gravitational potential at the source. Aiming at definitions that are unambiguous at accuracy levels of 1 m s-1, we analyse different concepts of radial velocity and their interrelations. At this accuracy level, a strict separation must be made between the purely geometric concepts on one hand, and the spectroscopic measurement on the other. Among the geometric concepts we define kinematic radial velocity, which corresponds most closely to the ``textbook definition'' of radial velocity as the line-of-sight component of space velocity; and astrometric radial velocity, which can be derived from astrometric observations. Consistent with these definitions, we propose strict definitions also of the complementary kinematic and astrometric quantities, namely transverse velocity and proper motion. The kinematic and astrometric radial velocities depend on the chosen spacetime metric, and are accurately related by simple coordinate transformations. On the other hand, the observational quantity that should result from accurate spectroscopic measurements is the barycentric radial-velocity measure. This is independent of the metric, and to first order equals the line-of-sight velocity. However, it is not a physical velocity, and cannot be accurately transformed to a
Radial and poloidal correlation reflectometry on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak
Qu, Hao; Zhang, Tao; Han, Xiang; Wen, Fei; Zhang, Shoubiao; Kong, Defeng; Wang, Yumin; Gao, Yu; Huang, Canbin; Cai, Jianqing; Gao, Xiang
2015-08-15
An X-mode polarized V band (50 GHz–75 GHz) radial and poloidal correlation reflectometry is designed and installed on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). Two frequency synthesizers (12 GHz–19 GHz) are used as sources. Signals from the sources are up-converted to V band using active quadruplers and then coupled together for launching through one single pyramidal antenna. Two poloidally separated antennae are installed to receive the reflected waves from plasma. This reflectometry system can be used for radial and poloidal correlation measurement of the electron density fluctuation. In ohmically heated plasma, the radial correlation length is about 1.5 cm measured by the system. The poloidal correlation analysis provides a means to estimate the fluctuation velocity perpendicular to the main magnetic field. In the present paper, the distance between two poloidal probing points is calculated with ray-tracing code and the propagation time is deduced from cross-phase spectrum. Fluctuation velocity perpendicular to the main magnetic field in the core of ohmically heated plasma is about from −1 km/s to −3 km/s.
Radial and poloidal correlation reflectometry on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.
Qu, Hao; Zhang, Tao; Han, Xiang; Wen, Fei; Zhang, Shoubiao; Kong, Defeng; Wang, Yumin; Gao, Yu; Huang, Canbin; Cai, Jianqing; Gao, Xiang
2015-08-01
An X-mode polarized V band (50 GHz-75 GHz) radial and poloidal correlation reflectometry is designed and installed on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). Two frequency synthesizers (12 GHz-19 GHz) are used as sources. Signals from the sources are up-converted to V band using active quadruplers and then coupled together for launching through one single pyramidal antenna. Two poloidally separated antennae are installed to receive the reflected waves from plasma. This reflectometry system can be used for radial and poloidal correlation measurement of the electron density fluctuation. In ohmically heated plasma, the radial correlation length is about 1.5 cm measured by the system. The poloidal correlation analysis provides a means to estimate the fluctuation velocity perpendicular to the main magnetic field. In the present paper, the distance between two poloidal probing points is calculated with ray-tracing code and the propagation time is deduced from cross-phase spectrum. Fluctuation velocity perpendicular to the main magnetic field in the core of ohmically heated plasma is about from -1 km/s to -3 km/s.
Detecting neutrino magnetic moments with conducting loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apyan, Aram; Apyan, Armen; Schmitt, Michael
2008-02-01
It is well established that neutrinos have mass, yet it is very difficult to measure those masses directly. Within the standard model of particle physics, neutrinos will have an intrinsic magnetic moment proportional to their mass. We examine the possibility of detecting the magnetic moment using a conducting loop. According to Faraday’s law of induction, a magnetic dipole passing through a conducting loop induces an electromotive force in the loop. We compute this electromotive force for neutrinos in several cases, based on a fully covariant formulation of the problem. We discuss prospects for a real experiment, as well as the possibility to test the relativistic formulation of intrinsic magnetic moments.
The Gulf Moment: Arab Relations Since 2011
2015-05-01
THE GULF MOMENT: ARAB RElATIONS SINCE 201 t Florence Gaub UNITED STATES ARMY WAR COLLEGE PRESS CarlisleBarracks,PA .., STRENGTH-’WISDOM U.S...SUBTITLE The Gulf Moment: Arab Relations Since 2011 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...Institute and U.S. Army War College Press THE GULF MOMENT: ARAB RELATIONS SINCE 2011 Florence Gaub May 2015 The views expressed in this report are
Mathematical interpretation of radial shearing interferometers.
Malacara, D
1974-08-01
The procedure for computing a radial shearing interferometric pattern is given. The interferometric pattern is analyzed to obtain the wavefront shape. Restricting the discussion to wavefronts having rotational symmetry, we give two different methods of finding the wavefront. One approach is to scan along a diameter of the interferometric pattern and the other is to examine the shape of the fringes. The relative sensitivity of a radial shearing interferometer with respect to that of a Twyman-Green interferometer is also analyzed.
Elbow dislocation with irreparable fracture radial head
Tanna, Dilip
2013-01-01
Background: Treatment of elbow dislocation with irreparable radial head fracture needs replacement of radial head to achieve stability of elbow. An alternate method in cases of elbow dislocation with radial head fracture can be resection of radial head with repair of medial collateral ligament. We report a retrospective analysis of cases of elbow dislocation with irreparable radial head treated by excision head of radius and repair of MCL. Materials and Methods: Nine patients of elbow dislocation with associated irreparable fractures of the head of the radius were included in this analysis (6 F:3 M, Age: 35-47 years). Radial head excision was done through the lateral approach and MCL was sutured using no 3 Ethibond using medial approach. Above elbow plaster was given for 6 weeks and gradual mobilization was done thereafter. All patients were assessed at final followup using Mayo elbow performance score (MEPS). Results: Mean followup was 19.55 ± 7.12 months (range 14-36 months). There was no extension deficit when compared to opposite side with mean range of flexion of 138.8° ± 6.97° (range 130 -145°). Mean pronation was 87.7° ± 4.4° (range 80-90°) and mean supination was 87.7 ± 4.62° (range 80-90°). The mean MEPS was 98.8 ± 3.33 (range 90-100). No patient had pain, sensory complaints, subluxation or redislocation. All were able to carry out their daily activities without disability. Conclusion: Radial head excision with MCL repair is an acceptable option for treatment of patients with elbow dislocation and irreparable radial head fracture. PMID:23798760
Radial averages of astigmatic TEM images.
Fernando, K Vince
2008-10-01
The Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) of an image, which modulates images taken from a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), is usually determined from the radial average of the power spectrum of the image (Frank, J., Three-dimensional Electron Microscopy of Macromolecular Assemblies, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006). The CTF is primarily defined by the defocus. If the defocus estimate is accurate enough then it is possible to demodulate the image, which is popularly known as the CTF correction. However, it is known that the radial average is somewhat attenuated if the image is astigmatic (see Fernando, K.V., Fuller, S.D., 2007. Determination of astigmatism in TEM images. Journal of Structural Biology 157, 189-200) but this distortion due to astigmatism has not been fully studied or understood up to now. We have discovered the exact mathematical relationship between the radial averages of TEM images with and without astigmatism. This relationship is determined by a zeroth order Bessel function of the first kind and hence we can exactly quantify this distortion in the radial averages of signal and power spectra of astigmatic images. The argument to this Bessel function is similar to an aberration function (without the spherical aberration term) except that the defocus parameter is replaced by the differences of the defoci in the major and minor axes of astigmatism. The ill effects due this Bessel function are twofold. Since the zeroth order Bessel function is a decaying oscillatory function, it introduces additional zeros to the radial average and it also attenuates the CTF signal in the radial averages. Using our analysis, it is possible to simulate the effects of astigmatism in radial averages by imposing Bessel functions on idealized radial averages of images which are not astigmatic. We validate our theory using astigmatic TEM images.
Higher radial and orbital excitations in the charmed meson family
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Qin-Tao; Chen, Dian-Yong; Liu, Xiang; Matsuki, Takayuki
2015-10-01
Using abundant experimental information about charmed mesons together with recent research, we systematically study higher radial and orbital excitations in the charmed meson family by analyzing the mass spectrum and by calculating their Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka-allowed two-body decay behaviors. This phenomenological analysis reveals underlying properties of the newly observed charmed states D (2550 ), D*(2600 ) , D*(2760 ) , D (2750 ), DJ(2580 ), DJ*(2650 ), DJ*(2760 ), DJ(2740 ), DJ(3000 ), and DJ*(3000 ) to provide valuable information about the charmed mesons still missing in experiments.
Phase-integral method for the radial Dirac equation
Linnæus, Staffan
2014-09-15
A phase-integral (WKB) solution of the radial Dirac equation is calculated up to the third order of approximation, retaining perfect symmetry between the two components of the wave function and introducing no singularities except at the zeroth-order transition points. The potential is allowed to be of scalar, vector, or tensor type, or any combination of these. The connection problem is investigated in detail. Explicit formulas are given for single-turning-point phase shifts and single-well energy levels.
Response of radiation belt simulations to different radial diffusion coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drozdov, A.; Shprits, Y.; Subbotin, D.; Kellerman, A. C.
2013-12-01
Resonant interactions between Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) waves and relativistic electrons may violate the third adiabatic invariant of motion, which produces radial diffusion in the electron radiation belts. This process plays an important role in the formation and structure of the outer electron radiation belt and is important for electron acceleration and losses in that region. Two parameterizations of the resonant wave-particle interaction of electrons with ULF waves in the magnetosphere by Brautigam and Albert [2000] and Ozeke et al. [2012] are evaluated using the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) diffusion code to estimate their relative effect on the radiation belt simulation. The period of investigation includes quiet time and storm time geomagnetic activity and is compared to data based on satellite observations. Our calculations take into account wave-particle interactions represented by radial diffusion transport, local acceleration, losses due to pitch-angle diffusion, and mixed diffusion. We show that the results of the 3D diffusion simulations depend on the assumed parametrization of waves. The differences between the simulations and potential missing physical mechanisms are discussed. References Brautigam, D. H., and J. M. Albert (2000), Radial diffusion analysis of outer radiation belt electrons during the October 9, 1990, magnetic storm, J. Geophys. Res., 105(A1), 291-309, doi:10.1029/1999JA900344 Ozeke, L. G., I. R. Mann, K. R. Murphy, I. J. Rae, D. K. Milling, S. R. Elkington, A. A. Chan, and H. J. Singer (2012), ULF wave derived radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A04222, doi:10.1029/2011JA017463.
batman: BAsic Transit Model cAlculatioN in Python
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kreidberg, Laura
2015-10-01
batman provides fast calculation of exoplanet transit light curves and supports calculation of light curves for any radially symmetric stellar limb darkening law. It uses an integration algorithm for models that cannot be quickly calculated analytically, and in typical use, the batman Python package can calculate a million model light curves in well under ten minutes for any limb darkening profile.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, M. A.
1983-02-01
Reticon observations of Aldebaran and Arcturus were performed to detect any minute radial velocity modulations which could characterize the convective stellar envelopes. The observing procedure consisted of referencing small apparent shifts of the detected stellar lines near the 6300 A wavelength to telluric O2 lines in the stellar spectrum. Only radial velocity changes were sought, rather than absolute radial velocities. Measurements for the radial velocities of both stars were calculated to an accuracy within 7 m/sec. A quasiperiodicity within 16 minutes of 110 minutes was found for Aldebaran, and within 28 minutes of 97 minutes for Arcturus. The possibility of the observed global oscillations being similar to the 5-min oscillations present in the solar system sun are discussed, and further measurements are recommended.
A Radial Self-Calibrated (RASCAL) GRAPPA method using Weight Interpolation
Codella, Noel C. F.; Spincemaille, Pascal; Prince, Martin; Wang, Yi
2011-01-01
A generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition (GRAPPA) method for radial k-space sampling is presented that calculates GRAPPA weights without synthesized or acquired calibration data. Instead, GRAPPA weights are fit to the undersampled data as if it were the calibration data itself. Because the relative k-space shifts associated with these GRAPPA weights are varying for a radial trajectory, new GRAPPA weights can be resampled for arbitrary shifts through interpolation, which is then used to generate missing projections between the acquired projections. The method is demonstrated in phantoms and in abdominal and brain imaging. Image quality is similar to radial GRAPPA using fully sampled calibration data, and improved compared to a previously described self-calibrated radial GRAPPA technique. PMID:21834008
Impurity profiles and radial transport in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sallander, J.
1999-05-01
Radially resolved spectroscopy has been used to measure the radial distribution of impurity ions (O III-O V and C III-CVI) in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch (RFP). The radial profile of the emission is reconstructed from line emission measured along five lines of sight. The ion density profile is the fitted quantity in the reconstruction of the brightness profile and is thus obtained directly in this process. These measurements are then used to adjust the parameters in transport calculations in order to obtain consistency with the observed ion density profiles. Comparison between model and measurements show that a radial dependence in the diffusion is needed to explain the measured ion densities.
On the radial width of CMEs between 0.1 and 0.4 AU
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savani, N. P.; Forsyth, R. J.; Rouillard, A. P.; Owens, M. J.; Davies, J. A.
2009-04-01
The launch of the two STEREO spacecraft in 2006 has heralded a new era of opportunities to make remote observations of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). An example CME on the 16th February 2008 with an approximately circular cross section was tracked through successive images obtained by the Heliospheric Imager (HI) instrument onboard the STEREO-A spacecraft. The cylindrical nature of force-free constant alpha flux ropes is used to determine the radial size of the CME. The radial velocity and longitude of propagation are determined. With these parameters known, the radial size is calculated from the images taking projection effects into account. A power law is obtained for the resulting radial width behaviour with heliocentric distance as the CME travels between 0.1 and 0.4 AU. We compare our results to those obtained in published studies based on in-situ spacecraft observations of ICMEs between 0.3 and 1.0 AU.
Radial glia and somal translocation of radial neurons in the developing cerebral cortex.
Nadarajah, Bagirathy
2003-07-01
A series of recent studies have demonstrated that radial glia are neural precursors in the developing cerebral cortex. These studies have further implied that these cells are the sole precursor constituents of the dorsal forebrain ventricular zone that generate the projection neurons of the cortex. In view of these new findings, this review discusses radial neurons, a progeny of cortical neurons that are generated by radial glia and adopt somal translocation as the mode of migration.
Moment domain representation of nonblind image deblurring.
Kumar, Ahlad; Paramesran, Raveendran; Shakibaei, Barmak Honarvar
2014-04-01
In this paper, we propose the use of geometric moments to the field of nonblind image deblurring. Using the developed relationship of geometric moments for original and blurred images, a mathematical formulation based on the Euler-Lagrange identity and variational techniques is proposed. It uses an iterative procedure to deblur the image in moment domain. The theoretical framework is validated by a set of experiments. A comparative analysis of the results obtained using the spatial and moment domains are evaluated using a quality assessment method known as the Blind/Reference-less Image Spatial Quality Evaluator (BRISQUE). The results show that the proposed method yields a higher quality score when compared with the spatial domain method for the same number of iterations.
Neutrino masses, mixing, moments, and matter
Marciano, W.J.
1988-01-01
The present status of neutrino masses, mixing, and electromagnetic moments is surveyed. Potential enhancements of neutrino oscillations, decay, and spin-flavor precession due to their interactions with matter are described.
[Elbow dislocation with ipsilateral proximal radial shaft fracture and radial head dislocation].
Köhn, N; Mendel, T; Ullrich, B W
2015-11-01
Elbow dislocation with ipsilateral proximal radial shaft fracture and dislocated radial head is a rarely described injury. In this article we present the case of a 23-year-old man with this injury. After the initial diagnostics, the radial shaft fracture was osteosynthetically fixed, whereby the anatomical positions of all parts of the elbow joint were correctly aligned and the medial collateral ligament was reconstructed. After 4.5 months the radial shaft fracture was healed with nearly complete functional recovery of the upper extremity. Thus, a good outcome can be expected when all aspects of bony and ligamentous injuries are accurately addressed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Laaksonen, Juha-Pertti; Rieger, Jana; Harris, Jeffrey; Seikaly, Hadi
2011-01-01
Acoustic properties of 980 tokens of sibilants /s, z, [approximately]/ produced by 17 Canadian English-speaking female and male tongue cancer patients were studied. The patients had undergone tongue resection and tongue reconstruction with a radial forearm free flap (RFFF). The spectral moments (mean, skewness) and frication duration were analysed…
Magnetic dipole moments for composite dark matter
Aranda, Alfredo; Barajas, Luis; Cembranos, Jose A.R. E-mail: luisedua@buffalo.edu
2016-03-01
We study neutral dark matter candidates with a nonzero magnetic dipole moment. We assume that they are composite states of new fermions related to the strong phase of a new gauge interaction. In particular, invoking a dark flavor symmetry, we analyze the composition structure of viable candidates depending on the assignations of hypercharge and the multiplets associated to the fundamental constituents of the extended sector. We determine the magnetic dipole moments for the neutral composite states in terms of their constituents masses.
Toroidal Dipole Moment of a Massless Neutrino
Cabral-Rosetti, L. G.; Mondragon, M.; Perez, E. Reyes
2009-04-20
We obtain the toroidal dipole moment of a massless neutrino {tau}{sub v{sub I}}{sup M} using the results for the anapole moment of a massless Dirac neutrino a{sub v{sub I}}{sup D}, which was obtained in the context of the Standard Model of the electroweak interactions (SM)SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y}.
Near surface radial anisotropy in the Rigan area/SE Iran
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shirzad, Taghi; Shomali, Zaher-Hossein; Riahi, Mohammad-Ali; Jarrahi, Maziar
2017-01-01
By analyzing Rayleigh and Love wave empirical Green's functions extracted from ambient seismic noise and earthquake data, we obtained near surface radial anisotropy structure beneath the hidden part of the Kahurak fault in the Rigan region, in the southeast of Iran. The deduced seismic radial anisotropy within the hidden part of the Kahurak fault can reveal record of shallow crustal deformation caused by the Rigan earthquake (MW 6.5) occurred on 20 December 2010. Significant radial anisotropy with positive magnitude (VSH > VSV) appears in the shallow subsurface of the upper part of the crust. The magnitude of radial anisotropy varies from predominantly positive (VSH > VSV) to mostly negative (VSH < VSV) values with increasing depth which is correlated with a known sedimentary layer. The sedimentary layer is observed with prominent positive radial anisotropy (VSH > VSV). The thickness of the sedimentary layer varies between 1 and 3 km from the south to the north beneath the study area with an average radial anisotropy of about 5%. However, cross-section profiles indicate that negative anomaly stretches inside a thick sedimentary layer where the aftershocks occurred. Also, the investigation of cross-section profiles reveals that a dipping angle of the hidden part of Kahurak fault is resolved at approximately 85° using the anisotropy pattern. Moreover, the aftershocks generally occurred in the transitional zones where signs of radial anisotropy anomalies change. Our study indicates that the influence of different resolving powers and path coverage density of Rayleigh and Love waves, which can be artificially interpreted as radial anisotropy, have minor effect on calculated radial anisotropy and they are estimated in the range of - 2% to + 2%.
Nuclear Magnetic Moment of the {sup 57}Cu Ground State
Minamisono, K.; Mertzimekis, T.J.; Pereira, J.; Mantica, P.F.; Pinter, J.S.; Stoker, J.B.; Tomlin, B.E.; Weerasiri, R.R.; Davies, A.D.; Hass, M.; Rogers, W.F.
2006-03-17
The nuclear magnetic moment of the ground state of {sup 57}Cu(I{sup {pi}}=3/2{sup -},T{sub 1/2}=196.3 ms) has been measured to be vertical bar {mu}({sup 57}Cu) vertical bar =(2.00{+-}0.05){mu}{sub N} using the {beta}-NMR technique. Together with the known magnetic moment of the mirror partner {sup 57}Ni, the spin expectation value was extracted as <{sigma}{sigma}{sub z}>=-0.78{+-}0.13. This is the heaviest isospin T=1/2 mirror pair above the {sup 40}Ca region for which both ground state magnetic moments have been determined. The discrepancy between the present results and shell-model calculations in the full fp shell giving {mu}({sup 57}Cu){approx}2.4{mu}{sub N} and <{sigma}{sigma}{sub z}>{approx}0.5 implies significant shell breaking at {sup 56}Ni with the neutron number N=28.
The solar neutrino problem and the neutrino magnetic moment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pulido, João
1992-02-01
The physics of the proposed solution to the solar neutrino puzzle based on the neutrino magnetic moment is reviewed. The magnetic moment transition mechanism from active to sterile neutrinos can be either resonant or non-resonant and its kinship to matter enhanced oscillations is shown. The transition probability in the adiabatic approximation is calculated and the limits to adiabaticity are discussed. The full probability incorporating both the adiabatic and non-adiabatic regimes is derived using the Landau-Zener approximation for the non-adiabatic regimes. The available experimental data from the three existing solar neutrino experiments (Davis, Kamiokande II and SAGE) are compared with the results of the theory. From this comparison one can predict for the flavour square mass difference Δ2m21 = (0.5-1.5) x 10-8eV2 and for the magnetic moment μ > (6-7) × 10-12 μB. The uncertainties in the solar magnetic field are considerable and the ansatz used takes a value of 10 5 G along the solar core and the radiation zone, decreasing then linearly along the convection zone. A change in B by one or two orders of magnitude has the main effect of modifying the lower bound on μ by the same proportion, while leaving Δ2m21 practically unaltered. An anticorrelation between neutrino flux and solar activity, although consistent with the theory, cannot be clearly predicted.
Free-molecule-flow force and moment coefficients of the aeroassist flight experiment vehicle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blanchard, Robert C.; Hinson, Edwin W.
1989-01-01
Calculated results for the aerodynamic coefficients over the range of + or - 90 deg in both pitch and yaw attitude angles for the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle in free molecule flow are presented. The AFE body is described by a large number of small flat plate surface elements whose orientations are established in a wind axes coordinate system through the pitch and yaw attitude angles. Lift force, drag force, and three components of aerodynamic moment about a specified point are computed for each element. The elemental forces and moments are integrated over the entire body, and total force and moment coefficients are computed. The coefficients are calculated for the two limiting gas-surface molecular collision conditions, namely, specular and diffuse, which assume zero and full thermal accommodation of the incoming gas molecules with the surface, respectively. The individual contribution of the shear stress and pressure terms are calculated and also presented.
Identifying Isotropic Events Using a Regional Moment Tensor Inversion
Dreger, D S; Ford, S R; Walter, W R
2009-08-03
In our previous work the deviatoric and isotropic source components for 17 explosions at the Nevada Test Site, as well as 12 earthquakes and 4 collapses in the surrounding region of the western US, were calculated using a regional time-domain full waveform inversion for the complete moment tensor (Dreger et al., 2008; Ford et al., 2008; Ford et al., 2009a). The events separate into specific populations according to their deviation from a pure double-couple and ratio of isotropic to deviatoric energy. The separation allows for anomalous event identification and discrimination between explosions, earthquakes, and collapses. Confidence regions of the model parameters are estimated from the data misfit by assuming normally distributed parameter values. We developed a new Network Sensitivity Solution (NSS) in which the fit of sources distributed over a source-type plot (Hudson et al., 1989) show the resolution of the source parameters. The NSS takes into account the unique station distribution, frequency band, and signal-to-noise ratio of a given event scenario. The NSS compares both a hypothetical pure source (for example an explosion or an earthquake) and the actual data with several thousand sets of synthetic data from a uniform distribution of all possible sources. The comparison with a hypothetical pure source provides the theoretically best-constrained source-type region for a given set of stations, and with it one can determine whether further analysis with the data is warranted. We apply the NSS to a NTS nuclear explosion, and earthquake, as well as the 2006 North Korean explosion, and a nearby earthquake. The results show that explosions and earthquakes are distinguishable, however the solution space depends strongly on the station coverage. Finally, on May 25, 2009 a second North Korean test took place. Our preliminary results show that the explosive nature of the event may be determined using the regional distance moment tensor method. Results indicate that
A Comparison of Geodetic Strain Rates With Earthquake Moment Tensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, W.; Holt, W. E.
2004-12-01
In this paper we compare the global model from interpolation of GPS data with the global model inferred from earthquake moment tensors. We use the Harvard CMT catalog to calculate moment rates based on 3 assumptions: a. we assume earthquakes are self-similar; b. we assume a uniform Beta value of the Gutenberg-Richter distribution; c. we assume that all of the long-term strain is accommodated seismically. If these assumptions are correct then the seismicity rate is proportional to the tectonic moment rate. We then inferred a long-term moment rate tensor field estimate for all plate boundary zones from which we inferred a long-term seismic strain rate estimate. Using this estimate we solved for a self-consistent kinematic global solution (motions of rigid spherical caps and motions within plate boundary zones) using bi-cubic spline interpolation of the inferred strain rates. We tested the above assumptions by comparing the global kinematic model obtained from earthquake data with a global model inferred from interpolation of space geodetic data [Kreemer et al., 2003]. A comparison between the two models shows good agreement for motion directions of the North American, and Eurasian plates and for the plate boundary zones within these regions (e.g., Tibet). Problems arise, and our assumptions break down, for plates adjacent to fast spreading ridges where divergence of plates appears to be accommodated aseismically. We next investigated the correlation of strain rate tensor inferred from the interpolation of GPS observations within deforming Asia with the earthquake moment tensors, using both elastic and viscous rheologies. Our solutions satisfy the force balance equations for a given rheology. Our goal for this exercise is to investigate whether the interseismic signal, inferred from GPS, correlates better with moment tensor style for an elastic rheology as opposed to a viscous rheology. Results to date suggest that the viscous models only provide a better agreement
Neutron electric dipole moment from lattice QCD
Shintani, E.; Kanaya, K.; Aoki, S.; Ishizuka, N.; Kuramashi, Y.; Taniguchi, Y.; Ukawa, A.; Yoshie, T.; Kikukawa, Y.; Okawa, M.
2005-07-01
We carry out a feasibility study for the lattice QCD calculation of the neutron electric dipole moment (NEDM) in the presence of the {theta} term. We develop the strategy to obtain the nucleon EDM from the CP-odd electromagnetic form factor F{sub 3} at small {theta}, in which NEDM is given by lim{sub q{sup 2}}{sub {yields}}{sub 0}{theta}F{sub 3}(q{sup 2})/(2m{sub N}), where q is the momentum transfer and m{sub N} is the nucleon mass. We first derive a formula which relates F{sub 3}, a matrix element of the electromagnetic current between nucleon states, with vacuum expectation values of nucleons and/or the current. In the expansion of {theta}, the parity-odd part of the nucleon-current-nucleon three-point function contains contributions not only from the parity-odd form factors but also from the parity-even form factors multiplied by the parity-odd part of the nucleon two-point function, and, therefore, the latter contribution must be subtracted to extract F{sub 3}. We then perform an explicit lattice calculation employing the domain-wall quark action with the renormalization group improved gauge action in quenched QCD at a{sup -1}{approx_equal}2 GeV on a 16{sup 3}x32x16 lattice. At the quark mass m{sub f}a=0.03, corresponding to m{sub {pi}}/m{sub {rho}}{approx_equal}0.63, we accumulate 730 configurations, which allow us to extract the parity-odd part in both two- and three-point functions. Employing two different Dirac {gamma} matrix projections, we show that a consistent value for F{sub 3} cannot be obtained without the subtraction described above. We obtain F{sub 3}(q{sup 2}{approx_equal}0.58 GeV{sup 2})/(2m{sub N})=-0.024(5)e{center_dot}fm for the neutron and F{sub 3}(q{sup 2}{approx_equal}0.58 GeV{sup 2})/(2m{sub N})=0.021(6)e{center_dot}fm for the proton.
EM induction experiment to determine the moment of a magnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Najiya Maryam, K. M.
2014-05-01
If we drop a magnet through a coil, an emf is induced in the coil according to Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. Here, such an experiment is done using expEYES kit. The plot of emf versus time has a specific shape with two peaks. A theoretical analysis of this graph is discussed here for both short and long cylindrical magnets. Mathematical expressions are derived for both. Knowing this equation, experiments to calculate the moment of a magnet can be devised. If we use a long conducting tube instead of a simple coil in this experiment, it can even help in measuring the eddy current damping coefficient k.
The permanent electric dipole moment of chromium monoxide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steimle, Timothy C.; Nachman, David F.; Shirley, Jeffrey E.; Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Langhoff, Stephen R.
1989-01-01
The permanent electric dipole moments for the X 5Pi and B 5pi states of gas-phase CrO have been experimentally determined using the sub-Doppler optical technique of intermodulated fluorescence spectroscopy in conjunction with the Stark effect. The measured values are 3.88 + or - 0.13 and 4.1 + or - 1.8 D for the X and B states, respectively. The theoretical values determined for the X state using multireference CI iterative-natural-orbital and finite-field calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimental value.
Identifying Isotropic Events Using a Regional Moment Tensor Inversion
2008-09-01
to-noise ratio ( SNR ) assuming a reasonable azimuthal distribution of stations. In the band of interest (0.02–0.10 Hz) the source-type calculated from...result, and a good fit and accurate result are obtained when the SNR is greater than 5. We assess the depth and frequency dependence upon the...and 200%. However, even at the most shallow depth the resultant moment tensor is dominated by the explosive component when the data has a good SNR . The
Nonadditivity in moments ofinertia of high-K multiquasiparticle bands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Wu, Xi; Lei, Yi-An; Zeng, Jin-Yan
2008-09-01
The experimental high-K 2- and 3-quasiparticle bands of well deformed rare-earth nuclei are analyzed. It is found that there exists significant nonadditivity in moments of inertia (MOIs) for these bands. The microscopic mechanism of the rotational bands is investigated by the particle number conserving (PNC) method in the frame of cranked shell model with pairing, in which the blocking effects are taken care of exactly. The experimental rotational frequency dependence of these bands is well reproduced in PNC calculations. The nonadditivity in MOIs originates from the destructive interference between Pauli blocking effects. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (10675006, 10675007, 10435010)
Estimation of additive forces and moments for supersonic inlets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perkins, Stanley C., Jr.; Dillenius, Marnix F. E.
1991-01-01
A technique for estimating the additive forces and moments associated with supersonic, external compression inlets as a function of mass flow ratio has been developed. The technique makes use of a low order supersonic paneling method for calculating minimum additive forces at maximum mass flow conditions. A linear relationship between the minimum additive forces and the maximum values for fully blocked flow is employed to obtain the additive forces at a specified mass flow ratio. The method is applicable to two-dimensional inlets at zero or nonzero angle of attack, and to axisymmetric inlets at zero angle of attack. Comparisons with limited available additive drag data indicate fair to good agreement.
Moments of the neutron g₂ structure function at intermediate Q²
Solvignon-Slifer, Patricia H.
2015-07-15
We present new experimental results of the ³He spin structure function g₂ in the resonance region at Q² values between 1.2 and 3.0 (GeV/c)². Spin dependent moments of the neutron were then extracted.Our main result, the inelastic contribution to the neutron d₂ matrix element, was found to be small (Q²) = 2.4 (GeV/c)² and in agreement with the Lattice QCD calculation. The Burkhardt-Cottingham sum rule for ³He neutron was tested with the measured data and using the Wandzura-Wilczek relation for the low x unmeasured region.
Theoretical study of the dipole moment of oxygen monofluoride (OF)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Langhoff, S. R.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Partridge, H.
1983-01-01
The ground-state potential curve and dipole-moment function of OF are calculated theoretically using the complete active-space self-consistent-field levels, externally contracted configuration-interaction levels, or multireference (singles plus doubles) configuration-interaction levels. Both an extended Gaussian basis set and a double-zeta-plus-polarization basis set were applied. The results are presented in extensive tables and graphs. Best results are achieved using a large Gaussian basis set and taking the valence-correlation energy into account. It is suggested that OF may best be detected by its laser-magnetic-resonance spectrum in the IR.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muddapur, G. V.; Koppal, V. V.; Patil, N. R.; Melavanki, R. M.
2016-05-01
The absorption and fluorescence spectra of newly synthesized thiadiazole derivative namely 6-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(naphthalene-1-ylmethyl) imidazo [2, 1-b][1,3,4] thiadiazole [6CNMT] have been recorded in various solvents of different polarities. The ground state dipole moment of 6CNMT was obtained from quantum chemical calculations. Solvatochromic correlations were used to estimate the ground state (μg) and excited state (μe) dipole moments. The excited state dipole moments are observed to be greater than the ground state dipole moment. Further, the changes in dipole moment (Δμ) were calculated both from solvatochromic shift method and microscopic solvent polarity parameter (ETN ) and the values are compared. The spectral variations were also analyzed by Kamlet-Taft parameters.
Stress Calculations for Carbon Nanotubes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Halicioglu, Timur; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
Atomic stresses were calculated for carbon nanotubes under strain conditions. Graphitic tubules with radii ranging from approximately 2 to 11 Angstroms and two different tubule structures with varying atomic orientations were included in the calculations. Elongations and contractions were applied in the axial direction and atomic stress values were calculated for infinitely long tubules. The calculations were carried out using Brenner's function which was developed for carbon species. Results indicate that the stress is tensile in the radial direction while it is compressive in the tangential direction. Variations in stress values in the direction of the cylindrical aids were investigated as a function of applied strain. Furthermore, using the stress-strain curve (calculated based on atomic considerations), the values of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio for nanotubules were also estimated.
Identifying isotropic events using a regional moment tensor inversion
Ford, S R; Dreger, D S; Walter, W R
2008-07-16
The deviatoric and isotropic source components for 17 explosions at the Nevada Test Site, as well as 12 earthquakes and 3 collapses in the surrounding region of the western US, are calculated using a regional time-domain full waveform inversion for the complete moment tensor. The events separate into specific populations according to their deviation from a pure double-couple and ratio of isotropic to deviatoric energy. The separation allows for anomalous event identification and discrimination between explosions, earthquakes, and collapses. Confidence regions of the model parameters are estimated from the data misfit by assuming normally distributed parameter values. We investigate the sensitivity of the resolved parameters of an explosion to imperfect Earth models, inaccurate event depths, and data with a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) assuming a reasonable azimuthal distribution of stations. In the band of interest (0.02-0.10 Hz) the source-type calculated from complete moment tensor inversion is insensitive to velocity models perturbations that cause less than a half-cycle shift (<5 sec) in arrival time error if shifting of the waveforms is allowed. The explosion source-type is insensitive to an incorrect depth assumption (for a true depth of 1 km), but the goodness-of-fit of the inversion result cannot be used to resolve the true depth of the explosion. Noise degrades the explosive character of the result, and a good fit and accurate result are obtained when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is greater than 5. We assess the depth and frequency dependence upon the resolved explosive moment. As the depth decreases from 1 km to 200 m, the isotropic moment is no longer accurately resolved and is in error between 50-200%. However, even at the most shallow depth the resultant moment tensor is dominated by the explosive component when the data has a good SNR. The sensitivity investigation is extended via the introduction of the network sensitivity solution, which takes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cohn, T. A.; Lane, W. L.; Baier, W. G.
This paper presents the expected moments algorithm (EMA), a simple and efficient method for incorporating historical and paleoflood information into flood frequency studies. EMA can utilize three types of at-site flood information: systematic stream gage record; information about the magnitude of historical floods; and knowledge of the number of years in the historical period when no large flood occurred. EMA employs an iterative procedure to compute method-of-moments parameter estimates. Initial parameter estimates are calculated from systematic stream gage data. These moments are then updated by including the measured historical peaks and the expected moments, given the previously estimated parameters, of the below-threshold floods from the historical period. The updated moments result in new parameter estimates, and the last two steps are repeated until the algorithm converges. Monte Carlo simulations compare EMA, Bulletin 17B's [United States Water Resources Council, 1982] historically weighted moments adjustment, and maximum likelihood estimators when fitting the three parameters of the log-Pearson type III distribution. These simulations demonstrate that EMA is more efficient than the Bulletin 17B method, and that it is nearly as efficient as maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). The experiments also suggest that EMA has two advantages over MLE when dealing with the log-Pearson type III distribution: It appears that EMA estimates always exist and that they are unique, although neither result has been proven. EMA can be used with binomial or interval-censored data and with any distributional family amenable to method-of-moments estimation.
Fast Maximum Entropy Moment Closure Approach to Solving the Boltzmann Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Summy, Dustin; Pullin, Dale
2015-11-01
We describe a method for a moment-based solution of the Boltzmann Equation (BE). This is applicable to an arbitrary set of velocity moments whose transport is governed by partial-differential equations (PDEs) derived from the BE. The equations are unclosed, containing both higher-order moments and molecular-collision terms. These are evaluated using a maximum-entropy reconstruction of the velocity distribution function f (c , x , t) , from the known moments, within a finite-box domain of single-particle velocity (c) space. Use of a finite-domain alleviates known problems (Junk and Unterreiter, Continuum Mech. Thermodyn., 2002) concerning existence and uniqueness of the reconstruction. Unclosed moments are evaluated with quadrature while collision terms are calculated using any desired method. This allows integration of the moment PDEs in time. The high computational cost of the general method is greatly reduced by careful choice of the velocity moments, allowing the necessary integrals to be reduced from three- to one-dimensional in the case of strictly 1D flows. A method to extend this enhancement to fully 3D flows is discussed. Comparison with relaxation and shock-wave problems using the DSMC method will be presented. Partially supported by NSF grant DMS-1418903.
No-Reference Image Blur Assessment Based on Discrete Orthogonal Moments.
Li, Leida; Lin, Weisi; Wang, Xuesong; Yang, Gaobo; Bahrami, Khosro; Kot, Alex C
2016-01-01
Blur is a key determinant in the perception of image quality. Generally, blur causes spread of edges, which leads to shape changes in images. Discrete orthogonal moments have been widely studied as effective shape descriptors. Intuitively, blur can be represented using discrete moments since noticeable blur affects the magnitudes of moments of an image. With this consideration, this paper presents a blind image blur evaluation algorithm based on discrete Tchebichef moments. The gradient of a blurred image is first computed to account for the shape, which is more effective for blur representation. Then the gradient image is divided into equal-size blocks and the Tchebichef moments are calculated to characterize image shape. The energy of a block is computed as the sum of squared non-DC moment values. Finally, the proposed image blur score is defined as the variance-normalized moment energy, which is computed with the guidance of a visual saliency model to adapt to the characteristic of human visual system. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on four public image quality databases. The experimental results demonstrate that our method can produce blur scores highly consistent with subjective evaluations. It also outperforms the state-of-the-art image blur metrics and several general-purpose no-reference quality metrics.
Cohn, T.A.; Lane, W.L.; Baier, W.G.
1997-01-01
This paper presents the expected moments algorithm (EMA), a simple and efficient method for incorporating historical and paleoflood information into flood frequency studies. EMA can utilize three types of at-site flood information: systematic stream gage record: information about the magnitude of historical floods; and knowledge of the number of years in the historical period when no large flood occurred. EMA employs an iterative procedure to compute method-of-moments parameter estimates. Initial parameter estimates are calculated from systematic stream gage data. These moments are then updated by including the measured historical peaks and the expected moments, given the previously estimated parameters of the below-threshold floods from the historical period. The updated moments result in new parameter estimates, and the last two steps are repeated until the algorithm converges. Monte Carlo simulations compare EMA, Bulletin 17B's [United States Water Resources Council, 1982] historically weighted moments adjustment, and maximum likelihood estimators when fitting the three parameters of the log-Pearson type III distribution. These simulations demonstrate that EMA is more efficient than the Bulletin 17B method, and that it is nearly as efficient as maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). The experiments also suggest that EMA has two advantages over MLE when dealing with the log-Pearson type III distribution: It appears that EMA estimates always exist and that they are unique, although neither result has been proven. EMA can be used with binomial or interval-censored data and with any distributional family amenable to method-of-moments estimation.
Enhanced T-odd, P-odd electromagnetic moments in reflection asymmetric nuclei
Spevak, V.; Auerbach, N.; Flambaum, V.V.
1997-09-01
Collective P- and T-odd moments produced by parity and time invariance violating forces in reflection asymmetric nuclei are considered. The enhanced collective Schiff, electric dipole, and octupole moments appear due to the mixing of rotational levels of opposite parity. These moments can exceed single-particle moments by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The enhancement is due to the collective nature of the intrinsic moments and the small energy separation between members of parity doublets. In turn these nuclear moments induce enhanced T- and P-odd effects in atoms and molecules. A simple estimate is given and a detailed theoretical treatment of the collective T-, P-odd electric moments in reflection asymmetric, odd-mass nuclei is presented. In the present work we improve on the simple liquid drop model by evaluating the Strutinsky shell correction and include corrections due to pairing. Calculations are performed for octupole deformed long-lived odd-mass isotopes of Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, and Pa and the corresponding atoms. Experiments with such atoms may improve substantially the limits on time reversal violation. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Improving Bending Moment Measurements on Wind Turbine Blades
Post, Nathan L.
2016-03-15
Full-scale fatigue testing of wind turbine blades is conducted using resonance test techniques where the blade plus additional masses is excited at its first resonance frequency to achieve the target loading amplitude. Because there is not a direct relationship between the force applied by an actuator and the bending moment, the blade is instrumented with strain gauges that are calibrated under static loading conditions to determine the sensitivity or relationship between strain and applied moment. Then, during dynamic loading the applied moment is calculated using the strain response of the structure. A similar procedure is also used in the field to measure in-service loads on turbine blades. Because wind turbine blades are complex twisted structures and the deflections are large, there is often significant cross-talk coupling in the sensitivity of strain gauges placed on the structure. Recent work has shown that a sensitivity matrix with nonzero cross terms must be employed to find constant results when a blade is subjected to both flap and lead-lag loading. However, even under controlled laboratory conditions, potential for errors of 3 percent or more in the measured moment exist when using the typical cross-talk matrix approach due to neglecting the influence of large deformations and torsion. This is particularly critical when considering a biaxial load as would be applied on the turbine or during a biaxial fatigue test. This presentation describes these results demonstrating errors made when performing current loads measurement practices on wind turbine blades in the lab and evaluating potential improvements using enhanced cross-talk matrix approaches and calibration procedures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
You, Yang; Yang, Chuan-Lu; Wang, Mei-Shan; Ma, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Wen-Wang; Wang, Li-Zhi
2016-01-01
The analytic potential energy functions (APEFs) of the X1Σ+, 21Σ+, a3Σ+, and 23Σ+ states of the LiRb molecule are obtained using Morse long-range potential energy function with damping function and nonlinear least-squares method. These calculations were based on the potential energy curves (PECs) calculated using the multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) method. The reliability of the APEFs is confirmed using the curves of their first and second derivatives. By using the obtained APEFs, the rotational and vibrational energy levels of the states are determined by solving the Schrödinger equation of nuclear movement. The spectroscopic parameters, which are deduced using Dunham expansion, and the obtained rotational and vibrational levels are compared with the reported theoretical and experimental values. The correlation effect of the electrons of the inner shell remarkably improves the results compared with the experimental spectroscopic parameters. For the first time, the APEFs for the dipole moments and transition dipole moments of the states have been determined based on the curves obtained from the MRCI calculations.
You, Yang; Yang, Chuan-Lu; Wang, Mei-Shan; Ma, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Wen-Wang; Wang, Li-Zhi
2016-01-15
The analytic potential energy functions (APEFs) of the X(1)Σ(+), 2(1)Σ(+), a(3)Σ(+), and 2(3)Σ(+) states of the LiRb molecule are obtained using Morse long-range potential energy function with damping function and nonlinear least-squares method. These calculations were based on the potential energy curves (PECs) calculated using the multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) method. The reliability of the APEFs is confirmed using the curves of their first and second derivatives. By using the obtained APEFs, the rotational and vibrational energy levels of the states are determined by solving the Schrödinger equation of nuclear movement. The spectroscopic parameters, which are deduced using Dunham expansion, and the obtained rotational and vibrational levels are compared with the reported theoretical and experimental values. The correlation effect of the electrons of the inner shell remarkably improves the results compared with the experimental spectroscopic parameters. For the first time, the APEFs for the dipole moments and transition dipole moments of the states have been determined based on the curves obtained from the MRCI calculations.
L-moments and TL-moments of the generalized lambda distribution
Asquith, W.H.
2007-01-01
The 4-parameter generalized lambda distribution (GLD) is a flexible distribution capable of mimicking the shapes of many distributions and data samples including those with heavy tails. The method of L-moments and the recently developed method of trimmed L-moments (TL-moments) are attractive techniques for parameter estimation for heavy-tailed distributions for which the L- and TL-moments have been defined. Analytical solutions for the first five L- and TL-moments in terms of GLD parameters are derived. Unfortunately, numerical methods are needed to compute the parameters from the L- or TL-moments. Algorithms are suggested for parameter estimation. Application of the GLD using both L- and TL-moment parameter estimates from example data is demonstrated, and comparison of the L-moment fit of the 4-parameter kappa distribution is made. A small simulation study of the 98th percentile (far-right tail) is conducted for a heavy-tail GLD with high-outlier contamination. The simulations show, with respect to estimation of the 98th-percent quantile, that TL-moments are less biased (more robost) in the presence of high-outlier contamination. However, the robustness comes at the expense of considerably more sampling variability. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Localized magnetic moments in the Heusler alloy Rh2MnGe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klaer, P.; Kallmayer, M.; Elmers, H. J.; Basit, L.; Thöne, J.; Chadov, S.; Felser, C.
2009-04-01
X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) of core-level absorption (x-ray absorption spectroscopy, XAS) spectra in the soft x-ray region has been measured for the ferromagnetic Heusler alloy Rh2MnGe at the Rh M3,2 and Mn L3,2 edges. The ratio of Rh and Mn spin moments amounts to 0.05 which is smaller than the ratio of 0.1 determined by a local density approximation electronic band structure calculation. We have found that the orbital moments of the Rh 4d and Mn 3d states are very small. The observed Rh 2p XAS spectrum can be understood on the basis of the Rh 3d partial density of unoccupied states as is typical for metals. The observed features of the Mn 2p XAS and XMCD spectra are dominated by final state multiplets as is typical for oxides. The comparison of experimental and ab initio calculated XAS/XMCD spectra reveals a strong narrowing of the Mn 3d bands, indicating strongly localized Mn moments. The magnetic moments are considerably more localized for Rh2MnGe in comparison with the isoelectronic compound Co2MnGe. In spite of the strong localization of the Mn moment, the temperature dependences of sublattice magnetization are equal for the Mn and Rh sublattices in contrast to the prediction by a Heisenberg model. This might be attributed to the remaining itinerant character of the Rh moment.
Radial velocity studies of cool stars.
Jones, Hugh R A; Barnes, John; Tuomi, Mikko; Jenkins, James S; Anglada-Escude, Guillem
2014-04-28
Our current view of exoplanets is one derived primarily from solar-like stars with a strong focus on understanding our Solar System. Our knowledge about the properties of exoplanets around the dominant stellar population by number, the so-called low-mass stars or M dwarfs, is much more cursory. Based on radial velocity discoveries, we find that the semi-major axis distribution of M dwarf planets appears to be broadly similar to those around more massive stars and thus formation and migration processes might be similar to heavier stars. However, we find that the mass of M dwarf planets is relatively much lower than the expected mass dependency based on stellar mass and thus infer that planet formation efficiency around low-mass stars is relatively impaired. We consider techniques to overcome the practical issue of obtaining good quality radial velocity data for M dwarfs despite their faintness and sustained activity and emphasize (i) the wavelength sensitivity of radial velocity signals, (ii) the combination of radial velocity data from different experiments for robust detection of small amplitude signals, and (iii) the selection of targets and radial velocity interpretation of late-type M dwarfs should consider Hα behaviour.
Fast radial flows in transition disk holes
Rosenfeld, Katherine A.; Andrews, Sean M.; Chiang, Eugene
2014-02-20
Protoplanetary 'transition' disks have large, mass-depleted central cavities, yet also deliver gas onto their host stars at rates comparable to disks without holes. The paradox of simultaneous transparency and accretion can be explained if gas flows inward at much higher radial speeds inside the cavity than outside the cavity, since surface density (and by extension optical depth) varies inversely with inflow velocity at fixed accretion rate. Radial speeds within the cavity might even have to approach free-fall values to explain the huge surface density contrasts inferred for transition disks. We identify observational diagnostics of fast radial inflow in channel maps made in optically thick spectral lines. Signatures include (1) twisted isophotes in maps made at low systemic velocities and (2) rotation of structures observed between maps made in high-velocity line wings. As a test case, we apply our new diagnostic tools to archival Atacama Large Millimeter Array data on the transition disk HD 142527 and uncover evidence for free-fall radial velocities inside its cavity. Although the observed kinematics are also consistent with a disk warp, the radial inflow scenario is preferred because it predicts low surface densities that appear consistent with recent observations of optically thin CO isotopologues in this disk. How material in the disk cavity sheds its angular momentum wholesale to fall freely onto the star is an unsolved problem; gravitational torques exerted by giant planets or brown dwarfs are briefly discussed as a candidate mechanism.
Radial spoke proteins of Chlamydomonas flagella
Yang, Pinfen; Diener, Dennis R.; Yang, Chun; Kohno, Takahiro; Pazour, Gregory J.; Dienes, Jennifer M.; Agrin, Nathan S.; King, Stephen M.; Sale, Winfield S.; Kamiya, Ritsu; Rosenbaum, Joel L.; Witman, George B.
2007-01-01
Summary The radial spoke is a ubiquitous component of ‘9+2’ cilia and flagella, and plays an essential role in the control of dynein arm activity by relaying signals from the central pair of microtubules to the arms. The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii radial spoke contains at least 23 proteins, only 8 of which have been characterized at the molecular level. Here, we use mass spectrometry to identify 10 additional radial spoke proteins. Many of the newly identified proteins in the spoke stalk are predicted to contain domains associated with signal transduction, including Ca2+-, AKAP- and nucleotide-binding domains. This suggests that the spoke stalk is both a scaffold for signaling molecules and itself a transducer of signals. Moreover, in addition to the recently described HSP40 family member, a second spoke stalk protein is predicted to be a molecular chaperone, implying that there is a sophisticated mechanism for the assembly of this large complex. Among the 18 spoke proteins identified to date, at least 12 have apparent homologs in humans, indicating that the radial spoke has been conserved throughout evolution. The human genes encoding these proteins are candidates for causing primary ciliary dyskinesia, a severe inherited disease involving missing or defective axonemal structures, including the radial spokes. PMID:16507594
Custom skiing and trekking adaptations for a trans-tibial and trans-radial quadrilateral amputee.
Farley, R; Mitchell, F; Griffiths, M
2004-04-01
A keen skier who is a trans-tibial and trans-radial quadrilateral amputee sought an improved adaptation for skiing from the Rehabilitation Engineering Service in Edinburgh. The unpredictable nature of the bending moments and loads that can be imposed on the prostheses during skiing raised concern about the suitability of standard prosthetic components for this purpose. The authors report a ski boot modification that incorporates mechanical protection for the standard prosthetic components and a description of the custom-adapted alpine trekking sticks used also as ski poles. Reference is made to the role of risk assessment, the design and manufacture in providing this type of custom-made rehabilitation device.
The calculation of vibrational intensities in forbidden electronic transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Philip M.; Xu, Haifeng; Sears, Trevor J.
2006-10-01
A method is described for the use of electronic structure and Franck-Condon factor programs in the calculation of the vibrational intensities in forbidden electronic transitions. Using the B˜B22-X˜B12 electronic transition of benzonitrile cation as a test case, transition moments were calculated using the symmetry adapted cluster/configuration interaction method at various points along the normal mode displacements of the molecule, from which transition moment derivatives were obtained. The transition moments were found to vary almost linearly with respect to the normal mode displacements. Using these, along with Franck-Condon factors, an expansion of the transition moment with respect to the normal coordinates provides a measure of vibrational intensities, including the effects of geometry change and Duschinsky rotation [Acta Physicochim. URSS 7, 551 (1937)]. Second order terms in the moment expansion are calculated, and it is determined that they must be included if the intensity of combination bands is to be properly obtained.
The calculation of vibrational intensities in forbidden electronic transitions.
Johnson, Philip M; Xu, Haifeng; Sears, Trevor J
2006-10-28
A method is described for the use of electronic structure and Franck-Condon factor programs in the calculation of the vibrational intensities in forbidden electronic transitions. Using the B 2B2-X 2B1 electronic transition of benzonitrile cation as a test case, transition moments were calculated using the symmetry adapted cluster/configuration interaction method at various points along the normal mode displacements of the molecule, from which transition moment derivatives were obtained. The transition moments were found to vary almost linearly with respect to the normal mode displacements. Using these, along with Franck-Condon factors, an expansion of the transition moment with respect to the normal coordinates provides a measure of vibrational intensities, including the effects of geometry change and Duschinsky rotation [Acta Physicochim. URSS 7, 551 (1937)]. Second order terms in the moment expansion are calculated, and it is determined that they must be included if the intensity of combination bands is to be properly obtained.
Aerodynamic yawing moment characteristics of bird wings.
Sachs, Gottfried
2005-06-21
The aerodynamic yawing moments due to sideslip are considered for wings of birds. Reference is made to the experience with aircraft wings in order to identify features which are significant for the yawing moment characteristics. Thus, it can be shown that wing sweep, aspect ratio and lift coefficient have a great impact. Focus of the paper is on wing sweep which can considerably increase the yawing moment due to sideslip when compared with unswept wings. There are many birds the wings of which employ sweep. To show the effect of sweep for birds, the aerodynamic characteristics of a gull wing which is considered as a representative example are treated in detail. For this purpose, a sophisticated aerodynamic method is used to compute results of high precision. The yawing moments of the gull wing with respect to the sideslip angle and the lift coefficient are determined. They show a significant level of yaw stability which strongly increases with the lift coefficient. It is particularly high in the lift coefficient region of best gliding flight conditions. In order to make the effect of sweep more perspicuous, a modification of the gull wing employing no sweep is considered for comparison. It turns out that the unswept wing yields yawing moments which are substantially smaller than those of the original gull wing with sweep. Another feature significant for the yawing moment characteristics concerns the fact that sweep is at the outer part of bird wings. By considering the underlying physical mechanism, it is shown that this feature is most important for the efficiency of wing sweep. To sum up, wing sweep provides a primary contribution to the yawing moments. It may be concluded that this is an essential reason why there is sweep in bird wings.
Quadrupole moments of some doubly-even molibden nuclei and the onset of collectivity
Turkan, N.; Ibis, I.; Maras, I.
2012-07-15
A good description of the quadrupole moments is obtained by investigating {sup 94,96,98,100,102,104,106,108}Mo isotopes in terms of the interacting boson model. After the positiveparity states and electromagnetic-transition rates B(E2) of even-mass Mo nuclei were calculated it was seen that there is a good agreement between the obtained results and some previous experimental data. At the end of the quadrupole moment calculations it was proved that the results agree well with the previous experimental data.
Electronic transition moment for the B(2)II-X(2)II system of NO
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luque, Jorge; Crosley, David R.
1995-01-01
The upsilon' = 0-3 and 7 vibrational levels of the NO B(2)II state have been selectively excited by laser radiation. The fluorescence spectra together with calculated Franck-Condon factors and r-centroids have been used to evaluate the electronic transition moment. The results for upsilon' = 0-3 are in very good agreement with recent chemiluminescence measurements and ab initio calculations. Furthermore, the data from upsilon' = 7 have been used to extend the empirically determined moment to limits 1.23 and 1.78 A, improving agreement with experimentally determined lifetimes.
Siddlingeshwar, B; Hanagodimath, S M
2009-04-01
The ground state (micro(g)) and the excited state (micro(e)) dipole moments of three substituted anthraquinones, namely 1-aminoanthracene-9,10-dione (AAQ), 1-(methylamino)anthracence-9,10-dione (MAQ) and 1,5-diaminoanthracene-9,10-dione (DAQ) were estimated in various solvents. The dipole moments (micro(g) and micro(e)) were estimated from Lippert, Bakhshiev, Kawski-Chamma-Viallet, McRae and Suppan equations by using the variation of Stokes shift with the solvent dielectric constant and refractive index. The excited state dipole moments were also calculated by using the variation of Stokes shift with microscopic solvent polarity parameter (Epsilon(T)(N)). It was observed that dipole moment values of excited states (micro(e)) were higher than corresponding ground state values (micro(g)), indicating a substantial redistribution of the pi-electron densities in a more polar excited state for all the molecules investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siddlingeshwar, B.; Hanagodimath, S. M.
2009-04-01
The ground state ( μg) and the excited state ( μe) dipole moments of three substituted anthraquinones, namely 1-aminoanthracene-9,10-dione (AAQ), 1-(methylamino)anthracence-9,10-dione (MAQ) and 1,5-diaminoanthracene-9,10-dione (DAQ) were estimated in various solvents. The dipole moments ( μg and μe) were estimated from Lippert, Bakhshiev, Kawski-Chamma-Viallet, McRae and Suppan equations by using the variation of Stokes shift with the solvent dielectric constant and refractive index. The excited state dipole moments were also calculated by using the variation of Stokes shift with microscopic solvent polarity parameter ( ETN). It was observed that dipole moment values of excited states ( μe) were higher than corresponding ground state values ( μg), indicating a substantial redistribution of the π-electron densities in a more polar excited state for all the molecules investigated.
Rarefied-flow pitching moment coefficient measurements of the Shuttle Orbiter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blanchard, R. C.; Hinson, E. W.
1988-01-01
An overview of the process for obtaining the Shuttle Orbiter rarefied-flow pitching moment from flight gyro data is presented. The extraction technique involves differentiation of the output of the pitch gyro after accounting for nonaerodynamic torques, such as those produced by gravity gradient and the Orbiter's auxiliary power unit and adjusting for drift biases. The overview of the extraction technique includes examples of results from each of the steps involved in the process, using the STS-32 mission as a typical sample case. The total pitching moment and moment coefficient (Cm) for that flight are calculated and compared with preflight predictions. The flight results show the anticipated decrease in Cm with increasing altitude. However, the total moment coefficient is less than predicted using preflight estimates.
Radial head fracture associated with posterior interosseous nerve injury.
Terra, Bernardo Barcellos; Sassine, Tannus Jorge; Lima, Guilherme de Freitas; Rodrigues, Leandro Marano; Padua, David Victoria Hoffmann; Nadai, Anderson de
2016-01-01
Fractures of the radial head and radial neck correspond to 1.7-5.4% of all fractures and approximately 30% may present associated injuries. In the literature, there are few reports of radial head fracture with posterior interosseous nerve injury. This study aimed to report a case of radial head fracture associated with posterior interosseous nerve injury.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Enlai; Jia, Fang; Lu, Changhui; Chen, He; Ji, Xin
With space-based adaptive performance of lower stiffness and greater deformation energy, the plane supporting spring finds its wide application in fields like aeronautics, astronautics, etc. In the current study, the radial stiffness formula of a single Archimedes spiral plane supporting spring is derived by means of energy approach, with three key parameters of the supporting spring as independent variables. A series of the supporting spring FEA models are established via APDL speedy modeling. According to the isolation requirements of electronic equipment for a fighter, an example is presented in the form of finite element analysis. The theoretical calculation and analysis data are studied and fitted by MATLAB using the least-square method to obtain the discipline of the radial stiffness of single spiral plane supporting spring with the changes of its three key parameters. The validity of energy-based radial stiffness formula of the spring is confirmed by the comparison between the theoretical calculation and finite element analysis results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
1998-05-01
illustrates how the appearance of a stellar image at the focal plane is fully controllable. Fast and thorough optical adjustment ensures the best possible optical quality at all times . 9. Image Quality of the VLT This diagram demonstrates that First Light specifications have been fully met and, more impressively, that the actual VLT performance is sometimes already within the more stringent specifications that were expected to be fulfilled only three years from now. The final steps before "First Light" The final, critical testing phase commenced with the installation of the 8.2-m primary (at that time still uncoated) Zerodur mirror and 1.1-m secondary Beryllium mirror during the second half of April. The optics were then gradually brought into position during carefully planned, successive adjustments. Due to the full integration of an advanced, active control system into the VLT concept, this delicate process went amazingly fast, especially when compared to other ground-based telescopes. It included a number of short test exposures in early May, first with the Guide Camera that is used to steer the telescope. Later, some exposures were made with the Test Camera mounted just below the main mirror at the Cassegrain Focus, in a central space inside the mirror cell. It will continue to be used during the upcoming Commissioning Phase, until the first major instruments (FORS and ISAAC) are attached to the UT1, later in 1998. The 8.2-m mirror was successfully aluminized at the Paranal Mirror Coating facility on May 20 and was reattached to the telescope tube the day thereafter, cf. ESO PR Photos 13a-e/98 and ESO PR Photos 14a-i/98. Further test exposures were then made to check the proper functioning of the telescope mechanics, optics and electronics. This has lead up to the moment of First Light , i.e. the time when the telescope is considered able to produce the first, astronomically useful images. Despite an intervening spell of bad atmospheric conditions, this important event
Ion radial transport induced by ICRF waves in tokamaks
Chen, L.; Vaclavik, J.; Hammett, G.W.
1987-05-01
The wave-induced fluxes of energetic-trapped ions during ICRF heating of tokamak plasmas are calculated using quasilinear equations. A simple single particle model of this transport mechanism is also given. Both a convective flux proportional to k/sub phi/vertical bar E/sub +/vertical bar/sup 2/ and a diffusive flux proportional to k/sub phi//sup 2/vertical bar E/sub +/vertical bar/sup 2/ are found. Here, k/sub phi/ is the toroidal wave number and E/sub +/ is the left-hand polarized wave field. The convective flux may become significant for large k/sub phi/ if the wave spectrum is asymmetric in k/sub phi/. But for the conditions of most previous experiments, these calculations indicate that radial transport driven directly by the ICRF wave is unimportant.
Radial flow nuclear thermal rocket (RFNTR)
Leyse, Carl F.
1995-01-01
A radial flow nuclear thermal rocket fuel assembly includes a substantially conical fuel element having an inlet side and an outlet side. An annular channel is disposed in the element for receiving a nuclear propellant, and a second, conical, channel is disposed in the element for discharging the propellant. The first channel is located radially outward from the second channel, and separated from the second channel by an annular fuel bed volume. This fuel bed volume can include a packed bed of loose fuel beads confined by a cold porous inlet frit and a hot porous exit frit. The loose fuel beads include ZrC coated ZrC-UC beads. In this manner, nuclear propellant enters the fuel assembly axially into the first channel at the inlet side of the element, flows axially across the fuel bed volume, and is discharged from the assembly by flowing radially outward from the second channel at the outlet side of the element.
Radial flow nuclear thermal rocket (RFNTR)
Leyse, Carl F.
1995-11-07
A radial flow nuclear thermal rocket fuel assembly includes a substantially conical fuel element having an inlet side and an outlet side. An annular channel is disposed in the element for receiving a nuclear propellant, and a second, conical, channel is disposed in the element for discharging the propellant. The first channel is located radially outward from the second channel, and separated from the second channel by an annular fuel bed volume. This fuel bed volume can include a packed bed of loose fuel beads confined by a cold porous inlet frit and a hot porous exit frit. The loose fuel beads include ZrC coated ZrC-UC beads. In this manner, nuclear propellant enters the fuel assembly axially into the first channel at the inlet side of the element, flows axially across the fuel bed volume, and is discharged from the assembly by flowing radially outward from the second channel at the outlet side of the element.
Precise Near-Infrared Radial Velocities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plavchan, Peter; Gao, P.; Bottom, M.; Davison, C.; Mills, S.; Ciardi, D. R.; Brinkworth, C.; Tanner, A. M.; Beichman, C. A.; Catanzarite, J.; Crawford, S.; Wallace, J.; Mennesson, B.; Johnson, J. A.; White, R. J.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; von Braun, K.; Walp, B.; Vasisht, G.; Kane, S. R.; Prato, L. A.; NIRRVs
2014-01-01
We present precise radial velocity time-series from a 2.3 micron pilot survey to detect exoplanets around red, low mass, and young stars. We use the CSHELL spectrograph with an isotopic methane absorption gas cell for common optical path relative wavelength calibration at the NASA InfraRed Telescope Facility. We present an overview of our Nelder-Mead simplex optimization pipeline for extracting radial velocities. We will also present first light data at 1.6 microns from a near-infrared fiber scrambler used in tandem with our gas cell and CSHELL at IRTF. The fiber scrambler makes use of non-circular core fibers to stabilize the illumination of the slit and echelle grating against changes in seeing, focus, guiding and other sources of systematic radial velocity noise, complementing the wavelength calibration of a gas cell.
Manufacturing of Precision Forgings by Radial Forging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wallner, S.; Harrer, O.; Buchmayr, B.; Hofer, F.
2011-01-01
Radial forging is a multi purpose incremental forging process using four tools on the same plane. It is widely used for the forming of tool steels, super alloys as well as titanium- and refractory metals. The range of application goes from reducing the diameters of shafts, tubes, stepped shafts and axels, as well as for creating internal profiles for tubes in Near-Net-Shape and Net-Shape quality. Based on actual development of a weight optimized transmission input shaft, the specific features of radial forging technology is demonstrated. Also a Finite Element Model for the simulation of the process is shown which leads to reduced pre-processing effort and reduced computing time compared to other published simulation methods for radial forging. The finite element model can be applied to quantify the effects of different forging strategies.
Dispersion-free radial transmission lines
Caporaso, George J.; Nelson, Scott D.
2011-04-12
A dispersion-free radial transmission line ("DFRTL") preferably for linear accelerators, having two plane conductors each with a central hole, and an electromagnetically permeable material ("EPM") between the two conductors and surrounding a channel connecting the two holes. At least one of the material parameters of relative magnetic permeability, relative dielectric permittivity, and axial width of the EPM is varied as a function of radius, so that the characteristic impedance of the DFRTL is held substantially constant, and pulse transmission therethrough is substantially dispersion-free. Preferably, the EPM is divided into concentric radial sections, with the varied material parameters held constant in each respective section but stepwise varied between sections as a step function of the radius. The radial widths of the concentric sections are selected so that pulse traversal time across each section is the same, and the varied material parameters of the concentric sections are selected to minimize traversal error.
Radial anisotropy ambient noise tomography of volcanoes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mordret, Aurélien; Rivet, Diane; Shapiro, Nikolai; Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Landès, Matthieu; Koulakov, Ivan; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph
2016-04-01
The use of ambient seismic noise allows us to perform surface-wave tomography of targets which could hardly be imaged by other means. The frequencies involved (~ 0.5 - 20 s), somewhere in between active seismic and regular teleseismic frequency band, make possible the high resolution imaging of intermediate-size targets like volcanic edifices. Moreover, the joint inversion of Rayleigh and Love waves dispersion curves extracted from noise correlations allows us to invert for crustal radial anisotropy. We present here the two first studies of radial anisotropy on volcanoes by showing results from Lake Toba Caldera, a super-volcano in Indonesia, and from Piton de la Fournaise volcano, a hot-spot effusive volcano on the Réunion Island (Indian Ocean). We will see how radial anisotropy can be used to infer the main fabric within a magmatic system and, consequently, its dominant type of intrusion.
Image scanning microscopy with radially polarized light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Yun; Zhang, Yunhai; Wei, Tongda; Huang, Wei; Shi, Yaqin
2017-03-01
In order to improve the resolution of image scanning microscopy, we present a method based on image scanning microscopy and radially polarized light. According to the theory of image scanning microscopy, we get the effective point spread function of image scanning microscopy with the longitudinal component of radially polarized light and a 1 AU detection area, and obtain imaging results of the analyzed samples using this method. Results show that the resolution can be enhanced by 7% compared with that in image scanning microscopy with circularly polarized light, and is 1.54-fold higher than that in confocal microscopy with a pinhole of 1 AU. Additionally, the peak intensity of ISM is 1.54-fold higher than that of a confocal microscopy with a pinhole of 1 AU. In conclusion, the combination of the image scanning microscopy and the radially polarized light could improve the resolution, and it could realize high-resolution and high SNR imaging at the same time.
Mapping radial features in Saturn's rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Harris, B. E.
2013-10-01
We have carried out a comprehensive survey of the best Cassini ISS data of Saturn's main rings for the purpose of cataloguing all observed spiral density waves, spiral bending waves, and other radial and quasi-radial ring structure. Our survey has revealed a number of new features, including the first known resonant waves raised by Enceladus and Hyperion, thus increasing the number of points at which the local surface density and viscosity of the rings can be measured (cf. Tiscareno et al. 2007, Icarus). We also catalogue several wave-like features whose cause is unknown. Although images of the rings taken by the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) are not nominally as high-resolution as the best stellar and radio occultations, they are capable of superior signal-to-noise because of the co-adding inherent in converting a 2-D image into a 1-D "radial scan." In this common technique, as many as a thousand pixels at a given radial distance from Saturn are combined to produce a single characteristic brightness for each radial location. This process suppresses local structure, azimuthal structure, and random noise, all of which commonly decrease the sensitivity of high-resolution occultations, and causes ISS to be the optimal Cassini instrument for detecting a certain class of low-amplitude features. Finally, we employ wavelet techniques (cf. Tiscareno et al. 2007, Icarus) to elucidate subtle periodic and quasi-periodic features in the radial scan data. We will present our results in the context of a ranking of known perturbations in the rings by their resonant torque (updating Lissauer and Cuzzi 1982, AJ). We will identify the strongest expected perturbations that do not appear, and discuss whether the absence is likely to reflect a real limit of ring responsiveness, or (as with previous observations) to reflect sensitivity limits.
Plasma Signatures of Radial Field Power Dropouts
Lucek, E.A.; Horbury, T.S.; Balogh, A.; McComas, D.J.
1998-10-04
A class of small scale structures, with a near-radial magnetic field and a drop in magnetic field fluctuation power, have recently been identified in the polar solar wind. An earlier study of 24 events, each lasting for 6 hours or more, identified no clear plasma signature. In an extension of that work, radial intervals lasting for 4 hours or more (89 in total), have been used to search for a statistically significant plasma signature. It was found that, despite considerable variations between intervals, there was a small but significant drop, on average, in plasma temperature, density and {beta} during these events.
Plasma signatures of radial field power dropouts
Lucek, E.A.; Balogh, A.; Horbury, T.S.; McComas, D.J.
1999-06-01
A class of small scale structures, with a near-radial magnetic field and a drop in magnetic field fluctuation power, have recently been identified in the polar solar wind. An earlier study of 24 events, each lasting for 6 hours or more, identified no clear plasma signature. In an extension of that work, radial intervals lasting for 4 hours or more (89 in total), have been used to search for a statistically significant plasma signature. It was found that, despite considerable variations between intervals, there was a small but significant drop, on average, in plasma temperature, density and {beta} during these events. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
Radial Acceleration Relation in Rotationally Supported Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGaugh, Stacy S.; Lelli, Federico; Schombert, James M.
2016-11-01
We report a correlation between the radial acceleration traced by rotation curves and that predicted by the observed distribution of baryons. The same relation is followed by 2693 points in 153 galaxies with very different morphologies, masses, sizes, and gas fractions. The correlation persists even when dark matter dominates. Consequently, the dark matter contribution is fully specified by that of the baryons. The observed scatter is small and largely dominated by observational uncertainties. This radial acceleration relation is tantamount to a natural law for rotating galaxies.
Reconstruction for Type IV Radial Polydactyly.
Wall, Lindley B; Goldfarb, Charles A
2015-09-01
Type IV radial polydactyly represents a thumb with an extra proximal and distal phalanx. Assessment of the thumb for surgical reconstruction includes observing thumb function, evaluating thumb size and stability, and assessing the first web space. Reconstruction includes excision of the smaller thumb, typically the radial thumb, and re-creating thumb stability and alignment by addressing tendon insertion and joint orientation. Although surgical results are satisfying and complications are uncommon, additional surgical intervention may be required over time owing to thumb malalignment or instability.
Radial Acceleration Relation in Rotationally Supported Galaxies.
McGaugh, Stacy S; Lelli, Federico; Schombert, James M
2016-11-11
We report a correlation between the radial acceleration traced by rotation curves and that predicted by the observed distribution of baryons. The same relation is followed by 2693 points in 153 galaxies with very different morphologies, masses, sizes, and gas fractions. The correlation persists even when dark matter dominates. Consequently, the dark matter contribution is fully specified by that of the baryons. The observed scatter is small and largely dominated by observational uncertainties. This radial acceleration relation is tantamount to a natural law for rotating galaxies.
Aircraft radial-belted tire evaluation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yager, Thomas J.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Davis, Pamela A.
1990-01-01
An overview is given of the ongoing joint NASA/FAA/Industry Surface Traction And Radial Tire (START) Program being conducted at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF). The START Program involves tests using three different tire sizes to evaluate tire rolling resistance, braking, and cornering performance throughout the aircraft ground operational speed range for both dry and wet runway surfaces. Preliminary results from recent 40 x 14 size bias-ply, radial-belted, and H-type aircraft tire tests are discussed. The paper concludes with a summary of the current program status and planned ALDF test schedule.
Radial excitations of current-carrying vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartmann, Betti; Michel, Florent; Peter, Patrick
2017-04-01
We report on the existence of a new type of cosmic string solutions in the Witten model with U (1) × U (1) symmetry. These solutions are superconducting with radially excited condensates that exist for both gauged and ungauged currents. Our results suggest that these new configurations can be macroscopically stable, but microscopically unstable to radial perturbations. Nevertheless, they might have important consequences for the network evolution and particle emission. We discuss these effects and their possible signatures. We also comment on analogies with non-relativistic condensed matter systems where these solutions may be observable.
Knee adduction moment and medial contact force--facts about their correlation during gait.
Kutzner, Ines; Trepczynski, Adam; Heller, Markus O; Bergmann, Georg
2013-01-01
The external knee adduction moment is considered a surrogate measure for the medial tibiofemoral contact force and is commonly used to quantify the load reducing effect of orthopedic interventions. However, only limited and controversial data exist about the correlation between adduction moment and medial force. The objective of this study was to examine whether the adduction moment is indeed a strong predictor for the medial force by determining their correlation during gait. Instrumented knee implants with telemetric data transmission were used to measure tibiofemoral contact forces in nine subjects. Gait analyses were performed simultaneously to the joint load measurements. Skeletal kinematics, as well as the ground reaction forces and inertial parameters, were used as inputs in an inverse dynamics approach to calculate the external knee adduction moment. Linear regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation between adduction moment and medial force for the whole stance phase and separately for the early and late stance phase. Whereas only moderate correlations between adduction moment and medial force were observed throughout the whole stance phase (R(2) = 0.56) and during the late stance phase (R(2) = 0.51), a high correlation was observed at the early stance phase (R(2) = 0.76). Furthermore, the adduction moment was highly correlated to the medial force ratio throughout the whole stance phase (R(2) = 0.75). These results suggest that the adduction moment is a surrogate measure, well-suited to predicting the medial force ratio throughout the whole stance phase or medial force during the early stance phase. However, particularly during the late stance phase, moderate correlations and high inter-individual variations revealed that the predictive value of the adduction moment is limited. Further analyses are necessary to examine whether a combination of other kinematic, kinetic or neuromuscular factors may lead to a more reliable
Knee Adduction Moment and Medial Contact Force – Facts about Their Correlation during Gait
Kutzner, Ines; Trepczynski, Adam; Heller, Markus O.; Bergmann, Georg
2013-01-01
The external knee adduction moment is considered a surrogate measure for the medial tibiofemoral contact force and is commonly used to quantify the load reducing effect of orthopedic interventions. However, only limited and controversial data exist about the correlation between adduction moment and medial force. The objective of this study was to examine whether the adduction moment is indeed a strong predictor for the medial force by determining their correlation during gait. Instrumented knee implants with telemetric data transmission were used to measure tibiofemoral contact forces in nine subjects. Gait analyses were performed simultaneously to the joint load measurements. Skeletal kinematics, as well as the ground reaction forces and inertial parameters, were used as inputs in an inverse dynamics approach to calculate the external knee adduction moment. Linear regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation between adduction moment and medial force for the whole stance phase and separately for the early and late stance phase. Whereas only moderate correlations between adduction moment and medial force were observed throughout the whole stance phase (R2 = 0.56) and during the late stance phase (R2 = 0.51), a high correlation was observed at the early stance phase (R2 = 0.76). Furthermore, the adduction moment was highly correlated to the medial force ratio throughout the whole stance phase (R2 = 0.75). These results suggest that the adduction moment is a surrogate measure, well-suited to predicting the medial force ratio throughout the whole stance phase or medial force during the early stance phase. However, particularly during the late stance phase, moderate correlations and high inter-individual variations revealed that the predictive value of the adduction moment is limited. Further analyses are necessary to examine whether a combination of other kinematic, kinetic or neuromuscular factors may lead to a more reliable prediction of
Moments of action provide insight into critical times for advection-diffusion-reaction processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellery, Adam J.; Simpson, Matthew J.; McCue, Scott W.; Baker, Ruth E.
2012-09-01
Berezhkovskii and co-workers introduced the concept of local accumulation time as a finite measure of the time required for the transient solution of a reaction-diffusion equation to effectively reach steady state [Biophys J.BIOJAU0006-349510.1016/j.bpj.2010.07.045 99, L59 (2010); Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.83.051906 83, 051906 (2011)]. Berezhkovskii's approach is a particular application of the concept of mean action time (MAT) that was introduced previously by McNabb [IMA J. Appl. Math.IJAMDM0272-496010.1093/imamat/47.2.193 47, 193 (1991)]. Here, we generalize these previous results by presenting a framework to calculate the MAT, as well as the higher moments, which we call the moments of action. The second moment is the variance of action time, the third moment is related to the skew of action time, and so on. We consider a general transition from some initial condition to an associated steady state for a one-dimensional linear advection-diffusion-reaction partial differential equation (PDE). Our results indicate that it is possible to solve for the moments of action exactly without requiring the transient solution of the PDE. We present specific examples that highlight potential weaknesses of previous studies that have considered the MAT alone without considering higher moments. Finally, we also provide a meaningful interpretation of the moments of action by presenting simulation results from a discrete random-walk model together with some analysis of the particle lifetime distribution. This work shows that the moments of action are identical to the moments of the particle lifetime distribution for certain transitions.
The Electric Dipole Moment of Iridium Monosilicide, IrSi
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le, Anh; Steimle, Timothy C.; Cheng, Lan; Stanton, John F.
2013-06-01
The optical spectrum of iridium monosilicide (IrSi) was recently observed using REMPI spectroscopy in the range 17200 to 23850 cm^{-1}. The observation was supported by an ab initio calculation which predicted a X^{2}Δ_{5/2} state. Here, we report on the analysis of the optical Stark effect for the X^{2}Δ_{5/2} and [16.0]1.5 (v=6) states. The (6,0)[16.0]1.5 - X^{2}Δ_{5/2} and the (7,0)[16.0]3.5- X^{2}Δ_{5/2} bands of IrSi have been recorded using high-resolution laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The observed optical Stark shifts for the ^{193}IrSi and ^{191}IrSi isotopologues were analyzed to produce the electric dipole moments of -0.4139(64)D and 0.7821(63)D for the X^{2}Δ_{5/2} and [16.0]1.5 (v=6) states, respectively. The negative sign of electric dipole moment of the X^{2}Δ_{5/2} state is supported by high-level quantum-chemical calculations employing all-electron scalar-relativistic CCSD(T) method augmented with spin-orbit corrections as well as corrections due to full triple excitations. In particular, electron-correlation effects have been shown to be essential in the prediction of the negative sign of the dipole moment. A comparison with other iridium containing molecules will be made. Maria A. Garcia, Carolin Vietz, Fernando Ruipérez, Michael D. Morse, and Ivan Infante, Kimika Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko. J. Chem. Phys., (submitted)
Distributed Seismic Moment Fault Model, Spectral Characteristics and Radiation Patterns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shani-Kadmiel, Shahar; Tsesarsky, Michael; Gvirtzman, Zohar
2014-05-01
We implement a Distributed Seismic Moment (DSM) fault model, a physics-based representation of an earthquake source based on a skewed-Gaussian slip distribution over an elliptical rupture patch, for the purpose of forward modeling of seismic-wave propagation in 3-D heterogeneous medium. The elliptical rupture patch is described by 13 parameters: location (3), dimensions of the patch (2), patch orientation (1), focal mechanism (3), nucleation point (2), peak slip (1), rupture velocity (1). A node based second order finite difference approach is used to solve the seismic-wave equations in displacement formulation (WPP, Nilsson et al., 2007). Results of our DSM fault model are compared with three commonly used fault models: Point Source Model (PSM), Haskell's fault Model (HM), and HM with Radial (HMR) rupture propagation. Spectral features of the waveforms and radiation patterns from these four models are investigated. The DSM fault model best incorporates the simplicity and symmetry of the PSM with the directivity effects of the HMR while satisfying the physical requirements, i.e., smooth transition from peak slip at the nucleation point to zero at the rupture patch border. The implementation of the DSM in seismic-wave propagation forward models comes at negligible computational cost. Reference: Nilsson, S., Petersson, N. A., Sjogreen, B., and Kreiss, H.-O. (2007). Stable Difference Approximations for the Elastic Wave Equation in Second Order Formulation. SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis, 45(5), 1902-1936.
Electromagnetic moments and electric dipole transitions in carbon isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Toshio; Sagawa, Hiroyuki; Hagino, Kouichi
2003-07-01
We carry out shell model calculations to study electromagnetic moments and electric dipole transitions of C isotopes. We point out the configuration dependence of the quadrupole and magnetic moments of the odd C isotopes, which will be useful to find out the deformations and the spin parities of the ground states of these nuclei. We also study the electric dipole states of C isotopes, focusing on the interplay between low energy pigmy strength and giant dipole resonances. As far as the energies of the resonances are concerned, reasonable agreement is obtained with available experimental data for the photoreaction cross sections in 12C, 13C, and 14C, both in the low energy region below ħω=14 MeV and in the high energy giant resonance region (14 MeV <ħω⩽30 MeV). The calculated transition strength below the giant dipole resonance (ħω⩽14 MeV) in C isotopes heavier than 15C is found to exhaust about 12 16 % of the classical Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule value and 50 80 % of the cluster sum rule value.
The quadrupole moments of Cd and Zn isotopes - an apology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haas, H.; Barbosa, M. B.; Correia, J. G.
2016-12-01
In 2010 we presented an update of the nuclear quadrupole moments (Q) for the Cd and Zn isotopes, based essentially on straightforward density functional (DF) calculations (H. Haas and J.G. Correia, Hyperfine Interact 198, 133-137 (2010)). It has been apparent for some years that the standard DF procedure obviously fails, however, to reproduce the known electric-field gradient (EFG) for various systems, typical cases being Cu2O, As and Sb, and the solid halogens. Recently a cure for this deficiency has been found in the hybrid DF technique. This method is now applied to solid Cd and Zn, and the resultant quadrupole moments are about 15 % smaller than in our earlier report. Also nuclear systematics, using the recently revised values of Q for the long-lived 11/2 isomers in111Cd to129Cd, together with earlier PAD data for107,109Cd, leads to the same conclusion. In addition, EFG calculations for the cadmium dimethyl molecule further support the new values: Q(111Cd, 5/2+) = .683(20) b, Q(67Zn, gs) = .132(5) b. This implies, that the value for the atomic EFG in the 3it {P}1 state of Zn must be revised, as it has been for Cd.
Jagau, Thomas-C; Krylov, Anna I
2016-02-07
The theoretical description of electronic resonances is extended beyond calculations of energies and lifetimes. We present the formalism for calculating Dyson orbitals and transition dipole moments within the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster singles and doubles method for electron-attached states augmented by a complex absorbing potential (CAP-EOM-EA-CCSD). The capabilities of the new methodology are illustrated by calculations of Dyson orbitals of various transient anions. We also present calculations of transition dipole moments between transient and stable anionic states as well as between different transient states. Dyson orbitals characterize the differences between the initial neutral and final electron-attached states without invoking the mean-field approximation. By extending the molecular-orbital description to correlated many-electron wave functions, they deliver qualitative insights into the character of resonance states. Dyson orbitals and transition moments are also needed for calculating experimental observables such as spectra and cross sections. Physically meaningful results for those quantities are obtained only in the framework of non-Hermitian quantum mechanics, e.g., in the presence of a complex absorbing potential (CAP), when studying resonances. We investigate the dependence of Dyson orbitals and transition moments on the CAP strength and illustrate how Dyson orbitals help understand the properties of metastable species and how they are affected by replacing the usual scalar product by the so-called c-product.
Jagau, Thomas-C.; Krylov, Anna I.
2016-02-07
The theoretical description of electronic resonances is extended beyond calculations of energies and lifetimes. We present the formalism for calculating Dyson orbitals and transition dipole moments within the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster singles and doubles method for electron-attached states augmented by a complex absorbing potential (CAP-EOM-EA-CCSD). The capabilities of the new methodology are illustrated by calculations of Dyson orbitals of various transient anions. We also present calculations of transition dipole moments between transient and stable anionic states as well as between different transient states. Dyson orbitals characterize the differences between the initial neutral and final electron-attached states without invoking the mean-field approximation. By extending the molecular-orbital description to correlated many-electron wave functions, they deliver qualitative insights into the character of resonance states. Dyson orbitals and transition moments are also needed for calculating experimental observables such as spectra and cross sections. Physically meaningful results for those quantities are obtained only in the framework of non-Hermitian quantum mechanics, e.g., in the presence of a complex absorbing potential (CAP), when studying resonances. We investigate the dependence of Dyson orbitals and transition moments on the CAP strength and illustrate how Dyson orbitals help understand the properties of metastable species and how they are affected by replacing the usual scalar product by the so-called c-product.
Wilson, B G; Sonnad, V
2011-02-14
Precise electronic structure calculations of ions in plasmas benefit from optimized numerical radial meshes. A new closed form expression for obtaining non-linear parameters for the efficient generation of analytic log-linear radial meshes is presented. In conjunction with the (very simple) algorithm for the rapid high precision evaluation of Lambert's W-function, the above identity allows the precise construction of generalized log-linear radial meshes adapted to various constraints.
Multiresolution moment filters: theory and applications.
Sühling, Michael; Arigovindan, Muthuvel; Hunziker, Patrick; Unser, Michael
2004-04-01
We introduce local weighted geometric moments that are computed from an image within a sliding window at multiple scales. When the window function satisfies a two-scale relation, we prove that lower order moments can be computed efficiently at dyadic scales by using a multiresolution wavelet-like algorithm. We show that B-splines are well-suited window functions because, in addition to being refinable, they are positive, symmetric, separable, and very nearly isotropic (Gaussian shape). We present three applications of these multiscale local moments. The first is a feature-extraction method for detecting and characterizing elongated structures in images. The second is a noise-reduction method which can be viewed as a multiscale extension of Savitzky-Golay filtering. The third is a multiscale optical-flow algorithm that uses a local affine model for the motion field, extending the Lucas-Kanade optical-flow method. The results obtained in all cases are promising.
Eight-moment approximation solar wind models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olsen, Espen Lyngdal; Leer, Egil
1995-01-01
Heat conduction from the corona is important in the solar wind energy budget. Until now all hydrodynamic solar wind models have been using the collisionally dominated gas approximation for the heat conductive flux. Observations of the solar wind show particle distribution functions which deviate significantly from a Maxwellian, and it is clear that the solar wind plasma is far from collisionally dominated. We have developed a numerical model for the solar wind which solves the full equation for the heat conductive flux together with the conservation equations for mass, momentum, and energy. The equations are obtained by taking moments of the Boltzmann equation, using an 8-moment approximation for the distribution function. For low-density solar winds the 8-moment approximation models give results which differ significantly from the results obtained in models assuming the gas to be collisionally dominated. The two models give more or less the same results in high density solar winds.
The moments of inertia of mars
Bills, B.G. )
1989-05-01
The mean moment of inertia of Mars is, at present, very poorly constrained. The generally accepted value of 0.365 MR{sup 2} is obtained by assuming that the observed second degree gravity field can be decomposed into a hydrostatic oblate spheroid and a nonhydrostatic prolate spheroid with an equatorial axis of symmetry. An alternative decomposition is advocated in the present analysis. If the nonhydrostatic component is a maximally triaxial ellipsoid (intermediate moment midway between greatest and least) the hydrostatic component is consistent with a mean moment of 0.345 MR{sup 2}. The plausibility of this decomposition is supported by statistical arguments and comparison with the Earth, Moon and Venus. If confirmed, this new value would have significant implications for the inferred composition and climatic history of Mars. The Mars Observer mission may help resolve this issue.
An online database of nuclear electromagnetic moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mertzimekis, T. J.; Stamou, K.; Psaltis, A.
2016-01-01
Measurements of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments are considered quite important for the understanding of nuclear structure both near and far from the valley of stability. The recent advent of radioactive beams has resulted in a plethora of new, continuously flowing, experimental data on nuclear structure - including nuclear moments - which hinders the information management. A new, dedicated, public and user friendly online database (http://magneticmoments.info) has been created comprising experimental data of nuclear electromagnetic moments. The present database supersedes existing printed compilations, including also non-evaluated series of data and relevant meta-data, while putting strong emphasis on bimonthly updates. The scope, features and extensions of the database are reported.
Manipulating magnetic moments by superconducting currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chudnovsky, Eugene M.
2017-03-01
We show that the interaction between a superconducting order parameter and the magnetic moment of an atomic cluster in a two-dimensional s -wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling generates magnetic anisotropy that can be stronger or comparable to the magnetic anisotropy due to the crystal field and the shape of the cluster. Transport current through the superconductor produces the effective magnetic field acting on the cluster's magnetic moment. The direction of the effective field depends on the direction of the current, thus allowing one to manipulate the magnetic moment by the superconducting current. Due to the large density of the superconducting current this method of magnetization reversal can be more advantageous at low temperatures than the spin-transfer torque method that requires a large spin-polarized current through a normal metal.
Adaptive control of Space Station with control moment gyros
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bishop, Robert H.; Paynter, Scott J.; Sunkel, John W.
1992-01-01
An adaptive approach to Space Station attitude control is investigated. The main components of the controller are the parameter identification scheme, the control gain calculation, and the control law. The control law is a full-state feedback space station baseline control law. The control gain calculation is based on linear-quadratic regulator theory with eigenvalues placement in a vertical strip. The parameter identification scheme is a recursive extended Kalman filter that estimates the inertias and also provides an estimate of the unmodeled disturbances due to the aerodynamic torques and to the nonlinear effects. An analysis of the inertia estimation problem suggests that it is possible to estimate Space Station inertias accurately during nominal control moment gyro operations. The closed-loop adaptive control law is shown to be capable of stabilizing the Space Station after large inertia changes. Results are presented for the pitch axis.
Covariant spectator theory of np scattering: Deuteron quadrupole moment
Gross, Franz
2015-01-26
The deuteron quadrupole moment is calculated using two CST model wave functions obtained from the 2007 high precision fits to np scattering data. Included in the calculation are a new class of isoscalar np interaction currents automatically generated by the nuclear force model used in these fits. The prediction for model WJC-1, with larger relativistic P-state components, is 2.5% smaller that the experiential result, in common with the inability of models prior to 2014 to predict this important quantity. However, model WJC-2, with very small P-state components, gives agreement to better than 1%, similar to the results obtained recently frommore » XEFT predictions to order N3LO.« less
Covariant spectator theory of np scattering: Deuteron quadrupole moment
Gross, Franz
2015-01-26
The deuteron quadrupole moment is calculated using two CST model wave functions obtained from the 2007 high precision fits to np scattering data. Included in the calculation are a new class of isoscalar np interaction currents automatically generated by the nuclear force model used in these fits. The prediction for model WJC-1, with larger relativistic P-state components, is 2.5% smaller that the experiential result, in common with the inability of models prior to 2014 to predict this important quantity. However, model WJC-2, with very small P-state components, gives agreement to better than 1%, similar to the results obtained recently from _{X}EFT predictions to order N^{3}LO.
Infrared Extrapolations of Electromagnetic Multipole Moments and Transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odell, Daniel; Papenbrock, Thomas; Platter, Lucas
2016-09-01
Basis truncations introduce systematic errors in observables calculated by representing the nuclear Hamiltonian in finite Hilbert spaces. Recent studies of the infrared convergence of finite basis calculations of energies and radii have led to accurate descriptions of numerical data. I will discuss how these concepts can be applied to the study of bound-state quadrupole moments and transitions as well as multipole transitions between bound-states and the continuum. I will show that good agreement is obtained between analytically derived and numerically computed convergence behavior in finite harmonic oscillator spaces for the nucleon-nucleon system. This opens the way to a more precise understanding of structure and reactions involving heavier nuclei. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science under Nos. DEFG02-96ER40963, DE-AC05-00OR22725, DE-SC0008499; US-Israel Binational Science Foundation under Grant No. 2012212; National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. PHY-1516077, PHY-1555030.
The Radial Distribution Function (RDF) of Amorphous Selenium Obtained through the Vacuum Evaporator
Guda, Bardhyl; Dede, Marie
2010-01-21
After the amorphous selenium obtained through the vacuum evaporator, the relevant diffraction intensity is taken and its processing is made. Further on the interferential function is calculated and the radial density function is defined. For determining these functions are used two methods, which were compared with each other and finally are received results for amorphous selenium RDF.
Gravitational forces and moments on spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kane, T. R.; Likins, P. W.
1975-01-01
The solution of problems of attitude dynamics of spacecraft and the influence of gravitational forces and moments is examined. Arguments are presented based on Newton's law of gravitation, and employing the methods of Newtonian (vectorial) mechanics, with minimal recourse to the classical concepts of potential theory. The necessary ideas were developed and relationships were established to permit the representation of gravitational forces and moments exerted on bodies in space by other bodies, both in terms involving the mass distribution properties of the bodies, and in terms of vector operations on those scalar functions classically described as gravitational potential functions.
Third Zemach moment of the proton
Ian C. Cloet, Gerald A. Miller
2011-01-01
Modern electron scattering experiments have determined the proton electric form factor, G_{Ep}(Q^2), to high precision. We utilize this data, represented by the different form factor parametrizations, to compute the third Zemach moment of the proton charge distribution. We find that existing data rule out a value of the third Zemach moment large enough to explain the current puzzle with the proton charge radius determined from the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen. This is in contrast with the recent claim of De Rujula [arXiv:1008.3861].
Determination of the Neutron Magnetic Moment
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Greene, G. L.; Ramsey, N. F.; Mampe, W.; Pendlebury, J. M.; Smith, K.; Dress, W. B.; Miller, P. D.; Perrin, P.
1981-06-01
The neutron magnetic moment has been measured with an improvement of a factor of 100 over the previous best measurement. Using a magnetic resonance spectrometer of the separated oscillatory field type capable of determining a resonance signal for both neutrons and protons (in flowing H{sub 2}O), we find ..mu..{sub n}/..mu..{sub p} = 0.68497935(17) (0.25 ppM). The neutron magnetic moment can also be expressed without loss of accuracy in a variety of other units.
Numerical and experimental study of unsteady flow field and vibration in radial inflow turbines
Kreuz-Ihli, T.; Filsinger, D.; Schulz, A.; Wittig, S.
2000-04-01
The blades of turbocharger impellers are exposed to unsteady aerodynamic forces, which cause blade vibrations and may lead to failures. An indispensable requirement for a safe design of radial inflow turbines is a detailed knowledge of the exciting forces. Up to now, only a few investigations relating to unsteady aerodynamic forces in radial turbines have been presented. To give a detailed insight into the complex phenomena, a comprehensive research project was initiated at the Institut fuer Thermische Stroemungsmaschinen, at the University of Karlsruhe. A turbocharger test rig was installed in the high-pressure, high-temperature laboratory of the institute. The present paper gives a description of the test rig design and the measuring techniques. The flow field in a vaneless radial inflow turbine was analyzed using laser-Doppler anemometry. First results of unsteady flow field investigations in the turbine scroll and unsteady phase-resolved measurements of the flow field in the turbine rotor will be discussed. Moreover, results from finite element calculations analyzing frequencies and mode shapes are presented. As vibrations in turbines of turbochargers are assumed to be predominantly excited by unsteady aerodynamic forces, a method to predict the actual transient flow in a radial turbine utilizing the commercial Navier-Stokes solver TASCflow3d was developed. Results of the unsteady calculations are presented and comparisons with the measured unsteady flow field are made. As a major result, the excitation effect of the tongue region in a vaneless radial inflow turbine can be demonstrated.
Extended foil capacitor with radially spoked electrodes
Foster, James C.
1990-01-01
An extended foil capacitor has a conductive disk electrically connected in oncrushing contact to the extended foil. A conductive paste is placed through spaces between radial spokes on the disk to electrically and mechanically connect the extended foil to the disk.
Radial-Gap Motor for Ship Propulsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yanamoto, Toshiyuki; Yokoyama, Minoru
The KHI team has developed radial gap high-temperature superconducting (HTS) motors of three sizes, 1 MW-class, 3 MW, and 20 MW, to be used for electric propulsion systems for ships. The volumetric torque density of the assembled 3 MW HTS motor was recorded at 40 kNm/m3 in the load test; the world's highest in the class.
Radial velocities of Planetary Nebulae revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vázquez, Roberto; Ayala, Sandra A.; Wendolyn Blanco Cárdenas, Mónica; Contreras, María E.; Gómez-Muñoz, Marco Antonio; Guillén, Pedro F.; Olguín, Lorenzo; Ramos-Larios, Gerardo; Sabin, Laurence; Zavala, Saúl A.
2015-08-01
We present a new determination of radial velocities of a sample of Galactic Planetary Nebulae (PNe) using a systematic method and the same instrumental setting: the long-slit high-dispersion Manchester Echelle Spectrograph (MES) on the 2.1-m telescope at the San Pedro Mártir Observatory (OAN-SPM; Mexico). This project was inspired by the work of Schneider et al. (1983, A&AS, 52, 399), which has been an important reference during the last decades. Radial velocities of gaseous nebulae can be obtained using the central wavelength of a Gaussian fit, even when there is an expansion velocity, as expected in PNe, but with not enough resolution to see a spectral line splitting. We have used the software SHAPE, a morpho-kinematic modeling and reconstruction tool for astrophysical objects (Steffen et al. 2011, IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graphics, 17, 454), to prove that non-uniform density or brightness, on an expanding shell, can lead to mistaken conclusions about the radial velocity. To determine radial velocities, we only use the spectral data in which a spectral line-splitting is seen, avoiding thus the problem of the possible biased one-Gaussian fit. Cases when this method is not recommended are discussed.This project has been supported by grant PAPIIT-DGAPA-UNAM IN107914. MWB is in grateful receipt of a DGAPA-UNAM postdoctoral scholarship. MAG acknowledges CONACYT for his graduate scholarship.
Determining Enzyme Activity by Radial Diffusion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Bill D.
1977-01-01
Discusses advantages of radial diffusion assay in determining presence of enzyme and/or rough approximation of amount of enzyme activities. Procedures are included for the preparation of starch-agar plates, and the application and determination of enzyme. Techniques using plant materials (homogenates, tissues, ungerminated embryos, and seedlings)…
MMICs with Radial Probe Transitions to Waveguides
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Samoska, Lorene; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Pukala, David; Soria, Mary; Fung, King Man; Gaier, Todd; Radisic, Vesna; Lai, Richard
2009-01-01
A document presents an update on the innovation reported in Integrated Radial Probe Transition From MMIC to Waveguide (NPO-43957), NASA Tech Briefs Vol. 31, No. 5 (May 2007), page 38. To recapitulate: To enable operation or testing of a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC), it is necessary to mount the MMIC in a waveguide package that typically has cross-sectional waveguide dimensions of the order of a few hundred microns. A radial probe transition between an MMIC operating at 340 GHz and a waveguide had been designed (but not yet built and tested) to be fabricated as part of a monolithic unit that would include the MMIC. The radial probe could readily be integrated with an MMIC amplifier because the design provided for fabrication of the transition on a substrate of the same material (InP) and thickness (50 m) typical of substrates of MMICs that can operate above 300 GHz. As illustrated in the updated document by drawings, photographs, and plots of test data, the concept has now been realized by designing, fabricating, and testing several MMIC/radial- probe integrated-circuit chips and designing and fabricating a waveguide package to contain each chip.
A theoretical study of the electronic transition moment for the C2 Swan band system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arnold, J. O.; Langhoff, S. R.
1978-01-01
Large-scale self-consistent-field plus configuration-interaction calculations have been performed for the a 3Pi u and d 3Pi g states of C2. The theoretical potential curves are in good agreement with those found by a Klein-Dunham analysis of measured molecular constants in terms of shape and excitation energy. The sum of the squares of the theoretical transition moments between the states at 2.44 bohr is 4.12 a.u. which agrees with the results of shock tube measurements. The variation in the sum of the squares of the theoretical moments with internuclear separation agrees with the values of Danylewych and Nicholls (1974). Based on the data for C2 and mother molecules, it is suggested that CI calculations using near Hartree-Fock quality Slater basis sets produce highly reliable transition moments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tong, Xiaopeng; Sandwell, David T.; Smith-Konter, Bridget
2015-10-01
Moment accumulation rate (also referred to as moment deficit rate) is a fundamental quantity for evaluating seismic hazard. The conventional approach for evaluating moment accumulation rate of creeping faults is to invert for the slip distribution from geodetic measurements, although even with perfect data these slip-rate inversions are non-unique. In this study, we show that the slip-rate versus depth inversion is not needed because moment accumulation rate can be estimated directly from surface geodetic data. We propose an integral approach that uses dense geodetic observations from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and the Global Positioning System (GPS) to constrain the moment accumulation rate. The moment accumulation rate is related to the integral of the product of the along-strike velocity and the distance from the fault. We demonstrate our methods by studying the Creeping Section of the San Andreas fault observed by GPS and radar interferometry onboard the ERS and ALOS satellites. Along-strike variation of the moment accumulation rate is derived in order to investigate the degree of partial locking of the Creeping Section. The central Creeping Segment has a moment accumulation rate of 0.25-3.1 × 1015 Nm yr-1 km-1. The upper and lower bounds of the moment accumulation rates are derived based on the statistics of the noise. Our best-fitting model indicates that the central portion of the Creeping Section is accumulating seismic moment at rates that are about 5 per cent to 23 per cent of the fully locked Carrizo segment that will eventually be released seismically. A cumulative moment budget calculation with the historical earthquake catalogue (M > 5.5) since 1857 shows that the net moment deficit at present is equivalent to a Mw 6.3 earthquake.
Variation in the human Achilles tendon moment arm during walking.
Rasske, Kristen; Thelen, Darryl G; Franz, Jason R
2017-02-01
The Achilles tendon (AT) moment arm is an important determinant of ankle moment and power generation during locomotion. Load and depth-dependent variations in the AT moment arm are generally not considered, but may be relevant given the complex triceps surae architecture. We coupled motion analysis and ultrasound imaging to characterize AT moment arms during walking in 10 subjects. Muscle loading during push-off amplified the AT moment arm by 10% relative to heel strike. AT moment arms also varied by 14% over the tendon thickness. In walking, AT moment arms are not strictly dependent on kinematics, but exhibit important load and spatial dependencies.
Torrent, Daniel; Sánchez-Dehesa, José
2009-08-07
We demonstrate that metamaterials with anisotropic properties can be used to develop a new class of periodic structures that has been named radial wave crystals. They can be sonic or photonic, and wave propagation along the radial directions is obtained through Bloch states like in usual sonic or photonic crystals. The band structure of the proposed structures can be tailored in a large amount to get exciting novel wave phenomena. For example, it is shown that acoustical cavities based on radial sonic crystals can be employed as passive devices for beam forming or dynamically orientated antennas for sound localization.
Tsaopoulos, Dimitrios E; Baltzopoulos, Vasilios; Richards, Paula J; Maganaris, Constantinos N
2011-07-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of dynamometer and joint axis misalignment on measured isometric knee-extension moments using inverse dynamics based on the actual joint kinematic information derived from the real-time X-ray video and to compare the errors when the moments were calculated using measurements from external anatomical surface markers or obtained from the isokinetic dynamometer. Six healthy males participated in this study. They performed isometric contractions at 90° and 20° of knee flexion, gradually increasing to maximum effort. For the calculation of the actual knee-joint moment and the joint moment relative to the knee-joint center, determined using the external marker, two free body diagrams were used of the Cybex arm and the lower leg segment system. In the first free body diagram, the mean center of the circular profiles of the femoral epicondyles was used as the knee-joint center, whereas in the second diagram, the joint center was assumed to coincide with the external marker. Then, the calculated knee-joint moments were compared with those measured by the dynamometer. The results indicate that 1) the actual knee-joint moment was different from the dynamometer recorded moment (difference ranged between 1.9% and 4.3%) and the moment calculated using the skin marker (difference ranged between 2.5% and 3%), and 2) during isometric knee extension, the internal knee angle changed significantly from rest to the maximum contraction state by about 19°. Therefore, these differences cannot be neglected if the moment-knee-joint angle relationship or the muscle mechanical properties, such as length-tension relationship, need to be determined.
Radial profile of sunspot magnetic field on the SDO data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhivanovich, I.; Solov'ev, A. A.; Smirnova, V. V.; Riehokainen, A.; Nagnibeda, V. G.
2016-03-01
The spatial distribution of the vertical (with respect to the surface photosphere) magnetic field in a sunspot plays an important role in modeling the temperature-density characteristics of sunspot, in the calculation of its total energy, in the study of magnetic field oscillations of sunspots and in many others tasks. A number of radial field distributions, such as the Broxon's formula, is discussed in the literature, but the generally accepted, "canonical" profile of the vertical field in a sunspot does not exist on today. Magnetograms obtained with the HMI device of the Solar Dynamic Observatory (Scherrer et al. in Sol. Phys. 275(1-2):207-227, 2012), due to their high spatial resolution, provide a good opportunity to get closer to solving this problem. We have studied 30 regular round-shaped unipolar sunspots, situated near the center of the solar disk, without any changes of their configuration or the magnetic field strength during a day or two. Four radial cuts were taken on the magnetograms for each of these 30 sunspots. The magnetic field strength measured along a cut was normalized to the maximum value of the field in the sunspot, all distances are measured in units of the radius of the umbra of the sunspot. It is shown that the radial profile of the vertical field averaged over all studied sunspots has a smooth bell-shaped form and can be well described by the analytic formula for a magnetic monopole, with the depth of immersion into the convective zone of the Sun close to the radius of the sunspot umbra.
Approximating axially dependent radial-displacement reactivities of EBR-II subassembly rows
Meneghetti, D.
1994-12-31
Reactivities resulting from radial displacement of the Experimental Breeder reactor II (EBR-II) subassembly rows are used in calculations of bowing components of reactivity and of grid-plate expansion reactivity. The method uses perturbation-quantity outputs from a modified R-Z geometry diffusion theory calculation to obtain axially delineated reactivity coefficients for an azimuthally homogenized approximation of an EBR-II configuration.
Morrison, Gregory; Loye, Hans-Conrad zur
2015-01-15
An increased focus on magnetic measurements of oriented single crystals, thin films, and magnetically dilute systems has led to a demand for the measurement of weak magnetic moments. This level of sensitivity and precision can be achieved on SQUID magnetometers by decreasing the size of the detection coils. However, the smaller detection coils can amplify two errors in the magnitude of the measured moment, the sample shape and radial offset effects, which were small and typically unaccounted for on previous magnetometers. We report a simple method to determine the radial offset of a sample by taking advantage of the two basic scan modes, DC and lock-in, typically used on magnetometers. This technique allows for the correction of the sample shape and radial offset effects in order to obtain the true moment of a sample. To show the efficacy of this technique, we report the magnetic properties of Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Ln=Gd, Dy, Er). - Graphical abstract: Correction for the sample shape and radial offset effects on SQUID magnetometers using a combination of DC and VSM scan data. - Highlights: • Sample shape and radial offset effects alter the moment measured by magnetometers. • We present a simple method to correct for these sample effects on magnetometers. • We measure magnetic susceptibilities of Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} to show the efficacy of this method.
Exploration of Learning Strategies Associated With Aha Learning Moments.
Pilcher, Jobeth W
2016-01-01
Educators recognize aha moments as powerful aspects of learning. Yet limited research has been performed regarding how to promote these learning moments. This article describes an exploratory study of aha learning moments as experienced and described by participants. Findings showed use of visuals, scenarios, storytelling, Socratic questions, and expert explanation led to aha learning moments. The findings provide guidance regarding the types of learning strategies that can be used to promote aha moments.
Right-handed neutrino magnetic moments
Aparici, Alberto; Santamaria, Arcadi; Kim, Kyungwook; Wudka, Jose
2009-07-01
We discuss the phenomenology of the most general effective Lagrangian, up to operators of dimension five, built with standard model fields and interactions including right-handed neutrinos. In particular, we find there is a dimension five electroweak moment operator of right-handed neutrinos, not discussed previously in the literature, which could have interesting phenomenological consequences.
Nuclear spins and moments: Fundamental structural information
Semmes, P.B.
1991-01-01
Predictions for the low energy structure of well deformed odd-A Pm and Sm nuclei in the A {approx} 130 region are given, based on the particle-rotor model. Distinctive magnetic dipole properties (static moments and transition rates) are expected for certain Nilsson configurations, and comparisons to recent data are made for {sup 133}Pm, {sup 135}Sm and {sup 133}Sm.
Nuclear spins and moments: Fundamental structural information
Semmes, P.B.
1991-12-31
Predictions for the low energy structure of well deformed odd-A Pm and Sm nuclei in the A {approx} 130 region are given, based on the particle-rotor model. Distinctive magnetic dipole properties (static moments and transition rates) are expected for certain Nilsson configurations, and comparisons to recent data are made for {sup 133}Pm, {sup 135}Sm and {sup 133}Sm.
Joe McCarthy's Fantastic Moment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Darsey, James
1995-01-01
Explains Joe McCarthy's rhetoric and its apparent resistance to exorcism by historical fact through the literary genre of fantasy. Argues that McCarthy could not be discredited or argued against because he took no positions but presented his audience with a sustained moment of hesitation in which every claim on credulity was offset by a denial of…
The controls at low hinge moments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pris, M
1932-01-01
A very stable airplane remains very maneuverable when the hinge moments of the controls remain inferior to those obtained with the conventional forms and when the wing lift at high angles has been improved. From this point of view, elevators balanced by recoil of the hinge, and slotted wings present some interesting features.
The Teachable Moment and the Handicapped Infant.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Langley, M. Beth
The report examines, from a cognitive developmental view, research on the teachable moment or critical learning period in handicapped infants. The author explains that developmental gaps are produced by a mismatch between the infant's readiness and opportunity to learn. Characteristics and educational implications of specific handicapping…
Multipole moments of bumpy black holes
Vigeland, Sarah J.
2010-11-15
General relativity predicts the existence of black holes, compact objects whose spacetimes depend only on their mass, spin, and charge in vacuum (the 'no-hair' theorem). As various observations probe deeper into the strong fields of black hole candidates, it is becoming possible to test this prediction. Previous work suggested that such tests can be performed by measuring whether the multipolar structure of black hole candidates has the form that general relativity demands, and introduced a family of 'bumpy black hole' spacetimes to be used for making these measurements. These spacetimes have generalized multipoles, where the deviation from the Kerr metric depends on the spacetime's 'bumpiness'. In this paper, we show how to compute the Geroch-Hansen moments of a bumpy black hole, demonstrating that there is a clean mapping between the deviations used in the bumpy black hole formalism and the Geroch-Hansen moments. We also extend our previous results to define bumpy black holes whose current moments, analogous to magnetic moments of electrodynamics, deviate from the canonical Kerr value.
Using Aha! Moments to Understand Leadership Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moore, Lori L.; Lewis, Lauren J.
2012-01-01
As Huber (2002) noted, striving to understand how leadership is taught and learned is both a challenge and an opportunity facing leadership educators. This article describes the "Leadership Aha! Moment" assignment used in a leadership theory course to help students recognize the intersection of leadership theories and their daily lives while…
Teachable Moments. All 18 Issues from 1988.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Drum, Jan; Otero, George
"Teachable Moments" are teaching aids about global perspectives in education. Number 1 describes an activity that lets students feel what it is like to be a refugee. Number 2 involves discussion of why people are hungry, rich, or poor. Number 3 helps students learn to deal with experts' opinions on global problems. Number 4 uses…
Moments, Mixed Methods, and Paradigm Dialogs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Denzin, Norman K.
2010-01-01
I reread the 50-year-old history of the qualitative inquiry that calls for triangulation and mixed methods. I briefly visit the disputes within the mixed methods community asking how did we get to where we are today, the period of mixed-multiple-methods advocacy, and Teddlie and Tashakkori's third methodological moment. (Contains 10 notes.)
The Magic Moment: Creating Color Harmony
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bartges, Dan
2009-01-01
If there is a truly magic moment in art class, it must be when a student--of any age--attains a working knowledge of color's core principles. At that point, she or he becomes able to consistently create color harmony in any painting, regardless of the subject matter. From then on, that student gains greater confidence, can paint better pictures…
Pedagogical Moments: Affective Sexual Literacies in Film
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clarke, Kyra
2013-01-01
This paper considers three pedagogical moments in the film "Tomorrow, When the War Began" (2010), contemplating the way in which they open a space for conversations about feelings, sexuality and gender. "Tomorrow, When the War Began" follows the plight of 17-year-old Ellie who returns to her rural town from a camping trip with…
Avalanche!--Teachable Moments in Outdoor Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Galloway, Shayne
2005-01-01
Rarely do outdoor educators get the opportunity to safely incorporate an avalanche while the topic of the day is actually avalanche awareness and forecasting. Many similar possibilities exist in the expeditionary context, but even brief excursions may result in incredible learning experiences. These "teachable moments" occur regularly in the…
The Doubling Moment: Resurrecting Edgar Allan Poe
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Minnick, J. Bradley; Mergil, Fernando
2008-01-01
This article expands upon Jeffrey Wilhelm's and Brian Edmiston's (1998) concept of a doubling of viewpoints by encouraging middle level students to use dramatization to take on multiple perspectives, to pose interpretive questions, and to enhance critical inquiry from inside and outside of texts. The doubling moment is both the activation of…
"To Value Every Child in the Moment"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Armstrong, Michael
2014-01-01
This article takes as its starting point the assertion that the purpose of primary education is to value every child in the moment. The author examines one particular story by a six-year-old girl as an example of what this assertion implies, and of its significance for teaching and learning within the primary school.
Microbial hotspots and hot moments in soil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuzyakov, Yakov; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia
2015-04-01
Soils are the most heterogeneous parts of the biosphere, with an extremely high differentiation of properties and processes within nano- to macroscales. The spatial and temporal heterogeneity of input of labile organics by plants creates microbial hotspots over short periods of time - the hot moments. We define microbial hotspots as small soil volumes with much faster process rates and much more intensive interactions compared to the average soil conditions. Such hotspots are found in the rhizosphere, detritusphere, biopores (including drilosphere) and on aggregate surfaces, but hotspots are frequently of mixed origin. Hot moments are short-term events or sequences of events inducing accelerated process rates as compared to the averaged rates. Thus, hotspots and hot moments are defined by dynamic characteristics, i.e. by process rates. For this hotspot concept we extensively reviewed and examined the localization and size of hotspots, spatial distribution and visualization approaches, transport of labile C to and from hotspots, lifetime and process intensities, with a special focus on process rates and microbial activities. The fraction of active microorganisms in hotspots is 2-20 times higher than in the bulk soil, and their specific activities (i.e. respiration, microbial growth, mineralization potential, enzyme activities, RNA/DNA ratio) may also be much higher. The duration of hot moments in the rhizosphere is limited and is controlled by the length of the input of labile organics. It can last a few hours up to a few days. In the detritusphere, however, the duration of hot moments is regulated by the output - by decomposition rates of litter - and lasts for weeks and months. Hot moments induce succession in microbial communities and intense intra- and interspecific competition affecting C use efficiency, microbial growth and turnover. The faster turnover and lower C use efficiency in hotspots counterbalances the high C inputs, leading to the absence of strong
Multifractals embedded in short time series: An unbiased estimation of probability moment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Lu; Yang, Tianguang; Yin, Yanhua; Gu, Changgui; Yang, Huijie
2016-12-01
An exact estimation of probability moments is the base for several essential concepts, such as the multifractals, the Tsallis entropy, and the transfer entropy. By means of approximation theory we propose a new method called factorial-moment-based estimation of probability moments. Theoretical prediction and computational results show that it can provide us an unbiased estimation of the probability moments of continuous order. Calculations on probability redistribution model verify that it can extract exactly multifractal behaviors from several hundred recordings. Its powerfulness in monitoring evolution of scaling behaviors is exemplified by two empirical cases, i.e., the gait time series for fast, normal, and slow trials of a healthy volunteer, and the closing price series for Shanghai stock market. By using short time series with several hundred lengths, a comparison with the well-established tools displays significant advantages of its performance over the other methods. The factorial-moment-based estimation can evaluate correctly the scaling behaviors in a scale range about three generations wider than the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis and the basic estimation. The estimation of partition function given by the wavelet transform modulus maxima has unacceptable fluctuations. Besides the scaling invariance focused in the present paper, the proposed factorial moment of continuous order can find its various uses, such as finding nonextensive behaviors of a complex system and reconstructing the causality relationship network between elements of a complex system.
Correcting moments of in situ particle distribution functions for spacecraft electrostatic charging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lavraud, Benoit; Larson, Davin E.
2016-09-01
We first introduce previous works on spacecraft electrostatic charging and its effects on particle measurements and the calculation of moments from three-dimensional distribution functions. We illustrate the fact that the lack of use, or misuse, of Liouville's theorem may lead to misinterpretations and inappropriate corrections to those effects. We emphasize in particular that its appropriate use naturally accounts for what is often called the "sheath focusing effect" in moment calculation. In the case of a "perfect" particle detector we show that there exists a trivial and essentially exact formulation for the calculation of moments of particle distribution functions that accounts for the spacecraft potential and that is particularly useful for onboard moment calculations. The main limitations, but that are not specific to this formulation, are inaccuracies in angle information (from blurring of acceptance angles at low energies or spacecraft-skimming trajectory effects) and those arising from the detector properties (resolution, cutoffs, photoelectrons, etc.). We discuss this correction in the context of previous works and remind that it primarily affects low-energy measurements and for populations whose temperature is comparable to the potential. Based on spacecraft observations, we show that this correction is most needed for regimes such as that of solar wind electrons but also for cold ions as often observed, for instance, in the magnetosphere near the Earth's magnetopause.
Use of moments of momentum to predict the crystal habit in potassium hydrogen phthalate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barber, Patrick G.; Petty, John T.
1990-01-01
A relatively simple calculation of the moments of momentum predicts the morphological order of crystal faces for potassium hydrogen phthalate. The effects on the habit caused by the addition of monomeric, dimeric, and larger aggregates during crystal growth are considered. The first six of the seven observed crystal faces are predicted with this method.
Effects of Mach Numbers on Side Force, Yawing Moment and Surface Pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sohail, Muhammad Amjad; Muhammad, Zaka; Husain, Mukkarum; Younis, Muhammad Yamin
2011-09-01
In this research, CFD simulations are performed for air vehicle configuration to compute the side force effect and yawing moment coefficients variations at high angle of attack and Mach numbers. As the angle of attack is increased then lift and drag are increased for cylinder body configurations. But when roll angle is given to body then side force component is also appeared on the body which causes lateral forces on the body and yawing moment is also produced. Now due to advancement of CFD methods we are able to calculate these forces and moment even at supersonic and hypersonic speed. In this study modern CFD techniques are used to simulate the hypersonic flow to calculate the side force effects and yawing moment coefficient. Static pressure variations along the circumferential and along the length of the body are also calculated. The pressure coefficient and center of pressure may be accurately predicted and calculated. When roll angle and yaw angle is given to body then these forces becomes very high and cause the instability of the missile body with fin configurations. So it is very demanding and serious problem to accurately predict and simulate these forces for the stability of supersonic vehicles.
An exponential-type bound on error rate, Pe, for peak limited binary coherent channels operated at low SNR is presented. The bound depends...exponentially only on the first and second moments of the channel output and serves to justify, in part, the use of SNR calculations for error rate performance
Nucleon polarizabilities and {Delta}-resonance magnetic moment in chiral EFT
Pascalutsa, Vladimir
2011-10-24
Recent chiral EFT calculations of nucleon polarizabilities reveal a problem in the current empirical determination of proton's electromagnetic polarizabilities. We also report on the progress in the empirical determination of the {Delta}(1232)-resonance magnetic moment in the process of {gamma}p{yields}p{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}' measured at MAMI.
Nucleon polarizabilities and Δ-resonance magnetic moment in chiral EFT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pascalutsa, Vladimir
2011-10-01
Recent chiral EFT calculations of nucleon polarizabilities reveal a problem in the current empirical determination of proton's electromagnetic polarizabilities. We also report on the progress in the empirical determination of the Δ(1232)-resonance magnetic moment in the process of γp→pπ0γ' measured at MAMI.
Generating moment matching scenarios using optimization techniques
Mehrotra, Sanjay; Papp, Dávid
2013-05-16
An optimization based method is proposed to generate moment matching scenarios for numerical integration and its use in stochastic programming. The main advantage of the method is its flexibility: it can generate scenarios matching any prescribed set of moments of the underlying distribution rather than matching all moments up to a certain order, and the distribution can be defined over an arbitrary set. This allows for a reduction in the number of scenarios and allows the scenarios to be better tailored to the problem at hand. The method is based on a semi-infinite linear programming formulation of the problem that is shown to be solvable with polynomial iteration complexity. A practical column generation method is implemented. The column generation subproblems are polynomial optimization problems; however, they need not be solved to optimality. It is found that the columns in the column generation approach can be efficiently generated by random sampling. The number of scenarios generated matches a lower bound of Tchakaloff's. The rate of convergence of the approximation error is established for continuous integrands, and an improved bound is given for smooth integrands. Extensive numerical experiments are presented in which variants of the proposed method are compared to Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo methods on both numerical integration problems and stochastic optimization problems. The benefits of being able to match any prescribed set of moments, rather than all moments up to a certain order, is also demonstrated using optimization problems with 100-dimensional random vectors. Here, empirical results show that the proposed approach outperforms Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo based approaches on the tested problems.
Generating moment matching scenarios using optimization techniques
Mehrotra, Sanjay; Papp, Dávid
2013-05-16
An optimization based method is proposed to generate moment matching scenarios for numerical integration and its use in stochastic programming. The main advantage of the method is its flexibility: it can generate scenarios matching any prescribed set of moments of the underlying distribution rather than matching all moments up to a certain order, and the distribution can be defined over an arbitrary set. This allows for a reduction in the number of scenarios and allows the scenarios to be better tailored to the problem at hand. The method is based on a semi-infinite linear programming formulation of the problem thatmore » is shown to be solvable with polynomial iteration complexity. A practical column generation method is implemented. The column generation subproblems are polynomial optimization problems; however, they need not be solved to optimality. It is found that the columns in the column generation approach can be efficiently generated by random sampling. The number of scenarios generated matches a lower bound of Tchakaloff's. The rate of convergence of the approximation error is established for continuous integrands, and an improved bound is given for smooth integrands. Extensive numerical experiments are presented in which variants of the proposed method are compared to Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo methods on both numerical integration problems and stochastic optimization problems. The benefits of being able to match any prescribed set of moments, rather than all moments up to a certain order, is also demonstrated using optimization problems with 100-dimensional random vectors. Here, empirical results show that the proposed approach outperforms Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo based approaches on the tested problems.« less
Analysis of the JASPER Program Radial Shield Attenuation Experiment
Slater, C.O.
1993-01-01
The results of the analysis of the JASPER Program Radial Shield Attenuation Experiment are presented. The experiment was performed in 1986 at the ORNL Tower Shielding Facility. It is the first of six experiments in this cooperative Japanese and American program in support of shielding designs for advanced sodium-cooled reactors. Six different shielding configurations and subconfigurations thereof were studied. The configurations were calculated with the DOT-IV two-dimensional discrete ordinates radiation transport computer code using the R-Z geometry option, a symmetric S{sub 12} quadrature (96 directions), and cross sections from ENDF/B versions IV and V in either a 51- or 61-group structure. Auxiliary codes were used to compute detector responses and prepare cross sections and source input for the DOT-IV calculations. Calculated detector responses were compared with measured responses and the agreement was good to excellent in many cases. However, the agreement for configurations having thick steel or B{sub 4}C regions or for some very large configurations was fair to poor. The disagreement was attributed to cross-section data, broad-group structure, or high background in the measurements. In particular, it is shown that two cross-section sets for ``B give very different results for neutron transmission through the thick B{sub 4}C regions used in one set of experimental configurations. Implications for design calculations are given.
VizieR Online Data Catalog: KINGFISH galaxy sample radial profile SED (Hunt+, 2015)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunt, L. K.; Draine, B. T.; Bianchi, S.; Gordon, K. D.; Aniano, G.; Calzetti, D.; Dale, D. A.; Helou, G.; Hinz, J. L.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Roussel, H.; Wilson, C. D.; Bolatto, A.; Boquien, M.; Croxall, K. V.; Galametz, M.; Gil de Paz, A.; Koda, J.; Munoz-Mateos, J. C.; Sandstrom, K. M.; Sauvage, M.; Vigroux, L.; Zibett, S.
2014-10-01
Radial profile spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for the KINGFISH galaxies. The profiles are extracted from the convolved and sky-subtracted images, and all have the same spatial resolution, roughly 39-arcsec. The annular fluxes were extracted along fixed-shape ellipses with radial bins of 18-arcsec. A masking technique was applied to galaxies more inclined than 60°. Uncertainties were calculated as the quadrature sum of calibration uncertainty and the mean error of the standard deviation of the surface brightness distribution along the elliptical isophote circumference. The uncertainties for PACS and MIPS data were adjusted when necessary for discrepancies larger than the nominal uncertainties. (2 data files).
Magnetic Circuit Model of PM Motor-Generator to Predict Radial Forces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McLallin, Kerry (Technical Monitor); Kascak, Peter E.; Dever, Timothy P.; Jansen, Ralph H.
2004-01-01
A magnetic circuit model is developed for a PM motor for flywheel applications. A sample motor is designed and modeled. Motor configuration and selection of materials is discussed, and the choice of winding configuration is described. A magnetic circuit model is described, which includes the stator back iron, rotor yoke, permanent magnets, air gaps and the stator teeth. Iterative solution of this model yields flux linkages, back EMF, torque, power, and radial force at the rotor caused by eccentricity. Calculated radial forces are then used to determine motor negative stiffness.